Citation
Domestic animals, familiar birds, &c.

Material Information

Title:
Domestic animals, familiar birds, &c. their habits and history ; being pictures of the animal creation, drawn from nature, and accurately and carefully coloured, for the amusement and instruction of the young ; with a descriptive text, intended to serve as a first introduction to natural history
Creator:
Dulcken, H. W ( Henry William ), 1832-1894
Ward, Lock, & Tyler ( Publisher )
J. Ogden and Co ( Printer )
Place of Publication:
London
Publisher:
Ward, Lock, and Tyler
Manufacturer:
J. Ogden and Co.
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1869
Language:
English
Physical Description:
44 p., [24] leaves of plates : col. ill. ; 32 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Natural history -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Mammals -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Birds -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1869 ( rbbin )
Hand-colored illustrations -- 1869 ( local )
Bldn -- 1869
Genre:
Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding) ( rbbin )
Hand-colored illustrations ( local )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Date from holographic inscription on flyleaf.
General Note:
Some illustrations have additional hand-coloring.
Statement of Responsibility:
by H.W. Dulcken.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
AAA8782 ( LTQF )
ALF9473 ( NOTIS )
50472458 ( OCLC )
026522417 ( AlephBibNum )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
















University
of
Florida

RmB

The Baldwin Library


















ye Li Uh es,

LH Nel a ¢

«LOK ho 0























re Ze)















DOMESTIC ANIMALS,

FAMILIAR BIRDS, &c.:

THEIR HABITS AND HISTORY.

BEING

PICTURES OF THE ANIMAL CREATION,

Bruton from Halure, und Accurately und Carefully Coloured,

FOR THE

AMUSEMENT AND INSTRUCTION OF THE YOUNG.



WITH

A DESCRIPTIVE TEXT, INTENDED TO SERVE AS A FIRST INTRODUCTION
TO NATURAL HISTORY.

BY

H. W. DULCKEN, Pzs.D.

LONDON:

WARD, LOCK, AND TYLER, WARWICK HOUSE, PATERNOSTER ROW,











PREFACE

In this book, as in the companion volume of “ Wild Animals,” the object of
the Publishers has been to provide for their young friends well-drawn and accurate
Pictures of the Animal Creation, and at the same time to furnish an Elementary
Treatise on Natural History for those whose interest in : books of the Ane is not
confined to ahs pictures only. The limits.of the volume prevented the projectors from
aiming at anything like completeness; nevertheless, in the neleon care has been
taken to represent those families of animals with whose nature and habits children

should be made acquainted before entering upon the study of ‘Natural History in its

more regular and systematic form.

The Pictures are by the same Artists who produced the Illustrations to “ Wild

Animals,” and have been executed with equal taste and care.



CONTENTS,

DOMESTIC ANIMALS, BIRDS, &c.



PAGE
INTRODUCTION . , Q ; 5 4 5 A 0 , 1
THE OX TRIBE ‘ a ; r : : 5 ee 3
European CatttrE . a , fs a . . O " 3
Tur Musk Ox . a , Q , A : . , 7 5
THE ZEBuU ; 5 : 0 6 ; ; 9g | . 5
Tar BuFFAaLo : . ive . : ' 5 O ; 6
THE GOAT AND THE SHEEP $ : y : 4 . 7
Tur Ipex . 6’ : : * . ; : 8
Tur CoMMON OR Domesrre Goat a ‘ : : . g 4 8
Tue SHerp Sain a : . . : ° . . 10
Tue Movrrion i . 9 , 6 A : ; , Alo
Tur Domestic SHEEP . 0 i : 3 f 4 : 11
THE HORSE TRIBE c if , ; ° 4 Aen ; . %14
Tur Ass . 4 , ‘9 , ‘ 4 : : . : 16
Tue ZeBRA . - . ; Re Da tg . . ' . eS
THE Quagea : . a . . . , . . , 18
THE DEER TRIBE i ; ‘ ‘ ; - .- % ae fos
THe REINDEER . . . . . . . . . : 19
Ture Stage ; : : i A A , 0 e : . 20
Tur Roe. : : : F Q . G ‘ . 20
Tur FatLow Darr 5 3 : : ‘ A i A . 21
Tur Sprine Buck, on Soonceee , 6 5 . . ° a 21
THE HARE AND RABBIT TRIBE A i ; Le , ‘ 4 22
. Tar Varnyine Hare 3 . iS a * ° 0 a 23
Tue Rassit . . : ‘ 5 . . ; G . 223
THE BEAVER : : fs 0 ; 6 6 . ; 24
THE MUSK BEAVER . . fs : . 6 e G : Ms oo
THE FOX 2 ; . 6 0 s : 3 A : 26
THE JACKAL . 3 : . . . , 5 ih ° 0 Pe
THE HEDGEHOG . 6 ° . i . . : 5 27
SHREWS . ‘| : : : . 0 0 . A eing 28
BIRDS.
INTRODUCTORY : e : ; 3 6 A . ORI ee.
ON SOME RAPACIOUS BIRDS . A ety 5 . ; : a od
THe Osprey, on Sea EacneE «tt " . . . . . 32
Tar Vutrures ! ‘ : : ' : ‘ i ; . 32
Tus Erne 5 ft Bi ‘ , . . g 82
THE FALCON AND Bae KIND ae ‘ 4 3 . 5 . . 82
Tur GosHawk . : : A 3 . . 6 : 33
Tue Ger-Fatcon ..-.: i oa : : 4 . s : . 88
Tur Buzzarp SW ics : : . : 5 r : 5 33
THE POULTRY KIND . B A : : . , ee . 84
Tur Cock anp Hen ; 3 ‘ ; : fs : ; i 84
THe PoEeasant 2 : ; ¢ ae . SCH nae . 85
Tur TurKEy : e 4 : i : : A , 35
THE Peacock . : ; : : 5 : z f . 386
ON SOME SINGING BIRDS : fi : 4 Rial se ‘ 37
Tar GoLpFINcH : 2 : é f 5 . : . . 388
Tae BULLFINCH . : ; . . : . . : 38
Tun CHAFFINCH ; : t x 3 4 a ; . (39
Tue Crrein Finca : ‘ - is : 5 4 . : 39
Tur Siskin, ok ABERDEVINE Nae : ‘ . . . . . 39
Tur Linner ; : y " A p . : $ i 39
Tur CANARY . 5 : ‘ ‘ 5 : : eh . 40
Tor Larx : i ‘ a - 2 : ’ 41
TuRusHES OR THROSTLES . : Pe itae 0 0 : G Panel
Tur NIGHTINGALE a 5 , O es . A Sie Z 41 '
Tue Bunrine " i , 4]
THE BUTCHER BIRD ~ s E 5 i ; ie 41
THE PARROT TRIBE : 4 : : : : wpe. 42
CONCLUSION—THE ARCTIC REGIONS A a s 4 . He org, 48

WALRUSES AND SEALS F : , : : . ee a



DOMESTIC ANIMALS, BIRDS, &e.

INTRODUCTION.

“ And God blessed Noah and his sons, and said unto them, Be |
fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth. —
“ And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every
beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, upon all that
moveth upon the earth, and upon all the fishes of thesea; into your
hand are they delivered.”— Genesis ix. 1—2.
HE Bible tells us that the animal creation was delivered into the hands of man for his use
and benefit, and that man was to be acknowledged as its master by every living creature ;
such was the decree of the Almighty Creator.

But as there are various kinds of animals, so the brute creation m various ways and uegrees
are adapted to minister to human wants or employ human energy. Against the lion and the
tiger, and nearly all the flesh-eating animals, man has to exert his strength and prowess, as
against his enemy. They are foes whose attacks are to be guarded against, and whose approach
must be watched and noted, that they may be destroyed, or at least driven back into the wilder-
ness, which is their natural abode. Others, like the fishes, are pursued through the water with
nets and lines, and many cunning engines and stratagems, that they may furnish meat for man,
or that the various substances of which their bodies are composed may minister to his necessities.
Thus the great whale ships sail out every year to catch the mighty whale of the Northern seas,
that the oil he furnishes may light up the darkness of many a chamber in the long wintry
nights; and thus the horny substance that supplies the place of teeth in the huge jaws of the
giant of the deep is devoted to many purposes in various manufactures; for whalebone plays an
important part in the dress of the present day. And there is a third and very large division,
that not only furnishes man with articles of food and raiment, but is made to live with him,
and to form, as it were, part of the community on the farm and on the plain; and this class,
losing its wildness and ferocity, and becoming tame and obedient, comprising creatures like the
horse, ox, and sheep, who know their masters, and willingly submit to their sway, is known
under the general name of Taz Domestic Animats.

The general features that distinguish the domestic trom the wild animals are these: They
live in herds or flocks, being of a sociable disposition, and not inclined to fight savagely and
devour one another, like many wild animals, as, for instance, the fierce cat tribe. They have a
singular power of: bearing changes of climate‘and different degrees of heat and cold, and are
consequently found spread over a great space on the surface of theearth. Thus, for instance, in
the cold island of Iceland, in the far north, where no tree will-grow, and the ground is covered
during the greater part of the year with ice and snow, a breed of strong useful horses is found ;
and in the dry Indian plains, where the sun’s rays beat down so fiercely that Europeans can hardly
bear the fierceness of the heat, the horse bears his rider swiftly and bravely across the field, and
_ the wild native warrior learns to fight on horseback. In the highlands of Scotland, amid the

barren wilds and bleak hills, the hardy oxen manage to pick up a living; and in the burning
forests of Central and Southern America, where the ground cracks and breaks with the heat,
and during half the year the ground is parched to a desert for want of moisture, numbers of
horned cattle run wild, and live in all the happiness of liberty.
1



INTRODUCTION.

When the dry season prevails, they are sometimes in great distress for water; and then iti
that the cunning mule manages to satisfy his thirst by a very clever stratagem. He searches in
the burning plain for a round fruit like a melon, called the melocactus. This plant is covered
with pricklés; but the mule does not-care for that, for he knows that it contains a watery pulp
or juice. So he stamps upon it and kicks at it till he has burst it open; and then, with his
large fleshy lips, he sucks out the juice with great delight, while the horses and oxen, less clever
than he, go about parched with thirst.

But when the rainy season sets in, all is changed. There is water now in plenty ;, for the

rain pours down in streams, and the whole sky is black with clouds. The entire plain is covered
with pools and lakes, and the cattle have to swim about from one island to another, as if they
were amphibious animals, or adapted to live in the water as well as upon land; and not a few
of them are seized and devoured by the ravenous crocodiles ad alligators that lurk in the
waters for their prey. And yet, through all these dangers and difficulties, the wild cattle ane
horses of the steppes struggle on, and increase rather than diminish in numbers.

Another remarkable feature in the domestic animals is found in the various uses to which |
they can be applied. Let us take, for instance, the ox. He can be used as a beast of draught
or burden, and will draw the plough with untiring strength, day after day. . When he has
finished his work on the farm, he falls into the hands of the slaughterman, and every part of
him, his horns, his hoofs, his hide, his flesh, and his bones, will be found valuable and useful.

In the sheep we see the same peculiarity. Wool, skin, flesh, bones, tendons, all and each
are made by man to serve some useful purpose, after the death of the patient animal to which
they belonged. Contrast the sheep with one of the feline animals—for example, the tiger.
When the beautiful striped hide has been stripped from the dead brute, the rest of his carcase
is absolutely useless, so far as ‘man is concerned, and can only be left as a prey to the jackals
and vultures, and other beasts that feed upon carrion. For the tiger feeds upon meat, and this
renders his flesh unfit for food.

Another and a very noticeable feature in the animals adapted to be the servants of man,
and to live with him in a domestic or tame condition, is the wonderful increase in numbers —
they exhibit. Many a man has begun in Australia, or elsewhere, with a few sheep, perhaps a
score or even fewer, and has found his flock increase year by year, until he has become a
wealthy man. ‘The flocks of sheep and the herds of cattle have, indeed, been so important,
that some nations have depended upon them for their very existence. Even now there exists in
Asia and elsewhere numerous nations whose only wealth consists in the domestic animals they
possess. How valuable domestic animals were considered among the Eastern nations of old,
can be easily seen from the words of the Bible, where the wealth of Abraham is enumerated
thus: “He had sheep and oxen, and he-asses, and men-servants, and maid-servants, and she-
asses, and camels.” We are also told that “ Lot, which went with Abraham, had flocks, and
herds, and tents, and that the land was not able to bear them” (that is to say, to provide pasture

_ for their flocks and cattle), “ that they might dwell together ; for their substance was great, so that
they could not dwell together. And there was a strife between the herdsmen of Abraham’s
cattle and the herdsmen of Lot’s cattle.” And again, in the description of the rismg fortunes
of Jacob, who tended the cattle of his uncle Laban, we are told, “ The man increased exceed-
ingly, and had much cattle, and maid-servants, and men-servants, and camels, and asses.”
_ Of these domestic animals we have now to speak, beginning with the ox tribe.






ys
Maye

iad



















































































































































RES























Se

Sees : peat hee : Y & : VSS Ae wee . : 3 ‘ \ SPRUE cat ae AT eer OLT
SSS SES LE FSA a ( === ae ERIS Na: ae es rire
SS S : wf 2S ; : i : = RS : ARG , Y ’ Bee Nea

Z ff
EM is
%

SSS
‘

























































THE OX TRIBE.

“The ox knoweth his owner, and the ass his master’s crib ; but Israel doth not know,
my people doth not consider.” —Isaiah i. 8.

«

There are a great many varieties of the ox tribe, or, as it is called in Latin, the genus Bos:
and, indeed, we naturally expect that animals found in each of the great divisions of the globe,
and over nearly the whole face of each division, should vary according to the climate and
position of the country in which each kind is found. Thus the hide of the ox that grazes in
the plains of India, beneath a fierce tropical sun, would be quite insufficient to protect the musk
ox or the bison of America from the cold to which they are exposed ; and thus we find these two
last varieties provided, one with a thick shaggy mane, and the other with coarse, rough, long hair
over the whole body. But there are some general points in which all the family resemble each
other, and with these we will begin.

In the whole ox tribe, we notice that the body is large and round, and the legs short, though _
strong: unlike the horse, they seem formed more for strength than speed. The neck is thick
and muscular, and in it lies the chief strength of the animal... Thus the ox is more fit to draw
the plough or cart than to carry burdens on his back, and thus also he defends himself against
his enemies by pushing with his horns, or by endeavouring to toss his adversary in the air, an
operation in which the great strength of his neck comes into play. The whole ox tribe also
‘part the hoof and chew the cud.” Their hoofs are cloven or split, so that the animal has as
it were two hoofs on each foot, unlike the horse, whose hoof is all in one round piece. Their
stomachs are divided into compartments, from the first of which they can bring back the food
into the mouth, to masticate or chew it completely. This is called ruminating; and few can
have failed to observe the oxen and cows in a field, on a'fine summer’s day, lying placidly down,
and chewing and chewing, without appearing to be eating anything. xcepting in a single
variety, the horns may also be stated as a general feature in the ox tribe ; and, unlike the deer,
they are found in the female as well as in the male. These horns differ greatly in shape and
size in the different kinds of cattle, and generally it may be seen that the more thoroughly
tamed the cattle are, the smaller do the horns become; as if, given to the cattle to defend
themselves in their wild state, these weapons are withdrawn from them by nature when the
creatures came under the protection of man.

Though subject to fits of rage almost amounting to madness, the ox tribe cannot be
regarded as a ferocious set of animals. In their wild state they seldom attack travellers
unless first molested; but when once aroused their fury is very destructive. They are highly
gregarious ; ; that is, they are accustomed to keep together in large numbers, careering over the
vast prairies and savannahs of North America, through the llanos and pampas of the South, as
well as through the forests of Southern Africa. very variety can be tamed.

EUROPEAN CATTLE. (Péte 1)

It is impossible to say at what time the ox was first domesticated in Europe or elsewhere.
In the Bible, cattle keeping is mentioned in the period before the Flood; and in Britain, when
Julius Cesar landed with his legions, more than nineteen hundred years ago, he found the
Britons already possessing flocks and herds. The importance of oxen as an article of property
has induced farmers to take great pains to improve the various breeds; and thus we have many

sorts, some noted for the quantity of flesh on their carcases, others for the fine quality of the
3



CATTLE SHOWS—LORD TANKERVILLE’S CATTLE—DISLIKE TO SCARLET.

hide, others again for the quantity and richness of the milk yielded by the cows.. The
different kinds are divided into two classes according to the length of the horn, and are called
“Tong Horns” and “Short Horns,” and thus each part of England and even of Scotland has
its particular breed. The establishment of Cattle Shows, at which horned cattle, sheep, and
pigs are exhibited, and prizes are awarded for the best specimens of each breed, has done much
to improve our domestic farm animals ;and British oxen are now considered superior to those
of any other part of the world. So great is the value attached to them, that bulls have been
exported to Australia and New Zealand, being carried at great cost to the opposite side of the
world, and a thousand pounds has in several instances been the price of a prize bull.

In old times the dense forests in Scotland and in northern England were full of wild
cattle, roaming about free and unfettered. These have now quite disappeared ; but till within a
few years some of these wild cattle remained at Chillingham Park, the seat of Lord Tankerville.
They are described as being invariably of a creamy white colour, with a black muzzle ; the
whole of the inside of the ears, and the tips externally, are red; the horns are white, with black
tips, very fine, and bent upwards. Some of the bulls have a thin upright mane, an inch and a
half or two inches long. The following account is given of them:

“At the first appearance of any person, they set off in full gallop, and at the distance of
about two hundred yards make a wheel round, and come boldly up again, tossing their heads in
a menacing manner. On a sudden they make a full stop, at the distance of forty or fifty yards,
looking wildly at the object of their surprise; but upon the’least motion being made, they all
again turn round, and fly off with equal speed, but not to the same distance, forming a shorter
circle; and again returning with a bolder and more threatening aspect than before, they
approach much nearer, probably within thirty yards, when they again make another stand, and
then fly off. This they do several times, shortening their distance, and advancing nearer and
nearer, until they come within such a short distance, that most people think it proper to leave
them, not choosing to provoke them further.” )

Each separate country of continental Europe, such as Jtaly, Spain, Norway, Sweden, and
the rest, has its separate kind of horned cattle. Denmark is celebrated for a very large kind ;
and cattle breeding forms one of the great sources of national wealth in Holland, whence
immense quantities of butter and cheese, and many thousand head of oxen, are annually
brought to England. A spotted breed without horns, which is mentioned by Tacitus, an old
Roman historian who lived eighteen centuries ago, has been introduced even in the cold island
of Iceland; and as that bleak country affords no grass for pasture, the oxen are frequently fed
upon dried fish. | st 7

A great dislike to scarlet is noticed among all kinds of horned cattle.. A young officer,
employed in surveying some land in Moldavia, where large herds of cattle roam half wild over
the plains, nearly lost his life through the circumstance that he carried a small table covered
with red morocco. At sight of this table the cattle began wheeling round the intruder in
an angry crowd; and he probably saved his life by his presence of mind in turning the red part
of the table towards his chest, so as to hide the hated colour from his horned assailant, whose
rage was soon calmed when the cause that excited it had been removed. In London, not long
ago, a bull who was proceeding peaceably to market was seized with such ungovernable fury at
the sight of a detachment of soldiers marching by in scarlet coats, that he charged them at
once, and they were obliged in self-defence to receive him upon their bayonets, which soon put
an end to him. The courage of the bull has frequently caused the poor beast to be made the
subject of very cruel diversion, such as the bull fights in Spain, where he is made to contend
against horsemen and combatants on foot, armed with spears and swords, whose attacks he repels
with great courage. In England too, until a recent period, the practice of bull baitimg was

pursued in many towns. The bull was fastened by a rope passed round ‘his horns, or by a ring
4 :



THE MUSK OX—THE ZEBRA.

through his nose, to a post, and then ferocious bull dogs were set upon him, while men more
ferocious than either bull or dog stood round and enjoyed the cruel pastime. Fortunately, such
exhibitions of brutality are no longer allowed among us.

Among foreign varieties of oxen we must notice a few of the most important. First
comes

THE MUSK OX. (Plate 11., ¢.)

This is a very small variety of the ox tribe. It is a native of the northern part of North
America, and is uncommonly hardy and strong, though it hardly exceeds a large calf in size.
Tts Latin name is Ovibos moschatus, or the musk sheep-ox. To defend it from the biting cold,
it has a thick coat of long hair, hanging down about its legs like a shaggy mat. In colour it is
a dark dull brown. The strong musky smell which hovers about this ox, and from which it has
obtained its name, renders its flesh very unpalatable; though the Esquimaux consider it a great
delicacy. Inhabiting, as it does, the craggy, rocky regions of the Hudson’s Bay territory and
the banks of the Coppermine river of America, the musk ox becomes quite an expert climber,
and very quick and active, scrambling up steep places with amazing agility, especially when
pursued or alarmed. The horns are very peculiar in shape, curving downwards on each side of
the head, and then suddenly turning upwards at the tip. The female is not quite so large
as the male musk ox. ;

In Captain Franklin’s “Journal of a Polar Voyage” we find the following particulars
relative to the musk ox: “The musk oxen, like the buffalo, herd together in bands, and
generally frequent barren grounds during the summer months, keeping near the rivers, but
returning to the woods in winter. They seem to be less watchful than other wild animals, and
when grazing are not difficult to approach, providing the hunters go against the wind. When
two or three men get so near a herd as to fire at them from different points, these animals,
instead of separating or running away, huddle closer together, and several are generally killed ;
but if the wound is not mortal they become enraged, and dart in the most furious manner at
the hunters, who must be very dexterous to evade them. They can defend themselves with
their powerful horns against wolves and bears, which, as the Indians say, they not unfrequently
kill. The musk oxen feed on the same substances with the reindeer, and the prints of the
feet of these two animals are so much alike, that it requires the eye of an experienced hunter
to distinguish them. The largest killed by us did not exceed in weight three hundred pounds.
The flesh has a musky, disagreeable flavour, particularly when the animal is lean, which, un-
fortunately for us, was the case with all that we killed.”

THE ZEBU.

This variety of the ox tribe is at home in India, though zebus are found also in
Africa and in the Asiatic islands. They are very various in size, some being as large as a
good sized English bull, while others are not bigger than an antelope. The distinguishing
features are: the hump on the back, which consists chiefly of fat, and is considered a great,
delicacy by the Indians; the large beautiful mild eye, shining with the softness of a gazelle’s;
and the long slender limbs, which enable some of these animals, when tamed to carry riders,
to run and leap with the agility of hunting horses: even a five-barred gate is no obstacle to
them. One kind of zebu, the Brahmin bull, is looked upon by the natives of India with
superstitious reverence. These bulls are dedicated to the god Seeva, and roam about at their
pleasure, after being marked with the figure of the god. They are allowed to do just as they

please; for to hurt or molest one of them would be considered the height of irreverence.



THE BUFFALO—THE AMERICAN BISON—THE CAPE BUFFALO.

Bishop Heber, who saw many of these zebus in India, tells us concerning them: “‘ They feed
where they choose, and devout persons take great delight in pampering them. They are
exceeding pests in the villages near Culcutta, breaking into gardens, thrusting their noses into
the stalls of the fruiterers’ and pastrycooks’ shops, and helping themselves witheut ceremony.
Like other petted animals, they are sometimes mischievous, and are said to resent with a push
of their horns any delay in gratifying their wishes.”

The zebu is still used in India and in many Oriental countries in the ancient practice of

‘treading out corn,” to separate the grain from the straw, instead of threshing it out with a
flail. Our readers will remember that this treading out of corn by oxen was practised among
the Jewish people in the time of Moses; and hence the injunction given to the Israelites,
“Thou shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth out the corn,” as though the great lawgiver
recognized the right of the patient labouring animal to pick .up a few grains as he performed
his task.

THE BUFFALO (Plate 111.),

Called in Latin Bos bubalus, is the most powerful of the whole ox tribe. His huge horns, deep.

chest, broad shoulders, and thick legs are all indicative of immense strength. The buffalo of
the Old World was originally a native of India, but has been introduced into Africa, Spain,
Italy, &c. In their wild state buffaloes live in small herds, and in hot weather delight greatly
in wallowing in the muddy water of pools and sluggish streams. Frequently they remain for
hours in the water, with only their horns and noses showing above the surface.

The buffalo has been long in use as a domestic animal, his immense strength rendering
him a valuable servant, in spite of his temper, which is fierce and intractable. He will draw
with apparent ease a weight that ordinary oxen or horses cannot move. The buffalo has a keen
sense of smell, and thus in his wild state he runs with his muzzle thrust forward, and his horns
laid back, finding his way less by the keenness of his eyes than of his nose.

The American Burrato or Bison forms another variety of the ox tribe, to which also
belongs the aurochs, a powerful animal still found in the forests of Poland and Lithuania.
Vast herds of wild bisons roam through the prairies of North America, to the west of the
United States. They are of great bulk and strength, and are distinguished by the vast size of
the head and shoulders, which look even larger than they are from being thickly covered with
along shaggy mane. Herds of at least twenty thousand bisons have been seen running across
the wide prairie, when the grass begins to fail, in search of new feeding grounds.
experienced bulls act as leaders, and the whole herd careers onward after them, swimming the
broadest rivers, and travelling with great swiftness. The wild bisons of the West are, however,
decreasing in number year by year. Many are killed by the backwoodsmen, many more die
beneath the arrows of the few Indian tribes still left in the pathless solitudes of the West, and
not a few fall victims to the most formidable and inveterate of their four-footed foes—the grizzly
bear. Like all other varieties of the ox tribe, the bison can be tamed; but he never quite
loses his fierce temper, or becomes completely tractable. In his wild state, when attacked, he
tries to escape from his foes by flight ; but, once wounded, often becomes mad with rage, and
his strength then makes him a very formidable foe to encounter.

The Burrato or THE Cape or Goop Hors is inferior to no other species in strength
and ferocity. He does not fear even the lion, and he not unfrequently comes off victor in a
fight with the king of beasts. Heavy and bulky as he is, he can run on level ground with
great swiftness; but as his clumsy frame and the great breadth of his horns prevent him from

climbing wooded crags, or scrambling up any steep place, the hunter or settler pursued by him

can generally find safety in clambering up a rock or climbing a tree. The hide of the buffalo

6







a Fae 5

a,
yy ee ear
FETAL

LE fe heer fee

ee
AES
ENTE
PTET ES
2A LLL EL
CC NeLT at eee
LEAS

Dae
URN ON
an

ee
SLs

LEER
IG

Heer
ity

lige
i, yy
Wy
ee
Pi
TM

Sr

JEANS Se .

aN
Ny

WRAY

FS FEED BS
SS
PEE LEO EE



iy
aN g

SSS
eee

| Ag

ey peor. Te ff
Was








IMPORTANCE OF THE BUFFALO TO THE AMERICAN INDIANS.

is valuable from its extreme thickness and toughness; indeed, a common leaden bullet would
make little impression on the skin of a Cape buffalo ; thus the hunting of the buffalo is a
matter of considerable danger.

Finally, it may be observed of the ox tribe, that the usefulness of these animals is seen
alike in their wild and in their domestic state. To the Hottentots of Southern Africa, the
flesh, the hide, the horns, and sinews of the buffalo, and other varieties of oxen, represent at
once food, raiment, implements of war, and objects of domestic use; and the importance of
the buffalo of America is strongly portrayed in the words of an intelligent traveller, who,
speaking from personal experience, says: “‘I cannot convey any just impression of the total
dependence of the remote western tribes on the buffalo for their very existence, without giving
a sketch of the various purposes for which that animal is, by their ingenuity, rendered
available. First, its flesh is their principal, sometimes their only, food; eaten fresh on the
prairies during their hunt, and dried in their winter villages. Secondly, the skin is put to
various uses. It forms the material of their lodges, of their bales for packing the meat, of
their beds by night, and their clothing by day. The coarser parts they make into saddles or
_ eut into laryettes or halters; and more than all this, it is now their chief source of trade with
the whites, and thus is the source whence they must derive blankets, knives, beads, and every
other produce of civilization. Thirdly, they use the sinews as strings to their bows, and the
smaller fibres instead of twine or thread. The brains serve to soften and dress the skin; while
the hoof at the end of the shank-bone is made to serve the purpose of a mallet. Fourthly, the
bones are not less useful; some of them being serviceable as scrapers or close chisels, others
are ¢oinied and used with the finer fibres as needles and thread, and the ribs, strengthened by
some of the stronger fibres, are made to furnish the bow with which other buffaloes are to be
destroyed. This last is the triumph of Indian ingenuity. The first bow that I saw constructed
in this manner caused me so much surprise and admiration, that I offered nearly the value of a
horse for it, but was refused.”

Such is the ox genus; a tribe of animals whose adaptability to the various necessities of
man forms a striking proof of the bounty of that Providence which gave man “ dominion over
the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth.”

THE GOAT AND THE SHEEP.

“ Be thou diligent to know the state of thy flocks, and look well
to thy herds.

“or riches are not for ever: and doth the crown endure to every
generation P

“The hay appeareth, and the tender grass sheweth itself, and herbs
of the mountains are gathered.
: oe lambs are for thy clothing, and the goats are the price of the

“ And thou shalt have goats’ milk enough for thy food, for the food
of thy household, and for the maintenance for thy maidens.”

—Proverbs xxvii. 23—27.

There are many reasons why the goat and the sheep should be considered together, for they
have many features in common. Both are social in disposition, dwelling together in flocks, and
easily adapting themselves to a life of dependence on man. The hair of the goat, like the
wool of the sheep, was in early times considered a valuable article of clothing; and the flesh
and milk of the goat, as of the sheep, have been used for ages as articles of food. That the
goat was considered at least equally important and serviceable with the sheep, among the

ancients, appears in the following lines from a pastoral poem of the Roman poet Virgil:
7



THE IBEX—THE DOMESTIC GOAT.

“ For hairy goats of equal profit are
With woolly sheep, and ask an equal care.
*T is true, the fleece, when drunk with Tyrian juice _
Is dearly sold; but not for equal use ;
For the prolific goat increases more,
And twice as largely yields her milky store.
Meantime the pastor shears their hoary beards,
And eases of their hair the loaded herds.
Their camelots warm in tents the soldiers hold,
And shield the shivering mariners from cold.”

The “Tyrian juice” here mentioned refers to the celebrated Tyrian purple, with which the
garments of wool were stained; but goats’ hair was very largely employed in the dresses worn
by many European nations, and especially in the coarse garments of soldiers and sailors.
Many of the Greek fables of sop make mention of the goat; and the goatherd was an
important personage among the ancients. Who does not remember the story of the foolish
goatherd, who, having taken shelter with his goats in a cave, and finding a number of wild
goats already in possession there, gave the food of his flock to the wild goats, in hope of
making a prize of them? the consequence of which proceeding was, that his own flock perished
with hunger, while the wild goats escaped at the first opportunity, and thus he returned home
without either wild goats or tame. The difference between the goats and the sheep may be
compared to that which exists in many countnes between the tribes inhabiting the mountain
regions and those dwelling in the plain. The mountaineers, like the goat, are hardy and bold,
insensible to danger, and fond of pursuing hazardous tracks among pathless crags; while the
dwellers in the plain, like the sheep, are peaceable rather than warlike, loving ease and plenty,
and unenterprising in character. Again, the goat, like the mountaineer, is prone to wander ;
while the lowlander, like the sheep, is content to remain in one spot, provided it supplies him
with necessary food.

First in order among the goats we have to notice a wild kind, namely :

THE IBEX. (Plote w., d)

- This is a wild species of mountain goat, formerly common among the Alpine regions of
Central Europe, Switzerland, Savoy, and Northern Italy, but it has now become very scarce
and must soon disappear altogether before the rifle of the hunter. In the almost inaccessible
heights between Monte Rosa and Mont Blanc it is still occasionally found. The ibex is a fine
bold animal, inhabiting the highest mountains, and climbing precipices that seem inaccessible
with wonderful agility and safety. In the summer its food consists of the Alpine plants, but
in winter it resorts to the forests that clothe the mountain side, and browses on the bark and
branches of dwarf willows, birches, and other Alpine trees. But even in winter it seeks
the heights whenever this is practicable, resorting to the lowlands only when driven by necessity.
The large horns of the ibex are bent backward from the forehead, and surrounded at intervals
with broad rings. The horns of the female are much smaller than those of the male. The
colour of the skin isa dull reddish grey; the head is small, and the legs rather short and thick.
The ibex is much larger than the common domestic goat. Its voice is a peculiar whistle, which
it utters with great shrillness when alarmed. Hunting the ibex is a very dangerous pursuit,
not only from the necessity of scaling the terrific precipices to which the creature betakes itself
in its flight; but also from the fact that the ibex, when its retreat is cut off, will frequently
spring in desperation upon the hunter, and roll headlong with him down the abyss. In its
manner of life and general habits the ibex resembles the chamois in many points.

)
































HE ws SS QE .
SSS
me - 29)

ae

WS SS
PESSSNSSSSS
SS



4
‘



4
¢






AMUSING STORY OF TWO GOATS—-SAGACITY OF THE GOAT.

THE COMMON OR DOMESTIC GOAT

Ts so well known an animal that its appearance need scarcely be described. (Plate tv., 6, ¢.)
The horns are generally curved backwards, and most species are provided with a beard. The
domestic goat is distributed over nearly the whole world. The naturalist Buffon has given
us a graphic description of his nature and character, especially noticing his love of change, and
consequent tendency to wander; his hardy constitution, which renders him insensible to heat
and cold, and enables him to browse on almost every herb; and his love of standing, climbing;
and even sleeping on rugged and lofty eminences. Mr. Bell, in his “ History of British Quad-
rupeds,” also. says on this subject, “ It will find its food in places inaccessible to almost all other
animals, and live and thrive by cropping the scanty herbage which they furnish. In the
mountain ranges of Europe, on the Alps and Pyrenees, the goat is found at a great elevation,
approaching as near the line of perpetual snow as it can find its scanty sustenance; and it feeds
on many plants which to other ruminants are distasteful and even deleterious; thus hemlock,
nenbane, and digitalis (foxglove) is eaten by it with HADI and even the acid euphorbia is
not rejected.”

An amusing story is told of two goats who met face to face on a narrow ridge overhang-
ing a great depth, on the ramparts at Plymouth. ‘The ledge was far too narrow for them to
pass one another, nor could they well retreat; but one of the goats sagaciously solved the
difficulty by lying down, and allowing his fellow to walk over his back; and then each pursued
“the even tenour of his way.”

Among the foreign varieties of this useful animal the Cashmere or Thibet goat of the
Himalaya Mountains stands preeminent, and will probably maintain its position so long as
Cashmere shawls are prized as costly and beautiful articles of apparel. The Cashmere goat has
flat, spiral curved horns. Its body is covered with long, straight, shining hair; and under this
coarser outward covering is concealed a soft down or wool, from which the exquisitely fine
Cashmere shawls are made. ‘The colder the climate inhabited by this goat, the thicker and
closer is its downy coat; but in general the quantity of wool furnished by one goat is only about
three ounces, so that ten or a dozen goats are required to furnish the wool for a shawl of
moderate size. An attempt was made, early in the present century, to introduce the Cashmere
goat into France. It was attended with partial success, and the goat of Cashmere has not only
been naturalized in France, but- the breed has been considerably improved. Among other
varieties may be mentioned the Angora goat, of a snowy white colour, with long silky hair; the
Syrian goat, with very small horns, but with ears so long that the goatherds frequently crop
them, lest they should incommode the goat while feeding; and the Rocky Mountain goat of
North America.

That the goat is both sagacious and teachable is proved by the fact that it is fone used as
a “performing animal,” and carried about to excite the wonder of gaping audiences. In Dr.
Clarke’s “ Travels” we find an instance of a “learned” or performing goat of this kind. The
traveller says, “ Upon our road we met an Arab with a goat, which he led about the country for
exhibition, in order to gain a livelihood for itself and owner. He had taught this animal, while he
accompanied its movements with a song, to mount upon little cylindrical blocks of wood, placed
successively one above the other, and in shape resembling the dice boxes belonging to a back-
gammon table. In this manner the goat stood, first upon the top of one cylinder, then upon
the top of two, and afterwards of three, four, five, and six, until it remained balanced upon the
top of them all, elevated several feet from the ground, and with its four feet collected upon a single
point, without throwing down the disjointed fabric upon which it stood. This practice is very

ancient. N. ous can more conclusivély show the tenacious eee passes by this quadruped
wear Bre 9 eae : See

~~



DIFFERENCE OF THE SHEEP IN ITS WILD AND TAME STATES—ITS VALUE.

upon the jutty points and crags of rocks; and the circumstance of its ability to remain thus
poised may render its appearance less surprising, as it is sometimes seen in the Alps, and in all
mountainous countries, with hardly any place for its feet, upon the sides and by the brink of
most tremendous precipices. The diameter of the upper cylinder, upon which its feet ulti-
mately remained until the Arab had ended his ditty, was ee two inches, and the length of
each cylinder was six inches.”

THE SHEEP.

“ And there was a man in Maon, whose possessions were in Carmel; and the man
was very great, and he had three thousand sheep, and a thousand goats ; and he was
shearing his sheep in Carmel.” —I. Samuel xxv. 2.

Tt is usual’ to look upon the sheep as a stupid animal; but this opinion is an error. All
animals living in a domestic state lose some of the qualities which they’ possessed in their wild
condition, simply because they are accustomed to have their wants provided for, instead of being
obliged to cater for themselves; they rely on the protection of man, instead of acting in their
own defence. The sheep, a confiding, social creature, has more confidence than any other
kind in the protection and care of man, and thus completely loses the characteristics of its
natural state. But the wild sheep of the northern parts of North America, and of other regions
of the world, is as wary and cunning as the mountain goat, and the hunter well knows the
difficulty of approaching near enough to get a shot at the agile prey. The male sheep or ram,
even in a domesticated state, is by no means deficient in courage, and when roused will fight with
the determination of a little bull. In usefulness the sheep is equal to the ox tribe. Though

-its small size and lack of strength prevents it from being made useful as a beast of burden or
draught when living, every part of its carcase is available for some purpose when dead; and
then it amply repays the shepherd for the care lavished upon it. The trade in tallow and wool
occupies thousands upon thousands of persons; and every month ships are sailing half round
the world, to convey to England the tallow and wool procured from the sheep fed in the broad -
plains of Australia and New Zealand. Food, clothing, and light during the darkness of winter
are all represented by this one creature; no wonder, then, that the keeping of sheep should be
one of the most universal, as it is one of the most ancient, of occupations. From the time of Abel,
who brought “the firstlings of his flock” to sacrifice to the Lord, to the’ present day, almost
every nation has included sheep farming among its branches of industry. On the rugged hills
and snow-covered valleys of Iceland, Norway, and Lapland, flocks of sheep find a scanty
pasturage, eating the “Iceland moss” and lichens where grass is unattainable, and supplying
their owners with all the necessaries of the simple life in those regions; and in the burning plains
of tropical countries, where the woolly fleece gives place to a thin hairy covering better adapted
to the climate, the shepherd leads forth his flock, to pick a living as they can in the arid sun-
dried fields. ‘The sheep is one of the best gifts of Providence to mankind; and it has been
scattered broadcast over the globe, as if with the intention that as large a portion as Pot
of the human race should reap the advantage of its presence and its usefulness.

It is almost imposssible to say from what wild stock the domestic sheep derived its origin ;
but the majority of naturalists consider that our tame sheep are closely connected with the
animal whose description follows here, namely :

THE MOUFFLON (Plate v., a.)

This creature, which unites the qualities of the goat and the sheep, is found in the rocky
regions of Corsica, Sardinia, the Greek islands, &c. The colour is a reddish brown, with a darker
10.



PECULIARITIES OF THE DOMESTIC SHEEP.

stripe along the back, and white underneath. It is about as large as a full-sized goat, and has
great horns curving backward from its forehead, and resembling those of the ibex. Like all its
race, it is gregarious, consorting in flocks, living upon the high mountains, and flying with great
agility on the appearance of the hunter. So shy, indeed, is the moufflon, that it can very
rarely be taken alive. The young are covered with a short fleece; but the older moufflon has
a hairy instead of a woolly coat, though beneath the outward hair a woolly down is found, as
in the Cashmere goat. In the summer, when the moufflon finds plenty of Alpine plants in
the sheltered valleys of the higher regions of rocks, it grows very fat, and its flesh is said to
be equal to venison in flavour; but in the winter the scarcity of food among the mountains
forces it to descend into the lower valleys in search of grass and herbs; and this is the period
chosen by the hunter to surprise the wary animal, the agility of whose movements is quite
in contrast with the feeble gait we generally associate with the sheep.

THE DOMESTIC SHEEP.

In almost every country there are one or more breeds of sheep; some covered with
coarse hair scantily mixed with wool, others presenting a soft thick fleece, exceedingly valuable
- for its weight and texture; many kinds have a dark brown crisp wool, very difterent from the
snowy fleeces of the English breeds; and some are entirely black. The sheep of Guinea, in
Africa, has long legs, a gaunt, thin body, and a covering of coarse shaggy hair. In Syria
and Egypt there is a remarkable race called the fat-tailed sheep. This sheep has a long tail
reaching to the ground; and, indeed, in some cases the shepherds provide little waggons, in
which the tails of the sheep are supported, to prevert them from dragging on the ground and
sustaining injury as the animal walks on. For these tails are considered a great delicacy,
consisting as they do almost entirely of a soft marrow-like fat. In their ordinary state they
weigh about fifteen pounds; but there is an art by which the sheep may be fattened, so that
the tail increases to fifty, sixty, and, it is said, in some instances even to eighty pounds in weight.
This fat is often used stead of butter. Iceland possesses a remarkable breed of sheep,
strongly built, and with a rough coat consisting more.of hair than of wool, and only fit for
coarse fabrics, such as druggets and horse cloths. But this Iceland breed yields a great
quantity of good milk, an invaluable article in a cold climate. A single ewe will give, it is
said, five or six quarts a day. A strange peculiarity is in the number of horns on the head of
the ram, which sometimes has no fewer than eight growing from his forehead. The general
number is four. In the Feroe Islands a wild race of sheep clamber about the rocks, quite free
from the control of the inhabitants, who hunt them like deer, and seldom succeed in taking
them alive.

The breeds of English sheep are very numerous, and great attention is paid to their im-
provement. Among the principal are the Southdowns, in Sussex and Kent, the Dorset, the
Suffolk, the Leicestershire, and the Cheviot breed of Northumberland. It would take too long
to enumerate here the different qualities of size, fleece, and fatness for which these various
breeds are remarkable. Among the ancients a strange and barbarous method of obtaining the
wool of the sheep prevailed. Instead of being shorn, the unhappy animals had the wool torn
off their bodies, somewhat in the method in which poultry are plucked; and they were previ-
ously kept for three days without food, that they might be exhausted, and thus the wool would
come off more easily. In the Orkney Islands this barbarous practice was continued until lately.

In the bleak winter, among the northern hills, the flocks of sheep are exposed to great
hardships in the drifting snow- storms and furious gales. ‘They have an instinct by which they.
know of the approach ‘of a tempest, and manifest their uneasiness in various ways, well under-.
EO by the watchful shepherd, who fa takes every precaution for thé safety of his

iio



t

THE MERINO SHEEP—CLOTH MANUFACTURE.

charge. Notwithstanding all his care, however, many are lost by being blown over into the
ravines among the rocks, and others are buried beneath the drifting masses of snow. In some
cases sheep have manifested a remarkable tenacity of life under such circumstances, having
been found alive after being buried twenty and even thirty days beneath the snow. In most
countries on the Continent of Hurope, and also in the Hast, the shepherd does not drive the
flock before him, but ne leads them, walking at the head of the troop, which follows him
wherever he goes,

The affection of the ewe for her lamb, the care eh which she devotes herself to the little
helpless creature, and her grief when deprived of her nursling by death, as also the stratagem
employed by the-shepherd, who strips the skin from the dead lamb and wraps it round some
little motherless thing, thus cheating the bereaved mother into the belief that her own offspring
has come back to her, have been admirably described by the pert Bloomfield, in the following -
lines :

“ Her tender offspring dead, the dam aloud
Calls, and runs wild amidst th’ unconscious crowd,
And orphaned sucklings raise the piteous cry,
No wool to warm them, no defender nigh!
And must her streaming milk then flow in vain ?
Must unregarded innocence complain ?
No; ere this strong solicitude subside,
Maternal fondness may be fresh applied, ~
And the adopted stripling still may find ,
A parent most assiduously kind.
For this he’s doomed awhile disguised to range
(for fraud or force must work the wished-for change) ;
For this his predecessor’s skin he wears,
Till, cheated into tenderness and cares,
The unsuspecting dam, contented grown,
Cherish and guard the fondling as her own.
Thus all by turns to fair perfection rise;
Thus twins are parted to increase their size ;
Thus instinct yields as interest points the way, -
Till the bright flock, augmenting every day,
On sunny hills and vales of springing flowers,
‘With joyous bleatings greet the vernal hours.”

The most famous of the foreign breeds is the merino sheep of Spain, which has been used
to improve the breeds of Saxony, Austria, and other Continental nations. The name “ merino ”
signifies “from beyond the sea ;” and it is conjectured that the breed was considerably improved
by some Cotswold sheep, imported into Spain in the reign of Edward III. The rearing of’
these sheep is considered a very important matter in Spain; and centuries ago the Spanish
Government took the matter in hand, and enacted laws regulating the privileges of pasture the
sheep were to enjoy on their journeys from one part of the country to another, which they were
made to perform twice a year, the number and pay of the shepherds, and, in fact, all matters
connected with the sheep-breeding interest. This system of migration of flocks was supposed
to improve both the fleece and the flesh of the sheep; but of late great doubt has been cast on
the fact, as it is asserted that the merinos in certain provinces, where the sheep are kept to the
same locality all the year round, thrive quite as well as those who eccney a full quarter of the
year in their journeyings.

~ Closely connected with the breeding of sheep is the history of the cloth manufacture.
The first knowledge possessed by the Britons of the art of cloth making came, no doubt, from
Gaul. The Romans had a factory for the making of cloth for soldiers’ coats at Winchester ;
and under the earlier Norman kings several cloth weavers found their way over to England
from Flanders, where the art was best understood. In the reign of Stephen we find that

12



INTRODUCTION OF THE CLOTH MANUFACTURE INTO ENGLAND.

Bedford, Worcester, Nottingham, and several other towns were actively employed in the
weaving of cloth; but it was in the reign of Edward III. that the art became really understood —
in England, which had until then been content to export a great quantity of wool. to the
Continent, leaving to the Flemings the profit obtained by its manufacture into cloth. The
following extract from the old historian Fuller will explain what took place with regard to the
cloth manufacture. “At length,” he says, “the king and State grew sensible of the great
gain the Netherlands got by our English wool; and this good king resolved, if possible, to —
bring the trade to his own countrymen, who yet were ignorant of that art, knowing no more
what to do with their wool than the sheep that wore it, as to any artificial or curious drapery ;
their best cloths being then no better than freizes, such was their want of skill in their makings.
But soon after followed a great alteration, and we shall enlarge ourselves in the manner
thereof.

“ Unsuspected emissaries were employed to go into the Netherlands, who wrought them-
selves into familiarity with such Dutchmen as were absolute masters of their trade, but not
masters of themselves, being either journeymen or apprentices. These bemoaned the slavish-
ness of those poor servants, whom their masters used rather like heathens than Christians; yea,
rather like horses than men: early up, and late in bed, and all day having hard work, and

harder fare (a few herrings and mouldy cheese); and all to enrich the churls their masters,
without any profit to themselves.

“But oh! how happy would it be for them, if they would but come over into England,
bringing their mystery with them, which would provide their welcome in all places.

«Thus persuaded, many Dutch servants did come. Their departure (being picked here and
there) made no sensible vacuity, but their meeting together amounted to a considerable fulness.
Happy the yeoman’s house into which one of these Dutchmen did enter, bringing industry and
wealth along with him: such as came in strangers, soon after went out bridegrooms, and
returned sons-in-law, having married the daughters of their landlords, who first entertained
them; yea, those yeomen in whose houses they harboured soon became gentlemen, gaining ©
great estates to themselves, and honour to their estates.”

The following fact will testify to the importance of the sheep to the peasant in the moun-
tains of Savoy. Nearly every part of the dress of a Savoyard peasant is produced from his
own little flock. He dresses the wool himself, his wife or daughter spins it, and then the yarn
is woven into cloth by the village weaver. The holiday coats are generally dyed blue, but those
of every-day wear are of a less expensive colour. As they have plenty of black sheep in Savoy,
they mix their wool with the wool of the white sheep, and, spinning them together, produce a
‘sort of greyish-brown cloth without the expense of dyeing. In another part of the Alps, the
Grisons took their name from their custom of wearing grey cloth similarly manufactured.

For a long time Saxony had the pre-eminence in the manufacture of the finest kind of
broadcloth, especially that of a blue colour. “Blue Saxony cloth” became proverbial for its
excellence; but the town of Leeds and several other places in England can not only vie with
any Continental manufacture, but indeed surpass the best efforts of the foreign loom.

Sheep-shearing time, when the farmer receives in the heavy fleece the reward of the care
bestowed during the past twelve months upon his flock, has always been regarded, even from
very ancient times, as a festive season. In one of the best country books ever written for boys,
Mr. Thomas Miller, the author, speaking on this subject, says,

“Pleasant, too, was sheep-washing and sheep-shearing time: such a dreamy bleating
beside the brooks and about the barns, as the sheep and lambs answered each other from the
wattled fences in which they were confined to keep them separate. Rare fun was it to us to
pull and drag at some great, fat, heavy sheep, and, drawing it towards the water’s edge, shove it ,

ey and perhaps ourselves with it, while the sheep-washer std a to souse the moving mass,
is :



SHEEP WASHING AND SHEARING—THE HORSE.

of wool over head and ears. The washing once over, and the sheep having stayed a few days
just to let the wool regain its old oily elasticity, so that, as the clippers say, they may shear all ”
the softer, then the great summer sheep-shearing began_.in earnest. The huge, high, heavy,
ponderous barn doors were taken off their hinges, and placed on strong, low, tressels, or heavy
logs of wood, to elevate the doors to a convenient height, and on these ample tables the sun-
browned shearers clipped the bleating sheep. Oh! it was famous fun to see them clipping
away one against the other, and striving who could get done first—to roll up the fleeces and
carry them into the barn, until we raised up quite a stack of wool—then to have a swing sus-
pended from the great high rafters of the barn, and go such a height—ah! that was swinging
indeed!—then to roll all amongst the wool—to fetch the sheep up to the shearers—to turn them
loose again after they were clipped, and watch how the lambs were puzzled to pick out their —
dams from the flock which had been shorn: you would have liked to have been there, amid all
that bleating of sheep, and barking of dogs, and such racing as we had after the sheep that ran
away: it was prime sport, I can tell you. But the best of all was the sheep-shearing feast—
such bowls of furmenty stuffed full of currants as you never before saw in your life, and chines
of beef seasoned with all kinds of nice herbs, which are only known to old-fashioned country
people; great horns of ale, and glorious plum puddings, almost as much as a boy could lift.
Then, it was so pleasant to remember that these sheep-shearing feasts are hundreds and hundreds
of years old, and that we read all about them in the Holy Bible, and what Nabal’s wife,
who lived in Carmel, sent to King David when she kept up her sheep-shearing feast. There
are many good old customs still existing in England, as Be shall show hetore we have written
all we intend to write about the four seasons of the year.”

THE HORSE TRIBE.

“ Hast thou given the horse strength ? hast thou clothed his neck with thunder P

“ Canst thou make him afraid as a grasshopper? the glory of his nostrils is terrible.

“ He paweth in the valley, and rejoiceth in his strength: he goeth on to meet the armed men.

“ He mocketh at fear, and is not affrighted; neither turneth he back from the sword.

“ The quiver rattleth against him, the glittering spear and the shield.

“ He swalloweth the ground with fierceness and rage: neither believeth he that it is the scuna -
of the trumpet. ~

“ He saith among the trumpets, Ha, ha; and he smelleth the battle afar off, the thunder of
the captains, and the shouting.” —Job xxxix. 19—25.

The above description of the horse in the Book of Job fully exhibits the chief qualities of
the noblest of quadrupeds—his fearlessness, strength, and fleetness. From the very earliest
period of known history the horse appears as the chosen servant of man, alike in peace and in
war. ‘ The chariots and horses of Egypt are mentioned repeatedly in Holy Writ; and* in
Miriam’s song of victory it is recorded among the triumphs of the Lord, “The horse and his
rider hath He thrown into the sea.” The ox, in ancient times, was the labourer—the patient
and willing drudge in the work of the farm, the bearer of burdens, and the assistant in the
important processes for obtaining bread; for he it was who dragged the rough plough over the
fields, and who afterwards, when the corn had been reaped, “ trod out” the grains from the
straw on the floor of the barn. But to the horse more stirring duties were assigned. He was ~
made to participate in the dangers and glories of war. It was for him to bear his rider through
the thickest of the fight, to charge headlong upon the foe, or to bear his master swiftly away
from the pursuit of the enemy. The war chariots of the Egyptians and other Eastern nations
were of vast importance to them, and gave a great increase to the strength of their armies; and ~
thus, when Pharaoh pursued the Israelites, after their escape from the bondage of Egypt, we
are told that “he made ready his chariot, and took his people with him; and he took six

14



_ DOCILITY OF THE HORSE—WILD HORSES.

hundred chosen chariots, and all the chariots of Egypt, and captains over every one of them.”
And though in later times some breeds of horses have been devoted exclusively to the labours
of the field and the road, the charger, or war horse, has always kept his place in the armies of
the modern as he had it in those of the ancient world. Not the least famous among the
“ heroes” of the battle of Waterloo was “Copenhagen,” the gallant charger who bore the
Duke of Wellington upon his back, without apparent fatigue, during sixteen or seventeen hours
on that eventful day.

Among the circumstances which render the horse peculiarly valuable to man is the fact
that each breed has separate qualities fitting it for some branch of usefulness. Thus, the
characteristic of the racer is marvellous speed; while the hunter, with almost as great a
‘swiftness of motion, combines a strength and an endurance which enable him to pursue the
flying deer or fox for many hours over ground which would try the powers of the slim, graceful
race horse far too severely. Again, for the plough horse and waggon horse, which has to draw
heavy loads, but is only required to move slowly, we have a heavy, bulky kind, whose ponderous,
heavy strength almost resembles that of the elephant, dragging, almost without effort, and by
their own weight, loads that a lighter breed of horse could scarcely move with the most violent
_ exertion. The rough, hardy Shetland ponies, again, are very useful in their way, being able to
endure much fatigue, while they thrive upon scanty and coarse food.

The sagacity of the horse, and his readiness to learn, also increase his value. With the
exception of the dog and the elephant, no animal is more teachable than he. The war horse
masters his exercise quickly, and remembers it well; the hunter soon learns to enter into the
excitement of the chase, which he often pursues as eagerly as his master; and the heavy dray
horse soon learns to pick his way through crowded streets with such skill that he scarcely
requires the guiding-rein. He is also capable of considerable attachment to his master, for
whose benefit he exerts himself even beyond his strength.

The natural term of the horse’s life seems to be between twenty and five and twenty
years; but this period is generally shortened by over-work and ill-treatment, arising, in most
cases, rather from thoughtlessness and ignorance on the part of the owner than from delibe-
rate cruelty. Because the horse is strong, and willing to exert his strength, many persons
seem to think that his powers are unlimited; and because he can run fast, that he may be
driven or ridden for a long distance at the top of his speed; and thus his powers decay early,
and he dies before his time.

So generally is the horse spread throughout the world, that it is impossible to say with
certainty what was originally his native country. Wild horses are still found in vast numbers
in the great plains of Tartary and of Central Asia and in the prairies of North, and the
pampas of South America. The wild horses of America are descendants of Spanish horses
brought over by the first conquerors of the New World. Many horses regained their liberty,
and became the progenitors of a wild race. In Southern Africa a race of small wild horses
also exists. The following description of the wild species is given in a popular book on science:
“Wild horses appear to be free from nearly all those diseases to which the domestic breed are
prone. They are generally of a pale or greyish-brown colour, with brown mane and tail, a
whitish muzzle, changing to black about the mouth. They are smaller than the domestic breed,
with a larger head, longer legs, larger ears. . . . They recognize the presence of man at
a great distance, when he approaches them to windward, and fly from him with wonderful
speed. ‘They prefer sunny slopes, and avoid forests and steep places. They do not wander
beyond the fiftieth degree of north latitude.”

Horses are entirely herbivorous, feeding on vegetable productions. In their wild state
they subsist almost exclusively on grass, though their teeth enable them to masticate hard corn

“and. beans. They are naturally dainty as regards their food, and especially nice as to tiie. purity:
15



BRITISH HORSES—MARKS OF A PERFECT HORSE—THE ASS.

of the water they drink. Many horses, even when suffering from great thirst, will not drink
from a horse-trough or from a pail that has not been kept scrupulously clean.

The Arab horse has long been famous for beauty, swiftness, and endurance; and some of
the Spanish horses, especially those called barbs, because they originally came from the Barbary
States in Northern Africa, are excellent. It is impossible to tell when or how the horse first
came into Britain. When Cvesar arrived from Gaul with his legions, nineteen hundred years
ago, he found the wild inhabitants of our island possessed of a large and swift breed of horses,
which they used with great effect in war, yoking them to chariots, whereof the axles were
furnished with sharp scythes to mow down the enemy among whose ranks they were driven.
That the Saxons had good horses, and knew how to value them, is proved by a law made by
Athelstan, who forbade the exportation of horses, excepting they were sent out as presents.
The Normans greatly improved the breed of the English horses, chiefly by importing some of
the best that Spain could produce; these were, no doubt, of Arabian origin.

Horse racing soon began to be practised as a national sport: we find it mentioned as eariv
as the reign of Henry II. Under the Stuart rule the sport was patronised by royalty; and if
was on his return from Newmarket that the Rye House conspirators hoped to seize the person
of Charles IT., in the celebrated Rye House Plot. . The English race horses are of Arabian
origin. (See Plate v1.) An old writer named Camerarius gives in a few words a capital idea
of what a good horse ought to be; and Goldsmith and several other writers have copied his
instructions. They are these: “A perfect horse should have the breast broad, the hips
round, and the mane long; the countenance fierce, and somewhat resembling that of a lion ;
the nose similar in form to that of the sheep; the head, legs, and skin of a deer; the throat
and neck of a wolf; and the ear and tail of a fox.”

The ancients were in the practice of using their horses unshod, consequently the hardness
and firmness of the hoof was considered a very important point; and hence also the Arab
saying, that “If a cavaleade be passing through a stony country, the grey horses will break
the stones with their feet.” The wild Huns, who, early in the Christian era, poured into
Europe from Central Asia, under their King Attila, spreading terror and destruction wherever
they went, were a nation who depended eimost entirely upon the horse for subsistence. Their
food was horse-flesh, their drink the mare’s milk. The horses’ hides furnished them with
materials alike for their clothing and for the tents in which they dwelt. Continually in the
saddle, they had acquired immense dexterity in riding, and always fought on horseback. The
terror inspired by these plunderers gave rise to the proverb, “ Where the horse of Atilla had set
its hoof, no grass could grow.”

THE ASS (Piate vit.)
“Who hath sent out the wild ass free ? or who hath loosed the bands of the wild ass ?”—Job xxxix. 5.

Almost equally important with the horse, and in some countries even more necessary
than that noble animal for the well-bemg of the people, the patient, useful ass has yet
been in almost every clime and at every period the ill-used drudge of man. Because his
pace is somewhat sluggish, and in outward appearance he lacks the graceful beauty of the
horse, he has been set down as heavy and stupid ; and the very patience with which he
endures ill-treatment seems only to render him more despised. ‘The expression “ a stupid ass”
has become proverbial, and it seems quite an understood thing that this poor creature should |
be fed on the coarsest food and driven with the heaviest stick. Yet all this is very foolish as —
well as wrong. Naturally, the ass is anything but a stupid animal. Te has been known to
display great sagacity, and to attach himself strongly to the master who uses him kindly ; but
ill-treatment and neglect have upon him the effect they would produce on a human being,

16














XN









































/ h y
Ng
;

Y Ys









\
AY
We “





Ss & \







a
STN
—— x
=
SSS
—~

















t



THE WILD ASS—CHASE OF A WILD ASS.

and render him stubborn and sluggish. Though his pace is slow, he will continue his journey
for many hours without showing signs of fatigue, and the coarsest fare suffices to keep him in
health. In rocky countries and over difficult roads his feet are more sure than those of the
horse, and he will carry his rider in safety along winding paths skirting the most tremendous
precipices. Hardy, vigorous, and temperate, he is very valuable to the poor man. Many a
wandering pedlar, and many a hawker of small commodities, has dated his rise in the world
from the day when he had saved enough to buy an ass to carry his goods, thus lessening his
labour by one-half, while the keep of the frugal animal scarcely increased his expenses.

The ass attains his full growth in about four years, and lives to the age of four or five
and twenty. ‘The colt is rather pretty in appearance, and quick and playful; but the laborious
- life led by the ass soon brings on that heavy appearance and sluggish gait which seem peculiar
to the race. In Eastern countries, where the ass is frequently used instead of the horse, it
appears under a better aspect than in Europe. It is larger and more lightly built, and is
evidently the object of more care and attention than here, where the horse is the valued servant,
and the ass only the slave. The female ass is very affectionate towards her colt, and will
encounter any danger in defence of her offspring. She has but one colt at a time; very rarely
two are born together.

The wild ass of the Hast is a very different creature from the poor domestic drudge. It is
large, shapely, and handsome, and runs with especial swiftness. It is found in Tartary, Asia
Minor, Persia, and many other countries. The Persians esteem its flesh a great delicacy, and
capture it in pits. The wild asses associate together in herds. They are exceedingly shy,
running off with great swiftness on the approach of men. Sir. R. K. Porter, the Eastern
traveller, gives the following account of an exciting chase after a wild ass:

“The sun was just rising over the summits of the eastern mountains, when my greyhound
Cooley suddenly darted off in pursuit of an animal, which my Persians said, from the glimpse
they had of it, was an antelope. I instantly put spurs to my horse, and with my attendants
gave chase. After an unrelaxed gallop of full three miles, we came up with the dog, which
was then within a short stretch of the creature he pursued; when, to my surprise, and at first
vexation, I found it to be an ass; but on a moment's reflection, judging from its fleetness that
it must be a wild one, which the Persians prize above all other animals as an object of chase,
as well as an article of food, I determined to approach as near to it as the very swift Arab
IT was on would carry me. But the instant of checking my horse to consider had given our
- game such a head of us, that, notwithstanding all our speed, we could not recover our ground
on him. I, however, happened to be considerably before my companions, when, at a certain
distance, the animal in its turn made a pause, and allowed me to approach within a pistol-shot
of him. He then darted off again with the quickness of thought, capering, kicking, and
sporting in his flight, as though he were not blown in the least, and as though the chase were
his pastime. The prodigious swiftness and peculiar manner in which he fled across the plain
coincided exactly with the description that Xenophon gives of the same animal in Arabia.”

Such is the wild ass; but that, even in the most ancient times, the poor domestic species
was the sport and butt of the mischievous, is shown by the mention made of the ass by Homer
in the following lines of the “Iliad ”: :

“ The sluggish ass, with heavy strength endued,
: In some wild field by troops of boys pursued,

a The shivering sticks assail his sides in vain,

He crops the waving corn, and spoils the plain.
‘Whilst on his hide the feeble blows resound,
The beast, regardless, still maintains his ground;

Scarce from the field with all their efforts chased,
And scarce, though sated, mends his pace at last.”

- 47 , a D



BEAUTY OF THE ZEBRA—THE QUAGGA—THE DEER TRIBE.

THE ZEBRA. (Plate vit., ¢.)

This very beautiful animal is a native of South Africa, where it roams in vast herds at the
back of Cape Colony, and especially beyond the Gariep or Orange River. In size it is between
the horse and the ags, and has indeed many qualities of both. The Dutch settlers at the Cape
have called it the “ Wilde Paard,”’ or wild horse, and Dr. Burchell the traveller very aptly gave
the Latin name Aguus montanus, the mountain steed. The zebra has a short erect mane, |
slender legs, a very hard round hoof, a tail like that of the ass, but furnished at the end with
a long tuft of hair, a shapely head, and bright intelligent eyes. Its distinguishing feature
consists in the long black bands with which it is striped, and which are considered so elegant,
that Buffon the naturalist calls it the first of quadrupeds for beauty. There are two species,
the common zebra and Burchell’s zebra. They are distinguised from each other principally by
some trifling difference in the striping. The voice of the zebra is a harsh, barking neigh.
United in bands, they resist the aggression of any foe, and fight vigorously with teeth and
hoofs for their freedom when miele

At one time it was believed that the zebra could not be tamed, but this is a fallacy. All
herbivorous animals are capable of being domesticated, though some are more difficult to tame _
than others. A few years ago a couple of zebras might be seen in the Zoological Gardens in
London, very carefully dragging a cart about the grounds, perfectly tractable and resigned to
-their fate; and the old menagerie at Exeter Change contained a zebra so tame that he was
employed in the pacific business of carrying children on his back “for the sum of one penny.”
The Hottentots consider the flesh of the zebra a delicacy, and eat it eagerly ; but ae colonists
reject it, probably consi AcE it too a allied to horse-flesh.

e

THE QUAGGA (Plate vit., d) ,

Closely resembles the zebra, from which it is distinguished chiefly by its skin being only marked
over the head, neck, and shoulders, with the bars that cover the whole body of the zebra. Its
habits are like those of the zebra, associating in large herds, and flying with great swiftness,
from its pursuers. It is, however, much more tractable than the zebra, and is often used as a
beast of burden. Its name “ quagga”’ is said to be derived from its barking voice.

THE DEER TRIBE.

“The bounding fawn that darts across the glade,
When none pursues, through mere delight of heart,
And spirits buoyant with excess of glee.”

The deer species includes animals of very various kinds, and inhabiting very different parts
of our globe. Indeed, so great is the difference between the gigantic elk (see “ Wild Animals”)
and the graceful antelope or gazelle, that at first sight few people would think they belonged to »
the same family; but all the deer tribe have some features in common, though the antelopes
are confined to the hot climate of Africa, while the other varieties are generally found in the -
colder countries of Europe and America, great heat being as destructive to them as cold would
be to the antelope. We have now to speak chiefly of those kinds of deer that have become

18



NORMAN GAME LAWS—THE LAPLAND REINDEER.

domesticated as servants to man, or half domesticated as ornaments to the gentleman’s park
or the well preserved forest.

| Generally speaking, the deer may be considered rather as a beautiful and graceful, than as
avery useful animal. In civilized countries the laws introduced with the Feudal system have
placed him at the head of the game animals, or those which all but a small class were forbidden
to touch. Under the earlier Norman kings, the forest laws were so severe that even noblemen
might not hunt the deer except in the company of the king, and by his special permission ;
- and as to the common people, the man among them who slew a deer was considered guilty of
afar greater crime than the slaying of a fellow man. William Rufus, the tyrannical “ Red
King,” was especially cruel and harsh in carrying out the forest laws, and inflicting punishment
upon all who in any way molested the deer; so that the Saxons used to say that he loved the
stags far better than his subjects; and looked upon his death while hunting in the New Forest
as a Divine vengance for his tyranny. Gradually the severity of these laws was abated; but
still the deer has remained the exclusive property of the higher classes—a privileged animal,
whose flesh never appears on the poor man’s table. Far different, however, is the case in the
cold North, where dwells the member of the deer family who represents to the Laplander what
the horse was to the Hun, and the sheep and ox to the patriarchal ancestors of the Israelites ;
namely, food, clothing, shelter, and the means of moving from place to place; for all the
wants of the Laplander are supplied, in the frozen regions he inhabits, by the possession of one
docile and invaluable animal. This animal is

THE REINDEER.

Though he is doubtless by far the most useful, the reindeer is, perhaps, the least beautiful
of the tribe to which he belongs. He is large in size, about four or five feet high, with a short
thick neck, strong legs, and very large hoofs, whose breadth and flatness prevent him from
sinking into the deep snow, as he runs swiftly over the frozen plains. His horns are rounded,
and droop over his forehead. This arrangement is admirably useful in enabling him in winter-
time to shovel away the snow which covers the moss on which he subsists. He is covered with
very thick woolly hair, and can thus endure a great amount of cold. He is also a strong
swimmer, crossing broad and rapid rivers with the greatest ease. A strong, powerful animal, he
readily defends himself, in his wild state, against even the wolf, whom he puts to flight by
vigorous kicks. The wild reindeer live together in large herds, and in summer-time emigrate
to the sea shore, to escape the attacks of a fly, aptly called by a Latin name signifying “the ~
fury,” which follows them incessantly, and allows the poor animals no rest. Numbers of them
fall victims every year to the onslaught of these insects.

As a domestic animal the reindeer is beyond all price to the Laplander, who, but for this
useful creature, would be confined to one spot in a country where there are no roads, and where
in winter the uniform dreary waste of snow presents no track or sign by which the traveller
could find his way. But as a writer on the subject justly observes, “The Laplanders commit
their lives with wonderful confidence to these faithful animals, during a journey of hundreds
of miles ; and that trust is never violated, and it is very seldom that an accident occurs. They
travel with such speed and perseverance, that it is not uncommon for a pair of reindeer, with
the sledge and Laplander, to perform a journey of three hundred miles in twenty-four hours.
Their usual trot: is, however, at the rate of ten miles an hour; and they will draw from two
hundred to three hundred pounds weight: each, while going at that pace. . After the deer have
_ been well broken in and trained to the sledge, the art of driving is merely holding the rein.’
In long journeys, and when parties are travelling together, it is not unusual to fasten each. deer

to: the sledge before it, so that-one follows the other in the same track, and at the same pace.
“19



INSTINCT OF THE REINDEER— THE STAG—THE ROE.

_ At starting, and when the snow is guod, the deer set off at a gallop, relaxing at length into a
long and steady trot. Hach deer follows the foremost sledge so closely, that the head of the
deer is generally in contact with the shoulders of the driver before it; and should the leader
of the whole train make a bend in his course, each one in succession follows close in the track,
instead of attempting to save ground by cutting off the angle made bythe first sledge. No
power can remove the deer from the track its predecessors have taken; and it is this remark-
able instinct that, no doubt, greatly contributes to the safety of his master; for, should any of
the party by accident be detached from the rest, the keen scent of the deer enables it to pursue
the track, and at last to overtake the train of carriages that has passed on before.”

A wealthy Laplander will frequently be the owner of a herd of two thousand reindeer,
whose milk, flesh, skins, and horns are all put to good use. Thus in the arctic regions the
reindeer is to the inhabitant what the camel is to the traveller in the burning tropical desert —
the one creature indispensable to his comfort, and even to his very existence.

THE STAG

Is a creature of noble appearance, with his branching horns, bright eyes, and graceful form ;
and appears worthy of the distinction of being placed at the head of the game animals. In
his wild state he is found throughout Northern and Central Europe, in the same portions of
Asia, and in the northern regions of America, especially in Canada. But for many centuries
he has been kept in a half domesticated state in deer parks and forests, so that in England and
Scotland, and even in France and Germany, he can hardly be looked upon as a wild animal.
‘In disposition the stag is gentle and harmless, though when pursued and driven to desperation,
he will turn upon his pursuers and fight for his life. It was from a stag thus driven to bay that
the Norman Prince Richard, the favourite son of William the Conqueror, met his death in the
New Forest. The age of the stag can be told by the size of his horns or antlers, ‘and by the
number of branches on them. A stag with ten branches was considered a very valuable
animal, and called a “stag of ten.” The swiftness of the stag, combined with the excellence
of his flesh, has always made him a favourite animal of the chase. " He sheds his horns every
year, and hides himself in the thickest parts of the wood until his new antlers are grown.

The female of the stag is called the hind, and the young one the fawn. The attachment
of the hind to her fawn is very remarkable. She hides it in the deepest covert from every
foe, and tends it with admirable affection. In Scotland many wild red deer are still found.
The horns are made into knife-handles and other articles, the skin is excellent leather, and the
flesh, called venison, is esteemed a great delicacy.

THE ROE

Is a very small species of deer, still found wild in the highlands of Scotland, though it has
become extinct in England, except in a half tame state in parks. The buck or male is some-
what larger than the female or doe, and has short horns on his head, while the female has none
(see Plate rx.,b and c). The roe deer do not associate in herds, but in couples, their fawn
remaining with them till about nine months old. Their food in summer is grass, in winter
broom, heath, and the tender branches of the fir and birch, and the catkins of hazel and
willow. The roe is naturally a native of the mountains, and it is said that the flesh of those
which have been brought up in low and flat districts is always of an inferior quality. In
summer the hair is much shorter, thinner, and smoother than in winter, when nature seems
specially to provide the little roe with a coat suited to the season. The colour of the hair is
a mixture of deep red and grey. It is said that the roebuck can never be completely tamed.

20







=

eo
ane ~*~

~











Li




























PECULIARITY OF FALLOW DEER—MIGRATIONS OF THE SPRINGBOK.

THE FALLOW DEER

Ts between the roe and the stag in size. The horns are not divided into branches, but spread
out broad and flat (see Plate x., a). In colour the fallow deer vary, some being dark brown
with lighter spots, others reddish, others of a pale fawn tint. The doe is without horns, and
the buck, like the stag, has a new pair every year, each pair larger than the last, till he has
attained his full growth. The duration of the fallow deer’s life is from fifteen to twenty years.
His flesh is preferred to that of the stag, bemg more tender and better flavoured. In England
large herds of fallow deer are kept in parks, where they range about at full liberty, allowing
strangers to approach to a certain distance, and then bounding away with great quickness, and
turning, after a time, to gaze at the intruder. Generally the deer in a park form into various
herds, which feed separately, each herd chasing away any intruders from one or the others who
may seek to associate with them. Not unfrequently, combats occur between the various herds ;
but the fallow deer is not nearly so pugnacious as the stag, who, so far as his own kind are
concerned, is exceedingly given to brawling and fighting. The fallow deer, like the stag, has two,
remarkable holes or slits under its eyes, through which it is said to draw in the air, as through
the nostrils; and this is the more probable as, in drinking, it thrusts its nose deeply into the
water, keeping the nostrils immersed for a long time. A breed of fallow deer, that has
flourished greatly in England, was introduced by James I., who brought some specimens home
from Norway, when he returned from the famous journey during which he married Anne of
Denmark.

THE SPRING BUCK or SPRINGBOK (Pie x, 2)

Is one of many kinds of antelopes found in South Africa. These creatures exists in vast
numbers in the great uninhabited plains at the back of Cape Colony, where they roam across
the country in herds of many thousands. The springbok takes its name from the agility with
which, when pursued or alarmed, it jumps from crag to crag, or flies in long leaps across the
plain. And, indeed, the swiftness with which the springbok and the other Cape antelopes are
endowed is necessary for their very existence, for flight is their sole defence against the many
enemies who lie in wait for them. ‘The colonists shoot them down in numbers: they are the
favourite food of the lion and other beasts of prey lurking in the thicket; and even the hyena
pursues them, and drags many a victim from their flocks. But, on the other hand, these ante-
lopes exist in so many varieties, and in such vast numbers, that the attacks of all their enemies
seem powerless to reduce their mass in any great degree. Sparmann, the African traveller,
speaks of two thousand who all came down at once to drink at the same well. Vaillant,
a French naturalist, while travelling in the wilds in the rear of Cape Colony, found himself
encircled by a vast herd of antelopes, all travelling southward in search of fresh pastures.
and running streams; for one of the droughts which frequently occur in Southern Africa had
- burned up the grass’on which they fed, and dried up the rivers. He estimated their numbers
at no fewer than fifty thousand. These migrations of the antelopes are sometimes a source of
great annoyance and loss to the colonists; for the little intruders break into fields and gardens,
eating up “every green thing” with the perseverance and rapacity of a swarm of locusts.
These antelopes are graceful in form. Their colour is generally a light brown. The males have
small horns, the females none. ‘Their flesh is agreeable and wholesome, and of their skins
many articles of clothing are made. Thus the colonists and natives are well recompensed for

the occasional depredations of the antelopes in their search after food. |

21



TIMIDITY OF THE HARE—ITS CUNNING—ITS FECUNDITY.

THE HARE AND THE RABBIT TRIBE.

The hare belongs to a very well known and a very useful tribe of -the animal kingdom.
There are few children who have not seen the timid hare, dead, and exposed for sale in the
game dealer’s window, even if they have not seen the creature alive scampering over the fields,
and generally presenting the very image of fleetness combined with fear. The Latin name given
by naturalists to the hare, Lepus timidus, points to the fearfulness which is the chief feature in
its character ; and this timidity and aptitude to discern and fly from the first approach of danger
is the means given by Providence to the hare to escape from the many foes who lay snares for
its life. Unprovided with any effective weapons wherewith to fight, the hare is admirably
furnished with the means of discerning danger, and avoiding it by flight. Its hind legs are
much longer than the fore legs, and thus it can readily run up hill, and, indeed, generally seeks
a rising ground when flying from its foes. Its ears are peculiarly long, and of tubular shape,
and thus are available, like the ear trumpets used by deaf persons, in distinguishing distant
sounds. (See Plate xt., a.) The eyes are placed so far back in the head that the hare can
almost literally see the pursuers behind it when it is running straight forward; and hdéwever
rich the pasture on which it feeds, its body never becomes fat or heavy. Thus its speed is
undiminished at all seasons of the year.

But speed is not the only means used by the hare to escape from its foes. When hunted,
no animal displays more cunning or greater resources of stratagem to baffle its pursuers,
“Knowing that the hounds hunt by the scent, the hare will try to baffle them by doubling, or
returning on its own traces for a time, so that the hounds become bewildered. At others, it
. will run for a considerable distance along the top of a quickset hedge, with the same object of
baffling the hounds; or will run and take refuge among a flock of sheep, or in the hole, or, as
it is called, the form, of another hare. Frequently it will return by round-about ways to the
place whence it started when first alarmed: and to this fact the poet Goldsmith alludes in those
~ exquisite lines of the “Deserted Village” in which he expresses his hope of returning to his
old home. He says:

“ And as a hare whom hounds and horns pursue
Pants to the place from whence at first he flew,
T still had hopes, my long vexations past,

Here to return, and die at home at last.”

The hare is found in most parts of Europe and Asia, and there are also American varieties.
Its food is vegetables of all kinds, and many garden plants, especially parsley, of which it is
extravagantly fond. In winter, when the supply of fresh food fails, it feeds on the bark of
young trees, which it gnaws in such a manner as frequently to destroy the tree entirely.
Market gardens near towns often suffer from the depredations of the hare, especially when an
unusually hard time in winter drives the timid creatures from the fields to the vicinity of the
dwellings of man, where they hope to find subsistence.

The hare is not watchful and timid without good cause. Many beasts and birds of prey
are among its enemies; and such numbers are slain, that the species would quickly become
extinct, but for the number of young brought forth by all the hare and rabbit tribe. A hare
will frequently have four sets of young ones, three or four each time, in the course of the year.
For about three weeks she feeds the young leverets ; and when they are only a month old, they
are left to provide for themselves. Still, in spite of their numerous foes, they seem rather to
increase than to diminish in number.

Although the flesh of the hare is esteemed delicate food, the Israelites were forbidden by

22






ie
a, eee :
vl








THE ALPINE HARE—THE RABBIT.

the Mosaic law to eat it, as it was not an animal that parted the hoof, as well as chewed the
cud. The Ancient Britons were likewise prohibited by the Druids from eating the hare. In
spite of their natural timidity, ‘‘ performing” hares have often been exhibited, having been
trained by their masters to beat drums, and perform other feats of a noisy and startling kind.
Their skin is used in manufacturing hats. |

The manner in which the hare chooses different abodes at various seasons is well described
in the following lines :

“?Tis instinct that directs the jealous hare
To choose her soft abode. With steps reversed

She forms the doubling maze; then, ere the morn
Peeps through the clouds, leaps to her close recess.
As wandering shepherds on the Arabian plains
No settled residence observe, but shift
Their moving camps, so the wise crafty hares
Oft quit their seats, lest some more envious eye
Should mark their haunts, and by dark treacherous wiles
Plot their destruction . ; : : ;
When spring shines forth, season of love and joy,
In the moist marsh, ’mid beds of rushes hid,
They cool their boiling blood. When summer suns
Bake the cleft earth, to thick wide-spreading fields
Of corn full grown they lead their helpless young.
But when autumnal torrents and fierce rains
Deluge the vale, in the dry crumbling bank
Their forms they delve, and cautiously ayoid
The dripping covert. Yet when winter’s cold
Their limbs benumbs, thither with speed returned,
In the long grass they skulk, or shrinking, creep
Among the withered leaves.”

THE VARYING HARE (pute x1, 0,

Called also the Alpine hare, is much smaller than the common species. It obtains its name
from the fact that its summer coat of grey changes in winter to a snowy whiteness. It is found
among the rocks in the coldest parts of Europe, Asia, and America, and is also occasionally
met with in the highest and bleakest regions of Scotland. Like many other animals, the Alpine
hares are sometimes driven by the rigour of winter to quit their mountain haunts, where they
hide securely among the clefts of the rocks,.and to descend into the plains in search of food.
The Alpine hare, unlike the common kind, is easily tamed, and lives contentedly in captivity,
distinguishing itself by its playfulness, and its fondness for sweet delicacies, especially honey.
Instances have been known in which this kind of hare has been of a coal-black colour.

THE RABBIT (Pute x, 0)

Ts a well-known little ammal, bearing a great resemblance to the hare in outward appearance,
but far inferior to “Puss” in size. Rabbits also are social creatures, living in large commu-
nities in warrens, where they dig their holes, in which they hide during the heat of the day,
coming out in the morning and evening to feed; whereas the hare crouches solitary in ther
form, listening for every sound: of danger. The rabbit likewise differs from the hare in seeking
refuge in his burrow when he is alarmed by an enemy, whereas the hare at once rushes away -
from her home on the approach of any pursuer.

The rabbit is found in all parts of Europe except the coldest, and in the temperate parts
of Asia and Africa. It has been imported into America, where it also thrives well. The

peculiarity about the rabbit is in the immense number that may be produced within a short ‘
vo i;



DOMESTIC RABBITS — THE BEAVER AN ARCHITECT.

period from a few individuals. The female, or doe rabbit, has frequently no fewer than seven
litters of young ones within a year, and generally each litter consists of six or seven rabbits.
The common grey wild rabbit is well known as an article of food. Its skin is also used in-the
manufacture of hats and other articles of dress. A great number of dead rabbits are brought
from Belgium and Holland, chiefly by way of Ostend, for the London market. These are a
larger species than the English kind. ‘Tame rabbits are often kept for amusement by boys.
They are generally white and black. Fancy rabbits are those whose ears, instead of being
fixed in an upright position on each side of the head, lap over, or Jop, as it is called; and
according to the way in which the ears fall, either in a horn-lop, an oar-lop, or in the perfect
lop, is the rabbit considered valuable. These tame rabbits are much larger than the wild kind.
Rabbits feed chiefly on grass, which they nibble off very closely with their sharp teeth; they
are also fond of most vegetables, such as carrots, turnips, &c., and of bran and corn. They do
not require to drink; and too much moisture in their food is injurious ue them, rendering them
liable to a disease called the “rot.”

THE BEAVER.

The beaver (Plate xt., d) may truly be called a remarkable animal, and has been often
cited as an instance of the marvellous instinct with which certain creatures have been endowed.
In some animals this instinct appears most wonderfully in the ingenious manner of procuring

_food ; in others it manifests itself, as in the hare and fox, in the numerous stratagems the
creature employs in escaping from danger: in the beaver it is most strikingly shown in the

- marvellous skill with which he constructs his dwelling. Not content with a mere burrow or’ -

form, like the rabbit and hare, or with a nest on a bough or on the ground, like the thrush or
the swan, nothing short of a village, built on what is to him a navigable river, will suffice for
the beaver; and truly admirable and worthy of study is the labour he will undergo, and the
expedients he will adopt, to fashion his village to his liking.

The beaver is about two feet long and a foot high. Its head is round, its fore legs short,
the hinder legs long, and the hind feet webbed. The colour of the beaver_is alight brown.
Its broad singularly shaped tail is covered with a horny skin, in fish-like scales, and is used by
the beaver as a rudder in swimming. The sharpness of the beaver’s teeth is very remarkable.
The little creature can gnaw through the trunk of a tree by perseveringly working with these
formidable instruments. Its food is chiefly berries and the bark of young trees. The home
of the beaver is in North America, though anciently it also inhabited some parts of Europe.

In the autumn a community of two or three hundred beavers will make systematic pre-
parations for building their village. They invariably choose the side of a lake or stream; and
if the water is too shallow for their purpose, or makes them fear that they will be “frozen out”
in the winter, they proceed, with the skill of engineers, to deepen it. Just as a stream is
dammed up in the neighbourhood of a mill to husband and regulate the water supply, do the
beavers construct a dam, sometimes more than a hundred feet long, to keep the water ata
proper level. This dam is made of branches of trees, gnawed from the stems by the little archi-
tects’ sharp teeth, and laid along in lines, with clay and stones intermingled, to render the bank
impervious to water. At the base this dam is twelve feet thick, but gradually narrows towards
the top till it is only three feet across at the edge. Near the dam, the beavers build their bell-
shaped huts, which are inhabited by from a dozen to thirty beavers each, and rise to a height
of six feet above the water. The careful beaver also lays in a stock of branches and strips of

bark for winter provisions ; and takes care, moreover, to construct a curious place of refuge—a
24



A TAME BEAVER—WHAT MAY BE LEARNED FROM ANIMALS.

hole dug out of the bank, in some spot near his dwelling, whither he may retire if surprised.
But all his precautions are often unavailing. His soft fur is of such value, that the hunter
pursues him perseveringly ; and, tracing him to his retreat, often captures the unhappy beaver
with all the young family that share his dwelling.

The following is an account of a tame female beaver, kept for some months in his garden,
by a scientific gentleman. “ She was about half grown, and, except the tail and hind feet,
bore not a very distant resemblance to a great overgrown water rat. She fed on bread and water,
and gnawed several vines, jessamines, and hollies that were within her reach. When she ate,
she sat on her hind legs, and held the bread in her fore paws, like a squirrel. In swimming, she
held her fore feet close under the throat, swimming with her hind feet only, and steering her
course with her tail. She would keep under water for two or three minutes, and then come
up to breathe. She swam much faster than any water fowl, and under water she moved as
fast as a carp. She was very brisk, and throve well upon the food she took, and was turned
into a spring to bathe three or four times a week. She was at length killed by a dog.”

In former times the beavers were very plentiful in North America; but such numbers of
them have been killed by the hunters and trappers that they are now becoming scarcer and
scarcer every year.

THE MUSK BEAVER (Pite x1, ¢)

Is a much smaller animal than the proper or castor beaver. It does not exceed a foot in
length, and, like the common beaver, inhabits North America. The musk beaver does not
attempt to construct dams and villages on the grand scale followed by his larger cousin; but he
manages to build himself a very neat little cottage of clay and branches, with a dome-shaped
roof. He builds a new dwelling every autumn, and at the approach of winter, retires into it
with his family, coming out occasionally, through the ice and snow, to feed on roots and the
bark of trees; for he has not, like the large beaver, the instinct to lay up a stock of provisions
for the winter. The female musk beaver has three families in the year, consisting of three or
four little ones each time; thus these creatures would increase rapidly but for the numerous
enemies, among man and beasts, with whom they have to contend. The study of the arts
employed by the beaver and many other animals to provide for their wants, is replete with
instruction. In the words of the poet Pope, we may advise our readers to

“Learn from the birds what food the thickets yield ;
Learn from the beasts the physic of the field ;
Thy arts of building from the bee receive ;

Learn of the mole to plough, the worm to weave;
Learn of the little nautilus to sail,

- Spread the thin oar, and catch the driving gale.
Here too all forms of social union find,

And hence let reason late instruct mankind:
Here subterranean works and cities see ;
There towns aérial on the waving tree.

Learn each small people’s genius, policies,
The ant’s republic, and the realm of bees;
How those in common all their wealth bestow,
And anarchy without confusion know ;

And these for ever, though a monarch reign,
Their separate cells and properties maintain.”

25 o



THE CUNNING FOX—AFFECTION OF THE FEMALE FOX TO HER YOUNG.

THE FOX.

* Foxes have holes, and the birds a the air have nests; but the Son of Man hath not
where to lay His head.” —Lwuke ix.,

The fox (Plate x11, 6) is an animal of the dog tribe. It is found in many varieties,
almost every part of the world having its own species, excepting the hottest latitudes. Among
the many varieties may be mentioned the arctic fox of the northern regions, the black fox of
Siberia, whose fur is exceedingly valuable, and the grey and silvery fox of the warmer parts of
North America. All these, and many other species, possess the main features of the fox,
namely, the sharp muzzle, long fur, short legs, and bushy tail. The arctic fox is a far less
sagacious animal than its relations who dwell in warmer climates.

In England the fox is well known, alike as a favourite animal of the chase, and a very
mischievous neighbour to the farmer, for whose poultry he has an especial liking. Indeed, he
is such a cunning thief, that were it not for the amusement he affords to the hunter, he would
probably have been long ago exterminated. There are three varieties in England, differing in
size, but all of the same reddish colour: the cur fox, the smallest of these, is the most common.
The fox possesses many qualities of the dog. For his size he is decidedly courageous; he will
bite his enemy fiercely, and when once he fixes his teeth in a foe, can hardly be made to let go
his hold. The sharpest pain will hardly force a cry from him. He can be tamed without
much difficulty, and will attach himself strongly to those who are kind to him; but his temper
is always uncertain, and he will often snap spitefully at the hand that caresses him. His food
is very various. He will eat small birds and frogs, snails and insects; mice and rats do not
come amiss to him; to berries and fruits he is very partial, and his fondness for grapes
especially has been proverbial since the days when Alsop wrote the fable of the “ Fox and the
Grapes.” Even in the Bible we find reference to this fact, in the verse of Solomon’s Song:
“Take us the foxes, the little foxes, that destroy the vines, for our vines have tender grapes.”
On the sea shore he preys upon the crabs and shell-fish, and is said to entrap the unsuspecting
oyster by thrusting a pebble into its open shell, and thus preventing the valves from closing.
Frequently hunted himself, he is in his turn a great hunter, destroying young pheasants,
partridges, leverets, rabbits, and all small animals that are not strong enough to resist him.
Honey also has such charms for him, that he will risk the anger of the bees in his attempt to -
steal it; but it is in attacking the poultry that he displays all his cunning.

The fox makes for himself a hole or burrow in the earth, generally in a bank, or under
the roots of a tree. He takes care to have more than one entrance to this retreat, so that, if
danger approaches through one door, he may escape by another. Accordingly the huntsman
is careful to stop up the holes, that the fox, who, when first started, generally makes for his
hole, may be compelled to flee across the country, finding his usual retreat. cut off. Not
unfrequently he takes wrongful possession of the hole dug by a badger, and establishes himself
and his family therein. He chooses the night-time for his depredations ; and thus the poet, in
describing the evening operations on a farm, rightly enumerates among the other precautions
taken against danger and loss, that

“The snare for master fox is set.’ %

The female fox is remarkable for the care and affection with which she brings up her
young. Instances are known, in which foxes have carried their cubs considerable distances
from their former abode, when they suspected the approach of danger; and sometimes they
have even been known to climb trees, that they might deposit the cubs in the forks of the

branches, out of the reach of the eager hounds.
26






i

i

i)
























































BAD CHARACTER OF THE JACKAL—THE HEDGEHOG.

Among other examples of this nature, the following is well authenticated. “A female
fox, having a cub, was unkennelled near Chelmsford, by some gentlemen’s hounds and friends,
and pursued by them a considerable distance, with all the eagerness of sport. The poor animal,

at the moment of their approach, felt for the safety of her young one; and snatching it up in

\

her mouth, fled before her pursuers for several miles, panting under the weight of her burden,
but resolved to preserve it at the hazard of her own life. At length, exhausted by fatigue and
fear, she was attacked by a mastiff in a farmer’s yard, and, unable to support her offspring any
longer, she dropped it at the farmer’s feet, who kindly saved it from. destruction, while the
mother happily saved her own life from the multiplied dangers by which she was surrounded.”
The fox has a very strong and peculiar smell, by which the hounds can trace him for a long

distance.

THE JACKAL (pute xm., a)

Ts a creature closely resembling the fox in many particulars. It is found in great numbers in
the central and southern parts of Asia, but cannot, like the fox, endure much cold. In the
whole of Africa jackals are to be met with. Its height is from fifteen to twenty inches, and its

' length from the snout to the tail about two feet and a half. The general colour is dusky on —

the back, and a tawny yellow below. ‘The tail is bushy, the snout less pointed than that of
the fox. The jackal is very easily tamed, and grows as familiar.as a dog, running after its
master, and sporting and frisking round him, anxious to attract his attention and to be caressed,
and readily answering to its name. Their food, like that of the fox, is very various. They are
omnivorous, devouring vegetable and animal substances with equal voracity. Unlike the fox, ©
they will feed on carrion without being hard pressed by hunger; nor are they solitary like the
fox, who dwells in a burrow with only the cubs for company, and goes out alone for prey.
Jackals, on the contrary, hunt their prey in packs of from fifty to two hundred; -scouring
across the country like a pack of hounds in full cry, barking and yelping noisily, and arousing
all the animals in their neighbourhood from nightfall to daybreak. Thievish like the fox, they
plunder gardens, outhouses, and poultry yards; but far less fastidious than Reynard in their
fare, they devour almost anything that comes in their way, including the hides of oxen, and
even leather thongs and saddles. In the desert they will frequently follow the march of a
caravan for many days and nights, in order to prey upon any camel or horse that may perish
from exhaustion, and be left behind by the troop. The name, “the lion’s provider,” which has
been given to the jackal, from the prevalent idea that it hunts to provide the king of beasts
with food, has little foundation in fact. The truth is, that the howling of a pack of jackals
rouses up all the beasts of the forest, including the lion, who takes his share of the smaller
and more timid creatures as they fly in terror across the plain. :

Buffon, the naturalist, gives the jackal a very bad character, asserting that “he unites the
impudence of. the dog with the dastardliness of the wolf; and, participating in the nature of
each, seems to be an odious creature, composed of all the bad qualities of both.” This is very
hard upon the poor jackal, which, when tamed and properly educated, proves himself a very
good-humoured, sportive little fellow.

THE HEDGEHOG.

This little animal, which has sometimes been called the English porcupine, is chiefly

remarkable for the prickly coat he wears—a true. hauberk or shirt of mail, which protects him
against every enemy—and. for his strange power of rolling himself into a ball when attacked,

and thus completely hiding his head and paws, and presenting to his enemy somewhat the
appearance of a large brown prickly chestnut, with which none but the most daring would wish
27



SUPERSTITIONS CONNECTED WITH THE SHREW.

to meddle. This power proceeds from a peculiarly tough and strong muscle with which his back
is furnished ; and so pertinaciously does he maintain his position when once he has rolled him-
self up, that hardly anything short of the application of fire will induce him to unroll himself
and come out of his natural stronghold. The hedgehog is about ten inches ia length, and has
along nose, not unlike the snout of a pig in shape. His legs are very short, and weak in
appearance, and his eyes are small. During the day he lies asleep, but sallies out in the
evening ; and during the night he is very lively, going to and fro in quest of insects, fruits, and.
herbs, on which he feeds. During the winter he sleeps away most of his time in a bed of moss.
or dry leaves. He is quite harmless, though superstition has attached him, like the cat, to the
service of witches. In Shakespeare’s “‘ Macbeth,” the whining of the hedge-pig is oa .
by one of the witches, as a signal that it is time to prepare their magic cauldron. :

The Rev. Gilbert White, the naturalist of Selborne, in speaking of this animal, says:
“ Hedgehogs abound in my gardens and fields (in Hampshire). ‘The manner in which they eat
the roots of the plantain in my grass walks is very curious. With their upper mandible, which
is much longer than their lower, they bore under the plant, and so eat the root off upwards,
leaving the tuft of leaves untouched. In this respect they are serviceable, as they destroy a
very troublesome weed; but they deface the walks in some measure by digging little round
holes. . . . . In June last I procured a litter of four or five young hedgehogs, which
appeared to be about five or six days old; I find they are born blind, like puppies, and could
not see when they came into my hands. ‘Their spines are quite white at this age; and they
have little hanging ears, which I do not remember to be discernible im the old ones.”

SHREWS.

Of these little creatures there are no fewer than twelve species, not differing in any very
essential particular from each other. They greatly resemble the rat in pep iearence) and all
have sharp muzzles and cutting teeth. The first species is

The Ferm Surew (Plate x1v., d). This shrew is only three mete long, and is found in
most parts of Europe, and the northern division of Asia. It is very like the common mouse in
appearance, and takes up its abode in ruined buildings, or burrows in the ground. Its food is
insects, corn, and any refuse it can find. It obtains its name from the offensive odour of its
. flesh, which is so tainted that the cat and owl, though they hunt and kill it, will not eat it.
Its eyes are small and its ears short. It is quite harmless.

The Water Surew (Plate xtv., e) is somewhat larger than the fetid shrew. Its colour
is black above, and grey or white below. It swims well, and takes up its abode in the
neighbourhood of water. The pike and other fish feed upon it greedily. It has a chirruping
voice, like that of a cricket. It burrows like a water rat in the banks of streams, and lives
upon grubs and other water insects. }

The Promy Surew differs from the other species only in the smallness of its size. It is”
not more than an inch long, and is supposed to be the smallest of four-footed creatures; hence |
its name Pigmy, from the Pigmies, a supposed nation of dwarfs. There are other species, such
as the Mexrcan, the Perrumine Surew, &.

Harmless and inoffensive as is the poor little shrew, the ignorance and superstition of the
people in old days gave it a very bad name. . The simple villagers asserted that the bite of a
shrew mouse was poisonous, and could only be cured by cutting a shrew in two, and laying the
halves across the wound. Cattle over whose bodies a shrew mouse had run were supposed to |
become sick and ailing, and could only be cured by a shrew ash. The superstition is thus.
explained by Gilbert White: “A shrew ash is an ash whose twigs or branches, when gently ’
applied to the limbs of cattle, will immediately relieve the pains which a beast suffers from the

28














tC)

i.
pe eee

ies
Mie in

“Wig

= <> \
°° ~~ =< a

NN
WSs R









\ \









ON
KOK

Nw
w
S

w

wv

*\
es

Xs

as
Loo
\ \
SANG

NY

Ww







)

wR) * ae
RN Mint ie a
SS

— Oar Ba = aAee































Sia
“Sas

= = ar
44 LOS wee =
wa







fa
EEN







=



a
aN


















GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BIRDS.

running of a shrew mouse over the part affected; for it is supposed that a shrew mouse is of
so baneful and deleterious a nature, that, wherever it creeps over a beast, be it horse, cow, or
sheep, the suffering animal is afflicted with cruel anguish, and threatened with the loss of the
use of the limb. Against this accident, to which they were continually liable, our prudent
forefathers always kept a shrew ash at hand, which, when once medicated, would retain its virtue
for ever. A shrew ash was made thus: Into the body of the tree a deep hole was bored with
an auger, and a poor devoted shrew mouse was thrust in alive, and plugged in, no doubt, with
several quaint incantations, long since forgotten.” And then the superstitious villagers thought
that an animal injured by a shrew mouse could be healed by the touch of a branch of the shrew
ash. The remedy was as imaginary as the evil it was intended to cure.



BIRDS.

“ You winged choristers, that dwell in woods, and there maintain a quire,
Whose music doth all art excel, nought can we emulate, but admire ;
You, living galleys of the air, that through the strongest tempest slide,
And, by your wanton flight, who dare the fury of the winds divide.

Praise Him, and in this harmony and love
Let your soft quire contend with that above.”

: have now to speak of a great class of animals very different from those we last
considered. After the “beasts of the field,’ that were made subject to man, we come
to the “fowls of the air,” or, as we generally call them, the great race of birds; and here again
we are struck with the infinite variety of species, and admire the wisdom with which the great
Creator has provided each with all that is necessary for its subsistence, from the greatest to the
least. ‘Behold the fowls of the air,” the Saviour said to the men to whom He wished to teach
reliance on the Divine care, “for they sow not, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns; yet
your heavenly Father feedeth them. Are ye not much better than they?” And thus it is,
from the lordly eagle in his nest on the lofty crag to which no man can climb, from the great
albatross flying over the sea a thousand miles from land, down to the little wren in its tiny
nest in the coppice, or the pretty redbreast hopping across the snowy field in winter, the
Lord provides for all. Two sparrows are sold for a farthing; but not one can fall without
His knowledge. :

The classes of birds are as various as those of the quadrupeds, and correspond with the
latter in many particulars of disposition and habit. Thus the birds of prey, that live upon
flesh, are fierce and cruel, like the cat tribe, living alone, and generally avoiding the neighbour-
hood of man and of beasts and birds. The gallinaceous birds, or those of the poultry tribe,
on the other hand, are sociable and friendly, living together in harmony, and readily submitting
to the control and protection of man. Some birds, like the amphibious animals, seem equally
~ at home on land and in the water. Some, like the rabbit among quadrupeds, are remarkable
for their rapid increase in number; others astonish us by their swiftness; while many, though
strong on the wing, never care to leave the grove in which they have once established them-
selves. Others, guided by an unerring instinct, wing their way, at the approach of winter, to
the warmer regions of the south, returning to their northern haunts when the cold season is
past, and heralding by their coming the approach of genial spring and sunshine.

Some general features, however, all birds have in common. If we notice the shape of
their bodies, we shall see that they are admirably adapted for quick movement. From the
shape of the swimming birds the first ideas of the form of a ship have doubtless been taken,
while the swallow careering through the air has no small resemblance to an arrow or bolt shot
from a bow. The bones of all birds are hollow, and very light compared with the size of the
bird, and the muscles of the wings are very large and strong; the senses, too, are highly

29 ;



TEACHABLENESS OF BIRDS—THEIR SAGACITY AND AFFECTION.

developed. Some birds have the faculty of seeing at a great distance with marvellous acuteness..
The hawk will discern his prey at a great distance; and ia the cities of the East, where. the
wild birds are sometimes fed by the inhabitants as a matter of duty, if a man goes out upon
the flat roof of a house, and strews food around him, in a few moments he will see the storks
and other birds careering through the air towards him, though when he went up not a single
bird was in view. Though they have no external ears, the sense of hearing is very fine in birds,
for many of them.can not only hear sounds at a great distance, but can distinguish the difference
between the various notes and modulations. This is shown by the fact that bullfinches learn to
whistle tunes, and many birds of the parrot and pye tribe to utter words and sentences.

In sagacity, too, and the faculty of imitation, some birds are not inferior to the ‘most
teachable of quadrupeds. very one in our large towns has seen the “ performing canaries,”
trained to draw little waggons, to fire tiny cannon, to fall down as if shot, and to go through
many similar feats and tricks ; and an instance is recorded in which a stork played at hide-and-
seek with a party of children, taking his share in the amusement with an air of grave enjoyment
very ludicrous to behold. The affection of many species for their young is also very remarkable.
Some will lure the hunter or the dogs away from their nest by affecting to be wounded, and
thus tempting their enemy to pursue them by the hope of capture; until, when they consider
they have placed a sufficient distance between the pursuer and their nest, they rise suddenly in
the air and speed away home, leaving the baffled foe gazing after them in astonishment. One
of our great writers, Joseph Addison, especially notices the care and attention bestowed by the
hen upon her domestic concerns. “ With what caution,” he says, “does the hen provide herself
a nest in places unfrequented and free from noise and disturbance! When she has laid her
eggs in such a manner that she can cover them, what care does she take in turning them
frequently, that all parts may partake of the vital warmth! ‘When she leaves them, to provide
for her necessary sustenance, how punctually does she return before they have time to cool and
become incapable of producing an animal! In the summer you see her giving herself greater
freedom, and quitting her care for above two hours together ; but in winter, when the rigour of
the season would chill the principles of life and destroy the young ones, she grows more
assiduous in her attendance, and stays away but half the time. When the birth approaches,
with how much nicety and attention does she help the chick to break the prison — besides
covering it from the injuries of the weather, providing it with proper nourishment, and teaching
it to help itself!” .

In this book there will not be space to describe with any completeness the vast variety of
birds found in different parts of the earth. -But we shall have something to say concerning the
principal families and their habits and customs, so that our young readers may have a general
idea of this beautiful part of the living creation, and may afterwards pursue the subject more
at length in more advanced books on the subject. But whether the account be shortened or
extended, one thing cannot fail to strike the observer ; namely, the infinite goodness and
beneficence of the great Creator, by whom all things were made, and by whose power and mercy
every living being is sustained.

“ He hears, and feeds their feathered families ;
He feeds his sweet musicians, nor neglects
Th’ invoking ravens in the greenwood wide;
And though their throats’ hoarse rattling hurt the ear,
They mean it all for music—thanks and praise
They mean, and leave ingratitude to man.
Oh, Hz is good, Hz is immensely good! 3
Who all things formed, and formed them all for man;
Who marked the climates, varied every zone,

Dispensing all His blessings for the best,
In order and in beauty.”

80



ON SOME RAPACIOUS ‘BIRDS.

“True to the season, o’er our sea-beat. shore,
The sailing osprey high is seen to soar
. With broad unmoving wing; and circling slow
Marks each loose straggler in the deep below;
Sweeps down like lightning! plunges with a roar!
And bears his struggling victim to the shore.”

In this book we proposed to speak especially of Domestic Animals, or of those which man
has tamed for his use, and taught to live in a sociable manner around his dwelling-place. In
speaking of birds we shall follow the same rule; but here it is necessary to make a slight
alteration in our plan. In many of the great classes into which birds are divided, some indi-
viduals have been tamed; others have lived in a half domesticated state around the dwellings
of man; while others of the same tribe have always maintained their independence. ‘Thus,
while the lordly eagle soars in wild freedom above his mountain crag, the falcon, who belongs to
the same family, namely, that of the rapacious birds, has been for ages tamed and used in the
chase; thus again, while the turkey struts about in our poultry-yards, the largest, and certainly
the most conceited of its denizens, his cousin, the turkey buzzard, flies about in freedom in the
American forests. ai

Rapacious birds in general are distinguished by the same features which mark the beasts
of prey. They live alone, and have none of the social qualities exhibited by birds of other
classes. Goldsmith, in his ‘ Animated Nature,” well describes their dispositions. He says:

“Formed for war, they lead a life of solitude and robbery. They inhabit, by choice, the
most lonely places and the most desert mountains. They make their nests in the clefts of
rocks and on the highest and most inaccessible trees of the forest. Whenever they appear in
the cultivated plain or the warbling grove, it is only for the purposes of depredation, and are
gloomy intruders on the general joy of the landscape. They spread terror wherever they
approach : all that variety of music which but a moment before enlivened the grove, at their
appearing is instantly at an end: every order of lesser birds seek for safety, either by conceal-
ment or flight; and some are even driven to take protection with man, to avoid their less
merciful pursuers.” .

The largest birds of this class are the different species of eagles and vultures. These
birds are known by their lofty flight, their large powerful wings, and their wild fierce natures.
They live on small quadrupeds and birds of every kind; and when they have young ones to
feed, they often commit great depredations among the flocks, carrying off many a young lamb
to their nest on the lofty crag, to feed the sharp-beaked hungry eaglets who scream for prey.
The fietce warlike nature of the eagle made it a fit emblem or sign of the Roman power; and
therefore the Romans carried figures of eagles, carved in gold, in front of their armies, as we
now carry flags or ensigns ; and every Roman soldier had to take an oath that he would never
on any account desert his standard. The Romans also considered this bird as sacred to the
god Jupiter, who was always represented with an eagle by his side.

_ The chief species of the eagle are—the Goxprn Eacun, which mm former times was some-
times trained to the chase, being taught to pursue and capture other birds; until the falcon, a |
smaller and lighter bird, was found much better adapted for this duty ;—the Common Eactn,
which measures about three feet from the bill to the tail, and is found in most of the northern
and central countries of Europe, in mountainous desolate regions, but which disappears, like all
birds and beasts of prey, before the advance of man ;—the Batp Hatz, which takes its name |
from the head and neck being white, and thus presenting an appearance of baldness as con-
trasted with the deep brown colour of the body: this bird is found chiefly in North America ;

31



ENCOUNTER BETWEEN AN EAGLE AND A CAT.

the Warts Eaetz, the Buack Eaete, and the Sporrep Eactze, all distinguised by, and named:
after, their peculiar colour.

THE OSPREY, OR SEA EAGLE (pute x1, 0,

Is worthy of particular mention. This bird is an admirable example of the way in which the
great Creator has fitted every creature for the kind of life it is intended to pursue. The sea
eagle, as its name implies, dwells near the ocean, building its nest upon a crag on the shore,
whence it can skim across the waters, catching the fish as they swim near the surface; for fish
are its chief food, though it occasionally flies inland, robbing the farmyards, and seizing any
bird or small quadruped that comes in its way. As fishes are slippery creatures, apt to wriggle
and writhe themselves out of the grasp of their enemies, the osprey is furnished with long
sharp talons, curving downwards in a half circle; and with these sharp talons it holds its prey
as with hooks, and soars away towards its nest, while the poor captive struggles in vain to
escape. Its legs, too, are devoid of feathers, as, from its manner of seeking its prey, they are
almost always wet. The osprey is a large kind of eagle, measuring from three to four feet
from the beak to the tip of the tail. An instance is recorded of an eagle of this kind in
Westmoreland, that swooped down and seized an unfortunate cat, who was harmlessly sunning
herself in the fields; but Puss showed she had talons as well as the eagle, and with her claws
and teeth she made such a brave fight of it, that the osprey was dragged down to the ground,
and was at last glad to make his escape, wondering, perhaps, what this new kind a hare might
be, that tore and scratched so savagely.

THE VULTURES

Have a general resemblance to the eagle, but their featherless heads and naked legs give them
a disagreeable appearance. Unlike the eagle, the vulture lives on carrion or putrid meat; and
were its head covered with feathers like that of the eagle, it would become still more repulsive
than it is, for the feathers would quickly become clogged and matted together with the disgust-
ing food on which it lives. The vulture is confined to the hot latitudes, and in many Hastern
countries is very useful in clearing away the dead animals whose carcases are left to rot in the
city or on the plain, and would infect the air, if the vultures did not devour them. The largest
species of vulture is the American condor, a bird of great size, but heavy, stupid, and cowardly.

THE ERNE (Piate w., a)

Is distinguished by its iron colour, dark above and yellowish below. It is a small species, but
flies very swiftly, and is said to discern its prey at a great distance.

THE FALCON AND HAWK KIND,

Among the rapacious birds (See Plates xv. and xv1.), though smaller than the eagle, are more
like that royal bird, in form and in character, than is the heavy loathsome vulture. In the days
of old, when all kinds of field sports were the chief delight of kings, princes, and nobles, when
learning and study were considered as unimportant and foolish in comparison with a knowledge
of hunting and hawking, the falcon was highly prized, and to kill a bird of this kind was a more
serious matter than the slaying of a mere peasant. Immense sums were given for falcons;
and though the people grew up in utter ignorance, the falconers were thoroughly educated and
trained.

32



-

IMPORTANCE OF THE FALCON IN THE MIDDLE AGES.

Great attention was paid to the breed of falcons, and the office of falconer was one of
importance and profit. Our ancestors distinguished not only the various species, but the
smaller varieties of the tribe, calling each by its separate name, as the kestrel, the ger-falcon,
the lanner, the merlin, &c. They are distinguished from the meaner kinds of the same family,
the kites and buzzards, by the length of the wing-feathers, which enables them to fly with great
swiftness, while the short-winged buzzards and kites are heavy and slow in comparison. The
falcons are also more courageous and more teachable than the meaner birds of prey.

THE GOSHAWK (pute xv., 6

Ts a handsome bird, though he does not belong to the “‘ generous” or “ noble” tribe of falcons,
__ his wings being too short to entitle him to that rank. But he is a courageous handsome bird,

very fierce and predatory, and a great pest to the farmyard. He may be trained like the nobler
falcons, though he will never equal these in speed and docility. Buffon, the naturalist, once
kept a couple of these hawks together for some months, but they never showed any affection
for each other, and at last the male killed the female in an access of fury.

THE GER-FALCON § (Puie xv, 0)

Ts nearly as large as the osprey, and is said to have been originally brought from Iceland and
the northern parts of Europe. He is a beautiful bird, the greatest of the falcon tribe, and
likewise the most generous and docile. Accordingly, in the days when lords and ladies rode
out to enjoy the sport of falconry, while other and meaner kinds of falcons were trained to
pursue the smaller birds, the ger was started at the lordly heron, whose sharp beak would soon
have proved fatal to an assailant of less courage and address. The stork and the crane, large
and formidable birds, likewise fall victims to the ger-falcon. Strange to say, the female of the
falcon tribe was always preferred, for purposes of the chase, to the male; for, contrary to the
~ general rule, according to which the male bird is superior in size and brilliancy of plumage to the
female, among the falcons the female is always the larger and handsomer bird; and thus the male
was called by the falconers a ééercelet, which signifies that it is a third smaller than the female.

THE BUZZARD (Plate xv1, 6)

Is a dull heavy bird of its kind, common enough in the English forests, where it frequentl
takes possession of an old crow’s nest, which it lines with wool, and then it lays its eggs, and
brings up its young in the ill-earned domicile. Goldsmith, in his “ Natural History,” gives the
following account of the buzzard: ‘“ He is a sluggish, inactive bird, and often remains perched
whole days together upon the same bough. He is rather an assassin than a pursuer; and lives —
more upon frogs, mice, and insects, which he can easily seize, than upon birds which he is
obliged to follow. He lives in summer by robbing the nests of other birds and sucking their
‘eggs, and more resembles the owl kind in his countenance than any other rapacious ‘bird of
day. His figure implies the stupidity of his disposition; and so little is he capable of instruc-
tion from man, that it is common to a proverb to call one who cannot be taught, or continues
obstinately ignorant, a’duzzard. The honey-buzzard, the moor-buzzard, and the hen harrier
are all of this stupid tribe, and differ chiefly in their size, growing less in the order I have named
them. The goshawk and sparrow-hawk are what Mr. Willoughby calls short-winged birds,
and consequently unfit for training, however injurious they may be to the pigeon-house or the ©
sportsman. They have been indeed taught to fly at game; but little is to be obtained from

their efforts, being difficult of instruction and capricious in their obedience.”
a3 F



THE POULTRY KIND.

“ The careful hen

Calls all her chirping family around,

Fed and defended by the fearless cock,

Whose breast with ardour glows, as on he walks,

Graceful, and crows defiance. * * * The turkey nigh,

Loud threatening, reddens ; while the peacock spreads

His many-coloured glory to the sun,

And swims in radiant majesty along. 2

Birds of the poultry kind were intended by nature to live among men in a domestic state,

and they occupy among birds the place filled by the horse and ox tribe among quadrupeds.
Unlike the rapacious birds, they are sociable and cheerful, delighting in each other’s society,
and shunning solitude as much as the eagle or falcon would seek it. Their wings are generally
short and their bodies plump, so that they are neither able nor willing to fly far from their
abodes, or to seek inaccessible solitudes among the rocks. | As they feed on grain and seeds,
their legs and claws are strong; not formed, however, like those of the rapacious birds, foi
seizing and holding prey, but for scratching up the ground in search of food. . The gizzard
with which they are provided enables them to digest the hard seeds they swallow; and the
numerous chicks they produce render them very valuable to the farmer’s wife, whose poultry-
yard forms an important part of the domestic economy of the farm.

THE COCK AND HEN

Are too well known to need any long description. They have been introduced into almost
every country in the world, and, like the horse and ox, appear to thrive almost wherever man
can live. There are many different species, varying in size and plumage, but all present the
same general features.

Just as among the falcons some kinds are more courageous and noble than others, so we
find that some breeds of cocks will fight courageously with adversaries twice their own size;
while others will succumb after a,short resistance. A little game cock, for instance, will boldly
attack a farmyard or, as he is sometimes called, a dunghill cock twice his own size, and put
him to flight by mere rage and fury. The farmyard cock, however, until he has been beaten
by an enemy, rules in a despotic and determined manner among the poultry, and, expects
deference and obedience from every feathered fellow creature he meets.

The cock and hen are said to have come from Persia, but they were known all over the
Old World in very remote times. Ceesar found them in Britain when he landed half a century
before our Saviour’s birth, and even to Iceland they had made their way in early times. |

In White’s “Natural History of Selborne” occur the following interesting remarks
respecting the habits of poultry :—“ Many creatures are endowed with a ready discernment to
see what will turn to their own advantage and emolument, and often discover more sagacity
than could be expected. Thus, my neighbour’s poultry watch for waggons loaded with wheat,
and running after them, pick up a number of grains which are shaken from the sheaves by the
agitation of the carriages. Thus, when my brother used to take down his gun to shoot
sparrows, his cats would run out before him, to be ready to catch up the birds as they fell. The
earnest and early propensity of the galling to roost on high is very observable, and discovers a
strong dread impressed on their spirits respecting vermin that may.annoy them on the ground.
during the hours of darkness. Hence poultry, if left to themselves and not housed, will perch

the winter through on yew trees and fir trees; and turkeys and guinea-fowls, heavy as they are,
34



BEAUTY OF THE PHEASANT—EASILY TAMED—THE TURKEY.

get up into apple trees; pheasants also in woods sleep on trees to avoid foxes; while pea-fowls
climb to the tops of the highest trees round their owner’s house for security, let the weather be
ever so cold or blowing. Partridges, it is true, roost on the ground, not having the faculty of
perching ; but then the same fear prevails in their minds, for, through apprehension from pole-
cats and stoats, they never trust themselves to coverts, but nestle together in the midst of large
fields, far removed from hedges and coppices, which they love to haunt in the day, and where
at that season they can skulk more secure from the ravages of rapacious birds.”

THE PHEASANT

Has long been known in England as the chief among our game birds. In years when no
especial inclemency or wetness of the weather thins their numbers, pheasants abound in the
woods and coppices where the game animals are preserved by the owners; and with the 1st
of October commences the time when they fall victims to the sportsman’s gun. For beauty
and brilliancy of plumage the pheasant is unsurpassed, except by the peacock. The poet Pope

has described
“ His glossy varying dyes,

His purpled crest, and scarlet-circled eyes,
The vivid green his shining plumes unfold,
His painted wings, and breast that flames with gold.”

The pheasant is a harmless sociable bird, and readily adapts itself to various climates.
Asia Minor seems to have been its first home; but it spread from one country to another
throughout the Old World, and thus there are various species in different countries. In England
the pheasant thrives in its wild state, feeding on berries and acorns, and making a nest of dried
leaves in the forest. When taken young, the birds become as tame as chicks, and may be kept
in the poultry-yard, and fed on the food given to the poultry generally.’ At night, as already
observed, they roost on high trees to be out of the way of danger; and, when disturbed, they
usually fall an easy prey to the sportsman, for their flight is heavy, and they rise with a loud
whirring noise that at once directs attention to them. The delicacy of the pheasant’s flesh is
well known. Among the varieties of this class of birds may be mentioned the GoLpEn
PHEASANT (Plate xvu., 6). This is the most beautiful kind. It is a native of China. Its
brilliant plumage is one blaze of gold colour above, and of rich deep red below.—The Sriver
Purasant (Plate xvi, a), the male of which species is of a fine eee with
delicate serpentine lines, and of a violet colour below, while the female is of a reddish-brown
hue, delicately shaded with green, and with black bands.—The Grzamine or LopHopHorous
Puuasant (Plate xv1., ), with a crest of feathers on its head like the peacock. This is a splendid
pheasant, its plumage gleaming with emerald tints intermingled with red and gold. The male
pheasant of this variety is one‘of the most gorgeous of birds; but in this, as in every kind of
the pheasant tribe, the plumage of the female is plain and homely compared with that of her
mate.—Lastly, the Argus Puzasant (Plate xvi, c), so called from the numerous black and
white spots, reminding the spectator of the hundred eyes of Argus, with which the tail feathers
are adorned. This pheasant comes from Sumatra and the islands of the Malay Peninsula.

THE TURKEY (Piote xvu., /)

This well-known bird is supposed to be a native of North America, where it is still to be
found commonly enough, in a wild state, in the dense forests of the Western States. It does
not appear to have been known in Europe until some time after the discovery of America; and:
this fact strengthens the supposition that the turkey was first brought by some of the Spanish
discoverers of the New World to Europe. Considering his heavy build and slow short flight,

35



COWARDLY DISPOSITION OF THE TURKEY—THE PEACOCK.

it is certainly very unlikely that he could ever have found his way across the ocean, except in a
ship. The turkey is valued for his flesh. His delight is to wander with his wives about the
precincts of the farmyard in search of insects and larvee, especially the eggs of ants, of which
he is immoderately fond. ‘This peculiarity is cleverly noticed in Gay’s fable of “ The Turkey.
and the Ants,” where the old hen turkey is represented as having forsaken the barn with her
infant train in quest of a change of diet. She comes unexpectedly upon an ant-hill, and while
devouring as many of the eggs as she can swallow, she bursts out into a rapturous speech,
inciting her brood to eat freely, and assuring them that “an ant is most delightful meat.”
And then she goes on to allude feelingly to the vile gluttony of man, who eats turkeys, “ until,”
she says, “‘ Christmas shortens all our days.”

The quarrelsome and yet cowardly disposition of the turkey cocks is aptly described by
Goldsmith in the following paragraph :—‘ Though so furious among themselves, they are weak
and cowardly against other animals far less powerful than themselves. The cock often makes
the turkey keep at a distance, and they seldom venture to attack him but with united force,
when they rather oppress him by their weight than annoy him by their arms. ‘There is no
animal, how contemptible soever, that will venture boldly to face the turkey cock, that he will
not fly from. On the contrary, with the insolence of a bully, he pursues anything that seems
to fear him, particularly lap-dogs and children, against both which he seems to have a peculiar
aversion. On such occasions, after he has made them scamper, he returns to his female train,
displays his plumage around, struts about the yard, and gobbles out a note of self-approbation.”

THE PEACOCK (Plate xvitt., @)

Ts a native of India. This most brilliant of birds was known in very ancient times; for in
the Bible it is mentioned as being imported into Judea by the fleet of King Solomon. The
peacock shows the adaptability to various climates characteristic of the species to which it
belongs, and consequently we find it domiciled in every country, as far north as Sweden and
Norway.

Among the Romans it was considered the height of splendour to crown a banquet with a
peacock, and among our English ancestors the peacock formed the gorgeous centre-dish at
many a great feast. The bird seemed, however, to be introduced more for ornament than use,
for its flesh was not very highly esteemed; and thus it was regarded rather as a distinguishing
decoration of the board than a dish whose flavour might delight the guests; therefore the
peacock appeared at the table with his magnificent train spread out for the admiration of the
beholders, and not, like the humbler poultry, to be plucked aug deprived of his feathers, and
to be judged merely by the merits of his flesh.

The food of the peacock, like that of the turkey, consists chiefly of barley and other
_ kinds of grain; but, when kept as an ornament in the park or pleasure-ground of a rich man,
it will frequently reduce the gardener to despair by effecting an entry into the garden, where it
commits great havoc among the choicest flower-beds in its search after insects. ‘The cry of the
peacock is extremely harsh and disagreeable: it seems as though nature had granted extra
beauty of plumage to the bird as a compensation for its utter want of melody.

The following remarks from White’s “ Natural History of Selborne,” upon the voices of
various birds of the poultry kind, may interest our young readers. The reverend author says :

_ “No inhabitants of a yard seem possessed of such a variety of expression, and so copious
a language, as common poultry. Take a chicken of four or five days old, and hold it up to a
window where there are flies, and it will immediately seize its prey with little twitterings of
complancency; but if you tender it a wasp or a bee, at once its note becomes harsh, and
expressive of disapprobation and a sense of danger. When a pullet is ready to lay, she inti-

mates the event by a joyous and easy soft note. Of all the occurrences of their life, that of
36
























































































































































































































































































EXPRESSIVE VOICES OF BIRDS—FEATHERED SONGSTERS—NESTS.

laying seems to be the most important; for, no sooner has a hen disburdened herself, than she
rushes forth with a clamorous kind of joy, which the cock and the rest of his mistresses imme-
diately adopt. The tumult is not confined to the family concerned, but catches from yard to
yard, and spreads to every homestead within hearing, till at last the whole village is in an
uproar. As soon as a hen becomes a mother, her new relation demands a new language: she
then runs clucking and screaming about, and seems agitated as if possessed. The father of
the flock has also a considerable vocabulary : if he finds food, he calls a favourite concubine
to partake ; and if a bird of prey passes over, with a warning voice he bids his family beware.
The gallant chanticleer has at command his amorous phrases and his terms of defiance; but
the sound by which he is best known is his crowing: by this he has been distinguished in all
ages as the countryman’s clock or larum—as the watchman that proclaims the divisions of
the night. Thus the poet elegantly styles him

‘The crested cock, whose clarion sounds
The silent hours.’ ” :

ON SOME SINGING BIRDS.

“Tn summer days, when sheaves be green

And leaves both large and long,

It is merry walking in the fair forest,
To hear the small birds’ song.

The mavis sang, and would not cease
Sitting upon the spray,

So loud he wakened Robin Hood
In the greenwood where he lay.”

No part of the animal creation is more interesting, and more worthy of study, than that
choir of warblers who make our woods and hedgerows alive with songs all the year through.
Even in the, winter the robin and the linnet will pour forth their melody, but spring is the time
to hear these feathered songsters of the woods; when the blackbird and the thrush mingle
their mellow notes with the shriller tones the lark outpours, as he soars upwards from earth
towards heaven, or hovers above his nest before he drops down into its welcome shelter ; when
the cry of the cuckoo is heard among the leafy covert, and the coo of the wocd-pigeon sounds
softly from the distance. Then is the time to walk in the woods, and recognize amid the joyous
outpouring of song the loving-kindness and bounty of the great Creator, without whose know-
ledge not one of those birds can fall. Of all the beauteous gifts scattered through Creation
by a kind Providence, there is none more cheering than that of these little minstrels, ever sing-
ing their song of praise. The birds of other climes are brighter in plumage than the feathered
denizens of our own land; but nowhere can the traveller hear a more glorious flood of song
than the outburst that will delight his ear during a walk through an gamete forest, in the
sweet spring-time.

The nests of birds are among the most wonderful of the many evidences we find every-
-where of the skill and patience with which the Almighty Creator has endowed some of the
smallest of His creatures. Each bird has its peculiar mode of building, and employs a special
set of materials where it can procure them. Some use mosses, others gossamer and thistle-
down, others again prefer wool, for the lining of their little dwellings. But where these
materials are not to be had, the little architect readily makes shift with others; and when he
cannot build himself a first-rate house, he manages as best he may to construct the most com-
fortable and compact one he can obtain under the circumstances. Thus the naturalist of
Selborne observes with truth :

“Tt has been remarked that every species of bird has a mode of building its nest peculiar

37



THE GOLDFINCH A FAVOURITE IN ENGLAND—THE BULLFINCH.

to itself, so that a schoolboy would at once pronounce on the sort of nest before him. This
is the case among fields, and woods, and wilds; but in villages round London, where mosses
and gossamer, and cotton from vegetables, are hardly to be found, the nest of the chaffinch
has not that elegant, finished appearance, nor is it so beautifully studded with lichens, as in a
more rural district; and the wren is obliged to construct its house with straws and dry grasses,
which do not give it that rotundity and compactness so remarkable in the edifices of that
little architect. Again, the regular nest of the house martin is hemispheric; but where a rafter,
or a joist, or a cornice may happen to stand in the way, the nest is so contrived as to conform
to the obstruction, and becomes flat or compressed.”
Among English singing birds

THE GOLDFINCH (see Plate xx., a)

Has always been a great favourite. Bechstein, the German naturalist, truly says, “ This is the
most delightful of all chamber birds, remarkable alike for the beauty of its plumage and the
excellence of its song, its proved docility and cleverness.” The pretty touch of yellow on its
wings, and the bright scarlet on its head, its graceful form and rapid movements, all contribute
to its beauty; while its cheerful, sociable nature, the readiness with which it knows the hand
that feeds it, and the comparative ease with which it can be reared, all combine to make it
popular. The goldfinch is found in most countries of Europe. In Central Germany it breeds _
in great numbers. Goldfinches fly in little flocks of twenty to thirty in the spring and autumn,
and at those periods of the year great numbers of them are captured in nets by the bird-
catchers, especially in Sussex and Kent, on the Downs. Their nests are perfect models of bird
architecture. They generally build in high situations, in the forks of the smaller branches of
tall trees. The nest is very firmly fixed in its place, that it may resist the winds which shake
the slender branches to and fro. Grahame, the Scottish naturalist and poet, speaking of the
position of the nest, says :
“Sometimes, suspended at the limber end

Of plane tree spray, among the broad-leaved shoots,

The tiny hammock swings to every gale;

Sometimes in closest thickets ’tis conceal’d ;

Sometimes in hedge luxuriant, where the brier,

The bramble, and the crooked plum tree branch

Warp through the thorn, surmounted by the flowers

Of climbing vetch and honeysuckle wild,

All undefaced by Art’s deforming hand.

But mark the pretty bird himself! how light

And quick his every motion, every note!

How beautiful his plumes! his red-tinged head ;

His breast of brown: and see him stretch his wing—

A fairy fan of golden spokes it seems.

Ofé on the thistle’s tuft he nibbling sits,

Light as the down; then ‘mid a flight of downs

He wings his way, piping his shrillest call.”

To lure the little songsters into their toils, the bird-catchers use bunches of thistles, in
autumn ; for the goldfinch, at that season, feeds principally on thistle seeds. In spring a tame
goldfinch in a cage serves as a decoy to lure his wild brethren into captivity.

Among the other finches, a very numerous and melodious family, a few must be mentioned.
First—

THE BULLFINCH,

A. burly fat little fellow, with a round black head, a short beak, and a delicate red nreeeh: He

is very fond of picking the buds off the fruit-trees, so that the gardener accounts him an enemy.

38 |

\



IMITATIVE FACULTY OF FINCHES—THEIR VALUE—THE LINNET.

He is a sociable little fellow among other birds, and has a good ear for music. Accordingly,
bird fanciers sometimes teach him to whistle a tune; and of course this musical accomplish-

ment greatly increases his value. His term of life extends from six to eight years.
Then there is

THE CHAFFINCH,

_ A merry little fellow, whose piping cry, “Spink! spink!” often breaks the silence of the autumn

fields and hedgerows. This bird, like the bullfinch, can be taught to pipe a melody, and the ©
| patient German trainers take great pains to develop this talent. Such great value, indeed, is
attached to this artificial song, that Bechstein mentions an instance in which a cow had been
given in exchange for an accomplished chaffinch; hence the German proverb, “ A chaffinch
is worth a cow.” Bechstein also says, “It is remarkable that the song of these birds varies
according to the district they inhabit, so that different songs are sung in the forest from what
are sung in the Hartz; and by this the task of amateurs is regulated.” Those birds which can
execute the “double trill” are most highly valued. In England we have not yet become so
critical, and a chaffinch is cheap enough to be within the means of purchase of most schoolboys.

THE CITRIL FINCH (Puie xx, 0)

Is most like the canary in form and plumage. It is found chiefty i in the south of Europe, and
many-are' said tobe sold for green or grey canaries, the difference being so small that un-
practised punehasens ay, readily mistake a poow citril for a real canary.

THE SISKIN, OR ABERDEVINE (Puie xx, d),

Is another of those birds whose song can be much improved by education. In an aviary it
will frequently imitate the notes of the canary and of other exquisite songsters. Indeed,
nearly all the finches are in one respect like children, namely, in being much influenced, so far
as their manners and accomplishments are concerned, by the company among whom they are
thrown by circumstances. They will adopt a good clear note as readily as they will catch up
* a bad and defective one. In Germany the aberdevine breeds freely, building its nest on a
lofty pine tree, and attaching the tiny structure firmly by means of moss and insect cocoons to
the extremity of a waving bough. [t lays five or six grey eggs, sprinkled with purple dots.
Tts colour is generally a mixture of greenish yellow and black. The aberdevine is a migratory

bird, and only stays in England from April to September. It feeds chiefly on seeds of yee
- and wild flowers, preferring those of the fir and beech, the thistle and dandelion.

The most general favourite among the English birds of this class, after the goldfinch, is,
however,

THE LINNET (Plate x1x., ¢.)

This well-known little songster is found all over England and Scotland, and stays with us
all the year. It has but a plain brown coat, though some of the males are prettily tinged with
red on the head; but its voice is so sweet and mellow, that it is rightly preferred to many

a gorgeously-aitired but harsh-voiced competitor. : When’ the male linnet has become thus
oe which ‘occurs in the third year of its little life, it is “Imown as a redpole. Linnets are.
often found in flocks, in the autumn, about rick-yards, which they visit in quest ‘of the seeds
on which they live. }, The female does not exhibit the red tinge displayed by the male.

- But the king of all the finch tribe is see ay





INTRODUCTION OF CANARIES INTO ENGLAND—PERFORMING CANARIES.

THE CANARY (Plate xrx., 3),

So called from its supposed original abode, the Canary Islands. The first canaries seen in
Europe are said to have been brought wild from the island of Elba; and the manner of their
introduction into that island is related in the following account:

“A ship, bound for Leghorn, having on board a number of these beautiful finches, then
first made an article of merchandize, was wrecked near the island of Elba, on which island the
released birds found the climate so congenial to their nature that they settled and bred there,
and would probably have become completely naturalized, had not their beauty and powers of
song attracted the attention of bird-catchers, who hunted them so assiduously, that, after a
while, not a single specimen was left on the island. It was natural that the birds thus caught
should be sent first into Italy; and from that country, accordingly, we have the earliest accounts
of tame canaries. ‘There and in Germany they are still bred in greater numbers than in any
other part of the European continent. It is from the Rhineland, and about Thuringia espe-
cially, that we now derive our principal supply of imported birds; but some of the choicest
canaries are those bred in this country.” :

In its wild state the canary is of a greyish brown colour, tinged with green. The bright
yellow birds, that are esteemed the most-valuable, are only bred in captivity, and are not nearly
so strong as the green varieties. The canary has always held his place as prime favourite as a
cage bird. His song is exquisite in its melody and variety; but the little fellow is so well
known among us that a lengthened description of him would be quite unnecessary. The
docility of this pretty bird has been frequently seen. He seems, equally with the monkey,
capable of exhibiting feats of skill and dexterity; and several exhibitions of the kind have
been shown, in which the pretty little canary was the chief actor. The most remarkable of
these exhibitions was that of a Belgian lady, Mdlle. Vandermeersch, shown in London some
years ago, which astonished every spectator. The little conjurors seemed to perform their parts
with a display of quite human reason. The following account appeared in a London news-
paper at the time: |

“The birds are in a cage with several compartments. In front of the cage is arranged a
platform filled with cards, each exactly similar to the other:on the side presented to the birds,
but bearing various inscriptions on their prefaces, such as the letters of the alphabet, the
numerals singly and in combination, the days of the week, month, or year, the months, the
seasons, &e. On the bidding of any one of the company the birds tell the day of the week,
month, or year; the seasons; the time by any one’s watch; or they will spell any word indi-
cated, provided it does not contain any one letter twice over. All these things are done with
the most perfect precision, and there is no apparent collusion. Mdlle. Vandermeersch does
not touch the birds or the cards, and the little animals hop out of their cages and pick out the
cards with their beaks, seemingly with a very serious effort at recollection and calculation.”

We have here described the finches somewhat at length, because they are the birds, among
our English songsters, with whick our young friends who live in cities have most to do; but it
would take a much larger book than this to speak of the many varieties of birds we have here
in England; from the blackbird, or, as our great poet Shakspeare calls him, the ousel-cock,
_ to the wren. co

“ The ousel-cock so black of hue, with orange-tawney bill,
The throstle with his note so true, the wren with little quill.”

There are the varieties of
40











ES

a









Wi

(Le

cle le





SS
SSS
SSS
Ss
SSS
SSS
SO
SSS








THE BUNTING—INTREPIDITY OF THE BUTCHER BIRD.

THE LARK,

The Sxynanx, TrrnarK, and Wooptark, the first being especially renowned for the strength
and beauty of his song; the large handsome family of

THRUSHES OR THROSTLES,

with their rich melodious voices, which they lift up when the snow of winter lies thick upon the
ground in the bleak month of January; singing as if to announce to us that spring is coming,
in spite of the cold wind and dark weather; so that Burns, the Scottish poet, says:
5 “ Sing on, sweet thrush, upon the leafless bough;
Sing on, sweet bird ; I listen to thy strain.

See, aged Winter, ’mid his surly reign,
At thy blithe carol clears his furrowed brow.”

_ Nor must we omit all mention of the king of the English song birds, the clear-voiced.

NIGHTINGALE,

A small plain brown creature, that has the gift of charming every hearer as it sits warbling in
the leafy covert, but whose song is confined to a short season of the year, that the treat may
be the more valued for its rarity. Then there is the merry

BUNTING (Plate xx., f),

With his stout body and bullet head, reminding one somewhat of a jolly well-to-do farmer.
But enough has certainly been said to convince every young reader that there are, in every
hedgerow and in every forest of England, creatures as wonderful in beauty and as worthy of
notice as any that inhabit the far-off islands of the tropical seas.

THE BUTCHER BIRD (Put xx)

Strictly speaking, this sprightly little fellow should be classed among the rapacious birds,
for he is a very pugnacious, fierce little fellow, boldly fighting against birds more than double
his size, and making them flee before him by the fierceness of his attacks and the energy of his
pursuit. His name “ Butcher Bird,” would lead us to imagine him a very big, formidable-
looking individual, who flies about, putting his fellow birds to death asa butcher slaughters
oxen and sheep; but his butchering propensities are mostly exercised upon insects and little ~
"birds, of which he destroys a large number. His courage, however, is undoubted; and though
the largest species is not bigger than a lark, while the smallest does not exceed a sparrow in size,
all the three kinds of butcher birds are alike remarkable for courage and fierceness. Goldsmith
in his “ Natural History” says :

“Tt is wonderful to see with what intrepidity this little creature goes to war with the pye,
the crow, and the kestril, all above four times bigger than itself, and that sometimes prey upon
flesh in the same manner. It not only fights upon the defensive, but often comes to the attack, —
and always with advantage, particularly when the male and female unite to protect their young
and to drive away the more powerful birds of rapine. At that season they do not wait the
approach of their invader; it is sufficient that they see him preparing for the assault at a dis-
tance. It is then that they sally forth with loud cries, wound him on every side, and drive him
off with such fury that he seldom ventures to return to the charge. In these kinds of disputes
they generally come off with the victory; though it sometimes happens that they fall to the
ground with the bird they have so fiercely fixed upon, and the combat ends with the destruc-

Al ; G



PARROTS—THEIR BRILLIANT PLUMAGE—DISPOSITION.

tion of the assailant as well as the defender. Tor this reason, the most redoubtable birds of
prey respect them; while the kite, the buzzard, and the crow seem rather to fear than seek
the engagement.”

The French call the butcher bird ecorcheur, or strangler; while one species is called
by the Germans Newntédter, or nine-killer, in allusion to the number of creatures that fall.
victims to the fierce little robber. In fact, the butcher bird is a sort of feathered “ Jack the
Giant Killer,” and is feared accordingly.

There are three species of this terrible little fellow. The Great AsH-cotourEn Burcusr
Birp (Plate xx1., a) is seldom seen in England, but is numerous enough in France. Like
most birds of its kind, it hides in the woods during the summer months, when food is plentiful ;
but in the winter it sallies forth into the plains, and hunger increases its natural fierceness. All
butcher birds are remarkable for their attachment to their young. The female feeds the little
ones first with insects, afterwards with morsels of flesh; and the male bird flies to and fro most
indefatigably to provide meat for the hungry little’ brood. Through all Central and Southern
Europe the butcher bird is found. The Rep-packep Burcuer Birp (Plate xxz., b) differs from
the former in its more diminutive size, and in having a beautiful reddish tint piercing through
the general grey tone of its plumage. ‘This is a bird of passage, not unfrequently found in
England during the summer, but flying away, when the autumn mists arise, to the warmer
regions of Africa. This species is the “‘nine-killer” of the Germans. The Smazz Burcuer
Brrp (Plate xx1., c) has a yellowish tone. It is hardly bigger than a titmouse, and is decidedly
the smallest of the birds of prey, though as fierce as the larger varieties. There are several
foreign kinds, distinguished from each other by a slight difference in colour.

And now we must conclude our sketch of the feathered portion of the creation with a
description of a kind of bird often kept in captivity, and one which seems to adapt itself
so well to the society of man, that it even imitates his speech: we have a few words to say
respecting

THE PARROT TRIBE
(Plate xxtt.)

These birds are found in wonderful variety in all the tropical parts of the Old and New
World; and as they cannot fly far, and are utterly unable to cross the seas, each region has its
own peculiar species. There are almost a hundred varieties ; but the three general classes are the
Cocxatoos, known by the crest on their heads; the Macaws, known by their large size, bright
colours, and their fleshy, featherless cheeks; and the Parrots, smaller in size than the macaws
and cockatoos, and with feathers covering the whole of the head to the base of the beak.

The ancient Greeks were acquainted with one or two species of the parrot tribe; and
among the Romans, under the luxurious emperors, these birds became such favourites that
enormous prices were given for them, and they were provided with regular tutors, whose office
it was to develop their speaking powers to the utmost, and who were frequently obliged to wield
that tree of knowledge, the birch, to make their feathered scholars attend to the instruction
given. When Columbus discovered the New World, his companions were greatly astonished
and delighted at the gorgeous aspect of the parrots, then seen for the first time; and in the |
triumphal procession in which the spoils of the West India Islands were carried to the foot
of the throne of Ferdinand of Arragon and Isabella of Castile, the parrot bore a distinguished
part and attracted general admiration. In disposition, birds of the parrot tribe are generally
much more spiteful than courageous. They will fight if compelled to defend themselves, but
evidently consider that the better part of valour is discretion, and seem to act upon the old saw,
that ‘‘ He who fights and runs away will live to fight another day.” Therefore, when attacked,
they look for an opportunity of escape, and only confront their foes when retreat is cut off.

42



A WONDERFUL PARROT—CONCLUSION.

The parrot is especially adapted for climbing. Of his four toes two are pointed back-
wards, and thus he is enabled to grasp the bough on which he sits and to clamber from one
branch to another, sometimes swinging head downwards from his perch: his strong bill also
assists him in this exercise. THe is sociable in disposition, living in his wild state in com-—
panionship with many of his own kind. Both the upper and lower part of the beak are
moveable, and thus the parrot is enabled to seize and hold a much larger object than his beak
could otherwise grasp. The following account of the sagacity of a Brazilian parrot is taken
from the voyage of a naturalist in South America :

“ A certain Brazilian woman, that lived in a village two miles distant from the island on
which we resided, had a parrot of this kind, which was the wonder of the place. It seemed
endued with such understanding as to discern and comprehend whatever she said to it. As we
sometimes used to pass by that woman’s house, she used to call upon us to stop, promising, if
we gave her a comb or a looking-glass, that she would make her parrot sing and dance to

entertain us. If we agreed to her request, as soon as she had pronounced some words to the

bird, it began not only to leap and skip on the perch on which it stood; but also to talk and to
whistle, and imitate the shoutings and exclamations of the Brazilians when they prepare for
battle. In brief, when it came into the woman’s head to bid it sing, it sang; to dance, it
danced. But if, contrary to our promise, we refused to give the woman the little present
agreed on, the parrot seemed to sympathize in her resentment, and was silent and immoveable ;
neither could we, by any means, provoke it to move either foot or tongue.”

On Plate xxii. a specimen is given of each of the three chief classes of the parrot tribe.
Letter d@ represents the great Rep any Brive Macaw, the most gorgeous of all the family.
His plumage glitters with mingled carmine, gold, and azure. He is a native of the West
Indies and the adjoining coasts of the mainland, especially Guiana and Brazil. The natives
of those regions eat the flesh of the macaw with great relish. The macaw builds its nest in
the hollow of a lofty tree, and lays one or two eggs twice in the year. It is easily tamed, and -
is often seen in captivity in England. The Smatu Gruen Parror is designated by letter e,
while f marks the Grear Buacx Cockatoo, which has sometimes, from its noble colour, been
termed the Inpran Crow.

CONCLUSION.—THE ARCTIC REGIONS.

Lastly, that our young friends may quit this book with an idea of the infinite variety
of creation, we turn from the birds of gorgeous plimes inhabiting the torrid zone, to a very
different class of creatures, denizens of the frozen polar regions, where snow and ice cover the
iron ground during the greater part of the year, where the sun for half a year at a time does

- not appear above the horizon ;

“Where, for relentless months, continual night
Holds o’er the glittering waste her starry reign.
Here Winter holds his unrejoicing court ;

And through his airy hall the loud misrule

Of driving tempests is for ever heard :

Here the grim tyrant meditates his wrath,

Here arms his winds with all-subduing frost ;
Moulds his fierce hail, and treasures up his snows,
With which he now oppresses half the globe.”

But, even here, a kind Providence has cared for man; and the dwellers in these frozen

zones have their meat. given to them in due season, just as the denizen of the burning climes
o , |



CONCLUSION.

beneath the equator finds in his own land the food he needs. For these arctic seas: swarm
with creatures peculiar to them. Animals of the seal kind, in a great variety of forms, ere
eagerly chased by the fisherman; and their flesh, their oil, and their sinews provide him with
the necessaries of life.

WALRUSES AND SEALS

Are, therefore, to the Esquimaux as important as the horse, ox, and sheep are to the inhabitants
of the temperate regions of the earth, or the patient camel to the Arab of the desert; and,
therefore, a book which treats of the animals most useful to man, may fitly conclude with a few
words upon the tribe of seals, or Phoce.

The Phoca tribe is found in all the great seas, but the larger kinds are confined to the
cold regions near the poles. In the tropics we can meet only with little sea dogs; we must go
to the regions of perpetual ice and snow if we wish to see the huge sea elephant and sea lion. -
The form of these creatures and the shape and position of their paws show that they are
intended by nature for a life in the waters. Their movements on land are very clumsy and
ungainly. They seem rather to jerk themselves along than to run or walk, but they can swim
with great ease and swiftness. To the Greenland Esquimaux the seal is a great treasure. He
eats the flesh and the fat; he makes his tent, his boat, and clothes of the skin. The sinews
furnish him with thread for sewing, a string for his bow, and twine for his fishing-nets; and
with the larger bones he strengthens his frail boat, while the smaller ones do duty as nails and
needles. Consequently, the hunting of the Phoca is the one art in which the Esquimaux excels. .
He pursues his prey with untiring patience and industry, watching in his boat for hours till a
seal appears, and then piercing it with a spear or harpoon. ‘To chase the creature over blocks
of ice or on the frozen shore is a harder task, for, clumsily as the seal shuffles along, it gets —
quickly over the ground; so here the Esquimaux employs stratagem, and sometimes dresses him-
self in seal-skin, so that the Phoce may take him for one of their own kind, and allow him to
approach and throw his unerring harpoon. The hardy sailors who chase the Greenland whale ~
also have frequent combats with the larger kinds of seal.

In Plates xxi11., xxtv., the following specimens of the seal tribe are shown: a is the
Common Sra; 6, the Great Suat, differing from the former chiefly in size; ¢, the Sza Lion;
d, the Arctic Waxrus, or Morsz; and e, the ExepHant Suat.

J. Ogden and Co., Printers, 172, St. John Street, H.C



ee
Sas

nodes





pore anccheeneeneroe













































ae ee













































































} a4 h an







Full Text

PAGE 1

.*~~ ~ ~ 7 I '"~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ I.1 .. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.i J( I" The Bdldwu Lb ar)


COWARDLY DISPOSITION OF THE TURKEY-THE PEACOCK.


it is certainly very unlikely that he could ever have found his way across the ocean, except in a
ship. The turkey is valued for his flesh. His delight is to wander with his wives about the
precincts of the farmyard in search of insects and larv-e, especially the eggs of ants, of which
he is immoderately fond. This peculiarity is cleverly noticed in Gay's fable of The Turkey
and the Ants," where the old hen turkey is represented as having forsaken the barn with her
infant train in quest of a change of diet. She comes unexpectedly upon an ant-hill, and while
devouring as many of the eggs as she can swallow, she bursts out into a rapturous speech,
inciting her brood to eat freely, and assuring them that "an ant is most delightful meat."
And then she goes on to allude feelingly to the vile gluttony of man, who eats turkeys, until,"
she says, Christmas shortens all our days."
The quarrelsome and yet cowardly disposition of the turkey cocks is aptly described by
Goldsmith in the following paragraph:-" Though so furious among themselves, they are weak
and cowardly against other animals far less powerful than themselves. The cock often makes
the turkey keep at a distance, and they seldom venture to attack him but with united force,
when they rather oppress him by their weight than annoy him by their arms. There is no
animal, how contemptible soever, that will venture boldly to face the turkey cock, that he will
not fly from. On the contrary, with the insolence of a bully, he pursues anything that seems
to fear him, particularly lap-dogs and children, against both which he seems to have a peculiar
aversion. On such occasions, after he has made them scamper, he returns to his female train,
displays his plumage around, struts about the yard, and gobbles out a note of self-approbation."

THE PEACOCK (Plate xviii., a)

Is a native of India. This most brilliant of birds was known in very ancient times; for in
the Bible it is mentioned as being imported into Judea by the fleet of King Solomon. The
peacock shows the adaptability to various climates characteristic of the species to which it
belongs, and consequently we find it domiciled in every country, as far north as Sweden and
Norway.
.Among the Romans it was considered the height of splendour to crown a banquet with a
peacock, and among our English ancestors the peacock formed the gorgeous centre-dish at
many a great feast. The bird seemed, however, to be introduced more for ornament than use,
for its flesh was not very highly esteemed; and thus it was regarded rather as a distinguishing
decoration of the board than a dish whose flavour might delight the guests; therefore the
peacock appeared at the table with his magnificent train spread out for the admiration of the
beholders, and not, like the humbler poultry, to be plucked and deprived of his feathers, and
to be judged merely by the merits of his flesh.
The food of the peacock, like that of the turkey, consists chiefly of barley and other
kinds of grain; but, when kept as an ornament in the park or pleasure-ground of a rich man,
it will frequently reduce the gardener to despair by effecting an entry into the garden, where it
commits great havoc among the choicest flower-beds in its search after insects. The cry of the
peacock is extremely harsh and disagreeable: it seems as though nature had granted extra
beauty of plumage to the bird as a compensation for its utter want of melody.
The following remarks from White's "Natural History of Selborne," upon the voices of
various birds of the poultry kind, may interest our young readers. The reverend author says:
"No inhabitants of a yard seem possessed of such a variety of expression, and so copious
a language, as common poultry. Take a chicken of four or five days old, and hold it up to a
window where there are flies, and it will immediately seize its prey with little twitterings of
complancency; but if you tender it a wasp or a bee, at once its note becomes harsh, and
expressive of disapprobation and a sense of danger. When a pullet is ready to lay, she inti-
mates the event by a joyous and easy soft note. Of all the occurrences of their life, that of
36





PAGE 1

? ........ k-A A~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ a~~~~~~~~~~~m .~-£ ~, -"~,~-'~ .r~~~~~' ..... ..-, ~~~~s~~~~~~~1~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .~ -~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~, ~-.. ~ .-.. ?',,' j~; -'':~ ,;' ;r,~~~~~~~~~~~~~... ~-'-.~_-~ __ ~;~~ ? ~' ~. . ~'~ -~?I ..-, " .d '-3 ;~~ -' ._.~c .. ~ .?'~.:;, ~..isr;~~~~~.. :.-:'-:-: ;~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~. ..... '-:"..--' .-. ;".~. '-'~lpae~Iee?~pb :"'.?.'~BZ~re1 .?:~:,.,.~ ,rI ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-. -.~-.-~ ,..4




-d









































IV





PAGE 1

BEAUTY OF THE PHEASANT-EASILY TAMED-THE TURKEY. get up into apple trees; pheasants also in woods sleep on trees to avoid foxes; while pea-fowls climb to the tops of the highest trees round their owner's house for security, let the weather be ever so cold or blowing. Partridges, it is true, roost on the ground, not having the faculty of perching; but then the same fear prevails in their minds, for, through apprehension from polecats and stoats, they never trust themselves to coverts, but nestle together in the midst of large fields, far removed from hedges and coppices, which they love to haunt in the day, and where at that season they can skulk more secure from the ravages of rapacious birds." THE PHEASANT Has long been known in England as the chief among our game birds. In years when no especial inclemency or wetness of the weather thins their numbers, pheasants abound in the woods and coppices where the game animals are preserved by the owners; and with the 1st of October commences the time when they fall victims to the sportsman's gun. For beauty and brilliancy of plumage the pheasant is unsurpassed, except by the peacock. The poet Pope has described "His glossy varying dyes, His purpled crest, and scarlet-circled eyes, The vivid green his shining plumes unfold, His painted wings, and breast that flames with gold." The pheasant is a harmless sociable bird, and readily adapts itself to various climates. Asia Minor seems to have been its first home; but it spread from one country to another throughout the Old World, and thus there are various species in different countries. In England the pheasant thrives in its wild state, feeding on berries and acorns, and making a nest of dried leaves in the forest. When taken young, the birds become as tame as chicks, and may be kept in the poultry-yard, and fed on the food given to the poultry generally.' At night, as already observed, they roost on high trees to be out of the way of danger; and, when disturbed, they usually fall an easy prey to the sportsman, for their flight is heavy, and they rise with a loud whirring noise that at once directs attention to them. The delicacy of the pheasant's flesh is well known. Among the varieties of this class of birds may be mentioned the GOLDEN PHEASANT (Plate xvI., b).' This is the most beautiful kind. It is a native of China. Its brilliant plumage is one blaze of gold colour above, and of rich deep red below.-The SILVER PHEASANT (Plate xvn., a), the male of which species is of a fine silvery-grey--aboe, with delicate serpentine lines, and of a violet colour below, while the female is of a reddish-brown hue, delicately shaded with green, and with black bands.-The GLEAMING or LOPHOPHaROUS PHEASANT (Plate xvi., e), with a crest of feathers on its head like the peacock. This is a splendid pheasant, its plumage gleaming with emerald tints intermingled with red and gold. The male pheasant of this variety is one of the most gorgeous of birds; but in this, as in every kind of the pheasant tribe, the plumage of the female is plain and homely compared with that of her mate.-Lastly, the AERUS PHEASANT (Plate xvin., c), so called from the numerous black and white spots, reminding the spectator of the hundred eyes of Argus, with which the tail feathers are adorned. This pheasant comes from Sumatra and the islands of the Malay Peninsula. THE TURKEY (Plate xvi.,f.) This well-known bird is supposed to be a native of North America, where it is still to be found commonly enough, in a wild state, in the dense forests of the Western States. It does not appear to have been known in Europe until some time after the discovery of America; and this fact strengthens the supposition that the turkey was first brought by some of the Spanish discoverers of the New World to Europe. Considering his heavy build and slow short flight, 35














PREFACE.




In this book, as in the companion volume of "Wild Animals," the object of

the Publishers has been to provide for their young friends well-drawn and accurate

Pictures of the Animal Creation, and at the same time to furnish an Elementary

Treatise on Natural History for those whose interest in books of the kind is not

confined to the pictures only. The limits of the volume prevented the projectors from

aiming at anything like completeness; nevertheless, in the selection, care has been

taken to represent those families of animals with whose nature and habits children

should be made acquainted before entering upon the study of Natural History in its

more regular and systematic 'form.


The Pictures are by the same Artists who produced the Illustrations to "Wild

Animals," and have been executed with equal taste and care.




THE BUNTING-INTREPIDITY OF THE BUTCHER BIRD.


THE LARK,
The SKYLARK, TITLAEK, and WOODLARK, the first being especially renowned for the strength
and beauty of his song; the large handsome family of

THRUSHES OR THROSTLES,
with their rich melodious voices, which they lift up when the snow of winter lies thick upon the
ground in the bleak month of January; singing as if to announce to us that spring is coming,
in spite of the cold wind and dark weather; so that Burns, the Scottish poet, says:
"Sing on, sweet thrush, upon the leafless bough;
Sing on, sweet bird; I listen to thy strain.
See, aged Winter, 'mid his surly reign,
At thy blitbh carol clears his furrowed brow."
Nor must we omit all mention of the king of the English song birds, the clear-voiced

NIGHTINGALE,
A small plain brown creature, that has the gift of charming every hearer as it sits warbling in
the leafy covert, but whose song is confined to a short season of the year, that the treat may
be the more valued for its rarity. Then there is the merry

BUNTING (Plate xIx.,f),
With his stout body and bullet head, reminding one somewhat of a jolly well-to-do farmer.
But enough has certainly been said to convince every young reader that there are, in every
hedgerow and in every forest of England, creatures as wonderful in beauty and as worthy of
notice as any that inhabit the far-off islands of the tropical seas.

THE BUTCHER BIRD (Plate xxi.)
Strictly speaking, this sprightly little fellow should be classed among the rapacious birds,
for he is a very pugnacious, fierce little fellow, boldly fighting against birds more than double
his size, and making them flee before him by the fierceness of his attacks and the energy of his
pursuit. His name "Butcher Bird," would lead us to imagine him a very big, formidable-
looking individual, who flies about, putting his fellow birds to death as a butcher slaughters
oxen and sheep; but his butchering propensities are mostly exercised upon insects and little
birds, of which he destroys a large number. His courage, however, is undoubted; and though
the largest species is not bigger than a lark, while the smallest does not exceed a sparrow in size,
all the three kinds of butcher birds are alike remarkable for courage and fierceness. Goldsmith
in his "Natural History" says:
It is wonderful to see with what intrepidity this little creature goes to war with the pye,
the crow, and the kestril, all above four times bigger than itself, and that sometimes prey upon
flesh in the same manner. It not only fights upon the defensive, but often comes to the attack,
and always with advantage, particularly when the male and female unite to protect their young
and to drive away the more powerful birds of rapine. At that season they do not wait the
approach of their invader; it is sufficient that they see him preparing for the assault at a dis-
tance. It is then that they sally forth with loud cries, wound him on every side, and drive him
off with such fury that he seldom ventures to return to the charge. In these kinds of disputes
they generally come off with the victory; though it sometimes happens that they fall to the
ground with the bird they have so fiercely fixed upon, and the combat ends with the destruc-





PAGE 1

S



PAGE 1

ON SOME RAPACIOUS BIRDS. "True to the season, o'er our sea-beat, shore, The sailing osprey high is seen to soar With broad unmoving wing; and circling slow Marks each loose straggler in the deep below; Sweeps down like lightning! plunges with a roar! And bears his struggling victim to the shore." In this book we proposed to speak especially of Domestic Animals, or of those which man has tamed for his use, and taught to live in a sociable manner around his dwelling-place. In speaking of birds we shall follow the same rule; but here it is necessary to make a slight alteration in our plan. In many of the great classes into which birds are divided, some individuals have been tamed; others have lived in a half domesticated state around the dwellings of man; while others of the same tribe have always maintained their independence. Thus, while the lordly eagle soars in wild freedom above his mountain crag, the falcon, who belongs to the same family, namely, that of the rapacious birds, has been for ages tamed and used in the chase; thus again, while the turkey struts about in our poultry-yards, the largest, and certainly the most conceited of its denizens, his cousin, the turkey buzzard, flies about in freedom in the American forests. Rapacious birds in general are distinguished by the same features which mark the beasts of prey. They live alone, and have none of the social qualities exhibited by birds'of other classes. Goldsmith, in his Animated Nature," well describes their dispositions. He says: "Formed for war, they lead a life of solitude and robbery. They inhabit, by choice, the most lonely places and the most desert mountains. They make their nests in the clefts of rocks and on the highest and most inaccessible trees of the forest. Whenever they appear in the cultivated plain or the warbling grove, it is only for the purposes of depredation, and are gloomy intruders on the general joy of the landscape. They spread terror wherever they approach: all that variety of music which but a moment before enlivened the grove, at their appearing is instantly at an end: every order of lesser birds seek for safety, either by concealment or flight; and some are even driven to take protection with man, to avoid, their less merciful pursuers." The largest birds of this class are the different species of eagles and vultures. ,These birds are known by their lofty flight, their large powerful wings, and their wild fierce natures. They live on small quadrupeds and birds of every kind; and when they have young ones to feed, they often commit great depredations among the flocks, carrying off many a young lamb to their nest on the lofty crag, to feed the sharp-beaked hungry eaglets who scream for prey. The fierce warlike nature of the eagle made it a fit emblem or sign of the Roman power; and therefore the Romans carried figures of eagles, carved in gold, in front of their armies, as we now carry flags or ensigns; and every Roman soldier had to take an oath that he would never on any account desert his standard. The Romans also considered this bird as sacred to the god Jupiter, who was always represented with an eagle by his side. The chief species of the eagle are-the GOLDEN EAGLE, which in former times was sometimes trained to the chase, being taught to pursue and capture other birds; until the falcon, a smaller and lighter bird, was found much better adapted for this duty;--the CoMMON EAGLE, which measures about three feet from the bill to the tail, and is found in most of the northern and central countries of Europe, in mountainous desolate regions, but which disappears, like all birds and beasts of prey, before the advance of man;-the BALD EAGLE, which takes its name from the head and neck being white, and thus presenting an appearance of baldness as contrasted with the deep brown colour of the body: this bird is found chiefly in North America; 31


CATTLE SHOWS-LORD TANKERVILLE'S CATTLE-DISLIKE TO SCARLET.

hide, others again for the quantity and richness of the milk yielded by the cows. The
different kinds are divided into two classes according to the length of the horn, and are called
Long Horns and Short Horns," and thus each part of England and even of Scotland has
its particular breed. The establishment of Cattle Shows, at which horned cattle, sheep, and
pigs are exhibited, and prizes are awarded for the best specimens of each breed, has done much
to improve our domestic farm animals; and British oxen are now considered superior to those
of any other part of the world. So great is the value attached to them, that bulls have been
exported to Australia and New Zealand, being carried at great cost to the opposite side of the
world, and a thousand pounds has in several instances been the price of a prize bull.
In old times the dense forests in Scotland and in northern, England were full of wild
cattle, roaming about free and unfettered. These have now quite disappeared; but till within a
few years some of these wild cattle remained at Chillingham Park, the seat of Lord Tankerville.
They are described as being invariably of a creamy white colour, with a black muzzle; the
whole of the inside of the ears, and the tips externally, are red; the horns are white, with black
tips, very fine, and bent upwards. Some of the bulls have a thin upright mane, an inch and a
half or two inches long. The following account is given of them:
"At the first appearance of any person, they set off in full gallop, and at the distance of
about two hundred yards make a wheel round, and come boldly up again, tossing their heads in
a menacing manner. On a sudden they make a full stop, at the distance of forty or fifty yards,
looking wildly at the object of their surprise; but upon the-least motion being made, they all
again turn round, and fly off with equal speed, but not to the same distance, forming a shorter
circle; and again returning with a bolder and more threatening aspect than before, they
approach much nearer, probably within thirty yards, when they again make another stand, and
then fly off. This they do several times, shortening their distance, and advancing nearer and
nearer, until they come within such a short distance, that most people think it proper to leave
them, not choosing to provoke them further."
Each separate country of continental Europe, such as Italy, Spain, Norway, Sweden, and
the rest, has its separate kind of horned cattle. Denmark is celebrated for a very large kind;
and cattle breeding forms one of the great sources of national wealth in Holland, whence
immense quantities of butter and cheese, and many thousand head of oxen, are annually
brought to England. A spotted breed without horns, which is mentioned by Tacitus, an old
Roman historian who lived eighteen centuries ago, has been introduced even in the cold island
of Iceland; and as that bleak country affords no grass for pasture, the oxen are frequently fed
upon dried fish.
A great dislike to scarlet is noticed among all kinds of horned cattle. A young officer,
employed in surveying some land in Moldavia, where large herds of cattle roam half wild over
the plains, nearly lost his life through the circumstance that he carried a small table covered
with red morocco. At sight of this table the cattle began wheeling round the intruder in
an angry crowd; and he probably saved his life by his presence of mind in turning the red part
of the table towards his chest, so as to hide the hated colour from his horned assailant, whose
rage was soon calmed when the cause that excited it had been removed. In London, not long
ago, a bull who was proceeding peaceably to market was seized with such ungovernable fury at
the sight of a detachment of soldiers marching by in scarlet coats, that he charged them at
once, and they were obliged in self-defence to receive him upon their bayonets, -which soon put
an end to him. The courage of the bull has frequently caused the poor beast to be made the
subject of very cruel diversion, such as the bull fights in Spain, where he is made to contend
against horsemen and combatants on foot, armed with spears and swords, whose attacks he repels
with great courage. In England too, until a recent period, the practice of bull baiting was
pursued in many towns. The bull was fastened by a rope passed round his horns, or by a ring





PAGE 1

THE BUFFALO-THE AMERICAN BISON-THE CAPE BUFFALO. Bishop Heber, who saw many of these zebus in India, tells us concerning them: They feed where they choose, and devout persons take great delight in pampering them. They are' exceeding pests in the villages near Culcutta, breaking into gardens, thrusting their noses into' the stalls of the fruiterers' and pastrycooks' shops, and helping themselves without ceremony. Like other petted animals, they are sometimes mischievous, and are said to resent with a push of their horns any delay in gratifying their wishes." The zebu is still used in India and in many Oriental countries in the ancient practice of "treading out corn," to separate the grain from the straw, instead of threshing it out with a flail. Our readers will remember that this treading out of corn by oxen was practised among the Jewish people in the time of Moses; and hence the injunction given to the Israelites, "Thou shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth out the corn," as though the great lawgiver recognized the right of the patient labouring animal to pick .up a few grains as he performed his task. THE BUFFALO (Plate m.), Called in Latin Bos bubalus, is the most powerful of the whole ox tribe. His huge horns, deep chest, broad shoulders, and thick legs are all indicative of immense strength. The buffalo of the Old World was originally a native of India, but has been introduced into Africa, Spain, Italy, &c. In their wild state buffaloes live in small herds, and in hot weather delight greatly in wallowing in the muddy water of pools and sluggish streams. Frequently they remain for hours in the water, with only their horns and noses showing above the surface. The buffalo has been long in use as a domestic animal, his immense strength rendering him a valuable servant, in spite of his temper, which is fierce and intractable. He will draw with apparent ease a weight that ordinary oxen or horses cannot move. The buffalo has a keen sense of smell, and thus in his wild state he runs with his muzzle thrust forward, and his horns laid back, finding his way less by the keenness of his eyes than of his nose. The AMERICAN BuFFALO or BISON forms another variety of the ox tribe, to which also belongs the aurochs, a powerful animal still found in the forests of Poland and Lithuania. Vast herds of wild bisons roam through the prairies of North America, to the west of the United States. They are of great bulk and strength, and are distinguished by the vast size of the head and shoulders, which look even larger than they are from being thickly covered with a long shaggy mane. Herds of at least twenty thousand bisons have been seen running across the wide prairie, when the grass begins to fail, in search of new feeding grounds. A few old experienced bulls act as leaders, and the whole herd careers onward after them, swimming the broadest rivers, and travelling with great swiftness. The wild bisons of the West are, however, decreasing in number year by year. Many are killed by the backwoodsmen, many more die beneath the arrows of the few Indian tribes still left in the pathless solitudes of the West, and not a few fall victims to the most formidable and inveterate of their four-footed foes-the grizzly bear. Like all other varieties of the ox tribe, the bison can be tamed; but he never quite loses his fierce temper, or becomes completely tractable. In his wild state, when attacked, he tries to escape from his foes by flight; but, once wounded, often becomes mad with rage, and his strength then makes him a very formidable foe to encounter. The BuIFFAO OF THE CAPE OF GooD HOPr is inferior to no other species in strength and ferocity. He does not fear even the lion, and he not unfrequently comes off victor in a fight with the king of beasts. Heavy and bulky as he is, he can run on level ground with great swiftness; but as his clumsy frame and the great breadth of his horns prevent him from climbing wooded crags, or scrambling up any steep place, the hunter or settler pursued by him can generally find safety in clambering up a rock or climbing a tree. The hide of the buffalo 6



PAGE 1

THE IBEX-THE DOMESTIC GOAT. "For hairy goats of equal profit are With woolly sheep, and ask an equal care. 'T is true, the fleece, when drunk with Tyrian juice Is dearly sold; but not for equal use; For the prolific goat increases more, And twice as largely yields her milky store. Meantime the pastor shears their hoary beards, And eases of their hair the loaded herds. Their camelots warm in tents the soldiers hold, And shield the shivering mariners from cold." The "Tyrian juice here mentioned refers to the celebrated Tyrian purple, with which the garments of wool were stained; but goats' hair was very largely employed in the dresses worn by many European nations, and especially in the coarse garments of soldiers and sailors. Many of the Greek fables of IEsop make mention of the goat; and the goatherd was an important personage among the ancients. Who does not remember the story of the foolish goatherd, who, having taken shelter with his goats in a cave, and finding a number of wild goats already in possession there, gave the food of his flock to the wild goats, in hope of making a prize of them? the consequence of which proceeding was, that his own flock perished with hunger, while the wild goats escaped at the first opportunity, and thus he returned home without either wild goats or tame. The difference between the goats and the sheep may be compared to that which exists in many countries between the tribes inhabiting the mountain regions and those dwelling in the plain. The mountaineers, like the goat, are hardy and bold, insensible to danger, and fond of pursuing hazardous tracks among pathless crags; while the dwellers in the plain, like the sheep, are peaceable rather than warlike, loving ease and plenty, and unenterprising in character. Again, the goat, like the mountaineer, is prone to wander; while the lowlander, like the sheep, is content to remain in one spot, provided it supplies him with necessary food. First in order among the goats we have to notice a wild kind, namely: THE IBEX. (Plate v., d.) This is a wild species of mountain goat, formerly common among the Alpine regions of Central Europe, Switzerland, Savoy, and Northern Italy, but it has now become very scarce and must soon disappear altogether before the rifle of the hunter. In the almost inaccessible heights between Monte Rosa and Mont Blanc it is still occasionally found. The ibex is a fine bold animal, inhabiting the highest mountains, and climbing precipices that seem inaccessible with wonderful agility and safety. In the summer its food consists of the Alpine plants, but in winter it resorts to the forests that clothe the mountain side, and browses on the bark and branches of dwarf willows, birches, and other Alpine trees. But even in winter it seeks the heights whenever this is practicable, resorting to the lowlands only when driven by necessity. The large horns of the ibex are bent backward from the forehead, and surrounded at intervals with broad rings. The horns of the female are much smaller than those of the male. The colour of the skin is a dull reddish grey; the head is small, and the legs rather short and thick. The ibex is much larger than the common domestic goat. Its voice is a peculiar whistle, which it utters with great shrillness when alarmed. Hunting the ibex is a very dangerous pursuit, not only from the necessity of scaling the terrific precipices to which the creature betakes itself in its flight; but also from the fact that the ibex, when its retreat is cut off, will frequently spring in desperation upon the hunter, and roll headlong with him down the abyss. In its manner of life and general habits the ibex resembles the chamois in many points. 8



PAGE 1

A TAME BEAVER-WHAT MAY BE LEARNED FROM ANIMALS. hole dug out of the bank, in some spot near his dwelling, whither he may retire if surprised. But all his precautions are often unavailing. His soft fur is of such value, that the hunter pursues him perseveringly; and, tracing him to his retreat, often captures the unhappy beaver with all the young family that share his dwelling. The following is an account of a tame female beaver, kept for some months in his garden, by a scientific gentleman. "She was about half grown, and, except the tail and hind feet, bore not a very distant resemblance to a great overgrown water rat. She fed on bread and water, and gnawed several vines, jessamines, and hollies that were within her reach. When she ate, she sat on her hind legs, and held the bread in her fore paws, like a squirrel. In swimming, she held her fore feet close under the throat, swimming with her hind feet only, and steering her course with her tail. She would keep under water for two or three minutes, and then come up to breathe. She swam much faster than any water fowl, and under water she moved as fast as a carp. She was very brisk, and throve well upon the food she took, and was turned into a spring to bathe three or four times a week. She was at length killed by a dog." In former times the beavers were very plentiful in North America; but such numbers of them have been killed by the hunters and trappers that they are now becoming scarcer and scarcer every year. THE MUSK BEAVER (Plate xlI., e) Is a much smaller animal than the proper or castor beaver. It does not exceed a foot in length, and, like,the common beaver, inhabits North America. The musk beaver does not attempt to construct dams and villages on the grand scale followed by his larger cousin; but he manages to build himself a very neat little cottage of clay and branches, with a dome-shaped roof. He builds a new dwelling every autumn, and at the approach of winter, retires into it with his family, coming out occasionally, through the ice and snow, to feed on roots and the bark of trees; for he has not, like the large beaver, the instinct to iay up a stock of provisions for the winter. The female musk beaver has three families in the year, consisting of three or four little ones each time; thus these creatures would increase rapidly but for the numerous enemies, among man and beasts, with whom they have to contend. The study of the arts employed by the beaver and many other animals to provide for their wants, is replete with instruction. In the words of the poet Pope, we may advise our readers to "Learn from the birds what food the thickets yield; Learn from the beasts the physic of the field; Thy arts of building from the bee receive; Learn of the mole to plough, the worm to weave; Learn of the little nautilus to sail, Spread the thin oar, and catch the driving gale. Here too all forms of social union find, And hence let reason late instruct mankind: Here subterranean works and cities see; There towns aerial on the waving tree. Learn each small people's genius, policies, The ant's republic, and the realm of bees; How those in common all their wealth bestow, And anarchy without confusion know; And these for ever, though a monarch reign, Their separate cells and properties maintain." 25 El


C','
S
'C


(KC


k>
\:
\s


4/





A TAME BEAVER-WHAT MAY BE LEARNED FROM ANIMALS.

hole dug out of the bank, in some spot near his dwelling, whither he may retire if surprised.
But all his precautions are often unavailing. His soft fur is of such value, that the hunter
pursues him perseveringly; and, tracing him to his retreat, often captures the unhappy beaver
with all the young family that share his dwelling.
The following is an account of a tame female beaver, kept for some months in his garden,
by a scientific gentleman. She was about half grown, and, except the tail and hind feet,
bore not a very distant resemblance to a great overgrown water rat. She fed on bread and water,
and gnawed several vines, jessamines, and hollies that were within her reach. When she ate,
she sat on her hind legs, and held the bread in her fore paws, like a squirrel. In swimming, she
held her fore feet close under the throat, swimming with her hind feet only, and steering her
course with her tail. She would keep under water for two or three minutes, and then come
up to breathe. She swam much faster than any water fowl, and under water she moved as
fast as a carp. -She was very brisk, and throve well upon the food she took, and was turned
into a spring to bathe three or four times a week. She was at length killed by a dog."
In former times the beavers were very plentiful in North America; but such numbers of
them have been killed by the hunters and trappers that they are now becoming scarcer and
scarcer every year.


THE MUSK BEAVER (Plate xi., e)

Is a much smaller animal than the proper or castor beaver. It does not exceed a foot in
length, and, like ,the common beaver, inhabits North America. The musk beaver does not
attempt to construct dams and villages on the grand scale followed by his larger cousin; but he
manages to build himself a very neat little cottage of clay and branches, with a dome-shaped
roof. He builds a new dwelling every autumn, and at the approach of winter, retires into it
with his family, coming out occasionally, through the ice and snow, to feed on roots and the
bark of trees; for he has not, like the large beaver, the instinct to lay up a stock of provisions
for the winter. The female musk beaver has three families in the year, consisting of three or
four little ones each time; thus these creatures would increase rapidly but for the numerous
enemies, among man and beasts, with whom they have to contend. The study of the arts
employed by the beaver and many other animals to provide for their wants, is replete with
instruction. In the words of the poet Pope, we may advise our readers to
"Learn from the birds what food the thickets yield;
Learn from the beasts the physic of the field;
Thy arts of building from the bee receive;
Learn of the mole to plough, the worm to weave;
Learn of the little nautilus to sail,
Spread the thin oar, and catch the driving gale.
Here too all forms of social union find,
And hence let reason late instruct mankind:
Here subterranean works and cities see;
There towns aerial on the waving tree.
Learn each small people's genius, policies,
The ant's republic, and the realm of bees;
How those in common all their wealth bestow,
And anarchy without confusion know;
And these for ever, though a monarch reign,
Their separate cells and properties maintain."





PAGE 1

INTRODUCTION. When the dry season prevails, they are sometimes in great distress for water; and then it is that the cunning mule manages to satisfy his thirst by a very clever stratagem. He searches in the burning plain for a round fruit like a melon, called the melocactus. This plant is covered with prickles; but the mule does not-care for that, for he knows that it contains a watery pulp or juice. So he stamps upon it and kicks at it till he has burst it open; and then, with his large fleshy lips, he sucks out the juice with great delight, while the horses and oxen, less clever than he, go about parched with thirst. But when the rainy season sets in, all is changed. There is water now in plenty;, for the rain pours down in streams, and the whole sky is black with clouds. The entire plain is covered with pools and lakes, and the cattle have to swim about from one island to another, as if they were amphibious animals, or adapted to live in the water as well as upon land; and not a few of them are seized and devoured by the ravenous crocodiles ahd alligators that lurk in the waters for their prey. And yet, through all these dangers and difficulties, the wild cattle and horses of the steppes struggle on, and increase rather than diminish in numbers. Another remarkable feature in the domestic animals is found in the various uses to which they can be applied. Let us take, for instance, the ox. He can be used as a beast of draught or burden, and will draw the plough with untiring strength, day after day. When he has finished his wdrk on the farm, he falls into the hands of the slaughterman, and every part of him, his horns, his hoofs, his hide, his flesh, and his bones, will be found valuable and useful. In the sheep we see the same peculiarity. Wool, skin, flesh, bones, tendons, all and each are made by man to serve some useful purpose, after the death of the patient animal to which they belonged. Contrast the sheep with one of the feline animals-for example, the tiger. When the beautiful striped hide has been stripped from the dead brute, the rest of his carcase is absolutely useless, so far as man is concerned, and can only be left as a prey to the jackals and vultures, and other beasts that feed upon carrion. For the tiger feeds upon meat, and this renders his flesh unfit for food. Another and a very noticeable feature in the animals adapted to be the servants of man, and to live with him in a domestic or tame condition, is the wonderful increase in numbers they exhibit. Many a man has begun in Australia, or elsewhere, with a few sheep, perhaps a score or even fewer, and has found his flock increase year by year, until he has become a wealthy man. The flocks of sheep and the herds of cattle have, indeed, been so important, that some nations have depended upon them for their very existence. Even now there exists in Asia and elsewhere numerous nations whose only wealth consists in the domestic animals they possess. How valuable domestic animals were considered among the Eastern nations of old, can be easily seen from the words of the Bible, where the wealth of Abraham is enumerated thus: "He had sheep and oxen, and he-asses, and men-servants, and maid-servants, and sheasses, and camels." We are also told that "Lot, which went with Abraham, had flocks, and herds, and tents, and that the land was not able to bear them" (that is to say, to provide pasture for their flocks and cattle), that they might dwell together; for their substance was great, so that they could not dwell together. And there was a strife between the herdsmen of Abraham's cattle and the herdsmen of Lot's cattle." And again, in the description of the rising fortunes of Jacob, who tended the cattle of his uncle Laban, we are told, The man increased exceedingly, and had much cattle, and maid-servants, and men-servants, and camels, and asses." Of these domestic animals we have now to speak, beginning with the ox tribe. '2



PAGE 1

A /1 AL








?Alh'1%
34h~
















r












i
I





















I








i i
i !











































































































































































L





PAGE 1

THE MUSK OX-THE ZEBRA. through his nose, to a post, and then ferocious bull dogs were set upon him, while men more ferocious than either bull or dog stood round and enjoyed the cruel pastime. Fortunately, such exhibitions of brutality are no longer allowed among us. Among foreign varieties of oxen we must notice a few of the most important. First comes THE MUSK OX. (Plate i., .) This is a very small variety of the ox tribe. It is a native of the northern part of North America, and is uncommonly hardy and strong, though it hardly exceeds a large calf in size. Its Latin name is Ovibos moschatus, or the musk sAeep-ox. To defend it from the biting cold, it has a thick coat of long hair, hanging down about its legs like a shaggy mat. In colour it is a dark dull brown. The strong musky smell which hovers about this ox, and from which it has obtained its name, renders its flesh very unpalatable; though the Esquimaux consider it a great delicacy. Inhabiting, as it does, the craggy, rocky regions of the Hudson's Bay territory and the banks of the Coppermine river of America, the musk ox becomes quite an expert climber, and very quick and active, scrambling up steep places with amazing agility, especially when pursued or alarmed. The horns are very peculiar in shape, curving downwards on each side of the head, and then suddenly turning upwards at the tip. The female is not quite so large as the male musk ox. In Captain Franklin's "Journal of a Polar Voyage" we find the following particulars relative to the musk ox: "The musk oxen, like the buffalo, herd together in bands, and generally frequent barren grounds during the summer months, keeping near the rivers, but returning to the woods in winter. They seem to be less watchful than other wild animals, and when grazing are not difficult to approach, providing the hunters go against the wind. When two or three men get so near a herd as to fire at them from different points, these animals, instead of separating or running away, huddle closer together, and several are generally killed; but if the wound is not mortal they become enraged, and dart in the most furious manner at the hunters, who must be very dexterous to evade them. They can defend themselves with their powerful horns against wolves and bears, which, as the Indians say, they not unfrequently kill. The musk oxen feed on the same substances with the reindeer, and the prints of the feet of these two animals are so much alike, that it requires the eye of an experienced hunter to distinguish them. The largest killed by us did not exceed in weight three hundred pounds. The flesh has a musky, disagreeable flavour, particularly when the animal is lean, which, unfortunately for us, was the case with all that we killed." THE ZEBU. This variety of the ox tribe is at home in India, though zebus are found also in Africa and in the Asiatic islands. They are very various in size, some being as large as a good sized English bull, while others are not bigger than an antelope. The distinguishing features are: the hump on the back, which consists chiefly of fat, and is considered a great delicacy by the Indians; the large beautiful mild eye, shining with the softness of a gazelle's; and the long slender limbs, which enable some of these animals, when tamed to carry riders, to run and leap with the agility of hunting horses: even a five-barred gate is no obstacle to them. One kind of zebu, the Brahmin bull, is looked upon by the natives of India with superstitious reverence. These bulls are dedicated to the god Seeva, and roam about at their pleasure, after being marked with the figure of the god. They are allowed to do just as they please; for to hurt or molest one of them would be considered the height of irreverence. 5



PAGE 1

SHEEP WASHING AND SHEARING-THE HORSE. of wool over head and ears. The washing once over, and the sheep having stayed a few days just to let the wool regain its old oily elasticity, so that, as the clippers say, they may shear all the softer, then the great summer sheep-shearing began in earnest. The huge, high, heavy, ponderous barn doors were taken off their hinges, and placed on strong, low, tressels, or heavy logs of wood, to elevate the doors to a convenient height, and on these ample tables the sunbrowned shearers clipped the bleating sheep. Oh! it was famous fun to see them clipping away one against the other, and striving who could get done first-to roll up the fleeces and carry them into the barn, until we raised up quite a stack of wool-then to have a swing suspended from the great high rafters of the barn, and go such a height-ah that was swinging indeed!-then to roll all amongst the wool-to fetch the sheep up to the shearers-to turn them loose again after they were clipped, and watch how the lambs were puzzled to pick out their dams from the flock which had been shorn: you would have liked to have been there, amid all that bleating of sheep, and barking of dogs, and such racing as we had after the sheep that ran away: it was prime sport, I can tell you. But the best of all was the sheep-shearing feastsuch bowls of furmenty stuffed full of currants as you never before saw in your life, and chines of beef seasoned with all kinds of nice herbs, which are only known to old-fashioned country people; great horns of ale, and glorious plum puddings, almost as much as a boy could lift. Then, it was so pleasant to remember that these sheep-shearing feasts are hundreds and hundreds of years old, and that we read all about them in the Holy Bible, and what Nabal's wife, who lived in Carmel, sent to King David when she kept up her sheep-shearing feast. There are many good old customs still existing in England, as we shall show before we 'have written all we intend to write about the four seasons of the year." THE HORSE TRIBE. Hast thou given the horse strength ? hast thou clothed his neck with thunder ? Canst thou make him afraid as a grasshopper ? the glory of his nostrils ip terrible. He paweth in the valley, and rejoiceth in his strength: he goeth on to meet the armed men. He mocketh at fear, and is not affrighted; neither turneth he back from the sword. The quiver rattleth against him, the glittering spear and the shield. He swalloweth the ground with fierceness and rage: neither believeth he that it is the scund of the trumpet. He saith among'the trumpets, Ha, ha; and he smelleth the battle afar off, the thunder of the captains, and the shouting."-Job xxxix. 19-25. The above description of the horse in the Book of Job fully exhibits the chief qualities of the noblest of quadrupeds-his fearlessness, strength, and fleetness. From the very earliest period of known history the horse appears as the chosen servant of man, alike in peace and in war.' The chariots and horses of Egypt are mentioned repeatedly in Holy Writ; and' in Miriam's song of victory it is recorded among the triumphs of the Lord, The horse and his rider hath He thrown into the sea." The ox, in ancient times, was the labourer-the patient and willing drudge in the work of the farm, the bearer of burdens, and the assistant in the important processes for obtaining bread; for he it was who dragged the rough plough over the fields, and who afterwards, when the corn had been reaped, trod out" the grains from the straw on the floor of the barn. But to the horse more stirring duties were assigned. He was made to participate in the dangers and glories of war. It was for him to bear his rider through the thickest of the fight, to charge headlong upon the foe, or to bear his master swiftly away from the pursuit of the enemy. The war chariots of the Egyptians and other Eastern nations were of vast importance to them, and gave a great increase to the strength of their armies; and thus, when Pharaoh pursued the Israelites, after their escape from the bondage of Egypt, we are told that he made ready his chariot, and took his people with him; and he took six 14

















































































































































































m:




r























































$4




































i r
















































*




















:



r





PAGE 1

! l~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~i ~~~~~~2 ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ l',~i~ ,'~,,i~"i! i~(i~i'i'i,~ 11 ?ir~':,, ,?"~; ''"'" Ih~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~l~ r; ='uC':r ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1~~~~1!1liiil~~~~~~~~~~~~l~~~i~~~~il ii ii''' 1lil I 'I~~~~~~~~~I ii,~-,' '.~~-~ IINI I' .. . -'= "",',"',': ~~~~~~~~~~~~''1~ '~ ~~ ~.,,~!, '' "'"' -<~~~~~~~~~~~~~llli;tljlIil;() II jj '~ '~'!!lll ,Illil~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~;akl r!;I '' il~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~l'' ii~~~~~~~~~iii;:III,1-I~~~~~~1 Atile, 2: ,, I,.i 'A'-V!"'W~i';i?~'=i"' ~ I -:-,,:, '.~,~' -,,,,,~ /11jll, il~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ii~~~~~i[T,~t ~ ~~~~1;'' j =~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-..... ... --~ .~:,, ~ .~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~--~=-r---: ~ ;:-~ -',.~ ~ i. ~1 ."-'.'~ ~ ~--¢ '.-~-, ,' ~~~"3 ~~~~~~~~~~~~--~ ~ ~ ..~'~_ --... ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~_-~,~ _, ?--... m~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~L:--.-3i I-_ -... ~.. s~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~__~~ -*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. --,




AMUSING STORY OF TWO GOATS-SAGACITY OF THE GOAT.


THE COMMON OR DOMESTIC GOAT

Is so well known an animal that its appearance need scarcely be described. (Plate Iv., b, c.)
The horns are generally curved backwards, and most species are provided with a beard. The
domestic goat is distributed over nearly the whole world. The naturalist Buffon has given
us a graphic description of his nature and character, especially noticing his love of change, and
consequent tendency to wander; his hardy constitution, which renders him insensible to heat
and cold, and enables him to browse on almost every herb; and his love of standing, climbing,
and even sleeping on rugged and lofty eminences. Mr. Bell, in his History of British Quad-
rupeds," also says on this subject, It will find its food in places inaccessible to almost all other
animals, and live and thrive by cropping the scanty herbage which they furnish. In the
mountain ranges of Europe, on the Alps and Pyrenees, the goat is found at a great elevation,
approaching as near the line of perpetual snow as it can find its scanty sustenance; and it feeds
on many plants which to other ruminants are distasteful and even deleterious; thus hemlock,
nenbane, and digitalis (foxglove) is eaten by it with impunity, and even the acid euphorbia is
not rejected."
An amusing story is told of two goats who met face to face on a narrow ridge overhang-
ing a great depth, on the ramparts at Plymouth. The ledge was far too narrow for them to
pass one another, nor could they well retreat; but one of the goats sagaciously solved the
difficulty by lying down, and allowing his fellow to walk over his back; and then each pursued
"the even tenour of his way."
Among the foreign varieties of this useful animal the Cashmere or Thibet goat of the
Himalaya Mountains stands preeminent, and will probably maintain its position so long as
Cashmere shawls are prized as costly and beautiful articles of apparel. The Cashmere goat has
flat, spiral curved horns. Its body is covered with long, straight, shining hair; and under this
coarser outward covering is concealed a soft down or wool, from which the exquisitely fine
Cashmere shawls are made. The colder the climate inhabited by this goat, the thicker and
closer is its downy coat; but in general the quantity of wool furnished by one goat is only about
three ounces, so that ten or a dozen goats are required to furnish the wool for a shawl of
moderate size. An attempt was made, early in the present century, to introduce the Cashmere
goat into France. It was attended with partial success, and the goat of Cashmere has not only
been naturalized in France, but the breed has been considerably improved. Among other
varieties may be mentioned the Angora goat, of a snowy white colour, with long silky hair; the
Syrian goat, with very small horns, but with ears so long that the goatherds frequently crop
them, lest they should incommode the goat while feeding; and the Rocky Mountain goat of
North America.
That the goat is both sagacious and teachable is proved by the fact that it is often used as
a "performing animal," and carried about to excite the wonder of gaping audiences. In Dr.
Clarke's "Travels we find an instance of a "learned" or performing goat of this kind. The
traveller says, Upon our road we met an Arab with a goat, which he led about the country for
'exhibition, in order to gain a livelihood for itself and owner. He had taught this animal, while he
accompanied its movements with a song, to mount upon little cylindrical blocks of wood, placed
successively one above the other, and in shape resembling the dice boxes belonging to a back-
gammon table. In this manner the goat stood, first upon the top of one cylinder, then upon
the top of two, and afterwards of three, four, five, and six, until it remained balanced upon the
top of them all, elevated several feet from the ground, and with its four feet collected upon a single
point, without throwing down the disjointed fabric upon which it stood. This practice is very
ancient. Nothing can more conclusively show the tenacious footing possessed by this quadruped





PAGE 1

1



PAGE 1

IMITATIVE FACULTY OF FINCHIES-THEIER VALUE-THEI LINNET. He is a sociable little fellow among other birds, and has a good ear for music. Accordingly, bird fanciers sometimes teach him to whistle a tune; and of course this musical accomplish-' ment greatly increases his value. His term of life extends from six to eight years. Then there is THE CHAFFINCH, A merry little fellow, whose piping cry, "Spink! spink!" often breaks the silence of the autumn fields and hedgerows. This bird, like the bullfinch, can be taught to pipe a melody, and the patient German trainers take great pains to develop this talent. Such great value, indeed, is attached to' this artificial song, that Bechstein mentions an instance in which a cow had been given in exchange for an accomplished chaffinch; hence the German proverb, "A chaffinch is worth a cow." Bechstein also says, It is remarkable that the song of these birds varies according to the district they inhabit, so that different songs are sung in the forest from what are sung in the Hartz; and by this the task of amateurs is regulated." Those birds which can execute the double trill" are most highly valued. In England we have not yet become so critical, and a chaffinch is cheap enough to be within the means of purchase of most schoolboys. THE CITRIL FINCH (Plate xx., e) Is most like the canary in form and plumage. It is found chiefly in the south of Europe, and many-are' said: to-be sold for green or grey canaries, the difference being so small that unpractised purchasers may readily mistake a good citril for a real canary. THE SISKIN, OR ABERDEVINE (Plate xx.,d), Is another of those birds whose song can be much improved by education. In an aviary it will frequently imitate the notes of the canary and of other exquisite songsters. Indeed, nearly all the finches are in one respect like children, namely, in being much influenced, so far as their manners and accomplishments are concerned, by the company among whom they are thrown by circumstances. They will adopt a good clear note as readily as they will catch up a bad and defective one. In Germany the aberdevine breeds freely, building its nest on a lofty pine tree, and attaching the tiny structure firmly by means of moss and insect cocoons to the extremity of a waving bough. It lays five or six grey eggs, sprinkled with purple dots. Its colour is generally a mixture of ,greenish yellow and black. The aberdevine is a migratory bird, and only stays in England from April to September. It feeds chiefly on seeds of trees and wild flowers, preferring those of the fir and beech, the thistle and dandelion. The most general favourite among the English birds of this class, after the goldfinch, is, however, THE LINNET (Plate x., c.) This well-known little songster is found all over England and Scotland, and stays with us all the year. It has but a plain brown coat, though some of the males are prettily tinged with red on the head; but its voice is so sweet and mellow, that it is rightly preferred to many a gorgeously-attired but harsh-voiced competitor. ".When the male linnet has become thus marked, which occurs in the third year of its little life,'it is known as a redpole. Linnets are often found in flocks, in the autumn,' about rick-yards,'which they visit in quest of the seeds on which they live. The female does not exhibit the red tinge displayed by the male. But the king of all the finch tribe is undoubtedly S9 A



PAGE 1

ar r ~A ;~~~~a r



PAGE 1

DOMESTIC ANIMALS, FAMILIAR BIRJ1S, &c.: THEIR HABITS AND HISTORY. BEING PICTURES OF THE ANIMAL CREATION, grwtln fro WituXrt, alx fmartXa ng n a tsiXXa lXaXub, FOR THE AMUSEMENT AND INSTRUCTION OF THE YOUNG. WITH A DESCRIPTIVE TEXT, INTENDED TO SERVE AS A FIRST INTRODUCTION TO NATURAL HISTORY. BY H. W. DULCKEN, PH.D. LONDON: WARD, LOCK, AND TYLER, WARWICK HOUSE, PATERNOSTER ROW.



THE ALPINE HARE THE RABBIT.


the Mosaic law to eat it, as it was not an animal that parted the hoof, as well as chewed the
cud. The Ancient Britons were likewise prohibited by the Druids from eating the hare. In
spite of their natural timidity, performing hares have often been exhibited, having been
trained by their masters to beat drums, and perform other feats of a noisy and startling kind.
Their skin is used in manufacturing hats.
The manner in which the hare chooses different abodes at various seasons is well described
in the following lines :
"'Tis instinct that directs the jealous hare
To choose her soft abode. With steps reversed
,She forms the doubling maze; then, ere the morn
Peeps through the clouds, leaps to her close recess.
As wandering shepherds on the Arabian plains
No settled residence observe, but shift
Their moving camps, so the wise crafty hares
S Oft quit their seats, lest some more envious eye
Should mark their haunts, and by dark treacherous wiles
Plot their destruction
When spring shines forth, season of love and joy,
In the moist marsh, 'mid beds of rushes hid,
They cool their boiling blood. When summer suns
Bake the cleft earth, to thick wide-spreading fields
Of corn full grown they lead their helpless young.
But when autumnal torrents and fierce rains
Deluge the vale, in the dry crumbling bank
Their forms they delve, and cautiously avoid
The dripping covert. Yet when winter's cold
Their limbs benumbs, thither with speed returned,
In the long grass they skulk, or shrinking, creep
Among the withered leaves."

THE VARYING HARE (Plate xi., c),

Called also the Alpine hare, is much smaller than the common species. It obtains its name
from the fact that its summer coat of grey changes in winter to a snowy whiteness. It is found
among the rocks in the coldest parts of Europe, Asia, and America, and is also occasionally
met with in the highest and bleakest regions of Scotland. Like many other animals, the Alpine
hares are sometimes driven by the rigour of winter to quit their mountain haunts, where they
hide securely among the clefts of the rocks,. and to descend into the plains in search of food.
The Alpine hare, unlike the common kind, is easily tamed, and lives contentedly in captivity,
distinguishing itself by its playfulness, and its fondness for sweet delicacies, especially honey.
Instances have been known in which this kind of hare has been of a coal-black colour.


THE RABBIT (Plate xi., c)

Is a well-known little animal, bearing a great resemblance to the hare in outward appearance,
but: far inferior to "Puss" in size. Rabbits also are social creatures, living in large commu-
nities in warrens, where they dig their holes, in which they hide during the heat of the day,
coming out in the morning and evening to feed; whereas the hare crouches solitary in her
form, listening for every sound of danger. The rabbit likewise differs from the hare in seeking
refuge in his burrow when he is alarmed by an enemy, whereas the hare at once rushes away
from her home on the approach of any pursuer.
The rabbit is found in all parts of Europe except the coldest, and in the temperate parts
of Asia and Africa. It has been imported into America, where it also thrives well. The
peculiarity about the rabbit is in the immense number that may be produced within a short
23















~n


LW


2l
-! a


SW-+B; ~
-*-- Np
K' -k



r--; *




J--S P~L~



N4# *-
"a tO


N'.If-


~-. ----=; c~-~'`-~ -27 -~


F--1
q


1I4 ;*4


1"' '4
'i


-r 1


13
I-; J
I-- F~,(


:
'1.a
f~~7:,



b


s "n~ll~Wa~'
*c, ~~~I rRRePP~ ..
~r~s

~~
rcr
a
~
-,e
1
* 21~
...,


,f---..
~=-~~T~P.~"~~_~-3-,~


,-, I s I


. ~


~I


F '~r '
1"


-I~


-~-;-~=-~b--~-~--

re
'JLIC~U-ua ~~ "~


Y'~ ~E I~C~C'
Pr
: -~


"^-.-.


7;r


-4D c


ulri


I
t






--~-







PAGE 1

PREFACE. In this book, as in the companion volume of "Wild Animals," the object of the Publishers has been to provide for their young friends well-drawn and accurate Pictures of the Animal Creation, and at the same time to furnish an Elementary Treatise on Natural History for those whose interest in books of the kind is not confined to the pictures only. The limits of the volume prevented the projectors from aiming at anything like completeness; nevertheless, in the selection, care has been. taken to represent those families of animals with whose nature and habits children should be made acquainted before entering upon the study of Natural History in its more regular and systematic form. The Pictures are by the same Artists who produced the Illustrations to "Wild Animals," and have been executed with equal taste and care.



BEAUTY OF THE PHEASANT-EASILY TAMED-THE TURKEY.

get up into apple trees; pheasants also in woods sleep on trees to avoid foxes; while pea-fowls
climb to the tops of the highest trees round their owner's house for security, let the weather be
ever so cold or blowing. Partridges, it is true, roost on the ground, not having the faculty of
perching; but then the same fear prevails in their minds, for, through apprehension from pole-
cats and stoats, they never trust themselves to coverts, but nestle together in the midst of large
fields, far removed from hedges and coppices, which they love to haunt in the day, and where
at that season they can skulk more secure from the ravages of rapacious birds."

THE PHEASANT

Has long been known in England as the chief among our game birds. In years when no
especial inclemency or wetness of the weather thins their numbers, pheasants abound in the
woods and coppices where the game animals are preserved by the owners; and with the 1st
of October commences the time when they fall victims to the sportsman's gun. For beauty
and brilliancy of plumage the pheasant is unsurpassed, except by the peacock. The poet Pope
has described
"His glossy varying dyes,
His purpled crest, and scarlet-circled eyes,
The vivid green his shining plumes unfold,
His painted wings, and breast that flames with gold."

The pheasant is a harmless sociable bird, and readily adapts itself to various climates.
Asia Minor seems to have been its first home; but it spread from one country to another
throughout the Old World, and thus there are various species in different countries. In England
the pheasant thrives in its wild state, feeding on berries and acorns, and making a nest of dried
leaves in the forest. When taken young, the birds become as tame as chicks, and may be kept
in the poultry-yard, and fed on the food given to the poultry generally.' At night, as already
observed, they roost on high trees to be out of the way of danger; and, when disturbed, they
usually fall an easy prey to the sportsman, for their flight is heavy, and they rise with a loud
whirring noise that at once directs attention to them. The delicacy of the pheasant's flesh is
well known. Among the varieties of this class of birds may be mentioned the GOLDEN
PHEASANT (Plate xvn., b).' This is the most beautiful kind. It is a native of China. Its
brilliant plumage is one blaze of gold colour above, and of rich deep red be ow.-The SILVEa
PHEASANT (Plate xvii., a), the male of which species is of a fine silvery-gre -a e, with
delicate serpentine lines, and of a violet colour below, while the female is of a reddish-brown
hue, delicately shaded with green, and with black bands.-The GLEAMING or LOPHOPHOROUS
PHEASANT (Plate xvi., e), with a crest of feathers on its head like the peacock. This is a splendid
pheasant, its plumage gleaming with emerald tints intermingled with red and gold. The male
pheasant of this variety is one'of the most gorgeous of birds; but in this, as in every kind of
the pheasant tribe, the plumage of the female is plain and homely compared with that of her
mate.--Lastly, the ARGus PHEASANT (Plate xvin., c), so called from the numerous black and
white spots, reminding the spectator of the hundred eyes of Argus, with which the tail feathers
are adorned. This pheasant comes from Sumatra and the islands of the Malay Peninsula.

THE TURKEY (Plate xvn.,f.)

This well-known bird is supposed to be a native of North America, where it is still to be
found commonly enough, in a wild state, in the dense forests of the Western States. It does
not appear to have been known in Europe until some time after the discovery of America; and
this fact strengthens the supposition that the turkey was first brought by some of the Spanish
discoverers of the New World to Europe. Considering his heavy build and slow short flight,
85







THE OX TRIBE.

"The ox knoweth his owner, and the ass his master's crib; but Israel doth not know,
my people doth not consider."-Isaiah i. 3.

There are a great many varieties of the ox tribe, or, as it is called in Latin, the genus Bos:
and, indeed, we naturally expect that animals found in each of the great divisions of the globe,
and over nearly the whole face of each division, should vary according to the climate and
position of the country in which each kind is found. Thus the hide of the ox that grazes in
the plains of India, beneath a fierce tropical sun, would be quite insufficient to protect the musk
ox or the bison of America from the cold to which they are exposed; and thus we find these two
last varieties provided, one with a thick shaggy mane, and the other with coarse, rough, long hair
over the whole body. But there are some general points in which all the family resemble each
other, and with these we will begin.
In the whole ox tribe, we notice that the body is large and round, and the legs short, though
strong: unlike the horse, they seem formed more for strength than speed. The neck is thick
and muscular, and in it lies the chief strength of the animal. Thus the ox is more fit to draw
the plough or cart than to carry burdens on his back, and thus also he defends himself against
his enemies by pushing with his horns, or by endeavouring to toss his adversary in the air, an
operation in which the great strength of his neck comes into play. The whole ox tribe also
"part the hoof and chew the cud." Their hoofs are cloven or split, so that the animal has as
it were two hoofs on each foot, unlike the horse, whose hoof is all in one round piece. Their
stomachs are divided into compartments, from the first of which they can bring back the food
into the mouth, to masticate or chew it completely. This is called ruminating; and few can
have failed to observe the oxen and cows in a field, on a fine summer's day, lying placidly down,
and chewing and chewing, without appearing to be eating anything. Excepting in a single
variety, the horns may also be stated as a general feature in the ox tribe; and, unlike the deer,
they are found in the female as well as in the male. These horns differ greatly in shape and
size in the different kinds of cattle, and generally it may be seen that the more thoroughly
tamed the cattle are, the smaller do the horns become; as if, given to the cattle to defend
themselves in their wild state, these weapons are withdrawn from them by nature when the
creatures came under the protection of man.
Though subject to fits of rage almost amounting to madness, the ox tribe cannot be
regarded as a ferocious set of animals. In their wild state they seldom attack travellers
unless first molested; but when once aroused their fury is very destructive. They are highly
gregarious; that is, they are accustomed to keep together in large numbers, careering over the
vast prairies and savannahs of North America, through the llanos and pampas of the South, as
well as through the forests of Southern Africa. Every variety can be tamed.



EUROPEAN CATTLE. (Plate i.)

It is impossible to say at what time the ox was first domesticated in Europe or elsewhere.
In the Bible, cattle keeping is mentioned in the period before the Flood; and in Britain, when
Julius Caesar landed with his legions, more than nineteen hundred years ago, he found the
Britons already possessing flocks and herds. The importance of oxen as an article of property
has induced farmers to take great pains to improve the various breeds; and thus we have many
sorts, some noted for the quantity of flesh on their carcases, others for the fine quality of the
8





PAGE 1

CONTENTS. DOMESTIC ANIMALS, BIRDS, &C. PAGE INTRODUCTION . . .. 1 THE OX TRIBE . . . .. 3 EUROPEAN CATTLE .. ... 8 THE MUSK Ox . . .. 5 THE ZEBU . . . 5 THE BUFFALO . . . 6 THE.GOAT AND THE SHEEP . 7 THE IBEX . .. 8 THE COMMON OR DOMESTI GOT . . . 8 THE SHEEP 10 THE MOUFFLON .. .. .. .. 10 THE DOMESTIC SHEEP . ... 11 THE HORSE TRIBE . . .14 THE ASS . 16 THE ZEBRA . . . 18 THE QUAGoA . . . 18 THE DEER TRIBE . 18 THE REINDEER . . . . . 19 THE STA . . . . . 20 THE ROE . . . 20 THE FALLOW DEER . . 21 THE SPRING BUCK, OR SPBINGBOK . .. 21 THE HARE AND RABBIT TRIBE .. 22 THE VARYING HABE . . . 23 THE RABBIT .. . .. .. 23 THE BEAVER . . . . 24 THE MUSK BEAVER . . . 25 THE FOX .. .. . 26 THE JACKAL . . . . .27 THE HEDGEHOG . . .. . 27 SHREWS . . . ... 28 BIRDS. INTRODUCTORY . . . 29 ON SOME RAPACIOUS BIRDS. 31 THE OSPREY, OB SEA EAGLE . . . 32 THE VULTURES . . . .. THE ERNE ... .82 THE FALCON AND HAWK KIND .. . 32 THE GOSHAWK . . 33 THE GEE-FALCON .. . 33 THE BUZZARD . 33 THE POULTRY KIND . . .. 34 THE COCK AND HEN 34 THE PHEASANT .. 35 THE TURKEY . .. 35 THE PEACOCK . 36 ON SOME SINGING BIRDS . . . .. 37 THE GOLDFINCH . 38 THE BULLFINCH 38 THE CHAFFINCH .. .39 THE CITRIL FINCH . . .. 39 THE SISxIN, OR ABEDEmVINE 39 THE LINNET . . .9. 9 THE CANARY . . . . THE LARK . 41 THEUSHES OR THROSTLES ... 41 THE NIGHTINGALE ... . 41 THE BUNTING . .. 41 THE BUTCHER BIRD . . 41 THE PARROT TRIBE . . . . 42 CONCLUSION-THE ARCTIC REGIONS . . 43 WALRUSES AND SEALS 44



PAGE 1

I--_.:' ~ ~,/.~=--W '-~ rl~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~1 P'~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ '?:;, ,!P I.: q :;I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~I .L? --_ ~7,¢. -a7 ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~f:~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ r ai~'--~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~z ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~' -~-------.... : ,' ~/:';'I:f:5i3~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~, 'v:. a'~ '; 'i.: ~ ,~,,,',' i ) I , /' ,. :c~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~u~~~~~~~~~~~~ . . . ..... _=----, ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~,.,' i 7;: ~--z.;~. ./~.r ~ ~~~------ -;~~~ ~~--~%: =: ~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~;.¢:...'". 3-~-. --_~. _,_



PAGE 1

THE POULTRY KIND. The careful hen Calls all her chirping family around, Fed and defended by the fearless cock, Whose breast with ardour glows, as on he walks, Graceful, and crows defiance. * The turkey nigh, Loud threatening, reddens; while the peacock spreads His many-coloured glory to the sun, And swims in radiant majesty along." Birds of the poultry kind were intended by nature to live among men in a domestic state, and they occupy among birds the place filled by the horse and ox tribe among quadrupeds. Unlike the rapacious birds, they are sociable and cheerful, delighting in each other's society, and shunning solitude as much as the eagle or falcon would seek it. Their wings are generally short and their bodies plump, so that they are neither able nor willing to fly far from their abodes, or to seek inaccessible solitudes among the rocks. As they feed on grain and seeds, their legs and claws are strong; not formed, however, like those of the rapacious birds, for seizing and holding prey, but for scratching up the ground in search of food. The gizzard with which they are provided enables them to digest the hard seeds they swallow; and the numerous chicks they produce render them very valuable to the farmer's wife, whose poultryyard forms an important part of the domestic economy of the farm. THE COCK AND HEN Are too well known to need any long description. They have been introduced into almost every country in the world, and, like the horse and ox, appear to thrive almost wherever man can live. There are many different species, varying m size and plumage, but all present the same general features. Just as among the falcons some kinds are more courageous and noble than others, so we find that some breeds of cocks will fight courageously with adversaries twice their own size, while others will succumb after short resistance. A little game cock, for instance, will boldly attack a farmyard or, as he is sometimes called, a dunghill cock twice his own size, and put him to flight by mere rage and fury. The farmyard cock, however, until he has been beaten by an enemy, rules in a despotic and determined manner among the poultry, and, expects deference and obedience from every feathered fellow creature he meets. The cock and hen are said to have come from Persia, but they were known all over the Old World in very remote times. Caesar found them in Britain when he landed half a century before our Saviour's birth, and even to Iceland they had made their way in early times. In White's "Natural History of Selborne" occur the following interesting remarks respecting the habits of poultry:-" Many creatures are endowed with a ready discernment to see what will turn to their own advantage and emolument, and often discover more sagacity than could be expected. Thus, my neighbour's poultry watch for waggons loaded with wheat, and running after them, pick up a number of grains which are shaken from the sheaves by the agitation of the carriages. Thus, when my brother used to take down his gun to shoot sparrows, his cats would run out before him, to be ready to catch up the birds as they fell. The earnest and early propensity of the gallines to roost on high is very observable, and discovers a strong dread impressed on their spirits respecting vermin that may annoy them on the ground during the hours of darkness. Hence poultry, if left to themselves and not housed, will perch the winter through on yew trees and fir trees; and turkeys and guinea-fowls, heavy as they are, 34



PAGE 1

4,



PAGE 1

f : II'~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 1,6? = ~. 5 =~ i. ~ i? I /, ,~ a. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~,~~~~~~~~"'.~ ",,,..i I,~~~~~, I_~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ J' I;' '2~ -:i :~~~~~~~~~~~~ n~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~,;~~~~~~;i~~~~a~~~~%$p$~~~~~~~~C~~~~i~~~~ .I: ~ i ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.~, :p!'~~ ~. -~.a d; '""::,::~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-. :"~~~.1 1 i~~~~~~~~~~~~i~~~ ~~ = '!~ i !~ "} ~~~~~~~..-r -~~-' i"~i, "~~~~~~~~~~~~;'',~ii = r-----:': ~ .~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.








10 r .-


1A.,



rrJ
iTi


The Baldwin Lbrar)

6-LonS


dl!





PAGE 1

w' jo ? T rww .c.f^ ^., S^ / j t ~~~~~~~~~/ / / p %-if< l-^Z -,'M ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ii ft I, l'p !I i\



DOMESTIC RABBITS THE BEAVER AN ARCHITECT.


period from a few individuals. The female, or doe rabbit, has frequently no fewer than seven
litters of young ones within a year, and generally each litter consists of six or seven rabbits.
The common grey wild rabbit is well known as an article of food. Its skin is also used in the
manufacture of hats and other articles of dress. A great number of dead rabbits are brought
from Belgium and Holland, chiefly by way of Ostend, for the London market. These are a
larger species than the English kind. Tame rabbits are often kept for amusement by boys.
They are generally white and black. Fancy rabbits are those whose ears, instead of being
fixed in an upright position on each side of the head, lap over, or lop, as it is called; and
according to the way in which the ears fall, either in a horn-lop, an oar-lop, or in the perfect
lop, is the rabbit considered valuable. These tame rabbits are much larger than the wild kind.
Rabbits feed chiefly on grass, which they nibble off very closely with their sharp teeth; they
are also fond of most vegetables, such as carrots, turnips, &c., and of bran and corn. They do
not require to drink; and too much moisture in their food is injurious to them, rendering them
liable to a disease called the "rot."



THE BEAVER.
The beaver (Plate xii., d) may truly be called a remarkable animal, and has been often
cited as an instance of the marvellous instinct with which certain creatures have been endowed.
In some animals this instinct appears most wonderfully in the ingenious manner of procuring
food; in others it manifests itself, as in the hare and fox, in the numerous stratagems the
creature employs in escaping from danger: in the beaver it is most strikingly shown in the
marvellous skill with which he constructs his dwelling. Not content with a mere burrow or
form, like the rabbit and hare, or with a nest on a bough or on the ground, like the thrush or
the swan, nothing short of a village, built on what is to him a navigable river, will suffice for
the beaver; and truly admirable and worthy of study is the labour he will undergo, and the
expedients he will adopt, to fashion his village to his liking.
The beaver is about two feet long and a foot high. Its head is round, its fore legs short,
the hinder legs long, and the hind feet webbed. The colour of the beaverj jight brown.
Its broad singularly shaped tail is covered with a horny skin, in fish-like scales, and is used by
the beaver as a rudder in swimming. The sharpness of the beaver's teeth is very remarkable.
The little creature can gnaw through the trunk of a tree by perseveringly working with these
formidable instruments. Its food is chiefly berries and the bark of young trees. The home
of the beaver is in North America, though anciently it also inhabited some parts of Europe.
In the autumn a community of two or three hundred beavers will make systematic pre-
parations for building their village. They invariably choose the side of a lake or stream; and
if the water is too shallow for their purpose, or makes them fear that they will be frozen out"
in the winter, they proceed, with the skill of engineers, to deepen it. Just as a stream is
dammed up in the neighbourhood of a mill to husband and regulate the water supply, do the
beavers construct a dam, sometimes more than a hundred feet long, to keep the water at a
proper level. This dam is made of branches of trees, gnawed from the stems by the little archi-
tects' sharp teeth, and laid along in lines, with clay and stones intermingled, to render the bank
impervious to water. At the base this dam is twelve feet thick, but gradually narrows towards
the top till it is only three feet across at the edge. Near the dam, the beavers build their bell-
shaped huts, which are inhabited by from a dozen to thirty beavers each, and rise to a height
of six feet above the water. The careful beaver also lays in a stock of branches and strips of
bark for winter provisions; and takes care, moreover, to construct a curious place of refuge-a
24








PAGE 1

F



PAGE 1

TIMIDITY OF THE HARE-ITS CUNNING-ITS FECUNDITY. THE HARE AND THE RABBIT TRIBE. The hare belongs to a very well known and a very useful tribe of-the animal kingdom. There are few children who have not seen the timid hare, dead, and exposed for sale in the game dealer's window, even if they have not seen the creature alive scampering over the fields, and generally presenting the very image of fleetness combined with fear. The Latin name given by naturalists to the hare, -Lepus timidus, points to the fearfulness which is the chief feature in its character; and this timidity and aptitude to discern and fly from the first approach of danger is the means given by Providence to the hare to escape from the many foes who lay snares for its life. Unprovided with any effective weapons wherewith to fight, the hare is admirably furnished with the means of discerning danger, and avoiding it by flight. Its hind legs are much longer than the fore legs, and thus it can readily run up hill, and, indeed, generally seeks a rising ground when flying from its foes. Its' ears are peculiarly long, and of tubular shape, and thus are available, like the ear trumpets used by deaf persons, in distinguishing distant sounds. (See Plate xi., a.) The eyes are placed so far back in the head that the hare ':au almost literally see the pursuers behind it when it is running straight forward; and however rich the pasture on which it feeds, its body never becomes fat or heavy. Thus its speed is undiminished at all seasons of the year. But speed is not the only means used by the hare to escape from its foes. When hunted, no animal displays more cunning or greater resources of stratagem to baffle its pursuers. Knowing that the hounds hunt by the scent, the hare will try to baffle them by doubling, or returning on its own traces for a time, so that the hounds become bewildered. At others, it will run for a considerable distance along the top of a quickset hedge, with the same object of baffling the hounds; or will run and take refuge among a flock of sheep, or in the hole,' or, as it is called, the form, of another hare. Frequently it will return by round-about ways to the place whence it started when first alarmed: and to this fact the poet Goldsmith alludes in those exquisite lines of the "Deserted Village" in which he expresses his hope of returning to his old home. He says: "And as a hare whom hounds and horns pursue Pants to the place from whence at first he flew, I still had hopes, my long vexations past, Here to return, and die at home at last." The hare is found in most parts of Europe and Asia, and there are also American varieties. Its food is vegetables of all kinds, and many garden plants, especially parsley, of which it is extravagantly fond. In winter, when the supply of fresh food fails, it feeds on the bark of young trees, which it gnaws in such a manner as frequently to destroy the tree entirely. Market gardens near towns often suffer from the depredations of the hare, especially when an unusually hard time in winter drives the timid creatures from the fields to the vicinity of the dwellings of man, where they hope to find subsistence. The hare is not watchful and timid without good cause. Many beasts and birds of prey are among its enemies; and such numbers are slain, that the species would quickly become extinct, but for the number of young brought forth by all the hare and rabbit tribe. A hare will frequently have four sets of young ones, three or four each time, in the course of the year. For about three weeks she feeds the young leverets; and when they are only a month old, they are left to provide for themselves. Still, in spite of their numerous foes, they seem rather to increase than to diminish in number. Although the flesh of the hare is esteemed delicate food, the Israelites were forbidden by 22






PAGE 1

i -d~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ iz~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-&~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~,,i111 I 'I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ lw. ~d ........ I"' ~~~~II 17~~~~~~~:. L. .,.~ ,,~.¢ .. r,.:.~~-._. '~ _-.~ .. 11,, .,I-,' ',~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~' *-I~~~~~~~ ,.,1 ~ (rP;~~~~;"' r "'' "''"'"' '.... .7'r :.:', '" ' ''-;' '"' 1~~~ :~L--~"~ -. _~_~_..~ = '-~ : _:=-~_ ..~_.-_.. -~~~~~~~~~~~~~~I .~_ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.~ ~~.~Ps~ Ilsr -~e Il~~crrs~-t-;~~i~adle~l~~zrs ~ ~IB~I' -~' '~', .~.~__ --. ~~ _-:,---=.:~.~ ~~~~~:` ---- ,,~~



PAGE 1

] BAD CHARAOTER OF THE JACKAL-THE HEDGEHOG. Among other examples of this nature, the following is well authenticated. "A female fox, having a cub, was unkennelled near Chelmsford, by some gentlemen's hounds. and friends, band pursued by them a considerable distance, with all the eagerness of sport. The poor animal, at the moment of their approach, felt for the safety of her young one; and snatching it up in her mouth, fled before her pursuers for several miles, panting under the weight of her burden, but resolved to preserve it at the hazard of her own life. At length, exhausted by fatigue and fear,-she was attacked by a mastiff in a farmer's yard, and, unable to support her offspring any longer, she dropped it at the farmer's feet, who kindly saved it from destruction, while the mother happily saved her own life from the multiplied dangers by which she was surrounded." The fox has a very strong and peculiar smell, by which the hounds can trace him for a long distance. THE JACKAL (Plate xmI., a) Is a creature closely resembling the fox in many particulars. It is found in great numbers in the central and southern parts of Asia, but cannot, like the fox, endure much cold. In the whole of Africa jackals are to be met with. Its height is from fifteen to twenty inches, and'its length from the snout to the tail about two feet and a half. The general colour is dusky on, the back, and a tawny yellow below. The tail is bushy, the snout less pointed than that of the fox. The jackal is very easily tamed, and grows as familiar as a dog, running after its master, and sporting and frisking round him, anxious to attract his attention and to be caressed, and readily answering to its name. Their food, like that of the fox, is very various. They are omnivorous, devouring vegetable and animal substances with equal voracity. Unlike the fox, they will feed on carrion without being hard pressed by hunger; nor are they solitary like the fox, who dwells in a burrow with only the cubs for company, and goes out alone for prey. Jackals, on the contrary, hunt their prey in packs of from fifty to two hundred; scouring across the country like a pack of hounds in full cry i barking and yelping noisily, and arousing all the animals in their neighbourhood from nightfall to daybreak. Thievish like the fox, they plunder gardens, outhouses, and poultry yards; but far less fastidious than Reynard in their fare, they devour almost anything that comes in their way, including the hides of oxen, and even leather thongs and saddles. In the desert they will frequently follow the march of a caravan for many days and nights, in order to prey upon any camel or horse that may perish from exhaustion, and be left behind by the troop. The name, the lion's provider," which has been given to the jackal, from the prevalent idea that it hunts to provide the king of beasts with food, has little foundation in fact. The truth is, that the howling of a pack of jackals rouses up all the beasts of the forest, including the lion, who takes his share of the smaller and more timid creatures as they fly in terror across the plain. Buffon, the naturalist, gives the jackal a very bad character, asserting that "he unites the impudence of. the dog with the dastardliness of the wolf; and, participating in the nature of E each, seems to be an odious creature, composed of all the bad qualities of both." This is very hard upon the poor jackal, which, when tamed and properly educated, proves himself a very good-humoured, sportive little fellow. THE HEDGEHOG. This little animal, which has sometimes been called the English porcupine, is chiefly remarkable for the prickly coat he wears-a true hauberk or shirt of mail, which protects him against every enemy-and for his strange power of rolling himself into a ball when attacked, and thus completely hiding his head and paws, and presenting to his enemy somewhat the appearance of a large brown prickly chestnut, with which none but the most daring would wish


BAD CHARACTER OF THE JACKAL-THE HEDGEHOG.


Among other examples of this nature, the following is well authenticated. "A female
fox, having a cub, was unkennelled near Chelmsford, by some gentlemen's hounds and friends,
and pursued by them a considerable distance, with all the eagerness of sport. The poor animal,
at the moment of their approach, felt for the safety of her young one; and snatching it up in
her mouth, fled before her pursuers for several miles, panting under the weight of her burden,
but resolved to preserve it at the hazard of her own life. At length, exhausted by fatigue and
fear, she was attacked by a mastiff in a farmer's yard, and, unable to support her offspring any
longer, she dropped it at the farmer's feet, who kindly saved it from destruction, while the
mother happily saved her own life from the multiplied dangers by which she was surrounded."
The fox has a very strong and peculiar smell, by which the hounds can trace him for a long
distance.
THE JACKAL (Plate xm., a)
Is a creature closely resembling the fox in many particulars. It is found in great numbers in
the central and southern parts of Asia, but cannot, like the fox, endure much cold. In the
whole of Africa jackals are to be met with. Its height is from fifteen to twenty inches, and'its
length from the snout to the tail about two feet and a half. The general colour is dusky on
the back, and a tawny yellow below. The tail is bushy, the snout less pointed than that of
the fox. The jackal is very easily tamed, and grows as familiar as a dog, running after its
master, and sporting and frisking round him, anxious to attract his attention and to be caressed,
and readily answering to its name. Their food, like that of the fox, is very various. They are
omnivorous, devouring vegetable and animal substances with equal voracity. Unlike the fox,
they will feed on carrion without being hard pressed by hunger; nor are they solitary like the
fox, who dwells in a burrow with only the cubs for company, and goes out alone for prey.
Jackals, on the contrary, hunt their prey in packs of from fifty to two hundred; scouring
across the country like a pack of hounds in full cry, barking and yelping noisily, and arousing
all the animals in their neighbourhood from nightfall to daybreak. Thievish like the fox, they
plunder gardens, outhouses, and poultry yards; but far less fastidious than Reynard in their
fare, they devour almost anything that comes in their way, including the hides of oxen, and
even leather thongs and saddles. In the desert they will frequently follow the march of a
caravan for many days and nights, in ordpr to prey upon any camel or horse that may perish
from exhaustion, and be left behind by the troop. The name, the lion's provider," which has
been given to the jackal, from the prevalent idea that it hunts to provide the king of beasts
with food, has little foundation in fact. The truth is, that the howling of a pack of jackals
rouses up all the beasts of the forest, including the lion, who takes his share of the smaller
and more timid creatures as they fly in terror across the plain.
Buffon, the naturalist, gives the jackal a very bad character, asserting that "he unites the
impudence of. the dog with the dastardliness of the wolf; and, participating in the nature of
Each, seems to be an odious creature, composed of all the bad qualities of both." This is very
hard upon the poor jackal, which, when tamed and properly educated, proves himself a very
good-humoured, sportive little fellow.

THE HEDGEHOG.
This little animal, which has sometimes been called the English porcupine, is chiefly
remarkable for the prickly coat he wears-a true hauberk or shirt of mail, which protects him
against every enemy-and for his strange power of rolling himself into a ball when attacked,
and thus completely hiding his head and paws, and presenting to his enemy somewhat the
appearance of a large brown prickly chestnut, with which none but the moat daring would wish

































































































r













































































n





PAGE 1

2



PAGE 1

A p







ON SOME RAPACIOUS BIRDS.
"True to the season, o'er our sea-beat, shore,
The sailing osprey high is seen to soar
With broad unmoving wing; and circling slow
Marks each loose straggler in the deep below;
Sweeps down like lightning! plunges with a roar!
And bears his struggling victim to the shore."
In this book we proposed to speak especially of Domestic Animals, or of those which man
has tamed for his use, and taught to live in a sociable manner around his dwelling-place. In
speaking of birds we shall follow the same rule; but here it is necessary to make a slight
alteration in our plan. In many of the great classes into which birds are divided, some indi-
viduals have been tamed; others have lived in a half domesticated state around the dwellings
of man; while others of the same tribe have always maintained their independence. Thus,
while the lordly eagle soars in wild freedom above his mountain crag, the falcon, who belongs to
the same family, namely, that of the rapacious birds, has been for ages tamed and used in the
chase; thus again, while the turkey struts about in our poultry-yards, the largest, and certainly
the most conceited of its denizens, his cousin, the turkey buzzard, flies about in freedom in the
American forests.
Rapacious birds in general are distinguished by the same features which mark the beasts
of prey. They live alone, and have none of the social qualities exhibited by birds'of other
classes. Goldsmith, in his "Animated Nature," well describes their dispositions. He says:
Formed for war, they lead a life of solitude and robbery. They inhabit, by choice, the
most lonely places and the most desert mountains. They make their nests in the clefts of
rocks and on the highest and most inaccessible trees of the forest. Whenever they appear in
the cultivated plain or the warbling grove, it is only for the purposes of depredation, and are
gloomy intruders on the general joy of the landscape. They spread terror wherever they
approach: all that variety of music which but a moment before enlivened the grove, at their
appearing is instantly at an end: every order of lesser birds seek for safety, either by conceal-
ment or flight; and some are even driven to take protection with man, to avoid; their less
merciful pursuers."
The largest birds of this class are the different species of eagles and vultures. .These
birds are known by their lofty flight, their large powerful wings, and their wild fierce natures.
They live on small quadrupeds and birds of every kind; and when they have young ones to
feed, they often commit great depredations among the flocks, carrying off many a young lamb
to their nest on the lofty crag, to feed the sharp-beaked hungry eaglets who scream for prey.
The fierce warlike nature of the eagle made it a fit emblem or sign of the Roman power; and
therefore the Romans carried figures of eagles, carved in gold, in front of their armies, as we
now carry flags or ensigns; and every Roman soldier had to take an oath that he would never
on any account desert his standard. The Romans also considered this bird as sacred to the
god Jupiter, who was always represented with an eagle by his side.
The chief species of the eagle are-the GOLDEN EAGLE, which in former times was some-
times trained to the chase, being taught to pursue and capture other birds; until the falcon, a
smaller and lighter bird, was found much better adapted for this duty; -the COMMON EAGLE,
which measures about three feet from the bill to the tail, and is found in most of the northern
and central countries of Europe, in mountainous desolate regions, but which disappears, like all
birds and beasts of prey, before the advance of man;-the BALD EAGLE, which takes its name
from the head and neck being white, and thus presenting an appearance of baldness as con-
trasted with the deep brown colour of the body: this bird is found chiefly in North America;
81




ENCOUNTER BETWEEN AN EAGLE AND A CAT.


the WHITE EAGLE, the BLACK EAGLE, and the SPOTTED EAGLE, all distinguished by, and named
after, their peculiar colour.

THE OSPREY, OR SEA EAGLE (Plate xv., c),
Is worthy of particular mention. This bird is an admirable example of the way in which the
great Creator has fitted every creature for the kind of life it is intended to pursue. The sea
eagle, as its name implies, dwells near the ocean, building its nest upon a crag on the shore,
whence it can skim across the waters, catching the fish as they swim near the surface; for fish
are its chief food, though it occasionally flies inland, robbing the farmyards, and seizing any
bird or small quadruped that comes in its way. As fishes are slippery creatures, apt to wriggle
and writhe themselves out of the grasp of their enemies, the osprey is furnished with long
sharp talons, curving downwards in a half circle; and with these sharp talons it holds its prey
as with hooks, and soars away towards its nest, while the poor captive struggles in vain to
escape. Its legs, too, are devoid of feathers, as, from its manner of seeking its prey, they are
almost always wet. The osprey is a large kind of eagle, measuring from three to four feet
from the beak to the tip of the tail. An instance is recorded of an eagle of this kind in
Westmoreland, that swooped down and seized an unfortunate cat, who was harmlessly sunning
herself in the fields; but Puss showed she had talons as well as the eagle, and with her claws
and teeth she made such a brave fight of it, that the osprey was dragged down to the ground,
and was at last glad to make his escape, wondering, perhaps, what this new kind of hare might
be, that tore and scratched so savagely.

THE VULTURES
Have a general resemblance to the eagle, but their featherless heads and naked legs give them
a disagreeable appearance. Unlike the eagle, the vulture lives on carrion or putrid meat; and
were its head covered with feathers like that of the eagle, it would become still more repulsive
than it is, for the feathers would quickly become clogged and matted together with the disgust-
ing food on which it lives. The vulture is confined to the hot latitudes, and in many Eastern
countries is very useful in clearing away the dead animals whose carcases are left to rot in the
city or on the plain, and would infect the air, if the vultures did not devour them. The largest
species of vulture is the American condor, a bird of great size, but heavy, stupid, and cowardly.

THE ERNE (Plate xv., a)
Is distinguished by its iron colour, dark above and yellowish below. It is a small species, but
flies very swiftly, and is said to discern its prey at a great distance.



THE FALCON AND HAWK KIND,
Among the rapacious birds (See Plates xv. and xvi.), though smaller than the eagle, are more
like that royal bird, in form and in character, than is the heavy loathsome vulture. In the days
of old, when all kinds of field sports were the chief delight of kings, princes, and nobles, when
learning and study were considered as unimportant and foolish in comparison with a knowledge
of hunting and hawking, the falcon was highly prized, and to kill a bird of this kind was a more
serious matter than the slaying of a mere peasant. Immense sums were given for falcons;
and though the people grew up in utter ignorance, the falconers were thoroughly educated and
trained.





PAGE 1

DOMESTIC RABBITS--THE BEAVER AN ARCHITECT. period from a few individuals. The female, or doe rabbit, has frequently no fewer than seven litters of young ones within a year, and generally each litter consists of six or seven rabbits. The common grey wild rabbit is well known as an article of food. Its skin is also used inthe manufacture of hats and other articles of dress. A great number of dead rabbits are brought from Belgium and Holland, chiefly by way of Ostend, for the London market. These are a larger species than the English kind. Tame rabbits are often kept for amusement by boys. They are generally white and black. Fancy rabbits are those whose ears, instead of being fixed in an upright position on each side of the head, lap over, or lop, as it is called; and according to the way in which the ears fall, either in a horn-lop, an oar-lop, or in the perfect lop, is the rabbit considered valuable. These tame rabbits are much larger than the wild kind. Rabbits feed chiefly on grass, which they nibble off very closely with their sharp teeth; they are also fond of most vegetables, such as carrots, turnips, &c., and of bran and corn. They do not require to drink; and too much moisture in their food is injurious to them, rendering them liable to a disease called the "rot." THE BEAVER. The beaver (Plate xri., d) may truly be called a remarkable animal, and has been often cited as an instance of the marvellous instinct with which certain creatures have been endowed. In some animals this instinct appears most wonderfully in the ingenious manner of procuring food; in others it manifests itself, as in the hare and fox, in the numerous stratagems the creature employs in escaping from danger: in the beaver it is most strikingly shown in the marvellous skill with which he constructs his dwelling. Not content with a mere burrow or' form, like the rabbit and hare, or with a nest on a bough or on the ground, like the thrush or the swan, nothing short of a village, built on what is to him a navigable river, will suffice for the beaver; and truly admirable and worthy of study is the labour he will undergo, and the expedients he will adopt, to fashion his village to his liking. The beaver is about two feet long and a foot high. Its head is round, its fore legs short, the hinder legs long, and the hind feet webbed. The colour of the beaverisliht brown. Its broad singularly shaped tail is covered with a horny skin, in fish-like scales, and is used by the beaver as a rudder in swimming. The sharpness of the beaver's teeth is very remarkable. The little creature can gnaw through the trunk of a tree by perseveringly working with these formidable instruments. Its food is chiefly berries and the bark of young trees. The home of the beaver is in North America, though anciently it also inhabited some parts of Europe. In the autumn community of two or three hundred beavers will make systematic preparations for building their village. They invariably choose the side of a lake or stream; and if the water is too shallow for their purpose, or makes them fear that they will be "frozen out" in the winter, they proceed, with the skill of engineers, to deepen it. Just as a stream is dammed up in the neighbourhood of a mill to husband and regulate the water supply, do the beavers construct a dam, sometimes more than a hundred feet long, to keep the water at a proper level. This dam is made of branches of trees, gnawed from the stems by the little architects' sharp teeth, and laid along in lines, with clay and stones intermingled, to render the bank impervious to water. At the base this dam is twelve feet thick, but gradually narrows towards the top till it is only three feet across at the edge. Near the dam, the beavers build their bellshaped huts, which are inhabited by from a dozen to thirty beavers each, and rise to a height of six feet above the water. The careful beaver also lays in a stock of branches and strips of bark for winter provisions; and takes care, moreover, to construct a curious place of refuge-a 24


SUPERSTITIONS CONNECTED WITH THE SHREW.


to meddle. This power proceeds from a peculiarly tough and strong muscle with which his hack
is furnished; and so pertinaciously does he maintain his position when once he has rolled him-
self up, that hardly anything short of the application of fire will induce him to unroll himself
and come out of his natural stronghold. The hedgehog is about ten inches in length, and has
a long nose, not unlike the snout of a pig in shape. His legs are very short, and weak in
appearance, and his eyes are small. During the day he lies asleep, but sallies out in the
evening; and during the night he is very lively, going to and fro in quest of insects, fruits, and
herbs, on which he feeds. During the winter he sleeps away most of his time in a bed of moss
or dry leaves. He is quite harmless, though superstition has attached him, like the cat, to the
service of witches. In Shakespeare's "Macbeth," the whining of the hedge-pig is mentioned
by one of the witches, as a signal that it is time to prepare their magic cauldron.
The Rev. Gilbert White, the naturalist of Selborne, in speaking of this animal, says:
"Hedgehogs abound in my gardens and fields (in Hampshire). The manner in which they eat
the roots of the plantain in my grass walks is very curious. With their upper mandible, which
is much longer than their lower, they bore under the plant, and so eat the root off upwards,
leaving the tuft of leaves untouched. In this respect they are serviceable, as they destroy a
very troublesome weed; but they deface the walks in some measure by digging little round
holes. ... In June last I procured a litter of four or five young hedgehogs, which 3
appeared to be about five or six days old; I find they are born blind, like puppies, and could
not see when they came into my hands. Their spines are quite white at this age; and they
have little hanging ears, which I do not remember to be discernible in the old ones."

SHREWS.
Of these little creatures there are no fewer than twelve species, not differing in any very
essential particular from each other. They greatly resemble the rat in appearance, and all
have sharp muzzles and cutting teeth. The first species is
The FETID SHREW (Plate xiv., d). This shrew is only three inches long, and is found in
most parts of Europe, and the northern division of Asia. It is very like the common mouse in
appearance, and takes up its abode in ruined buildings, or burrows in the ground. Its food is
insects, corn, and any refuse it can find. It obtains its name from the offensive odour of its
flesh, which is so tainted that the cat and owl, though they hunt and kill it, will not eat it.
Its eyes are small and its ears short. It is quite harmless.
The WATER SHREW (Plate xiv., e) is somewhat larger than the fetid shrew. Its colour
is black above, and grey or white below. It swims well, and takes up its abode in the
neighbourhood of water. The pike and other fish feed upon it greedily. It has a chirruping
voice, like that of a cricket. It burrows like a water rat in the banks of streams, and lives
upon grubs and other water insects.
The PIGMY SHREW differs from the other species only in the smallness of its size. It is
not more than an inch long, and is supposed to be the smallest of four-footed creatures; hence
its name Pigmy, from the Pigmies, a supposed nation of dwarfs. There are other species, such
as the MEXICAN, the PERFUMING SHREW, &c.
Harmless and inoffensive as is the poor little shrew, the ignorance and superstition of the
people in old days gave it a very bad name. The simple villagers asserted that the bite of a
shrew mouse was poisonous, and could only be cured by cutting a shrew in two, and laying the
halves across the wound. Cattle over whose bodies a shrew mouse had run were supposed to
become sick and ailing, and could only be cured by a shrew ash. The superstition is thus
explained by Gilbert White: "A shrew ash is an ash whose twigs or branches, when gently
applied to the limbs of cattle, will immediately relieve the pains which a beast suffers from the





PAGE 1

I X,~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~I ,~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~o ,, ,e~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ R,,41 P.M~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~, AL~ ~ ~ ~~b Ij















I,;~F-


j


. .6
wj'','


'< *


4 .-


/' 3:~i
LI



i. I"
"'


','& '' '"'




l^::
fe ,. ,Jl,,,'
* T '' ,i!,,


II
-1
--- =-Z


k
-^-i


:~h-

-;-:
Ze -
~'~-~c~~~'~-~i~7-7;`-~--i~
i~--~-=-,~ ~P=PL~


"
,,
-5
i%-~i


Alp:


~P_ __1_


~ac~-~-~ r
pr
gr_ ar--~' ~I
.-s
-~ .1

~-=i-
~- '--

Ic--
i


P-
i





I d


:7

I


'"


r


'47


1.

E
;;i a --I; _1-= __--~i~
-~-- --
;- ----


--~--





PAGE 1

IMPORTANCE OF THE BUFFALO TO THE AMERICAN INDIANS. is valuable from its extreme thickness and toughness; indeed, a common leaden bullet would make little impression on the skin of a Cape buffalo; thus the hunting of. the buffalo is a matter of considerable danger. Finally, it may be observed of the ox tribe, that the usefulness of these animals is seen alike in their wild and in their domestic state. To the Hottentots of Southern Africa, the flesh, the hide, the horns, and sinews of the buffalo, and other varieties of oxen, represent at once food, raiment, implements of war, and objects of domestic use; and the importance of the buffalo of America is strongly portrayed in the words of an intelligent traveller, who, speaking from personal experience, says: "I cannot convey any just impression of the total dependence of the remote western tribes on the buffalo for their very existence, without giving a sketch of the various purposes for which that animal is, by their ingenuity, rendered available. First, its flesh is their principal, sometimes their only, food; eaten fresh on the prairies during their hunt, and dried in their winter villages. Secondly, the skin is put to various uses. It forms the material of their lodges, of their bales for packing the meat, of their beds by night, and their clothing by day. The coarser parts they make into saddles or cut into laryettes or halters; and more than all this, it is now their chief source of trade with the whites, and thus is the source whence they must derive blankets, knives, beads, and every other produce of civilization. Thirdly, they use the sinews as strings to their bows, and the smaller fibres instead of twine or thread. The brains serve to soften and dress the skin; while the hoof at the end of the shank-bone is made to serve the purp ose of a mallet. Fourthly, the bones are not less useful; some of them being serviceable as scrapers or close chisels, others are rointed and used with the finer fibres as needles and thread, and the ribs, strengthened by some of the stronger fibres, are made to furnish the bow with which other buffaloes are to be destroyed. This last is the triumph of Indian ingenuity. The first bow that I saw constructed in this manner caused me so much surprise and admiration, that I offered nearly the value of a horse for it, but was refused." Such is the ox genus; a tribe of animals whose adaptability to the various necessities of man forms a striking proof of the bounty of that Providence which gave man dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth." THE GOAT AND THE SHEEP. "Be thou diligent to know the state of thy flocks, and look well to thy herds. For riches are not for ever: and doth the crown endure to every generation ? The hay appeareth, and the tender grass sheweth itself, and herbs of the mountains are gathered. The lambs are for thy clothing, and the goats are the price of the field. And thou shalt have goats' milk enough for thy food, for the food of thy household, and for the maintenance for thy maidens." -Proverbs xxvii. 23-27. There are many reasons why the goat and the sheep should be considered together, for they have many features in common. Both are social in disposition, dwelling together in flocks, and easily adapting themselves to a life of dependence on man. The hair of the goat, like the wool of the sheep, was in early times considered a valuable article of clothing; and the flesh and milk of the goat, as of the sheep, have been used for ages as articles of food. That the goat was considered at least equally important and serviceable with the sheep, among the ancients, appears in the following lines from a pastoral poem of the Roman poet Virgil: y



PAGE 1

PECULIARITIES OF THE DOMESTIC SHEEP. stripe along the back, and white underneath. It is about as large as a full-sized goat, and has great horns curving backward from its forehead, and resembling those of the ibex. Like all its race, it is gregarious, consorting in flocks, living upon the high mountains, and flying with great agility on the appearance of the hunter. So shy, indeed, is the moufflon, that it can very rarely be taken alive. The young are covered with a short fleece; but the older moufflon has a hairy instead of a woolly coat, though beneath the outward hair a woolly down is found, as in the Cashmere goat. In the summer, when the moufflon finds plenty of Alpine plants in the sheltered valleys of the higher regions of rocks, it grows very fat, and its flesh is said to be equal to venison in flavour; but in the winter the scarcity of food among the mountains forces it to descend into the lower valleys in search of grass and herbs; and this is the period chosen by the hunter to surprise the wary animal, the agility of whose movements is quite in contrast with the feeble gait we generally associate with the sheep. THE DOMESTIC SHEEP. In almost every country there are one or more breeds of sheep; some covered with coarse hair scantily mixed with wool, others presenting a soft thick fleece, exceedingly valuable for its weight and texture; many kinds have a dark brown crisp wool, very different from the snowy fleeces of the English breeds; and some are entirely black. The sheep of Guinea, in Africa, has long legs, a gaunt, thin body, and a covering of coarse shaggy hair. In Syria and Egypt there is a remarkable race called the fat-tailed sheep. This sheep has a long tail reaching to the ground; and, indeed, in some cases the shepherds provide little waggons, in which the tails of the sheep are supported, to prevent them from dragging on the ground and sustaining injury as the animal walks on. For these tails are considered a great delicacy, consisting as they do almost entirely of a soft marrow-like fat. In their ordinary state they weigh about fifteen pounds; but there is an art by which the sheep may be fattened, so that the tail increases to fifty, sixty, and, it is said, in some instances even to eighty pounds in weight. This fat is often used .instead of butter. Iceland possesses a remarkable breed of sheep, strongly built, and with a rough coat consisting more of hair than of wool, and only fit for coarse fabrics, such as druggets and horse cloths. But this Iceland breed yields a great quantity of good milk, an invaluable article in a cold climate. A single ewe will give, it is said, five or six quarts a day. A strange peculiarity is in the number of horns on the head of the ram, which sometimes has no fewer than eight growing from his forehead. The general number is four. In the Feroe Islands a wild race of sheep clamber about the rocks, quite free from the control of the inhabitants, who hunt them like deer, and seldom succeed in taking them alive. The breeds of English sheep are very numerous, and great attention is paid to their improvement. Among the principal are the Southdowns, in Sussex and Kent, the Dorset, the Suffolk, the Leicestershire, and the Cheviot breed of Northumberland. It would take too long to enumerate here the different qualities of size, fleece, and fatness for which these various breeds are remarkable. Among the ancients a strange and barbarous method of obtaining the wool of the sheep prevailed. Instead of being shorn, the unhappy animals had the wool torn off their bodies, somewhat in the method in which poultry are plucked; and they were previously kept for three days without food, that they might be exhausted, and thus the wool would come off more easily. In the Orkney Islands this barbarous practice was continued until lately. In the bleak winter, among the northern hills, the flocks of sheep are exposed to great hardships in the drifting snow-storms and furious gales. They have an instinct by which they know of the approach'of a tempest, and manifest their uneasiness in various ways, well understood by the watchful shepherd, who forthwith takes every precaution'for the safety of his ' ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~i-



PAGE 1

BEAUTY OF THE ZEBRA-THE QUAGGA-THE DEER TRIBE. THE ZEBRA. (plate vI., c.) This very beautiful animal is a native of South Africa, where it roams in vast herds at the back of Cape Colony, and especially beyond the Gariep or Orange River. In size it is between the horse and the ass, and has indeed many qualities of both. The Dutch settlers at the Cape have called it the Wilde Paard," or wild horse, and Dr. Burchell the traveller very aptly gave the Latin name qguzts montanu8, the mountain steed. The zebra has a short erect mane, slender legs, a very hard round hoof, a tail like that of the ass, but furnished at the end with a long tuft of. hair, a shapely head, and bright intelligent eyes. Its distinguishing feature consists in the long black bands with which it is striped, and which are considered so elegant, that Buffon the naturalist calls it the first of quadrupeds for beauty. There are two species, the common zebra and Burchell's zebra. They are distinguished from each other principally by some trifling difference in the striping. The voice of _he zebra is a harsh, barking neigh. United in bands, they resist the aggression of any foe, and fight vigorously with teeth and hoofs for their freedom when attacked. At one time it was believed that the zebra could not be tamed, but this is a fallacy. All herbivorous animals are capable of being domesticated, though some are more difficult to tame than others. A few years ago a couple of zebras might be seen in the Zoological Gardens in London, very carefully dragging a cart about the grounds, perfectly tractable and resigned to ,their fate; and the old menagerie at Exeter Change contained a zebra so tame that he was employed in the pacific business of carrying children on his back for the sum of one penny." The Hottentots consider the flesh of the zebra a delicacy, and eat it eagerly; but the colonists reject it, probably considering it too closely allied to horse-flesh. THE QUAGGA latee vii., d) Closely resembles the zebra, from which it is distinguished chiefly by its skin being only marked over the head, neck, and shoulders, with the bars that cover the whole body of the zebra. Its habits are like those of the zebra, associating in large herds, and flying with great swiftness. from its pursuers. It is, however, much more tractable than the zebra, and is often used as a beast of burden. Its name quagga is said to be derived from its barking voice. THE DEER TRIBE. "The bounding fawn that darts across the glade, When none pursues, through mere delight of heart, And spirits buoyant with excess of glee." The deer species includes animals of very various kinds, and inhabiting very different parts of our globe. Indeed, so great is the difference between the gigantic elk (see Wild Animals") and the graceful antelope or gazelle, that at first sight few people would think they belonged to the same family; but all the deer tribe have some features in common, though the antelopes are confined to the hot climate of Africa, while the other varieties are generally found in the colder countries of Europe and America, great heat being as destructive to them as cold would be to the antelope. We have now to speak chiefly of those kinds of deer that have become 18






PAGE 1

THE ]BUNTING-INTREPIDITY OF THE BUTCHER BIRD. THE LARK, The SKrLARK, TITLARK, and WOODLARK, the first being especially renowned for the strength and beauty of his song; the large handsome family of THRUSHES OR THROSTLES, with their rich melodious voices, which they lift up when the snow of winter lies thick upon the ground in the bleak month of January; singing as if to announce to us that spring is coming, in spite of the cold wind and dark weather; so that Burns, the Scottish poet, says: "Sing on, sweet thrush, upon the leafless bough; Sing on, sweet bird; I listen t. thy strain. See, aged Winter, 'mid his surly reign, At thy blithe carol clears his furrowed brow." Nor must we omit all mention of the king of the English song birds, the clear-voiced NIGHTINGALE, A small plain brown creature, that has the gift of charming every hearer as it sits warbling in the leafy covert, but whose song is confined to a short season of the year, that the treat may be the more valued for its rarity. Then there is the merry BUNTING (late xix.,f), With his stout body and bullet head, reminding one somewhat of a jolly well-to-do farmer. But enough has certainly been said to convince every young reader that there are, in every hedgerow and in every forest of England, creatures as wonderful in beauty and as worthy of notice as any that inhabit the far-off islands of the tropical seas. THE BUTCHER BIRD (Plate xx.) Strictly speaking, this sprightly little fellow should be classed among the rapacious birds, for he is a very pugnacious, fierce little fellow, boldly fighting against birds more than double' his size, and making them flee before him by the fierceness of his attacks and the energy of his pursuit. His name Butcher Bird," would lead us to imagine him a very big, formidablelooking individual, who flies about, putting his fellow birds to death as a butcher slaughters oxen and sheep; but his butchering propensities are mostly exercised upon insects and little birds, of which he destroys a large number. His courage, however, is undoubted; and though the largest species is not bigger than a lark, while the smallest does not exceed a sparrow in size, all the three kinds of butcher birds are alike remarkable for courage and fierceness. Goldsmith in his "Natural History" says: "It is wonderful to see with what intrepidity this little creature goes to war with the pye, the crow, and the kestril, all above four times bigger than itself, and that sometimes prey upon flesh in the same manner. It not only fights upon the defensive, but often comes to the attack, and always with advantage, particularly when the male and female unite to protect their young and to drive away the more powerful birds of rapine. At that season they do not wait the approach of their invader; it is sufficient that they see him preparing for the assault at a distance. It is then that they sally forth with loud cries, wound him on every side, and drive him off with such fury that he seldom ventures to return to the charge. In these kinds of disputes they generally come off with the victory; though it sometimes happens that they fall to the ground with the bird they have so fiercely fixed upon, and the combat ends with the destruc| 41 X 0'G






PAGE 1

THE WILD ASS-CHASE OF A WILD ASS. and render him stubborn and sluggish. Though his pace is slow, he will continue his journey for many hours without showing signs of fatigue, and the coarsest fare suffices to keep him in health. In rocky countries and over difficult roads his feet are more sure than those of the horse, and he will carry his rider in safety along winding paths skirting the most tremendous precipices. Hardy, vigorous, and temperate, he is very valuable to the poor man. Many a wandering pedlar, and many a hawker of small commodities, has dated his rise in the world from the day when he had saved enough to buy an ass to carry his goods, thus lessening his labour by one-half, while the keep of the frugal animal scarcely increased his expenses. The ass attains his full growth in about four years, and lives to the age of four or five and twenty. The colt is rather pretty in appearance, and quick and playful; but the laborious life led by the ass soon brings on that heavy appearance and sluggish gait which seem peculiar to the race. In Eastern countries, where the ass is frequently used instead of the horse, it appears under a better aspect than in Europe. It is larger and more lightly built, and is evidently the object of more care and attention than here, where the horse is the valued servant, and the ass only the slave. The female ass is very affectionate towards her colt, and will encounter any danger in defence of her offspring. She has but one colt at a time; very rarely two are born together. The wild ass of the East is a very different creature from the poor domestic drudge. It is large, shapely, and handsome, and runs with especial swiftness. It is found in Tartary, Asia Minor, Persia, and many other countries. The Persians esteem its flesh a great delicacy, and capture it in pits. The wild asses associate together in herds. They are exceedingly shy, running off with great swiftness on the approach of men. Sir. R. K. Porter, the Eastern traveller, gives the following account of an exciting chase after a wild ass: "The sun was just rising over the summits of the eastern mountains, when my greyhound Cooley suddenly darted off in pursuit of an animal, which my Persians said, from the glimpse they had of it, was an antelope. I instantly put spurs to my horse, and with my attendants gave chase. After an unrelaxed gallop of full three miles, we came up with the dog, which was then within a short stretch of the creature he pursued; when, to my surprise, and at first vexation, I found it to be an ass; but on a moment's reflection, judging from its fleetness that it must be a wild one, which the Persians prize above all other animals as an object of chase, as well as an article of food, I determined to approach as near to it as the very swift Arab I was on would carry me. But the instant of checking my horse to consider had given our game such a head of us, that, notwithstanding all our speed, we could not recover our ground on him. I, however, happened to be considerably before my companions, when, at a certain distance, the animal in its turn made a pause, and allowed me to approach within a pistol-shot of him. He then darted off again with the quickness of thought, capering, kicking, and sporting in his flight, as though he were not blown in the least, and as though the chase were his pastime. The prodigious swiftness and peculiar manner in which he fled across the plain coincided exactly with the description that Xenophon gives of the same animal in Arabia." Such is the wild ass; but that, even in the most ancient times, the poor domestic species was the sport and butt of the mischievous, is shown by the mention made of the ass by Homer in the following lines of the "Iliad ": "The sluggish ass, with heavy strength endued, In some wild field by troops of boys pursued, The shivering sticks assail his sides in vain, He crops the waving corn, and spoils the plain. Whilst on his hide the feeble blows resound, The beast, regardless, still maintains his ground; Scarce from the field with all their efforts chased, And scarce, though sated, mends his pace at last."



PAGE 1

r



DOCILITY OF THE HORSE-WILD HORSES.


hundred chosen chariots, and all the chariots of Egypt, and captains over every one of them."
And though in later times some breeds of horses have been devoted exclusively to the labours
of the field and the road, the charger, or war horse, has always kept his place in the armies of
the modern as he had it in those of the ancient world. Not the least famous among the
" heroes" of the battle of Waterloo was "Copenhagen," the gallant charger who bore the
Duke of Wellington upon his back, without apparent fatigue, during sixteen or seventeen hours
on that eventful day.
Among the circumstances which render the horse peculiarly valuable to man is the fact
that each breed has ,separate qualities fitting it for some branch of usefulness. Thus, the
characteristic of the racer is marvellous speed; while the hunter, with almost as great a
swiftness of motion, combines a strength and an endurance which enable him to pursue the
flying deer or fox for many hours over ground which would try the powers of the slim, graceful
race horse far too severely. Again, for the plough horse and waggon horse, which has to draw
heavy loads, but is only required to move slowly, we have a heavy, bulky kind, whose ponderous,
heavy strength almost resembles that of the elephant, dragging, almost without effort, and by
their own weight, loads that a lighter breed of horse could scarcely move with the most violent
exertion. The rough, hardy Shetland ponies, again, are very useful in their way, being able to
endure much fatigue, while they thrive upon scanty and coarse food.
The sagacity of the horse, and his readiness to learn, also increase his value. With the
exception of the dog and the elephant, no animal is more teachable than he. The war horse
masters his exercise quickly, and remembers it well; the hunter soon learns to enter into the
excitement of the chase, which he often pursues as eagerly as his master; and the heavy dray
horse soon learns to pick his way through crowded streets with such skill that he scarcely
requires the guiding-rein. He is also capable of considerable attachment to his master, for
whose benefit he exerts himself even beyond his strength.
The natural term of the horse's life seems to be between twenty and five and twenty
years; but this period is generally shortened by over-work and ill-treatment, arising, in most
cases, rather from thoughtlessness and ignorance on the part of the owner than from delibe-
rate cruelty. Because the horse is strong, and willing to exert his strength, many persons
seem to think that his powers are unlimited; and because he can run fast, that he may be
driven or ridden for a long distance at the top of his speed; and thus his powers decay early,
and he dies before his time.
So generally is the horse spread throughout the world, that it is impossible to say with
certainty what was originally his native country. Wild horses are still found in vast numbers
in the great plains of Tartary and of Central Asia and in the prairies of North, and the
pampas of South America. The wild horses of America are descendants of Spanish horses
brought over by the first conquerors of the New World. Many horses regained their liberty,
and became the progenitors of a wild race. In Southern Africa a race of small wild horses
also exists. The following description of the wild species is given in a popular book on science:
" Wild horses appear to be free from nearly all those diseases to which the domestic breed are
prone. They are generally of a pale or greyish-brown colour, with brown mane and tail, a
whitish muzzle, changing to black about the mouth. They are smaller than the domestic breed,
with a larger head, longer legs, larger ears. . .They recognize the presence of man at
a great distance, when he approaches them to windward, and fly from him with wonderful
speed. They prefer sunny slopes, and avoid forests and steep places. They do not wander
beyond the fiftieth degree, of north latitude."
Horses are entirely herbivorous, feeding on vegetable productions. In their wild state
they subsist almost exclusively on grass, though their teeth enable them to masticate hard corn
and beans. They are naturally dainty as regards their food, and especially nice as to the purity
15





PAGE 1

THE GOLDFINCH A FAVOURITE IN ENGLAND-THE' BULLFINCH. to itself, so that a schoolboy would at once pronounce on the sort of nest before him. This is the case among fields, and woods, and wilds; but in villages round London, where mosses and gossamer, and cotton from vegetables, are hardly to be found, the nest of the chaffinch has not that elegant, finished appearance, nor is it so beautifully studded with lichens, as in a more rural district; and the wren is obliged to construct its house with straws and dry grasses, which do not give it that rotundity and compactness so remarkable in the edifices of that little architect. Again, the regular nest of the house martin is hemispheric; but where a rafter, or a joist, or a cornice may happen to stand in the way, the nest is so contrived as to conform to the obstruction, and becomes flat or compressed." Among English singing birds THE GOLDFINCH (see Plate xx., a) Has always been a great favourite. Bechstein, the German naturalist, truly says, "This is the most delightful of all chamber birds, remarkable alike for the beauty of its plumage and the excellence of its song, its proved docility and cleverness." The pretty touch of yellow on its wings, and the bright scarlet on its head, its graceful form and rapid movements, all contribute to its beauty; while its cheerful, sociable nature, the readiness with which it knows the hand that feeds it, and the comparative ease with which it can be reared, all combine to make it popular. The goldfinch is found in most countries of Europe. In Central Germany it breeds in great numbers. Goldfinches fly in little flocks of twenty to thirty in the spring and autumn, and at those periods of the year great numbers of them are captured in nets by the birdcatchers, especially in Sussex and Kent, on the Downs. Their nests are perfect models of bird architecture. They generally build in high situations, in the forks of the smaller branches of tall trees. The nest is very firmly fixed in its place, that it may resist the winds which shake the slender branches to and fro. Grahame, the Scottish naturalist and poet, speaking of the position of the nest, says: "Sometimes, suspended at the limber end Of plane tree spray, among the broad-leaved shoots, The tiny hammock swings to every gale; Sometimes in closest thickets 't is concealed; Sometimes in hedge luxuriant, where the brier, The bramble, and the crooked plum tree branch Warp through the thorn, surmounted by the flowers Of climbing vetch and honeysuckle wild, All undefaced by Art's deforming hand. But mark the pretty bird himself! how light And quick his every motion, every note! How beautiful his plumes! his red-tinged head; .His breast of brown: and see him stretch his wingA fairy fan of golden spokes it seems. Oft on the thistle's tuft he nibbling sits, Light as the down; then 'mid a flight of downs He wings his way, piping his shrillest call." To lure the little songsters into their toils, the bird-catchers use bunches of thistles, in autumn; for the goldfinch, at that season, feeds principally on thistle seeds. In spring a tame goldfinch in a cage serves as a decoy to lure his wild brethren into captivity. Among the other finches, a very numerous and melodious family, a few must be mentioned. FirstTHE BULLFINCH, A burly fat little fellow, with a round black head, a short beak, and a delicate red breast. He is very fond of picking the buds off the fruit-trees, so that the gardener accounts him an enemy. 38 |



PAGE 1

II



PAGE 1

EXPRESSIVE VOICES OF BIRDS-FEATHERED SONGSTERS-NESTS. laying seems to be the most important; for, no sooner has a hen disburdened herself, than she rushes forth with a clamorous kind of joy, which the cock and the rest of his mistresses immediately adopt. The tumult is not confined to the family concerned, but catches from yard to yard, and spreads to every homestead within hearing, till at last the whole village is in an uproar. As soon as a hen becomes a mother, her new relation demands a new language: she then runs clucking and screaming about, and seems agitated as if possessed. The father of the flock has also a considerable vocabulary: if he finds food, he calls a favourite concubine to partake; and if a bird of prey passes over, with a warning voice he bids his family beware. The gallant chanticleer has at command his amorous phrases and his terms of defiance; but the sound by which he is best known is his crowing: by this he has been distinguished in all ages as the countryman's clock or larum-as the watchman that proclaims the divisions of the night. Thus the poet elegantly styles him 'The crested cock, whose clarion sounds The silent hours.'" ON SOME SINGING BIRDS. In summer days, when sheaves be green And leaves both large and long, It is merry walking in the fair forest, To hear the small birds' song. The mavis sang, and would not cease Sitting upon the spray, So loud he wakened IRobin Hood In the greenwood where he lay." No part of the animal creation is more interesting, and more worthy of study, than that choir of warblers who make our woods and hedgerows alive with songs all the year through. Even in the, winter the robin and the linnet will pour forth their melody, but spring is the time to hear these feathered songsters of the woods; when the blackbird and the thrush mingle their mellow notes with the shriller tones the lark outpours, as he soars upwards from earth towards heaven, or hovers above his nest before he drops down into its welcome shelter; when the cry of the cuckoo is heard among the leafy covert, and the coo of the wood-pigeon sounds softly from the distance. Then is the time to walk in the woods, and recognize amid the joyous outpouring of song the loving-kindness and bounty of the great Creator, without whose knowledge not one of those birds can fall. Of all the beauteous gifts scattered through Creation by a kind Providence, there is none more cheering than that of these little minstrels, ever singing their song of praise. The birds of other climes are brighter in plumage than the feathered denizens of our own land; but nowhere can the traveller hear a more glorious flood of song than the outburst that will delight his ear during a walk through an English forest, in the sweet spring-time. The nests of birds are among the most wonderful of the many evidences we find every,where of the skill and patience with which the Almighty Creator has endowed some of the smallest of His creatures. Each bird has its peculiar mode of building, and employs a special set of materials where it can procure them. Some use mosses, others gossamer and thistledown, others again prefer wool, for the lining of their' little dwellings. But where these materials are not to be had, the little architect readily makes shift with others; and when he cannot build himself a first-rate house, he manages as best he may to construct the most comfortable and compact one he can obtain under the circumstances. Thus the naturalist of Selborne observes with truth: "It has been remarked that every species of bird has a mode of building its nest peculiar



EXPRESSIVE VOICES OF BIRDS-FEATHERED SONGSTERS-NESTS.

laying seems to be the most important; for, no sooner has a hen disburdened herself, than she
rushes forth with a clamorous kind of joy, which the cock and the rest of his mistresses imme-
diately adopt. The tumult is not confined to the family concerned, but catches from yard to
yard, and spreads to every homestead within hearing, till at last the whole village is in an
uproar. As soon as a hen becomes a mother, her new relation demands a new language: she
then runs clucking and screaming about, and seems agitated as if possessed. The father of
the flock has also a considerable vocabulary: if he finds food, he calls a favourite concubine
to partake; and if a bird of prey passes over, with a warning voice he bids his family beware.
The gallant chanticleer has at command his amorous phrases and his terms of defiance; but
the sound by which he is best known is his crowing: by this he has been distinguished in all
ages as the countryman's clock or larum-as the watchman that proclaims the divisions of
the night. Thus the poet elegantly styles him
'The crested cock, whose clarion sounds
The silent hours.'"




ON SOME SINGING BIRDS.
"In summer days, when sheaves be green
And leaves both large and long,
It is merry walking in the fair forest,
To hear the small birds' song.
The mavis sang, and would not cease
Sitting upon the spray,
So loud he wakened Robin Hood
In the greenwood where he lay."

No part of the animal creation is more interesting, and more worthy of study, than that
choir of warblers who make our woods and hedgerows alive with songs all the year through.
Even in the, winter the robin and the linnet will pour forth their melody, but spring is the time
to hear these -feathered songsters of the woods; when the blackbird and the thrush mingle
their mellow notes with the shriller tones the lark outpours, as he soars upwards froni earth
towards heaven, or hovers above his nest before he drops down into its welcome shelter; when
the cry of the cuckoo is heard among the leafy covert, and the coo of the wood-pigeon sounds
softly from the distance. Then is the time to walk in the woods, and recognize amid the joyous
outpouring of song the loving-kindness and bounty of the great Creator, without whose know-
ledge not one of those birds can fall. Of all the beauteous gifts scattered through Creation
by a kind Providence, there is none more cheering than that of these little minstrels, ever sing-
ing their song of praise. The birds of other climes are brighter in plumage than the feathered
denizens of our own land; but nowhere can the traveller hear a more glorious flood of song
than the outburst that will delight his ear during a walk through an English forest, in the
sweet spring-time.
The nests of birds are among the most wonderful of the many evidences we find every-
*where of the skill and patience with which the Almighty Creator has endowed some of the
smallest of His creatures. Each bird has its peculiar mode of building, and employs a special
set of materials where it can procure them. Some use mosses, others gossamer and tliistle-
down, others again prefer wool, for the lining of their' little dwellings. But where these
materials are not to be had, the little architect readily makes shift with others; and when he
cannot build himself a first-rate house, he manages as best he may to construct the most com-
fortable and compact one he can obtain under the circumstances. Thus the naturalist of
Selborne observes with truth:
It has been remarked that every species of bird has a mode of building its nest peculiar




Ksr~















































































































Ir





































4r




BRITISH IORSES-MARKS OF A PERFECT HORSE-THE ASS.

of the water they drink. M[:niy horses, even when suffering from great thirst, will not drink
from a horse-trough or from a pail that has not been kept scrupulously clean.
The Arab horse has long been famous for beauty, swiftness, and endurance; and some of
the Spanish horses, especially those called barbs, because they originally came from the Barbary
St.-itI in Northern Africa, are excellent. It is impossible to tell when or how the horse first
came into Britain. When Cesar arrived from Gaul with his legions, nineteen hundred years
ago, he found the wild inhabitants of our island possessed of a large and swift breed of horses,
which they used with great effect in war, yoking them to chariots, whereof the axles were
furnished with sharp scythes to mow down the enemy among whose ranks they were driven.
That the Saxons had good horses, and knew how to value them, is proved by a law made by
Athelstan, who forbade the exportation of horses, except ing they were sent out as presents.
The Normans greatly improved the breed of the English horses, chiefly by importing some of
the best that Spain could produce; these were, no doubt, of Arabian origin.
Horse racing soon began to be practised as a national sport: we find it mentioned as early
as the reign of Henry II. Under the Stuart rule the sport was patronised by royalty; and it,
was on his return from Newmarket that the Rye House conspirators hoped to seize the person
of Charles II., in the celebrated Rye House Plot. The Engli-h race horses are of Arabian
origin. (See Plate vi.) An old writer named Camerarius gives in a few words a capital idea
of what a good horse ought to be; and Goldsmith and several other writers have copied his
instructions. They are these: "A perfect horse should have the breast broad, the hips
round, and the mane long; the countenance fierce, and somewhat resembling that of a lion;
the nose similar in form to that of the sheep; the head, legs, and skin of a deer; the throat
and neck of a wolf; and the ear and tail of a fox."
The ancients were in the practice of using their horses unshod, consequently the hardness
and firmness of the hoof was considered a very important point; and hence also the Arab
saying, that If a cavalcade be passing through a stony country, the grey horses will break
the stones with their feet." The wild Huns, who, early in the Cliil-ti;in era, poured into
Europe from Central Asia, under their King Attila, -priiilng terror and destruction wherever
they went, were a nation who depended almost entirely upon the horse for subsistence. Their
food was horse-flesh, their drink the mare's milk. The horses' hides furnished them with
materials alike for their clothing and for the tents in which they dwelt. Continually in the
saddle, they had a.-l'jiid.i1l immense dexterity in riding, and always fought on horseback. The
terror inspired by these 1plIIl'.-r~ers gave rise to the proverb, "Where the horse of Atilla had set
its hoof, no grass could grow."

THE ASS (Plate vm.)
Who hath sent out the wild ass free ? or who hath loosed the bands of the wild ass ?"-Job xxxix. 5.
Almost equally important with the horse, and in some countries even more necessary
than that noble animal for the well-being of the people, the patient, useful ass has yet
been in almost every clime and at every period the ill-used diidse( of man. Because his
pace is somewhat -li.Li-l,. and in outward appearance he lacks the gr:-i.'fii beauty of the
horse, he has been set down as heavy and stupid; and the very patience with which he
endures ill-treatment seems only to render him more despised. The expression a tupid ass "
has become proverbial, and it seems quite an understood thing that this poor creature should
be fed on the coarsest food and driven with the heaviest stick. Yet all this is very foolish as
well as wrong. Naturally, the ass is ;anthing but a stupid animal, lie has been known to
display great sagacity, and to attach himself strongly to the master who uses kim 1/ idly; but
ill-treatment and neglect have upon him the effect they would produce on a human being,








PAGE 1

THE ALPINE HARETHE RABBIT. the Mosaic law to eat it, as it was not an animal that parted the hoof, as well as chewed the cud. The Ancient Britons were likewise prohibited by the Druids from eating the hare. In spite of their natural timidity, "performing" hares have often been exhibited, having been trained by their masters to beat drums, and perform other feats of a noisy and startling kind. Their skin is used in manufacturing hats. The manner in which the hare chooses different abodes at various seasons is well described in the following lines: "'Tis instinct that directs the jealous hare To choose her soft abode. With steps reversed ,She forms the doubling maze; then, ere the morn Peeps through the clouds, leaps to her close recess. As wandering shepherds on the-Arabian plains No settled residence observe, but shift Their moving camps, so the wise crafty hares Oft quit their seats, lest some more envious eye Should mark their haunts, and by dark treacherous wiles Plot their destruction When spring shines forth, season of love and joy, In the moist marsh, 'mid beds of rushes hid, They cool their boiling blood. When summer suns Bake the cleft earth, to thick wide-spreading fields Of corn full grown they lead their helpless young. But when autumnal torrents and fierce rains Deluge the vale, in the dry crumbling bank Their forms they delve, and cautiously avoid The dripping covert. Yet when winter's cold Theirlimbs benumbs, thither with speed returned, In the long grass they skulk, or shrinking, creep Among the withered leaves." THE VARYING HARE (Plate x., c), Called also the Alpine hare, is much smaller than the common species. It obtains its name from the fact that its summer coat of grey changes in winter to a snowy whiteness. It is found among the rocks in the coldest parts of Europe, Asia, and America, and is also occasionally met with in the highest and bleakest regions of Scotland. Like many other animals, the Alpine hares are sometimes driven by the rigour of winter to quit their mountain haunts, where they hide securely among the clefts of the rocks, and to descend into the plains in search of food. The Alpine hare, unlike the common kind, is easily tamed, and lives contentedly in captivity, distinguishing itself by its playfulness, and its fondness for sweet delicacies, especially honey. Instances have been known in which this kind of hare has been of a coal-black colour. THE RABBIT (Plate xi., c) Is a well-known little animal, bearing a great resemblance to the hare in outward appearance, but: far inferior to "Puss" in size. Rabbits also are social creatures, living in large communities in warrens, where they dig their holes, in which they hide during the heat of the day, coming out in the morning and evening to feed; whereas the hare crouches solitary in her form, listening for every sound of danger. The rabbit likewise differs from the hare in seeking refuge in his burrow when he is alarmed by an enemy, whereas the hare at once rushes away from her home on the approach of any pursuer. The rabbit is found in all parts of Europe except the coldest, and in the temperate parts of Asia and Africa. It has been imported into America, where it also thrives well. The peculiarity about the rabbit is in the immense number that may be produced within a short 23



PAGE 1

NORMAN GAME LAWS--THE LAPLAND REINDEER. domesticated as servants to man, or half domesticated as ornaments to the gentleman's park or the well preserved forest. Generally speaking, the deer may be considered rather as a beautiful and graceful, than as a very useful animal. In civilized countries the laws introduced with the Feudal.system have placed him at the head of the game animals, or those which all but a small class were forbidden to touch. Under the earlier Norman kings, the forest laws were so severe that even noblemen might not hunt the, deer except in the company of the king, and by his special permission; and as to the common people, the man among them who slew a deer was considered guilty of a far greater crime than the slaying of a fellow man. William Rufus, the tyrannical "Red King," was especially cruel ahd harsh in carrying out the forest laws, and inflicting punishment upon all who in any way molested the deer; so that the Saxons used to say that he loved the stags far better than his subjects; and looked upon his death while hunting in the New Forest as a Divine vengance for his tyranny. Gradually the severity of these laws was abated; but still the deer has remained the exclusive property of the higher classes-a privileged animal, whose flesh never appears on the poor man's table. Far different, however, is the case in the cold North, where dwells the member of the deer family who represents to the Laplander what the horse was to the Hun, and the sheep and ox to the patriarchal ancestors of the Israelites; namely, food, clothing, shelter, and the means of moving from place to place; for all the wants of the Laplander are supplied, in the frozen regions he inhabits, by the possession of one docile and invaluable animal. This animal is THE REINDEER. Though he is doubtless by far the most useful, the reindeer is, perhaps, the least beautiful of the tribe to which he belongs. He is large in size, about four or five feet high, with a short thick neck, strong legs, and very large hoofs, whose breadth and flatness prevent him from sinking into the deep snow, as he runs swiftly over the frozen plains. His horns are rounded, and droop over his forehead. This arrangement is admirably useful in enabling him in wintertime to shovel away the snow which covers the moss on which he subsists. He is covered with very thick woolly hair, and can thus endure a great amount of cold. He is also a strong swimmer, crossing broad and rapid rivers with the greatest ease. A strong, powerful animal, he readily defends himself, in his wild state, against even the wolf, whom he puts to flight by vigorous kicks. The wild reindeer live together in large herds, and in summer-time emigrate to the sea shore, to escape the attacks of a fly, aptly called by a Latin name signifying "the fury," which follows them incessantly, and allows the poor animals no rest. Numbers of them fall victims every year to the onslaught of these insects. As a domestic animal the reindeer is beyond all price to the Laplander, who, but for this useful creature, would be confined to one spot in a country where there are no roads, and where in winter the uniform dreary waste of snow presents no track or sign by which the traveller could find his way. But as a writer on the subject justly observes, The Laplanders commit their lives with wonderful confidence to these faithful animals, during a journey of hundreds of miles; and that trust is never violated, and it is very seldom that an accident occurs. They travel with such speed and perseverance, that it is not uncommon for a pair of reindeer, with the sledge and Laplander, to perform a journey of three hundred miles in twenty-four hours. Their usual trot is, however, at the rate of ten miles an hour; and they will draw from two hundred to three hundred pounds weight each, while going at that pace. After the deer have been well broken in and trained to the sledge, the art of driving is merely holding the rein. In long journeys, and when parties are travelling together, it is not unusual to fasten each deer to the sledge before it, so that one follows the other in the same track, and at the same pace. 19











?C
(-4$??


d"&


,aml


Viil


CA '-





------


4--'~


a-__,__ -


,,.11.,
,;


s_
- .


r --- _- 1 _- -


,f: 4





~~01'


~~--in '-
r 4--~


1'


- -tl~_~-


Tn


*..-*y-


^----


--"
----~-~-~


r 4~:
%-

---



--

,,
--

-i=-~
--;-

"; I
--;r.. -- -.
~-I~PIZc ~L.
1-,
~-


i-;---



s:~

-*.i





PAGE 1

INTRODUCTION OF THE CLOTH MANUFACTURE INTO ENGLAND. Bedford, Worcester, Nottingham, and several other towns were actively employed in the weaving of cloth; but it was in the reign of Edward III. that the art became really understood, in England, which had until then been content to export a great quantity of wool. to the Continent, leaving to the Flemings the profit obtained by its manufacture into cloth. The following extract from the old historian Fuller will explain what took place with regard to the cloth manufacture. "At length," he says, "the king and State grew sensible of the great gain the Netherlands got by our English wool; and this good king resolved, if possible, to bring the trade to his own countrymen, who yet were ignorant of that art, knowing no more what to do' with their Wool than the sheep that wore it, as to any artificial or curious drapery; their best cloths being then no better than freizes, such was their want of skill in their makings. But soon after followed a great alteration, and we shall enlarge ourselves in the manner thereof. "Unsuspected emissaries were employed to go into the Netherlands, who wrought themselves into familiarity with such Dutchmen as were absolute masters of their trade, but not masters of themselves, being either journeymen or apprentices. These bemoaned the slavishness bf those poor servants, whom their masters used rather like heathens than Christians; yea, rather like horses than men: early up, and late in bed, and all day having hard work, and harder fare (a few herrings and mouldy cheese); and all to enrich the churls their masters, without any profit to themselves. '"But oh! how happy would it be for them, if they would but come over into. England, bringing their mystery with them, which would provide their welcome in all places. Thus persuaded, many Dutch servants did come. Their departure (being picked here and there) made no sensible vacuity, but their meeting together amounted to a considerable fulness. Happy the yeoman's house into which one of these Dutchmen did enter, bringing industry and wealth along with him: such as came in strangers, soon after went out bridegrooms, and returned sons-in-law, having married the daughters of their landlords, who first entertained them; yea, those yeomen in whose houses they harboured soon became gentlemen, gaining great estates to themselves, and honour to their estates." The following fact will testify to the importance of the sheep to the peasant in the mountains of Savoy. Nearly every part of the dress of a Savoyard peasant is produced from his own little flock. He dresses the wool himself, his wife or daughter spins it, and then the yarn is woven into cloth by the village weaver. The holiday coats are generally dyed blue, but those of every-day wear are of a less expensive colour. As they have plenty of black sheep in Savoy, they mix their wool with the wool of the white sheep, and, spinning them together, produce a sort of greyish-brown cloth without the expense of dyeing. In another part of the Alps, the Grisons took their name from their custom of wearing grey cloth similarly manufactured. For a long time Saxony had the pre-eminence in the manufacture of the finest kind of broadcloth, especially that of a blue colour. "Blue Saxony cloth became proverbial for its excellence; but thee town of Leeds and several other places in England can not only vie with any Continental manufacture, but indeed surpass the best efforts of the foreign loom. Sheep-shearing time, when the farmer receives in the heavy fleece the reward of the care bestowed during the past twelve months upon his flock, has always been regarded, even from very ancient times, as a festive season. In one of the best country books ever written for boys, Mr. Thomas Miller, the author, speaking on this subject, says, Pleasant, too, was sheep-washing and sheep-shearing time: such a dreamy bleating beside the brooks and about the bans, as the sheep and lambs answered each other from the wattled fences in which they were confined to keep them separate. Rare fun was it to us to pull and drag, at some great, fat, heavy sheep, and, drawing it towards the water's edge, shove it in, arnd perhaps ourselves with it, while the sheep'washer stood ready to souse the moving mass?,



THE BUFFALO-THE AMERICAN BISON-THE CAPE BUFFALO.

Bishop Heber, who saw many of these zebus in India, tells us concerning them: They feed
where they choose, and devout persons take great delight in pampering them. They are
exceeding pests in the villages near Culcutta, breaking into gardens, thrusting their noses into
the stalls of the fruiterers' and pastrycooks' shops, and helping themselves without ceremony.
Like other petted animals, they are sometimes mischievous, and are said to resent with a push
of their horns any delay in gratifying their wishes."
The zebu is still used in India and in many Oriental countries in the ancient practice of
"treading out corn," to separate the grain from the straw, instead of threshing it out with a
flail. Our readers will remember that this treading out of corn by oxen was practised among
the Jewish people in the time of Moses; and hence the injunction given to the Israelites,
"Thou shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth out the corn," as though the great lawgiver
recognized the right of the patient labouring animal to pick .up a few grains as he performed
his task.

THE BUFFALO (Platem.),

Called in Latin Bos hubalus, is the most powerful of the whole ox tribe. His huge horns, deep
chest, broad shoulders, and thick legs are all indicative of immense strength. The buffalo of
the Old World was originally a native of India, but has been introduced into Africa, Spain,
Italy, &c. In their wild state buffaloes live in small herds, and in hot weather delight greatly
in wallowing in the muddy water of pools and sluggish streams. Frequently they remain for
hours in the water, with only their horns and noses showing above the surface.
The buffalo has been long in use as a domestic animal, his immense strength rendering
him a valuable servant, in spite of his temper, which is fierce and intractable. He will draw
with apparent ease a weight that ordinary oxen or horses cannot move. The buffalo has a keen
sense of smell, and thus in his wild state he runs with his muzzle thrust forward, and his horns
laid back, finding his way less by the keenness of his eyes than of his nose.
The AMERICAN BUFFALO or BISON forms another variety of the ox tribe, to which also
belongs the aurochs, a powerful animal still found in the forests of Poland and Lithuania.
Vast herds of wild bisons roam through the prairies of North America, to the west of the
United States. They are of great bulk and strength, and are distinguished by the vast size of
the head and shoulders, which look even larger than they are from being thickly covered with
a long shaggy mane. Herds of at least twenty thousand bisons have been seen running across
the wide prairie, when the grass begins to fail, in search of new feeding grounds. A few old
experienced bulls act as leaders, and the whole herd careers onward after them, swimming the
broadest rivers, and travelling with great swiftness. The wild bisons of the West are, however,
decreasing in number year by year. Many are killed by the backwoodsmen, many more die
beneath the arrows of the few Indian tribes still left in the pathless solitudes of the West, and
not a few fall victims to the most formidable and inveterate of their four-footed foes-the grizzly
bear. Like all other varieties of the ox tribe, the bison can be tamed; but he never quite
loses his fierce temper, or becomes completely tractable. In his wild state, when attacked, he
tries to escape from his foes by flight; but, once wounded, often becomes mad with rage, and
his strength then makes him a very formidable foe to encounter.
The BUFFALO OF THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE is inferior to no other species in strength
and ferocity. He does not fear even the lion, and he not unfrequently comes off victor in a
fight with the king of beasts. Heavy and bulky as he is, he can run on level ground with
great swiftness; but as his clumsy frame and the great breadth of his horns prevent him from
climbing wooded crags, or scrambling up any steep place, the hunter or settler pursued by him
can generally find safety in clambering up a rock or climbing a tree. The hide of the buffalo
6




ii
ki
8/
ri,
i
11

ii !
:
ii
"I






i



.i













I~





I
i

-j
ail

i

1
.1
i
t

:I



;i











i



















i
1





NORMAN GAME LAWS -THE LAPLAND REINDEER.


domesticated as servants to man, or half domesticated as ornaments to the gentleman's park
or the well preserved forest.
SGenerally speaking, the deer may be considered rather as a beautiful and graceful, than as
a very useful animal. In civilized countries the laws introduced with the Feudal system have
placed him at the head of the game animals, or those which all but a small class were forbidden
to touch. Under the earlier Norman kings, the forest laws were so severe that even noblemen
might not hunt the deer except in the company of the king, and by his special permission;
and as to the common people, the man among them who slew a deer was considered guilty of
a far greater crime than the slaying of a fellow man. William Rufus, the tyrannical "Red
King," was especially cruel aid harsh in carrying out the forest laws, and inflicting punishment
upon all who in any way molested the deer; so that the Saxons used to say that he loved the
stags far better than his subjects; and looked upon his death while hunting in the New Forest
as a Divine vengance for his tyranny. Gradually the severity of these laws was abated; but
still the deer has remained the exclusive property of the higher classes-a privileged animal,
whose flesh never appears on the poor man's table. Far different, however, is the case in the
cold North, where dwells the member of the deer family who represents to the Laplander what
the horse was to the Hun, and the sheep and ox to the patriarchal ancestors of the Israelites;
namely, food, clothing, shelter, and the means of moving from place to place; for all the
wants of the Laplander are supplied, in the frozen regions he inhabits, by the possession of one
docile and invaluable animal. This animal is

THE REINDEER.

Though he is doubtless by far the most useful, the reindeer is, perhaps, the least beautiful
of the tribe to which he belongs. He is large in size, about four or five feet high, with a short
thick neck, strong legs, and very large hoofs, whose breadth and flatness prevent him from
sinking into the deep snow, as he runs swiftly over the frozen plains. His horns are rounded,
and droop over his forehead. This arrangement is admirably useful in enabling him in winter-
time to shovel away the snow which covers the moss on which he subsists. He is covered with
very thick woolly hair, and can thus endure a great amount of cold. He is also a strong
swimmer, crossing broad and rapid rivers with the greatest ease. A strong, powerful animal, he
readily defends himself, in his wild state, against even the wolf, whom he puts to flight by
vigorous kicks. The wild reindeer live together in large herds, and in summer-time emigrate
to the sea shore, to escape the attacks of a fly, aptly called by a Latin name signifying "the
fury," which follows them incessantly, and allows the poor animals no rest. Numbers of them
fall victims every year to the onslaught of these insects.
As a domestic animal the reindeer is beyond all price to the Laplander, who, but for this
useful creature, would be confined to one spot in a country where there are no roads, and where
in winter the uniform dreary waste of snow presents no track or sign by which the traveller
could find his way. But as a writer on the subject justly observes, "The Laplanders commit
their lives with wonderful confidence to these faithful animals, during a journey of hundreds
of miles; and that trust is never violated, and it is very seldom that an accident occurs. They
travel with such speed and perseverance, that it is not uncommon for a pair of reindeer, with
the sledge and Laplander, to perform a journey of three hundred miles in twenty-four hours.
Their usual trot is, however, at the rate of ten miles an hour; and they will draw from two
hundred to three hundred pounds weight, each, while going at that pace. After the deer have
been well broken in and trained to the sledge, the art of driving is merely holding the rein.
In long journeys, and when parties are travelling together, it is not unusual to fasten each deer
to the sledge before it, so that one follows the other in the same track, and at the same pace.







PAGE 1

s---. IF' 6 a Dk; c' lh ' 1 \r Cli /1 .. -a :I j I ,, Ui"PBeeP -=----r"-""~~EY~-=-""lre;~LI II IgDija :i : ;? ---th I=_ ""6 1 '"' ' i -i n ----: r e rl`rrann---CgraaJti;icE,F3E1 tBBe6PE'I:jER1Jiii,:;nm"f? p; I r : r 1 L 41R-cllllglL: -hC`-BIC I LIPa,-;,,sp. q --. ---r .. ,-;-! r13' alljpS_IL'llfFaBeYr_37p ,fb\.. 191V:1 111= L_plsC';fbYIIFdYCY! --. ;5 --uma--;---7skr-Jnrnrm?lrc Ir-is-c1 -F;c -- ---s-=-; F': r -------; ,--:t rl' ... 191 sLFF` .ac -rT-.lgc ie2C)2 r i



INTRODUCTION OF THE CLOTH MANUFACTURE INTO ENGLAND,

Bedford, Worcester, Nottingham, and several other towns were actively employed in the
weaving of cloth; but it was in the reign of Edward III. that the art became really understood
in England, which had until then been content to export a great quantity of wool to the
Continent, leaving to the Flemings the profit obtained by its manufacture into cloth. The
following extract from the old historian Fuller will explain what took place with regard to the
cloth manufacture. "At length," he says, "the king and State grew sensible of the great
gain the Netherlands got by our English wool; and this good king resolved, if possible, to
bring the trade to his own countrymen, who yet were ignorant of that art, knowing no more
what to do with their wool than the sheep that wore it, as to any artificial or curious drapery;
their best cloths being then no better than freizes, such was their want of skill in their makings.
But soon after followed a great alteration, and we shall enlarge ourselves in the manner
thereof.
"Unsuspected emissaries were employed to go into the Netherlands, who wrought them-
selves into familiarity with such Dutchmen as were absolute masters of their trade, but not
masters of themselves, being either journeymen or apprentices. These bemoaned the slavish-
ness of those poor servants, whom their masters used rather like heathens than Christians; yea,
rather like horses than men: early up, and late in bed, and all day having hard work, and
harder fare (a few herrings and mouldy cheese); and all to enrich the churls their masters,
without any profit to themselves.
"But oh! how happy would it be for them, if they would but come over into England,
bringing their mystery with them, which would provide their welcome in all places.
"Thus persuaded, many Dutch servants did come. Their departure (being picked here and
there) made no sensible vacuity, but their meeting together amounted to a considerable fulness.
Happy the yeoman's house into which one of these Dutchmen did enter, bringing industry and
wealth along with him: such as came in strangers, soon after went out bridegrooms, and
returned sons-in-law, having married the daughters of their landlords, who first entertained
them; yea, those yeomen in whose houses they harbored soon became gentlemen, gaining
great estates to themselves, and honour to their estates."
The following fact will testify to the importance of the sheep to the peasant in the moun-
tains of Savoy. Nearly every part of the dress of a Savoyard peasant is produced from his
own little flock. He dresses the wool himself, his wife or daughter spins it, and then the yarn
is woven into cloth by the village weaver. The holiday coats are generally dyed blue, but those
of every-day wear are of a less expensive colour. As they have plenty of black sheep in Savoy,
they mix their wool with the wool of the white sheep, and, spinning them together, produce a
sort of greyish-brown cloth without the expense of dyeing. In another part of the Alps, the
Grisons took their name from their custom of wearing grey cloth similarly manufactured.
For a long time Saxony had the pre-eminence in the manufacture of the finest kind of
broadcloth, especially that of a blue colour. "Blue Saxony cloth" became proverbial for its
excellence; but the town of Leeds and several other places in England can not only vie with
any Continental manufacture, but indeed surpass the best efforts of the foreign loom.
Sheep-shearing time, when the farmer receives in the heavy fleece the reward of the care
bestowed during the past twelve months upon his flock, has always been regarded, even from
very ancient times, as a festive season. In one of the best country books ever written for boys,
Mr. Thomas Miller, the author, speaking on this subject, says,
Pleasant, too, was sheep-washing and sheep-shearing time: such a dreamy bleating
beside the brooks and about the barns, as the sheep and lambs answered each other from the
wattled fences in which they were confined to keep them separate. Rare fun was it to us to
pull and drag at some great, fat, heavy sheep, and, drawing it towards the water's edge, shove it
in, and perhaps ourselves with it, while the sheep-washer stood ready to souse the moving mass,





PAGE 1

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BIRDS. running of a shrew mouse over the part affected; for it is supposed that a shrew mouse is of so baneful and deleterious a nature, that, wherever it creeps over a beast, be it horse, cow, or sheep, the suffering animal is afflicted with cruel anguish, and threatened with the loss of the use of the limb. Against this accident, to which they were continually liable, our prudent forefathers always kept a shrew ash at hand, which, when once medicated, would retain its virtue for ever. A shrew ash was made thus: Into the body of the tree a deep hole was bored with an auger, and a poor devoted shrew mouse was thrust in alive, and plugged in, no doubt, with several quaint incantations, long since forgotten." And then the superstitious villagers thought that an animal injured by a shrew mouse could be healed by the touch of a branch of the shrew ash. The remedy was as imaginary as the evil it was intended to cure. BIRDS. You winged choristers, that dwell in woods, and there maintain a qure, Whose music doth all art excel, nought can we emulate, but admire; You, living galleys of the air, that through the strongest tempest slide, And, by your wanton flight, who dare the fury of the winds divide. Praise HIM, and in this harmony and love Let your soft quire contend with that above." WTE have now to speak of a great class of animals very different from those we last considered. After the "beasts of the field," that were made subject to man, we come to the fowls of the air," or, as we generally call them, the great race of birds; and here again we are struck with the infinite variety of species, and admire the wisdom with which the great Creator has provided, each with all that is necessary for its subsistence, from the greatest to the least. Behold the fowls of the air," the Saviour said to the men to whom He wished to teach reliance on the Divine care, for they sow not, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns; yet your heavenly Father feedeth them. Are ye not much better than they?" And thus it is, from the lordly eagle in his nest on the lofty crag to which no man can climb, from the great albatross flying over the sea a thousand miles from land, down to the little wren in its tiny nest in the coppice, or the pretty redbreast hopping across the snowy field in winter, the Lord provides for all. Two sparrows are sold for a farthing; but not one can fall without His knowledge. The classes of birds are as various as those of the quadrupeds, and correspond with the latter in many particulars of disposition and habit. Thus the birds of prey, that live upon flesh, are fierce and cruel, like the cat tribe, living alone, and generally avoiding the neighbourhood of man and of beasts and birds. The gallinaceous birds, or those of the poultry tribe, on the other hand, are sociable and friendly, living together in harmony, and readily submitting to the control and protection of man. Some birds, like the amphibious animals, seem equally at home on land and in the water. Some, like the rabbit among quadrupeds, are remarkable for their rapid increase in number; others astonish us by their swiftness; while many, though strong on the wing, never care to leave the grove in which they have once established themselves. Others, guided by an unerring instinct, wing their way, at the approach of winter, to the warmer regions of the south, returning to their northern haunts when the cold season is past, and heralding by their coming the approach of genial spring and sunshine. Some general features, however, all birds have in common. If we notice the shape of their bodies, we shall see that they are admirably adapted for quick movement. From the shape of the swimming birds the first ideas of the form of a ship have doubtless been taken, while the swallow careering through the air has no small resemblance to an arrow or bolt shot from a bow. The bones of all birds are hollow, and very light compared with the size of the bird, and the muscles of the wings are very large and strong; the senses, too, are highly 29






PAGE 1

I ^ ^ \ ^ 1 I [ I ' i ; '[ [ ,~\ I ' : ^ ~ } ' ; f I ^ i i : <* 1



PAGE 1

I, hi 1



PECULIARITY OF FALLOW DEER-MIGRATIONS OF TIE SPRINGBOK.


THE FALLOW DEER

Is between the roe and the stag in size. The horns are not divided into branches, but spread
out broad and flat (see Plate x., a). In colour the fallow deer vary, some being dark brown
with lighter spots, others reddish, others of a pale fawn tint. The doe is without horns, and
the buck, like the stag, has a new pair every year, each pair larger than the last, till he has
attained his full growth. The duration of the fallow deer's life is from fifteen to twenty years.
His flesh is preferred to that of the stag, being more tender and better flavoured. In England
large herds of fallow deer are kept in parks, where they range about at full liberty, allowing
strangers to approach to a certain distance, and then bounding away with great quickness, and
turning, after a time, to gaze at the intruder. Generally the deer in a park form into various
herds, which feed separately, each herd chasing away any intruders from one or the others who
may seek to associate with them. Not unfrequently, combats occur between the various herds;
but the fallow deer is not nearly so pugnacious as the stag, who, so far as his own kind are
concerned, is exceedingly given to brawling and fighting. The fallow deer, like the stag, has two
remarkable holes or slits under its eyes, through which it is said to draw in the air, as through
the nostrils; and this is the more probable as, in drinking, it thrusts its nose deeply into the
water, keeping the nostrils immersed for a long time. A breed of fallow deer, that has
flourished greatly in England, was introduced by James I., who brought some specimens home
from Norway, when he returned from the famous journey during which he married Anne of
Denmark.

THE SPRING BUCK or SPRINGBOK (Plate ix., d)
Is one of many kinds of antelopes found in South Africa. These creatures exists in vast
numbers in the great uninhabited plains at the back of Cape Colony, where they roam across
the country in herds of many thousands. The springbok takes its name from the agility with
which, when pursued or alarmed, it jumps from crag to crag, or flies in long leaps across the
plain. And, indeed, the swiftness with which the springbok and the other Cape antelopes are
endowed is necessary for their very existence, for flight is their sole defence against the many
enemies who lie in wait for them. The colonists shoot them down in numbers: they are the
favourite food of the lion and other beasts of prey lurking in the thicket; and even the hyena
pursues them, and drags many a victim from their flocks. But, on the other hand, these ante-
lopes exist in so many varieties, and in such vast numbers, that the attacks of all their enemies
seem powerless to reduce their mass in any great degree. Sparmann, the African traveller,
speaks of two thousand who all came down at once to drink at the same well. Vaillant,
a French naturalist, while travelling in the wilds in the rear of Cape Colony, found himself
encircled by a vast herd of antelopes, all travelling southward in search of fresh pastures
and running streams; for one of the droughts which frequently occur in Southern Africa had
burned up the grass' on which they fed, and dried up the rivers. He estimated their numbers
at no fewer than fifty thousand. These migrations of the antelopes are sometimes a source of
great annoyance and loss to the colonists; for the little intruders break into fields and gardens,
eating up "every green thing" with the perseverance and rapacity of a swarm of locusts.
These antelopes are graceful in form. Their colour is generally a light brown. The males have
small horns, the females none. Their flesh is agreeable and wholesome, and of their skins
many articles of clothing are made. Thus the colonists and natives are well recompensed for
the occasional depredations of the antelopes in their search after food.





PAGE 1

THE MERINO SHEEP-CLOTH MANUFACTURE. charge. Notwithstanding all his care, however, many are lost by being blown over into the ravines among the rocks, and others are buried beneath the drifting masses of snow. In some cases sheep have manifested a remarkable tenacity of life under such circumstances, having been found alive after being buried twenty and even thirty days beneath the snow. In most countries on the Continent of Europe, and also in the East, the shepherd does not drive the flock before him, but literally leads them, walking at the head of the troop, which follows him wherever he goes. The affection of the ewe for her lamb, the care with which she devotes herself to the little helpless creature, and her grief when deprived of her nursling by death, as also the stratagem employed by the shepherd, who strips the skin from the dead lamb and wraps it round some little motherless thing, thus cheating the bereaved mother into the belief that her own offspring has come back to her, have been admirably described by the poet Bloomfield, in the following lines: "Her tender offspring dead, the dam aloud Calls, and runs wild amidst th' unconscious crowd, And orphaned sucklings raise the piteous cry, No wool to warm them, no defender nigh And must her streaming milk then flow in vain P Must unregarded innocence complain ? No; ere this strongsolictude subside, Maternal fondness may be fresh applied, And the adopted stripling still may find A parent most assiduously kind. For this he's doomed awhile disguised to range (For fraud or force must work the wished-for change); For this his predecessor's skin he wears, Till, cheated into tenderness and cares, The unsuspecting dam, contented grown, Cherish and guard the fondling as her own. Thus all by turns to fair perfection rise; Thus twins are parted to increase their size; Thus instinct yields as interest points the way, Till the bright flock, augmenting every day, On sunny hills and vales bf springing flowers, With joyous bleatings greet the vernal hours." / The most famous of the foreign breeds is the merino sheep of Spain, which has been used to improve the breeds of Saxony, Austria, and other Continental nations. The name merino signifies from beyond the sea;" and it is conjectured that the breed was considerably improved by some Cotswold sheep, imported into Spain in the reign of Edward III. The rearing of these sheep is considered a very important matter in Spain; and centuries ago the Spanish Government took the matter in hand, and enacted laws regulating the privileges of pasture the sheep were to enjoy on their journeys from one part of the country to another, which they were made to perform twice a year, the number and pay of the shepherds, and, in fact, all matters connected with the sheep-breeding interest. This system of migration of flocks was supposed to improve both the fleece and the flesh of the sheep; but of late great doubt has been cast on the fact, as it is asserted that the merinos in certain provinces, where the sheep are kept to the same locality all the year round, thrive quite as well as those who occupy a full quarter of the year in their journeyings. Closely connected with the breeding of sheep is the history of the cloth manufacture. The first knowledge possessed by the Britons of the art of cloth making came, no doubt, from Gaul. The Romans had a factory for the making of cloth for soldiers' coats at Winchester; and under the earlier Norman kings several cloth weavers found their way over to England from Flanders, where the art was best understood. In the reign of Stephen we find that 12


--.... ---, ;-,.-; -,-, -
,!,! .... -- -- -, -31 ,.-..--z -;, 7 M -7 -'.-. .;,-.,.,., iiiiiiiiiiiii. -,`, ", ... i p .j,.
,,inm , .., ., M:,.:,,
iv,.:i.-.4,,>_'-;"-'..7a N-T ..- a.z. ..,. a -, -, i-.! ..7. , -.1m. -
.L, .... 111r :1.,
% .41- --:;;r4 .,;!., . M I, -1-1 I -. .
-...". vN iz-11, ;,,,,-3,p-m : ,-
;p w, -,-,%--,l ,-, g gm.
7 -,,,.Z-,, -,-f.,vA,,-.,g,.^:--.1
-- .,....- W ..... .. ..;, .... .. J. W 4 -I . . . . I ....."g
,Itl -,.,
Fs r""--,A.?-.,ap.f ?., tr 4 :. .
.. S .
KW;-A37&Twm: M', t W-- ,
I ONO ,:: . . . . ........
I, ma, 1,
.- - ---,.- ...". 1 ,
I.T.11-1.1S 1".. 0 0 1 Rms-;;. 44 ,--.. '.-. e.--o')e...A..
"I mc.,-..- -9e....1M ,
.,.r,,4P-41.",. i5 I. !.: m, ,.,
., -t...it" :.:. .::.. 1,j1..,.,;),-m---1 -.- -, -.. -
N ,-..,.,.,1.111-11W,*i-K ,i 51TA 2i-. ,;... .
;,e'i .. 0. .. ium IRITd
., ... .,.. -41, :.-,, 5 1,.,!,,.-,,....,z;.,P
- -'-4,- ,,,`, - -1
,.2 -;i --,;.--,,P...- 7. ... .a .
.4. ,11. I .. .. .....
-X:;.N4 .. I
,;, .. i .. . ,- , .,i% 4 ..,. '"
.", .; ." ,. . . .
,.
.. ,.;ra .i.". --- ,
,.ii,.*g, ... O .R -, ?... , .i:; ".,.,
,,-= ., .,
.. 111-111!- -,.;= , "y" v ;
, W` "' 11 .". i,; 4 M --
IM61.9mi le .
m FYIJF-ii V.Ar
iL !g ."r..,',,,.'C .-.',N'-'z%,- .., .", i, ...--- ,
WE .7 ,; ,
.,!,$ MR- W, M 11m, -il N -,
.. ... i;:,
"I", 'IN ;,"2 ..-.". .. -- 17", `,,; ,,,,i; 1. I. p RM ,
"Mommgmumm "i'D, ..
WEROWRNMR,""t ". ,;A, ,-., ..,,: .
.,r-, ..--,,-,.
..... ..... 11-1. .. .-.. F'. !, - - ... . .. . "
,..-... .- m., ILI: .... .;,.;= .- ,.-.-. 1-;:-;;----..,.
;,,`, -"; :!,,",.:'--.,,;.,.,:.',,,,,,.,r,. .. .........- ,-.. ,-.,--Zr-.-, ,...
...1- 1. 'i.':.-'!.:,*c.":;',',.i.'.!.-.,, ,-, ig,.;.I.,,`-;: .', .7- ....-,. 1.
V..... ...'..'....., ,i ` ..,..I.,;...:-I::."!,:....... 1 -- j .- .. .j,,:G-14 Tj- M -
. ...-- .-L ,,:: ", .... ..
-,,-,:::. ;,.-,-,.,.,.,.,.,.,.,.,:'--!.L,i --,,7!ik! -:.;..,jjf ,,;V,;
.. ;P.L.m.,T.,:iW :if .. i,- .,...,,.;."..4,;r-:;-..,:;T wc..
"; eo-.,.,i. - :; ,, ` .. .;-,
.. 4.. ., -.1- . I z ,
--...
mam -C.,.,.7.-
,.-,- F,`.-:!.-,;ia;-., x:.-"If,,i4,; .;--;-! ,---J,-..,!,. W ...... ,z , .'j.< i 7 OF
:;! ,:,,;! .. ; k. W- g; .C:::.:,,rNv,-T!!-- .
,- ,;f.,. , ,.,., i -,;, ,111,
=Wmo- 7"
-, ,-- ; .I., ::::::.c... .
,::,.-,,%i....-:1!,,:1m,1 ..,,-.,.-,.R.;:;.,.,;,,,i - ... -j -- ,.- .,.I:,'7,"?,:.,;,.7'.,",- ---- .. ,..
;tU,4,;o,;,1.--1Ai .." .,,,- -,,-,-;:;--;-, ,.,-,.r s ,
,. -ii-,-,.- -.111.--
l- .;, ,P,! M, 11, ;;-.41-,P. f44 ;P;,,,,,f tJ -,!,,5:i,;e,,,-. ". :, i ,j ... xg,
.::! -.. M , ,,-,-,,:.E q
.r., ,
: .. '.." ;;--V ,,-, 0, :',. --ii r: 74,.- ,.c,:],, -.-- ,
q"-..-i:.-,.,.-.,.e---tt4,,, .... 1., ,.,.. N.- ...
4,,i-4-r.;,.-,.-,,,.;,,., '.... - -,* .r -..,.-2.:,;, P RW IRM Q e .,,-:._ --.. ..." ,
... f 1 7.:: '....., .,`.:, ,.., .,. ;'. ,
. ;:, -,::,;,,--,,,, -;-i--, ,*,,7 - ,., ... Ili'
..7.,- .Nt: M c .. ......
'. M im %i-
1%41m- ".- '; -- .... .. -, ; .. .--,--- .:I .. .r
''7.ii1c...,;,.Ii.!,.,...;.:....., &-,,,j4l,,,ij -, ""
.:I;. ..... : ,!r,.Aiv -, ,-,Y`-5,,E-;!.,-,-,:, ,-, -
I - - .. .. . -- 4: "-l.:7;,...-.."'-,",'.:.::"..-..,.- ,-; -1 -.
,.. ." Q-.-,4-;..-.
,.: t.- :. ,,Q,,, "......- I....'...- 11 .... 9.-.- to M
- -,. -.,.:. 17-
.;., :!,i1,,-:;n.,:.,:,,,,,:- ; ft .
;- .. :F...!...!'.ii-';:,,i-.,,r,r,.,,,;, ,., . .t,,;,t4,-,-. .
T,-` (,. -,:--: ,-t- -- .,
;10 1 -,-:::-.;.::i;,. .., ;! - ,., -,. . ... .. ,,.--.- -.,. .1
- .. ..... il- -y,.%!i.,VN:.,,Qwr9:,,. i,,----.-,, ,.'i,,.,.',i?.'.-.".,-,!.:!,.'. ,-,,.,-ije,,; ,-
,M J -.-,.- i-,-I,-,:.; - - .. -.-,- .. ,,- :;: .... .-M. .... ...
i:, -v--,.T:6 , f-`T ...,, -.,I, w,?.,: , I .1. 7
.",... 11 I - 1, .. A,,.: -a- m ,,..!'
'" ,,,,
.. .,-., ,,iLl.;.,,,-.:;a T ... I ,".. .- L..
., .?, -r--:`, : -;,..,.i- ,- -.! ji,,,,!,a., I - -
%.: , j -- ,,,`., `.,:P,-`:;,il! -.,4,-, .7 -, 1". - .. ,-;q,!.-.-.'...",.,-".."i",.4"-.,,:",-,..;ir,-,t4, K so -i-
:-, -,,-rvi:,--,E,:- !,,!:,,-::--.; .--.. .; ;I,'-.'-! T., -. , - -!,..., ..fli!'il-4..e.-..,t'i.ig".
::.,. .. --., 5, ;,zft, .-%
,,,1,7;:i., .7. ....'F..;:.,:",.-.:...;:.,4 :- .,4:;;E.?- !" -.- .it !-t
,. E ..r..6..::",],"-,;,..,.!-- -6k-,.441:;!i.L.-?, j-,--tlwZ-,.. ,V, -, -1,4.,-. ,,.;z.-r.P-L: klig- .0 1;-, ,ff
"'?, .,.m-.,,. j ..... i:;.- -i;-,;,- ..-;. .: Z:... -;,.. -1:9 1,,., -,.,,41'r-'i!..;,'4'.'rz:;.. ,. ... -
.... , - - ... 1-4:,-w
.r if,,,fl,,.--.-:!-,,-: . W qV M N. -.!:; -a .5
.1 r.j,.,%,6..--- ;- Q s Q ,,i, ;,,..i...`,,, ". -, .1,4T.- ... a_ ., -;i-
- .:. 'j.1m ,:-5 i.-.-,.-,..-.`,,-, ---.7 ,--r ,.Ii. ...-r ,F-i-,.z.'!-,'.--,-e,"-.i'.',.;',;".,!.;.'t.',.t,- ", m cai,
-, !:; L', m, ,..a. np;.-,:::.-,.
- m7wi7 W ", .. 1-5 ,-,V,-,5:,,:;,Mt .,",M t. J ,R;, ,.:;.
,. .:- .1.. -. L. j i 7
:: ... ..... ...
:;:Jml:I, .?;....:.,.i'.-',';.r,:;,...;:,;:. :1.: :.:-.1;.T,.,: ..:, M
- :-N..-.,.-*,: !.i, . . .:- .- 1. '....
,;.,.. -- ..... 4, :. .,., :;i.7,-,.F- ", j.L. ,.Ti.."", -e... ,;-- :,, .,-,., ,r,:-:,f,.,- : -,r, - - - -1-1. -- --7,2i, r", LW ., .1"',
.1 i:.; I.; ,,;-.:: ... ,: r-.:-,, L-.,. 1%.- 1 ,T---.,t I t....-.V,. z A
--: .. .... n.- ,,n,- q - ..I..... .. -.. . - '14 11,11, .. fk.,,..,,- .-...v
. ..".,..:;;.;.:..,.":..;.:.-;;"...!:!.. !, .-:;:..,.:::.4,,. , - ,..,A-: ,.,.. ,. .. -, ., Z-..:;:-. ,. - 01; W L
*.-,,,.X.. .;- :.xn .: m,,,,. :1.,: .%;-,, ,;;-.-.j::- : 7, ,-..: , ,=
.. .1. i e, -, _1.. .: .,.,f. .:;.'!:. .. :,.;" ,ro i--.... -.W,:;,., :-.-O,,,,, .....- 1--r.
"" - .. . -%:,.: -` '. -m, ,.,,i;. . t:;;:::: E.;". :",ir;.;,..,-.'..ir-,Le:i,. ;.,..
.,, .-, .1].'i ;, ..: .,,;::: 1!;,-%.-Y.--,,::. : i.;.:.. , ,., ,1'4;C::.:: .... :, . -, t:;:,., g--,!:r-rr,:Ev ie ;.,:g4,!,= !==.=
-..t:.--.-.,,-....,'...",!-:.'...'... i,-i. .. ;w .:,--;-z;:'!J,., ...
1.;---,- .:-.--om, -,',4.,, q.,,, -,!
4. . .O.. ..::. ,-
.. .. L -, ,: --.7 ,- !, 6:i5..-,,Z"4AL
. .,.. ,.. :.- --!-`,:::,- .. r...j -..,.-
... ` .... ... M... :A si -E!.,: f ,`..:!.,,; :::, -'. , .: .. !. .- --, -;, !,,",,f :.ftT ;t7,.
. :IJJ r.:.L;;!;-':.-.i;.-.t:z.;.,::;::, ,,7::-,.: ....it ;,
%-,,Tg- ,: g k .. - ... ::. ".1. 1.11 ....... .. ,-:-. ... , .......... .. - ,,,-:: .-7i` ;- ,-. . ifm. - .... . ,
,,-.`,,-.::; Z CIkt-, Cl; . ,: ,;it :. ..". "; ., ... -=41. --o. N . iA.,,,
'... "Mi -- V.. -,... Z. .1 .. : ,, i -: .:.. :,. -,; - -:. :!; ........ ..... ;.-..,. -,p.
-... .... .... .. ... ,,x:,.-,ir 1jr! r .:, ..:il....:.:-:ll.-,:i:.,s ...1. 0-- !v .) ,x! V
.. I -?4 Ims. -1 .4..:, -,.--.z --.7 .,,;. .,%,.-,Jl..; .., Kfi, tz z e ,:... -.- ....... ..... ......,:...:;;-,::...--.-t;:"--..ii:.;...;,:; F, .:, 7,:i, rf, J;., j:".... I.,il; ;: ... ,,..,-: e,; .. i&.M. -e .
.
:. .! . `101,-n
;.:.! .... . .. ..... .:::; -i! 4.4 -1
.. :!
.;.m3.-1s-..!. 47-1;..;;,i` -;:''; . . -.. -- A -: ..
:'.'-.- .
. "I : ... ,- -, -, ';; a -,.6,; %:,:.': ;:. .. . -,.,- 2X, gli.,A-S t
? ;:: .- ;;;-!:4:!::; -,,.:::-i:,.,.,.-,. -.:;:..:.: '
,%li'.,',..:r..,i;.";"".. -, ..... .. 1. .!i,.`t:t ,., ,.... "' -- ..?.. r;:::: i-, m .... -4 ,.;,,,-,-:,:Ilt ;,..%,'-,;`;77-.!.!,.- -Ldi-`i j-'.Z-','..-,'...;.' "Ki.1 I ':%.19F- j
-, "''" , ,-,-- --m-,.-,-,:,. "..;: r,,-: ,.-,.:;. ..? ... ,: 1:.-,-.,:!:.. C. t ... 1.,,:,:.;.. ..:.k::-,A,.M4,-.,;
:; :Yt--..,,-: :- 1 .- .. .". . .. .. .., .. .. .:, ::.,., .. .. :. ,.- : -. 1; -; iv ?:-,?. .....
.. .. o... c
..... --......:;;.:.U.;:,.,:; .. ...,,., ,-,,ov.,-... ......j- ..:. . ": 7-'-"- -'I'- --
.,`-.- ... , . ;... ,- - ...M.. i - .. .t I.- 1 ..
.. -, """ 7i:.. .,, ', 6'. -;; ..... .. ,.ia4,, .,,,;, -.t;:,?
!.. :-.,'..".;.;.-.-;"-.--".';,.;-....,;;. ': ,:,,., .r
!:::]!,::i,.!.,-,.-..-,.".":i"Ii.,.!-,,': I - .... .. -!,;,r.. t4-- .:,. ... , .
, ; ,- ,,::`,..,----.,: -,-,.!,,:-...,.;- -.-, -niz, J- ::.,mr .
.. ", .. - -p-.-.:;.! ...
,- -- '. .,- ";.-!:;:: -;,:- .,,,`;.- !,4 -,--,4 ;i;,
.; --- ;..,E: , .,- -.z,",,. ..,............ ......,- --.,.-....-, 11
-..6 .... ... ;.. ,.,.. v.: ;. .. il. i. .: ,.,,;,,..:j.::.;.6; - --, .- :,;,..,..: ,
'., .. - --.,
io ,.'. ;.,.: ... : .;,.. .. ... ...
. ii, !-, -,. .-i.-..: ... 1. - !;,:.1-iN,.,;M1.;Rx_-= ,
w"M ,,.-. - : .!: ;::!,,:-.:7.---j.,. : "!'r, ,::.. ;;.,%.. ;,Z,,,1;,,r7-- 1 w.
, - R 1,------., . I. - .. . i
.q .,,.:i...: O ;;;
4 -1h .- . . ..... "; . . ... ,,_ !, !.,-; ... z,.
.. n. "' , , ,
mirm. : I:i.,.. ..
-, g ,,& .r;., -e1;...,.j,,1;!t, -,X,1-1 1.
: ----- ,, I I. ... - .-..-, .. . ..
.. gg ,...,---i -.-,., -.-,- .. - -I-.-. -..... .--- -.--.--, ,:-.Ji f:4,!,4:i:!:i,:!.::::".-.rt'-,.-- -, S R I= kno ut m a w m -ivi2, ,
.. .. -1-,Fj1,;!,;,.-,,,,., --.Aplg.-; -.f.j
.,-; 4- -""!!;",...,,.,;v,,W..,!,.,;",--,..,Zli
-: 6--;...;..- -':--,.::",..:-;';.-,'.'.;;- MI as s yg y "M a r y - g y 5
. 11- .... ....... ; p, :,
7-4 1,.,,il!: ` -- "'.... ,..- ....- ...., .. ........ :- J : :-, .::, -I,-.. -,, -... ,... I - -:.. :!... .:t -!j .
I!,fiEll . ,-, 1. ... --- ""
., ..." - .- -!-::-: !1 - .., ;,,2- .,.: ., .-
-, -, ; ,- .4 'i, -.,.:-.;.,,;:.-..-..; ;::,.:. .;:,,., -..,,...- -7. 4'..'..'.f I ' .;,,2.,;, .:: ,:1i, :, .: : .,, .:. -
in I . ..... I ;,-, n ,-: -,.::,-,f;.,i,.; _.;::::;.'.', .,,,
ii"T -1--.,.-.,-,.:6, ! ..:.;!."5 .... ... .. .... :.: %.,!!., '. ;=,i. : ,,o:,W ,,=,ff .,i-!f4 I . .
M IAW ?, -, -;,i ,..:, -----i,-,-:,-.- , :7,-.,-;=,i.. .:.
.1 .. .- :. .v:l ,;:-..!.!-;-..,,e7 . . -... q.; ..i.-..-;.-,.
', ... ---- -,4. -, ,.
-;,. i ..-...,- .. I- v.- ,1.,, ,; i.;
.f ,.1. .: ---!i-.--.-.,-..-. : L-:.- ..- : -ii;;:4.t,,,i '... ... -.. - ,.- . i: - .. ,, :1
:::V ,: .i:ml,.K, ,:.. ,Z if ........ .
-,-- - 7ii ::
iL. - ;-- "......,:; 1: .. !1.1:,,.i:, .... ,t .... -;.tq ..
,.,i :.C: I ,, ,: : 1 : ::, ,Z:...: ... .1.1 ...... I... . - I..: ... .. c .. a .. ; ... ,
... ,,: .!I: 0,, !:. il. ,4-:`-- ; '?
I- .; ...i, -..:z-.,-.--, ..-. ,%--z.:,: ; ;,,.., .; .... .: 7 -:!,.-::.,: ,;,T-,: : ,-,'c . . ..-.,iZ,,, ,M mo I
.. 6. ,., : 1.14...: ,.,.. ... 1- .611 --Z;:`::-,: ::,-ln:,: r.,. . :.,.,.:ta!:; .
- ,! ': 1,.t ` .7.... ,.:.. i ---
.. Z; r iz.;:- :,::a" , ..
-J .7 -,% -:: L., I -.... ...;,.-; -.;; , .:.: A R '.
;--:,, ,, --.- ..... .,.,:, P.
':, I ,;:, - --: . .. ... . , I A . F.a.4 ,
,;, '... "; ., -i 1 Zi. .. ;--t:a,,,, -: : "... W.F.-..;
.: ,, .: , ..,-..- : : p u l l - "-10-4.m. .
i I :. i -. . "... '::. :".. .. .,.,: ,.. .... ;: 1 : ;:;:4,, ,;:.. '........ .. ..
..I .. .! ......... '.. ..
,: .. .. -; ,.:;,-.,-.-,, ..."
, t 1 1: .. . .. ..... - .. i -, .,...-, -;, ,...,
- .... - ... .:.:,,,. w .. .... ., ... -.... ... .,
-: I I..;. t i .. . , ., .. ... ;1
-."? ,,, ".. 1 --N ........ .... ...., ....5. ,;;2,-,,-,,M, .";:,. M ,. ". .
m. ..: .... ;: ...:-;- ,.f4 .'s -R-% -
.I:z . ..m.., .. .. ... I : ... ......... ..!. .r ... :. , ,h r.
.'. I ... .. "; ... .....
.... ... "! -
,. % .-.;,;--,--i.-,.,'i.-.,..:, ,,".. -. :. j , . , . i:, ......... ... ... .. ; P6, ... ... ...z .., , i ; ,,z .. :
..,.... . , , p.,: ,v
.:.:.: ... ... ;..:- - -, .....
,.. -, "..; "?, ;.--: . - 4
!, , .,.
,--..... I ...... -a .. ",
,,.:.--.,: 11 .1 I I 11 ........; ; -, --., I I mi. ! ;:, ].'. ;.:::::;:,.. ,,!.q V, ,.ii,-,,.,!-,t,[,.!. ,,,I
: ,, I : I 11 I I I .. ;
I , ........ -...-1;,-1.-u;zw,.n,1em .4, ;5-
;i: , , I I I I I : ,,,,,. , -'. . I if : 7 9 ,,,::-..,::,.:i::;!.,-:- .." ,: ::,: ..,.: I : - . -
, :- , I ". I :Z; !,V,,-- v-, -it ...
.,. p I I 1 : . , . ... `'..'-2:-%-.%,- 1 .,l 1 I I : :i!;%,W,,-,!:- -?.k;;l ... Ev, .:..!.
-- .!. I :.
.. , ;-,,::.,.,.,-!,. I
.1 : 1, I : . ::.-.4.:. ,.i. ..:: :.,.,.,.i:: ,,- .,.,.: i ?:::.,-!::.. .,. .., I l!" I . I .. .;..; 4. .. ; .A. ,Fm -;,- :,-
:, I ; -:;. . V': . :71,. 1 .:
-..!..% i: '. -- .1 ,; .. ::.:'. . i .. .Rii
,
: -:. .,..:,,;;:.-,-:,,;Z;.-! .:. .;:. ,-,, .... .1. .n ir-
:. _- ..; -, ..PUT ... .. ...f..,
,];;:i.. f,.:j 1: -;..-- :% .1.. ..
". mm,, I ..i ; ,..
- :: ,: .. ... -_,-!o,-;vii,.,.,.- .. ..
;. ,: -: ,-'- I I I ....... : -;:,.. .... ..:; j.--;. I .
--m m- :;.,, I.
,,,:;?.,t-;- ; . . . . . .5. ...
-;: : .!.:.-:i -:: , ,4': i:...'..'.... - I -, ---,, -?r. ....
.... .... ,.---:::.-.,,.: ,% c ;. I :C: I.... -.:;.,.,-.,?P,-,.- ;;.
I 1 ..., . ;n;..:n .....,i:::!;..:.f.',...- .;. n .. ..
. .... :,:".,-.: ... .... .1 ;.,.-.-:.: n... 9..1..:-
.... :.--_.-, `;-t 11 I I ::-:- 1-.,,, ..-.,. : : : -! ,,*-: i:::;:!oi:;. .:: ...........- -. ..,-", :-%--,,,,;.L -
.; .. :,. --sm, -, .,. i.
I .- ., ... -- ,:
.. .. :. ::::. -:.-::. - ,,- ,", .
--- -. . I 1 .M.- .. .... I ..... .M z .1 ..- .":
,..., :1,.,., xs; .. .... ..; 1,Z, ., "':
, ...... v . . ..
.... .. ;,., :... .. -. .i : z .. ... .,..!. - ..." .... ... s ...... .." .: i .,,:r .. ,
-- ,1 i : ; m .;. j;;- , ;, : i:,: : . .: .. ..::
,. , "' . 1. ....... ...- ., . ,..:-.,,;!!:::;: -.:,-%-; I, I
't., i.,-.- .-
"" : , .. -.,.-. ... ..
- 1, . ; e - ,- I .4 :i:::-, --;::--. --.; ... . .......... ...... .. az, 6.4. . ..:_ ,. . 5,it,, -,.--,! .. ;.,::;,:F.,,.i,:, : .. ,.: r , -;,v,:f.e: , 2 1.1;:...,, ::j, .., . w I ,
,: .; .- ..., ---- -.----1.--,J,-,,,,,,.---. I I I :. ::: ... - , 7!,.,,!,, --'. ,. '..... . .. .
:,:..:::;i. -- ep.. ,,.-. -.:...::;.. ...;:..-,.,i:.':-'g,.!.1::;,...!.-AI
:1 :i:: ... i. ;::, : -,= ......
!..,, : .... ---.--.., ...........- ...
.,.:..:.-je,,!: ;; ..,: ;: ;-`---] -4;j.C:,
.. : : 7 1 .,", :; :, , , .:': .F :,-:.-- ,----,,,,--;.,-------,,-.--- , .. ,:14. ....
:: ;-..i..;.j.-:6-1. --- ,L,;,,. w .!
-- -.--.-- i ,- .... ... ... .;,.: 4 0 .
-:,:i:.. - :;;. ;,-- -, .:,,.: ;. ..!. .. . .... .... .,
. ,. ..:. .., ..7. - %,.:., ... ;.,.v% '. ..
:, ` : ... r e.. -.- ,. . .. ; 1;1`-: 1 ; ;:;.".!,,:,,::- -. ;: 04 ,;,!.,!.._ -j "
- I -!--.:,,--....: .-,... 1 ... I ...,i.-.,,:; ,; . .; ,,, :.r 1 ....... ,
:: I, i I I I `,::.. .,.:;;-,;.. : ;; - -, ;-,,,, ,:r : I ;,.. : %;;:;:-L,.,..-,;,,,-,:!- .:- :;! : ,Z,, 2", - o g a.
-.::,_ : ..., - .-,-,.-;, , I :.,., I I -5- -so .
I'll, i:!F.-7,: . , I .... ... ,.. - ,- . .:;::.: Z, ".... .. ,...-.-,; I t. -- ,! z... 1 I ..
: I I I -: ...... -.:..-.:;1- ;....4 imm.:, :- .fi,Y.5 : .. .11-1 . t_ ,, .h,
-!;;-j : ; _,
ir-:.-: , .,.:! , -.,.---... ,.,.,.-.,.-- ..... .. .. j ", .:. . ,
.. ... -% I :: ., ,.. I ... ,i N1, 11
-1,.-- .M. .. :: ..
,- 1, : : .. i: .: .1 :.-.;X.oi.3,:: :,::::
':.. .; j ... ; .q ,.,.. .. .. ...f.,.f i Zj- ... : ,, , . "M ffl-
, .. :::;, 1, : : :=-MMNON.- I I.Q.-MI. .1.
-- -, - .. .... -:1 .. .; R .
.5 ... 11. .i 11 : '': i .: - _,.., 6; - : i;,---; .... .. ; '.0;- -.:. : a .v
,,-..-.: . I -: Jf.-..-L, .-;.f 'o- mi . .
I . . - i;- W -,,4,-. , .: :,.;: .-.'..-' ... . : .. ,.; i. ;: -:- -...-,. . . . -...;, .. -,&fp, -, ..
--., '... . , , .: r ..... .. .. ::
- . I'll, .-:r.-- ,;V., , ,
,-4.. ,,,, I I ,-,: -U-,I,, . P1 6 .1
, i,. % -i7r - :,.., 1',,:;,:---i L.;---: .:.. .......
...`,. : . ; 1 ,7 .. ,,, .- .. 1 i.,.:!, j:
... ;:-::.-,.:... ,,i -j I
.: .. :;,:..:- .. :..,- I .:.. i., ..
j.. .. ...
';, i: :,.. ..:.::;.. iltt--At, .M... ,P p ,
:1- -.:. '..... :, I ,t ,44 :
::-.:.-,..",:--,i : : ." ,....: .. ... .::, ,-, .... .... i.,-, l,:;..: ;;, ------ T.'
:, :: : I I :: --- : .! .-.. : -!,i ,Z.. w ., : : .- 4;",f ,a .!.... "i''..'.. .1,-:, I I I 3.U-, ,-, ,
I I .--. I -:-X,,.F ,,,R-.14,,Z
.- .,,,v,,,-.,-: -.;,, I I , I .-: :.: ;....:.:- , : .. 11 .. -,- -,- ..., - -
.. .. . :...- 11 ,::i;-., % -,-`
- ..F....,%; I , : : , - :.,!- -.7:.,.Y,.;;, -., ...-::i;....,. , ....... --,`;L-v,,,-,ft ;3- .
: ,:,,,,--,.,, , O A o : ;,; li .!.-., ,, - a...
.:,. I -; .... .. .,; ;;,,. .. ,:.,. .. r 11
.. ;-,i.:.,-. ,;tm ..
!,.- -.n:;--.--.:.-.1-,.,. : : m,.,;,,4 .. P ".
. n ... . -.: i,:;;,.:,;
.-----,.-,.-,--, `-`,,,,, : 11 ... -S.: , , I , --. - I i, .
t o .. ... ... ....... I I ... F1 .-
,, .:, ..... .: : - :
.1 .", ,7. ----,-.--. -, .,:] I --11 F
. : I .. m.. :-3, -.-. -..!JW,,,-;,,,: ........ .--.
`6,;; !:.K,,;%. -... ,V.!.-. .
,-' -6f,;-,` ,..-..T"",--.-'.',".,'i. 1EM ..."Xi . 4
,- ..L,-.:-. - . jq
,;,,, -: .,:,.. ;R,,,!,,An-, ,,,,.,-
-... , : . :.-:.-. j.-!::....-i . :, : 1 -.,.
t.--,f- --,:7;-- : , :- :, , I , : . : -,,-.--,:.,, -. I S h "-, ,: 4,P ,
, : 'Im:.1-1-- ..., s::,.,.; `. .'--. : .;-,4,AM M, 4*.`,` 1.
-- -:, -, -,;:.-,. .... -. :, -,: i ., .,- ; 3 -:: .;r..
::::i I I I I I 1 : 1" -,.-,,-:i ,-,:, ::: -, -. -,-:.;m..-, ,:,-.-.:-.,.,. ,. K t.,.'AR ",.-, ., .
., ,... I . ;,-.. ;- ... -,C4,:&arl LIN Z ..
A%` -11 I 11 "I I --
.-.-,,-- I I I .: ,- 3mi`1,!,1A,-."1;1,@ t F
-,: "-1 .. . 41, .211,14R,
:, - , ;.. : 41,1.4611%
.. -.-. ............ ;.;. .
.:.,' .: : I , .:.-." .. :., i,.,- --.11 .. ... .. I "'r. ., .
,!;. :;, : .. 7. .. ,;:-
--. : ..,-: 1 , 7 , .-) 11 I I , I I ? ., ".?.;.w . -
. : v,4-- t,1:,.,i;,.:...-,: -,
.: ., : , -r...,L"!.4,..--.;,..,.;"4,!I.- 0.-,-x7,1 --,. Su'si ..a ..
........ . .... ....,.,.....,......4."..-'i; ... ,",'n le
, : I 47.-,- .. .. -M -, ,c.,.;:!
,: i ,: : ,: i,, e .. A . rf, r. -a
: , ,-.::!; j,,,.,U:;,,,. -----:%5-.iLZ,,,9 5 IZI, "' ... "-. #. 1.
:: ., I 1: , I ; .,-, .
I ...... ml..;..,. 1. .,T-W -,:-,-,.
I I I I I .1 I 2 , , I I I : -1 ... ........... .. .. K M .. I E t.
.. .... .. I ...... I Lz.; !, .
.. ..... - ..:. 11 ;,
I I : , I 1. , I : 4- : ` , ,- t I 1, :: -!.: wlv,,---L - ,. ::-,,.F-,. .. i, :
-- L-S :,!-.. ,,:
, -,,.-. -:i::,,, P z7jj.. .- -%%, -:4 --.::. '..". 3A ,
-- .. .. .. ... 4.!-.-
1. . C,.,. ,;-,
:, 1, I ....... ; ;:--,,;! ' .. Z!,V'..U ,,.Rij,
.4.;: -!;`, ,.!.- T-4-
1. I . .,. ., i.--;.:,,,.,,.,.-.'...'-I ..".
",
-, -...7.... -...,... -. -;., .;!,,: .
I I I : I I I I .
-:7.,-.;.-- .,--.,... .. .c ..;- .V, tit :.":i,.,:!,::",',,.:!.-,,,;!.-.!,i :.,,Adv w o
11 -!. Z --o... I Im.; .j. q --
,- -1 v..
. , .. ....--.1.1 .. ..... .. I..... -- .. IN 15.
:::', -,;,;;,:-,. :.,
...... ......., -114'. ,-,5 .. .
I I I I I -............. .. ,. ;..; .:.:;:-,!_,j.:%.;%..1 -11-11- -, .. i o5::::::::





PAGE 1

A WONDERFUL PARROT-CONCLUSION. The parrot is especially adapted for climbing. Of his four toes two are pointed backwards, and thus he is enabled to grasp the bough on which he sits and to clamber from one branch to another, sometimes swinging head downwards from his perch: his strong bill also assists him in this exercise. He is sociable in disposition, living in his wild state in companionship with many of his own kind. Both the upper and lower part of the beak are moveable, and thus the parrot is enabled to seize and hold a much larger object than his beak could otherwise grasp: The following account of the sagacity of a Brazilian parrot is taken from the voyage of a naturalist in South America: "A certain Brazilian woman, that lived in a village two miles distant from the island on which we resided, had a parrot of this kind, which was the wonder of the place. It seemed endued with such understanding as to discern and comprehend whatever she said to it. As we sometimes used to pass by that woman's house, she used to call upon us to stop, promising, if we gave her a comb or a looking-glass, that she would make her parrot sing and dance to entertain us. If we agreed to her request, as soon as she had pronounced some words to the bird, it began not only to leap and skip on the perch on which it stood, but also to talk and to whistle, and imitate the shootings and exclamations of the Brazilians when they prepare for battle. In brief, when it came into the woman's head to bid it sing, it sang; to dance, it danced. But if, contrary to our promise, we refused to give the woman the little present agreed on, the parrot seemed to sympathize in her resentment, and was silent and immoveable; neither could we, by any means, provoke it to move either foot or tongue." On Plate xxII. a specimen is given of each of the three chief classes of the parrot tribe. Letter d represents the great RED AND BLUE MACAw, the most gorgeous of all the family. His plumage glitters with mingled carmine, gold, and azure. He is a native of the West Indies and the adjoining coasts of the mainland, especially Guiana and Brazil. The natives of those regions eat the flesh of the macaw with great relish. The macaw builds its nest in the hollow of a lofty tree, and lays one or two eggs twice in the year. It is easily tamed, and is often seen in captivity in England. The SMALL GREEN PARROT is designated by letter e, while f marks the GREAT BLAcK COCKATOO, which has sometimes, from its noble colour, been termed the IDIAN CRoW. CONCLUSION.-THE ARCTIC REGIONS. Lastly, that our young friends may quit this book with an idea of the infinite variety of creation, we turn from the birds of gorgeous plumes inhabiting the torrid zone, to a very different class of creatures, denizens of the frozen polar regions, where snow and ice cover the iron ground during the greater part of the year, where the sun for half a year at a time does not appear above the horizon; "Where, for relentless months, continual night Holds o'er the glittering waste her starry reign. Here Winter holds his unrejoicing court; And through his airy hall the loud misrule Of driving tempests is for ever heard: Here the grim tyrant meditates his wrath, Here arms his winds with all-subduing frost; Moulds his fierce hail, and treasures up his snows, With which he now oppresses half the globe." But, even here, a kind Providence has cared for man; and the dwellers in these frozen zones have their meat. given to them in due season, just as the denizen of the burning climes 43

















-a-


1Et


/


'V.


'V


' 4!


F'




43


, ,


'p '


v


:72' p


N_


,r


- 9


V


I


I


5 ;


I' ~uL
~a~g~
~~ pliq




xml version 1.0
xml-stylesheet type textxsl href daitss_disseminate_report_xhtml.xsl
REPORT xsi:schemaLocation 'http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitss2Report.xsd' xmlns:xsi 'http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance' xmlns 'http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss'
DISSEMINATION IEID 'E20100609_AAAATZ' PACKAGE 'UF00016250_00001' INGEST_TIME '2010-06-09T15:53:45-04:00'
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT 'UF' PROJECT 'UFDC'
DISSEMINATION_REQUEST NAME 'disseminate request placed' TIME '2013-12-09T18:15:38-05:00' NOTE 'request id: 300557; Dissemination from Lois and also Judy Russel see RT# 21871' AGENT 'Stephen'
finished' '2013-12-09T22:33:29-05:00' '' 'SYSTEM'
FILES
FILE SIZE '3' DFID 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfile0' ORIGIN 'DEPOSITOR' PATH 'sip-files00005.txt '
MESSAGE_DIGEST ALGORITHM 'MD5' bc949ea893a9384070c31f083ccefd26
'SHA-1' cbb8391cb65c20e2c05a2f29211e55c49939c3db
EVENT '2012-06-25T09:43:09-04:00' OUTCOME 'success'
PROCEDURE describe
'2012-06-25T09:35:59-04:00'
redup
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfile1' 'sip-files00009.txt
bc949ea893a9384070c31f083ccefd26
cbb8391cb65c20e2c05a2f29211e55c49939c3db
'2012-06-25T09:41:16-04:00'
describe
'2012-06-25T09:36:01-04:00'
redup
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfile10' 'sip-files00063.txt
bc949ea893a9384070c31f083ccefd26
cbb8391cb65c20e2c05a2f29211e55c49939c3db
'2012-06-25T09:40:38-04:00'
describe
'2012-06-25T09:36:18-04:00'
redup
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfile11' 'sip-files00072.txt
bc949ea893a9384070c31f083ccefd26
cbb8391cb65c20e2c05a2f29211e55c49939c3db
'2012-06-25T09:41:55-04:00'
describe
'2012-06-25T09:36:20-04:00'
redup
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfile12' 'sip-files00081.txt
bc949ea893a9384070c31f083ccefd26
cbb8391cb65c20e2c05a2f29211e55c49939c3db
'2012-06-25T09:44:44-04:00'
describe
'2012-06-25T09:36:22-04:00'
redup
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfile13' 'sip-files00086.txt
bc949ea893a9384070c31f083ccefd26
cbb8391cb65c20e2c05a2f29211e55c49939c3db
'2012-06-25T09:40:09-04:00'
describe
'2012-06-25T09:36:24-04:00'
redup
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfile14' 'sip-files00088.txt'
bc949ea893a9384070c31f083ccefd26
cbb8391cb65c20e2c05a2f29211e55c49939c3db
'2012-06-25T09:36:41-04:00'
describe
'2012-06-25T09:36:26-04:00'
redup
'3652' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfile15' 'sip-files00005.jp2'
80e4655c4f317d131564edc51b59bacc
65be760a9667566973bd0c0bd8d422b011ed4564
'2012-06-25T09:44:52-04:00'
describe
'2012-06-25T09:36:28-04:00'
redup
'3640' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfile16' 'sip-files00026.jp2
6944f38f5816818ac641312a33e159bd
292f12e5e7117d6c4ad352a1a5af862bf91f28ea
'2012-06-25T09:39:42-04:00'
describe
'2012-06-25T09:36:30-04:00'
redup
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfile17' 'sip-files00056.jp2'
6944f38f5816818ac641312a33e159bd
292f12e5e7117d6c4ad352a1a5af862bf91f28ea
'2012-06-25T09:37:48-04:00'
describe
'2012-06-25T09:36:32-04:00'
redup
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfile18' 'sip-files00072.jp2'
a263259adbc72d778188e32aeab77042
1574ff58a20292411904c80b639f6c7d79f6758e
'2012-06-25T09:44:17-04:00'
describe
'2012-06-25T09:36:33-04:00'
redup
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfile2' 'sip-files00014.txt
bc949ea893a9384070c31f083ccefd26
cbb8391cb65c20e2c05a2f29211e55c49939c3db
'2012-06-25T09:39:15-04:00'
describe
'2012-06-25T09:36:04-04:00'
redup
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfile3' 'sip-files00023.txt
bc949ea893a9384070c31f083ccefd26
cbb8391cb65c20e2c05a2f29211e55c49939c3db
'2012-06-25T09:38:07-04:00'
describe
'2012-06-25T09:36:05-04:00'
redup
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfile4' 'sip-files00026.txt
bc949ea893a9384070c31f083ccefd26
cbb8391cb65c20e2c05a2f29211e55c49939c3db
'2012-06-25T09:41:05-04:00'
describe
'2012-06-25T09:36:07-04:00'
redup
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfile5' 'sip-files00046.txt
bc949ea893a9384070c31f083ccefd26
cbb8391cb65c20e2c05a2f29211e55c49939c3db
'2012-06-25T09:41:17-04:00'
describe
'2012-06-25T09:36:09-04:00'
redup
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfile6' 'sip-files00051.txt
bc949ea893a9384070c31f083ccefd26
cbb8391cb65c20e2c05a2f29211e55c49939c3db
'2012-06-25T09:41:56-04:00'
describe
'2012-06-25T09:36:11-04:00'
redup
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfile7' 'sip-files00056.txt
bc949ea893a9384070c31f083ccefd26
cbb8391cb65c20e2c05a2f29211e55c49939c3db
'2012-06-25T09:43:41-04:00'
describe
'2012-06-25T09:36:12-04:00'
redup
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfile8' 'sip-files00058.txt
bc949ea893a9384070c31f083ccefd26
cbb8391cb65c20e2c05a2f29211e55c49939c3db
'2012-06-25T09:44:15-04:00'
describe
'2012-06-25T09:36:14-04:00'
redup
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfile9' 'sip-files00061.txt
bc949ea893a9384070c31f083ccefd26
cbb8391cb65c20e2c05a2f29211e55c49939c3db
'2012-06-25T09:41:11-04:00'
describe
'2012-06-25T09:36:16-04:00'
redup
'1450142' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWLB' 'sip-files00001.pro'
3648b82fb33323be2ca550fb8ac3efed
fa0b0749f45d161380a67663c9c3f0cb1c79e40c
'2012-06-25T09:44:28-04:00'
describe
'222' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWLC' 'sip-files00089.pro'
7893ffea142a1987ddbf048b8579ec61
3559d4f0f7b4422c6fc2ceac7ee808fca9c8d445
'2012-06-25T09:37:52-04:00'
describe
'3699' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWLD' 'sip-files00077.txt'
182b82e9f3eb22b226d901471320fa17
c872c98cdf2ee57a7307c9e1b112601472c24f16
'2012-06-25T09:37:30-04:00'
describe
WARNING CODE 'Daitss::Anomaly' Invalid character
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWLE' 'sip-files00089.txt'
bc949ea893a9384070c31f083ccefd26
cbb8391cb65c20e2c05a2f29211e55c49939c3db
'2012-06-25T09:39:46-04:00'
describe
'213220' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWLF' 'sip-files00018.QC.jpg'
6ef2a38936d1f7759026521bfb6f7ff0
5f17f7da354387286043b2997eec25a46f0f8e39
'2012-06-25T09:37:56-04:00'
describe
'8782444' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWLG' 'sip-files00004.tif'
c4bf6929bfcf4cbbf54e0c3d4dc4026c
91f21f117a955cc70d610863dcee867fa31b040e
'2012-06-25T09:40:47-04:00'
describe
'456563' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWLH' 'sip-files00090.jpg'
e7c3b246cab6b71bc85c03b5a882bf40
46f6dd2882314a29e0dc90f6ca43af0dd129326c
'2012-06-25T09:38:12-04:00'
describe
'2172564' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWLI' 'sip-files00062.jp2'
48daa045a622831fb5456517e651f084
f95ed38629ad8b023f7564b13c0be25450705fa7
'2012-06-25T09:40:59-04:00'
describe
'113778' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWLJ' 'sip-files00034.pro'
f09ba14ca0b353da74e1d59c70b50c36
e68b0b7ad848d9b7877e52c3e4c0b8b55e88d405
describe
'67450' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWLK' 'sip-files00068thm.jpg'
e72f4792880b78dc7449a59b1946e7d4
c46537c5bc1d4723d06937013f2902c95bdc8c31
'2012-06-25T09:39:12-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWLL' 'sip-files00088.pro'
3859cad709ac0d77129371ce019b50d0
7f819f28670d4fd7b6092d2019a7e4f10c16b2ef
'2012-06-25T09:41:53-04:00'
describe
'8442808' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWLM' 'sip-files00042.tif'
de8626904a3a653a78d08e3b2229ef7e
193eb47118509fe941b7735f614fd84e97ca5a1a
'2012-06-25T09:41:01-04:00'
describe
'29544832' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWLN' 'sip-files00091.tif'
b11cdde79203be5ecc8b6c8cfb699f9d
37f4c4666d9f046556a944142b900f96bcb103b9
'2012-06-25T09:43:39-04:00'
describe
'8661924' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWLO' 'sip-files00039.tif'
f813b5872ae2892763899b999336aef2
843e9a8265b07ce4de49884745c19aaa46c204f4
'2012-06-25T09:43:13-04:00'
describe
'659' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWLP' 'sip-files00008.txt'
a432449984f3c7711ff5e3e91b620914
d2090e45fa6e6002280a469d16fe58f464a8ac82
'2012-06-25T09:40:54-04:00'
describe
'687188' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWLQ' 'sip-files00060.jpg'
36b46b3ce36368c0fe962628536afa55
376d65d99b7cdc0f1d292304454006249826d92b
'2012-06-25T09:40:16-04:00'
describe
'4162' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWLR' 'sip-files00025.txt'
1f47e46039e34c4c9917cab5c8f5c77d
954c93e804cd3b3c1d7f7d2adcfe3c3cef6da4c9
describe
'196758' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWLS' 'sip-files00019.QC.jpg'
34d7fea6b41d9d8095ddd87206a1e890
bbf4887167ec803aaa65cc9e0e1eee9f1878e039
'2012-06-25T09:44:56-04:00'
describe
'669590' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWLT' 'sip-files00071.jpg'
9e45a0c789367854f1e3ab2fa57a805b
4bc100d95cfb1b46949c58ebbca8150e47949959
describe
'8705752' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWLU' 'sip-files00088.tif'
3024c3f74bf75a7a3149a72b680f2d0c
c9f929f64701ff7e2b1c72d82b3d5be7d960b601
'2012-06-25T09:38:36-04:00'
describe
'270922' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWLV' 'sip-files00028.jpg'
2320695e94200318b45cfff31adf33eb
5d0c88d9baf8168cbc01bf7d7aca8b5b87e3a3f7
'2012-06-25T09:39:08-04:00'
describe
'25887' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWLW' 'sip-files00004thm.jpg'
c2bb2d86420d485405666c0447be6884
4846f64217f2a7901f77ed9a17ce4fd26827f7a7
describe
'95765' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWLX' 'sip-files00012.pro'
e5bd910c7279b31c5e89ca19bfbfd1bc
8c391b30f4dbb7dac74e4197d0dd44b841699ed7
'2012-06-25T09:41:26-04:00'
describe
'27985' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWLY' 'sip-files00005.jpg'
f875b92b59a885ed98d6761b9144404b
d3633d3e188b0379a2c8e5f71fbb2596166e78f6
'2012-06-25T09:36:43-04:00'
describe
'111415' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWLZ' 'sip-files00040.pro'
d4ababeb5b258dc9a14d8dcdaee17a38
a4cf1f1c55d1784b1c969fed0f40810de36be70d
'2012-06-25T09:43:26-04:00'
describe
'3661' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWMA' 'sip-files00023.jp2'
82cebc8972549e8153a369d4a3ea230c
b08da101e2f1c6a1f7002751db178666573ffc32
'2012-06-25T09:40:43-04:00'
describe
'33408' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWMB' 'sip-files00074thm.jpg'
75f5787acd3721d1b9c6b7c886bb6794
f85eb9150e51d3beaed85a03ea0b58f5d3e64a57
'2012-06-25T09:39:56-04:00'
describe
'2148841' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWMC' 'sip-files00038.jp2'
4822706ac177d77307c296ec411dd375
f36107fb831e4be8fc377312c9905555b23ed746
'2012-06-25T09:44:03-04:00'
describe
'347267' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWMD' 'sip-files00008.jpg'
d61541f70e3d8a663cde89ee5cf9550c
0a920f984dd008440f38e9dce35d46e32f96603b
'2012-06-25T09:42:02-04:00'
describe
'584770' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWME' 'sip-files00076.jpg'
98d457f1c5b35cf0c50f7af8a1368398
3657bbada929cb23fb42dd578d97d5aefaaabf8f
'2012-06-25T09:43:36-04:00'
describe
'33872' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWMF' 'sip-files00086thm.jpg'
00eaf2553fa7bec0ee036b34a0f523c5
93f3ff22c0fccc4f0c3a86656f5ad135e9b885a7
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWMG' 'sip-files00014.jp2'
a263259adbc72d778188e32aeab77042
1574ff58a20292411904c80b639f6c7d79f6758e
'2012-06-25T09:37:55-04:00'
describe
'1043662' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWMH' 'sip-files00074.jp2'
5ff6df2d4458ce0980de8474ae9b70c8
e9383db147623394c94c62da3b2c401d31fa0ceb
'2012-06-25T09:38:15-04:00'
describe
'47132' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWMI' 'sip-files00008thm.jpg'
3f3bf95a1d87e054e6c1e41b00ae1e53
a2f4300d31487950d12029549e9061163a83236a
'2012-06-25T09:39:22-04:00'
describe
'65993' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWMJ' 'sip-files00018thm.jpg'
436cd5e504b4c7f3113b425d5157a53a
11781cc636b33f090e835b08fad2b37106acc84d
'2012-06-25T09:42:44-04:00'
describe
'2167544' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWMK' 'sip-files00045.jp2'
1f612841c090a227235f9d45be842d1c
1ad811a6da1c2a7aba6b496c7b8b4d1be5f4cb07
'2012-06-25T09:38:32-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWML' 'sip-files00058.pro'
c720b0db535f84e5414b2b87a573d9bb
991dc41bece90c47b3404cec0ef19cec6461015f
'2012-06-25T09:37:33-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWMM' 'sip-files00081.jp2'
6944f38f5816818ac641312a33e159bd
292f12e5e7117d6c4ad352a1a5af862bf91f28ea
'2012-06-25T09:38:44-04:00'
describe
'641139' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWMN' 'sip-files00034.jpg'
9f03750c8b82190522b0eb41e30c2af0
4e1d8707dd817f21fe225ea445ed956313183f5c
'2012-06-25T09:43:32-04:00'
describe
'487522' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWMO' 'sip-files00002.jpg'
28fc716650f68a35afcfcac3709f5631
73965d9a6a460d7ac52cb8088227d9477b248394
'2012-06-25T09:42:45-04:00'
describe
'60137' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWMP' 'sip-files00076thm.jpg'
3ce5295a4ddf6d2e249d25713296bf11
42924460f09fa0f78aa491b825cf5ea5aea95ecb
'2012-06-25T09:36:52-04:00'
describe
'1091079' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWMQ' 'sip-files00013.jp2'
b820bab6b11a07ca5ce59b4098df7183
c6a179b3c6f41b18dc635ac040b06d18b2a7bec5
'2012-06-25T09:40:37-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWMR' 'sip-files00089.jp2'
80e4655c4f317d131564edc51b59bacc
65be760a9667566973bd0c0bd8d422b011ed4564
'2012-06-25T09:41:12-04:00'
describe
'415931' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWMS' 'sip-files00027.jpg'
1ad48618c82d113c1e5d1dc8ebf076df
902bb2ee8b71bb9fd29c3140c8823aa1cee0a58e
'2012-06-25T09:43:58-04:00'
describe
'8596192' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWMT' 'sip-files00064.tif'
e63428b0837a2cc84f5c0ed110cae58c
39f2cf179e9c8cf1d7724ba8d27e4ed6b2ad3b30
'2012-06-25T09:39:48-04:00'
describe
'145402' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWMU' 'sip-files00011.QC.jpg'
edceb856a0dd6502c5c0242679223773
471f2985e1666ed46796e6784c877cb417c7af66
'2012-06-25T09:37:19-04:00'
describe
'199102' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWMV' 'sip-files00034.QC.jpg'
bd3fcf01c0b1988404dd0c531c60581d
dd475652da52bac3ee1d1e923850f30693d27794
'2012-06-25T09:37:50-04:00'
describe
'407' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWMW' 'sip-files00028.pro'
8f8b2cb7f0803312ee108b9abb3474d0
36cc460fa6164c2251c4b27af348fa0f2f1425e8
'2012-06-25T09:44:51-04:00'
describe
'8632708' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWMX' 'sip-files00026.tif'
5117c386002dcd0d151e6f03af00a180
b39525d8d4586aee78cfef8e4d5d13f26c64e612
'2012-06-25T09:41:08-04:00'
describe
'4547' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWMY' 'sip-files00018.txt'
85e469c90d04b34fcbacb326965e22cf
ae5a2b1a531f4dadb8ae121f559a5832569eb095
'2012-06-25T09:41:48-04:00'
describe
'96701' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWMZ' 'sip-files00075.pro'
fe4573f7b5dac7901eed103bb9750e3c
0dc0cd76d7d3b20b0739a8b8e362a288ebd8ac07
'2012-06-25T09:38:52-04:00'
describe
'8745924' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWNA' 'sip-files00005.tif'
c3474285d58382f8e8c67e839dc048f1
58d897b72cc66f1e219fed50cd641f047b894247
'2012-06-25T09:43:28-04:00'
describe
'446130' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWNB' 'sip-files00062.jpg'
bd35d4f45a37b3c0e814af33d6bd7958
d18e90e6c14c5bb498ec6de45691405957df117e
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWNC' 'sip-files00020.tif'
77c258898cbef37a319a4d3d055791dd
eead2cded88bcfe7bb24a19646739e26417e5334
'2012-06-25T09:41:33-04:00'
describe
'1040461' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWND' 'sip-files00068.jp2'
562a028e0c21efca4fffba5c8cbbcc0b
95b584c7c76b85fd16bca599f980bc84ab8c5d76
'2012-06-25T09:44:42-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWNE' 'sip-files00009.pro'
07ebafbde34f3ec6635d0e597a31469a
4c580700716f58df75579e08f5efe22ec39ec189
'2012-06-25T09:38:00-04:00'
describe
'1053229' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWNF' 'sip-files00042.jp2'
55b114b33e233346da792baff0fb2bf8
c7ce9758309ef01fa66da8201e0117e9a746dd3a
'2012-06-25T09:43:42-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWNG' 'sip-files00051.jp2'
2412aac9e4d2917d15e845b46f98c194
789599c38ea070c0dd604c0d0f76fccd2d6fb12e
'2012-06-25T09:39:17-04:00'
describe
'52498' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWNH' 'sip-files00038thm.jpg'
76843eaaa237f55fd7da14206177bdfb
21a599102902c219c37600cfa579b5678de4d950
'2012-06-25T09:43:11-04:00'
describe
'8519500' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWNI' 'sip-files00028.tif'
ca86595b7646c4174e264758ebbd7c22
573ba0eba1963d40d80bf569f85d2502c11cc6a7
'2012-06-25T09:44:32-04:00'
describe
'1072389' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWNJ' 'sip-files00064.jp2'
450a3512e64a06a6db00295c97236eb4
65e72557c25f6952db1123d080a3b1ed4f7d36a6
'2012-06-25T09:40:15-04:00'
describe
'624172' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWNK' 'sip-files00030.jpg'
3af77254edd9d4375baf2feee6b83ed3
f5044d28e03136fe8fed73e20526ed7bbcbf90b4
'2012-06-25T09:42:48-04:00'
describe
'4601' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWNL' 'sip-files00040.txt'
50ff02094e70c2d8fd9fe5c93d8093fd
a63d305c516a8dbc4565f621902047df96e9b7c2
'2012-06-25T09:38:59-04:00'
describe
'8632712' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWNM' 'sip-files00056.tif'
2c62948e0149e481916c52dd4f7afa1e
387eed8314842c1a8806813fb6afd662b6ee2302
'2012-06-25T09:42:14-04:00'
describe
'29376168' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWNN' 'sip-files00002.tif'
452f38559b5057093073108b000d823a
879976ef98258763259e8ec734295eaf8e8074b0
'2012-06-25T09:37:27-04:00'
describe
'652813' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWNO' 'sip-files00055.jpg'
266c71ee94c227f688e5b162d95cb3bd
324105e8a20a059f08c81c87a70f48c3199afc7b
'2012-06-25T09:37:37-04:00'
describe
'8669232' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWNP' 'sip-files00008.tif'
cc6c8e803c12303f1913e1574f9aff82
5e5ff38a24f060e4e796f3a6fef5ee906d7b3d88
'2012-06-25T09:38:13-04:00'
describe
'257315' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWNQ' 'sip-files00021.jpg'
3d21d76bf515220e2940d078e3705cc2
0696443ea13b578e829ac235b267a0057064fe94
'2012-06-25T09:36:46-04:00'
describe
'593044' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWNR' 'sip-files00078.jpg'
6492dab4c814dc2c389535b5e0327edf
73f44deaa43fb8412be4b22e6dc7bba1e11b31ee
'2012-06-25T09:38:21-04:00'
describe
'64724' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWNS' 'sip-files00064thm.jpg'
3713471299ec58aea23d664db985707d
c212309a73afbbf01dba77775a5d014deacf0fbb
'2012-06-25T09:37:14-04:00'
describe
'8406288' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWNT' 'sip-files00046.tif'
1d9f4aace07f9508fbd803d0e12bdcc8
f0805868acc6f9d6c62ffd518ffbc1b690e9511c
'2012-06-25T09:43:10-04:00'
describe
'259777' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWNU' 'sip-files00039.jpg'
6037bae3d28a3791822679c312f0273c
526aca6dd9060b1f20a1f94b4d2bedcdf31e2c3d
'2012-06-25T09:43:22-04:00'
describe
'410875' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWNV' 'sip-files00015.jpg'
437090bf142ee436356b81d2eaffd17f
854b19abb96bf29bcc6050a6aa98ba3e6a0d8a54
'2012-06-25T09:40:11-04:00'
describe
'1058369' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWNW' 'sip-files00054.jp2'
34d7cf46d9e642c7f64f96be6f08c6be
a61bfbe2691d3985cd396be201f453beccbf4784
'2012-06-25T09:39:18-04:00'
describe
'8818964' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWNX' 'sip-files00018.tif'
ae6dffdcd6a937503d69f416a6a1a424
2fdd14c14b170147d045e796971f0dea6dc6a9d3
'2012-06-25T09:40:58-04:00'
describe
'13032' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWNY' 'sip-files00008.pro'
d7c1097119a8b29c2850a7668ae86b53
1eda421c4a197abffdd400998ea98b7b0d4d608f
describe
'20705' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWNZ' 'sip-files00056.QC.jpg'
dc41b4a497bcdb6390a236ab47d1bd98
a671e386a38fc688296e369d8a523a0b5461095a
describe
'67782' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWOA' 'sip-files00060thm.jpg'
5992ccf6a67d706cc494dfd292948295
bc957b073d2c6ac82b337d8877f6f6d339c2cc35
'2012-06-25T09:36:50-04:00'
describe
'18825' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWOB' 'sip-files00061thm.jpg'
eb6a707bcfdca6394648085d245393c1
5c3094c6819024220f6383eb1d6f4a53e5695d7a
'2012-06-25T09:44:48-04:00'
describe
'1036014' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWOC' 'sip-files00010.jp2'
fe1ac63ac8835cdda85ff7e65f0cdc29
a19d06e72826f3e90945d84cfc47434019fd341b
describe
'4171' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWOD' 'sip-files00055.txt'
b662e11818f9fc249c69588cf1f7781f
e22aec7224634a69951d5c5425feee995a306490
'2012-06-25T09:38:03-04:00'
describe
'1017308' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWOE' 'sip-files00092.jpg'
cc16f40abd7366d24ab5cc59d42c87f5
ebaca3111af244960051a77f33346f2af7f2097a
'2012-06-25T09:44:26-04:00'
describe
'646971' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWOF' 'sip-files00043.jpg'
bcfc03d501b7b61fbc935954f22e2922
03a3607ca0a5d2d17cb3dbc96a79c8eaf68732c5
'2012-06-25T09:38:16-04:00'
describe
'621865' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWOG' 'sip-files00036.jpg'
34e48f2f22f075406a9d27a8a1a984bd
c38a56c8914c60f6f239aa45917d1e65bcf27e2e
'2012-06-25T09:43:27-04:00'
describe
'51652' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWOH' 'sip-files00050thm.jpg'
4bb6bacf0b57f91dd07f1df52382b210
f0b9612067e5888602327d7335c41d518b13ec00
'2012-06-25T09:43:37-04:00'
describe
'1084295' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWOI' 'sip-files00035.jp2'
c5a4d5acb39876934d593fb3ff2feb83
33805214201aa8cdf207828fd01733956ddd0289
'2012-06-25T09:41:04-04:00'
describe
'6011' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWOJ' 'sip-files00027.pro'
be6a67760bad0494501eb807889bdbed
62179c3540b1c81abb4063e809b0691c73f32d89
'2012-06-25T09:43:34-04:00'
describe
'52275592' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWOK' 'sip-files00080.tif'
e02d2bc8ee37db1933d2a592cb4ba2d4
d9f80203566b426391cc662e1d1cc2baf80a6e95
describe
'3624' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWOL' 'sip-files00046.jp2'
13a72323a14a18c1223f6c7e806b928a
b97735eec2544e0d0277a5849053cce80eae35b5
'2012-06-25T09:40:04-04:00'
describe
'1048655' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWOM' 'sip-files00049.jp2'
7f28fe5931e1027ebdd05221e8cd3216
892fe15c6663c572d4949b0b708e87727ab1caac
'2012-06-25T09:39:45-04:00'
describe
'51594496' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWON' 'sip-files00038.tif'
eb57e226b2706f17cfd4ed05f537a138
c7a9c238ca98df9325e2ad526ddcf9d5e9e1ca23
'2012-06-25T09:41:23-04:00'
describe
'623289' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWOO' 'sip-files00082.jpg'
09d8d8acbf0109f33702c16398c490c7
b85bdea978186a9b6b97bd8afa9fa2c448accaf8
'2012-06-25T09:38:38-04:00'
describe
'604471' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWOP' 'sip-files00025.jpg'
9be938696439225e766f069e93edf6e6
73273903912e29aa55c23c149ac0d52661b30162
'2012-06-25T09:40:22-04:00'
describe
'27981' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWOQ' 'sip-files00026.jpg'
79fead9ab5db7c745a8fd4dd4db72dd1
29c49cb78d497dc200edb3cbb88112c094b153d6
'2012-06-25T09:40:39-04:00'
describe
'1091068' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWOR' 'sip-files00078.jp2'
718f81823105c1278f8efc6459b3b53d
ebacc0171e624d254e00c137f572c0cba089a4f2
'2012-06-25T09:41:06-04:00'
describe
'6999' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWOS' 'sip-files00015.pro'
31465439d03a96351b5188bc1e2a0af0
555bf742f5f586b0fbf719cab2b3c5b17ba431ce
describe
'34460' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWOT' 'sip-files00037thm.jpg'
c25a83a9dc0cb9c7466def1689b91dd3
f5518b7b53ec7ec07d82cc8727b933aa55ca3cf0
'2012-06-25T09:44:43-04:00'
describe
'204922' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWOU' 'sip-files00055.QC.jpg'
31ec6277daa85b23ce7ced571b2e9884
b966a06a6d36a319c51cba8db59be6a81b00d481
describe
'250830' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWOV' 'sip-files00007.jpg'
1a9af71c54a31d5c2007eb34b00e8e45
5a7c77a914802cc5e5376f1557fc6e7712e7fa35
'2012-06-25T09:44:40-04:00'
describe
'85086' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWOW' 'sip-files00016.QC.jpg'
d5222c9f1b5c483ad73673206b3dbf79
2f07173b65412422809b09b95517229480724ae4
'2012-06-25T09:43:33-04:00'
describe
'138974' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWOX' 'sip-files00062.QC.jpg'
6b0466d418ee42728d2d4e09bf8c11e6
43b8affd28973617b1dcb749e78bd80ee0700b64
'2012-06-25T09:42:56-04:00'
describe
'61472' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWOY' 'sip-files00078thm.jpg'
d2f05acfd03f26be7719541259cc3790
ab87b313a5a70540e05be97d54fef7e6407e4c34
'2012-06-25T09:42:37-04:00'
describe
'110648' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWOZ' 'sip-files00083.pro'
c2462699f2c3bdb61869c051f8876999
46341a6ce2ce4113c6408036c7f046417e2ccc04
'2012-06-25T09:40:07-04:00'
describe
'51640' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWPA' 'sip-files00022thm.jpg'
872f8c701d8b71f689e37761e250efe3
fc848e74e3e0502ada3f645f6e090317de2d24a0
'2012-06-25T09:37:23-04:00'
describe
'812' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWPB' 'sip-files00062.txt'
801d01869ffb367b3c6d3113a7523975
a843ac01e4cdcd27d062ce69b3933a6291af00df
'2012-06-25T09:42:59-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'8913916' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWPC' 'sip-files00031.tif'
75a7233e98bc42116b1341af92f10558
a4ef60616445c579e127ea646d360df7ba9df889
'2012-06-25T09:37:25-04:00'
describe
'1053227' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWPD' 'sip-files00075.jp2'
14bb91b8aeb0f6f399f3e6f0d03d3b68
539279c1acf27449d050af81f0cb3010b9249510
'2012-06-25T09:43:16-04:00'
describe
'2333' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWPE' 'sip-files00011.txt'
7b4ae74a2f805b9622d2676b87b39118
55113c1cf82d15fcb1c6a55036cb68330cd9c039
'2012-06-25T09:43:54-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWPF' 'sip-files00058.jp2'
4a66e21478e42dbc952f9b31b76a807e
2a315d773d8c25aa96707ae255b2e72750e06bc7
'2012-06-25T09:37:40-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWPG' 'sip-files00081.QC.jpg'
4f1f5fdf490e6279996bd6b875a8e4b8
d7e8febc430907076061f7720d36cf36fd739240
'2012-06-25T09:37:46-04:00'
describe
'109493' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWPH' 'sip-files00053.pro'
4f76c245048b8c9934e853b85bb70db2
6220a5f24facf2be0bdaa853143a75f4c3368c9c
'2012-06-25T09:38:40-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWPI' 'sip-files00067.tif'
d4d4f4c104bd718c6c674a51aab547e1
96e38c4c34ea7b1effc6560e1a787d0232f58ea1
'2012-06-25T09:43:56-04:00'
describe
'624675' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWPJ' 'sip-files00084.jpg'
acf6b7a9213382b4b58f56765a777b81
3a9cd01b2707ba037a57f80d4561537f176e2f73
'2012-06-25T09:36:51-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWPK' 'sip-files00063.jp2'
29792b57598eb9804e71ec51c4fe643c
9cedfb027613e67c094b8580563487762f12c5a2
describe
'67297' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWPL' 'sip-files00042thm.jpg'
fea8c86614e428f97d43dde5716367f8
2f340b5656b81e504797459c697fa88a861477e0
'2012-06-25T09:41:31-04:00'
describe
'8932176' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWPM' 'sip-files00023.tif'
136e14b3ec8448961dcaee1d15b465ce
90fff19d0cc6b972107b086d9bea8fe0a4ad4844
'2012-06-25T09:43:46-04:00'
describe
'54983' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWPN' 'sip-files00062thm.jpg'
6b972b953846ed128e75ce4f739abe8a
d57054f09b2365b14158db615bcf5321d0d6a066
describe
'608521' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWPO' 'sip-files00013.jpg'
3824333fcf76f1eca5a42590ffe9fb57
ecd52cf923d51451cf1bc818f451df7488ab77a0
'2012-06-25T09:38:27-04:00'
describe
'4237' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWPP' 'sip-files00024.txt'
8ec6158edb656783cdddf781e41debd1
e80572dd4b3f1a9e9feb3728c8604eb3a8a74163
'2012-06-25T09:41:09-04:00'
describe
'8294064' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWPQ' 'sip-files00061.tif'
e8b98b0ac7a03c81c51a4dfa062ccec9
11cc74edd43de00e4613d5fbf7c8167d59abda11
'2012-06-25T09:44:02-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWPR' 'sip-files00063.tif'
c1cc925cac28653a550782f49c2b8909
e730fdf19294ff6484d120b8faeac10f6580b7f1
'2012-06-25T09:40:20-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWPS' 'sip-files00014.tif'
921a98c7262f9c02f9f51c554894435c
01d4cab782c8b31b27cb7a9a05b1f54a47853ed6
'2012-06-25T09:39:30-04:00'
describe
'63796' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWPT' 'sip-files00036thm.jpg'
0d133503fe75dc0add61755dbc88784f
0b598074eaa912238a6a089abfe673186e29d3c3
'2012-06-25T09:39:26-04:00'
describe
'1062660' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWPU' 'sip-files00028.jp2'
77cc7b80ea7f8429a1e6a996e69bc030
f9242dec796130a6df983fbaa4958975245b39a4
'2012-06-25T09:37:57-04:00'
describe
'425728' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWPV' 'sip-files00073.jpg'
ad7cb46e6ef2abe3a82074b7ea94e151
7bc898f1fae324176d21dda3fd0ecd7b888e3ff1
'2012-06-25T09:40:23-04:00'
describe
'2678' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWPW' 'sip-files00085.txt'
c0e0b3ef9f1bb9412bf775965e5cc28b
00b1819fca11933f3cd91984cf9978bf739b9bb4
describe
'113232' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWPX' 'sip-files00071.pro'
b5da41daf5b584c3fbdbb71c845931d8
d8f0a1979784a72e87b7d0c45c43e8699c96e786
'2012-06-25T09:39:13-04:00'
describe
'14443' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWPY' 'sip-files00062.pro'
af732073ef02fd391db5a4aac9254295
0fc8c159544bf93afbaeeb962929e34f8c2b085f
'2012-06-25T09:40:34-04:00'
describe
'105383' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWPZ' 'sip-files00030.pro'
b8492b50ee4dafcb4764b1a4bd03ce10
79faf6570672c84e7c9c0e5df83e75fc1e87b672
'2012-06-25T09:39:27-04:00'
describe
'415065' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWQA' 'sip-files00006.jpg'
8093e10f09325d21a6288b5397ea121f
59e694f249ddc2caac0eb5aef3a356ecb37115ab
'2012-06-25T09:43:52-04:00'
describe
'60730' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWQB' 'sip-files00013thm.jpg'
636718c477cae0b3a96ce3ed8784df2a
60f2f55db3897d095db689253d34fbfb810591db
'2012-06-25T09:36:53-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWQC' 'sip-files00088.QC.jpg'
822a24940b5a932607a215af0cb1e69e
8133ad1d181dcf2aebf84481033d93d878632a6e
'2012-06-25T09:41:36-04:00'
describe
'8145892' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWQD' 'sip-files00040.tif'
746bbdb493e728066631bc21b0fec4f6
6a83225e763d7e2eb42d56603bdd7a40c53b974e
'2012-06-25T09:37:58-04:00'
describe
'107' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWQE' 'sip-files00002.txt'
45692ef4ca49c6ebf5a899b78c96b0f1
65dd45c2b0203963de359c2c2bd1d6335b2f1ec7
'2012-06-25T09:41:46-04:00'
describe
'1100262' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWQF' 'sip-files00032.jp2'
4c90f6cdc9f643587a8936871cef9c31
2840a00e373b6d2a479c0d817582ea8f50fd9839
'2012-06-25T09:41:32-04:00'
describe
'114005' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWQG' 'sip-files00031.pro'
c15cf7b72d95227e99fda97bb53c283d
13d8f1cbafd6ec39f868ed1a04664214d97b698a
'2012-06-25T09:40:36-04:00'
describe
'1073152' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWQH' 'sip-files00024.jp2'
2a5a4ff4db813b2bb6888c0ab9487961
b1e6781abd12c7e61b0f6eae86d6334c4b156fc4
'2012-06-25T09:40:18-04:00'
describe
'1080529' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWQI' 'sip-files00039.jp2'
9456b5ebae1bad1737eaeec12025c709
181a1eefeba49c13e1c0ca1f6b51e73e5e5d3356
describe
'67316' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWQJ' 'sip-files00020thm.jpg'
1354b13c310ec65341b6cf8b9942ff58
4d50c08294933ecae9d30fd3d4ad38d503d1de5e
'2012-06-25T09:42:41-04:00'
describe
'320' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWQK' 'sip-files00079.pro'
a9cf235727e8c044afc54f2cafbe0122
f5c5a0af22fd2b289155e0aeabad5bccec4b5bdf
'2012-06-25T09:37:20-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWQL' 'sip-files00005thm.jpg'
c99a543f87188ea78a474cf351d4c287
2bee9eeefe1fa613697c4a83f3b313592ff2bd0e
'2012-06-25T09:37:21-04:00'
describe
'20785' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWQM' 'sip-files00058.QC.jpg'
c1c41e536310d52acdaf7a88c494b21e
9757bcf3bdc7d90d883a04f727da5e492ba01dac
describe
'294' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWQN' 'sip-files00021.pro'
7a186258c910ec7536472f1af88def9f
4471324dd6e81c2752d7514d00118b61ef592840
'2012-06-25T09:44:14-04:00'
describe
'105225' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWQO' 'sip-files00066.pro'
8a8ddcea5c9ae9c7892c67fdf30a36da
9319daab308442b9cf4836d736aedfc4671a2da7
'2012-06-25T09:39:55-04:00'
describe
'193273' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWQP' 'sip-files00078.QC.jpg'
47b10740003645227983786a5d5ea7ba
7505472a8c3bb963d9dfe8a2dfcf4719832c8bc1
'2012-06-25T09:37:34-04:00'
describe
'1076814' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWQQ' 'sip-files00053.jp2'
7097cb782d6188819472b88c0ce5b70d
245d0edcae645314da732b0e1471886e29255e79
describe
'1029502' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWQR' 'sip-files00086.jp2'
f5f39af90a6032d7e854dd34e934489c
29b033ae6f8a0005db2b42d227229ae85ac9bd0d
'2012-06-25T09:39:24-04:00'
describe
'419244' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWQS' 'sip-files00011.jpg'
de0e53cdfd59cfc50957bf0f67e359dd
30fda261d67504ed457628d41e026070e30d45ae
describe
'110072' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWQT' 'sip-files00064.pro'
03570e97938fdf1ab4b2e7d2d47ec549
ded309c112a7b578b3c56ec7eda393937a17dddd
'2012-06-25T09:37:32-04:00'
describe
'3952' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWQU' 'sip-files00017.txt'
bb8cf72577c82ae77b80022176e6b478
a020ab6fa47e7b4ca2adebde5eecdb3764e45136
'2012-06-25T09:38:17-04:00'
describe
'167558' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWQV' 'sip-files00085.QC.jpg'
ecfd1923f5220684d0b0664a60df7b7e
f33eafbe89b2daea3f6af882bf81134e39132081
describe
'62273' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWQW' 'sip-files00031thm.jpg'
51e5dcc0298b02cd348c2d7d8b52108a
95f18a8500ac9697bfd50a5516dccacb0fe1b090
'2012-06-25T09:40:42-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWQX' 'sip-files00030.tif'
7324d7cc0954e8bb2763e078e1109a2f
02d93813c1a8945a7bf332ce93df51ac46eb85f5
'2012-06-25T09:38:06-04:00'
describe
'8307220' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWQY' 'sip-files00010.tif'
89f6678ebbdfa19a25f76b4dbf7f59c8
74078f2304eee579f6860953921aa501043197ba
'2012-06-25T09:36:42-04:00'
describe
'27665' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWQZ' 'sip-files00023.jpg'
d734bacd0c5cb93669976b03dedc68c2
5f825ee1e5495bbcc3b3cb6413d820487d2cbc3a
'2012-06-25T09:39:25-04:00'
describe
'436' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWRA' 'sip-files00050.txt'
cfd36ae6027302dd4101140d664e4937
7088f306a536e983bbb1048e079ae0be8bfdfd0a
'2012-06-25T09:44:13-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'99790' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWRB' 'sip-files00025.pro'
fa58a6307637bfcbce6c620a59fbe8eb
76f84328a15890eeb8505a5b9378ed8e5fd345c6
'2012-06-25T09:41:27-04:00'
describe
'64006' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWRC' 'sip-files00066thm.jpg'
45b1e4665981bf3b26c748e2f9ccd9bc
aff0717ccd581a3ab015b5c3f3a7ace5d4d2142e
describe
'572813' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWRD' 'sip-files00069.jpg'
d2563065e0cd4f236cac3f4a12e70a26
c67b6a18add4f01969d6c625139a2f1ac9cfd159
'2012-06-25T09:44:09-04:00'
describe
'189309' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWRE' 'sip-files00025.QC.jpg'
6f98ed1d8ed16267cec731d63a21b8a1
a09cec809e1d5f92c68f012a4ae4123e5dab0331
'2012-06-25T09:38:29-04:00'
describe
'1017187' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWRF' 'sip-files00021.jp2'
10854c54a03e58948b372f683fca3e4c
458deaa1fddf469d81275036ea71e948745d8d82
'2012-06-25T09:41:25-04:00'
describe
'1230680' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWRG' 'sip-files00091.jp2'
28b7c2773d6605ee64983898bfa046c1
14f8a6f353c2ba5ca9ba5fa5ed93a0fdcb8b3975
'2012-06-25T09:40:41-04:00'
describe
'128290' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWRH' 'sip-files00010.QC.jpg'
4355fe97a4b5bb5da2406b4e912e503a
21b2d70a383b9841c37260a6d1a4be29f1654629
'2012-06-25T09:37:29-04:00'
describe
'8631420' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWRI' 'sip-files00053.tif'
9d038398c3411b2888241a150362545c
a5a70a07e0eb3752e37c7bc39390bc5fb5a7a149
'2012-06-25T09:42:58-04:00'
describe
'191397' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWRJ' 'sip-files00067.QC.jpg'
6bacda6ea844b9dc02d1af3d344095d3
c7e8bd7804aae7341c9b8be31172368c32572a8f
describe
'98229' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWRK' 'sip-files00032.pro'
f9782887d48748c86aad196ff4178d5b
77b50f84dffe0f088f45520ea3339da39a901adf
describe
'8414148' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWRL' 'sip-files00059.tif'
e99b7137c483b7a0505ea6e07df77178
f2f846f814ad9843af2402a913a47a5e1a5fd7bd
describe
'4200' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWRM' 'sip-files00070.txt'
fd56c6cbfc1edd634c1b398f5ec8dc43
8547322598d75a822ec7fcbec3fb5d409b569de7
'2012-06-25T09:37:15-04:00'
describe
'2177129' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWRN' 'sip-files00080.jp2'
41b49137a6e5ab14ff1116540e97e0d4
e5e611503afc12713c1ca6988675e1ded0794e93
describe
'3974' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWRO' 'sip-files00078.txt'
a1ec65acaaf5f9fd61e51c5f1050b8ad
34e027a65b6661676ac14172c62ce8a8e3bbb4ea
describe
'63640' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWRP' 'sip-files00075thm.jpg'
8161397421a9284246ae1cbd972de7f8
c13211ea0813880f094d463c3c860a22cea76526
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWRQ' 'sip-files00088.jp2'
cac194ac5df26b518e4610c3b001ba03
23956d66155c09cd0540439a6ef0e56bb21a75a1
'2012-06-25T09:38:53-04:00'
describe
'706902' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWRR' 'sip-files00042.jpg'
c9e62a4e6c02c2d15c67bbcfa7dd7c52
5ca5bc21deec8be8a4917e9586c8cede1ccd2404
describe
'25935652' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWRS' 'sip-files00090.tif'
250b4d47f9a6c190771531b6f79ac94a
8929faf9cdeb8b67af8a17a8dd2a128a833428bf
'2012-06-25T09:41:29-04:00'
describe
'1081507' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWRT' 'sip-files00067.jp2'
df87fe5c5f477c5cdcc2ee3b237d896a
ba7509eac4dcdbc51aef02dd320d52b1eafd8fd0
describe
'1035906' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWRU' 'sip-files00047.jp2'
83861860a56a381ea3d5d62d3839ecbf
07cffa76e3e00b5fdddf82d8b051283c802b1e7c
'2012-06-25T09:43:53-04:00'
describe
'84458' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWRV' 'sip-files00028.QC.jpg'
124385eb407d351f194beb07de766300
d5bb411b62c4787a8bfd843d8d5d0213caf0a9fc
'2012-06-25T09:44:53-04:00'
describe
'1072846' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWRW' 'sip-files00079.jp2'
a41838a315cedff2ff0335fb9815e9f4
646b24ef7f7bb1d91e3e862bc8d1f8c55c9bf4c7
describe
'531' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWRX' 'sip-files00037.pro'
9259b1766da89c180dc85dc2df69936e
643e09b7beb25d1e510454dff6152926ecbf72fd
'2012-06-25T09:43:24-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWRY' 'sip-files00072thm.jpg'
f82e33886c11b1e3fbcae8fccb5ea9c0
e8e2110c55612dd5cfaf214307d27f6b18a81833
'2012-06-25T09:38:14-04:00'
describe
'655653' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWRZ' 'sip-files00033.jpg'
119d13335895d18fa6defb5c6cea401c
c715b1b28181a96c4ba7090375990a0be8a60994
describe
'208407' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWSA' 'sip-files00048.QC.jpg'
7b622fe0456706284ff20c17e5f48e2e
e28081f8dbd6fcf03a67bfcb1796c112847bccb2
'2012-06-25T09:43:55-04:00'
describe
'698526' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWSB' 'sip-files00029.jpg'
fcfd9674b5b4fc2a574e6797c2952f8a
de1352ecd8e82f2860d191d10271883b2b684f70
describe
'211642' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWSC' 'sip-files00035.QC.jpg'
a46479aa751bb1b4d31349bae519c760
c0ca0317cec7c28b17f2d4863adcce1d4439fed9
'2012-06-25T09:44:05-04:00'
describe
'3972' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWSD' 'sip-files00069.txt'
6f6a16079944d44e9ba2cdc1b692d1f8
808cb4e451cb301f8ceb9876c883b6e1290bc4fc
'2012-06-25T09:44:08-04:00'
describe
'68032' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWSE' 'sip-files00085.pro'
e23cc53ee7f9c872228ec4b29f75d2b2
b219aebaef92e4965f5fbdcb713789ce9a23c9bd
describe
'28053' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWSF' 'sip-files00061.jpg'
e0dc08054d2ae63f47923b09fc5cc39a
9368ab44c92f1014c7ca3559bb9d59c76d5ee340
'2012-06-25T09:41:47-04:00'
describe
'690364' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWSG' 'sip-files00040.jpg'
16011e37d12d8be9385f65f1bd2390a2
29e1849207884adcbd38c86d321be571541ca164
'2012-06-25T09:39:28-04:00'
describe
'82198' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWSH' 'sip-files00086.QC.jpg'
86ae7823b17ac27885c686f84d4359e8
b1718fb3ec1343bd264b973cacaa9076e550d3a0
describe
'4167' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWSI' 'sip-files00043.txt'
5ce293d5c2ce80bbf9696773a05c6986
797a73f13e71a991418c10eec5610adbf6a48e83
describe
Invalid character
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWSJ' 'sip-files00081.jpg'
2f46ba5a4ee55f2a7dcf0b15362d7627
aa3d42cddb0a18c3ecc557a30181f7f04633dda9
describe
'124806' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWSK' 'sip-files00090.QC.jpg'
d6cfdaa1e0e851278185c4c252f7df4d
0c6e6980d663c1e9fb6cdcf7f8b70107181bbdbd
'2012-06-25T09:41:57-04:00'
describe
'110954' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWSL' 'sip-files00020.pro'
92c32c429649e48e9e1a35a10042f3ba
789a469d63bcf14f7875cf1b659ad763dbad50ef
describe
'241' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWSM' 'sip-files00006.txt'
fad4b112f730acd09611669be82e3aaa
229c5d0050bf9a446c2fa60304841989fe6ba611
'2012-06-25T09:43:21-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'216556' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWSN' 'sip-files00040.QC.jpg'
547fdbd8cdc54b5ce2602ed8207178bf
8a28608076e1366876003a33d5902cca67b8abec
'2012-06-25T09:41:14-04:00'
describe
'110480' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWSO' 'sip-files00029.pro'
979a7e2c24d402141d67844c42172a99
4d6987fed7dfd4c766a535267692352639d9bb44
'2012-06-25T09:43:08-04:00'
describe
'1240539' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWSP' 'sip-files00001.jp2'
f2adee9163f356063d2159a749c6b21d
fca810b2015591a70b5d745f33ce87789377f1f3
'2012-06-25T09:37:47-04:00'
describe
'681548' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWSQ' 'sip-files00068.jpg'
09c38daff493d80f4c7e998534d30273
7150ce828c950b52ef51a3276103e0669b3eedff
'2012-06-25T09:39:00-04:00'
describe
'78470' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWSR' 'sip-files00001thm.jpg'
4dfd2dd92a52d0f56f64a02993c5849b
7324a2a2f610471e1d9bf30cc36ce7451c839533
describe
'8252904' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWSS' 'sip-files00037.tif'
e9595c4b6e3e5917f306a2019f7f40ab
dd97e41b991b0cd25190a9cc666f9962c2da31a3
'2012-06-25T09:38:26-04:00'
describe
'1036519' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWST' 'sip-files00029.jp2'
9a12553722fa9277639ef1cf90e6ad57
8794fdeff741d7029c27e61b17cbb1f0e97b0240
'2012-06-25T09:39:35-04:00'
describe
'4494' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWSU' 'sip-files00032.txt'
e0c62499ae8aa2761d9b52293d3787eb
ed21373e2eb943e624155b41f26b02f1338e1982
'2012-06-25T09:44:22-04:00'
describe
'8340552' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWSV' 'sip-files00068.tif'
4fe8e407255a715a9030fbe808c4e18c
034a2885a98105006b2617c934981b64007d61ae
'2012-06-25T09:39:31-04:00'
describe
'584878' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWSW' 'sip-files00041.jpg'
605479869c801027252157615d641737
851533f5710275183c1cdfea9a17151c83a7a915
'2012-06-25T09:42:01-04:00'
describe
'207082' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWSX' 'sip-files00017.QC.jpg'
b0b0bffc4fda2fbfa33b0a13116ef8ac
12e3132272055ff3a4b050e5eba631637dc1d4ee
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWSY' 'sip-files00005.pro'
260dfb503072cd265b46a477c43e2930
9973fb90607866733df757c2a68bb24f7c8d4a65
'2012-06-25T09:39:54-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWSZ' 'sip-files00058thm.jpg'
3bc14c8b2bafb51b395ac5c417ed5e19
26f7b642b76e7f1623869113bd54d277020ee69f
'2012-06-25T09:43:59-04:00'
describe
'4306' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWTA' 'sip-files00020.txt'
d1fe7f81b61f3fc54dd28e5613758ebc
97bddce9950a0cc3e37035099a27d5f56c1c5b1e
describe
'1094734' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWTB' 'sip-files00077.jp2'
9765aa6d9bb71b5d5aaeaef3c3e1fd5c
e429d0b712c0f2d8f1e1a2a1b7269c589dedbe2f
describe
'1087888' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWTC' 'sip-files00044.jp2'
cc8cb2cfb80e836aaa05245e754506e5
9ec6eaaf9b5315c9c252e6f7c46bd86865c361d9
'2012-06-25T09:37:11-04:00'
describe
'4160' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWTD' 'sip-files00059.txt'
d8f163082a0afa8031bdffe5fffbcb17
18adf482896b8834453a14f6566b784f3775ed8c
'2012-06-25T09:40:52-04:00'
describe
'627284' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWTE' 'sip-files00019.jpg'
111bc729b187fe80cf537ebebdbe8e5b
f3bc7758967a0606638418c813012b335251c6ed
'2012-06-25T09:38:05-04:00'
describe
'8483796' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWTF' 'sip-files00054.tif'
4936474d79a43cb989465b45adfc91a4
77964ee92a70200b1af4867965d4139a8c9c23dd
'2012-06-25T09:38:42-04:00'
describe
'115058' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWTG' 'sip-files00035.pro'
04dcd817af66ee990856ff6180bff441
371cafd252010e5decd532a193a4d003bf4a0fef
'2012-06-25T09:36:56-04:00'
describe
'2389' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWTH' 'sip-files00090.pro'
26fd1ae811329ca104132ef5e0f956ba
ba02a806be65e9132f3113d3bba0cd63ff5fee6f
describe
'66140' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWTI' 'sip-files00033thm.jpg'
c8c406ec25f037369f932aded35f5598
8ab753c5204b44a6979ae2a435fdab03684a9ed2
'2012-06-25T09:37:28-04:00'
describe
'53198' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWTJ' 'sip-files00009.QC.jpg'
8126fcaf07a33e6f1a9579c764201752
7b2406cef5c40eebba63f324aec5f621aaee4f9e
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWTK' 'sip-files00063thm.jpg'
00a1bf348397c7d7fa4a68821023104a
69b4ad107ed1639c71d4e18f3ca59974c84e904f
'2012-06-25T09:43:57-04:00'
describe
'4169' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWTL' 'sip-files00076.txt'
ec72369146488e7f5716e2d9c89111dd
04c021496d3ccb9bce162bd77d3eb36ba92683de
'2012-06-25T09:41:59-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWTM' 'sip-files00046.QC.jpg'
02379e7e94eb92cd5f031efd10a76b54
f44403e145cd69e50f94afba38a8dd012d5b97b5
'2012-06-25T09:42:23-04:00'
describe
'1053239' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWTN' 'sip-files00020.jp2'
1650d9733988b32bb7ec4c46236faa2d
ee3ec1e7a5632d1c44d4397e91689cd684914f09
'2012-06-25T09:42:57-04:00'
describe
'95304' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWTO' 'sip-files00069.pro'
33cc92a2c6a6a2e0b673fbf21a696e5d
a4338d9e17d7e5ce31074a0098458f558ec7304d
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWTP' 'sip-files00072.tif'
56d94dfe747cff9f21b3ad1f9c40e888
042b1778c45672b54432ec1f047ccc0584b8e1c5
'2012-06-25T09:37:36-04:00'
describe
'353' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWTQ' 'sip-files00079.txt'
257bf813e28c03a734d15fb049d6656d
ce148079157a2287c70ffe8567a1f20300d4bcb4
describe
'192666' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWTR' 'sip-files00030.QC.jpg'
9d3c8b1c78fe32bbe9fdc766e1dfdc4a
0d68427df8c58d63f1113245e8170b44aecb350b
describe
'530821' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWTS' 'sip-files00085.jpg'
cd8b2e1004d3bea17f365da425511f92
e44e6a792deab74bb8027dd616bedd09a2865956
'2012-06-25T09:36:55-04:00'
describe
'109458' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWTT' 'sip-files00065.pro'
24b70ddc3de4fed7a367fea8f1dbe867
663b05787c15131bdfc6112fe4269d121a6c39b0
'2012-06-25T09:41:03-04:00'
describe
'8023936' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWTU' 'sip-files00011.tif'
637c7a1ca73fbcf1987f3aa874e45123
e3a35fb43e52a21c472843b7c76dc58949e6c9e7
describe
'94766' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWTV' 'sip-files00084.pro'
486723d6d86c3d517bbd62c70a5d990e
d458ec0eae3e80a5a9f697976b144e2c47c19e76
describe
'4209' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWTW' 'sip-files00030.txt'
f9d2aaf25bd21a2e4f2760f44167e90f
e7b22b4f13ba2129e56079f8392b7b6de864fd42
'2012-06-25T09:41:00-04:00'
describe
'2153413' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWTX' 'sip-files00022.jp2'
1b9fdcf0d7228c622fe8f9090df2ca0b
849cbb076cc319e464d0ec9934970472695f8929
describe
'444820' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWTY' 'sip-files00080.jpg'
acc3dc45be5ecc553f72cc1d386db1fc
341784c64c57734f3e0c9503c48b844c5c699568
describe
'264420' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWTZ' 'sip-files00044.jpg'
7991a69f64f9595078021067ab127549
9252a02522f9f75b6bc832a80726ed412cb75acc
'2012-06-25T09:40:08-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWUA' 'sip-files00056.jpg'
429142766e37768badb136528658c2f0
4771e6636f2ece11e0154732a97213fe0c00c16b
'2012-06-25T09:37:17-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWUB' 'sip-files00014thm.jpg'
8ae3f70f173a2ca5f69760e3ba9c2aec
746f44daa3f1fa0c2a33c18ce09121af739c222e
'2012-06-25T09:38:56-04:00'
describe
'51592688' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWUC' 'sip-files00027.tif'
e6dbcecbe5fefabd45141c269e6cf1fc
603f3bcc69c7afd2233b2fe00a0774748f0c85c6
'2012-06-25T09:43:20-04:00'
describe
'100554' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWUD' 'sip-files00024.pro'
ee201b651456f750056eb47058f34948
0c92d1769492077fb6950ac7f2153c9a93b8b861
'2012-06-25T09:41:44-04:00'
describe
'385' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWUE' 'sip-files00016.pro'
24356f70b073c2c53567367db98e6495
39ebd16a6631525794ac7091f3babcd6b547138c
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWUF' 'sip-files00052.txt'
288ef1e1cf9044ad2ae6a1e0964cc926
656bbe75453b38d6c8a8343530c36b850a6747d1
describe
'62808' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWUG' 'sip-files00065thm.jpg'
1e49e450233e2ca079ba6bee22a26c6e
4a82107fd4298139483090eada7e2a66d590feb5
'2012-06-25T09:36:38-04:00'
describe
'629621' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWUH' 'sip-files00064.jpg'
f73e36d09dd155b55369a53619d45cf4
17aa71f9ce97d27cdfde39f798bfac2fb2abf154
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWUI' 'sip-files00063.pro'
468e10684e4ec9ba53405a8f28f96e8a
93783d40db7a7d71895780f3e0820da660578d4d
describe
'87332' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWUJ' 'sip-files00041.pro'
2a65b55cb06d9743c7b43b77814a7e71
4a3b10a6052ff47b0621c50e099ba87ecc155d99
'2012-06-25T09:44:33-04:00'
describe
'66296' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWUK' 'sip-files00040thm.jpg'
3e32155a88f0dc0aa2d4ce3be2604841
545d02318a5fa2d015256d8f780ea76b69c30c60
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWUL' 'sip-files00086.pro'
449031b5a16cfc2d55a27054f958756e
5957bfb8f45134ee9134a661b57a440976c229d4
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWUM' 'sip-files00065.tif'
8d77175c71200c5388d49339db7258ff
d1571ad6c71815bb863e4d25956fb33b157fb425
'2012-06-25T09:38:23-04:00'
describe
'20701' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWUN' 'sip-files00026.QC.jpg'
63696939a5e9e70e96e0c8a94b3a4ffc
ba8614998cf9b3b4851ffcd8ca157eaabeb856e6
'2012-06-25T09:41:02-04:00'
describe
'653704' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWUO' 'sip-files00065.jpg'
513ffb0501b4117d4b5c94f6fcbdbd33
83d9083920b597bb2e748aa235fd6cf0b0c54341
'2012-06-25T09:42:09-04:00'
describe
'65093' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWUP' 'sip-files00035thm.jpg'
34a92744a066a64db2dabd770c725666
b11a4d1d7e90da8ac6e5e3499f3b4e7d2fe3d685
'2012-06-25T09:40:10-04:00'
describe
'3866' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWUQ' 'sip-files00012.txt'
f346a40fbbcff1bde5e2b8e1553d9a5a
c9df0d9ba676939150b6c7ecce66e2e52a0cf476
'2012-06-25T09:36:39-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'4576' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWUR' 'sip-files00065.txt'
308ebf57ffee5eeee42c7e47d6e31c9d
72b450dbdbaf682de21dbc12366f12c1d20110d4
'2012-06-25T09:38:43-04:00'
describe
'33390' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWUS' 'sip-files00049thm.jpg'
33e2c12e8895846bfca4f2cd0ee5afb0
3cd016e04b675acbac8a5f2108b0620e651ebbb8
'2012-06-25T09:43:29-04:00'
describe
'274064' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWUT' 'sip-files00016.jpg'
2f30590313603f87218dcaf17e9b3c47
2626430e33624827ceceb3eac9658ec6989f26dd
'2012-06-25T09:37:07-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWUU' 'sip-files00046.pro'
4707447f96285cf4f2f6a786c7b9e242
2287888d36b6048331746669bd1f0c02b87c484a
'2012-06-25T09:39:16-04:00'
describe
'1016138' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWUV' 'sip-files00040.jp2'
acf5fc15f970590fa94fb4b752d54df1
eaedd11d60b7dbccee58dc1e85334288fcd1b924
describe
'99' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWUW' 'sip-files00028.txt'
394333e611ce70a00953016cc56876ac
1d93336bde752e621a0859fcd1fe50a1ec6cc23f
'2012-06-25T09:38:04-04:00'
describe
'218' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWUX' 'sip-files00074.txt'
9543aa5082a301e779836cfc2f602a4e
0f1f590bb3d83470fce255ebad39e7c25020de2d
describe
Invalid character
'1036937' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWUY' 'sip-files00060.jp2'
4ab41308672bc8238be878441dff5e81
93905fa5984183ae886a45e9e38dbea0e72d00da
'2012-06-25T09:39:40-04:00'
describe
'1081504' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWUZ' 'sip-files00025.jp2'
f757dbd6035f177090314b0258c17835
63fb127590260b93e8c4b6fe230cbc901a1fc1f3
'2012-06-25T09:42:07-04:00'
describe
'115028' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWVA' 'sip-files00008.QC.jpg'
b2407459b88620859e58d96cb8686791
f405c1c10834bf89ece68f7c6987d72394efe6fa
describe
'1043635' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWVB' 'sip-files00036.jp2'
538e02b6cda37330dc6eebea0fcea36c
c505492e260c06b0d381e3a1babef507564b506c
describe
'1086572' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWVC' 'sip-files00076.jp2'
8fd5580031f37a374fd266ec5ae86c2b
568736262a25578e1f32836182c072e2abb02760
'2012-06-25T09:39:02-04:00'
describe
'1182956' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWVD' 'sip-files00003.jp2'
ddf751cec3db4c3e5c73faca86c663cd
f203a8d108d229eeb25f7edbe951b423954c67c7
'2012-06-25T09:44:39-04:00'
describe
'204422' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWVE' 'sip-files00066.QC.jpg'
4adcfca1724c7c53440017abf522eaaa
b6e45a45228c6920648621115485ddbf0ce7041a
'2012-06-25T09:41:51-04:00'
describe
'90673' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWVF' 'sip-files00067.pro'
acfe61cbf36580962fd6e9d1d7ed6949
21d894b6d4ebab688e6651a88f855763698fe2bd
'2012-06-25T09:43:06-04:00'
describe
'8602048' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWVG' 'sip-files00024.tif'
15a0d782e2890d1c4a41a36b5a51f6c4
4b54e6d98ff1d27a482758435948a9ec099a9718
'2012-06-25T09:39:06-04:00'
describe
'63112' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWVH' 'sip-files00043thm.jpg'
93c9fdaa2b0e2946769b30d86457e79d
d644c85f72110eef251c4e649aa9c465bc88bd42
describe
'1045911' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWVI' 'sip-files00070.jp2'
115d2104cffde264d39547ae3871516b
4617768744669e6120628c5ea98265e648fedbc2
describe
'28305' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWVJ' 'sip-files00058.jpg'
4dd301ead38d63cb610d8f4f68409b93
cca19ddd75668c3aaefe3d0ddb8b7bf1a103968e
'2012-06-25T09:38:20-04:00'
describe
'126168' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWVK' 'sip-files00015.QC.jpg'
1709838d44d300f84bac83279c38e6fd
79e6414666083ec225f367b916d552d69a1e23f1
'2012-06-25T09:37:22-04:00'
describe
'29790972' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWVL' 'sip-files00001.tif'
36354586b151d7eb36d7fa95cdf7bef9
accd7a47c771246f678dc821360919596ecdd10f
describe
'27825' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWVM' 'sip-files00014.jpg'
5328edfc1334a504e1776b64d0e3ffe6
96edaa1e75156998d1bbd957b4cef611f3508dae
describe
'62170' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWVN' 'sip-files00012thm.jpg'
f3592e21561e129cf390ce883f118141
9bdc2de45917fb3ca741dd0334993dc35d39c53c
'2012-06-25T09:37:45-04:00'
describe
'1032403' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWVO' 'sip-files00017.jp2'
4c2f392d71445025c67e9f28ea8440d4
d850ea7d9e2d372a3ac14b3f529190dae4b3290e
describe
'337' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWVP' 'sip-files00091.txt'
7c118d9b93d9308b968660045a008cf7
801344ca2bbe44d39888deb160be496a4947c96c
'2012-06-25T09:40:40-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWVQ' 'sip-files00013.tif'
0d6298a535129fe5d447e407e19ff7de
4a4b90b8c7f3cd76a669993942a31af376a7dd26
'2012-06-25T09:44:37-04:00'
describe
'4220' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWVR' 'sip-files00006.pro'
aff5293ac7c5cb70918866bdeca1155c
571c604a7b1b210bf02587590234eb968ec75a89
'2012-06-25T09:38:46-04:00'
describe
'62794' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWVS' 'sip-files00077thm.jpg'
2379f82f34ac53492882297a4e3f17a8
d2585a71b5935571431565a8fcb70961c7168966
'2012-06-25T09:42:11-04:00'
describe
'264405' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWVT' 'sip-files00086.jpg'
92915fa12442cacb480c40eca23a8f2d
0746201c2825711b3466ae1d8f01639a878e56a1
describe
'1091145' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWVU' 'sip-files00083.jp2'
fd569cc484a7e3f07b6f72bb53cb23d1
f842c058e3b7875a769111b54bcb5c0b3ac85652
describe
'20625' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWVV' 'sip-files00072.QC.jpg'
e67f1de3386853123a7ad1610f185c63
56f3712106377688efc4af5f03f2ac5b3f06ee83
describe
'2172553' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWVW' 'sip-files00006.jp2'
5795a1dc7f0f3c7828ca0a4d617d334a
ea7e3a4084cdd833475d2c20a412dcadf3ba49ac
'2012-06-25T09:38:57-04:00'
describe
'49444' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWVX' 'sip-files00011thm.jpg'
41c3f37de07461e03d727418d9179880
b2699db86d1398e171a6f5a894f4da2f4e47aaee
'2012-06-25T09:37:54-04:00'
describe
'52164988' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWVY' 'sip-files00006.tif'
2de03fba5f98ef4fbe9c5f17dc095d41
eb07a5ccbb39a6756335a3c4b493114e4833df80
describe
'178483' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWVZ' 'sip-files00032.QC.jpg'
e80d107028accc286eb427173241dd5e
2fe73624f551adfda214066e5d6a4af5ef538b5f
'2012-06-25T09:41:35-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWWA' 'sip-files00026.pro'
6dda59bd87b27139b29e21f89505e0b2
410d5522825ce7321374b3ac85216685ff2afcac
describe
'810' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWWB' 'sip-files00044.pro'
645bf57e6774fe870a8925ab76f8328f
77d2da6532af35ea624e039d552f1500212d27cd
'2012-06-25T09:39:52-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWWC' 'sip-files00023.QC.jpg'
9bdff1059cbd50824c28bd237cbaf1e7
2daac99b3ff936ca18b453f0d175d5f5300f8f09
'2012-06-25T09:39:23-04:00'
describe
'694488' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWWD' 'sip-files00059.jpg'
0235fb4ecc91d506e0b20ab74d69523e
268dc3d670de573086520e935e2738f25e6b3cea
describe
'639396' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWWE' 'sip-files00075.jpg'
8cc1565f9395f8b3f6e02f45702efc1b
7feac67a211ec7f9ee54a6c3d7eb2a2b4fa7e78f
describe
'1049644' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWWF' 'sip-files00059.jp2'
b1dfe018ec57e880e42eeca0d80527a4
c308b22857af487a2063b728e4323f5879d08b5e
'2012-06-25T09:42:22-04:00'
describe
'22412' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWWG' 'sip-files00010.pro'
823a42063d40271910f496ea01c7092e
cc439dec256623b4c32386d8881544233ccbc801
'2012-06-25T09:43:51-04:00'
describe
'1100254' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWWH' 'sip-files00030.jp2'
8e90a006b1007f83b6540dd05278189e
0200682073ad8ffbb32a1bbf6f34980e1a02cd8b
'2012-06-25T09:36:57-04:00'
describe
'136631' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWWI' 'sip-files00045.QC.jpg'
37cc4b9a473666b6d14e2edc91219f65
f8ec2209ed1657342184288d3c29b97435aee95f
describe
'191789' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWWJ' 'sip-files00084.QC.jpg'
e1292a4fd46d09f1306b2da27481b586
b40e6e926a5db5e0a7847a03261b981430a91222
'2012-06-25T09:44:31-04:00'
describe
'29276740' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWWK' 'sip-files00092.tif'
b69713249590f7098c25c5fcd170be9c
6925c38760a2e18b49d9d2663607e3eb04bc6b16
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWWL' 'sip-files00005.QC.jpg'
316e37f7270b6596c29f4ec7e1da1b23
d2423af0c2de38c5ac5524c19437fb1fa561f7d7
'2012-06-25T09:36:45-04:00'
describe
'379' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWWM' 'sip-files00016.txt'
f2a325b171394a5ea86934b28d9d14a8
66e54ebcb217063e4f3f1ecb3d1bd51daead05bb
'2012-06-25T09:37:39-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'8895656' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWWN' 'sip-files00009.tif'
a2eb2058a152f76c6e13bcb0178f2e43
b9a1611148a7d4a0c3999a2513dff8cd70be8e5d
describe
'2181699' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWWO' 'sip-files00073.jp2'
591470de47cba5b608e372b3d5178b09
83eaafdaf4f442e3fe00847b373734f29ea4e7c9
'2012-06-25T09:44:46-04:00'
describe
'59548' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWWP' 'sip-files00054thm.jpg'
5616c55e4ca6248ed3ab8550257a5d69
4e9e05f16f749c45e29c1d71a026236be120d87c
describe
'115041' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWWQ' 'sip-files00033.pro'
58ea3bd32352624c03756998152cb5fb
8800535fd87884761230055c121112c600914c5f
describe
'623153' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWWR' 'sip-files00077.jpg'
5666524ea600e8e11c78c1c1a5e4b44c
7ae50e2dac801a1fa2c1ee517bde44cc10d71ab1
describe
'135126' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWWS' 'sip-files00022.QC.jpg'
777446358bd4a34fe52187bb4257859d
cf348e447d17795e6a49302ca3989c37f4651b8c
'2012-06-25T09:44:23-04:00'
describe
'667566' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWWT' 'sip-files00047.jpg'
1b6cb8129c6f5d68af69c0696c2b7e5b
545a27d66ab997fa3719bbcc8fdfc91b1f322b6b
describe
'8691144' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWWU' 'sip-files00035.tif'
d61dbd0e4e60c3e74d9acb16532ed3a4
06153d11ad46c72a74bf2077e9bd3f7e32372730
'2012-06-25T09:37:41-04:00'
describe
'43239' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWWV' 'sip-files00002thm.jpg'
6c7d6fb421832b05baffeb9186bcabff
f3eca135356c58e571a3420a6e9d7f45e5f331fd
'2012-06-25T09:39:41-04:00'
describe
'80635' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWWW' 'sip-files00074.QC.jpg'
365816861720284f87b5afddc0452bc8
201eff6d9a41e4b37579bf1c3371e380ce652679
'2012-06-25T09:43:14-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWWX' 'sip-files00056thm.jpg'
548af03e3b371c0a21d07b228725ecf5
f785d71d2e0594691f323a316e75d5d846600765
describe
'135133' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWWY' 'sip-files00050.QC.jpg'
3a42ec4b1c74bbf75ea08a70c5ca44f1
9d094d6f7520f9c46cd12089fbf2b7ef76d588cd
'2012-06-25T09:38:28-04:00'
describe
'123147' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWWZ' 'sip-files00004.jpg'
8c75c0edb12c8c8ef9a9b830d6904e85
fece32918bc529942c82099a36584b0308cadad2
describe
'951064' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWXA' 'sip-files00004.jp2'
56a9ea7916f55b1d6d3e22dd09fef1a1
806780848694aeda266db6fe0bbbcea0ccdbbac6
describe
'1000872' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWXB' 'sip-files00011.jp2'
bbc754c81f8401ef555cec1f9d0cceb1
7bc05777fba0c591a78f45309109f975e65b4b1f
'2012-06-25T09:42:43-04:00'
describe
'218219' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWXC' 'sip-files00042.QC.jpg'
589ca33f19e4367e63d639d2218053cc
b9734d476c1232943bf636c5a1796b2c279846f0
'2012-06-25T09:42:03-04:00'
describe
'33663' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWXD' 'sip-files00028thm.jpg'
02e59b3a5f9edbe6c1d77edc9f6d3b5e
78b525b5e208f66e0146dd8343a480f24ef66b29
'2012-06-25T09:41:45-04:00'
describe
'28399836' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWXE' 'sip-files00003.tif'
e7e3f4897671c348679fb4575c3819af
89e9f8a06cfc07a4bccba0be9d8ca5916efd4b35
describe
'220905' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWXF' 'sip-files00029.QC.jpg'
6e898deb228c070ad91ead91d98b6d76
459bc622cf4f2c18047612d28a41f95a9f2dc7ed
describe
'470373' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWXG' 'sip-files00091.jpg'
2d944bc4d6c4b085f252d03bc6256daa
a9ce5892de4119242e1024bbc1e5a6aa6f40e7a4
'2012-06-25T09:36:54-04:00'
describe
'52270784' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWXH' 'sip-files00015.tif'
959af38c1e0a1e0d92af8ec46fc3d426
54e9ed15f7b39a4464a0d89ab5f5476b9f0dd4a1
'2012-06-25T09:38:11-04:00'
describe
'51689' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWXI' 'sip-files00073thm.jpg'
6a54f1d08f4ab9c59b8d5a5a7fd4c4cf
769188be8f032d17de1d418cb88ce6c637e6442a
describe
'63366' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWXJ' 'sip-files00053thm.jpg'
72e4c3175d4fe9f0bcc4bc6032182bb3
2a494bb502ca7ce14ec8d9e3282b80bb3ecd403f
describe
'6285' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWXK' 'sip-files00050.pro'
d423d90414f1258727d3cef91839e540
c6e609f305af894fbba21eb6ba56c9dc55c57e85
describe
'66775' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWXL' 'sip-files00070thm.jpg'
509c2222756385415ae99bb49639c7ef
7cced23709b4c4b1fc8b5dab09aa1dc78d43d354
'2012-06-25T09:38:30-04:00'
describe
'3603' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWXM' 'sip-files00041.txt'
82ddc636e43784e88ca0b50ddd5081de
eb7dd6a2375fcc4b8c6c222f313fa4d94fadc36d
describe
'12490' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWXN' 'sip-files00087.pro'
98c1b4e6ea0287e347051dd8f384e69e
58eafacb8d4e44b2fa90535248cb632d3706e6f5
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWXO' 'sip-files00063.jpg'
f87ab7f881f88bd42ffe5697c065466e
558d9be99386a8a8cd9d6ca90a2ce892c65913b6
describe
'449' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWXP' 'sip-files00022.txt'
e5edca2172d0075216572f6ecf958ef9
2fa41b06ac4b6a3c2ae6d9d005668bf96ed0a36c
'2012-06-25T09:38:37-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'4290' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWXQ' 'sip-files00036.txt'
246138ed932e408e96c85ad6d1f0ce27
1965d6774beb8e7d34b1ddc4af5440a9550e50e8
'2012-06-25T09:44:27-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWXR' 'sip-files00046thm.jpg'
508a0c3add477ce21b0ee6506082567d
96a8783243fa2ae0cffa64ddd5e6405689952604
'2012-06-25T09:38:31-04:00'
describe
'183056' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWXS' 'sip-files00054.QC.jpg'
67400f8b80d5e61351bc4d67d3be8c37
5e631d9caee40e2ca5dbe4594e288a35badbee6e
describe
'63214' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWXT' 'sip-files00034thm.jpg'
dda411bf9023a5dc273a39c14ec62960
8c7df58ecc467b089f4adbd2ef933454426b2d66
describe
'578223' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWXU' 'sip-files00032.jpg'
c994e64cc22bbbfec3f02bed6cf71793
623fbd8da5cb2f0aa97629ac8754fc03ac904943
'2012-06-25T09:44:38-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWXV' 'sip-files00023.pro'
e6290a311c62c2f6f7a85f277bf842f4
785c822ab33e1d0bd5eec318ed26fab10b88688a
'2012-06-25T09:40:02-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWXW' 'sip-files00083.tif'
deed38d0f0a9e07100a2ed876c787e50
8752f51922b97670a2be58e217e7a89300b2aacd
'2012-06-25T09:38:22-04:00'
describe
'190361' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWXX' 'sip-files00013.QC.jpg'
e465b19d29680e39af470883de71b873
ff87993557f291e5a0a613e1a502a788b1f489bc
'2012-06-25T09:40:56-04:00'
describe
'82885' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWXY' 'sip-files00044.QC.jpg'
198ad50006e505aa5cf5073768d2ab2c
1f63a4bbaf2ef27b11017d4b952b4f213e09eedd
'2012-06-25T09:39:51-04:00'
describe
'517' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWXZ' 'sip-files00044.txt'
501cca9ce830c42d4da00888e9141218
a9ad165f07ee385377c9549b06761c40197addba
describe
Invalid character
'4322' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWYA' 'sip-files00083.txt'
f51c0b07c3c9a8576de1c91075470624
64259c5a43a5433ccb30c9522a8534565315db6c
describe
'62563' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWYB' 'sip-files00024thm.jpg'
5ee53a4163e04a718a41eebe2c2b1f06
0e5b71c88e2224b041531d521eb008047e71d907
describe
'446' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWYC' 'sip-files00045.txt'
b74f0c62345994409229a616d2762e13
aead69faa8cb1de221b1b9f1d6f44cc784664dcc
describe
Invalid character
'139437' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWYD' 'sip-files00002.QC.jpg'
2a84a96e3719449386698d0f38464fb9
36f88313b7107422d7d2624b93cb950b1a2d88aa
'2012-06-25T09:37:53-04:00'
describe
'2172594' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWYE' 'sip-files00087.jp2'
b1186453ec7463958de7e83acfe3b7f4
0800f17f09eaaaa0b4a82612943d86ada5ccbc0d
'2012-06-25T09:36:58-04:00'
describe
'312' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWYF' 'sip-files00027.txt'
fa7d90c4b8256fd5a09a2972815fe4d3
338a34474ab939c1a558ea8480f00dcd58fd2be6
'2012-06-25T09:39:14-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'796' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWYG' 'sip-files00038.txt'
35880c3cc2fa3342b3ead07886c5e5fe
1843bde460b1f0103564ef86c788ca059df0f48e
'2012-06-25T09:44:55-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'1794' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWYH' 'sip-files00002.pro'
d5462919bf5d6371c4aad601733adb60
addd0a4e8e9afba7c9bcf0ba1019485f57c0e449
describe
'129490' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWYI' 'sip-files00027.QC.jpg'
2c1fcfae7b687178fd1564e704f99615
676766962b70eec1add4b1da437ea385bda37c77
'2012-06-25T09:43:07-04:00'
describe
'1287' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWYJ' 'sip-files00004.pro'
62655729e3a829da22f73c0950d2075a
caf9f80ddfc956f967391f8538ef5ec75f77cc35
'2012-06-25T09:36:40-04:00'
describe
'969' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWYK' 'sip-files00010.txt'
f3c0faa93f2d3d9520e303e90060ade4
70fa5b9d98d1b7d21eaa02890fc59cbfe453680f
'2012-06-25T09:37:18-04:00'
describe
'45656' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWYL' 'sip-files00010thm.jpg'
f3ba543b0e08491549b0e6c38c197a1a
331276207eaf9fce497d8aad720fcf31e5e4f081
'2012-06-25T09:38:45-04:00'
describe
'103766' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWYM' 'sip-files00048.pro'
60b848fca2de674327b88d987019bbac
6602db7c88e1de37d56070fa31f035ba32694f65
describe
'647037' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWYN' 'sip-files00031.jpg'
1ee7c3d43d6b94800273db909ff01bc0
8bb06f3ee0ceadf7cfbeaa26beb450556143f224
describe
'268234' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWYO' 'sip-files00092.QC.jpg'
0e60c8bf3415844d887eb9353a68a10f
eed9b082eb107546f1b176776f960fc01e5e9ed5
describe
'201117' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWYP' 'sip-files00065.QC.jpg'
90c3702b13bfedfd7775a12f6734dbff
34c243f69de7aae80a63c534e2a2b2f3c6c90651
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWYQ' 'sip-files00034.tif'
9556a3e4d2e0c5ade32e8cbaf9486ebe
e925633db1f30988519f537a9ff0c144b7e7c802
describe
'265240' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWYR' 'sip-files00037.jpg'
70fede3eba528e0f92e4caa2dec683e6
9102afb6c7fab5fe490d8e22737c16b9834b30f8
'2012-06-25T09:44:16-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWYS' 'sip-files00072.pro'
a25356aaccc5f60ec2e91bdb6c5ed42a
da8aa2ab991534301ecafe05078c756ea886b156
describe
'8366116' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWYT' 'sip-files00074.tif'
aba0819e87f4a3bee9023037158555d6
16c783b9970c85ea033c911e24581ccb9acf45d5
'2012-06-25T09:37:35-04:00'
describe
'8309068' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWYU' 'sip-files00029.tif'
8a18e85e37cd6ae738f05ab34c24b69e
8b685057811b46916acdf10844d60ef727bdfa00
describe
'52162224' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWYV' 'sip-files00087.tif'
7926a33e887b2abd76b6a7445df93be8
f34afd6c620e63dc05fea96c38b0a3e4f38783a7
'2012-06-25T09:37:44-04:00'
describe
'1100266' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWYW' 'sip-files00034.jp2'
72c65d84de5183864eea81d1c654568d
5f7c3f584e2b5674debc11ee54d1ca4051ca0f4d
'2012-06-25T09:38:39-04:00'
describe
'1223538' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWYX' 'sip-files00002.jp2'
249e70df4685b74046a4f3537754a61f
44c71be02cf2c883660b59c50ada0146dff8da3a
describe
'101777' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWYY' 'sip-files00078.pro'
fc69d7f8a9f6c24978c362324c1c40e8
9d520ede83121fe1989fef889be7bcd5cb185adb
describe
'132675' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWYZ' 'sip-files00057.QC.jpg'
77f548dd4ca90eacacdb76564595f585
5fc57836133f953d802ddb39dc106df0a2b07f65
describe
'98334' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWZA' 'sip-files00017.pro'
e584b7e87c1d74d4bb270f74c1a5097c
62114091b037ffea42592cc122ea9222d6366457
'2012-06-25T09:40:45-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWZB' 'sip-files00043.tif'
389ebe1e01cabcfed23ddb9843d35908
858e3462a63984ccad04d3de67255b4cfea049e6
'2012-06-25T09:42:39-04:00'
describe
'263003' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWZC' 'sip-files00049.jpg'
24b92f660258908e37643a561c0bae05
2e5fc44c1fa14d6fd73869084081cb642887f1c8
'2012-06-25T09:43:50-04:00'
describe
'4245' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWZD' 'sip-files00066.txt'
a3ed3729942efc7dc5d5871d237a66c1
d5c58f7f501846812a539fa6feebdc82c6f96315
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWZE' 'sip-files00056.pro'
a03409a0ced080e7c0beedf5adcf3bd6
efc4a28cf6c0840d82e137f2b2c49547209fe1d8
'2012-06-25T09:36:37-04:00'
describe
'112234' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWZF' 'sip-files00042.pro'
16e89854ad1dc3f58ccc6c6f42d5b0e5
b794be2e073f122fe26e21667fff9053608cc21a
'2012-06-25T09:42:28-04:00'
describe
'290' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWZG' 'sip-files00007.pro'
495047f0796a321064f120160e522bd3
af35d102b27d4b03afbdf80c5fafd9254efebde8
describe
'8133404' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWZH' 'sip-files00012.tif'
287e78198df99c241874d4f86ab502bf
ef96514a5812d648168b08b342d26be197e47c01
'2012-06-25T09:43:31-04:00'
describe
'182889' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWZI' 'sip-files00076.QC.jpg'
ccd79a1c7a06ad26528be2e5de124e09
cf785fc5c612de3d3941be4af55f27ff69031e98
describe
'5578' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWZJ' 'sip-files00080.pro'
fe6abfddf302adb66f7514b00abd7898
d98e30bbe1e2aa91e6b4c49e63e692ed070a6a6b
'2012-06-25T09:38:49-04:00'
describe
'51702976' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWZK' 'sip-files00050.tif'
d7b02e0ef861750a179a7c0942087bb2
e47ee3b80f3321b4ba97e02c244e07ba39a98e60
'2012-06-25T09:39:39-04:00'
describe
'1109822' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWZL' 'sip-files00009.jp2'
75fd29fd4b17fc9cb1fd7034ffdc1a8e
1dd59bfb80604d8fd9ebad0c5be2902421947819
'2012-06-25T09:39:43-04:00'
describe
'40730' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWZM' 'sip-files00091thm.jpg'
7c74dcd353c796b2170ba6d757f2ad0f
7fd5eeeee9347f07c333c064cd693d00fd4041e6
describe
'82393' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWZN' 'sip-files00049.QC.jpg'
b5dc330baad72f8390257b5f84a23d71
d6560b4b768c749efc48ea03e278319e3a3d2e34
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWZO' 'sip-files00061.QC.jpg'
cc7e58f3ac1dec67ea97ef22c932d333
1d891c42aea63a06085f903255489e02925bdffe
describe
'2163002' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWZP' 'sip-files00057.jp2'
f991c5bca5ee62de2cf9baea6f64faa4
19ff3dd6c6db77fd51d9c2a16e2212d34172d363
'2012-06-25T09:43:44-04:00'
describe
'1740' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWZQ' 'sip-files00003.pro'
7fe8fafbde30ca06ee64340e222c9600
3dd18984419da1ba340a598da8fd185aec66a4c3
'2012-06-25T09:44:07-04:00'
describe
'2153420' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWZR' 'sip-files00050.jp2'
2109a31f51b37d82f07d7d0e8a9fa857
c04da53c9049c4aacbd2621b2e39fb2371b72063
describe
'1081367' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWZS' 'sip-files00008.jp2'
d9c7c859d2d850094fce7548edf7e878
02e903bebca3683c2d916215bd2a002fce344a4a
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWZT' 'sip-files00089.tif'
32d444ec50e7d736408f655559e2633d
a857658357f618f3f341ddeac30c30a31a8f8184
describe
'613609' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWZU' 'sip-files00024.jpg'
05ae039371b04304ff27dc9f7f891cc0
65a55bf1665a3e6af179b61d072a9d9f438b5f2e
'2012-06-25T09:37:12-04:00'
describe
'700906' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWZV' 'sip-files00018.jpg'
066759b590c55d354ec2394c52ee9290
a357b129a3a99abe47adb026090d18c00d279c5f
describe
'679993' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWZW' 'sip-files00035.jpg'
9d008eddc2083b145cb7886ecbefd23a
eb137e40571ba1fd5389a5ae76b71c13c822a66e
describe
'1095253' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWZX' 'sip-files00019.jp2'
1ea7be8b2f52e823a74374ab1a39baad
07ce01bccff137d5d961652a10a287b8083c2d21
describe
'64261' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWZY' 'sip-files00083thm.jpg'
2ec4e8084aee6c56b3d3ca39ab89ece9
dae209c85590db1f4d25391bc985eff33b74d4bd
describe
'271883' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABWZZ' 'sip-files00001.QC.jpg'
06fdec0823b9c9fea00d7b8830e76b4e
5062fc36b785e902f682ad67531a3621e4cf9b5d
describe
'8500' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXAA' 'sip-files00022.pro'
999b4ebbed63342b164b8dddebecb781
e44782fdaf63306a954453eb48ed10e6d1304899
'2012-06-25T09:42:17-04:00'
describe
'113043' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXAB' 'sip-filesUF00016250_00001.mets'
971be4ef5e1c82532e1c3124834e94f2
ea970c1ef989f3fb9ac4ae750394c1ecf65404a8
'2012-06-25T09:40:50-04:00'
describe
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/sobekcm/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/sobekcm/'.
'2013-12-09T22:25:05-05:00' 'mixed'
xml resolution
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/sobekcm/sobekcm.xsdhttp://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema
BROKEN_LINK http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/sobekcm/sobekcm.xsd
http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema
The element type "div" must be terminated by the matching end-tag "
".
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/sobekcm/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/sobekcm/'.
'1010823' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXAE' 'sip-files00001.jpg'
f6bc89e513e5e6228cdd918bd36263f3
2668c49f6057cd82c64f378c2bd474cef50bed89
describe
'490519' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXAF' 'sip-files00003.jpg'
42c60ecc583f3c3ea548b6d9ddd7c262
1d9594665dd7586bb4d69c2d213bb13409fcf978
'2012-06-25T09:37:38-04:00'
describe
'146847' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXAG' 'sip-files00009.jpg'
07a611f8625b59069b0033683c243519
2f14b45bc23ef36fc0af9b139135e297b78a5139
describe
'383736' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXAH' 'sip-files00010.jpg'
aaedb1684c3388a369e4f975353b9db6
fe6f82e6d8138b6342ba693d7d2a57c5be55dafa
describe
'653362' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXAI' 'sip-files00012.jpg'
18619f1485c490842bee6d1b6da6943d
070010e64bc5f8c84ecbdb1f4935e43da60761ed
'2012-06-25T09:40:14-04:00'
describe
'668466' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXAJ' 'sip-files00017.jpg'
7fb4b017f4d843141902c332387cf0a6
930a48948afb1ce45c6a4920ee6541abdabbe2dd
'2012-06-25T09:37:59-04:00'
describe
'647467' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXAK' 'sip-files00020.jpg'
208c2fb8271631a9b7cf9873f83292a3
32943727e0e28c9e0c09182e3c16546e9410d9c0
'2012-06-25T09:38:58-04:00'
describe
'438622' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXAL' 'sip-files00022.jpg'
7132cb4f219bec2374e8f76be920c2a9
94d5a56f97fb0ba36a7b038e6025df3c2f3b1cc3
describe
'439049' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXAM' 'sip-files00038.jpg'
87e1e2bbafeabddd1befb5ebbdf9aaed
6695d38650989fb41472d4889c49520c56c8a5be
describe
'441422' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXAN' 'sip-files00045.jpg'
24496f2f1bcda8fd5c98d100cddcc848
53279da7d4fcb522f7928a11ba880f2c9c6dedf0
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXAO' 'sip-files00046.jpg'
793e8b25244c39cc94b12584fab0f642
7facbd59a6913c491ca277afc8e56a46d3ef5676
describe
'668204' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXAP' 'sip-files00048.jpg'
c7b15f91483d761d72fd32fd64692289
cd571fbd692475afd4e725effd22391417515db8
describe
'442074' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXAQ' 'sip-files00050.jpg'
08159306c5a67ab3b394364f95254ce5
d87ea81193173fd6359be7207c343ee759e7456d
'2012-06-25T09:42:26-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXAR' 'sip-files00051.jpg'
ac0289fb5dafd92e9f471fbb1266287c
d90074f985901408e62014c475935bf73940bd2d
'2012-06-25T09:38:01-04:00'
describe
'557361' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXAS' 'sip-files00052.jpg'
c23116320aed67a65431b9c5ddf77300
03d919cad9965d43a1eeb071f473c931bbaaad0c
'2012-06-25T09:40:24-04:00'
describe
'665080' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXAT' 'sip-files00053.jpg'
67f1d16d2e2d7ee4d050ecfe94bd23a1
b8c85d3eacb316b23a924dd442e7bc4237e1cc88
describe
'576171' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXAU' 'sip-files00054.jpg'
08b52101e3aa788b788ec101bd64df04
060fc56b4bf3d836c7f7891407f44279af16d80a
describe
'426999' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXAV' 'sip-files00057.jpg'
7b4e29e300a259238b0cc43a29de91d4
0a9f76c74c32ba868bb188f28962813431abbc9a
'2012-06-25T09:39:21-04:00'
describe
'668616' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXAW' 'sip-files00066.jpg'
7bf23c41430597e3c138cd05ac88458d
82829b333f933bd5ed8beeafc441b57a53ebf937
describe
'610104' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXAX' 'sip-files00067.jpg'
7ba716b400d589bf7b7e8937434fe229
33c26c726e09e2f57c79439d07792a9683b5af74
'2012-06-25T09:42:06-04:00'
describe
'665983' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXAY' 'sip-files00070.jpg'
c6ac6a8a0da2220a3fff7bddd62306e8
de2752d85f454a89ecd0cb181bb0ce7c616ee641
'2012-06-25T09:43:35-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXAZ' 'sip-files00072.jpg'
ef0b2417f9ee68a6906aafb99e31a4c6
7b3fea1bace6eff39e3f863a9b225bfcc3004fe0
'2012-06-25T09:42:31-04:00'
describe
'259999' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXBA' 'sip-files00074.jpg'
66393ee2ef02d3ed9a7edb5e47f483c0
23541b78278993f8dd6550652072e74e5bfafba9
describe
'263829' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXBB' 'sip-files00079.jpg'
73f6a9ebcf281ddf1f98af4ee3f97658
39b8084714b75e6671d2e0214a5ca7291d46ecb4
describe
'657731' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXBC' 'sip-files00083.jpg'
0f513e6de0e4c8fe8351d40780e4ce95
d3a5c2b4854509086faf251181ee8c4e87682ac0
'2012-06-25T09:41:18-04:00'
describe
'427779' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXBD' 'sip-files00087.jpg'
1a526fbce3e02faaa368de7dedcd96aa
5cbe1398f7e8b39881e208eddd05622ad52633d3
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXBE' 'sip-files00088.jpg'
6dde215160a34f689dad7a8fdb01c0a2
35b1f7e464a2f015d62206f376351902f16a9f52
'2012-06-25T09:39:07-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXBF' 'sip-files00089.jpg'
9ee70823a2b3b4ddf0ad8621c90d2f0d
09ab47096832d24d6459f5f0980778616521970d
describe
'1039103' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXBG' 'sip-files00007.jp2'
de5d049f44cf6fd4cdb99a89a3411962
e0b7ccd094471928523e91191796c85c67040701
'2012-06-25T09:38:19-04:00'
describe
'1014557' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXBH' 'sip-files00012.jp2'
ad6b38ebb24788fe418329cf2ae3cabc
9699c3109163c4573fa5482bb0596c1a0d778f9a
describe
'2177158' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXBI' 'sip-files00015.jp2'
0f439eeebcf8f1bd7583a17d21cb1717
d020b97aba5f61106bc09b04be4cc84bb0321d22
describe
'1048483' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXBJ' 'sip-files00016.jp2'
5c997515e07b6a661738d442db0c1deb
dfcce1bb0fc58bcd50e2ceca006270ef431f189d
'2012-06-25T09:44:11-04:00'
describe
'1100255' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXBK' 'sip-files00018.jp2'
736599856160c396bf1dcf30183036e8
6835af9de3c521ab2c77a59557a542da83b367a9
'2012-06-25T09:44:06-04:00'
describe
'2148856' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXBL' 'sip-files00027.jp2'
d54424f61afa6668973d873e8a2e7076
40e36f3682a070720c1d04aa3b0974a745142a63
describe
'1112145' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXBM' 'sip-files00031.jp2'
a7d851f9470d0a516a60e996a8a06d94
0eee874889caf5f8ea40fc0bd79adefbc250c8c5
'2012-06-25T09:44:47-04:00'
describe
'1087941' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXBN' 'sip-files00033.jp2'
0a0e69224cab6d3c18e260bdd07d7130
d420c41e6a258d45ee41283f0c21acbe45a4a332
describe
'1029395' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXBO' 'sip-files00037.jp2'
34f144b90aed51c2456ccf53a1a29624
03e20880164f51dae899b3b3945ffcd03de70a10
'2012-06-25T09:40:12-04:00'
describe
'1064335' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXBP' 'sip-files00041.jp2'
70659f1bf7a4216a10ba1dd6f365b158
63ea163937b040a350b2cf4ce9a5f283f8fc191d
'2012-06-25T09:40:13-04:00'
describe
'1095704' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXBQ' 'sip-files00043.jp2'
3a1e0d0caac31236e741b2fdeb5df87d
d05d9e0c06c5713ad1804cd4e28888af244bf224
describe
'1048637' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXBR' 'sip-files00048.jp2'
1ddd0ab7747bcd7ab783c7d7696ee346
2b9b05bd853f0af108cc5b9a6c7a9dc21ae79037
describe
'1086566' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXBS' 'sip-files00052.jp2'
b50dedd246aa79490d8426477e3dad82
df6cb8998e319f735aa95e445d5607143acbdaf1
'2012-06-25T09:41:07-04:00'
describe
'1073158' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXBT' 'sip-files00055.jp2'
f9b842cca5028894de6da338267b4995
b37f8b0d741a4a2758c34cf89600fd1c1ab87d27
describe
'3621' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXBU' 'sip-files00061.jp2'
c7ced707960ef4c8b9896c48de1b4f2f
86023ece6eeae89ca30e921543e3ef977aa09906
'2012-06-25T09:39:34-04:00'
describe
'1081559' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXBV' 'sip-files00065.jp2'
82a90bb8305a312c422d1583e87e51a5
de56bbdc8dfe5f1bfbd2758b38514f72d23dcada
describe
'1072817' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXBW' 'sip-files00066.jp2'
c11e0880412d2f2283723736ef9e3b7e
c66f4f698796ca268d9d1f764e30326de03d64a9
describe
'1061387' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXBX' 'sip-files00069.jp2'
c7c17b594cbdd469399bf5dc4db1beae
ac32bb449028a4a71458e7219450284537e88f99
'2012-06-25T09:44:41-04:00'
describe
'1087943' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXBY' 'sip-files00071.jp2'
4ecce2f5b527221ffe9d1ec9eec041e0
4c3856052b181c204a771a1ce829aa82e587bcb4
'2012-06-25T09:38:47-04:00'
describe
'1059021' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXBZ' 'sip-files00082.jp2'
d8d354a8c5657618b83b26b522d43726
b0220cf3c532114734ade127e5810709c13b1401
describe
'1086950' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXCA' 'sip-files00084.jp2'
146172135ebd5832f11161aec82c48f0
d116a6cfa08903a7f1480b81f9f1fbfafbe35523
'2012-06-25T09:38:08-04:00'
describe
'1062792' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXCB' 'sip-files00085.jp2'
b50b045b25f919c98f07b8e50ae69553
7105c8b6467722b9278d5c15643c5ae46f152c12
'2012-06-25T09:44:21-04:00'
describe
'1080358' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXCC' 'sip-files00090.jp2'
ee35e4fa16ee695b075887bda2028f37
94931bd3d5fad7b59c6f33765ffff509d305572c
'2012-06-25T09:38:48-04:00'
describe
'1219259' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXCD' 'sip-files00092.jp2'
bcc2d37070788df3d31884cd406bcbdf
429c476f7a49dc939e8dbac63e1c0928ea3100af
describe
'8329596' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXCE' 'sip-files00007.tif'
856878b5f45bc4beb71e36542d18115e
433237e70268e038dea1d4af8a99dc3373575e00
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXCF' 'sip-files00016.tif'
e0d762e1b4bf72ce52ff9363183fa74f
1fed67706fad31d914e3a8e0cd5cd8186019934e
describe
'8276324' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXCG' 'sip-files00017.tif'
f05b1a8ce99067dcb5f548e85e8b8489
a99f96617638a46b26806ea105b2edb9d81a5d54
describe
'8778792' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXCH' 'sip-files00019.tif'
213b9d2ba90b13b37c1ef4e8695bdf0b
7d55bc36ee3bace4c563adab7c83d70a2f5741d0
describe
'8154300' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXCI' 'sip-files00021.tif'
4cc24ec1e51ad02963162e7dbb5fc002
b52a1ea2b4899f3355d45a34cd6306fcd1216edd
'2012-06-25T09:40:49-04:00'
describe
'51703368' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXCJ' 'sip-files00022.tif'
3e968046031698a1a8d070525e054469
afa1c1805ea2d1c678d53101d0534c2239854d30
'2012-06-25T09:40:00-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXCK' 'sip-files00025.tif'
a0f317507b0e6314b85333fa2aeb7dee
2344db131104686b54085d3e7a3fc6f0a37bf20c
'2012-06-25T09:42:42-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXCL' 'sip-files00032.tif'
f818eec6501e4fb69d1e25bf7f324601
41219aff40d82ca4c590ddf3d60f51b3d9a1fd26
'2012-06-25T09:42:47-04:00'
describe
'8720360' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXCM' 'sip-files00033.tif'
e771d16197b7fccb0b3e43f026cfa043
a146a815977768ffc220c007e7732ff0fa342a3d
'2012-06-25T09:40:44-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXCN' 'sip-files00036.tif'
aa9c867a8fbcd89ca2acea25ed305154
72a0443c3965a8e536318c4245a8477e3269f22d
'2012-06-25T09:39:33-04:00'
describe
'8531604' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXCO' 'sip-files00041.tif'
9ba330899daac24e047a81abc5af2814
ee9bd09018918813f0c7bfe5fc68b3ad18e369e1
'2012-06-25T09:40:55-04:00'
describe
'8720356' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXCP' 'sip-files00044.tif'
cf3bb88812383e943709ac895d432fbe
313d87fca897a9b8321b4eaf30b92c589f8fc2ff
'2012-06-25T09:39:47-04:00'
describe
'52043472' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXCQ' 'sip-files00045.tif'
6b6f23252f1049dc52d2e3faab6dbe31
e746a627299acd882c68d3921c235761a6315718
'2012-06-25T09:43:04-04:00'
describe
'8304032' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXCR' 'sip-files00047.tif'
d6f8e15bc59ad02e22d81c705b989a58
630813eb63ac565179462d1207375fcd4e5dd265
'2012-06-25T09:37:16-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXCS' 'sip-files00048.tif'
ce8ae74c1d0dc0a4c28e42562297d02e
f57b41bc2f813c112b966990030d6ad24be3b2d5
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXCT' 'sip-files00049.tif'
1ce62d04836f28b75f0cc62574b67f37
b22a8fb75edca839cdcc176b6983152c984e6070
'2012-06-25T09:37:13-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXCU' 'sip-files00051.tif'
5faf6417ebd22a4f14b34554e8b58288
9103ca9f0e29c261c6c700b75d156f4ccdf6eab9
'2012-06-25T09:38:18-04:00'
describe
'8709404' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXCV' 'sip-files00052.tif'
b4e4dbc22e8cefa8573c03627a420c47
2ae2d47fb0c2b0e17ea3a23fdb74f1a45f0fdd30
'2012-06-25T09:42:16-04:00'
describe
'8602908' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXCW' 'sip-files00055.tif'
76e9b42d56f354a0d6fe69226a62ca75
60301950519c9e9da958d32d632711226fa796f4
'2012-06-25T09:39:11-04:00'
describe
'51933148' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXCX' 'sip-files00057.tif'
1954147f46d956ddf2d8d0465c3ee255
d5f2da67c8495bcf58058b07cef22f65753a5046
'2012-06-25T09:41:42-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXCY' 'sip-files00058.tif'
2904b2a02f5be9b61b18c75a4ca73285
f0863ffe5fb4d6139505db22e635cdeef4f791a6
'2012-06-25T09:38:02-04:00'
describe
'8312284' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXCZ' 'sip-files00060.tif'
5529f154e37dd78b9249e318621cb3cf
d70af7455fc93418b16188629790b8a0b793872e
'2012-06-25T09:36:44-04:00'
describe
'52165808' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXDA' 'sip-files00062.tif'
9e3fe30cdac5bb3c51220fb5b08f03b4
056a1d19d5d7c35bc6464d55abbca00aa8681f76
'2012-06-25T09:44:20-04:00'
describe
'8599844' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXDB' 'sip-files00066.tif'
f22441f4cf98abb9e009d27c83d853b9
149f4256e308ff19371f7e860ba817b578c26fe2
describe
'8507968' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXDC' 'sip-files00069.tif'
3bc13eacc742b62a058539a8bc850d4b
42dbede0acdc9787f4c736521d6ddfcc27ea34c4
'2012-06-25T09:43:49-04:00'
describe
'8384376' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXDD' 'sip-files00070.tif'
63790766a8bdc86fbcc81c627015de53
eee8e6c08b26f141edbc1950fdf7cac09d94299d
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXDE' 'sip-files00071.tif'
668e4120253c48f35a0b1783af60a5f6
75fcf7444ddee9ad2bcd303e0fa070262817ef19
'2012-06-25T09:40:21-04:00'
describe
'52382928' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXDF' 'sip-files00073.tif'
59bf87d6126ce25ab48e085d7581a356
1b8ac07553da2e259e657a0c71f2375241c58c7e
'2012-06-25T09:42:54-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXDG' 'sip-files00075.tif'
8a7b074fcbbe5fa2d0bc6444a0a315c8
1d1d6b6919d8a0ea361706f894f5a2ca60620255
'2012-06-25T09:42:21-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXDH' 'sip-files00076.tif'
cf4d744457d795a485ea91b999e2b49f
1ddd6ad42fee9a57e74607c152ae098e25e43427
describe
'8775140' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXDI' 'sip-files00077.tif'
ba56dbef73b6d333a5683b200c69aed3
a9c988968a7ec53206ced021d1faf79895417594
'2012-06-25T09:38:25-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXDJ' 'sip-files00078.tif'
3296ace9bca3a2429f1cf4796d4cc922
41dd73a88ce6d741c5cac3588fe45d1f79a83f44
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXDK' 'sip-files00079.tif'
fc7a45e8ee647e76708d7ca67b22257d
ab7441285031707ff1c2ada9f23cec058a190816
'2012-06-25T09:42:30-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXDL' 'sip-files00081.tif'
f3863f3b69b5b91af85cc35a75f38197
0e9ce6265a5796c10405fd0fc0cf829ddf4a68db
'2012-06-25T09:41:43-04:00'
describe
'8489368' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXDM' 'sip-files00082.tif'
dfb74d235255b776298ab83268f9cf5e
73c63d69c199b0fcf2ed4202c5f2f24228f072cf
'2012-06-25T09:40:53-04:00'
describe
'8712728' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXDN' 'sip-files00084.tif'
9cc9bc03cccb649e54c723678dd1c0f9
622504a4da95cf0f10cae977c78b0f3b9e671549
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXDO' 'sip-files00085.tif'
1c8e28574a6061ae727da585bfe525e9
1c66c84a83786900403f8e2509fbfd3f34aa017e
'2012-06-25T09:42:24-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXDP' 'sip-files00086.tif'
45e094d3abcbe84d348026e0335adcbe
b37fc5eebd967cd6f70653072eb8d758ea794e00
describe
'40220' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXDQ' 'sip-files00011.pro'
3e8ec0ac78ab9ade115373b64e721eec
8950a250d2b4552611398af544826234083ca2a3
describe
'105846' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXDR' 'sip-files00013.pro'
dd1bcbb6212e3d3bd42820988811c923
2cdfd710b0f450f7030a47d99a66bad462330a28
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXDS' 'sip-files00014.pro'
6a144e183d613303342c5c48041725bd
026a3b358bfb26cd545575c7ba9cd734b1077bc9
describe
'118744' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXDT' 'sip-files00018.pro'
7f0bfc5319694c75f8803282d1527a98
78409dd243565fff305aba0b6f40063c7e591588
describe
'100804' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXDU' 'sip-files00019.pro'
a9f6eb3987854b9dd4740c26b269c99c
9221eff7c54a79c82698c7d346d77e0324dc34f3
describe
'110703' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXDV' 'sip-files00036.pro'
064f0bf4928e21464498f1ca6d103833
5a815ac5d7aa442753a7602e33760cbad99a2910
'2012-06-25T09:44:29-04:00'
describe
'12994' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXDW' 'sip-files00038.pro'
0cd39689b727be171a8646ad5d30eb28
992af92da931eef7b2677d8964cac6610c3d1722
describe
'354' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXDX' 'sip-files00039.pro'
d04e67b79b6d44ccf335ef78a297c276
39aaeeee57f5b31f0f5eeab8fcdad1efbc47089d
describe
'106307' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXDY' 'sip-files00043.pro'
a921ad5e702afa3e5849c762d1f8f6f3
703e74031f04b3fc8c2316abca4d3a098b65165c
describe
'8346' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXDZ' 'sip-files00045.pro'
9cda73ec33351111d224029a5893601c
6058ee6606690bad4de34f312bc26056dc952869
describe
'104771' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXEA' 'sip-files00047.pro'
f7d59c164bc9cbb77726d45e070f99b4
1d9e7cbe0e5bbd666659c4687d7e32386f92791c
describe
'282' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXEB' 'sip-files00049.pro'
87e75fad87c0d9218f3944b8b3582df3
e8d928dc1ae0b61fc4751e6bfb88f44fca41c874
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXEC' 'sip-files00051.pro'
d24d768e3712ccb428c11a365e1fced2
006c80f5c144f5f9e1731ed1b51692fece8f5a14
describe
'89429' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXED' 'sip-files00052.pro'
6fd090cf1adb0f9e189915247f2d0070
d06fe4a0f82288c090bcb9632f2603879e3794f4
describe
'87535' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXEE' 'sip-files00054.pro'
83152a01d95326afc9af12c919f5ba1a
550aa3f98ee6bc4c6f3191c4fe8c81d8fd611bc1
describe
'106496' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXEF' 'sip-files00055.pro'
8942ca4fa4994c5828ce5e813768064b
ab776b68cef3c94e129d5836ce0ec9dfa0251312
describe
'8037' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXEG' 'sip-files00057.pro'
1b4f102d37855624937a5ad37734b805
e47e8ca79e21ab21bbb3e2be7831c7ea3d070623
describe
'105954' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXEH' 'sip-files00059.pro'
090051d0410b93c4a07b949e416bdeaa
1e42eb14b2dbb17cf78c83719ad99eacc1782be8
describe
'109469' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXEI' 'sip-files00060.pro'
2ab0999ab490ab8157a4bcc60222f260
596d2797fcb3302d8f3384f68dbe0e075b8f8667
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXEJ' 'sip-files00061.pro'
93998dbf0ef68fc1e67b2d2febf94994
ed66e25b6a52805cf772f2899c3d50e704cecd9a
describe
'103402' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXEK' 'sip-files00068.pro'
fdd9a23e545feafded6d34c7f21128f8
c4ac8de37738cf6ee57219537ea466ae342dc6d9
describe
'103389' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXEL' 'sip-files00070.pro'
e17bb27b4f1135a84de9de16ed2a7cec
bc659e1dc884db9f72ffaf233b635b908cd233ac
describe
'9631' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXEM' 'sip-files00073.pro'
ac6cb97ed753f69d2cff3bcce21c6bd3
8626f8a3796d0101fc9698f10d84c72cef693ba6
describe
'474' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXEN' 'sip-files00074.pro'
6af11e3c20db975678d8eb422fb4f95f
b7320de0e5c89cc134b58f8f5b3441e89023c359
describe
'93219' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXEO' 'sip-files00076.pro'
20ef3a305c37486126e1b9837e63a95b
692e3fc112cf00e433aa2ae52ae2deb68ef8a0f0
describe
'92579' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXEP' 'sip-files00077.pro'
3aca3e278ad889090951bc9181c889d7
da202a080f7daa91f699bdfc6d29f8d4dcedc7d8
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXEQ' 'sip-files00081.pro'
09faa0ba6d77b0cc6f05dc37786a8c14
980e6db121afa101165aaa0a8806065e571eca07
describe
'87244' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXER' 'sip-files00082.pro'
1cc010e36c5d00214033e68fa2ef6cac
cb6ea3659cf107fbacc785d33fe3dc237939b3cb
describe
'1082' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXES' 'sip-files00091.pro'
dc9dae9a1158a4a54a4e38f1b4e21896
c4701d79c934621f8c68c6cfeed01b06694f4f31
describe
'1358539' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXET' 'sip-files00092.pro'
68d0a87411bf22663646b2369a33a42f
debc4033139bb804b6b21e35a21578f1cf15a5d1
describe
'76148' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXEU' 'sip-files00001.txt'
806b82211db77f02519d871f0c727d21
d00935c477cbac87b18911df2b26af902eea2b1c
describe
Invalid character
'85' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXEV' 'sip-files00003.txt'
c9fd6c59a8e9df35696ce5de622eeda4
ccb8ed89d2223dd2d97ed25dc23febebbb7b3713
describe
'59' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXEW' 'sip-files00004.txt'
a1f7f4008f383b02cdc416edb9ff9554
c2bfe4bc5db87f30bf8f52fb0cff865df8fa324b
describe
Invalid character
'342' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXEX' 'sip-files00007.txt'
90f601686e968b7c2888e60852260757
67f8cf17cf67d5627877619ab616b63fac447e89
'2012-06-25T09:40:51-04:00'
describe
'4064' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXEY' 'sip-files00013.txt'
3be098e510605d6bfa6af20456ffddf4
0d9ea5ed499ee3b1bbfd4302fdf43ac14edc2fdf
describe
'344' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXEZ' 'sip-files00015.txt'
de2f539886a7a42f4d815ee6edae3f52
3370e708770db7a77dce10cd34e0a3bbd2a4639f
'2012-06-25T09:39:01-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'3936' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXFA' 'sip-files00019.txt'
69685be90cf0cf509c7744fe8ee91255
7ee2616111cf3810ecb1c063a465f91b84a53487
'2012-06-25T09:38:33-04:00'
describe
'136' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXFB' 'sip-files00021.txt'
f7abb456ef177fbb5d93fb805f2ff27e
068dcf2d2cd84c3a51a29e925ce83842a0a367dd
describe
'4242' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXFC' 'sip-files00029.txt'
1bf199a7fae941bb4bfa2c370ab94ca4
283fb78e29ed1a340b73a6dcd38ecb5fed2530a2
describe
'4413' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXFD' 'sip-files00031.txt'
786c17c57df3e050383a324f8d1be63d
b3ce33b6465387b33248d9c606f66f7ffa5c5313
describe
'4434' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXFE' 'sip-files00033.txt'
86a4ee3c20ff9274fe2805beda5e730a
e5d4a956752faf2f0ce4e82f2db8ef320e0e238c
describe
'4481' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXFF' 'sip-files00034.txt'
bda5694365aff1b94a7d3224701f7458
fc69121435bc835fc1aa55c0c677ddcb2e315ce6
describe
'4437' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXFG' 'sip-files00035.txt'
8bad358f89f2eb15f204180ed2a26aa3
cee44fd15de2f52ec3fba7f755e0c79f099344d6
describe
'321' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXFH' 'sip-files00037.txt'
68941c11f3e6cb5376ceea3cff7f5ab4
d9db6266d6e6a5e7b78b9b684a683667fd2d0f8e
describe
'332' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXFI' 'sip-files00039.txt'
8634b813995ee8eabc2328c5962ba74a
9da5eac6863892bae9b0f8dce929ee49eb9a399b
describe
'4325' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXFJ' 'sip-files00042.txt'
861d5964f06f6696206bea8879e331c9
6e7807d8c04324fa091277bbba7d74a8cdc27296
describe
'4018' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXFK' 'sip-files00047.txt'
c2f2cf1d429e1bce188352f489157ee5
2646f4c4c4f39b5c49a46f8bebfc4ed8766f1816
describe
'4101' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXFL' 'sip-files00048.txt'
f386b97471bd59d908bdbef27184ef3b
9b5650838595b0859a37a21502cccd822a2af980
describe
'8' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXFM' 'sip-files00049.txt'
16ef184ed095ebcf5299b56c09f8d983
c0683a564dc6ddbb770e588a7fd1f94c92908d7f
describe
'4236' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXFN' 'sip-files00053.txt'
80bafd617037a7ed5bf044dd7eb6de31
dfc1c296d591d46be1963f89114ef49e8dade0a2
describe
'3887' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXFO' 'sip-files00054.txt'
32082279e51958a820f9f997c81d313e
d620336f3325f8c8b132704ad51b0d918469b1a0
describe
'445' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXFP' 'sip-files00057.txt'
931b0991ba389aebf7e543874e6d015b
84a53a64c6550b9621cdf6f663f0cd7ffd854c78
describe
Invalid character
'4231' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXFQ' 'sip-files00060.txt'
81c0a53ca3e9e78ab6084b0a9d151e85
08ad073eabe6ac5ad9bd36cd2207ea0629d0ab09
'2012-06-25T09:44:10-04:00'
describe
'4421' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXFR' 'sip-files00064.txt'
0108c914acf964513a678887edbe7589
e481b33cd2e52d771110f4e7b0fa9500fa0bf041
'2012-06-25T09:43:30-04:00'
describe
'3567' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXFS' 'sip-files00067.txt'
126439c7535fef66063f783774c088fa
aaf507ac585be24e6d135596bf47bbb26b78bd20
describe
'4019' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXFT' 'sip-files00068.txt'
948837750b36263c81984cd8d716948a
db29ff2487d191b8eed81f6fa927a87d7c2e0b6c
describe
'4386' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXFU' 'sip-files00071.txt'
7999084ac71401b17dba8b854532c214
913db2ef4e00dbbf101297bf82ba1495164d3c03
describe
'526' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXFV' 'sip-files00073.txt'
b795e9d932a825741a89d05625025fe7
6169434c98bf7019d8f869e79ffcc9b8a9919fae
'2012-06-25T09:40:03-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'4087' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXFW' 'sip-files00075.txt'
081beb768e9b1222c4a9508da2778d61
8e1010e37d7020429b13d71c2194bc033fc1f46f
describe
'277' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXFX' 'sip-files00080.txt'
cced1d72d788977f88a7a5aab46451d4
dbf280b46d264513e1c5445017a737f5b5430e2a
describe
Invalid character
'3581' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXFY' 'sip-files00082.txt'
e6b9a8e96e6502c5d3b3823b237f6128
39d3ec6c25038deb418d162cdffbaeec286fe916
describe
'3911' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXFZ' 'sip-files00084.txt'
06242ade5b486448f7e3b43b2144fd37
7de024bb605f174e19d2961598c312ccfcd1be2c
describe
'623' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXGA' 'sip-files00087.txt'
3743dbbf4d1de282201c2b407622c796
66c28d9ea08b7ea20d6b418974f4df939ed09bbe
describe
Invalid character
'2404' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXGB' 'sip-files00090.txt'
9be83e49096686cdd166fa29cf604255
c07a9394ea22260bc941d733c29cf09de71c16d5
'2012-06-25T09:44:30-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'51822' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXGC' 'sip-files00092.txt'
88d9aecc9e31be9c658ded1d88d334e2
c417184a6118a193c682b966d152aa5a45d5e51d
describe
Invalid character
'199673' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXGD' 'sip-files00031.QC.jpg'
6530594efd5044afcff965537506f1cf
5e15ab1710b2532c1221a374ff75e8a7545188e9
describe
'57770' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXGE' 'sip-files00069thm.jpg'
d13a417156c27e641d126c8584255f1d
9dcd754a56cb3cb66ffbef2a75b3498bd7a3a09c
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXGF' 'sip-files00063.QC.jpg'
3d7998571d865ab83a4ff7626881d857
50952646e71df39076a0113b81058fe7508bfd01
describe
'32459' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXGG' 'sip-files00007thm.jpg'
7af076795268496b10bcd9a294f362f1
a7b5e1ae87d9823e048a1e5540e1ca2915fd520a
'2012-06-25T09:41:13-04:00'
describe
'53600' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXGH' 'sip-files00006thm.jpg'
0b9dcb8c845adb031c285c6c70b792ee
69b0ef81955f9879e16b53fd48d47c03c34f2940
'2012-06-25T09:43:25-04:00'
describe
'62407' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXGI' 'sip-files00082thm.jpg'
2fb98e7df70e08511555e4235709e779
f5b254c1c5dec03df15bc3a155246f6d2c3c2588
'2012-06-25T09:41:52-04:00'
describe
'139310' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXGJ' 'sip-files00080.QC.jpg'
5887617fb796ef0c9787e463ff76c958
84383f0ab25bc368cd5f15421bb968b7d783c130
describe
'202972' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXGK' 'sip-files00036.QC.jpg'
9d918c320600d5d705addbe1f7a5c190
70db3aaffde9e0cab17013ef60e3880ee85748f7
'2012-06-25T09:39:19-04:00'
describe
'33419' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXGL' 'sip-files00039thm.jpg'
cbca1e49116ecd10bdf8a1ca6eed24c3
a9c0da9a901b290f94563ccb7b4ecf3de59a5e03
describe
'27574' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXGM' 'sip-files00009thm.jpg'
97718a718335e81a68e91da4a5a1ef28
5691cbe51a642640b62bc9c7ac5189b9c6bdff6d
describe
'76706' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXGN' 'sip-files00092thm.jpg'
93640b6231773bbbcee7713ededbdcc0
a31bfe27b7ab377107627d9cbb045c3b5a9f686a
'2012-06-25T09:39:03-04:00'
describe
'132008' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXGO' 'sip-files00091.QC.jpg'
00dc038e1438d8b64a402491e9544a87
d0c09eccce2433a613424632a87a9851d10a8811
describe
'211720' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXGP' 'sip-files00047.QC.jpg'
9890108cafa11c50e849e6a972231f2f
f6d80e55fec6915c9d657e34e3d7b3aac872c62d
describe
'57423' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXGQ' 'sip-files00052thm.jpg'
d6af2bb9c3ea15d61f9c9b7a957dd116
a2a28a8322f257d9d65b8782d0ce017bd46a2892
describe
'61841' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXGR' 'sip-files00084thm.jpg'
a215c29afab80557e8119365766a8215
e66a39ce90bf4c597419c0766e5680c3e646b755
'2012-06-25T09:42:10-04:00'
describe
'135934' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXGS' 'sip-files00038.QC.jpg'
8fe2644f8b0ffafd82c1afa748316be4
6b81ccae431512c92c658658932c538acac87a7e
'2012-06-25T09:37:24-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXGT' 'sip-files00051.QC.jpg'
e7c778031aea03e7bc1f8e7bcf5c5ce7
17bdcae2b84c034956b41ef08be1c1d826c05bd4
describe
'211330' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXGU' 'sip-files00070.QC.jpg'
dca13cf1228580bea63e4eea90e8acc8
f6893b01ca9f1aca195e1a7ac2bf0a56dcfb575a
'2012-06-25T09:44:04-04:00'
describe
'199004' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXGV' 'sip-files00077.QC.jpg'
46ee63942a32a8e8883c465e7133075b
2ec81041a0dfd760705b10a07ea4c029240ccfec
'2012-06-25T09:37:51-04:00'
describe
'196064' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXGW' 'sip-files00082.QC.jpg'
1ed2872af25828471a47aea0c09e518b
6f9324d4b526b725822da25940391d1328ceef4d
describe
'51979' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXGX' 'sip-files00045thm.jpg'
d84abf2e28cab9e59b52fe4c2ddfeb24
875839c130d7ed24f1b1c9766d4584527aa476b4
'2012-06-25T09:41:15-04:00'
describe
'65890' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXGY' 'sip-files00048thm.jpg'
dfc871e2023f9a50334b478a1c4658d1
e40fc14cc263f1b25191c927583f8e4abe0cde8a
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXGZ' 'sip-files00089.QC.jpg'
c18108b68cbc6db6de9a9a122a96bdb9
66aa3d726fc35c15c0733e4563e2cc81953771d1
describe
'43165' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXHA' 'sip-files00003thm.jpg'
be03591bdd5dc64c4950660328417183
35e11f6a662d9fa8ce65a0c949cc881604ad4145
describe
'143845' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXHB' 'sip-filesUF00016250_00001.xml'
73296f4d0e458a11e15b8cbaec5ab5d6
67bd9e01eab4cd52a310617501999e18c8127ba9
'2012-06-25T09:43:47-04:00'
describe
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/sobekcm/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/sobekcm/'.
'2013-12-09T22:25:06-05:00'
xml resolution
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/sobekcm/sobekcm.xsd
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/sobekcm/sobekcm.xsd
The element type "div" must be terminated by the matching end-tag "".
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/sobekcm/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/sobekcm/'.
'139147' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXHC' 'sip-files00003.QC.jpg'
9a96c1ef6b77792033807d16587c4cee
72a25ec10d09207f78dda2d1d059d00a4d27ac6e
describe
'47452' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXHD' 'sip-files00004.QC.jpg'
6b34ae9975860d0f83f1f15b01d3b828
0f905e080057c37e10a0e3b99111b6e19d7f4256
'2012-06-25T09:42:40-04:00'
describe
'132554' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXHE' 'sip-files00006.QC.jpg'
778211348d94889b5d9e6ef0dc3a466a
40bd7b2924814782737e409d517fd2b67f2433a9
describe
'78089' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXHF' 'sip-files00007.QC.jpg'
4108a0dd1ae285e61eb0c0fc3d1225e6
b7f4d0dd821711e27a64916872fc472b5f10ec25
'2012-06-25T09:44:54-04:00'
describe
'202350' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXHG' 'sip-files00012.QC.jpg'
6616ce1eceebbcc9800475a77067e965
64b1cdf43004942f819c92016a5f4d2b6edf7efc
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXHH' 'sip-files00014.QC.jpg'
b97beaab3cd8f6fd4934fb134c811bd3
40859e72513ac162f266535d71b52dc1f39895d1
describe
'48082' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXHI' 'sip-files00015thm.jpg'
ba924cb0705eec70ac6fed7195a8ecd5
3b5b726410831463b9aada16f0bd19c21f80221f
describe
'34119' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXHJ' 'sip-files00016thm.jpg'
bd55043cfa02b7982d9871af6c760e8f
0833dc3883fe5c86798dd90b63ef0239319adf40
describe
'64673' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXHK' 'sip-files00017thm.jpg'
c7e2de138662c26820726ef67c66b1a4
e29e37cdc3dd75cd8149ecfbb5d0a41675139f3d
describe
'62699' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXHL' 'sip-files00019thm.jpg'
826971ebb05e74d731b3bf4a0b0ee4b7
57f238df785fa7eaa5394c85598cc6309870d87e
'2012-06-25T09:44:12-04:00'
describe
'211700' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXHM' 'sip-files00020.QC.jpg'
41e8d2223400d97bb1de52ea4f9adfb2
872ef4505fff31ca568fdd1e06461ca72cfc725b
describe
'79637' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXHN' 'sip-files00021.QC.jpg'
51d7cc81af7a9d5f11466f74a1525e6f
19c4c5318417fe857e85050a1477f3e770c1d40d
describe
'33636' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXHO' 'sip-files00021thm.jpg'
f15fae63386be5433b1e46491d2dbfdd
d4817cb17d9c8e70cf13a5fba73da0c95a81dcae
describe
'18785' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXHP' 'sip-files00023thm.jpg'
3d5d7fdd71e7461cc5fe88687f3a7ea0
2724ec763be8b5bc1b38f27f27e2fec0b4e3afdc
'2012-06-25T09:39:32-04:00'
describe
'195586' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXHQ' 'sip-files00024.QC.jpg'
1bc74d5164df6252a531e6af39620335
0f90db1e43e67d7f53e4188106d6f369de6c294f
'2012-06-25T09:39:04-04:00'
describe
'59478' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXHR' 'sip-files00025thm.jpg'
54f51b039a22cfa877d0db2eac20869a
686489f962ccbd6f40f455403baec58890a21cf8
describe
'18821' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXHS' 'sip-files00026thm.jpg'
dd393099398f7136b553aa4443ff4836
174c91637f354b52d58619d6c15a4c9f79547fb8
'2012-06-25T09:40:35-04:00'
describe
'49218' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXHT' 'sip-files00027thm.jpg'
fa31aae5ef2e862e723762cd1f70cd7a
436c7570e471eda06a0c9b10f0d5421b3051d5cb
'2012-06-25T09:40:17-04:00'
describe
'67802' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXHU' 'sip-files00029thm.jpg'
0bae438d12a6b93ff63a0ad0eaf169b8
aee3b3bc5b08d1184ba1de2ff7120d346b86c5d9
'2012-06-25T09:40:46-04:00'
describe
'61717' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXHV' 'sip-files00030thm.jpg'
c21257fa8c2de6357dfc400e63f38044
f42463a471b54c7c0b617871044e0195d454d3d1
'2012-06-25T09:36:59-04:00'
describe
'58348' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXHW' 'sip-files00032thm.jpg'
d93cc7a6874a23e400af86d3cfe1683d
80ab4c3fa91065351b39e6fe9bb707955eec640b
describe
'211569' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXHX' 'sip-files00033.QC.jpg'
b3c954d6c0330b04ae76153cdfd74f7d
118ea3b3645991225f60d221ec106a356a74f251
describe
'83312' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXHY' 'sip-files00037.QC.jpg'
44d5cfc1745f4cd24408c15aacd99fb7
64d9d968c44f0cbbfe191e0d38fc6912f17601e4
describe
'82403' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXHZ' 'sip-files00039.QC.jpg'
3b01b28e53bfef9fbe50fb74bfdf91d5
f5d598a1839d983fe2f8308ea204338da5a5808c
'2012-06-25T09:43:45-04:00'
describe
'187548' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXIA' 'sip-files00041.QC.jpg'
7d5eaf03ffe35141c0a4ad8faa77d42c
04563f7327ea38226310cf87508bdb2f0741cf11
describe
'59562' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXIB' 'sip-files00041thm.jpg'
8984b5c7eb85c9d93c190a701821ea8b
bd07872ee72020f28693fd4a76463ef6fc0eb6f0
'2012-06-25T09:40:48-04:00'
describe
'199387' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXIC' 'sip-files00043.QC.jpg'
1e84670897338632f1e5a0422c38b15e
35e75629a76e47edf5409d5e1944cdd4a45548c5
'2012-06-25T09:43:43-04:00'
describe
'33377' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXID' 'sip-files00044thm.jpg'
07d025c542d0f32ad745fbaa137d38dc
477f08193f018c923817d5d219b323a520ce71cf
describe
'65582' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXIE' 'sip-files00047thm.jpg'
f92b2612964b4c3a41d077d743d36f22
cc7b5cb694e8228e4833b58979c17b612af00da7
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXIF' 'sip-files00051thm.jpg'
14ed0ca304874f6bdcfa592ac37d96e2
b5596758a6340b841299a0afa093dd3a432627d6
describe
'173783' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXIG' 'sip-files00052.QC.jpg'
a03ca1c8bc98e64ac39b4d94c4ce097c
c66f2c15b8a5fb0d7ed4cd93130adf53d492ec21
'2012-06-25T09:38:24-04:00'
describe
'207381' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXIH' 'sip-files00053.QC.jpg'
f9d3aa0ff07048997c26716075387851
79cadf35a49b6f22a33053387ada60ad0be56aec
'2012-06-25T09:40:19-04:00'
describe
'63397' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXII' 'sip-files00055thm.jpg'
afc219cf2866fcde0057d422ea4d97af
672d5af54af7b72a531a5c16a59876b9e9c50cb9
describe
'50720' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXIJ' 'sip-files00057thm.jpg'
c08ce291af4e70bdbed26e4b1f2fc7d8
1d260fcfc6ec2f96b51143af367ce3fad515fc26
'2012-06-25T09:42:27-04:00'
describe
'217363' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXIK' 'sip-files00059.QC.jpg'
0395bf167fbca383ca10929cd0a73f09
701c7fe2e0c24246c8f85094ddec26703c3b87cd
'2012-06-25T09:42:08-04:00'
describe
'67720' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXIL' 'sip-files00059thm.jpg'
bfaa33c08cc425e83a2a5c16875e8433
553ff804d93423437be5174f07ad7412f6547831
describe
'219611' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXIM' 'sip-files00060.QC.jpg'
b8333f4f2cba8d2990a3530000b44869
235c0aa0f268d9e8f7c959c8d22cc9947b0b79b6
describe
'203145' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXIN' 'sip-files00064.QC.jpg'
4d9398e981c8ba043913eb306a3f98da
b10262e32fa85832dde9846de060bf1c4113d52c
describe
'62228' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXIO' 'sip-files00067thm.jpg'
4a9b10f2e38cf8f3baf047c9bc0cdcdf
1e8c419b2caaee3b9fd728a24d80aeefdaeb3402
describe
'212576' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXIP' 'sip-files00068.QC.jpg'
b8deeaa60515af86696660a7172c3988
60dcfb177263e2027b792e70d8f2c6d17340bb46
describe
'182930' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXIQ' 'sip-files00069.QC.jpg'
5c1f9d36bb87c006ced0e66fe4bfbb2e
a4d54005a1cbeee44f736aed489fb65c5fcdc391
describe
'210811' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXIR' 'sip-files00071.QC.jpg'
7b97eda9f7218c15de8fece199d3011f
3f48aae3dc519e7b02b24a700f272f252a7228ec
describe
'64571' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXIS' 'sip-files00071thm.jpg'
a089e9e48495dd1b02efd2eaa9b044c9
208cf9f00ccdaf168f9308cbbd96fd5b9827f417
describe
'132585' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXIT' 'sip-files00073.QC.jpg'
9ec49effedf296091c0602d0c55835d5
c132d05555e9299bb747cec9bdf9ad1e1f00e010
describe
'199771' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXIU' 'sip-files00075.QC.jpg'
1a4593df4d3618e1bf764f69ea1864b7
c77c8230bda8c0693c06bcffab742644e37f7e0b
describe
'82149' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXIV' 'sip-files00079.QC.jpg'
39c70ccd4bf1f42cbc10d6ff92c3a8c8
5f934a8a62778be44448f792de500e91977c0de1
describe
'33090' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXIW' 'sip-files00079thm.jpg'
3e32a071d2607deed21c9878de5eb95b
c55909b7d07bfb62050c8f58bfb2402f7de9a9c0
describe
'55341' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXIX' 'sip-files00080thm.jpg'
c78e847c43a3127462130db070512f0f
f221caab7afce32e8a4762c8256ba4e3131e186f
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXIY' 'sip-files00081thm.jpg'
ad24af9b002d4451441cd4a9bf0ea267
1ba9fb766b2a39fc868041e04bd13ed7acaa58bb
'2012-06-25T09:38:50-04:00'
describe
'205779' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXIZ' 'sip-files00083.QC.jpg'
fe41bd170a79e213bff7387c33f597db
422175dd5dacccf7acb6cc87c49f256a1bf10882
describe
'56220' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXJA' 'sip-files00085thm.jpg'
ce83f133ce8c565c822ac1ee45669f93
eb3494bdecf23cf719c56404026a4baeec05eaa7
describe
'130948' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXJB' 'sip-files00087.QC.jpg'
70b46712c57713dbd011e4b32bb23702
0f33e8c8cf3c13e47f992ae0c801cf035784f09f
describe
'50058' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXJC' 'sip-files00087thm.jpg'
80b7b22f954732eb7a8a1dee930055e1
3822859e16e45398a98b6849f114db248a8e69d8
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXJD' 'sip-files00088thm.jpg'
7c737445a98a5d3abeb98efafe44e7e9
3bbe98504efa747deaaef83765b9429e076aff62
describe
'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXJE' 'sip-files00089thm.jpg'
e97870388dffc1f1676d2f0c99007a5d
4b6e721594afb6980afe761cbd0ee9b27211b1b5
describe
'36402' 'info:fdaE20100609_AAAATZfileF20100609_AABXJF' 'sip-files00090thm.jpg'
fe1ed8b666a34ed51abec5859335e4d2
cd14f0506d369e6b980b15cd905e75ad348dba14
describe



PAGE 1

K


TEACHABLENESS OF BIRDS-THEIR SAGACITY AND AFFECTION.

developed. Some birds have the faculty of seeing at a great distance with marvellous acuteness.
The hawk will discern his prey at a great distance; and in the cities of the East, where the
wild birds are sometimes fed by the inhabitants as a matter of duty, if a man goes out upon
the flat roof of a house, and strews food around him, in a few moments he will see the storks
and other birds careering through the air towards him, though when he went up not a single
bird was in view. Though they have no external ears, the sense of hearing is very fine in birds,
for many of them.can not only hear sounds at a great distance, but can distinguish the difference
between the various notes and modulations. This is shown by the fact that bullfinches learn to
whistle tunes, and many birds of the parrot and pye tribe to utter words and sentences.
In sagacity, too, and the faculty of imitation, some birds are not inferior to the most
teachable of quadrupeds. Every one in our large towns has seen the performing canaries,"
trained to draw little waggons, to fire tiny cannon, to fall down as if shot, and to go through
many similar feats and tricks; and an instance is 'recorded in which a stork played at hide-and-
seek with a party of children, taking his share in the amusement with an air of grave enjoyment
very ludicrous to behold. The affection of many species for their young is also very remarkable.
Some will lure the hunter or the dogs away from their nest by affecting to be wounded, and
thus tempting their enemy to pursue them by the hope of capture; until, when they consider
they have placed a sufficient distance between the pursuer and their nest, they rise suddenly in
the air and speed away home, leaving the baffled foe gazing after them in astonishment. One
of our great writers, Joseph Addison, especially notices the care and attention bestowed by the
hen upon her domestic concerns. With what caution," he says, does the hen provide herself
a nest in places unfrequented and free from noise and disturbance! When she has laid her
eggs in such a manner that she can cover them, what care does she take in turning them
frequently, that all parts may partake of the vital warmth! When she leaves them, to provide
for her necessary sustenance, how punctually does she return before they have time to cool and
become incapable of producing an animal! In the summer you see her giving herself greater
freedom, ard quitting her care for above two hours together; but in winter, when the rigour of
the season would chill the principles of life and destroy the young ones, she grows more
assiduous in her attendance, and stays away but half the time. When the birth approaches,
with how much nicety and attention does she help the chick to break the prison -besides
covering it from the injuries of the weather, providing it with proper nourishment, and teaching
it to help itself! "
In this book there will not be space to describe with any completeness the vast variety of
birds found in different parts of the earth. -But we shall have something to say concerning the
principal families and their habits and customs, so that our young readers may have a general
idea of this beautiful part of the living creation, and may afterwards pursue the subject more
at length in more advanced books on the subject. But whether the account be shortened or
extended, one thing cannot fail to strike the observer; namely, the infinite goodness and
beneficence of the great Creator, by whom all things were made, and by whose power and mercy
every living being is sustained.
SHE hears, and feeds their feathered families;
HE feeds his sweet musicians, nor neglects
Th' invoking ravens in the greenwood wide;
And though their throats' hoarse rattling hurt the ear,
They mean it all for music-thanks and praise
They mean, and leave ingratitude to man.
Oh, HE is good, HE is immensely good! -
Who all things formed, and formed them all for man;
Who marked the climates, varied every zone,
Dispensing all His blessings for the best,
In order and in beauty."
30




































































I




- '












































































)'











CONTENTS.



DOMESTIC ANIMALS, BIRDS, &c.


INTRODUCTION .
THE OX TRIBE
EUROPEAN CATTLE
THE MUSK Ox
THE ZEBU
THE BUFFALO
THE.GOAT AND THE SHEEP
THE IBEX .
THE COMMON O DOMESTIC GOAT .
THE SHEEP
THE MOUFFLON
THE DOMESTIC SHEEP
THE HORSE TRIBE
THE Ass.
THE ZEBRA .
THE QUAGGA
THE DEER TRIBE
THE REINDEER
THE STAG .
THE ROE
THE FALLOW DEER
THE SPRING BUCK, OR SPRINGBOK
THE HARE AND RABBIT TRIBE
THE VARYING HARE
THE RABBIT .
THE BEAVER
THE MUSK BEAVER
THE FOX .
THE JACKAL .
THE HEDGEHOG .
SHREWS. .


PAGE
S 1
3
S 3
* 8

5
5

6
7
S 8
S8
10
10
11
S14
16
18
18
S 18
19
20
20
21
21
S22
23
S 23
S 24
S25
26
S 27
S 27
. 28


BIRDS.


INTRODUCTORY
ON SOME RAPACIOUS BIRDS.
THE OSPREY, OR SEA EAGLE .
THE VULTURES
THE ERNE
THE FALCON AND HAWK KIND
THE GOSHAWK .
THE GER-FALCON .
THE BUZZARD ,
THE POULTRY KIND
THE COCK AND HEN
THE PHEASANT
THE TURKEY .
THE PEACOCK.
ON SOME SINGING BIRDS
THE GOLDFINCH
THE BULLFINCH
THE CHAFFINCH
THE CITRIL FINCH
THE SISKIN, OR ABEEDEVINE
THE LINNET
THE CANARY .
THE LARK .
THRUSHES OR THROSTLES
THE NIGHTINGALE
THE BUNTING
THE BUTCHER BIRD
THE PARROT TRIBE
CONCLUSION-THE ARCTIC REGIONS
WALRUSES AND SEALS


S 29
S. 31
S32

* ;<82
32
* 33
S. 33
33
S 34
34
S 35
S 35
35
36
37
38
S 38
. 39
S 39
S 39
S89
S40
S 41
41

41
. 41
... 42
*. ... 43
. 7 .., 44





PAGE 1

I; 4', 4-. 1% 4 r





PAGE 1

THE OX TRIBE. The ox knoweth his owner, and the ass his master's crib; but Israel doth not know, my people doth not consider."-Isaiah i. 3. There are a great many varieties of the ox tribe, or, as it is called in Latin, the genus Bos: and, indeed, we naturally expect that animals found in each of the great divisions of the globe, and over nearly the whole face of each division, should vary according to the climate and position of the country in which each kind is found. Thus the hide of the ox that grazes in the plains of India, beneath a fierce tropical sun, would be quite insufficient to protect the musk ox or the bison of America from the cold'to which they are exposed; and thus we find these two last varieties provided, one with a thick shaggy mane, and the other with coarse, rough, long hair over the whole body. But there are some general points in which all the family resemble each other, and with these we will begin. In the whole ox tribe, we notice that the body is large and round, and the legs short, though strong: unlike the horse, they seem formed more for strength than speed. The neck is thick and muscular, and in it lies the chief strength of the animal. Thus the ox is more fit to draw the plough or cart than to carry burdens on his back, and thus also he defends himself against his enemies by pushing with his horns, or by endeavouring to toss his adversary in the air, an operation in which the great strength of his neck comes into play. The whole ox tribe also "part the hoof and chew the cud." Their hoofs are cloven or split, so that the animal has as it were two hoofs on each foot, unlike the horse, whose hoof is all in one round piece. Their stomachs are divided into compartments, from the first of which they can bring back the food into the mouth, to masticate or chew it completely. This is called ruminating; and few can have failed to observe the oxen and cows in a field, on a fine summer's day, lying placidly down,, and chewing and chewing, without appearing to be eating anything. Excepting in a single variety, the horns may also be stated as a general feature in the ox tribe; and, unlike the deer, they are found in the female as well as in the male. These horns differ greatly in shape and size in the different kinds of cattle, and generally it may be seen that the more thoroughly tamed the cattle are, the smaller do the horns become; as if, given to the cattle to defend themselves in their wild state, these weapons are withdrawn from them by nature when the creatures came under the protection of man. Though subject to fits of rage almost amounting to madness, the ox tribe cannot be regarded as a ferocious set of animals. In their wild state they seldom attack travellers unless first molested; but when once aroused their fury is very destructive. They are highly gregarious; that is, they are accustomed to keep together in large numbers, careering over the vast prairies and savannahs of North America, through the llanos and pampas of the South, as well as through the forests of Southern Africa. Every variety can be tamed. EUROPEAN CATTLE. (Plate i.) It is impossible to say at what time the ox was first domesticated in Europe or elsewhere. In the Bible, cattle keeping is mentioned in the period before the Flood; and in Britain, when Julius Caesar landed with his legions, more than nineteen hundred years ago, he found the Britons already possessing flocks and herds. The importance of oxen as an article of property has induced farmers to take great pains to improve the various breeds; and thus we have many sorts, some noted for the quantity of flesh on their carcases, others for the fine quality of the 3



PAGE 1

BRITISH HORSES-MARKS OF A PERFECT HORSE-THE ASS. of the water they drink. Many horses, even when suffering from great thirst, will not dri from a horse-trough or from a pail that has not been kept scrupulously clean. The Arab horse has long been famous for beauty, swiftness, and endurance; and some the Spanish horses, especially those called barbs, because they originally came from the Barba States in Northern Africa, are excellent. It is impossible to tell when or how the horse fir came into Britain. When Caesar arrived from Gaul with his legions, nineteen hundred yea ago, he found the wild inhabitants of our island possessed of a large and swift breed of horse which they used with great effect in war, yoking them to chariots, whereof the axles wer furnished with sharp scythes to mow down the enemy among whose ranks they were driven That the Saxons had good horses, and knew how to value them, is proved by a law made b Athelstan, who forbade the exportation of horses, excepting they were sent out as presents. The Normans greatly improved the breed of the English horses, chiefly by importing some of the best that Spain could produce; these were, no doubt, of Arabian origin. Horse racing soon began to be practised as a national sport: we find it mentioned as early as the reign of Henry II. Under the Stuart rule the sport was' patronised by royalty; and it was on his return from Newmarket that the Rye House conspirators hoped to seize the person of Charles II., in the celebrated Rye House Plot. The English race horses are of Arabian origin. (See Plate vi.) An old writer named Camerarius gives in a few words a capital idea of what a good horse ought to be; and Goldsmith and several other writers have copied his instructions. They are these: "A perfect horse should have the breast broad, the hips round, and the mane long; the countenance fierce, and somewhat resembling that of a lion; the nose similar in form to that of the sheep; the head, legs, and skin of a deer; the throat and neck of a wolf; and the ear and tail of a fox." The ancients were in the practice of using their horses unshod, consequently the hardness and firmness of the hoof was considered a very important point; and hence also the Arab saying, that If a cavalcade be passing through a stony country, the grey horses will break the stones with their feet." The wild Huns, who, early in the Christian era, poured into Europe from Central Asia, under their King Attila, spreading terror and destruction wherever they went, were a nation who depended almost entirely upon the horse for subsistence. Their food was horse-flesh, their drink the mare's milk. The horses' hides furnished them with materials alike for their clothing and for the tents in which they dwelt. Continually in the saddle, they had acquired immense dexterity in riding, and always fought on horseback. The terror inspired by these plunderers gave rise to the proverb, Where the horse of Atilla had set its hoof, no grass could grow." THE ASS (Plate vII.) "Who hath sent out the wild ass free ? or who hath loosed the bands of the wild ass ?"-Job xxxix. 5. Almost equally important with the horse, and in some countries even more necessary than that noble animal for the well-being of the people, the patient, useful ass has yet been in almost every clime and at every period the ill-used drudge of man. Because. his pace is somewhat sluggish, and in outward appearance he lacks the graceful beauty of the horse, he has been set down as heavy and stupid; and the very patience with which he endures ill-treatment seems only to render him more despised. The expression a stupid ass" has-become proverbial, and it seems quite an understood thing that this poor creature should be fed on the coarsest food and driven with the heaviest stick. Yet all this is very foolish as well as wrong. Naturally, the ass is anything but a stupid animal. He has been known to display great sagacity, and to attach himself strongly to the master who uses im kindly; but ill-treatment and neglect have upon him the effect they would produce on a human being, 16


GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BIRDS.


running of a shrew mouse over the part affected; for it is supposed that a shrew mouse is of
so baneful and deleterious a nature, that, wherever it creeps over a beast, be it horse, cow, or
sheep, the suffering animal is afflicted with cruel anguish, and threatened with the loss of the
use of the limb. Against this accident, to which they were continually liable, our prudent
forefathers always kept a shrew ash at hand, which, when once medicated, would retain its virtue
for ever. A shrew ash was made thus: Into the body of the tree a deep hole was bored with
an auger, and a poor devoted shrew mouse was thrust in alive, and plugged in, no doubt, with
several quaint incantations, long since forgotten." And then the superstitious villagers thought
that an animal injured by a shrew mouse could be healed by the touch of a branch of the shrew
ash. The remedy was as imaginary as the evil it was intended to cure.



BIRDS.
"You winged choristers, that dwell in woods, and there maintain a quire,
Whose music doth all art excel, nought can we emulate, but admire;
You, living galleys of the air, that through the strongest tempest slide,
And, by your wanton flight, who dare the fury of the winds divide.
Praise HIM, and in this harmony and love
Let your soft quire contend with that above."
"WTE have now to speak of a great class of animals very different from those we last
considered. After the "beasts of the field," that were made subject to man, we come
to the fowls of the air," or, as we generally call them, the great race of birds; and here again
we are struck with the infinite variety of species, and admire the wisdom with which the great
Creator has provided each with all that is necessary for its subsistence, from the greatest to the
least. Behold the fowls of the air," the Saviour said to the men to whom He wished to teach
reliance on the Divine care, for they sow not, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns; yet
your heavenly Father feedeth them. Are ye not much better than they?" And thus it is,
from the lordly eagle in his nest on the lofty crag to which no man can climb, from the great
albatross flying over the sea a thousand miles from land, down to the little wren in its tiny
nest in the coppice, or the pretty redbreast hopping across the snowy field in winter, the
Lord provides for all. Two sparrows are sold for a farthing; but not one can fall without
His knowledge.
The classes of birds are as various as those of the quadrupeds, and correspond with the
latter in many particulars of disposition and habit. Thus the birds of prey, that live upon
flesh, are fierce and cruel, like the cat tribe, living alone, and generally avoiding the neighbour-
hood of man and of beasts and birds. The gallinaceous birds, or those of the poultry tribe,
on the other hand, are sociable and friendly, living together in harmony, and readily submitting
to the control and protection of man. Some birds, like the amphibious animals, seem equally
at home on land and in the water. Some, like the rabbit among quadrupeds, are remarkable
for their rapid increase in number; others astonish us by their swiftness; while many, though
strong on the wing, never care to leave the grove in which they have once established them-
selves. Others, guided by an unerring instinct, wing their way, at the approach of winter, to
the warmer regions of the south, returning to their northern haunts when the cold season is
past, and heralding by their coming the approach of genial spring and sunshine.
Some general features, however, all birds have in common. If we notice the shape of
their bodies, we shall see that they are admirably adapted for quick movement. From the
shape of the swimming birds the first ideas of the form of a ship have doubtless been taken,
while the swallow careering through the air has no small resemblance to an arrow or bolt shot
from a bow. The bones of all birds are hollow, and very light compared with the size of the
bird, and the muscles of the wings are very large and strong; the senses, too, are highly
29







PECULIARITIES OF THE DOMESTIC SHEEP.


stripe along the back, and white underneath. It is about as large as a full-sized goat, and has
great horns curving backward from its forehead, and resembling those of the ibex. Like all its
race, it is gregarious, consorting in flocks, living upon the high mountains, and flying with great
agility on the appearance of the hunter. So shy, indeed, is the moufflon, that it can very
rarely be taken alive. The young are covered with a short fleece; but the older moufflon has
a hairy instead of a woolly coat, though beneath the outward hair a woolly down is found, as
in the Cashmere goat. In the summer, when the moufflon finds plenty of Alpine plants in
the sheltered valleys of the higher regions of rocks, it grows very fat, and its flesh is said to
be equal to venison in flavour; but in the winter the scarcity of food among the mountains
forces it to descend into the lower valleys in search of grass and herbs; and this is the period
chosen by the hunter to surprise the wary animal, the agility of whose movements is quite
in contrast with the feeble gait we generally associate with the sheep.

THE DOMESTIC SHEEP.
In almost every country there are one or more breeds of sheep; some covered with
coarse hair scantily mixed with wool, others presenting a soft thick fleece, exceedingly valuable
for its weight and texture; many kinds have a dark brown crisp wool, very different from the
snowy fleeces of the English breeds; and some are entirely black. The sheep of Guinea, in
Africa, has long legs, a gaunt, thin body, and a covering of coarse shaggy hair. In Syria
and Egypt there is a remarkable race called the fat-tailed sheep. This sheep has a long tail
reaching to the ground; and, indeed, in some cases the shepherds provide little waggons, in
which the tails of the sheep are supported, to prevent them from dragging on the ground and
sustaining injury as the animal walks on. For these tails are considered a great delicacy,
consisting as they do almost entirely of a soft marrow-like fat. In their ordinary state they
weigh about fifteen pounds; but there is an art by which the sheep may be fattened, so that
the tail increases to fifty, sixty, and, it is said, in some instances even to eighty pounds in weight.
This fat is often used -instead of butter. Iceland possesses a remarkable breed of sheep,
strongly built, and with a rough coat consisting more of hair than of wool, and only fit for
coarse fabrics, such as druggets and horse cloths. But this Iceland breed yields a great
quantity of good milk, an invaluable article in a cold climate. A single ewe will give, it is
said, five or six quarts a day. A strange peculiarity is in the number of horns on the head of
the ram, which sometimes has no fewer than eight growing from his forehead. The general
number is four. In the Feroe Islands a wild race of sheep clamber about the rocks, quite free
from the control of the inhabitants, who hunt them like deer, and seldom succeed in taking
them alive.
The breeds of English sheep are very numerous, and great attention is paid to their im-
provement. Among the principal are the Southdowns, in Sussex and Kent, the Dorset, the
Suffolk, the Leicestershire, and the Cheviot breed of Northumberland. It would take too long
to enumerate here the different qualities of size, fleece, and fatness for which these various
breeds are remarkable. Among the ancients a strange and barbarous method of obtaining the
wool of the sheep prevailed. Instead of being shorn, the unhappy animals had the wool torn
off their bodies, somewhat in the method in which poultry are plucked; and they were previ-
ously kept for three days without food, that they might be exhausted, and thus the wool would
come off more easily. In the Orkney Islands this barbarous practice was continued until lately.
In the bleak winter, among the northern hills, the flocks of sheep are exposed to great
hardships in the drifting snow-storms and furious gales. They have an instinct by which they.
know of the approach'of a tempest, and manifest their uneasiness in various ways, well under-
stood by the watchful shepherd, who forthwith takes every precaution'for the safety of his
n I* 1










THE POULTRY KIND.

The careful hen
Calls all her chirping family around,
Fed and defended by the fearless cock,
Whose breast with ardour glows, as on he walks,
Graceful, and crows defiance. * The turkey nigh,
Loud threatening, reddens; while the peacock spreads
His many-coloured glory to the sun,
And swims in radiant majesty along."
Birds of the poultry kind were intended by nature to live among men in a domestic state,
and they occupy among birds the place filled by the horse and ox tribe among quadrupeds.
Unlike the rapacious birds, they are sociable and cheerful, delighting in each other's society,
and shunning solitude as much as the eagle or falcon would seek it. Their wings are generally
short and their bodies plump, so that they are neither able nor willing to fly far from their
abodes, or to seek inaccessible solitudes among the rocks. As they feed on grain and seeds,
their legs and claws are strong; not formed, however, like those of the rapacious birds, foi
seizing and holding prey, but for scratching up the ground in search of food. The gizzard
with which they are provided enables them to digest the hard seeds they swallow; and the
numerous chicks they produce render them very valuable to the farmer's wife, whose poultry-
yard forms an important part of the domestic economy of the farm.


THE COCK AND HEN

Are too well known to need any long description. They have been introduced into almost
every country in the world, and, like the horse and ox, appear to thrive almost wherever man
can live. There are many different species, varying m size and plumage, but all present the
same general features.
Just as among the falcons some kinds are more courageous and noble than others, so we
find that some breeds of cocks will fight courageously with adversaries twice their own size,
while others will succumb after q short resistance. A little game cock, for instance, will boldly
attack a farmyard or, as he is sometimes called, a dunghill cock twice his own size, and put
him to flight by mere rage and fury. The farmyard cock, however, until he has been beaten
by an enemy, rules in a despotic and determined manner among the poultry, and, expects
deference and obedience from every feathered fellow creature he meets.
The cock and hen are said to have come from Persia, but they were known all over the
Old World in very remote times. Caesar found them in Britain when he landed half a century
before our Saviour's birth, and even to Iceland they had made their way in early times.
In White's Natural History of Selborne" occur the following interesting remarks
respecting the habits of poultry:-" Many creatures are endowed with a ready discernment to
see what will turn to their own advantage and emolument, and often discover more sagacity
than could be expected. Thus, my neighbour's poultry watch for waggons loaded with wheat,
and running after them, pick up a number of grains which are shaken from the sheaves by the
agitation of the carriages. Thus, when my brother used to take down his gun to shoot
sparrows, his cats would run out before him, to be ready to catch up the birds as they fell. The
earnest and early propensity of the gallince to roost on high is very observable, and discovers a
strong dread impressed on their spirits respecting vermin that may annoy them on the ground
during the hours of darkness. Hence poultry, if left to themselves and not housed, will perch
the winter through on yew trees and fir trees; and turkeys and guinea-fowls, heavy as they are,
34





PAGE 1

I


INTRODUCTION OF CANARIES INTO ENGLAND-PERFORMING CANARIES.


THE CANARY (Plate xix., b),

So called from its supposed original abode, the Canary Islands. The first canaries seen in
Europe are said to have been brought wild from the island of Elba; and the manner of their
introduction into that island is related in the following account:
A ship, bound for Leghorn, having on board a number of these beautiful finches, then
first made an article of merchandize, was wrecked near the island of Elba, on which island the
released birds found the climate so congenial to their nature that they settled and bred there,
and would probably have become completely naturalized, had not their beauty and powers of
song attracted the attention of bird-catchers, who hunted them so assiduously, that, after a
while, not a single specimen was left on the island. It was natural that the birds thus caught
should be sent first into Italy; and from that country, accordingly, we have the earliest accounts
of tame canaries. There and in Germany they are still bred in greater numbers than in any
other part of the European continent. It is from the Rhineland, and about Thuringia espe-
cially, that we now derive our principal supply of imported birds; but, some of the choicest
canaries are those bred in this country.'
In its wild state the canary is of a greyish brown colour, tinged with green. The bright
yellow birds, that are esteemed the most'valuable, are only bred in captivity, and are not nearly
so strong as the green varieties. The canary has always held his place as prime favourite as a
cage bird. His song is exquisite in its melody and variety; but the little fellow is sp well
known among us that a lengthened description of him would be quite unnecessary. The
docility of this pretty bird has been frequently seen. He seems, equally with the monkey,
capable of exhibiting feats of skill and dexterity; and several exhibitions of the kind have
been shown, in which the pretty little canary was the chief actor. The most remarkable of
these exhibitions was that of a Belgian lady, Mdlle. Vandermeersch, shown in London some
years ago, which astonished every spectator. The little conjurors seemed to perform their parts
with a display of quite human reason. The following account appeared in a London news-
paper at the time:
"The birds are in a cage with several compartments. In front of the cage is arranged a
platform filled with cards, each exactly similar to the other on the side presented to the birds,
but bearing various inscriptions on their prefaces, such as the letters of the alphabet, the
numerals singly and in combination, the days of the week, month, or year, the months, the
seasons, &c. On the bidding of any one of the company the birds tell the day of the week,
month, or year; the seasons; the time by any one's watch; or they will spell any word indi-
cated, provided it does not contain any one letter twice over. All these things are done with
the most perfect precision, and there is no apparent collusion. Mdlle. Vandermeersch does
not touch the birds or the cards, and the little animals hop out of their cages and pick out the
cards with their beaks, seemingly with a very serious effort at recollection and calculation."

We have here described the finches somewhat at length, because they are the birds, among
our English songsters, with which our young friends who live in cities have most to do; but it
would take a much larger book than this to speak of the many varieties of birds we have here
in England; from the blackbird, or, as our great poet Shakspeare calls him, the ousel-cock,
to the wren.
"The ousel-cock so black of hue, with orange-tawney bill,
The throstle with his note so true, the wren with little quill."

There are the varieties of




F-,


ar .z


'4


O l ?


it
4,: '1*
1111 I
1. 111:


a,.
tc ~


- I-


E 4h
iL? ^ ^- '2^-,'-';S^ ^

*L" ., ^^^


V Z


,I


*n
* t


f5

r


ii~I


';h i^-:-.*^


--:-

= ~i~3~


I '


"40


~-~_=--


i ~7


rv -i
c
~;~=~


"-~"





IMPORTANCE OF THE BUFFALO TO THE AMERICAN INDIANS.

is valuable from its extreme thickness and toughness; indeed, a common leaden bullet would
make little impression on the skin of a Cape buffalo; thus the hunting of. the buffalo is a
matter of considerable danger.
Finally, it may be observed of the ox tribe, that the usefulness of these animals is seen
alike in their wild and in their domestic state. To the Hottentots of Southern Africa, the
flesh, the hide, the horns, and sinews of the buffalo, and other varieties of oxen, represent at
once food, raiment, implements of war, and objects of domestic use; and the importance of
the buffalo of America is strongly portrayed in the words of an intelligent traveller, who,
speaking from personal experience, says: "I cannot convey any just impression of the total
dependence of the remote western tribes on the buffalo for their very existence, without giving
a sketch of the various purposes for which that animal is, by their ingenuity, rendered
available. First, its flesh is their principal, sometimes their only, food; eaten fresh on the
prairies during their hunt, and dried in their winter villages. Secondly, the skin is put to
various uses. It forms the material of their lodges, of their bales for packing the meat, of
their beds by night, and their clothing by day. The coarser parts they make into saddles or
cut into laryettes or halters; and more than all this, it is now their chief source of trade with
the whites, and thus is the source whence they must derive blankets, knives, beads, and every
other produce of civilization. Thirdly, they use the sinews as strings to their bows, and the
smaller fibres instead of twine or thread. The brains serve to soften and dress the skin; while
the hoof at the end of the shank-bone is made to serve the purp ose of a mallet. Fourthly, the
bones are not less useful; some of them being serviceable as scrapers or close chisels, others
are pointed and used with the finer fibres as needles and thread, and the ribs, strengthened by
some of the stronger fibres, are made to furnish the bow with which other buffaloes are to be
destroyed. This last is the triumph of Indian ingenuity. The first bow that I saw constructed
in this manner caused me so much surprise and admiration, that I offered nearly the value of a
horse for it, but was refused."
Such is the ox genus; a tribe of animals whose adaptability to the various necessities of
man forms a striking proof of the bounty of that Providence which gave man dominion over
the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth."





THE GOAT AND THE SHEEP.

"Be thou diligent to know the state of thy flocks, and look well
to thy herds.
"For riches are not for ever: and doth the crown endure to every
generation ?
The hay appeareth, and the tender grass sheweth itself, and herbs
of the mountains are gathered.
The lambs are for thy clothing, and the goats are the price of the
field.
And thou shalt have goats' milk enough for thy food, for the food
of thy household, and for the maintenance for thy maidens."
-Proverbs xxvii. 23-27.

There are many reasons why the goat and the sheep should be considered together, for they
have many features in common. Both are social in disposition, dwelling together in flocks, and
easily adapting themselves to a life of dependence on man. The hair of the goat, like the
wool of the sheep, was in early times considered a valuable article of clothing; and the flesh
and milk of the goat, as of the sheep, have been used for ages as articles of food. That the
goat was considered at least equally important and serviceable with the sheep, among the
ancients, appears in the following lines from a pastoral poem of the Roman poet Virgil:
7





PAGE 1

t" .. :,,, !V .N, "~l '~' VI~~~~~~~~~~I O II I C ~6~,I! IRK R -' ', 7f'-, ~~~~~~~~~~~WM7.MM, i i~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ '; / .. i '~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~_ a~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~___ ~ ', . . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~:,~~~~~~~;' !, ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~u ,.~, ~~~~~'~ ~ ~ ~ -~ ;'--~'... i ~~~~~~~~"~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~c:~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~' ': .... ~~~~~1~~~~~~~~~~~~' n~~~~~~ Q, ", ~ "--~ ~~~~B~~~~~~k~~ iii'T ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-;,*~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~"' '~ I ~ % 't l;'i%~~~~~~~~~~~~~~' P, ~~~~~~~~~~~~~...=: F f;' : ".~~~~~~~~~ __ '-,=_-_sii~~ '~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ .,-.-_



PAGE 1

INSTINCT OF THE REINDEER-THE STAG-THE ROE. At starting, and when the snow is good, the deer set off at a gallop, relaxing at length into a long and steady trot. Each deer follows the foremost sledge so closely, that the head of the deer is generally in contact with the shoulders of the driver before it; and should the leader of the whole train make a bend in his course, each one in succession follows close in the track, instead of attempting to save ground by cutting off the angle made by-the first sledge. No power can remove the deer from the track its predecessors have taken; and it is this remarkable instinct that, no doubt, greatly contributes to the safety of his master; for, should any of the party by accident be detached from the rest, the keen scent of the deer enables it to pursue the track, and at last to overtake the train of carriages that has passed on before." A wealthy Laplander will frequently be the owner of a herd of two thousand reindeer, whose milk, flesh, skins, and horns are all put to good use. Thus in the arctic regions the reindeer is to the inhabitant what the camel is to the traveller in the burning tropical desert the one creature indispensable to his comfort, and even to his very existence. THE STAG Is a creature of noble appearance, with his branching horns, bright eyes, and graceful form; and appears worthy of the distinction of being placed at the head of the game animals. In his wild state he is found throughout Northern and Central Europe, in .the same portions of Asia, and in the northern regions of America, especially in Canada. But for many centuries he has been kept in a half domesticated state in deer parks and forests, so that in England and Scotland, and even in France and Germany, he can hardly be looked upon as a wild animal. 'In disposition the stag is gentle and harmless, though when pursued and driven to desperation, he will turn upon his pursuers and fight for his life. It was from a stag thus driven to bay that the Norman Prince Richard, the favourite son of William the Conqueror, met his death in the New Forest. The age of the stag can be told by the size of his horns or antlers, and by the number of branches on them. A stag with ten branches was considered a very valuable animal, and called a stag of ten." The swiftness of the stag, combined with the excellence of his flesh, has always made him a favourite animal of the chase. IHe sheds his horns every year, and hides himself in the thickest parts of the wood until his new antlers are grown. The female of the stag is called the hind, and the young one the fawn. The attachment of the hind to her fawn is very remarkable. She hides it in the deepest covert from every foe, and tends it with admirable affection. In Scotland many wild red deer are still found. The horns are made into knife-handles and other articles, the skin is excellent leather, and the flesh, called venison, is esteemed a great delicacy. THE ROE Is a very small species of deer, still found wild in the highlands of Scotland, though it has become extinct in England, except in a half tame state in parks. The buck or male is somewhat larger than the female or doe, and has short horns on his.head, while the female has none (see Plate x., b and c). The roe deer do not associate in herds, but in couples, their fawn remaining with them till about nine months old. Their food in summer is grass, in winter broom, heath, and the tender branches of the fir and birch, and the catkins of hazel and willow. The roe is naturally a native of the mountains, and it is said that the flesh of those which have been brought up in low and flat districts is always of an inferior quality. In summer the hair is much shorter, thinner, and smoother than in winter, when nature seems specially to provide the little roe with a coat suited to the season. The colour of the hair is a mixture of deep red and grey. It is said that the roebuck can never be completely tamed. 20



PAGE 1

.1



PAGE 1

3a t -elil L:: F il E 49-:= ^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-: i



PAGE 1

CONCLUSION. beneath the equator finds in his own land the food he needs. For these arctic seas sWarm with creatures peculiar to them. Animals of the seal kind, in a great variety of forms,' are eagerly chased by the fisherman; and their flesh, their oil, and their sinews provide himn with the necessaries of life. WALRUSES AND SEALS Are, therefore, to the Esquimaux as important as the horse, ox, and sheep are to the inhabitants of the temperate regions of the earth, or the patient camel to the Arab of the desert; and, therefore, a book which treats of the animals most useful to man, may fitly conclude with a few words upon the tribe of seals, or Phoca. The Phoca tribe is found in all the great seas, but the larger kinds are confined to the cold regions near the poles. In the tropics we can meet only with little sea dogs; we must go to the regions of perpetual ice and snow if we wish to see the huge sea elephant and sea lion. The form of these creatures and the shape and position of their paws show that they are intended by nature for a life in the waters. Their movements on land are very clumsy and ungainly. They seem rather to jerk themselves along than to run or walk, but they can swim with great ease and swiftness. To the Greenland Esquimaux the seal is a great treasure. He eats the flesh and the fat; he makes his tent, his boat, and clothes of the skin. The sinews furnish him with thread for sewing, a string for his bow, and twine for his fishing-nets; and with the larger bones he strengthens his frail boat, while the smaller ones do duty as nails and needles. Consequently, the hunting of the Phoca is the one art in which the Esquimaux excels. He pursues his prey with untiring patience and industry, watching in his boat for hours till a seal appears, and then piercing it with a spear or harpoon. To chase the creature over blocks of ice or on the frozen shore is a harder task, for, clumsily as the seal shuffles along, it gets quickly over the ground; so here the Esquimaux employs stratagem, and sometimes dresses himself in seal-skin, so that the Phocce may take him for one of their own kind, and allow him to approach and throw his unerring harpoon. The hardy sailors who chase the Greenland whale also have frequent combats with the larger kinds of seal. In Plates xxII., xxiv., the following specimens of the seal tribe are shown: a is the COMMON SEAL; b, the GREAT SEAL, differing from the former chiefly in size; c, the SEA LION; d, the ARCTIc WALrus, or MOisE; and e, the ELEPHANT SEAL. J. Ogden and Co., Printers, 172, St. John Street, E.C






































pi r


Kjjll


.4'


t. "~r.


--5.


1fs~


it;

;~
F... n
..rl
r ,,,


'4C,


. ~I:j
~...
r~~' hy:


-~-
----
.+~
-~-~-
-s-
1.~
;ir


'_" "-' "-J, -


Pif 9


I

I


1~
,-. ~






F_ .~: '
I

--







BEAUTY OF THE ZEBRIA-THE QUAGGA-THE DEER TRIBE.


THE ZEBRA. (Plate vii., c.)

This very beautiful animal is a native of South Africa, where it roams in vast herds at the
back of Cape Colony, and especially beyond the Gariep or Orange River. In size it is between
the horse and the ads, and has indeed many qualities of both. The Dutch settlers at the Cape
have called it the Wilde Paard," or wild horse, and Dr. Burchell the traveller very aptly gave
the Latin name Equus montanus, the mountain steed. The zebra has a short erect mane,
slender legs, a very hard round hoof, a tail like that of the ass, but furnished at the end with
a long tuft of, hair, a shapely head, and bright intelligent eyes. Its distinguishing feature
consists in the long black bands with which it is striped, and which are considered so elegant,
that Buffon the naturalist calls it the first of quadrupeds for beauty. There are two species,
the common zebra and Burchell's zebra. They are distinguished from each other principally by
some trifling difference in the striping. The voice of _he zebra is a harsh, barking neigh.
United in bands, they resist the aggression of any foe, and fight vigorously with teeth and
hoofs for their freedom when attacked.
At one time it was believed that the zebra could not be tamed, but this is a fallacy. All
herbivorous animals are capable of being domesticated, though some are more difficult to tame
than others. A few years ago a couple of zebras might be seen in the Zoological Gardens in
London, very carefully dragging a cart about the grounds, perfectly tractable and resigned to
.their fate; and the old menagerie at Exeter Change contained a zebra so tame that he was
employed in the pacific business of carrying children on his back "for the sum of one penny."
The Hottentots consider the flesh of the zebra a delicacy, and eat it eagerly; but the colonists
reject it, probably considering it too closely allied to horse-flesh.


THE QUAGGA (Plate vii., d)

Closely resembles the zebra, from which it is distinguished chiefly by its skin being only marked
over the head, neck, and shoulders, with the bars that cover the whole body of the zebra. Its
habits are like those of the zebra, associating in large herds, and flying with great swiftness.
from its pursuers. It is, however, much more tractable than the zebra, and is often used as a
beast of burden. Its name quagga is said to be derived from its barking voice.




THE DEER TRIBE.
"The bounding fawn that darts across the glade,
When none pursues, through mere delight of heart,
And spirits buoyant with excess of glee."

The deer species includes animals of very various kinds, and inhabiting very different parts
of our globe. Indeed, so great is the difference between the gigantic elk (see Wild Animals")
and the graceful antelope or gazelle, that at first sight few people would think they belonged to
the same family; but all the deer tribe have some features in common, though the antelopes
are confined to the hot climate of Africa, while the other varieties are generally found in the
colder countries of Europe and America, great heat being as destructive to them as cold would
be to the antelope. We have now to speak chiefly of those kinds of deer that have become
18




PARROTS-THEIR BRILLIANT PLUMAGE-DISPOSITION.


tion of the assailant as well as the defender. For this reason, the most redoubtable birds of
prey respect them; while the kite, the buzzard, and the crow seem rather to fear than'seek
the engagement."
The French call the butcher bird ecorcheur, or strangler; while one species is called
by the Germans Neuntadter, or nine-killer, in allusion to the number of creatures that fall
victims to the fierce little robber. In fact, the butcher bird is a sort of feathered Jack the
Giant Killer," and is feared accordingly.
There are three species of this terrible little fellow. The GREAT ASH-COLOURED BUTCHER
BIRD (Plate xxi., a) is seldom seen in England, but is numerous enough in France. Like
most birds of its kind, it hides in the woods during the summer months, when food is plentiful;
but in the winter it sallies forth into the plains, and hunger increases its natural fierceness. All
butcher birds are remarkable for their attachment to their young. The female feeds the little
ones first with insects, afterwards with morsels of flesh; and the male bird flies to and fro most
indefatigably to provide meat for the hungry little' brood. Through all Central and Southern
Europe the butcher bird is found. The RED-BACKED BUTCHER BIRD (Plate xxi., b) differs from
the former in its more diminutive size, and in having a beautiful reddish tint piercing through
the general grey tone of its plumage. This is a bird of passage, not unfrequently found in
England during the summer, but flying away, when the autumn mists arise, to the warmer
regions of Africa. This species is the "nine-killer" of the Germans. The SMALL BUTOHER
BIRD (Plate xxi., c) has a yellowish tone. It is hardly bigger than a titmouse, and is decidedly
the smallest of the birds of prey, though as fierce as the larger varieties. There are several
foreign kinds, distinguished from each other by a slight difference in colour.
And now we must conclude our sketch of the feathered portion of the creation with a
description of a kind of bird often kept in captivity, and one which seems to adapt itself
so well to the society of man, that it even imitates his speech: we have a few words to say
respecting

THE PARROT TRIBE
(Plate xxn.)
These birds are found in wonderful variety in all the tropical parts of the Old and New
World; and as they cannot fly far, and are utterly unable to cross the seas, each region has its
own peculiar species. There are almost a hundred varieties; but the three general classes are the
COCKATOOS, known by the crest on their heads; the MACAws, known by their large size, bright
colours, and their fleshy, featherless cheeks; and the PARRoTS, smaller in size than the macaws
and cockatoos, and with feathers covering the whole of the head to the base of the beak.
The ancient Greeks were acquainted with one or two species of the parrot tribe; and
among the Romans, under the luxurious emperors, these birds became such favourites that
enormous prices were given for them, and they were provided with regular tutors, whose office
it was to develop their speaking powers to the utmost, and who were frequently obliged to wield
that tree of knowledge, the birch, to make their feathered scholars attend to the instruction
given. When Columbus discovered the New World, his companions were greatly astonished
and delighted at the gorgeous aspect of the parrots, then seen for the first time; and in the
triumphal procession in which the spoils of the West India Islands were carried to the foot
of the throne of Ferdinand of Arragon and Isabella of Castile, the parrot bore a distinguished
part and attracted general admiration. In disposition, birds of the parrot tribe are generally
much more spiteful than courageous. They will fight if compelled to defend themselves, but
evidently consider that the better part of valour is discretion, and seem to act upon the old saw,
that He who fights and runs away will live to fight another day." Therefore, when attacked,
they look for an opportunity of escape, and only confront their foes when retreat is cut off.
42






























il- - -s- '- ;

4~

.--



Is


** .


1 1



,' i,


S-- ~ ~. '


- r


.r


,, 1'


IA


,3rr~


(~


;pip


~i~a ~f


L--- ;' -I-:-


C'.


,
--


k~:


I"?


-


~----

r




it i 'a


7


-;I


-JUL

qp -


i d


:--Lb


.S
'"







PAGE 1

r I t i I I I J. I !l : Ii ., l








DOMESTIC ANIMALS, BIRDS, &c.

----

INTRODUCTION.
"And God blessed Noah and his sons, and said unto them, Be
fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth.
And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every
beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, upon all that
moveth upon the earth, and upon all the fishes of the sea; into your
hand are they delivered."- Genesis ix. 1-2.
T HE Bible tells us that the animal creation was delivered into the hands of man for his use
and benefit, and that man was to be acknowledged as its master by every living creature;
such was the decree of the Almighty Creator.
But as there are various kinds of animals, so the brute creation in various ways and degrees
are adapted to minister to human wants or employ human energy. Against the lion and the
tiger, and nearly all the flesh-eating animals, man has to exert his strength and prowess, as
against his enemy. They are foes whose attacks are to be guarded against, and whose approach
must be watched and noted, that they may be destroyed, or at least driven back into the wilder-
ness, which is their natural abode. Others, like the fishes, are pursued through the water with
nets and lines, and many cunning engines and stratagems, that they may furnish meat for man,
or that the various substances of which their bodies are composed may minister to his necessities.
Thus the great whale ships sail out every year to catch the mighty whale of the Northern seas,
that the oil he furnishes may light up the darkness of many a chamber in the long wintry
nights; and thus the horny substance that supplies the place of teeth in the huge jaws of the
giant of the deep is devoted to many purposes in various manufactures; for whalebone plays an
important part in the dress of the present day. And there is a third and very large division,
that not only furnishes man with articles of food and raiment, but is made to live with him,
and to form, as it were, part of the community on the farm and on the plain; and this class,
losing its wildness and ferocity, and becoming tame and obedient, comprising creatures like the
horse, ox, and sheep, who know their masters, and willingly submit to their sway, is known
under the general name of THE DOMESTIC ANIMALS.
The general features that distinguish the domestic trom the wild animals are these: They
live in herds or flocks, being of a sociable disposition, and not inclined to fight savagely and
devour one another, like many wild animals, as, for instance, the fierce cat tribe. They have a
singular power of bearing changes of climate and different degrees of heat and cold, and are
consequently found spread over a great space on the surface of the earth. Thus, for instance, in
the cold island of Iceland, in the far north, where no tree will'grow, and the ground is covered
during the greater part of the year with ice and snow, a breed of strong useful horses is found;
and in the dry Indian plains, where the sun's rays beat down so fiercely that Europeans can hardly
bear the fierceness of the heat, the horse bears his rider swiftly and bravely across the field, and
the wild native warrior learns to fight on horseback. In the highlands of Scotland, amid the
barren wilds and bleak hills, the hardy oxen manage to pick up a living; and in the burning
forests of Central and Southern America, where the ground cracks and breaks with the heat,
and during half the year the ground is parched to a desert for want of moisture, numbers of
horned cattle run wild, and live in all the happiness of liberty.







THE GOLDFINCH A FAVOURITE IN ENGLAND-THE BULLFINCH.

to itself, so that a schoolboy would at once pronounce on the sort of nest before him. This
is the case among fields, and woods, and wilds; but in villages round London, where mosses
and gossamer, and cotton from vegetables, are hardly to be found, the nest of the chaffinch
has not that elegant, finished appearance, nor is it so beautifully studded with lichens, as in a
more rural district; and the wren is obliged to construct its house with straws and dry grasses,
which do not give it that rotundity and compactness so remarkable in the edifices of that
little architect. Again, the regular nest of the house martin is hemispheric; but where a rafter,
or a joist, or a cornice may happen to stand in the way, the nest is so contrived as to conform
to the obstruction, and becomes flat or compressed."
Among English singing birds

THE GOLDFINCH (see Plate xx., a)

Has always been a great favourite. Bechstein, the German naturalist, truly says, This is the
most delightful of all chamber birds, remarkable alike for the beauty of its plumage and the
excellence of its song, its proved docility and cleverness." The pretty touch of yellow on its
wings, and the bright scarlet on its head, its graceful form and rapid movements, all contribute
to its beauty; while its cheerful, sociable nature, the readiness with which it knows the hand
that feeds it, and the comparative ease with which it can be reared, all combine to make it
popular. The goldfinch is found in most countries of Europe. In Central Germany it breeds
in great numbers. Goldfinches fly in little flocks of twenty to thirty in the spring and autumn,
and at those periods of the year great numbers of them are captured in nets by the bird-
catchers, especially in Sussex and Kent, on the Downs. Their nests are perfect models of bird
architecture. They generally build in high situations, in the forks of the smaller branches of
tall trees. The nest is very firmly fixed in its place, that it may resist the winds which shake
the slender branches to and fro. Grahame, the Scottish naturalist and poet, speaking of the
position of the nest, says:
"Sometimes, suspended at the limber end
Of plane tree spray, among the broad-leaved shoots,
The tiny hammock swings to every gale;
Sometimes in closest thickets 't is concealed;
Sometimes in hedge luxuriant, where the brier,
The bramble, and the crooked plum tree branch
Warp through the thorn, surmounted by the flowers
Of climbing vetch and honeysuckle wild,
All undefaced by Art's deforming hand.
But mark the pretty bird himself! how light
And quick his every motion, every note!
How beautiful his plumes! his red-tinged head;
.His breast of brown: and see him stretch his wing-
A fairy fan of golden spokes it seems.
Oft on the thistle's tuft he nibbling sits,
Light as the down; then 'mid a flight of downs
He wings his way, piping his shrillest call."

To lure the little songsters into their toils, the bird-catchers use bunches of thistles, in
autumn; for the goldfinch, at that season, feeds principally on thistle seeds. In spring a tame
goldfinch in a cage serves as a decoy to lure his wild brethren into captivity.
Among the other finches, a very numerous and melodious family, a few must be mentioned.
First-

THE BULLFINCH,
A burly fat little fellow, with a round black head, a short beak, and a delicate red breast. He
is very fond of picking the buds off the fruit-trees, so that the gardener accounts him an enemy.
38




SHEEP WASHING AND SHEARING-THE HORSE.


of wool over head and ears. The washing once over, and the sheep having stayed a few days
just to let the wool regain its old oily elasticity, so that, as the clippers say, they may shear all
the softer, then the great summer sheep-shearing began.in earnest. The huge, high, heavy,
ponderous barn doors were taken off their hinges, and placed on strong, low, tressels, or heavy
logs of wood, to elevate the doors to a convenient height, and on these ample tables the sun-
browned shearers clipped the bleating sheep. Oh! it was famous fun to see them clipping
away one against the other, and striving who could get done first-to roll up the fleeces and
carry them into the barn, until we raised up quite a stack of wool-then to have a swing sus-
pended from the great high rafters of the barn, and go such a height-ah that was swinging
indeed!-then to roll all amongst the wool-to fetch the sheep up to the shearers-to turn them
loose again after they were clipped, and watch how the lambs were puzzled to pick out their
dams from the flock which had been shorn: you would have liked to have been there, amid all
that bleating of sheep, and barking of dogs, and such racing as we had after the sheep that ran
away: it was prime sport, I can tell you. But the best of all was the sheep-shearing feast-
such bowls of furmenty stuffed full of currants as you never before saw in your life, and chines
of beef seasoned with all kinds of nice herbs, which are only known to old-fashioned country
people; great horns of ale, and glorious plum puddings, almost as much as a boy could lift.
Then, it was so pleasant to remember that these sheep-shearing feasts are hundreds and hundreds
of years old, and that we read all about them in the Holy Bible, and what Nabal's wife,
who lived in Carmel, sent to King David when she kept up her sheep-shearing feast. There
are many good old customs still existing in England, as we shall show before we ,have written
all we intend to write about the four seasons of the year."




THE HORSE TRIBE.

Hast thou given the horse strength ? hast thou clothed his neck with thunder ?
Canst thou make him afraid as a grasshopper ? the glory of his nostrils ip terrible.
He paweth in the valley, and rejoiceth in his strength: he goeth on to meet the armed men.
He mocketh at fear, and is not affrighted; neither turneth he back from the sword.
The quiver rattleth against him, the glittering spear and the shield.
He swalloweth the ground with fierceness and rage: neither believeth he that it is the sound *
of the trumpet.
He saith among the trumpets, Ha, ha; and he smelleth the battle afar off, the thunder of
the captains, and the shouting."-Job xxxix. 19-25.
The above description of the horse in the Book of Job fully exhibits the chief qualities of
the noblest of quadrupeds-his fearlessness, strength, and fleetness. From the very earliest
period of known history the horse appears as the chosen servant of man, alike in peace and in
war. The chariots and horses of Egypt are mentioned repeatedly in Holy Writ; and' in
Miriam's song of victory it is recorded among the triumphs of the Lord, The horse and his
rider hath He thrown into the sea." The ox, in ancient times, was the labourer-the patient
and willing drudge in the work of the farm, the bearer of burdens, and the assistant in the
important processes for obtaining bread; for he it was who dragged the rough plough over the
fields, and who afterwards, when the corn had been reaped, trod out" the grains from the
straw on the floor of the barn. But to the horse more stirring duties were assigned. He was
made to participate in the dangers and glories of war. It was for him to bear his rider through
the thickest of the fight, to charge headlong upon the foe, or to bear his master swiftly away
from the pursuit of the enemy. The war chariots of the Egyptians and other Eastern nations
were of vast importance to them, and gave a great increase to the strength of their armies; and
thus, when Pharaoh pursued the Israelites, after their escape from the bondage of Egypt, we
are told that he made ready his chariot, and took his people with him; and he took six




IMITATIVE FACULTY OF FINCHES-THEIR VALUE-THE LINNET.
He is a sociable little fellow among other birds, and has a good ear for music. Accordingly,
bird fanciers sometimes teach him to whistle a tune; and of course this musical accomplish-
ment greatly increases his value. His term of life extends from six to eight years.
Then there is

THE CHAFFINCH,

A merry little fellow, whose piping cry, Spink! spink!" often breaks the silence of the autumn
fields and hedgerows. This bird, like the bullfinch, can be taught to pipe a melody, and the
patient German trainers take great pains to develop this talent. Such great value, indeed, is
attached to this artificial song, that Bechstein mentions an instance in which a cow had been
given in exchange for an accomplished chaffinch; hence the German proverb, "A chaffinch
is worth a cow." Bechstein also says, It is remarkable that the song of these birds varies
according to the district they inhabit, so that different songs are sung in the forest from what
are sung in the Hartz; and by this the task of amateurs is regulated." Those birds which can
execute the "double trill" are most highly valued. In England we have not yet become so
critical, and a chaffinch is cheap enough to be within the means of purchase of most schoolboys.

THE CITRIL FINCH (Plate xx., e)
Is most like the canary in form and plumage. It is found chiefly in the south of Europe, and
many-are said to:e sold for green or grey canaries, the difference being so small that un-
practised purchasers may readily mistake a good citril for a real canary.

THE SISKIN, OR ABERDEVINE (Plate xx., d),

Is another of those birds whose song can be much improved by education. In an aviary it
will frequently imitate the notes of the canary and of other exquisite songsters. Indeed,
nearly all the finches are in one respect like children, namely, in being much influenced, so far
as their manners and accomplishments are concerned, by the company among whom they are
thrown by circumstances. They will adopt a good clear note as readily as they will catch up
a bad and defective one. In Germany the aberdevine breeds freely, building its nest on a
lofty pine tree, and attaching the tiny structure firmly by means of moss and insect cocoons to
the extremity of a waving bough. It lays five or six grey eggs, sprinkled with purple dots.
Its colour is generally a mixture of ,greenish yellow and black. The aberdevine is a migratory
bird, and only stays in England from April to September. It feeds chiefly on seeds of trees
and wild flowers, preferring those of the fir and beech, the thistle and dandelion.
The most general favourite among the English birds of this class, after the goldfinch, is,
however,

THE LINNET (Plate xx., c.)

This well-known little songster is found all over England and Scotland, and stays with us
all the year. It has but a plain brown coat, though some of the males are prettily tinged with
red on the head; but its voice is so sweet and mellow, that it is rightly preferred to many
a gorgeously-attired but harsh-voiced competitor. .tWhen the' male linnet has become thus
marked, whichoccurs in the third year of its little life, it is known as a redpole. Linnets are
often found in flocks, in the autumn, about rick-yards, which they visit in quest of the seeds
on which they live, The female does not exhibit the red tinge displayed by the male.
But the king of all the finch tribe is undoubtedly
9








CONCLUSION.


beneath the equator finds in his own land the food he needs. For these arctic seas- swtarm
with creatures peculiar to them. Animals of the seal kind, in a great variety of forms, are
eagerly chased by the fisherman; and their flesh, their oil, and their sinews provide him with
the necessaries of life.

WALRUSES AND SEALS .

Are, therefore, to the Esquimaux as important as the horse, ox, and sheep are to the inhabitants
of the temperate regions of the earth, or the patient camel to the Arab of the desert; and,
therefore, a book which treats of the animals most useful to man, may fitly conclude with a few
words upon the tribe of seals, or Phoce.
The Phoca tribe is found in all the great seas, but the larger kinds are confined to the
cold regions near the poles. In the tropics we can meet only with little sea dogs; we must go
to the regions of perpetual ice and snow if we wish to see the huge sea elephant and sea lion.
The form of these creatures and the shape and position of their paws show that they are
intended by nature for a life in the waters. Their movements on land are very clumsy and
ungainly. They seem rather to jerk themselves along than to run or walk, but they can swim
with great ease and swiftness. To the Greenland Esquimaux the seal is a great treasure. He
eats the flesh and the fat; he makes his tent, his boat, and clothes of the skin. The sinews
furnish him with thread for sewing, a string for his bow, and twine for his fishing-nets; and
with the larger bones he strengthens his frail boat, while the smaller ones do duty as nails and
needles. Consequently, the hunting of the Phoca is the one art in which the Esquimaux excels.
He pursues his prey with untiring patience and industry, watching in his boat for hours till a
seal appears, and then piercing it with a spear or harpoon. To chase the creature over blocks
of ice or on the frozen shore is a harder task, for, clumsily as the seal shuffles along, it gets
quickly over the ground; so here the Esquimaux employs stratagem, and sometimes dresses him-
self in seal-skin, so that the Phoce may take him for one of their own kind, and allow him to
approach and throw his unerring harpoon. The hardy sailors who chase the Greenland whale
also have frequent combats with the larger kinds of seal.
In Plates xxIi., xxIv., the following specimens of the seal tribe are shown: a is the
COMMON SEAL; b, the GREAT SEAL, differing from the former chiefly in size; c, the SEA LION;
d, the ARacTc WALRus, or MORsE; and e, the ELEPHANT SEAL.


J. Ogden and Co., Printers, 172, St. John Street, E.C





PAGE 1

COWARDLY DISPOSITION OF THE TURKEY-THE PEACOCK. it is certainly very unlikely that he could ever have found his way across the ocean, except in a ship. The turkey is valued for his flesh. His delight is to wander with his wives about the precincts of the farmyard in search of insects and larvae, especially the eggs of ants, of which he is immoderately fond. This peculiarity is cleverly noticed in Gay's fable of The Turkey, and the Ants," where the old hen turkey is represented as having forsaken the barn with her infant train in quest of a change of diet. She comes unexpectedly upon an ant-hill, and while devouring as many of the eggs as she can swallow, she bursts out into a rapturous speech, inciting her brood to eat freely, and assuring them that "an ant is most delightful meat." And'then she goes on to allude feelingly to the vile gluttony of man, Who eats turkeys, "until," she says, Christmas shortens all our days." The quarrelsome and yet cowardly disposition of the turkey cocks is aptly described by Goldsmith in the following paragraph:-" Though so furious among themselves, they are weak and cowardly against other animals far less powerful than themselves. The cock often makes the turkey keep at a distance, and they seldom venture to attack him but with united force, when they rather oppress him by their weight than annoy him by their arms. There is no animal, how contemptible soever, that will venture boldly to face the turkey cock, that he will not fly from. On the contrary, with the insolence of a bully, he pursues anything that seems to fear him, particularly lap-dogs and children, against both which he seems to have a peculiar aversion. On such occasions, after he has made them scamper, he returns to his female train, displays his plumage around, struts about the yard, and gobbles out a note of self-approbation." THE PEACOCK (Plate xviI., a) Is a native of India. This most brilliant of birds was known in very ancient times; for in the Bible it is mentioned as being imported into Judmea by the fleet of King Solomon. The peacock shows the adaptability to various climates characteristic of the species to which it belongs, and consequently we find it domiciled in every country, as far north as Sweden and Norway. Among the Romans it was considered the height of splendour to crown a banquet with a peacock, and among our English ancestors the peacock formed the gorgeous centre-dish at many a great feast. The bird seemed, however, to be introduced more for ornament than use, for its flesh was not very highly esteemed; and thus it was regarded rather as a distinguishing decoration of the board than a dish whose flavour might delight the guests; therefore the peacock appeared at the table with his magnificent train spread out for the admiration of the beholders, and not, like the humbler poultry, to be plucked and deprived of his feathers, and to be judged merely by the merits of his flesh. The food of the peacock, like that of the turkey, consists chiefly of barley and other kinds of grain; but, when kept as an ornament in the park or pleasure-ground of a rich man, it will frequently reduce the gardener to despair by effecting an entry into the garden, where it commits great havoc among the choicest flower-beds in its search after insects. The cry of the peacock is extremely harsh and disagreeable: it seems as though nature had granted extra beauty of plumage to the bird as a compensation for its utter want of melody. The following remarks from White's "Natural History of Selborne," upon the voices of various birds of the poultry kind, may interest our young readers. The reverend author says: "No inhabitants of a yard seem possessed of such a variety of expression, and so copious a language, as common poultry. Take a chicken of four or five days old, and hold it up to a window where there are flies, and it will immediately seize its prey with little twitterings of complancency; but if you tender it a wasp or a bee, at once its note becomes harsh, and expressive of disapprobation and a sense of danger. When a pullet is ready to lay, she intimates the event by a joyous and easy soft note. Of all the occurrences of their life, that of 36







dY/5


t J
!z

9,-


* c.mppg


*4


.,........





IMPORTANCE OF THE FALCON IN THE MIDDLE AGES.


Great attention was paid to the breed of falcons, and the office of falconer was one of
importance and profit. Our ancestors distinguished not only the various species, but the
smaller varieties of the tribe, calling each by its separate name, as the kestrel, the ger-falcon,
the lanner, the merlin, &c. They are distinguished from the meaner kinds of the same family,
the kites and buzzards, by the length of the wing-feathers, which enables them to fly with great
swiftness, while the short-winged buzzards and kites are heavy and slow in comparison. The
falcons are also more courageous and more teachable than the meaner birds of prey.

THE GOSHAWK (Plate xv., e)

Is a handsome bird, though he does not belong to the generous or noble tribe of falcons,
his wings being too short to entitle him to that rank. But he is a courageous handsome bird,
very fierce and predatory, and a great pest to the farmyard.. He may be trained like the nobler
falcons, though he will never equal these in speed and docility. Buffon, the naturalist, once
kept a couple of these hawks together for some months, but they never showed any affection
for each other, and at last the male killed the female in an access of fury.


THE GER-FALCON (Plate xvi., a)
Is nearly as large as the osprey, and is said to have been originally brought from Iceland and
the northern parts of Europe. He is a beautiful bird, the greatest of the falcon tribe, and
likewise the most generous and docile. Accordingly, in the days when lords and ladies rode
out to enjoy the sport of falconry, while other and meaner kinds of falcons were trained to
pursue the smaller birds, the ger was started at the lordly heron, whose sharp beak would soon
have proved fatal to an assailant of less courage and address. The stork and the crane, large
and formidable birds, likewise fall victims to the ger-falcon. Strange to say, the female of the
falcon tribe was always preferred, for purposes of the chase, to the male; for, contrary to the
general rule, according to which the male bird is superior in size and brilliancy of plumage to the
female, among the falcons the female is always the larger and handsomer bird; and thus the mhle
was called by the, falconers a tiercelet, which signifies that it is a third smaller than the female.

THE BUZZARD (Plate xvi.,) )

Is a dull heavy bird of its kind, common enough in the English forests, where it frequent
takes possession of an old crow's nest, which it lines with wool, and then it lays its eggs, and
brings up its young in the ill-earned domicile. Goldsmith, in his "Natural History," gives the
following account of the buzzard: "He is a sluggish, inactive bird, and often remains perched
whole days together upon the same bough. He is rather an assassin than a pursuer; and lives
more upon frogs, mice, and insects, which he can easily seize, than upon birds which he is
obliged to follow. He lives in summer by robbing the nests of other birds and sucking their
eggs, and more resembles the owl kind in his countenance than any other rapacious 'bird of
day. His figure implies the stupidity of his disposition; and so little is he capable of instruc-
tion from man, that it is common to a proverb to call one who cannot be taught, or continues
obstinately ignorant, a'buzzard. The honey-buzzard, the moor-buzzard, and the hen harrier
are all of this stupid tribe, and differ chiefly in their size, growing less in the order I have named
them. The goshawk and sparrow-hawk are what Mr. Willoughby calls short-winged birds,
and consequently unfit for training, however injurious they may be to the pigeon-house or the
sportsman. They have been indeed taught to fly at game; but little is to be obtained from
their efforts, being difficult of instruction and capricious in their obedience."





PAGE 1

PECULIARITY OF FALLOW DEER-MIGRATIONS OF TIE SPRINGBOK. THE FALLOW DEER Is between the roe and the stag in size. The horns are not divided into branches, but spread out broad and flat (see Plate x., a). In colour the fallow deer vary, some being dark brown with lighter spots, others reddish, others of a pale fawn tint. The doe is without horns, and the buck, like the stag, has a new pair every year, each pair larger than the last, till he has attained his full growth. The duration of the fallow deer's life is from fifteen to twenty years. His flesh is preferred to that of the stag, being more tender and better flavoured. In England large herds of fallow deer are kept in parks, where they range about at full liberty, allowing strangers to approach to a certain distance, and then bounding away with great quickness, and turning, after a time, to gaze at the intruder. Generally the deer in a park form into various herds, which feed separately, each herd chasing away any intruders from one or the others who may seek to associate with them. Not infrequently, combats occur between the various herds; but the fallow deer is not nearly so pugnacious as the stag, who, so far as his own kind are concerned, is exceedingly given to brawling and fighting. The fallow deer, like the stag, has two remarkable holes or slits under its eyes, through which it is said to draw in the air, as through the nostrils; and this is the more probable as, in drinking, it thrusts its nose deeply into the water, keeping the nostrils immersed for a long time. A breed of fallow deer, that has flourished greatly in England, was introduced by James I., who brought some specimens home from Norway, when he returned from the famous journey during which he married Anne of Denmark. THE SPRING BUCK or SPRINGBOK (Plate ix., d) Is one of many kinds of antelopes found in South Africa. These creatures exists in vast numbers in the great uninhabited plains at the back of Cape Colony, where they roam across the country in herds of many thousands. The springbok takes its name from the agility with which, when pursued or alarmed, it jumps from crag to crag, or flies in long leaps across the plain. And, indeed, the swiftness with which the springbok and the other Cape antelopes are endowed is necessary for their very existence, for flight is their sole defence against the many enemies who lie in wait for them. The colonists shoot them down in numbers: they are the favourite food of the lion and other beasts of prey lurking in the thicket; and even the hyena pursues them, and drags many a victim from their flocks. But, on the other hand, these antelopes exist in so many varieties, and in such vast numbers, that the attacks of all their enemies seem powerless to reduce their mass in any great degree. Sparmann, the African traveller, speaks of two thousand who all came down at once to drink at the same well. Vaillant, a French naturalist, while travelling in the wilds in the rear of Cape Colony, found himself encircled by a vast herd of antelopes, all travelling southward in search of fresh pastures and running streams; for one of the droughts which frequently occur in Southern Africa had burned up the grass'on which they fed, and dried up the rivers. He estimated their numbers, at no fewer than fifty thousand. These migrations of the antelopes are sometimes a source of great annoyance and loss to the colonists; for the little intruders break into fields and gardens, eating up "every -green thing" with the perseverance and rapacity of a swarm of locusts. These antelopes are graceful in form. Their colour is generally a light brown. The males have small horns, the females none. Their flesh is agreeable and wholesome, and of their skins many articles of clothing are made. Thus the colonists and natives are well recompensed for the occasional depredations of the antelopes in their search after food. 21



PAGE 1

IMPORTANCE OF THE FALCON IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Great attention was paid to the breed of falcons, and the office of falconer was one of importance and profit. Our ancestors distinguished not only the various species, but the smaller varieties of the tribe, calling each by its separate name, as the kestrel, the ger-falcon, the lanner, the merlin, &c. They are distinguished from the meaner kinds of the same family, the kites and buzzards, by the length of the wing-feathers, which enables them to fly with great swiftness, while the short-winged buzzards and kites are heavy and slow in comparison. The falcons are also more courageous and more teachable than the meaner birds of prey. THE GOSHAWK (Plate xv., e) Is a handsome bird, though he does not belong to the generous or "noble tribe of falcons, his wings being too short to entitle him to that rank. But he is a courageous handsome bird, very fierce and predatory, and a great pest to the farmyard.. He may be trained like the nobler falcons, though he will never equal these in speed and docility. Buffon, the naturalist, once kept a couple of these hawks together for some months, but they never showed any affection for each other, and at last the male killed the female in an access of fury. THE GER-FALCON (plate xvi., a) Is nearly as large as the osprey, and is said to have been originally brought from Iceland and the northern parts of Europe. He is a beautiful bird, the greatest of the falcon tribe, and likewise the most generous and docile. Accordingly, in the days when lords and ladies rode out to enjoy the sport of falconry, while other and meaner kinds of falcons were trained to pursue the smaller birds, the ger was started at the lordly heron, whose sharp beak would soon have proved fatal to an assailant of less courage and address. The stork and the crane, large and formidable birds, likewise fall victims to the ger-falcon. Strange to say, the female of the falcon tribe was always preferred, for purposes of the chase, to the male; for, contrary to the general rule, according to which the male bird is superior in size and brilliancy of plumage to the female, among the falcons the female is always the larger and handsomer bird; and thus the mule was called by the falconers a tiercelet, which signifies that it is a third smaller than the female. THE BUZZARD (Plate xv., b) Is a dull heavy bird of its kind, common enough in the English forests, where it frequently takes possession of an old crow's nest, which it lines with wool, and then it lays its eggs, and brings up its young in the ill-earned domicile. Goldsmith, in his "Natural History," gives the following account of the buzzard: He is a sluggish, inactive bird, and often remains perched whole days together upon the same bough. He is rather an assassin than a pursuer; and lives more upon frogs, mice, and insects, which he can easily seize, than upon birds which he is obliged to follow. He lives in summer by robbing the nests of other birds and sucking their eggs, and more resembles the owl kind in his countenance than any other rapacious 'bird of day. His figure implies the stupidity of his disposition'; and so little is he capable of instruction from man, that it is common to a proverb to call one who cannot be taught, or continues obstinately ignorant, a^buzzard. The honey-buzzard, the moor-buzzard, and the hen harrier are all of this stupid tribe, and differ chiefly in their size, growing less in the order I have named them. The goshawk and sparrow-hawk are what Mr. Willoughby calls short-winged birds, and consequently unfit for training, however injurious they may be to the pigeon-house or the sportsman. They have been indeed taught to fly at game; but little is to be obtained from their efforts, being difficult of instruction and capricious in their obedience." Ad! FV










/L


.A -^


N~i


u- -- -ic


- \


4.


S. -r


*J
I ? r?;

C-I;-
Ph?


.--i
A~

- ..


--


-t


- 0


I'


.V


~--- i


N
iig


.#.Py


r


--Ai


'I''
I"I


LZ

















University
of
Florida

RmB

The Baldwin Library












ye Li Uh es,

LH Nel a ¢

«LOK ho 0











re Ze)















DOMESTIC ANIMALS,

FAMILIAR BIRDS, &c.:

THEIR HABITS AND HISTORY.

BEING

PICTURES OF THE ANIMAL CREATION,

Bruton from Halure, und Accurately und Carefully Coloured,

FOR THE

AMUSEMENT AND INSTRUCTION OF THE YOUNG.



WITH

A DESCRIPTIVE TEXT, INTENDED TO SERVE AS A FIRST INTRODUCTION
TO NATURAL HISTORY.

BY

H. W. DULCKEN, Pzs.D.

LONDON:

WARD, LOCK, AND TYLER, WARWICK HOUSE, PATERNOSTER ROW,





PREFACE

In this book, as in the companion volume of “ Wild Animals,” the object of
the Publishers has been to provide for their young friends well-drawn and accurate
Pictures of the Animal Creation, and at the same time to furnish an Elementary
Treatise on Natural History for those whose interest in : books of the Ane is not
confined to ahs pictures only. The limits.of the volume prevented the projectors from
aiming at anything like completeness; nevertheless, in the neleon care has been
taken to represent those families of animals with whose nature and habits children

should be made acquainted before entering upon the study of ‘Natural History in its

more regular and systematic form.

The Pictures are by the same Artists who produced the Illustrations to “ Wild

Animals,” and have been executed with equal taste and care.
CONTENTS,

DOMESTIC ANIMALS, BIRDS, &c.



PAGE
INTRODUCTION . , Q ; 5 4 5 A 0 , 1
THE OX TRIBE ‘ a ; r : : 5 ee 3
European CatttrE . a , fs a . . O " 3
Tur Musk Ox . a , Q , A : . , 7 5
THE ZEBuU ; 5 : 0 6 ; ; 9g | . 5
Tar BuFFAaLo : . ive . : ' 5 O ; 6
THE GOAT AND THE SHEEP $ : y : 4 . 7
Tur Ipex . 6’ : : * . ; : 8
Tur CoMMON OR Domesrre Goat a ‘ : : . g 4 8
Tue SHerp Sain a : . . : ° . . 10
Tue Movrrion i . 9 , 6 A : ; , Alo
Tur Domestic SHEEP . 0 i : 3 f 4 : 11
THE HORSE TRIBE c if , ; ° 4 Aen ; . %14
Tur Ass . 4 , ‘9 , ‘ 4 : : . : 16
Tue ZeBRA . - . ; Re Da tg . . ' . eS
THE Quagea : . a . . . , . . , 18
THE DEER TRIBE i ; ‘ ‘ ; - .- % ae fos
THe REINDEER . . . . . . . . . : 19
Ture Stage ; : : i A A , 0 e : . 20
Tur Roe. : : : F Q . G ‘ . 20
Tur FatLow Darr 5 3 : : ‘ A i A . 21
Tur Sprine Buck, on Soonceee , 6 5 . . ° a 21
THE HARE AND RABBIT TRIBE A i ; Le , ‘ 4 22
. Tar Varnyine Hare 3 . iS a * ° 0 a 23
Tue Rassit . . : ‘ 5 . . ; G . 223
THE BEAVER : : fs 0 ; 6 6 . ; 24
THE MUSK BEAVER . . fs : . 6 e G : Ms oo
THE FOX 2 ; . 6 0 s : 3 A : 26
THE JACKAL . 3 : . . . , 5 ih ° 0 Pe
THE HEDGEHOG . 6 ° . i . . : 5 27
SHREWS . ‘| : : : . 0 0 . A eing 28
BIRDS.
INTRODUCTORY : e : ; 3 6 A . ORI ee.
ON SOME RAPACIOUS BIRDS . A ety 5 . ; : a od
THe Osprey, on Sea EacneE «tt " . . . . . 32
Tar Vutrures ! ‘ : : ' : ‘ i ; . 32
Tus Erne 5 ft Bi ‘ , . . g 82
THE FALCON AND Bae KIND ae ‘ 4 3 . 5 . . 82
Tur GosHawk . : : A 3 . . 6 : 33
Tue Ger-Fatcon ..-.: i oa : : 4 . s : . 88
Tur Buzzarp SW ics : : . : 5 r : 5 33
THE POULTRY KIND . B A : : . , ee . 84
Tur Cock anp Hen ; 3 ‘ ; : fs : ; i 84
THe PoEeasant 2 : ; ¢ ae . SCH nae . 85
Tur TurKEy : e 4 : i : : A , 35
THE Peacock . : ; : : 5 : z f . 386
ON SOME SINGING BIRDS : fi : 4 Rial se ‘ 37
Tar GoLpFINcH : 2 : é f 5 . : . . 388
Tae BULLFINCH . : ; . . : . . : 38
Tun CHAFFINCH ; : t x 3 4 a ; . (39
Tue Crrein Finca : ‘ - is : 5 4 . : 39
Tur Siskin, ok ABERDEVINE Nae : ‘ . . . . . 39
Tur Linner ; : y " A p . : $ i 39
Tur CANARY . 5 : ‘ ‘ 5 : : eh . 40
Tor Larx : i ‘ a - 2 : ’ 41
TuRusHES OR THROSTLES . : Pe itae 0 0 : G Panel
Tur NIGHTINGALE a 5 , O es . A Sie Z 41 '
Tue Bunrine " i , 4]
THE BUTCHER BIRD ~ s E 5 i ; ie 41
THE PARROT TRIBE : 4 : : : : wpe. 42
CONCLUSION—THE ARCTIC REGIONS A a s 4 . He org, 48

WALRUSES AND SEALS F : , : : . ee a
DOMESTIC ANIMALS, BIRDS, &e.

INTRODUCTION.

“ And God blessed Noah and his sons, and said unto them, Be |
fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth. —
“ And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every
beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, upon all that
moveth upon the earth, and upon all the fishes of thesea; into your
hand are they delivered.”— Genesis ix. 1—2.
HE Bible tells us that the animal creation was delivered into the hands of man for his use
and benefit, and that man was to be acknowledged as its master by every living creature ;
such was the decree of the Almighty Creator.

But as there are various kinds of animals, so the brute creation m various ways and uegrees
are adapted to minister to human wants or employ human energy. Against the lion and the
tiger, and nearly all the flesh-eating animals, man has to exert his strength and prowess, as
against his enemy. They are foes whose attacks are to be guarded against, and whose approach
must be watched and noted, that they may be destroyed, or at least driven back into the wilder-
ness, which is their natural abode. Others, like the fishes, are pursued through the water with
nets and lines, and many cunning engines and stratagems, that they may furnish meat for man,
or that the various substances of which their bodies are composed may minister to his necessities.
Thus the great whale ships sail out every year to catch the mighty whale of the Northern seas,
that the oil he furnishes may light up the darkness of many a chamber in the long wintry
nights; and thus the horny substance that supplies the place of teeth in the huge jaws of the
giant of the deep is devoted to many purposes in various manufactures; for whalebone plays an
important part in the dress of the present day. And there is a third and very large division,
that not only furnishes man with articles of food and raiment, but is made to live with him,
and to form, as it were, part of the community on the farm and on the plain; and this class,
losing its wildness and ferocity, and becoming tame and obedient, comprising creatures like the
horse, ox, and sheep, who know their masters, and willingly submit to their sway, is known
under the general name of Taz Domestic Animats.

The general features that distinguish the domestic trom the wild animals are these: They
live in herds or flocks, being of a sociable disposition, and not inclined to fight savagely and
devour one another, like many wild animals, as, for instance, the fierce cat tribe. They have a
singular power of: bearing changes of climate‘and different degrees of heat and cold, and are
consequently found spread over a great space on the surface of theearth. Thus, for instance, in
the cold island of Iceland, in the far north, where no tree will-grow, and the ground is covered
during the greater part of the year with ice and snow, a breed of strong useful horses is found ;
and in the dry Indian plains, where the sun’s rays beat down so fiercely that Europeans can hardly
bear the fierceness of the heat, the horse bears his rider swiftly and bravely across the field, and
_ the wild native warrior learns to fight on horseback. In the highlands of Scotland, amid the

barren wilds and bleak hills, the hardy oxen manage to pick up a living; and in the burning
forests of Central and Southern America, where the ground cracks and breaks with the heat,
and during half the year the ground is parched to a desert for want of moisture, numbers of
horned cattle run wild, and live in all the happiness of liberty.
1
INTRODUCTION.

When the dry season prevails, they are sometimes in great distress for water; and then iti
that the cunning mule manages to satisfy his thirst by a very clever stratagem. He searches in
the burning plain for a round fruit like a melon, called the melocactus. This plant is covered
with pricklés; but the mule does not-care for that, for he knows that it contains a watery pulp
or juice. So he stamps upon it and kicks at it till he has burst it open; and then, with his
large fleshy lips, he sucks out the juice with great delight, while the horses and oxen, less clever
than he, go about parched with thirst.

But when the rainy season sets in, all is changed. There is water now in plenty ;, for the

rain pours down in streams, and the whole sky is black with clouds. The entire plain is covered
with pools and lakes, and the cattle have to swim about from one island to another, as if they
were amphibious animals, or adapted to live in the water as well as upon land; and not a few
of them are seized and devoured by the ravenous crocodiles ad alligators that lurk in the
waters for their prey. And yet, through all these dangers and difficulties, the wild cattle ane
horses of the steppes struggle on, and increase rather than diminish in numbers.

Another remarkable feature in the domestic animals is found in the various uses to which |
they can be applied. Let us take, for instance, the ox. He can be used as a beast of draught
or burden, and will draw the plough with untiring strength, day after day. . When he has
finished his work on the farm, he falls into the hands of the slaughterman, and every part of
him, his horns, his hoofs, his hide, his flesh, and his bones, will be found valuable and useful.

In the sheep we see the same peculiarity. Wool, skin, flesh, bones, tendons, all and each
are made by man to serve some useful purpose, after the death of the patient animal to which
they belonged. Contrast the sheep with one of the feline animals—for example, the tiger.
When the beautiful striped hide has been stripped from the dead brute, the rest of his carcase
is absolutely useless, so far as ‘man is concerned, and can only be left as a prey to the jackals
and vultures, and other beasts that feed upon carrion. For the tiger feeds upon meat, and this
renders his flesh unfit for food.

Another and a very noticeable feature in the animals adapted to be the servants of man,
and to live with him in a domestic or tame condition, is the wonderful increase in numbers —
they exhibit. Many a man has begun in Australia, or elsewhere, with a few sheep, perhaps a
score or even fewer, and has found his flock increase year by year, until he has become a
wealthy man. ‘The flocks of sheep and the herds of cattle have, indeed, been so important,
that some nations have depended upon them for their very existence. Even now there exists in
Asia and elsewhere numerous nations whose only wealth consists in the domestic animals they
possess. How valuable domestic animals were considered among the Eastern nations of old,
can be easily seen from the words of the Bible, where the wealth of Abraham is enumerated
thus: “He had sheep and oxen, and he-asses, and men-servants, and maid-servants, and she-
asses, and camels.” We are also told that “ Lot, which went with Abraham, had flocks, and
herds, and tents, and that the land was not able to bear them” (that is to say, to provide pasture

_ for their flocks and cattle), “ that they might dwell together ; for their substance was great, so that
they could not dwell together. And there was a strife between the herdsmen of Abraham’s
cattle and the herdsmen of Lot’s cattle.” And again, in the description of the rismg fortunes
of Jacob, who tended the cattle of his uncle Laban, we are told, “ The man increased exceed-
ingly, and had much cattle, and maid-servants, and men-servants, and camels, and asses.”
_ Of these domestic animals we have now to speak, beginning with the ox tribe.
ys
Maye

iad



















































































































































RES























Se

Sees : peat hee : Y & : VSS Ae wee . : 3 ‘ \ SPRUE cat ae AT eer OLT
SSS SES LE FSA a ( === ae ERIS Na: ae es rire
SS S : wf 2S ; : i : = RS : ARG , Y ’ Bee Nea

Z ff
EM is
%

SSS
‘



















































THE OX TRIBE.

“The ox knoweth his owner, and the ass his master’s crib ; but Israel doth not know,
my people doth not consider.” —Isaiah i. 8.

«

There are a great many varieties of the ox tribe, or, as it is called in Latin, the genus Bos:
and, indeed, we naturally expect that animals found in each of the great divisions of the globe,
and over nearly the whole face of each division, should vary according to the climate and
position of the country in which each kind is found. Thus the hide of the ox that grazes in
the plains of India, beneath a fierce tropical sun, would be quite insufficient to protect the musk
ox or the bison of America from the cold to which they are exposed ; and thus we find these two
last varieties provided, one with a thick shaggy mane, and the other with coarse, rough, long hair
over the whole body. But there are some general points in which all the family resemble each
other, and with these we will begin.

In the whole ox tribe, we notice that the body is large and round, and the legs short, though _
strong: unlike the horse, they seem formed more for strength than speed. The neck is thick
and muscular, and in it lies the chief strength of the animal... Thus the ox is more fit to draw
the plough or cart than to carry burdens on his back, and thus also he defends himself against
his enemies by pushing with his horns, or by endeavouring to toss his adversary in the air, an
operation in which the great strength of his neck comes into play. The whole ox tribe also
‘part the hoof and chew the cud.” Their hoofs are cloven or split, so that the animal has as
it were two hoofs on each foot, unlike the horse, whose hoof is all in one round piece. Their
stomachs are divided into compartments, from the first of which they can bring back the food
into the mouth, to masticate or chew it completely. This is called ruminating; and few can
have failed to observe the oxen and cows in a field, on a'fine summer’s day, lying placidly down,
and chewing and chewing, without appearing to be eating anything. xcepting in a single
variety, the horns may also be stated as a general feature in the ox tribe ; and, unlike the deer,
they are found in the female as well as in the male. These horns differ greatly in shape and
size in the different kinds of cattle, and generally it may be seen that the more thoroughly
tamed the cattle are, the smaller do the horns become; as if, given to the cattle to defend
themselves in their wild state, these weapons are withdrawn from them by nature when the
creatures came under the protection of man.

Though subject to fits of rage almost amounting to madness, the ox tribe cannot be
regarded as a ferocious set of animals. In their wild state they seldom attack travellers
unless first molested; but when once aroused their fury is very destructive. They are highly
gregarious ; ; that is, they are accustomed to keep together in large numbers, careering over the
vast prairies and savannahs of North America, through the llanos and pampas of the South, as
well as through the forests of Southern Africa. very variety can be tamed.

EUROPEAN CATTLE. (Péte 1)

It is impossible to say at what time the ox was first domesticated in Europe or elsewhere.
In the Bible, cattle keeping is mentioned in the period before the Flood; and in Britain, when
Julius Cesar landed with his legions, more than nineteen hundred years ago, he found the
Britons already possessing flocks and herds. The importance of oxen as an article of property
has induced farmers to take great pains to improve the various breeds; and thus we have many

sorts, some noted for the quantity of flesh on their carcases, others for the fine quality of the
3
CATTLE SHOWS—LORD TANKERVILLE’S CATTLE—DISLIKE TO SCARLET.

hide, others again for the quantity and richness of the milk yielded by the cows.. The
different kinds are divided into two classes according to the length of the horn, and are called
“Tong Horns” and “Short Horns,” and thus each part of England and even of Scotland has
its particular breed. The establishment of Cattle Shows, at which horned cattle, sheep, and
pigs are exhibited, and prizes are awarded for the best specimens of each breed, has done much
to improve our domestic farm animals ;and British oxen are now considered superior to those
of any other part of the world. So great is the value attached to them, that bulls have been
exported to Australia and New Zealand, being carried at great cost to the opposite side of the
world, and a thousand pounds has in several instances been the price of a prize bull.

In old times the dense forests in Scotland and in northern England were full of wild
cattle, roaming about free and unfettered. These have now quite disappeared ; but till within a
few years some of these wild cattle remained at Chillingham Park, the seat of Lord Tankerville.
They are described as being invariably of a creamy white colour, with a black muzzle ; the
whole of the inside of the ears, and the tips externally, are red; the horns are white, with black
tips, very fine, and bent upwards. Some of the bulls have a thin upright mane, an inch and a
half or two inches long. The following account is given of them:

“At the first appearance of any person, they set off in full gallop, and at the distance of
about two hundred yards make a wheel round, and come boldly up again, tossing their heads in
a menacing manner. On a sudden they make a full stop, at the distance of forty or fifty yards,
looking wildly at the object of their surprise; but upon the’least motion being made, they all
again turn round, and fly off with equal speed, but not to the same distance, forming a shorter
circle; and again returning with a bolder and more threatening aspect than before, they
approach much nearer, probably within thirty yards, when they again make another stand, and
then fly off. This they do several times, shortening their distance, and advancing nearer and
nearer, until they come within such a short distance, that most people think it proper to leave
them, not choosing to provoke them further.” )

Each separate country of continental Europe, such as Jtaly, Spain, Norway, Sweden, and
the rest, has its separate kind of horned cattle. Denmark is celebrated for a very large kind ;
and cattle breeding forms one of the great sources of national wealth in Holland, whence
immense quantities of butter and cheese, and many thousand head of oxen, are annually
brought to England. A spotted breed without horns, which is mentioned by Tacitus, an old
Roman historian who lived eighteen centuries ago, has been introduced even in the cold island
of Iceland; and as that bleak country affords no grass for pasture, the oxen are frequently fed
upon dried fish. | st 7

A great dislike to scarlet is noticed among all kinds of horned cattle.. A young officer,
employed in surveying some land in Moldavia, where large herds of cattle roam half wild over
the plains, nearly lost his life through the circumstance that he carried a small table covered
with red morocco. At sight of this table the cattle began wheeling round the intruder in
an angry crowd; and he probably saved his life by his presence of mind in turning the red part
of the table towards his chest, so as to hide the hated colour from his horned assailant, whose
rage was soon calmed when the cause that excited it had been removed. In London, not long
ago, a bull who was proceeding peaceably to market was seized with such ungovernable fury at
the sight of a detachment of soldiers marching by in scarlet coats, that he charged them at
once, and they were obliged in self-defence to receive him upon their bayonets, which soon put
an end to him. The courage of the bull has frequently caused the poor beast to be made the
subject of very cruel diversion, such as the bull fights in Spain, where he is made to contend
against horsemen and combatants on foot, armed with spears and swords, whose attacks he repels
with great courage. In England too, until a recent period, the practice of bull baitimg was

pursued in many towns. The bull was fastened by a rope passed round ‘his horns, or by a ring
4 :
THE MUSK OX—THE ZEBRA.

through his nose, to a post, and then ferocious bull dogs were set upon him, while men more
ferocious than either bull or dog stood round and enjoyed the cruel pastime. Fortunately, such
exhibitions of brutality are no longer allowed among us.

Among foreign varieties of oxen we must notice a few of the most important. First
comes

THE MUSK OX. (Plate 11., ¢.)

This is a very small variety of the ox tribe. It is a native of the northern part of North
America, and is uncommonly hardy and strong, though it hardly exceeds a large calf in size.
Tts Latin name is Ovibos moschatus, or the musk sheep-ox. To defend it from the biting cold,
it has a thick coat of long hair, hanging down about its legs like a shaggy mat. In colour it is
a dark dull brown. The strong musky smell which hovers about this ox, and from which it has
obtained its name, renders its flesh very unpalatable; though the Esquimaux consider it a great
delicacy. Inhabiting, as it does, the craggy, rocky regions of the Hudson’s Bay territory and
the banks of the Coppermine river of America, the musk ox becomes quite an expert climber,
and very quick and active, scrambling up steep places with amazing agility, especially when
pursued or alarmed. The horns are very peculiar in shape, curving downwards on each side of
the head, and then suddenly turning upwards at the tip. The female is not quite so large
as the male musk ox. ;

In Captain Franklin’s “Journal of a Polar Voyage” we find the following particulars
relative to the musk ox: “The musk oxen, like the buffalo, herd together in bands, and
generally frequent barren grounds during the summer months, keeping near the rivers, but
returning to the woods in winter. They seem to be less watchful than other wild animals, and
when grazing are not difficult to approach, providing the hunters go against the wind. When
two or three men get so near a herd as to fire at them from different points, these animals,
instead of separating or running away, huddle closer together, and several are generally killed ;
but if the wound is not mortal they become enraged, and dart in the most furious manner at
the hunters, who must be very dexterous to evade them. They can defend themselves with
their powerful horns against wolves and bears, which, as the Indians say, they not unfrequently
kill. The musk oxen feed on the same substances with the reindeer, and the prints of the
feet of these two animals are so much alike, that it requires the eye of an experienced hunter
to distinguish them. The largest killed by us did not exceed in weight three hundred pounds.
The flesh has a musky, disagreeable flavour, particularly when the animal is lean, which, un-
fortunately for us, was the case with all that we killed.”

THE ZEBU.

This variety of the ox tribe is at home in India, though zebus are found also in
Africa and in the Asiatic islands. They are very various in size, some being as large as a
good sized English bull, while others are not bigger than an antelope. The distinguishing
features are: the hump on the back, which consists chiefly of fat, and is considered a great,
delicacy by the Indians; the large beautiful mild eye, shining with the softness of a gazelle’s;
and the long slender limbs, which enable some of these animals, when tamed to carry riders,
to run and leap with the agility of hunting horses: even a five-barred gate is no obstacle to
them. One kind of zebu, the Brahmin bull, is looked upon by the natives of India with
superstitious reverence. These bulls are dedicated to the god Seeva, and roam about at their
pleasure, after being marked with the figure of the god. They are allowed to do just as they

please; for to hurt or molest one of them would be considered the height of irreverence.
THE BUFFALO—THE AMERICAN BISON—THE CAPE BUFFALO.

Bishop Heber, who saw many of these zebus in India, tells us concerning them: “‘ They feed
where they choose, and devout persons take great delight in pampering them. They are
exceeding pests in the villages near Culcutta, breaking into gardens, thrusting their noses into
the stalls of the fruiterers’ and pastrycooks’ shops, and helping themselves witheut ceremony.
Like other petted animals, they are sometimes mischievous, and are said to resent with a push
of their horns any delay in gratifying their wishes.”

The zebu is still used in India and in many Oriental countries in the ancient practice of

‘treading out corn,” to separate the grain from the straw, instead of threshing it out with a
flail. Our readers will remember that this treading out of corn by oxen was practised among
the Jewish people in the time of Moses; and hence the injunction given to the Israelites,
“Thou shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth out the corn,” as though the great lawgiver
recognized the right of the patient labouring animal to pick .up a few grains as he performed
his task.

THE BUFFALO (Plate 111.),

Called in Latin Bos bubalus, is the most powerful of the whole ox tribe. His huge horns, deep.

chest, broad shoulders, and thick legs are all indicative of immense strength. The buffalo of
the Old World was originally a native of India, but has been introduced into Africa, Spain,
Italy, &c. In their wild state buffaloes live in small herds, and in hot weather delight greatly
in wallowing in the muddy water of pools and sluggish streams. Frequently they remain for
hours in the water, with only their horns and noses showing above the surface.

The buffalo has been long in use as a domestic animal, his immense strength rendering
him a valuable servant, in spite of his temper, which is fierce and intractable. He will draw
with apparent ease a weight that ordinary oxen or horses cannot move. The buffalo has a keen
sense of smell, and thus in his wild state he runs with his muzzle thrust forward, and his horns
laid back, finding his way less by the keenness of his eyes than of his nose.

The American Burrato or Bison forms another variety of the ox tribe, to which also
belongs the aurochs, a powerful animal still found in the forests of Poland and Lithuania.
Vast herds of wild bisons roam through the prairies of North America, to the west of the
United States. They are of great bulk and strength, and are distinguished by the vast size of
the head and shoulders, which look even larger than they are from being thickly covered with
along shaggy mane. Herds of at least twenty thousand bisons have been seen running across
the wide prairie, when the grass begins to fail, in search of new feeding grounds.
experienced bulls act as leaders, and the whole herd careers onward after them, swimming the
broadest rivers, and travelling with great swiftness. The wild bisons of the West are, however,
decreasing in number year by year. Many are killed by the backwoodsmen, many more die
beneath the arrows of the few Indian tribes still left in the pathless solitudes of the West, and
not a few fall victims to the most formidable and inveterate of their four-footed foes—the grizzly
bear. Like all other varieties of the ox tribe, the bison can be tamed; but he never quite
loses his fierce temper, or becomes completely tractable. In his wild state, when attacked, he
tries to escape from his foes by flight ; but, once wounded, often becomes mad with rage, and
his strength then makes him a very formidable foe to encounter.

The Burrato or THE Cape or Goop Hors is inferior to no other species in strength
and ferocity. He does not fear even the lion, and he not unfrequently comes off victor in a
fight with the king of beasts. Heavy and bulky as he is, he can run on level ground with
great swiftness; but as his clumsy frame and the great breadth of his horns prevent him from

climbing wooded crags, or scrambling up any steep place, the hunter or settler pursued by him

can generally find safety in clambering up a rock or climbing a tree. The hide of the buffalo

6

a Fae 5

a,
yy ee ear
FETAL

LE fe heer fee

ee
AES
ENTE
PTET ES
2A LLL EL
CC NeLT at eee
LEAS

Dae
URN ON
an

ee
SLs

LEER
IG

Heer
ity

lige
i, yy
Wy
ee
Pi
TM

Sr

JEANS Se .

aN
Ny

WRAY

FS FEED BS
SS
PEE LEO EE



iy
aN g

SSS
eee

| Ag

ey peor. Te ff
Was


IMPORTANCE OF THE BUFFALO TO THE AMERICAN INDIANS.

is valuable from its extreme thickness and toughness; indeed, a common leaden bullet would
make little impression on the skin of a Cape buffalo ; thus the hunting of the buffalo is a
matter of considerable danger.

Finally, it may be observed of the ox tribe, that the usefulness of these animals is seen
alike in their wild and in their domestic state. To the Hottentots of Southern Africa, the
flesh, the hide, the horns, and sinews of the buffalo, and other varieties of oxen, represent at
once food, raiment, implements of war, and objects of domestic use; and the importance of
the buffalo of America is strongly portrayed in the words of an intelligent traveller, who,
speaking from personal experience, says: “‘I cannot convey any just impression of the total
dependence of the remote western tribes on the buffalo for their very existence, without giving
a sketch of the various purposes for which that animal is, by their ingenuity, rendered
available. First, its flesh is their principal, sometimes their only, food; eaten fresh on the
prairies during their hunt, and dried in their winter villages. Secondly, the skin is put to
various uses. It forms the material of their lodges, of their bales for packing the meat, of
their beds by night, and their clothing by day. The coarser parts they make into saddles or
_ eut into laryettes or halters; and more than all this, it is now their chief source of trade with
the whites, and thus is the source whence they must derive blankets, knives, beads, and every
other produce of civilization. Thirdly, they use the sinews as strings to their bows, and the
smaller fibres instead of twine or thread. The brains serve to soften and dress the skin; while
the hoof at the end of the shank-bone is made to serve the purpose of a mallet. Fourthly, the
bones are not less useful; some of them being serviceable as scrapers or close chisels, others
are ¢oinied and used with the finer fibres as needles and thread, and the ribs, strengthened by
some of the stronger fibres, are made to furnish the bow with which other buffaloes are to be
destroyed. This last is the triumph of Indian ingenuity. The first bow that I saw constructed
in this manner caused me so much surprise and admiration, that I offered nearly the value of a
horse for it, but was refused.”

Such is the ox genus; a tribe of animals whose adaptability to the various necessities of
man forms a striking proof of the bounty of that Providence which gave man “ dominion over
the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth.”

THE GOAT AND THE SHEEP.

“ Be thou diligent to know the state of thy flocks, and look well
to thy herds.

“or riches are not for ever: and doth the crown endure to every
generation P

“The hay appeareth, and the tender grass sheweth itself, and herbs
of the mountains are gathered.
: oe lambs are for thy clothing, and the goats are the price of the

“ And thou shalt have goats’ milk enough for thy food, for the food
of thy household, and for the maintenance for thy maidens.”

—Proverbs xxvii. 23—27.

There are many reasons why the goat and the sheep should be considered together, for they
have many features in common. Both are social in disposition, dwelling together in flocks, and
easily adapting themselves to a life of dependence on man. The hair of the goat, like the
wool of the sheep, was in early times considered a valuable article of clothing; and the flesh
and milk of the goat, as of the sheep, have been used for ages as articles of food. That the
goat was considered at least equally important and serviceable with the sheep, among the

ancients, appears in the following lines from a pastoral poem of the Roman poet Virgil:
7
THE IBEX—THE DOMESTIC GOAT.

“ For hairy goats of equal profit are
With woolly sheep, and ask an equal care.
*T is true, the fleece, when drunk with Tyrian juice _
Is dearly sold; but not for equal use ;
For the prolific goat increases more,
And twice as largely yields her milky store.
Meantime the pastor shears their hoary beards,
And eases of their hair the loaded herds.
Their camelots warm in tents the soldiers hold,
And shield the shivering mariners from cold.”

The “Tyrian juice” here mentioned refers to the celebrated Tyrian purple, with which the
garments of wool were stained; but goats’ hair was very largely employed in the dresses worn
by many European nations, and especially in the coarse garments of soldiers and sailors.
Many of the Greek fables of sop make mention of the goat; and the goatherd was an
important personage among the ancients. Who does not remember the story of the foolish
goatherd, who, having taken shelter with his goats in a cave, and finding a number of wild
goats already in possession there, gave the food of his flock to the wild goats, in hope of
making a prize of them? the consequence of which proceeding was, that his own flock perished
with hunger, while the wild goats escaped at the first opportunity, and thus he returned home
without either wild goats or tame. The difference between the goats and the sheep may be
compared to that which exists in many countnes between the tribes inhabiting the mountain
regions and those dwelling in the plain. The mountaineers, like the goat, are hardy and bold,
insensible to danger, and fond of pursuing hazardous tracks among pathless crags; while the
dwellers in the plain, like the sheep, are peaceable rather than warlike, loving ease and plenty,
and unenterprising in character. Again, the goat, like the mountaineer, is prone to wander ;
while the lowlander, like the sheep, is content to remain in one spot, provided it supplies him
with necessary food.

First in order among the goats we have to notice a wild kind, namely :

THE IBEX. (Plote w., d)

- This is a wild species of mountain goat, formerly common among the Alpine regions of
Central Europe, Switzerland, Savoy, and Northern Italy, but it has now become very scarce
and must soon disappear altogether before the rifle of the hunter. In the almost inaccessible
heights between Monte Rosa and Mont Blanc it is still occasionally found. The ibex is a fine
bold animal, inhabiting the highest mountains, and climbing precipices that seem inaccessible
with wonderful agility and safety. In the summer its food consists of the Alpine plants, but
in winter it resorts to the forests that clothe the mountain side, and browses on the bark and
branches of dwarf willows, birches, and other Alpine trees. But even in winter it seeks
the heights whenever this is practicable, resorting to the lowlands only when driven by necessity.
The large horns of the ibex are bent backward from the forehead, and surrounded at intervals
with broad rings. The horns of the female are much smaller than those of the male. The
colour of the skin isa dull reddish grey; the head is small, and the legs rather short and thick.
The ibex is much larger than the common domestic goat. Its voice is a peculiar whistle, which
it utters with great shrillness when alarmed. Hunting the ibex is a very dangerous pursuit,
not only from the necessity of scaling the terrific precipices to which the creature betakes itself
in its flight; but also from the fact that the ibex, when its retreat is cut off, will frequently
spring in desperation upon the hunter, and roll headlong with him down the abyss. In its
manner of life and general habits the ibex resembles the chamois in many points.

)


























HE ws SS QE .
SSS
me - 29)

ae

WS SS
PESSSNSSSSS
SS



4
‘



4
¢
AMUSING STORY OF TWO GOATS—-SAGACITY OF THE GOAT.

THE COMMON OR DOMESTIC GOAT

Ts so well known an animal that its appearance need scarcely be described. (Plate tv., 6, ¢.)
The horns are generally curved backwards, and most species are provided with a beard. The
domestic goat is distributed over nearly the whole world. The naturalist Buffon has given
us a graphic description of his nature and character, especially noticing his love of change, and
consequent tendency to wander; his hardy constitution, which renders him insensible to heat
and cold, and enables him to browse on almost every herb; and his love of standing, climbing;
and even sleeping on rugged and lofty eminences. Mr. Bell, in his “ History of British Quad-
rupeds,” also. says on this subject, “ It will find its food in places inaccessible to almost all other
animals, and live and thrive by cropping the scanty herbage which they furnish. In the
mountain ranges of Europe, on the Alps and Pyrenees, the goat is found at a great elevation,
approaching as near the line of perpetual snow as it can find its scanty sustenance; and it feeds
on many plants which to other ruminants are distasteful and even deleterious; thus hemlock,
nenbane, and digitalis (foxglove) is eaten by it with HADI and even the acid euphorbia is
not rejected.”

An amusing story is told of two goats who met face to face on a narrow ridge overhang-
ing a great depth, on the ramparts at Plymouth. ‘The ledge was far too narrow for them to
pass one another, nor could they well retreat; but one of the goats sagaciously solved the
difficulty by lying down, and allowing his fellow to walk over his back; and then each pursued
“the even tenour of his way.”

Among the foreign varieties of this useful animal the Cashmere or Thibet goat of the
Himalaya Mountains stands preeminent, and will probably maintain its position so long as
Cashmere shawls are prized as costly and beautiful articles of apparel. The Cashmere goat has
flat, spiral curved horns. Its body is covered with long, straight, shining hair; and under this
coarser outward covering is concealed a soft down or wool, from which the exquisitely fine
Cashmere shawls are made. ‘The colder the climate inhabited by this goat, the thicker and
closer is its downy coat; but in general the quantity of wool furnished by one goat is only about
three ounces, so that ten or a dozen goats are required to furnish the wool for a shawl of
moderate size. An attempt was made, early in the present century, to introduce the Cashmere
goat into France. It was attended with partial success, and the goat of Cashmere has not only
been naturalized in France, but- the breed has been considerably improved. Among other
varieties may be mentioned the Angora goat, of a snowy white colour, with long silky hair; the
Syrian goat, with very small horns, but with ears so long that the goatherds frequently crop
them, lest they should incommode the goat while feeding; and the Rocky Mountain goat of
North America.

That the goat is both sagacious and teachable is proved by the fact that it is fone used as
a “performing animal,” and carried about to excite the wonder of gaping audiences. In Dr.
Clarke’s “ Travels” we find an instance of a “learned” or performing goat of this kind. The
traveller says, “ Upon our road we met an Arab with a goat, which he led about the country for
exhibition, in order to gain a livelihood for itself and owner. He had taught this animal, while he
accompanied its movements with a song, to mount upon little cylindrical blocks of wood, placed
successively one above the other, and in shape resembling the dice boxes belonging to a back-
gammon table. In this manner the goat stood, first upon the top of one cylinder, then upon
the top of two, and afterwards of three, four, five, and six, until it remained balanced upon the
top of them all, elevated several feet from the ground, and with its four feet collected upon a single
point, without throwing down the disjointed fabric upon which it stood. This practice is very

ancient. N. ous can more conclusivély show the tenacious eee passes by this quadruped
wear Bre 9 eae : See

~~
DIFFERENCE OF THE SHEEP IN ITS WILD AND TAME STATES—ITS VALUE.

upon the jutty points and crags of rocks; and the circumstance of its ability to remain thus
poised may render its appearance less surprising, as it is sometimes seen in the Alps, and in all
mountainous countries, with hardly any place for its feet, upon the sides and by the brink of
most tremendous precipices. The diameter of the upper cylinder, upon which its feet ulti-
mately remained until the Arab had ended his ditty, was ee two inches, and the length of
each cylinder was six inches.”

THE SHEEP.

“ And there was a man in Maon, whose possessions were in Carmel; and the man
was very great, and he had three thousand sheep, and a thousand goats ; and he was
shearing his sheep in Carmel.” —I. Samuel xxv. 2.

Tt is usual’ to look upon the sheep as a stupid animal; but this opinion is an error. All
animals living in a domestic state lose some of the qualities which they’ possessed in their wild
condition, simply because they are accustomed to have their wants provided for, instead of being
obliged to cater for themselves; they rely on the protection of man, instead of acting in their
own defence. The sheep, a confiding, social creature, has more confidence than any other
kind in the protection and care of man, and thus completely loses the characteristics of its
natural state. But the wild sheep of the northern parts of North America, and of other regions
of the world, is as wary and cunning as the mountain goat, and the hunter well knows the
difficulty of approaching near enough to get a shot at the agile prey. The male sheep or ram,
even in a domesticated state, is by no means deficient in courage, and when roused will fight with
the determination of a little bull. In usefulness the sheep is equal to the ox tribe. Though

-its small size and lack of strength prevents it from being made useful as a beast of burden or
draught when living, every part of its carcase is available for some purpose when dead; and
then it amply repays the shepherd for the care lavished upon it. The trade in tallow and wool
occupies thousands upon thousands of persons; and every month ships are sailing half round
the world, to convey to England the tallow and wool procured from the sheep fed in the broad -
plains of Australia and New Zealand. Food, clothing, and light during the darkness of winter
are all represented by this one creature; no wonder, then, that the keeping of sheep should be
one of the most universal, as it is one of the most ancient, of occupations. From the time of Abel,
who brought “the firstlings of his flock” to sacrifice to the Lord, to the’ present day, almost
every nation has included sheep farming among its branches of industry. On the rugged hills
and snow-covered valleys of Iceland, Norway, and Lapland, flocks of sheep find a scanty
pasturage, eating the “Iceland moss” and lichens where grass is unattainable, and supplying
their owners with all the necessaries of the simple life in those regions; and in the burning plains
of tropical countries, where the woolly fleece gives place to a thin hairy covering better adapted
to the climate, the shepherd leads forth his flock, to pick a living as they can in the arid sun-
dried fields. ‘The sheep is one of the best gifts of Providence to mankind; and it has been
scattered broadcast over the globe, as if with the intention that as large a portion as Pot
of the human race should reap the advantage of its presence and its usefulness.

It is almost imposssible to say from what wild stock the domestic sheep derived its origin ;
but the majority of naturalists consider that our tame sheep are closely connected with the
animal whose description follows here, namely :

THE MOUFFLON (Plate v., a.)

This creature, which unites the qualities of the goat and the sheep, is found in the rocky
regions of Corsica, Sardinia, the Greek islands, &c. The colour is a reddish brown, with a darker
10.
PECULIARITIES OF THE DOMESTIC SHEEP.

stripe along the back, and white underneath. It is about as large as a full-sized goat, and has
great horns curving backward from its forehead, and resembling those of the ibex. Like all its
race, it is gregarious, consorting in flocks, living upon the high mountains, and flying with great
agility on the appearance of the hunter. So shy, indeed, is the moufflon, that it can very
rarely be taken alive. The young are covered with a short fleece; but the older moufflon has
a hairy instead of a woolly coat, though beneath the outward hair a woolly down is found, as
in the Cashmere goat. In the summer, when the moufflon finds plenty of Alpine plants in
the sheltered valleys of the higher regions of rocks, it grows very fat, and its flesh is said to
be equal to venison in flavour; but in the winter the scarcity of food among the mountains
forces it to descend into the lower valleys in search of grass and herbs; and this is the period
chosen by the hunter to surprise the wary animal, the agility of whose movements is quite
in contrast with the feeble gait we generally associate with the sheep.

THE DOMESTIC SHEEP.

In almost every country there are one or more breeds of sheep; some covered with
coarse hair scantily mixed with wool, others presenting a soft thick fleece, exceedingly valuable
- for its weight and texture; many kinds have a dark brown crisp wool, very difterent from the
snowy fleeces of the English breeds; and some are entirely black. The sheep of Guinea, in
Africa, has long legs, a gaunt, thin body, and a covering of coarse shaggy hair. In Syria
and Egypt there is a remarkable race called the fat-tailed sheep. This sheep has a long tail
reaching to the ground; and, indeed, in some cases the shepherds provide little waggons, in
which the tails of the sheep are supported, to prevert them from dragging on the ground and
sustaining injury as the animal walks on. For these tails are considered a great delicacy,
consisting as they do almost entirely of a soft marrow-like fat. In their ordinary state they
weigh about fifteen pounds; but there is an art by which the sheep may be fattened, so that
the tail increases to fifty, sixty, and, it is said, in some instances even to eighty pounds in weight.
This fat is often used stead of butter. Iceland possesses a remarkable breed of sheep,
strongly built, and with a rough coat consisting more.of hair than of wool, and only fit for
coarse fabrics, such as druggets and horse cloths. But this Iceland breed yields a great
quantity of good milk, an invaluable article in a cold climate. A single ewe will give, it is
said, five or six quarts a day. A strange peculiarity is in the number of horns on the head of
the ram, which sometimes has no fewer than eight growing from his forehead. The general
number is four. In the Feroe Islands a wild race of sheep clamber about the rocks, quite free
from the control of the inhabitants, who hunt them like deer, and seldom succeed in taking
them alive.

The breeds of English sheep are very numerous, and great attention is paid to their im-
provement. Among the principal are the Southdowns, in Sussex and Kent, the Dorset, the
Suffolk, the Leicestershire, and the Cheviot breed of Northumberland. It would take too long
to enumerate here the different qualities of size, fleece, and fatness for which these various
breeds are remarkable. Among the ancients a strange and barbarous method of obtaining the
wool of the sheep prevailed. Instead of being shorn, the unhappy animals had the wool torn
off their bodies, somewhat in the method in which poultry are plucked; and they were previ-
ously kept for three days without food, that they might be exhausted, and thus the wool would
come off more easily. In the Orkney Islands this barbarous practice was continued until lately.

In the bleak winter, among the northern hills, the flocks of sheep are exposed to great
hardships in the drifting snow- storms and furious gales. ‘They have an instinct by which they.
know of the approach ‘of a tempest, and manifest their uneasiness in various ways, well under-.
EO by the watchful shepherd, who fa takes every precaution for thé safety of his

iio
t

THE MERINO SHEEP—CLOTH MANUFACTURE.

charge. Notwithstanding all his care, however, many are lost by being blown over into the
ravines among the rocks, and others are buried beneath the drifting masses of snow. In some
cases sheep have manifested a remarkable tenacity of life under such circumstances, having
been found alive after being buried twenty and even thirty days beneath the snow. In most
countries on the Continent of Hurope, and also in the Hast, the shepherd does not drive the
flock before him, but ne leads them, walking at the head of the troop, which follows him
wherever he goes,

The affection of the ewe for her lamb, the care eh which she devotes herself to the little
helpless creature, and her grief when deprived of her nursling by death, as also the stratagem
employed by the-shepherd, who strips the skin from the dead lamb and wraps it round some
little motherless thing, thus cheating the bereaved mother into the belief that her own offspring
has come back to her, have been admirably described by the pert Bloomfield, in the following -
lines :

“ Her tender offspring dead, the dam aloud
Calls, and runs wild amidst th’ unconscious crowd,
And orphaned sucklings raise the piteous cry,
No wool to warm them, no defender nigh!
And must her streaming milk then flow in vain ?
Must unregarded innocence complain ?
No; ere this strong solicitude subside,
Maternal fondness may be fresh applied, ~
And the adopted stripling still may find ,
A parent most assiduously kind.
For this he’s doomed awhile disguised to range
(for fraud or force must work the wished-for change) ;
For this his predecessor’s skin he wears,
Till, cheated into tenderness and cares,
The unsuspecting dam, contented grown,
Cherish and guard the fondling as her own.
Thus all by turns to fair perfection rise;
Thus twins are parted to increase their size ;
Thus instinct yields as interest points the way, -
Till the bright flock, augmenting every day,
On sunny hills and vales of springing flowers,
‘With joyous bleatings greet the vernal hours.”

The most famous of the foreign breeds is the merino sheep of Spain, which has been used
to improve the breeds of Saxony, Austria, and other Continental nations. The name “ merino ”
signifies “from beyond the sea ;” and it is conjectured that the breed was considerably improved
by some Cotswold sheep, imported into Spain in the reign of Edward III. The rearing of’
these sheep is considered a very important matter in Spain; and centuries ago the Spanish
Government took the matter in hand, and enacted laws regulating the privileges of pasture the
sheep were to enjoy on their journeys from one part of the country to another, which they were
made to perform twice a year, the number and pay of the shepherds, and, in fact, all matters
connected with the sheep-breeding interest. This system of migration of flocks was supposed
to improve both the fleece and the flesh of the sheep; but of late great doubt has been cast on
the fact, as it is asserted that the merinos in certain provinces, where the sheep are kept to the
same locality all the year round, thrive quite as well as those who eccney a full quarter of the
year in their journeyings.

~ Closely connected with the breeding of sheep is the history of the cloth manufacture.
The first knowledge possessed by the Britons of the art of cloth making came, no doubt, from
Gaul. The Romans had a factory for the making of cloth for soldiers’ coats at Winchester ;
and under the earlier Norman kings several cloth weavers found their way over to England
from Flanders, where the art was best understood. In the reign of Stephen we find that

12
INTRODUCTION OF THE CLOTH MANUFACTURE INTO ENGLAND.

Bedford, Worcester, Nottingham, and several other towns were actively employed in the
weaving of cloth; but it was in the reign of Edward III. that the art became really understood —
in England, which had until then been content to export a great quantity of wool. to the
Continent, leaving to the Flemings the profit obtained by its manufacture into cloth. The
following extract from the old historian Fuller will explain what took place with regard to the
cloth manufacture. “At length,” he says, “the king and State grew sensible of the great
gain the Netherlands got by our English wool; and this good king resolved, if possible, to —
bring the trade to his own countrymen, who yet were ignorant of that art, knowing no more
what to do with their wool than the sheep that wore it, as to any artificial or curious drapery ;
their best cloths being then no better than freizes, such was their want of skill in their makings.
But soon after followed a great alteration, and we shall enlarge ourselves in the manner
thereof.

“ Unsuspected emissaries were employed to go into the Netherlands, who wrought them-
selves into familiarity with such Dutchmen as were absolute masters of their trade, but not
masters of themselves, being either journeymen or apprentices. These bemoaned the slavish-
ness of those poor servants, whom their masters used rather like heathens than Christians; yea,
rather like horses than men: early up, and late in bed, and all day having hard work, and

harder fare (a few herrings and mouldy cheese); and all to enrich the churls their masters,
without any profit to themselves.

“But oh! how happy would it be for them, if they would but come over into England,
bringing their mystery with them, which would provide their welcome in all places.

«Thus persuaded, many Dutch servants did come. Their departure (being picked here and
there) made no sensible vacuity, but their meeting together amounted to a considerable fulness.
Happy the yeoman’s house into which one of these Dutchmen did enter, bringing industry and
wealth along with him: such as came in strangers, soon after went out bridegrooms, and
returned sons-in-law, having married the daughters of their landlords, who first entertained
them; yea, those yeomen in whose houses they harboured soon became gentlemen, gaining ©
great estates to themselves, and honour to their estates.”

The following fact will testify to the importance of the sheep to the peasant in the moun-
tains of Savoy. Nearly every part of the dress of a Savoyard peasant is produced from his
own little flock. He dresses the wool himself, his wife or daughter spins it, and then the yarn
is woven into cloth by the village weaver. The holiday coats are generally dyed blue, but those
of every-day wear are of a less expensive colour. As they have plenty of black sheep in Savoy,
they mix their wool with the wool of the white sheep, and, spinning them together, produce a
‘sort of greyish-brown cloth without the expense of dyeing. In another part of the Alps, the
Grisons took their name from their custom of wearing grey cloth similarly manufactured.

For a long time Saxony had the pre-eminence in the manufacture of the finest kind of
broadcloth, especially that of a blue colour. “Blue Saxony cloth” became proverbial for its
excellence; but the town of Leeds and several other places in England can not only vie with
any Continental manufacture, but indeed surpass the best efforts of the foreign loom.

Sheep-shearing time, when the farmer receives in the heavy fleece the reward of the care
bestowed during the past twelve months upon his flock, has always been regarded, even from
very ancient times, as a festive season. In one of the best country books ever written for boys,
Mr. Thomas Miller, the author, speaking on this subject, says,

“Pleasant, too, was sheep-washing and sheep-shearing time: such a dreamy bleating
beside the brooks and about the barns, as the sheep and lambs answered each other from the
wattled fences in which they were confined to keep them separate. Rare fun was it to us to
pull and drag at some great, fat, heavy sheep, and, drawing it towards the water’s edge, shove it ,

ey and perhaps ourselves with it, while the sheep-washer std a to souse the moving mass,
is :
SHEEP WASHING AND SHEARING—THE HORSE.

of wool over head and ears. The washing once over, and the sheep having stayed a few days
just to let the wool regain its old oily elasticity, so that, as the clippers say, they may shear all ”
the softer, then the great summer sheep-shearing began_.in earnest. The huge, high, heavy,
ponderous barn doors were taken off their hinges, and placed on strong, low, tressels, or heavy
logs of wood, to elevate the doors to a convenient height, and on these ample tables the sun-
browned shearers clipped the bleating sheep. Oh! it was famous fun to see them clipping
away one against the other, and striving who could get done first—to roll up the fleeces and
carry them into the barn, until we raised up quite a stack of wool—then to have a swing sus-
pended from the great high rafters of the barn, and go such a height—ah! that was swinging
indeed!—then to roll all amongst the wool—to fetch the sheep up to the shearers—to turn them
loose again after they were clipped, and watch how the lambs were puzzled to pick out their —
dams from the flock which had been shorn: you would have liked to have been there, amid all
that bleating of sheep, and barking of dogs, and such racing as we had after the sheep that ran
away: it was prime sport, I can tell you. But the best of all was the sheep-shearing feast—
such bowls of furmenty stuffed full of currants as you never before saw in your life, and chines
of beef seasoned with all kinds of nice herbs, which are only known to old-fashioned country
people; great horns of ale, and glorious plum puddings, almost as much as a boy could lift.
Then, it was so pleasant to remember that these sheep-shearing feasts are hundreds and hundreds
of years old, and that we read all about them in the Holy Bible, and what Nabal’s wife,
who lived in Carmel, sent to King David when she kept up her sheep-shearing feast. There
are many good old customs still existing in England, as Be shall show hetore we have written
all we intend to write about the four seasons of the year.”

THE HORSE TRIBE.

“ Hast thou given the horse strength ? hast thou clothed his neck with thunder P

“ Canst thou make him afraid as a grasshopper? the glory of his nostrils is terrible.

“ He paweth in the valley, and rejoiceth in his strength: he goeth on to meet the armed men.

“ He mocketh at fear, and is not affrighted; neither turneth he back from the sword.

“ The quiver rattleth against him, the glittering spear and the shield.

“ He swalloweth the ground with fierceness and rage: neither believeth he that it is the scuna -
of the trumpet. ~

“ He saith among the trumpets, Ha, ha; and he smelleth the battle afar off, the thunder of
the captains, and the shouting.” —Job xxxix. 19—25.

The above description of the horse in the Book of Job fully exhibits the chief qualities of
the noblest of quadrupeds—his fearlessness, strength, and fleetness. From the very earliest
period of known history the horse appears as the chosen servant of man, alike in peace and in
war. ‘ The chariots and horses of Egypt are mentioned repeatedly in Holy Writ; and* in
Miriam’s song of victory it is recorded among the triumphs of the Lord, “The horse and his
rider hath He thrown into the sea.” The ox, in ancient times, was the labourer—the patient
and willing drudge in the work of the farm, the bearer of burdens, and the assistant in the
important processes for obtaining bread; for he it was who dragged the rough plough over the
fields, and who afterwards, when the corn had been reaped, “ trod out” the grains from the
straw on the floor of the barn. But to the horse more stirring duties were assigned. He was ~
made to participate in the dangers and glories of war. It was for him to bear his rider through
the thickest of the fight, to charge headlong upon the foe, or to bear his master swiftly away
from the pursuit of the enemy. The war chariots of the Egyptians and other Eastern nations
were of vast importance to them, and gave a great increase to the strength of their armies; and ~
thus, when Pharaoh pursued the Israelites, after their escape from the bondage of Egypt, we
are told that “he made ready his chariot, and took his people with him; and he took six

14
_ DOCILITY OF THE HORSE—WILD HORSES.

hundred chosen chariots, and all the chariots of Egypt, and captains over every one of them.”
And though in later times some breeds of horses have been devoted exclusively to the labours
of the field and the road, the charger, or war horse, has always kept his place in the armies of
the modern as he had it in those of the ancient world. Not the least famous among the
“ heroes” of the battle of Waterloo was “Copenhagen,” the gallant charger who bore the
Duke of Wellington upon his back, without apparent fatigue, during sixteen or seventeen hours
on that eventful day.

Among the circumstances which render the horse peculiarly valuable to man is the fact
that each breed has separate qualities fitting it for some branch of usefulness. Thus, the
characteristic of the racer is marvellous speed; while the hunter, with almost as great a
‘swiftness of motion, combines a strength and an endurance which enable him to pursue the
flying deer or fox for many hours over ground which would try the powers of the slim, graceful
race horse far too severely. Again, for the plough horse and waggon horse, which has to draw
heavy loads, but is only required to move slowly, we have a heavy, bulky kind, whose ponderous,
heavy strength almost resembles that of the elephant, dragging, almost without effort, and by
their own weight, loads that a lighter breed of horse could scarcely move with the most violent
_ exertion. The rough, hardy Shetland ponies, again, are very useful in their way, being able to
endure much fatigue, while they thrive upon scanty and coarse food.

The sagacity of the horse, and his readiness to learn, also increase his value. With the
exception of the dog and the elephant, no animal is more teachable than he. The war horse
masters his exercise quickly, and remembers it well; the hunter soon learns to enter into the
excitement of the chase, which he often pursues as eagerly as his master; and the heavy dray
horse soon learns to pick his way through crowded streets with such skill that he scarcely
requires the guiding-rein. He is also capable of considerable attachment to his master, for
whose benefit he exerts himself even beyond his strength.

The natural term of the horse’s life seems to be between twenty and five and twenty
years; but this period is generally shortened by over-work and ill-treatment, arising, in most
cases, rather from thoughtlessness and ignorance on the part of the owner than from delibe-
rate cruelty. Because the horse is strong, and willing to exert his strength, many persons
seem to think that his powers are unlimited; and because he can run fast, that he may be
driven or ridden for a long distance at the top of his speed; and thus his powers decay early,
and he dies before his time.

So generally is the horse spread throughout the world, that it is impossible to say with
certainty what was originally his native country. Wild horses are still found in vast numbers
in the great plains of Tartary and of Central Asia and in the prairies of North, and the
pampas of South America. The wild horses of America are descendants of Spanish horses
brought over by the first conquerors of the New World. Many horses regained their liberty,
and became the progenitors of a wild race. In Southern Africa a race of small wild horses
also exists. The following description of the wild species is given in a popular book on science:
“Wild horses appear to be free from nearly all those diseases to which the domestic breed are
prone. They are generally of a pale or greyish-brown colour, with brown mane and tail, a
whitish muzzle, changing to black about the mouth. They are smaller than the domestic breed,
with a larger head, longer legs, larger ears. . . . They recognize the presence of man at
a great distance, when he approaches them to windward, and fly from him with wonderful
speed. ‘They prefer sunny slopes, and avoid forests and steep places. They do not wander
beyond the fiftieth degree of north latitude.”

Horses are entirely herbivorous, feeding on vegetable productions. In their wild state
they subsist almost exclusively on grass, though their teeth enable them to masticate hard corn

“and. beans. They are naturally dainty as regards their food, and especially nice as to tiie. purity:
15
BRITISH HORSES—MARKS OF A PERFECT HORSE—THE ASS.

of the water they drink. Many horses, even when suffering from great thirst, will not drink
from a horse-trough or from a pail that has not been kept scrupulously clean.

The Arab horse has long been famous for beauty, swiftness, and endurance; and some of
the Spanish horses, especially those called barbs, because they originally came from the Barbary
States in Northern Africa, are excellent. It is impossible to tell when or how the horse first
came into Britain. When Cvesar arrived from Gaul with his legions, nineteen hundred years
ago, he found the wild inhabitants of our island possessed of a large and swift breed of horses,
which they used with great effect in war, yoking them to chariots, whereof the axles were
furnished with sharp scythes to mow down the enemy among whose ranks they were driven.
That the Saxons had good horses, and knew how to value them, is proved by a law made by
Athelstan, who forbade the exportation of horses, excepting they were sent out as presents.
The Normans greatly improved the breed of the English horses, chiefly by importing some of
the best that Spain could produce; these were, no doubt, of Arabian origin.

Horse racing soon began to be practised as a national sport: we find it mentioned as eariv
as the reign of Henry II. Under the Stuart rule the sport was patronised by royalty; and if
was on his return from Newmarket that the Rye House conspirators hoped to seize the person
of Charles IT., in the celebrated Rye House Plot. . The English race horses are of Arabian
origin. (See Plate v1.) An old writer named Camerarius gives in a few words a capital idea
of what a good horse ought to be; and Goldsmith and several other writers have copied his
instructions. They are these: “A perfect horse should have the breast broad, the hips
round, and the mane long; the countenance fierce, and somewhat resembling that of a lion ;
the nose similar in form to that of the sheep; the head, legs, and skin of a deer; the throat
and neck of a wolf; and the ear and tail of a fox.”

The ancients were in the practice of using their horses unshod, consequently the hardness
and firmness of the hoof was considered a very important point; and hence also the Arab
saying, that “If a cavaleade be passing through a stony country, the grey horses will break
the stones with their feet.” The wild Huns, who, early in the Christian era, poured into
Europe from Central Asia, under their King Attila, spreading terror and destruction wherever
they went, were a nation who depended eimost entirely upon the horse for subsistence. Their
food was horse-flesh, their drink the mare’s milk. The horses’ hides furnished them with
materials alike for their clothing and for the tents in which they dwelt. Continually in the
saddle, they had acquired immense dexterity in riding, and always fought on horseback. The
terror inspired by these plunderers gave rise to the proverb, “ Where the horse of Atilla had set
its hoof, no grass could grow.”

THE ASS (Piate vit.)
“Who hath sent out the wild ass free ? or who hath loosed the bands of the wild ass ?”—Job xxxix. 5.

Almost equally important with the horse, and in some countries even more necessary
than that noble animal for the well-bemg of the people, the patient, useful ass has yet
been in almost every clime and at every period the ill-used drudge of man. Because his
pace is somewhat sluggish, and in outward appearance he lacks the graceful beauty of the
horse, he has been set down as heavy and stupid ; and the very patience with which he
endures ill-treatment seems only to render him more despised. ‘The expression “ a stupid ass”
has become proverbial, and it seems quite an understood thing that this poor creature should |
be fed on the coarsest food and driven with the heaviest stick. Yet all this is very foolish as —
well as wrong. Naturally, the ass is anything but a stupid animal. Te has been known to
display great sagacity, and to attach himself strongly to the master who uses him kindly ; but
ill-treatment and neglect have upon him the effect they would produce on a human being,

16








XN









































/ h y
Ng
;

Y Ys









\
AY
We “





Ss & \







a
STN
—— x
=
SSS
—~














t
THE WILD ASS—CHASE OF A WILD ASS.

and render him stubborn and sluggish. Though his pace is slow, he will continue his journey
for many hours without showing signs of fatigue, and the coarsest fare suffices to keep him in
health. In rocky countries and over difficult roads his feet are more sure than those of the
horse, and he will carry his rider in safety along winding paths skirting the most tremendous
precipices. Hardy, vigorous, and temperate, he is very valuable to the poor man. Many a
wandering pedlar, and many a hawker of small commodities, has dated his rise in the world
from the day when he had saved enough to buy an ass to carry his goods, thus lessening his
labour by one-half, while the keep of the frugal animal scarcely increased his expenses.

The ass attains his full growth in about four years, and lives to the age of four or five
and twenty. ‘The colt is rather pretty in appearance, and quick and playful; but the laborious
- life led by the ass soon brings on that heavy appearance and sluggish gait which seem peculiar
to the race. In Eastern countries, where the ass is frequently used instead of the horse, it
appears under a better aspect than in Europe. It is larger and more lightly built, and is
evidently the object of more care and attention than here, where the horse is the valued servant,
and the ass only the slave. The female ass is very affectionate towards her colt, and will
encounter any danger in defence of her offspring. She has but one colt at a time; very rarely
two are born together.

The wild ass of the Hast is a very different creature from the poor domestic drudge. It is
large, shapely, and handsome, and runs with especial swiftness. It is found in Tartary, Asia
Minor, Persia, and many other countries. The Persians esteem its flesh a great delicacy, and
capture it in pits. The wild asses associate together in herds. They are exceedingly shy,
running off with great swiftness on the approach of men. Sir. R. K. Porter, the Eastern
traveller, gives the following account of an exciting chase after a wild ass:

“The sun was just rising over the summits of the eastern mountains, when my greyhound
Cooley suddenly darted off in pursuit of an animal, which my Persians said, from the glimpse
they had of it, was an antelope. I instantly put spurs to my horse, and with my attendants
gave chase. After an unrelaxed gallop of full three miles, we came up with the dog, which
was then within a short stretch of the creature he pursued; when, to my surprise, and at first
vexation, I found it to be an ass; but on a moment's reflection, judging from its fleetness that
it must be a wild one, which the Persians prize above all other animals as an object of chase,
as well as an article of food, I determined to approach as near to it as the very swift Arab
IT was on would carry me. But the instant of checking my horse to consider had given our
- game such a head of us, that, notwithstanding all our speed, we could not recover our ground
on him. I, however, happened to be considerably before my companions, when, at a certain
distance, the animal in its turn made a pause, and allowed me to approach within a pistol-shot
of him. He then darted off again with the quickness of thought, capering, kicking, and
sporting in his flight, as though he were not blown in the least, and as though the chase were
his pastime. The prodigious swiftness and peculiar manner in which he fled across the plain
coincided exactly with the description that Xenophon gives of the same animal in Arabia.”

Such is the wild ass; but that, even in the most ancient times, the poor domestic species
was the sport and butt of the mischievous, is shown by the mention made of the ass by Homer
in the following lines of the “Iliad ”: :

“ The sluggish ass, with heavy strength endued,
: In some wild field by troops of boys pursued,

a The shivering sticks assail his sides in vain,

He crops the waving corn, and spoils the plain.
‘Whilst on his hide the feeble blows resound,
The beast, regardless, still maintains his ground;

Scarce from the field with all their efforts chased,
And scarce, though sated, mends his pace at last.”

- 47 , a D
BEAUTY OF THE ZEBRA—THE QUAGGA—THE DEER TRIBE.

THE ZEBRA. (Plate vit., ¢.)

This very beautiful animal is a native of South Africa, where it roams in vast herds at the
back of Cape Colony, and especially beyond the Gariep or Orange River. In size it is between
the horse and the ags, and has indeed many qualities of both. The Dutch settlers at the Cape
have called it the “ Wilde Paard,”’ or wild horse, and Dr. Burchell the traveller very aptly gave
the Latin name Aguus montanus, the mountain steed. The zebra has a short erect mane, |
slender legs, a very hard round hoof, a tail like that of the ass, but furnished at the end with
a long tuft of hair, a shapely head, and bright intelligent eyes. Its distinguishing feature
consists in the long black bands with which it is striped, and which are considered so elegant,
that Buffon the naturalist calls it the first of quadrupeds for beauty. There are two species,
the common zebra and Burchell’s zebra. They are distinguised from each other principally by
some trifling difference in the striping. The voice of the zebra is a harsh, barking neigh.
United in bands, they resist the aggression of any foe, and fight vigorously with teeth and
hoofs for their freedom when miele

At one time it was believed that the zebra could not be tamed, but this is a fallacy. All
herbivorous animals are capable of being domesticated, though some are more difficult to tame _
than others. A few years ago a couple of zebras might be seen in the Zoological Gardens in
London, very carefully dragging a cart about the grounds, perfectly tractable and resigned to
-their fate; and the old menagerie at Exeter Change contained a zebra so tame that he was
employed in the pacific business of carrying children on his back “for the sum of one penny.”
The Hottentots consider the flesh of the zebra a delicacy, and eat it eagerly ; but ae colonists
reject it, probably consi AcE it too a allied to horse-flesh.

e

THE QUAGGA (Plate vit., d) ,

Closely resembles the zebra, from which it is distinguished chiefly by its skin being only marked
over the head, neck, and shoulders, with the bars that cover the whole body of the zebra. Its
habits are like those of the zebra, associating in large herds, and flying with great swiftness,
from its pursuers. It is, however, much more tractable than the zebra, and is often used as a
beast of burden. Its name “ quagga”’ is said to be derived from its barking voice.

THE DEER TRIBE.

“The bounding fawn that darts across the glade,
When none pursues, through mere delight of heart,
And spirits buoyant with excess of glee.”

The deer species includes animals of very various kinds, and inhabiting very different parts
of our globe. Indeed, so great is the difference between the gigantic elk (see “ Wild Animals”)
and the graceful antelope or gazelle, that at first sight few people would think they belonged to »
the same family; but all the deer tribe have some features in common, though the antelopes
are confined to the hot climate of Africa, while the other varieties are generally found in the -
colder countries of Europe and America, great heat being as destructive to them as cold would
be to the antelope. We have now to speak chiefly of those kinds of deer that have become

18
NORMAN GAME LAWS—THE LAPLAND REINDEER.

domesticated as servants to man, or half domesticated as ornaments to the gentleman’s park
or the well preserved forest.

| Generally speaking, the deer may be considered rather as a beautiful and graceful, than as
avery useful animal. In civilized countries the laws introduced with the Feudal system have
placed him at the head of the game animals, or those which all but a small class were forbidden
to touch. Under the earlier Norman kings, the forest laws were so severe that even noblemen
might not hunt the deer except in the company of the king, and by his special permission ;
- and as to the common people, the man among them who slew a deer was considered guilty of
afar greater crime than the slaying of a fellow man. William Rufus, the tyrannical “ Red
King,” was especially cruel and harsh in carrying out the forest laws, and inflicting punishment
upon all who in any way molested the deer; so that the Saxons used to say that he loved the
stags far better than his subjects; and looked upon his death while hunting in the New Forest
as a Divine vengance for his tyranny. Gradually the severity of these laws was abated; but
still the deer has remained the exclusive property of the higher classes—a privileged animal,
whose flesh never appears on the poor man’s table. Far different, however, is the case in the
cold North, where dwells the member of the deer family who represents to the Laplander what
the horse was to the Hun, and the sheep and ox to the patriarchal ancestors of the Israelites ;
namely, food, clothing, shelter, and the means of moving from place to place; for all the
wants of the Laplander are supplied, in the frozen regions he inhabits, by the possession of one
docile and invaluable animal. This animal is

THE REINDEER.

Though he is doubtless by far the most useful, the reindeer is, perhaps, the least beautiful
of the tribe to which he belongs. He is large in size, about four or five feet high, with a short
thick neck, strong legs, and very large hoofs, whose breadth and flatness prevent him from
sinking into the deep snow, as he runs swiftly over the frozen plains. His horns are rounded,
and droop over his forehead. This arrangement is admirably useful in enabling him in winter-
time to shovel away the snow which covers the moss on which he subsists. He is covered with
very thick woolly hair, and can thus endure a great amount of cold. He is also a strong
swimmer, crossing broad and rapid rivers with the greatest ease. A strong, powerful animal, he
readily defends himself, in his wild state, against even the wolf, whom he puts to flight by
vigorous kicks. The wild reindeer live together in large herds, and in summer-time emigrate
to the sea shore, to escape the attacks of a fly, aptly called by a Latin name signifying “the ~
fury,” which follows them incessantly, and allows the poor animals no rest. Numbers of them
fall victims every year to the onslaught of these insects.

As a domestic animal the reindeer is beyond all price to the Laplander, who, but for this
useful creature, would be confined to one spot in a country where there are no roads, and where
in winter the uniform dreary waste of snow presents no track or sign by which the traveller
could find his way. But as a writer on the subject justly observes, “The Laplanders commit
their lives with wonderful confidence to these faithful animals, during a journey of hundreds
of miles ; and that trust is never violated, and it is very seldom that an accident occurs. They
travel with such speed and perseverance, that it is not uncommon for a pair of reindeer, with
the sledge and Laplander, to perform a journey of three hundred miles in twenty-four hours.
Their usual trot: is, however, at the rate of ten miles an hour; and they will draw from two
hundred to three hundred pounds weight: each, while going at that pace. . After the deer have
_ been well broken in and trained to the sledge, the art of driving is merely holding the rein.’
In long journeys, and when parties are travelling together, it is not unusual to fasten each. deer

to: the sledge before it, so that-one follows the other in the same track, and at the same pace.
“19
INSTINCT OF THE REINDEER— THE STAG—THE ROE.

_ At starting, and when the snow is guod, the deer set off at a gallop, relaxing at length into a
long and steady trot. Hach deer follows the foremost sledge so closely, that the head of the
deer is generally in contact with the shoulders of the driver before it; and should the leader
of the whole train make a bend in his course, each one in succession follows close in the track,
instead of attempting to save ground by cutting off the angle made bythe first sledge. No
power can remove the deer from the track its predecessors have taken; and it is this remark-
able instinct that, no doubt, greatly contributes to the safety of his master; for, should any of
the party by accident be detached from the rest, the keen scent of the deer enables it to pursue
the track, and at last to overtake the train of carriages that has passed on before.”

A wealthy Laplander will frequently be the owner of a herd of two thousand reindeer,
whose milk, flesh, skins, and horns are all put to good use. Thus in the arctic regions the
reindeer is to the inhabitant what the camel is to the traveller in the burning tropical desert —
the one creature indispensable to his comfort, and even to his very existence.

THE STAG

Is a creature of noble appearance, with his branching horns, bright eyes, and graceful form ;
and appears worthy of the distinction of being placed at the head of the game animals. In
his wild state he is found throughout Northern and Central Europe, in the same portions of
Asia, and in the northern regions of America, especially in Canada. But for many centuries
he has been kept in a half domesticated state in deer parks and forests, so that in England and
Scotland, and even in France and Germany, he can hardly be looked upon as a wild animal.
‘In disposition the stag is gentle and harmless, though when pursued and driven to desperation,
he will turn upon his pursuers and fight for his life. It was from a stag thus driven to bay that
the Norman Prince Richard, the favourite son of William the Conqueror, met his death in the
New Forest. The age of the stag can be told by the size of his horns or antlers, ‘and by the
number of branches on them. A stag with ten branches was considered a very valuable
animal, and called a “stag of ten.” The swiftness of the stag, combined with the excellence
of his flesh, has always made him a favourite animal of the chase. " He sheds his horns every
year, and hides himself in the thickest parts of the wood until his new antlers are grown.

The female of the stag is called the hind, and the young one the fawn. The attachment
of the hind to her fawn is very remarkable. She hides it in the deepest covert from every
foe, and tends it with admirable affection. In Scotland many wild red deer are still found.
The horns are made into knife-handles and other articles, the skin is excellent leather, and the
flesh, called venison, is esteemed a great delicacy.

THE ROE

Is a very small species of deer, still found wild in the highlands of Scotland, though it has
become extinct in England, except in a half tame state in parks. The buck or male is some-
what larger than the female or doe, and has short horns on his head, while the female has none
(see Plate rx.,b and c). The roe deer do not associate in herds, but in couples, their fawn
remaining with them till about nine months old. Their food in summer is grass, in winter
broom, heath, and the tender branches of the fir and birch, and the catkins of hazel and
willow. The roe is naturally a native of the mountains, and it is said that the flesh of those
which have been brought up in low and flat districts is always of an inferior quality. In
summer the hair is much shorter, thinner, and smoother than in winter, when nature seems
specially to provide the little roe with a coat suited to the season. The colour of the hair is
a mixture of deep red and grey. It is said that the roebuck can never be completely tamed.

20

=

eo
ane ~*~

~











Li






















PECULIARITY OF FALLOW DEER—MIGRATIONS OF THE SPRINGBOK.

THE FALLOW DEER

Ts between the roe and the stag in size. The horns are not divided into branches, but spread
out broad and flat (see Plate x., a). In colour the fallow deer vary, some being dark brown
with lighter spots, others reddish, others of a pale fawn tint. The doe is without horns, and
the buck, like the stag, has a new pair every year, each pair larger than the last, till he has
attained his full growth. The duration of the fallow deer’s life is from fifteen to twenty years.
His flesh is preferred to that of the stag, bemg more tender and better flavoured. In England
large herds of fallow deer are kept in parks, where they range about at full liberty, allowing
strangers to approach to a certain distance, and then bounding away with great quickness, and
turning, after a time, to gaze at the intruder. Generally the deer in a park form into various
herds, which feed separately, each herd chasing away any intruders from one or the others who
may seek to associate with them. Not unfrequently, combats occur between the various herds ;
but the fallow deer is not nearly so pugnacious as the stag, who, so far as his own kind are
concerned, is exceedingly given to brawling and fighting. The fallow deer, like the stag, has two,
remarkable holes or slits under its eyes, through which it is said to draw in the air, as through
the nostrils; and this is the more probable as, in drinking, it thrusts its nose deeply into the
water, keeping the nostrils immersed for a long time. A breed of fallow deer, that has
flourished greatly in England, was introduced by James I., who brought some specimens home
from Norway, when he returned from the famous journey during which he married Anne of
Denmark.

THE SPRING BUCK or SPRINGBOK (Pie x, 2)

Is one of many kinds of antelopes found in South Africa. These creatures exists in vast
numbers in the great uninhabited plains at the back of Cape Colony, where they roam across
the country in herds of many thousands. The springbok takes its name from the agility with
which, when pursued or alarmed, it jumps from crag to crag, or flies in long leaps across the
plain. And, indeed, the swiftness with which the springbok and the other Cape antelopes are
endowed is necessary for their very existence, for flight is their sole defence against the many
enemies who lie in wait for them. ‘The colonists shoot them down in numbers: they are the
favourite food of the lion and other beasts of prey lurking in the thicket; and even the hyena
pursues them, and drags many a victim from their flocks. But, on the other hand, these ante-
lopes exist in so many varieties, and in such vast numbers, that the attacks of all their enemies
seem powerless to reduce their mass in any great degree. Sparmann, the African traveller,
speaks of two thousand who all came down at once to drink at the same well. Vaillant,
a French naturalist, while travelling in the wilds in the rear of Cape Colony, found himself
encircled by a vast herd of antelopes, all travelling southward in search of fresh pastures.
and running streams; for one of the droughts which frequently occur in Southern Africa had
- burned up the grass’on which they fed, and dried up the rivers. He estimated their numbers
at no fewer than fifty thousand. These migrations of the antelopes are sometimes a source of
great annoyance and loss to the colonists; for the little intruders break into fields and gardens,
eating up “every green thing” with the perseverance and rapacity of a swarm of locusts.
These antelopes are graceful in form. Their colour is generally a light brown. The males have
small horns, the females none. ‘Their flesh is agreeable and wholesome, and of their skins
many articles of clothing are made. Thus the colonists and natives are well recompensed for

the occasional depredations of the antelopes in their search after food. |

21
TIMIDITY OF THE HARE—ITS CUNNING—ITS FECUNDITY.

THE HARE AND THE RABBIT TRIBE.

The hare belongs to a very well known and a very useful tribe of -the animal kingdom.
There are few children who have not seen the timid hare, dead, and exposed for sale in the
game dealer’s window, even if they have not seen the creature alive scampering over the fields,
and generally presenting the very image of fleetness combined with fear. The Latin name given
by naturalists to the hare, Lepus timidus, points to the fearfulness which is the chief feature in
its character ; and this timidity and aptitude to discern and fly from the first approach of danger
is the means given by Providence to the hare to escape from the many foes who lay snares for
its life. Unprovided with any effective weapons wherewith to fight, the hare is admirably
furnished with the means of discerning danger, and avoiding it by flight. Its hind legs are
much longer than the fore legs, and thus it can readily run up hill, and, indeed, generally seeks
a rising ground when flying from its foes. Its ears are peculiarly long, and of tubular shape,
and thus are available, like the ear trumpets used by deaf persons, in distinguishing distant
sounds. (See Plate xt., a.) The eyes are placed so far back in the head that the hare can
almost literally see the pursuers behind it when it is running straight forward; and hdéwever
rich the pasture on which it feeds, its body never becomes fat or heavy. Thus its speed is
undiminished at all seasons of the year.

But speed is not the only means used by the hare to escape from its foes. When hunted,
no animal displays more cunning or greater resources of stratagem to baffle its pursuers,
“Knowing that the hounds hunt by the scent, the hare will try to baffle them by doubling, or
returning on its own traces for a time, so that the hounds become bewildered. At others, it
. will run for a considerable distance along the top of a quickset hedge, with the same object of
baffling the hounds; or will run and take refuge among a flock of sheep, or in the hole, or, as
it is called, the form, of another hare. Frequently it will return by round-about ways to the
place whence it started when first alarmed: and to this fact the poet Goldsmith alludes in those
~ exquisite lines of the “Deserted Village” in which he expresses his hope of returning to his
old home. He says:

“ And as a hare whom hounds and horns pursue
Pants to the place from whence at first he flew,
T still had hopes, my long vexations past,

Here to return, and die at home at last.”

The hare is found in most parts of Europe and Asia, and there are also American varieties.
Its food is vegetables of all kinds, and many garden plants, especially parsley, of which it is
extravagantly fond. In winter, when the supply of fresh food fails, it feeds on the bark of
young trees, which it gnaws in such a manner as frequently to destroy the tree entirely.
Market gardens near towns often suffer from the depredations of the hare, especially when an
unusually hard time in winter drives the timid creatures from the fields to the vicinity of the
dwellings of man, where they hope to find subsistence.

The hare is not watchful and timid without good cause. Many beasts and birds of prey
are among its enemies; and such numbers are slain, that the species would quickly become
extinct, but for the number of young brought forth by all the hare and rabbit tribe. A hare
will frequently have four sets of young ones, three or four each time, in the course of the year.
For about three weeks she feeds the young leverets ; and when they are only a month old, they
are left to provide for themselves. Still, in spite of their numerous foes, they seem rather to
increase than to diminish in number.

Although the flesh of the hare is esteemed delicate food, the Israelites were forbidden by

22
ie
a, eee :
vl


THE ALPINE HARE—THE RABBIT.

the Mosaic law to eat it, as it was not an animal that parted the hoof, as well as chewed the
cud. The Ancient Britons were likewise prohibited by the Druids from eating the hare. In
spite of their natural timidity, ‘‘ performing” hares have often been exhibited, having been
trained by their masters to beat drums, and perform other feats of a noisy and startling kind.
Their skin is used in manufacturing hats. |

The manner in which the hare chooses different abodes at various seasons is well described
in the following lines :

“?Tis instinct that directs the jealous hare
To choose her soft abode. With steps reversed

She forms the doubling maze; then, ere the morn
Peeps through the clouds, leaps to her close recess.
As wandering shepherds on the Arabian plains
No settled residence observe, but shift
Their moving camps, so the wise crafty hares
Oft quit their seats, lest some more envious eye
Should mark their haunts, and by dark treacherous wiles
Plot their destruction . ; : : ;
When spring shines forth, season of love and joy,
In the moist marsh, ’mid beds of rushes hid,
They cool their boiling blood. When summer suns
Bake the cleft earth, to thick wide-spreading fields
Of corn full grown they lead their helpless young.
But when autumnal torrents and fierce rains
Deluge the vale, in the dry crumbling bank
Their forms they delve, and cautiously ayoid
The dripping covert. Yet when winter’s cold
Their limbs benumbs, thither with speed returned,
In the long grass they skulk, or shrinking, creep
Among the withered leaves.”

THE VARYING HARE (pute x1, 0,

Called also the Alpine hare, is much smaller than the common species. It obtains its name
from the fact that its summer coat of grey changes in winter to a snowy whiteness. It is found
among the rocks in the coldest parts of Europe, Asia, and America, and is also occasionally
met with in the highest and bleakest regions of Scotland. Like many other animals, the Alpine
hares are sometimes driven by the rigour of winter to quit their mountain haunts, where they
hide securely among the clefts of the rocks,.and to descend into the plains in search of food.
The Alpine hare, unlike the common kind, is easily tamed, and lives contentedly in captivity,
distinguishing itself by its playfulness, and its fondness for sweet delicacies, especially honey.
Instances have been known in which this kind of hare has been of a coal-black colour.

THE RABBIT (Pute x, 0)

Ts a well-known little ammal, bearing a great resemblance to the hare in outward appearance,
but far inferior to “Puss” in size. Rabbits also are social creatures, living in large commu-
nities in warrens, where they dig their holes, in which they hide during the heat of the day,
coming out in the morning and evening to feed; whereas the hare crouches solitary in ther
form, listening for every sound: of danger. The rabbit likewise differs from the hare in seeking
refuge in his burrow when he is alarmed by an enemy, whereas the hare at once rushes away -
from her home on the approach of any pursuer.

The rabbit is found in all parts of Europe except the coldest, and in the temperate parts
of Asia and Africa. It has been imported into America, where it also thrives well. The

peculiarity about the rabbit is in the immense number that may be produced within a short ‘
vo i;
DOMESTIC RABBITS — THE BEAVER AN ARCHITECT.

period from a few individuals. The female, or doe rabbit, has frequently no fewer than seven
litters of young ones within a year, and generally each litter consists of six or seven rabbits.
The common grey wild rabbit is well known as an article of food. Its skin is also used in-the
manufacture of hats and other articles of dress. A great number of dead rabbits are brought
from Belgium and Holland, chiefly by way of Ostend, for the London market. These are a
larger species than the English kind. ‘Tame rabbits are often kept for amusement by boys.
They are generally white and black. Fancy rabbits are those whose ears, instead of being
fixed in an upright position on each side of the head, lap over, or Jop, as it is called; and
according to the way in which the ears fall, either in a horn-lop, an oar-lop, or in the perfect
lop, is the rabbit considered valuable. These tame rabbits are much larger than the wild kind.
Rabbits feed chiefly on grass, which they nibble off very closely with their sharp teeth; they
are also fond of most vegetables, such as carrots, turnips, &c., and of bran and corn. They do
not require to drink; and too much moisture in their food is injurious ue them, rendering them
liable to a disease called the “rot.”

THE BEAVER.

The beaver (Plate xt., d) may truly be called a remarkable animal, and has been often
cited as an instance of the marvellous instinct with which certain creatures have been endowed.
In some animals this instinct appears most wonderfully in the ingenious manner of procuring

_food ; in others it manifests itself, as in the hare and fox, in the numerous stratagems the
creature employs in escaping from danger: in the beaver it is most strikingly shown in the

- marvellous skill with which he constructs his dwelling. Not content with a mere burrow or’ -

form, like the rabbit and hare, or with a nest on a bough or on the ground, like the thrush or
the swan, nothing short of a village, built on what is to him a navigable river, will suffice for
the beaver; and truly admirable and worthy of study is the labour he will undergo, and the
expedients he will adopt, to fashion his village to his liking.

The beaver is about two feet long and a foot high. Its head is round, its fore legs short,
the hinder legs long, and the hind feet webbed. The colour of the beaver_is alight brown.
Its broad singularly shaped tail is covered with a horny skin, in fish-like scales, and is used by
the beaver as a rudder in swimming. The sharpness of the beaver’s teeth is very remarkable.
The little creature can gnaw through the trunk of a tree by perseveringly working with these
formidable instruments. Its food is chiefly berries and the bark of young trees. The home
of the beaver is in North America, though anciently it also inhabited some parts of Europe.

In the autumn a community of two or three hundred beavers will make systematic pre-
parations for building their village. They invariably choose the side of a lake or stream; and
if the water is too shallow for their purpose, or makes them fear that they will be “frozen out”
in the winter, they proceed, with the skill of engineers, to deepen it. Just as a stream is
dammed up in the neighbourhood of a mill to husband and regulate the water supply, do the
beavers construct a dam, sometimes more than a hundred feet long, to keep the water ata
proper level. This dam is made of branches of trees, gnawed from the stems by the little archi-
tects’ sharp teeth, and laid along in lines, with clay and stones intermingled, to render the bank
impervious to water. At the base this dam is twelve feet thick, but gradually narrows towards
the top till it is only three feet across at the edge. Near the dam, the beavers build their bell-
shaped huts, which are inhabited by from a dozen to thirty beavers each, and rise to a height
of six feet above the water. The careful beaver also lays in a stock of branches and strips of

bark for winter provisions ; and takes care, moreover, to construct a curious place of refuge—a
24
A TAME BEAVER—WHAT MAY BE LEARNED FROM ANIMALS.

hole dug out of the bank, in some spot near his dwelling, whither he may retire if surprised.
But all his precautions are often unavailing. His soft fur is of such value, that the hunter
pursues him perseveringly ; and, tracing him to his retreat, often captures the unhappy beaver
with all the young family that share his dwelling.

The following is an account of a tame female beaver, kept for some months in his garden,
by a scientific gentleman. “ She was about half grown, and, except the tail and hind feet,
bore not a very distant resemblance to a great overgrown water rat. She fed on bread and water,
and gnawed several vines, jessamines, and hollies that were within her reach. When she ate,
she sat on her hind legs, and held the bread in her fore paws, like a squirrel. In swimming, she
held her fore feet close under the throat, swimming with her hind feet only, and steering her
course with her tail. She would keep under water for two or three minutes, and then come
up to breathe. She swam much faster than any water fowl, and under water she moved as
fast as a carp. She was very brisk, and throve well upon the food she took, and was turned
into a spring to bathe three or four times a week. She was at length killed by a dog.”

In former times the beavers were very plentiful in North America; but such numbers of
them have been killed by the hunters and trappers that they are now becoming scarcer and
scarcer every year.

THE MUSK BEAVER (Pite x1, ¢)

Is a much smaller animal than the proper or castor beaver. It does not exceed a foot in
length, and, like the common beaver, inhabits North America. The musk beaver does not
attempt to construct dams and villages on the grand scale followed by his larger cousin; but he
manages to build himself a very neat little cottage of clay and branches, with a dome-shaped
roof. He builds a new dwelling every autumn, and at the approach of winter, retires into it
with his family, coming out occasionally, through the ice and snow, to feed on roots and the
bark of trees; for he has not, like the large beaver, the instinct to lay up a stock of provisions
for the winter. The female musk beaver has three families in the year, consisting of three or
four little ones each time; thus these creatures would increase rapidly but for the numerous
enemies, among man and beasts, with whom they have to contend. The study of the arts
employed by the beaver and many other animals to provide for their wants, is replete with
instruction. In the words of the poet Pope, we may advise our readers to

“Learn from the birds what food the thickets yield ;
Learn from the beasts the physic of the field ;
Thy arts of building from the bee receive ;

Learn of the mole to plough, the worm to weave;
Learn of the little nautilus to sail,

- Spread the thin oar, and catch the driving gale.
Here too all forms of social union find,

And hence let reason late instruct mankind:
Here subterranean works and cities see ;
There towns aérial on the waving tree.

Learn each small people’s genius, policies,
The ant’s republic, and the realm of bees;
How those in common all their wealth bestow,
And anarchy without confusion know ;

And these for ever, though a monarch reign,
Their separate cells and properties maintain.”

25 o
THE CUNNING FOX—AFFECTION OF THE FEMALE FOX TO HER YOUNG.

THE FOX.

* Foxes have holes, and the birds a the air have nests; but the Son of Man hath not
where to lay His head.” —Lwuke ix.,

The fox (Plate x11, 6) is an animal of the dog tribe. It is found in many varieties,
almost every part of the world having its own species, excepting the hottest latitudes. Among
the many varieties may be mentioned the arctic fox of the northern regions, the black fox of
Siberia, whose fur is exceedingly valuable, and the grey and silvery fox of the warmer parts of
North America. All these, and many other species, possess the main features of the fox,
namely, the sharp muzzle, long fur, short legs, and bushy tail. The arctic fox is a far less
sagacious animal than its relations who dwell in warmer climates.

In England the fox is well known, alike as a favourite animal of the chase, and a very
mischievous neighbour to the farmer, for whose poultry he has an especial liking. Indeed, he
is such a cunning thief, that were it not for the amusement he affords to the hunter, he would
probably have been long ago exterminated. There are three varieties in England, differing in
size, but all of the same reddish colour: the cur fox, the smallest of these, is the most common.
The fox possesses many qualities of the dog. For his size he is decidedly courageous; he will
bite his enemy fiercely, and when once he fixes his teeth in a foe, can hardly be made to let go
his hold. The sharpest pain will hardly force a cry from him. He can be tamed without
much difficulty, and will attach himself strongly to those who are kind to him; but his temper
is always uncertain, and he will often snap spitefully at the hand that caresses him. His food
is very various. He will eat small birds and frogs, snails and insects; mice and rats do not
come amiss to him; to berries and fruits he is very partial, and his fondness for grapes
especially has been proverbial since the days when Alsop wrote the fable of the “ Fox and the
Grapes.” Even in the Bible we find reference to this fact, in the verse of Solomon’s Song:
“Take us the foxes, the little foxes, that destroy the vines, for our vines have tender grapes.”
On the sea shore he preys upon the crabs and shell-fish, and is said to entrap the unsuspecting
oyster by thrusting a pebble into its open shell, and thus preventing the valves from closing.
Frequently hunted himself, he is in his turn a great hunter, destroying young pheasants,
partridges, leverets, rabbits, and all small animals that are not strong enough to resist him.
Honey also has such charms for him, that he will risk the anger of the bees in his attempt to -
steal it; but it is in attacking the poultry that he displays all his cunning.

The fox makes for himself a hole or burrow in the earth, generally in a bank, or under
the roots of a tree. He takes care to have more than one entrance to this retreat, so that, if
danger approaches through one door, he may escape by another. Accordingly the huntsman
is careful to stop up the holes, that the fox, who, when first started, generally makes for his
hole, may be compelled to flee across the country, finding his usual retreat. cut off. Not
unfrequently he takes wrongful possession of the hole dug by a badger, and establishes himself
and his family therein. He chooses the night-time for his depredations ; and thus the poet, in
describing the evening operations on a farm, rightly enumerates among the other precautions
taken against danger and loss, that

“The snare for master fox is set.’ %

The female fox is remarkable for the care and affection with which she brings up her
young. Instances are known, in which foxes have carried their cubs considerable distances
from their former abode, when they suspected the approach of danger; and sometimes they
have even been known to climb trees, that they might deposit the cubs in the forks of the

branches, out of the reach of the eager hounds.
26
i

i

i)


















































BAD CHARACTER OF THE JACKAL—THE HEDGEHOG.

Among other examples of this nature, the following is well authenticated. “A female
fox, having a cub, was unkennelled near Chelmsford, by some gentlemen’s hounds and friends,
and pursued by them a considerable distance, with all the eagerness of sport. The poor animal,

at the moment of their approach, felt for the safety of her young one; and snatching it up in

\

her mouth, fled before her pursuers for several miles, panting under the weight of her burden,
but resolved to preserve it at the hazard of her own life. At length, exhausted by fatigue and
fear, she was attacked by a mastiff in a farmer’s yard, and, unable to support her offspring any
longer, she dropped it at the farmer’s feet, who kindly saved it from. destruction, while the
mother happily saved her own life from the multiplied dangers by which she was surrounded.”
The fox has a very strong and peculiar smell, by which the hounds can trace him for a long

distance.

THE JACKAL (pute xm., a)

Ts a creature closely resembling the fox in many particulars. It is found in great numbers in
the central and southern parts of Asia, but cannot, like the fox, endure much cold. In the
whole of Africa jackals are to be met with. Its height is from fifteen to twenty inches, and its

' length from the snout to the tail about two feet and a half. The general colour is dusky on —

the back, and a tawny yellow below. ‘The tail is bushy, the snout less pointed than that of
the fox. The jackal is very easily tamed, and grows as familiar.as a dog, running after its
master, and sporting and frisking round him, anxious to attract his attention and to be caressed,
and readily answering to its name. Their food, like that of the fox, is very various. They are
omnivorous, devouring vegetable and animal substances with equal voracity. Unlike the fox, ©
they will feed on carrion without being hard pressed by hunger; nor are they solitary like the
fox, who dwells in a burrow with only the cubs for company, and goes out alone for prey.
Jackals, on the contrary, hunt their prey in packs of from fifty to two hundred; -scouring
across the country like a pack of hounds in full cry, barking and yelping noisily, and arousing
all the animals in their neighbourhood from nightfall to daybreak. Thievish like the fox, they
plunder gardens, outhouses, and poultry yards; but far less fastidious than Reynard in their
fare, they devour almost anything that comes in their way, including the hides of oxen, and
even leather thongs and saddles. In the desert they will frequently follow the march of a
caravan for many days and nights, in order to prey upon any camel or horse that may perish
from exhaustion, and be left behind by the troop. The name, “the lion’s provider,” which has
been given to the jackal, from the prevalent idea that it hunts to provide the king of beasts
with food, has little foundation in fact. The truth is, that the howling of a pack of jackals
rouses up all the beasts of the forest, including the lion, who takes his share of the smaller
and more timid creatures as they fly in terror across the plain. :

Buffon, the naturalist, gives the jackal a very bad character, asserting that “he unites the
impudence of. the dog with the dastardliness of the wolf; and, participating in the nature of
each, seems to be an odious creature, composed of all the bad qualities of both.” This is very
hard upon the poor jackal, which, when tamed and properly educated, proves himself a very
good-humoured, sportive little fellow.

THE HEDGEHOG.

This little animal, which has sometimes been called the English porcupine, is chiefly

remarkable for the prickly coat he wears—a true. hauberk or shirt of mail, which protects him
against every enemy—and. for his strange power of rolling himself into a ball when attacked,

and thus completely hiding his head and paws, and presenting to his enemy somewhat the
appearance of a large brown prickly chestnut, with which none but the most daring would wish
27
SUPERSTITIONS CONNECTED WITH THE SHREW.

to meddle. This power proceeds from a peculiarly tough and strong muscle with which his back
is furnished ; and so pertinaciously does he maintain his position when once he has rolled him-
self up, that hardly anything short of the application of fire will induce him to unroll himself
and come out of his natural stronghold. The hedgehog is about ten inches ia length, and has
along nose, not unlike the snout of a pig in shape. His legs are very short, and weak in
appearance, and his eyes are small. During the day he lies asleep, but sallies out in the
evening ; and during the night he is very lively, going to and fro in quest of insects, fruits, and.
herbs, on which he feeds. During the winter he sleeps away most of his time in a bed of moss.
or dry leaves. He is quite harmless, though superstition has attached him, like the cat, to the
service of witches. In Shakespeare’s “‘ Macbeth,” the whining of the hedge-pig is oa .
by one of the witches, as a signal that it is time to prepare their magic cauldron. :

The Rev. Gilbert White, the naturalist of Selborne, in speaking of this animal, says:
“ Hedgehogs abound in my gardens and fields (in Hampshire). ‘The manner in which they eat
the roots of the plantain in my grass walks is very curious. With their upper mandible, which
is much longer than their lower, they bore under the plant, and so eat the root off upwards,
leaving the tuft of leaves untouched. In this respect they are serviceable, as they destroy a
very troublesome weed; but they deface the walks in some measure by digging little round
holes. . . . . In June last I procured a litter of four or five young hedgehogs, which
appeared to be about five or six days old; I find they are born blind, like puppies, and could
not see when they came into my hands. ‘Their spines are quite white at this age; and they
have little hanging ears, which I do not remember to be discernible im the old ones.”

SHREWS.

Of these little creatures there are no fewer than twelve species, not differing in any very
essential particular from each other. They greatly resemble the rat in pep iearence) and all
have sharp muzzles and cutting teeth. The first species is

The Ferm Surew (Plate x1v., d). This shrew is only three mete long, and is found in
most parts of Europe, and the northern division of Asia. It is very like the common mouse in
appearance, and takes up its abode in ruined buildings, or burrows in the ground. Its food is
insects, corn, and any refuse it can find. It obtains its name from the offensive odour of its
. flesh, which is so tainted that the cat and owl, though they hunt and kill it, will not eat it.
Its eyes are small and its ears short. It is quite harmless.

The Water Surew (Plate xtv., e) is somewhat larger than the fetid shrew. Its colour
is black above, and grey or white below. It swims well, and takes up its abode in the
neighbourhood of water. The pike and other fish feed upon it greedily. It has a chirruping
voice, like that of a cricket. It burrows like a water rat in the banks of streams, and lives
upon grubs and other water insects. }

The Promy Surew differs from the other species only in the smallness of its size. It is”
not more than an inch long, and is supposed to be the smallest of four-footed creatures; hence |
its name Pigmy, from the Pigmies, a supposed nation of dwarfs. There are other species, such
as the Mexrcan, the Perrumine Surew, &.

Harmless and inoffensive as is the poor little shrew, the ignorance and superstition of the
people in old days gave it a very bad name. . The simple villagers asserted that the bite of a
shrew mouse was poisonous, and could only be cured by cutting a shrew in two, and laying the
halves across the wound. Cattle over whose bodies a shrew mouse had run were supposed to |
become sick and ailing, and could only be cured by a shrew ash. The superstition is thus.
explained by Gilbert White: “A shrew ash is an ash whose twigs or branches, when gently ’
applied to the limbs of cattle, will immediately relieve the pains which a beast suffers from the

28








tC)

i.
pe eee

ies
Mie in

“Wig

= <> \
°° ~~ =< a

NN
WSs R









\ \









ON
KOK

Nw
w
S

w

wv

*\
es

Xs

as
Loo
\ \
SANG

NY

Ww







)

wR) * ae
RN Mint ie a
SS

— Oar Ba = aAee































Sia
“Sas

= = ar
44 LOS wee =
wa







fa
EEN







=



a
aN












GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BIRDS.

running of a shrew mouse over the part affected; for it is supposed that a shrew mouse is of
so baneful and deleterious a nature, that, wherever it creeps over a beast, be it horse, cow, or
sheep, the suffering animal is afflicted with cruel anguish, and threatened with the loss of the
use of the limb. Against this accident, to which they were continually liable, our prudent
forefathers always kept a shrew ash at hand, which, when once medicated, would retain its virtue
for ever. A shrew ash was made thus: Into the body of the tree a deep hole was bored with
an auger, and a poor devoted shrew mouse was thrust in alive, and plugged in, no doubt, with
several quaint incantations, long since forgotten.” And then the superstitious villagers thought
that an animal injured by a shrew mouse could be healed by the touch of a branch of the shrew
ash. The remedy was as imaginary as the evil it was intended to cure.



BIRDS.

“ You winged choristers, that dwell in woods, and there maintain a quire,
Whose music doth all art excel, nought can we emulate, but admire ;
You, living galleys of the air, that through the strongest tempest slide,
And, by your wanton flight, who dare the fury of the winds divide.

Praise Him, and in this harmony and love
Let your soft quire contend with that above.”

: have now to speak of a great class of animals very different from those we last
considered. After the “beasts of the field,’ that were made subject to man, we come
to the “fowls of the air,” or, as we generally call them, the great race of birds; and here again
we are struck with the infinite variety of species, and admire the wisdom with which the great
Creator has provided each with all that is necessary for its subsistence, from the greatest to the
least. ‘Behold the fowls of the air,” the Saviour said to the men to whom He wished to teach
reliance on the Divine care, “for they sow not, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns; yet
your heavenly Father feedeth them. Are ye not much better than they?” And thus it is,
from the lordly eagle in his nest on the lofty crag to which no man can climb, from the great
albatross flying over the sea a thousand miles from land, down to the little wren in its tiny
nest in the coppice, or the pretty redbreast hopping across the snowy field in winter, the
Lord provides for all. Two sparrows are sold for a farthing; but not one can fall without
His knowledge. :

The classes of birds are as various as those of the quadrupeds, and correspond with the
latter in many particulars of disposition and habit. Thus the birds of prey, that live upon
flesh, are fierce and cruel, like the cat tribe, living alone, and generally avoiding the neighbour-
hood of man and of beasts and birds. The gallinaceous birds, or those of the poultry tribe,
on the other hand, are sociable and friendly, living together in harmony, and readily submitting
to the control and protection of man. Some birds, like the amphibious animals, seem equally
~ at home on land and in the water. Some, like the rabbit among quadrupeds, are remarkable
for their rapid increase in number; others astonish us by their swiftness; while many, though
strong on the wing, never care to leave the grove in which they have once established them-
selves. Others, guided by an unerring instinct, wing their way, at the approach of winter, to
the warmer regions of the south, returning to their northern haunts when the cold season is
past, and heralding by their coming the approach of genial spring and sunshine.

Some general features, however, all birds have in common. If we notice the shape of
their bodies, we shall see that they are admirably adapted for quick movement. From the
shape of the swimming birds the first ideas of the form of a ship have doubtless been taken,
while the swallow careering through the air has no small resemblance to an arrow or bolt shot
from a bow. The bones of all birds are hollow, and very light compared with the size of the
bird, and the muscles of the wings are very large and strong; the senses, too, are highly

29 ;
TEACHABLENESS OF BIRDS—THEIR SAGACITY AND AFFECTION.

developed. Some birds have the faculty of seeing at a great distance with marvellous acuteness..
The hawk will discern his prey at a great distance; and ia the cities of the East, where. the
wild birds are sometimes fed by the inhabitants as a matter of duty, if a man goes out upon
the flat roof of a house, and strews food around him, in a few moments he will see the storks
and other birds careering through the air towards him, though when he went up not a single
bird was in view. Though they have no external ears, the sense of hearing is very fine in birds,
for many of them.can not only hear sounds at a great distance, but can distinguish the difference
between the various notes and modulations. This is shown by the fact that bullfinches learn to
whistle tunes, and many birds of the parrot and pye tribe to utter words and sentences.

In sagacity, too, and the faculty of imitation, some birds are not inferior to the ‘most
teachable of quadrupeds. very one in our large towns has seen the “ performing canaries,”
trained to draw little waggons, to fire tiny cannon, to fall down as if shot, and to go through
many similar feats and tricks ; and an instance is recorded in which a stork played at hide-and-
seek with a party of children, taking his share in the amusement with an air of grave enjoyment
very ludicrous to behold. The affection of many species for their young is also very remarkable.
Some will lure the hunter or the dogs away from their nest by affecting to be wounded, and
thus tempting their enemy to pursue them by the hope of capture; until, when they consider
they have placed a sufficient distance between the pursuer and their nest, they rise suddenly in
the air and speed away home, leaving the baffled foe gazing after them in astonishment. One
of our great writers, Joseph Addison, especially notices the care and attention bestowed by the
hen upon her domestic concerns. “ With what caution,” he says, “does the hen provide herself
a nest in places unfrequented and free from noise and disturbance! When she has laid her
eggs in such a manner that she can cover them, what care does she take in turning them
frequently, that all parts may partake of the vital warmth! ‘When she leaves them, to provide
for her necessary sustenance, how punctually does she return before they have time to cool and
become incapable of producing an animal! In the summer you see her giving herself greater
freedom, and quitting her care for above two hours together ; but in winter, when the rigour of
the season would chill the principles of life and destroy the young ones, she grows more
assiduous in her attendance, and stays away but half the time. When the birth approaches,
with how much nicety and attention does she help the chick to break the prison — besides
covering it from the injuries of the weather, providing it with proper nourishment, and teaching
it to help itself!” .

In this book there will not be space to describe with any completeness the vast variety of
birds found in different parts of the earth. -But we shall have something to say concerning the
principal families and their habits and customs, so that our young readers may have a general
idea of this beautiful part of the living creation, and may afterwards pursue the subject more
at length in more advanced books on the subject. But whether the account be shortened or
extended, one thing cannot fail to strike the observer ; namely, the infinite goodness and
beneficence of the great Creator, by whom all things were made, and by whose power and mercy
every living being is sustained.

“ He hears, and feeds their feathered families ;
He feeds his sweet musicians, nor neglects
Th’ invoking ravens in the greenwood wide;
And though their throats’ hoarse rattling hurt the ear,
They mean it all for music—thanks and praise
They mean, and leave ingratitude to man.
Oh, Hz is good, Hz is immensely good! 3
Who all things formed, and formed them all for man;
Who marked the climates, varied every zone,

Dispensing all His blessings for the best,
In order and in beauty.”

80
ON SOME RAPACIOUS ‘BIRDS.

“True to the season, o’er our sea-beat. shore,
The sailing osprey high is seen to soar
. With broad unmoving wing; and circling slow
Marks each loose straggler in the deep below;
Sweeps down like lightning! plunges with a roar!
And bears his struggling victim to the shore.”

In this book we proposed to speak especially of Domestic Animals, or of those which man
has tamed for his use, and taught to live in a sociable manner around his dwelling-place. In
speaking of birds we shall follow the same rule; but here it is necessary to make a slight
alteration in our plan. In many of the great classes into which birds are divided, some indi-
viduals have been tamed; others have lived in a half domesticated state around the dwellings
of man; while others of the same tribe have always maintained their independence. ‘Thus,
while the lordly eagle soars in wild freedom above his mountain crag, the falcon, who belongs to
the same family, namely, that of the rapacious birds, has been for ages tamed and used in the
chase; thus again, while the turkey struts about in our poultry-yards, the largest, and certainly
the most conceited of its denizens, his cousin, the turkey buzzard, flies about in freedom in the
American forests. ai

Rapacious birds in general are distinguished by the same features which mark the beasts
of prey. They live alone, and have none of the social qualities exhibited by birds of other
classes. Goldsmith, in his ‘ Animated Nature,” well describes their dispositions. He says:

“Formed for war, they lead a life of solitude and robbery. They inhabit, by choice, the
most lonely places and the most desert mountains. They make their nests in the clefts of
rocks and on the highest and most inaccessible trees of the forest. Whenever they appear in
the cultivated plain or the warbling grove, it is only for the purposes of depredation, and are
gloomy intruders on the general joy of the landscape. They spread terror wherever they
approach : all that variety of music which but a moment before enlivened the grove, at their
appearing is instantly at an end: every order of lesser birds seek for safety, either by conceal-
ment or flight; and some are even driven to take protection with man, to avoid their less
merciful pursuers.” .

The largest birds of this class are the different species of eagles and vultures. These
birds are known by their lofty flight, their large powerful wings, and their wild fierce natures.
They live on small quadrupeds and birds of every kind; and when they have young ones to
feed, they often commit great depredations among the flocks, carrying off many a young lamb
to their nest on the lofty crag, to feed the sharp-beaked hungry eaglets who scream for prey.
The fietce warlike nature of the eagle made it a fit emblem or sign of the Roman power; and
therefore the Romans carried figures of eagles, carved in gold, in front of their armies, as we
now carry flags or ensigns ; and every Roman soldier had to take an oath that he would never
on any account desert his standard. The Romans also considered this bird as sacred to the
god Jupiter, who was always represented with an eagle by his side.

_ The chief species of the eagle are—the Goxprn Eacun, which mm former times was some-
times trained to the chase, being taught to pursue and capture other birds; until the falcon, a |
smaller and lighter bird, was found much better adapted for this duty ;—the Common Eactn,
which measures about three feet from the bill to the tail, and is found in most of the northern
and central countries of Europe, in mountainous desolate regions, but which disappears, like all
birds and beasts of prey, before the advance of man ;—the Batp Hatz, which takes its name |
from the head and neck being white, and thus presenting an appearance of baldness as con-
trasted with the deep brown colour of the body: this bird is found chiefly in North America ;

31
ENCOUNTER BETWEEN AN EAGLE AND A CAT.

the Warts Eaetz, the Buack Eaete, and the Sporrep Eactze, all distinguised by, and named:
after, their peculiar colour.

THE OSPREY, OR SEA EAGLE (pute x1, 0,

Is worthy of particular mention. This bird is an admirable example of the way in which the
great Creator has fitted every creature for the kind of life it is intended to pursue. The sea
eagle, as its name implies, dwells near the ocean, building its nest upon a crag on the shore,
whence it can skim across the waters, catching the fish as they swim near the surface; for fish
are its chief food, though it occasionally flies inland, robbing the farmyards, and seizing any
bird or small quadruped that comes in its way. As fishes are slippery creatures, apt to wriggle
and writhe themselves out of the grasp of their enemies, the osprey is furnished with long
sharp talons, curving downwards in a half circle; and with these sharp talons it holds its prey
as with hooks, and soars away towards its nest, while the poor captive struggles in vain to
escape. Its legs, too, are devoid of feathers, as, from its manner of seeking its prey, they are
almost always wet. The osprey is a large kind of eagle, measuring from three to four feet
from the beak to the tip of the tail. An instance is recorded of an eagle of this kind in
Westmoreland, that swooped down and seized an unfortunate cat, who was harmlessly sunning
herself in the fields; but Puss showed she had talons as well as the eagle, and with her claws
and teeth she made such a brave fight of it, that the osprey was dragged down to the ground,
and was at last glad to make his escape, wondering, perhaps, what this new kind a hare might
be, that tore and scratched so savagely.

THE VULTURES

Have a general resemblance to the eagle, but their featherless heads and naked legs give them
a disagreeable appearance. Unlike the eagle, the vulture lives on carrion or putrid meat; and
were its head covered with feathers like that of the eagle, it would become still more repulsive
than it is, for the feathers would quickly become clogged and matted together with the disgust-
ing food on which it lives. The vulture is confined to the hot latitudes, and in many Hastern
countries is very useful in clearing away the dead animals whose carcases are left to rot in the
city or on the plain, and would infect the air, if the vultures did not devour them. The largest
species of vulture is the American condor, a bird of great size, but heavy, stupid, and cowardly.

THE ERNE (Piate w., a)

Is distinguished by its iron colour, dark above and yellowish below. It is a small species, but
flies very swiftly, and is said to discern its prey at a great distance.

THE FALCON AND HAWK KIND,

Among the rapacious birds (See Plates xv. and xv1.), though smaller than the eagle, are more
like that royal bird, in form and in character, than is the heavy loathsome vulture. In the days
of old, when all kinds of field sports were the chief delight of kings, princes, and nobles, when
learning and study were considered as unimportant and foolish in comparison with a knowledge
of hunting and hawking, the falcon was highly prized, and to kill a bird of this kind was a more
serious matter than the slaying of a mere peasant. Immense sums were given for falcons;
and though the people grew up in utter ignorance, the falconers were thoroughly educated and
trained.

32
-

IMPORTANCE OF THE FALCON IN THE MIDDLE AGES.

Great attention was paid to the breed of falcons, and the office of falconer was one of
importance and profit. Our ancestors distinguished not only the various species, but the
smaller varieties of the tribe, calling each by its separate name, as the kestrel, the ger-falcon,
the lanner, the merlin, &c. They are distinguished from the meaner kinds of the same family,
the kites and buzzards, by the length of the wing-feathers, which enables them to fly with great
swiftness, while the short-winged buzzards and kites are heavy and slow in comparison. The
falcons are also more courageous and more teachable than the meaner birds of prey.

THE GOSHAWK (pute xv., 6

Ts a handsome bird, though he does not belong to the “‘ generous” or “ noble” tribe of falcons,
__ his wings being too short to entitle him to that rank. But he is a courageous handsome bird,

very fierce and predatory, and a great pest to the farmyard. He may be trained like the nobler
falcons, though he will never equal these in speed and docility. Buffon, the naturalist, once
kept a couple of these hawks together for some months, but they never showed any affection
for each other, and at last the male killed the female in an access of fury.

THE GER-FALCON § (Puie xv, 0)

Ts nearly as large as the osprey, and is said to have been originally brought from Iceland and
the northern parts of Europe. He is a beautiful bird, the greatest of the falcon tribe, and
likewise the most generous and docile. Accordingly, in the days when lords and ladies rode
out to enjoy the sport of falconry, while other and meaner kinds of falcons were trained to
pursue the smaller birds, the ger was started at the lordly heron, whose sharp beak would soon
have proved fatal to an assailant of less courage and address. The stork and the crane, large
and formidable birds, likewise fall victims to the ger-falcon. Strange to say, the female of the
falcon tribe was always preferred, for purposes of the chase, to the male; for, contrary to the
~ general rule, according to which the male bird is superior in size and brilliancy of plumage to the
female, among the falcons the female is always the larger and handsomer bird; and thus the male
was called by the falconers a ééercelet, which signifies that it is a third smaller than the female.

THE BUZZARD (Plate xv1, 6)

Is a dull heavy bird of its kind, common enough in the English forests, where it frequentl
takes possession of an old crow’s nest, which it lines with wool, and then it lays its eggs, and
brings up its young in the ill-earned domicile. Goldsmith, in his “ Natural History,” gives the
following account of the buzzard: ‘“ He is a sluggish, inactive bird, and often remains perched
whole days together upon the same bough. He is rather an assassin than a pursuer; and lives —
more upon frogs, mice, and insects, which he can easily seize, than upon birds which he is
obliged to follow. He lives in summer by robbing the nests of other birds and sucking their
‘eggs, and more resembles the owl kind in his countenance than any other rapacious ‘bird of
day. His figure implies the stupidity of his disposition; and so little is he capable of instruc-
tion from man, that it is common to a proverb to call one who cannot be taught, or continues
obstinately ignorant, a’duzzard. The honey-buzzard, the moor-buzzard, and the hen harrier
are all of this stupid tribe, and differ chiefly in their size, growing less in the order I have named
them. The goshawk and sparrow-hawk are what Mr. Willoughby calls short-winged birds,
and consequently unfit for training, however injurious they may be to the pigeon-house or the ©
sportsman. They have been indeed taught to fly at game; but little is to be obtained from

their efforts, being difficult of instruction and capricious in their obedience.”
a3 F
THE POULTRY KIND.

“ The careful hen

Calls all her chirping family around,

Fed and defended by the fearless cock,

Whose breast with ardour glows, as on he walks,

Graceful, and crows defiance. * * * The turkey nigh,

Loud threatening, reddens ; while the peacock spreads

His many-coloured glory to the sun,

And swims in radiant majesty along. 2

Birds of the poultry kind were intended by nature to live among men in a domestic state,

and they occupy among birds the place filled by the horse and ox tribe among quadrupeds.
Unlike the rapacious birds, they are sociable and cheerful, delighting in each other’s society,
and shunning solitude as much as the eagle or falcon would seek it. Their wings are generally
short and their bodies plump, so that they are neither able nor willing to fly far from their
abodes, or to seek inaccessible solitudes among the rocks. | As they feed on grain and seeds,
their legs and claws are strong; not formed, however, like those of the rapacious birds, foi
seizing and holding prey, but for scratching up the ground in search of food. . The gizzard
with which they are provided enables them to digest the hard seeds they swallow; and the
numerous chicks they produce render them very valuable to the farmer’s wife, whose poultry-
yard forms an important part of the domestic economy of the farm.

THE COCK AND HEN

Are too well known to need any long description. They have been introduced into almost
every country in the world, and, like the horse and ox, appear to thrive almost wherever man
can live. There are many different species, varying in size and plumage, but all present the
same general features.

Just as among the falcons some kinds are more courageous and noble than others, so we
find that some breeds of cocks will fight courageously with adversaries twice their own size;
while others will succumb after a,short resistance. A little game cock, for instance, will boldly
attack a farmyard or, as he is sometimes called, a dunghill cock twice his own size, and put
him to flight by mere rage and fury. The farmyard cock, however, until he has been beaten
by an enemy, rules in a despotic and determined manner among the poultry, and, expects
deference and obedience from every feathered fellow creature he meets.

The cock and hen are said to have come from Persia, but they were known all over the
Old World in very remote times. Ceesar found them in Britain when he landed half a century
before our Saviour’s birth, and even to Iceland they had made their way in early times. |

In White’s “Natural History of Selborne” occur the following interesting remarks
respecting the habits of poultry :—“ Many creatures are endowed with a ready discernment to
see what will turn to their own advantage and emolument, and often discover more sagacity
than could be expected. Thus, my neighbour’s poultry watch for waggons loaded with wheat,
and running after them, pick up a number of grains which are shaken from the sheaves by the
agitation of the carriages. Thus, when my brother used to take down his gun to shoot
sparrows, his cats would run out before him, to be ready to catch up the birds as they fell. The
earnest and early propensity of the galling to roost on high is very observable, and discovers a
strong dread impressed on their spirits respecting vermin that may.annoy them on the ground.
during the hours of darkness. Hence poultry, if left to themselves and not housed, will perch

the winter through on yew trees and fir trees; and turkeys and guinea-fowls, heavy as they are,
34
BEAUTY OF THE PHEASANT—EASILY TAMED—THE TURKEY.

get up into apple trees; pheasants also in woods sleep on trees to avoid foxes; while pea-fowls
climb to the tops of the highest trees round their owner’s house for security, let the weather be
ever so cold or blowing. Partridges, it is true, roost on the ground, not having the faculty of
perching ; but then the same fear prevails in their minds, for, through apprehension from pole-
cats and stoats, they never trust themselves to coverts, but nestle together in the midst of large
fields, far removed from hedges and coppices, which they love to haunt in the day, and where
at that season they can skulk more secure from the ravages of rapacious birds.”

THE PHEASANT

Has long been known in England as the chief among our game birds. In years when no
especial inclemency or wetness of the weather thins their numbers, pheasants abound in the
woods and coppices where the game animals are preserved by the owners; and with the 1st
of October commences the time when they fall victims to the sportsman’s gun. For beauty
and brilliancy of plumage the pheasant is unsurpassed, except by the peacock. The poet Pope

has described
“ His glossy varying dyes,

His purpled crest, and scarlet-circled eyes,
The vivid green his shining plumes unfold,
His painted wings, and breast that flames with gold.”

The pheasant is a harmless sociable bird, and readily adapts itself to various climates.
Asia Minor seems to have been its first home; but it spread from one country to another
throughout the Old World, and thus there are various species in different countries. In England
the pheasant thrives in its wild state, feeding on berries and acorns, and making a nest of dried
leaves in the forest. When taken young, the birds become as tame as chicks, and may be kept
in the poultry-yard, and fed on the food given to the poultry generally.’ At night, as already
observed, they roost on high trees to be out of the way of danger; and, when disturbed, they
usually fall an easy prey to the sportsman, for their flight is heavy, and they rise with a loud
whirring noise that at once directs attention to them. The delicacy of the pheasant’s flesh is
well known. Among the varieties of this class of birds may be mentioned the GoLpEn
PHEASANT (Plate xvu., 6). This is the most beautiful kind. It is a native of China. Its
brilliant plumage is one blaze of gold colour above, and of rich deep red below.—The Sriver
Purasant (Plate xvi, a), the male of which species is of a fine eee with
delicate serpentine lines, and of a violet colour below, while the female is of a reddish-brown
hue, delicately shaded with green, and with black bands.—The Grzamine or LopHopHorous
Puuasant (Plate xv1., ), with a crest of feathers on its head like the peacock. This is a splendid
pheasant, its plumage gleaming with emerald tints intermingled with red and gold. The male
pheasant of this variety is one‘of the most gorgeous of birds; but in this, as in every kind of
the pheasant tribe, the plumage of the female is plain and homely compared with that of her
mate.—Lastly, the Argus Puzasant (Plate xvi, c), so called from the numerous black and
white spots, reminding the spectator of the hundred eyes of Argus, with which the tail feathers
are adorned. This pheasant comes from Sumatra and the islands of the Malay Peninsula.

THE TURKEY (Piote xvu., /)

This well-known bird is supposed to be a native of North America, where it is still to be
found commonly enough, in a wild state, in the dense forests of the Western States. It does
not appear to have been known in Europe until some time after the discovery of America; and:
this fact strengthens the supposition that the turkey was first brought by some of the Spanish
discoverers of the New World to Europe. Considering his heavy build and slow short flight,

35
COWARDLY DISPOSITION OF THE TURKEY—THE PEACOCK.

it is certainly very unlikely that he could ever have found his way across the ocean, except in a
ship. The turkey is valued for his flesh. His delight is to wander with his wives about the
precincts of the farmyard in search of insects and larvee, especially the eggs of ants, of which
he is immoderately fond. ‘This peculiarity is cleverly noticed in Gay’s fable of “ The Turkey.
and the Ants,” where the old hen turkey is represented as having forsaken the barn with her
infant train in quest of a change of diet. She comes unexpectedly upon an ant-hill, and while
devouring as many of the eggs as she can swallow, she bursts out into a rapturous speech,
inciting her brood to eat freely, and assuring them that “an ant is most delightful meat.”
And then she goes on to allude feelingly to the vile gluttony of man, who eats turkeys, “ until,”
she says, “‘ Christmas shortens all our days.”

The quarrelsome and yet cowardly disposition of the turkey cocks is aptly described by
Goldsmith in the following paragraph :—‘ Though so furious among themselves, they are weak
and cowardly against other animals far less powerful than themselves. The cock often makes
the turkey keep at a distance, and they seldom venture to attack him but with united force,
when they rather oppress him by their weight than annoy him by their arms. ‘There is no
animal, how contemptible soever, that will venture boldly to face the turkey cock, that he will
not fly from. On the contrary, with the insolence of a bully, he pursues anything that seems
to fear him, particularly lap-dogs and children, against both which he seems to have a peculiar
aversion. On such occasions, after he has made them scamper, he returns to his female train,
displays his plumage around, struts about the yard, and gobbles out a note of self-approbation.”

THE PEACOCK (Plate xvitt., @)

Ts a native of India. This most brilliant of birds was known in very ancient times; for in
the Bible it is mentioned as being imported into Judea by the fleet of King Solomon. The
peacock shows the adaptability to various climates characteristic of the species to which it
belongs, and consequently we find it domiciled in every country, as far north as Sweden and
Norway.

Among the Romans it was considered the height of splendour to crown a banquet with a
peacock, and among our English ancestors the peacock formed the gorgeous centre-dish at
many a great feast. The bird seemed, however, to be introduced more for ornament than use,
for its flesh was not very highly esteemed; and thus it was regarded rather as a distinguishing
decoration of the board than a dish whose flavour might delight the guests; therefore the
peacock appeared at the table with his magnificent train spread out for the admiration of the
beholders, and not, like the humbler poultry, to be plucked aug deprived of his feathers, and
to be judged merely by the merits of his flesh.

The food of the peacock, like that of the turkey, consists chiefly of barley and other
_ kinds of grain; but, when kept as an ornament in the park or pleasure-ground of a rich man,
it will frequently reduce the gardener to despair by effecting an entry into the garden, where it
commits great havoc among the choicest flower-beds in its search after insects. ‘The cry of the
peacock is extremely harsh and disagreeable: it seems as though nature had granted extra
beauty of plumage to the bird as a compensation for its utter want of melody.

The following remarks from White’s “ Natural History of Selborne,” upon the voices of
various birds of the poultry kind, may interest our young readers. The reverend author says :

_ “No inhabitants of a yard seem possessed of such a variety of expression, and so copious
a language, as common poultry. Take a chicken of four or five days old, and hold it up to a
window where there are flies, and it will immediately seize its prey with little twitterings of
complancency; but if you tender it a wasp or a bee, at once its note becomes harsh, and
expressive of disapprobation and a sense of danger. When a pullet is ready to lay, she inti-

mates the event by a joyous and easy soft note. Of all the occurrences of their life, that of
36












































































































































































































































































EXPRESSIVE VOICES OF BIRDS—FEATHERED SONGSTERS—NESTS.

laying seems to be the most important; for, no sooner has a hen disburdened herself, than she
rushes forth with a clamorous kind of joy, which the cock and the rest of his mistresses imme-
diately adopt. The tumult is not confined to the family concerned, but catches from yard to
yard, and spreads to every homestead within hearing, till at last the whole village is in an
uproar. As soon as a hen becomes a mother, her new relation demands a new language: she
then runs clucking and screaming about, and seems agitated as if possessed. The father of
the flock has also a considerable vocabulary : if he finds food, he calls a favourite concubine
to partake ; and if a bird of prey passes over, with a warning voice he bids his family beware.
The gallant chanticleer has at command his amorous phrases and his terms of defiance; but
the sound by which he is best known is his crowing: by this he has been distinguished in all
ages as the countryman’s clock or larum—as the watchman that proclaims the divisions of
the night. Thus the poet elegantly styles him

‘The crested cock, whose clarion sounds
The silent hours.’ ” :

ON SOME SINGING BIRDS.

“Tn summer days, when sheaves be green

And leaves both large and long,

It is merry walking in the fair forest,
To hear the small birds’ song.

The mavis sang, and would not cease
Sitting upon the spray,

So loud he wakened Robin Hood
In the greenwood where he lay.”

No part of the animal creation is more interesting, and more worthy of study, than that
choir of warblers who make our woods and hedgerows alive with songs all the year through.
Even in the, winter the robin and the linnet will pour forth their melody, but spring is the time
to hear these feathered songsters of the woods; when the blackbird and the thrush mingle
their mellow notes with the shriller tones the lark outpours, as he soars upwards from earth
towards heaven, or hovers above his nest before he drops down into its welcome shelter ; when
the cry of the cuckoo is heard among the leafy covert, and the coo of the wocd-pigeon sounds
softly from the distance. Then is the time to walk in the woods, and recognize amid the joyous
outpouring of song the loving-kindness and bounty of the great Creator, without whose know-
ledge not one of those birds can fall. Of all the beauteous gifts scattered through Creation
by a kind Providence, there is none more cheering than that of these little minstrels, ever sing-
ing their song of praise. The birds of other climes are brighter in plumage than the feathered
denizens of our own land; but nowhere can the traveller hear a more glorious flood of song
than the outburst that will delight his ear during a walk through an gamete forest, in the
sweet spring-time.

The nests of birds are among the most wonderful of the many evidences we find every-
-where of the skill and patience with which the Almighty Creator has endowed some of the
smallest of His creatures. Each bird has its peculiar mode of building, and employs a special
set of materials where it can procure them. Some use mosses, others gossamer and thistle-
down, others again prefer wool, for the lining of their little dwellings. But where these
materials are not to be had, the little architect readily makes shift with others; and when he
cannot build himself a first-rate house, he manages as best he may to construct the most com-
fortable and compact one he can obtain under the circumstances. Thus the naturalist of
Selborne observes with truth :

“Tt has been remarked that every species of bird has a mode of building its nest peculiar

37
THE GOLDFINCH A FAVOURITE IN ENGLAND—THE BULLFINCH.

to itself, so that a schoolboy would at once pronounce on the sort of nest before him. This
is the case among fields, and woods, and wilds; but in villages round London, where mosses
and gossamer, and cotton from vegetables, are hardly to be found, the nest of the chaffinch
has not that elegant, finished appearance, nor is it so beautifully studded with lichens, as in a
more rural district; and the wren is obliged to construct its house with straws and dry grasses,
which do not give it that rotundity and compactness so remarkable in the edifices of that
little architect. Again, the regular nest of the house martin is hemispheric; but where a rafter,
or a joist, or a cornice may happen to stand in the way, the nest is so contrived as to conform
to the obstruction, and becomes flat or compressed.”
Among English singing birds

THE GOLDFINCH (see Plate xx., a)

Has always been a great favourite. Bechstein, the German naturalist, truly says, “ This is the
most delightful of all chamber birds, remarkable alike for the beauty of its plumage and the
excellence of its song, its proved docility and cleverness.” The pretty touch of yellow on its
wings, and the bright scarlet on its head, its graceful form and rapid movements, all contribute
to its beauty; while its cheerful, sociable nature, the readiness with which it knows the hand
that feeds it, and the comparative ease with which it can be reared, all combine to make it
popular. The goldfinch is found in most countries of Europe. In Central Germany it breeds _
in great numbers. Goldfinches fly in little flocks of twenty to thirty in the spring and autumn,
and at those periods of the year great numbers of them are captured in nets by the bird-
catchers, especially in Sussex and Kent, on the Downs. Their nests are perfect models of bird
architecture. They generally build in high situations, in the forks of the smaller branches of
tall trees. The nest is very firmly fixed in its place, that it may resist the winds which shake
the slender branches to and fro. Grahame, the Scottish naturalist and poet, speaking of the
position of the nest, says :
“Sometimes, suspended at the limber end

Of plane tree spray, among the broad-leaved shoots,

The tiny hammock swings to every gale;

Sometimes in closest thickets ’tis conceal’d ;

Sometimes in hedge luxuriant, where the brier,

The bramble, and the crooked plum tree branch

Warp through the thorn, surmounted by the flowers

Of climbing vetch and honeysuckle wild,

All undefaced by Art’s deforming hand.

But mark the pretty bird himself! how light

And quick his every motion, every note!

How beautiful his plumes! his red-tinged head ;

His breast of brown: and see him stretch his wing—

A fairy fan of golden spokes it seems.

Ofé on the thistle’s tuft he nibbling sits,

Light as the down; then ‘mid a flight of downs

He wings his way, piping his shrillest call.”

To lure the little songsters into their toils, the bird-catchers use bunches of thistles, in
autumn ; for the goldfinch, at that season, feeds principally on thistle seeds. In spring a tame
goldfinch in a cage serves as a decoy to lure his wild brethren into captivity.

Among the other finches, a very numerous and melodious family, a few must be mentioned.
First—

THE BULLFINCH,

A. burly fat little fellow, with a round black head, a short beak, and a delicate red nreeeh: He

is very fond of picking the buds off the fruit-trees, so that the gardener accounts him an enemy.

38 |

\
IMITATIVE FACULTY OF FINCHES—THEIR VALUE—THE LINNET.

He is a sociable little fellow among other birds, and has a good ear for music. Accordingly,
bird fanciers sometimes teach him to whistle a tune; and of course this musical accomplish-

ment greatly increases his value. His term of life extends from six to eight years.
Then there is

THE CHAFFINCH,

_ A merry little fellow, whose piping cry, “Spink! spink!” often breaks the silence of the autumn

fields and hedgerows. This bird, like the bullfinch, can be taught to pipe a melody, and the ©
| patient German trainers take great pains to develop this talent. Such great value, indeed, is
attached to this artificial song, that Bechstein mentions an instance in which a cow had been
given in exchange for an accomplished chaffinch; hence the German proverb, “ A chaffinch
is worth a cow.” Bechstein also says, “It is remarkable that the song of these birds varies
according to the district they inhabit, so that different songs are sung in the forest from what
are sung in the Hartz; and by this the task of amateurs is regulated.” Those birds which can
execute the “double trill” are most highly valued. In England we have not yet become so
critical, and a chaffinch is cheap enough to be within the means of purchase of most schoolboys.

THE CITRIL FINCH (Puie xx, 0)

Is most like the canary in form and plumage. It is found chiefty i in the south of Europe, and
many-are' said tobe sold for green or grey canaries, the difference being so small that un-
practised punehasens ay, readily mistake a poow citril for a real canary.

THE SISKIN, OR ABERDEVINE (Puie xx, d),

Is another of those birds whose song can be much improved by education. In an aviary it
will frequently imitate the notes of the canary and of other exquisite songsters. Indeed,
nearly all the finches are in one respect like children, namely, in being much influenced, so far
as their manners and accomplishments are concerned, by the company among whom they are
thrown by circumstances. They will adopt a good clear note as readily as they will catch up
* a bad and defective one. In Germany the aberdevine breeds freely, building its nest on a
lofty pine tree, and attaching the tiny structure firmly by means of moss and insect cocoons to
the extremity of a waving bough. [t lays five or six grey eggs, sprinkled with purple dots.
Tts colour is generally a mixture of greenish yellow and black. The aberdevine is a migratory

bird, and only stays in England from April to September. It feeds chiefly on seeds of yee
- and wild flowers, preferring those of the fir and beech, the thistle and dandelion.

The most general favourite among the English birds of this class, after the goldfinch, is,
however,

THE LINNET (Plate x1x., ¢.)

This well-known little songster is found all over England and Scotland, and stays with us
all the year. It has but a plain brown coat, though some of the males are prettily tinged with
red on the head; but its voice is so sweet and mellow, that it is rightly preferred to many

a gorgeously-aitired but harsh-voiced competitor. : When’ the male linnet has become thus
oe which ‘occurs in the third year of its little life, it is “Imown as a redpole. Linnets are.
often found in flocks, in the autumn, about rick-yards, which they visit in quest ‘of the seeds
on which they live. }, The female does not exhibit the red tinge displayed by the male.

- But the king of all the finch tribe is see ay


INTRODUCTION OF CANARIES INTO ENGLAND—PERFORMING CANARIES.

THE CANARY (Plate xrx., 3),

So called from its supposed original abode, the Canary Islands. The first canaries seen in
Europe are said to have been brought wild from the island of Elba; and the manner of their
introduction into that island is related in the following account:

“A ship, bound for Leghorn, having on board a number of these beautiful finches, then
first made an article of merchandize, was wrecked near the island of Elba, on which island the
released birds found the climate so congenial to their nature that they settled and bred there,
and would probably have become completely naturalized, had not their beauty and powers of
song attracted the attention of bird-catchers, who hunted them so assiduously, that, after a
while, not a single specimen was left on the island. It was natural that the birds thus caught
should be sent first into Italy; and from that country, accordingly, we have the earliest accounts
of tame canaries. ‘There and in Germany they are still bred in greater numbers than in any
other part of the European continent. It is from the Rhineland, and about Thuringia espe-
cially, that we now derive our principal supply of imported birds; but some of the choicest
canaries are those bred in this country.” :

In its wild state the canary is of a greyish brown colour, tinged with green. The bright
yellow birds, that are esteemed the most-valuable, are only bred in captivity, and are not nearly
so strong as the green varieties. The canary has always held his place as prime favourite as a
cage bird. His song is exquisite in its melody and variety; but the little fellow is so well
known among us that a lengthened description of him would be quite unnecessary. The
docility of this pretty bird has been frequently seen. He seems, equally with the monkey,
capable of exhibiting feats of skill and dexterity; and several exhibitions of the kind have
been shown, in which the pretty little canary was the chief actor. The most remarkable of
these exhibitions was that of a Belgian lady, Mdlle. Vandermeersch, shown in London some
years ago, which astonished every spectator. The little conjurors seemed to perform their parts
with a display of quite human reason. The following account appeared in a London news-
paper at the time: |

“The birds are in a cage with several compartments. In front of the cage is arranged a
platform filled with cards, each exactly similar to the other:on the side presented to the birds,
but bearing various inscriptions on their prefaces, such as the letters of the alphabet, the
numerals singly and in combination, the days of the week, month, or year, the months, the
seasons, &e. On the bidding of any one of the company the birds tell the day of the week,
month, or year; the seasons; the time by any one’s watch; or they will spell any word indi-
cated, provided it does not contain any one letter twice over. All these things are done with
the most perfect precision, and there is no apparent collusion. Mdlle. Vandermeersch does
not touch the birds or the cards, and the little animals hop out of their cages and pick out the
cards with their beaks, seemingly with a very serious effort at recollection and calculation.”

We have here described the finches somewhat at length, because they are the birds, among
our English songsters, with whick our young friends who live in cities have most to do; but it
would take a much larger book than this to speak of the many varieties of birds we have here
in England; from the blackbird, or, as our great poet Shakspeare calls him, the ousel-cock,
_ to the wren. co

“ The ousel-cock so black of hue, with orange-tawney bill,
The throstle with his note so true, the wren with little quill.”

There are the varieties of
40





ES

a









Wi

(Le

cle le





SS
SSS
SSS
Ss
SSS
SSS
SO
SSS


THE BUNTING—INTREPIDITY OF THE BUTCHER BIRD.

THE LARK,

The Sxynanx, TrrnarK, and Wooptark, the first being especially renowned for the strength
and beauty of his song; the large handsome family of

THRUSHES OR THROSTLES,

with their rich melodious voices, which they lift up when the snow of winter lies thick upon the
ground in the bleak month of January; singing as if to announce to us that spring is coming,
in spite of the cold wind and dark weather; so that Burns, the Scottish poet, says:
5 “ Sing on, sweet thrush, upon the leafless bough;
Sing on, sweet bird ; I listen to thy strain.

See, aged Winter, ’mid his surly reign,
At thy blithe carol clears his furrowed brow.”

_ Nor must we omit all mention of the king of the English song birds, the clear-voiced.

NIGHTINGALE,

A small plain brown creature, that has the gift of charming every hearer as it sits warbling in
the leafy covert, but whose song is confined to a short season of the year, that the treat may
be the more valued for its rarity. Then there is the merry

BUNTING (Plate xx., f),

With his stout body and bullet head, reminding one somewhat of a jolly well-to-do farmer.
But enough has certainly been said to convince every young reader that there are, in every
hedgerow and in every forest of England, creatures as wonderful in beauty and as worthy of
notice as any that inhabit the far-off islands of the tropical seas.

THE BUTCHER BIRD (Put xx)

Strictly speaking, this sprightly little fellow should be classed among the rapacious birds,
for he is a very pugnacious, fierce little fellow, boldly fighting against birds more than double
his size, and making them flee before him by the fierceness of his attacks and the energy of his
pursuit. His name “ Butcher Bird,” would lead us to imagine him a very big, formidable-
looking individual, who flies about, putting his fellow birds to death asa butcher slaughters
oxen and sheep; but his butchering propensities are mostly exercised upon insects and little ~
"birds, of which he destroys a large number. His courage, however, is undoubted; and though
the largest species is not bigger than a lark, while the smallest does not exceed a sparrow in size,
all the three kinds of butcher birds are alike remarkable for courage and fierceness. Goldsmith
in his “ Natural History” says :

“Tt is wonderful to see with what intrepidity this little creature goes to war with the pye,
the crow, and the kestril, all above four times bigger than itself, and that sometimes prey upon
flesh in the same manner. It not only fights upon the defensive, but often comes to the attack, —
and always with advantage, particularly when the male and female unite to protect their young
and to drive away the more powerful birds of rapine. At that season they do not wait the
approach of their invader; it is sufficient that they see him preparing for the assault at a dis-
tance. It is then that they sally forth with loud cries, wound him on every side, and drive him
off with such fury that he seldom ventures to return to the charge. In these kinds of disputes
they generally come off with the victory; though it sometimes happens that they fall to the
ground with the bird they have so fiercely fixed upon, and the combat ends with the destruc-

Al ; G
PARROTS—THEIR BRILLIANT PLUMAGE—DISPOSITION.

tion of the assailant as well as the defender. Tor this reason, the most redoubtable birds of
prey respect them; while the kite, the buzzard, and the crow seem rather to fear than seek
the engagement.”

The French call the butcher bird ecorcheur, or strangler; while one species is called
by the Germans Newntédter, or nine-killer, in allusion to the number of creatures that fall.
victims to the fierce little robber. In fact, the butcher bird is a sort of feathered “ Jack the
Giant Killer,” and is feared accordingly.

There are three species of this terrible little fellow. The Great AsH-cotourEn Burcusr
Birp (Plate xx1., a) is seldom seen in England, but is numerous enough in France. Like
most birds of its kind, it hides in the woods during the summer months, when food is plentiful ;
but in the winter it sallies forth into the plains, and hunger increases its natural fierceness. All
butcher birds are remarkable for their attachment to their young. The female feeds the little
ones first with insects, afterwards with morsels of flesh; and the male bird flies to and fro most
indefatigably to provide meat for the hungry little’ brood. Through all Central and Southern
Europe the butcher bird is found. The Rep-packep Burcuer Birp (Plate xxz., b) differs from
the former in its more diminutive size, and in having a beautiful reddish tint piercing through
the general grey tone of its plumage. ‘This is a bird of passage, not unfrequently found in
England during the summer, but flying away, when the autumn mists arise, to the warmer
regions of Africa. This species is the “‘nine-killer” of the Germans. The Smazz Burcuer
Brrp (Plate xx1., c) has a yellowish tone. It is hardly bigger than a titmouse, and is decidedly
the smallest of the birds of prey, though as fierce as the larger varieties. There are several
foreign kinds, distinguished from each other by a slight difference in colour.

And now we must conclude our sketch of the feathered portion of the creation with a
description of a kind of bird often kept in captivity, and one which seems to adapt itself
so well to the society of man, that it even imitates his speech: we have a few words to say
respecting

THE PARROT TRIBE
(Plate xxtt.)

These birds are found in wonderful variety in all the tropical parts of the Old and New
World; and as they cannot fly far, and are utterly unable to cross the seas, each region has its
own peculiar species. There are almost a hundred varieties ; but the three general classes are the
Cocxatoos, known by the crest on their heads; the Macaws, known by their large size, bright
colours, and their fleshy, featherless cheeks; and the Parrots, smaller in size than the macaws
and cockatoos, and with feathers covering the whole of the head to the base of the beak.

The ancient Greeks were acquainted with one or two species of the parrot tribe; and
among the Romans, under the luxurious emperors, these birds became such favourites that
enormous prices were given for them, and they were provided with regular tutors, whose office
it was to develop their speaking powers to the utmost, and who were frequently obliged to wield
that tree of knowledge, the birch, to make their feathered scholars attend to the instruction
given. When Columbus discovered the New World, his companions were greatly astonished
and delighted at the gorgeous aspect of the parrots, then seen for the first time; and in the |
triumphal procession in which the spoils of the West India Islands were carried to the foot
of the throne of Ferdinand of Arragon and Isabella of Castile, the parrot bore a distinguished
part and attracted general admiration. In disposition, birds of the parrot tribe are generally
much more spiteful than courageous. They will fight if compelled to defend themselves, but
evidently consider that the better part of valour is discretion, and seem to act upon the old saw,
that ‘‘ He who fights and runs away will live to fight another day.” Therefore, when attacked,
they look for an opportunity of escape, and only confront their foes when retreat is cut off.

42
A WONDERFUL PARROT—CONCLUSION.

The parrot is especially adapted for climbing. Of his four toes two are pointed back-
wards, and thus he is enabled to grasp the bough on which he sits and to clamber from one
branch to another, sometimes swinging head downwards from his perch: his strong bill also
assists him in this exercise. THe is sociable in disposition, living in his wild state in com-—
panionship with many of his own kind. Both the upper and lower part of the beak are
moveable, and thus the parrot is enabled to seize and hold a much larger object than his beak
could otherwise grasp. The following account of the sagacity of a Brazilian parrot is taken
from the voyage of a naturalist in South America :

“ A certain Brazilian woman, that lived in a village two miles distant from the island on
which we resided, had a parrot of this kind, which was the wonder of the place. It seemed
endued with such understanding as to discern and comprehend whatever she said to it. As we
sometimes used to pass by that woman’s house, she used to call upon us to stop, promising, if
we gave her a comb or a looking-glass, that she would make her parrot sing and dance to

entertain us. If we agreed to her request, as soon as she had pronounced some words to the

bird, it began not only to leap and skip on the perch on which it stood; but also to talk and to
whistle, and imitate the shoutings and exclamations of the Brazilians when they prepare for
battle. In brief, when it came into the woman’s head to bid it sing, it sang; to dance, it
danced. But if, contrary to our promise, we refused to give the woman the little present
agreed on, the parrot seemed to sympathize in her resentment, and was silent and immoveable ;
neither could we, by any means, provoke it to move either foot or tongue.”

On Plate xxii. a specimen is given of each of the three chief classes of the parrot tribe.
Letter d@ represents the great Rep any Brive Macaw, the most gorgeous of all the family.
His plumage glitters with mingled carmine, gold, and azure. He is a native of the West
Indies and the adjoining coasts of the mainland, especially Guiana and Brazil. The natives
of those regions eat the flesh of the macaw with great relish. The macaw builds its nest in
the hollow of a lofty tree, and lays one or two eggs twice in the year. It is easily tamed, and -
is often seen in captivity in England. The Smatu Gruen Parror is designated by letter e,
while f marks the Grear Buacx Cockatoo, which has sometimes, from its noble colour, been
termed the Inpran Crow.

CONCLUSION.—THE ARCTIC REGIONS.

Lastly, that our young friends may quit this book with an idea of the infinite variety
of creation, we turn from the birds of gorgeous plimes inhabiting the torrid zone, to a very
different class of creatures, denizens of the frozen polar regions, where snow and ice cover the
iron ground during the greater part of the year, where the sun for half a year at a time does

- not appear above the horizon ;

“Where, for relentless months, continual night
Holds o’er the glittering waste her starry reign.
Here Winter holds his unrejoicing court ;

And through his airy hall the loud misrule

Of driving tempests is for ever heard :

Here the grim tyrant meditates his wrath,

Here arms his winds with all-subduing frost ;
Moulds his fierce hail, and treasures up his snows,
With which he now oppresses half the globe.”

But, even here, a kind Providence has cared for man; and the dwellers in these frozen

zones have their meat. given to them in due season, just as the denizen of the burning climes
o , |
CONCLUSION.

beneath the equator finds in his own land the food he needs. For these arctic seas: swarm
with creatures peculiar to them. Animals of the seal kind, in a great variety of forms, ere
eagerly chased by the fisherman; and their flesh, their oil, and their sinews provide him with
the necessaries of life.

WALRUSES AND SEALS

Are, therefore, to the Esquimaux as important as the horse, ox, and sheep are to the inhabitants
of the temperate regions of the earth, or the patient camel to the Arab of the desert; and,
therefore, a book which treats of the animals most useful to man, may fitly conclude with a few
words upon the tribe of seals, or Phoce.

The Phoca tribe is found in all the great seas, but the larger kinds are confined to the
cold regions near the poles. In the tropics we can meet only with little sea dogs; we must go
to the regions of perpetual ice and snow if we wish to see the huge sea elephant and sea lion. -
The form of these creatures and the shape and position of their paws show that they are
intended by nature for a life in the waters. Their movements on land are very clumsy and
ungainly. They seem rather to jerk themselves along than to run or walk, but they can swim
with great ease and swiftness. To the Greenland Esquimaux the seal is a great treasure. He
eats the flesh and the fat; he makes his tent, his boat, and clothes of the skin. The sinews
furnish him with thread for sewing, a string for his bow, and twine for his fishing-nets; and
with the larger bones he strengthens his frail boat, while the smaller ones do duty as nails and
needles. Consequently, the hunting of the Phoca is the one art in which the Esquimaux excels. .
He pursues his prey with untiring patience and industry, watching in his boat for hours till a
seal appears, and then piercing it with a spear or harpoon. ‘To chase the creature over blocks
of ice or on the frozen shore is a harder task, for, clumsily as the seal shuffles along, it gets —
quickly over the ground; so here the Esquimaux employs stratagem, and sometimes dresses him-
self in seal-skin, so that the Phoce may take him for one of their own kind, and allow him to
approach and throw his unerring harpoon. The hardy sailors who chase the Greenland whale ~
also have frequent combats with the larger kinds of seal.

In Plates xxi11., xxtv., the following specimens of the seal tribe are shown: a is the
Common Sra; 6, the Great Suat, differing from the former chiefly in size; ¢, the Sza Lion;
d, the Arctic Waxrus, or Morsz; and e, the ExepHant Suat.

J. Ogden and Co., Printers, 172, St. John Street, H.C
ee
Sas

nodes


pore anccheeneeneroe













































ae ee

































































} a4 h an





PAGE 1

1'1 II I' iII ~ } -_----~~~-~~~;~~~-~~~~~,-~~~~=~~~~_~~~--~~~~-~~~~-~~~_~~~~ I~~~~i __ -_-~~~~~~~~~~~1_~.






DOMESTIC

FAMILIAR


ANIMALS,

BIRIJS, &c.:


THEIR HABITS AND HISTORY.



BEING

PICTURES OF THE ANIMAL CREATION,

grafin from glaturt, aub 'Im\uratty nu artfullyu 6alourhb,
FOR THE

AMUSEMENT AND INSTRUCTION OF THE YOUNG.


WITH
A DESCRIPTIVE TEXT, INTENDED TO SERVE AS A FIRST INTRODUCTION


TO NATURAL HISTORY.



BY
H. W. DULCKEN,



LONDON:


PH.D.


WARD, LOCK, AND TYLER, WARWICK HOUSE, PATERNOSTER ROW.


*C--1~ ________ ------;~~


- S~,~.-tms




DIFFERENCE OF THE SHEEP IN ITS WILD AND TAME STATES-ITS VALUE.

upon the jutty points and crags of rocks; and the circumstance of its ability to remain thus
poised may render its appearance less surprising, as it is sometimes seen in the Alps, and in all
mountainous countries, with hardly any place for its feet, upon the sides and by the brink of
most tremendous precipices. The diameter of the upper cylinder, upon which its feet ulti-
mately remained until the Arab had ended his ditty, was only two inches, and the length of
each cylinder was six inches."

THE SHEEP.
"And there was a man in Maon, whose possessions were in Carmel; and the man
was very great, and he had three thousand sheep, and a thousand goats; and he was
shearing his sheep in Carmel."-I. Samuel xxv. 2.
It is usual' to look upon the sheep as a stupid animal; but this opinion is an error. All
animals living in a domestic state lose some of the qualities which they possessed in their wild
condition, simply because they are accustomed to have their wants provided for, instead of being
obliged to cater for themselves; they rely on the protection of man, instead of acting in their
own defence. The sheep, a confiding, social creature, has more confidence than any other
kind in the protection and care of man, and thus completely loses the characteristics of its
natural state. But the wild sheep of the northern parts of North America, and of other regions
of the world, is as wary and cunning as the mountain goat, and the hunter well knows the
difficulty of approaching near enough to get a shot at the agile prey. The male sheep or ram,
even in a domesticated state, is by no means deficient in courage, and when roused will fight with
the determination of a little bull. In usefulness the sheep is equal to the ox tribe. Though
-its small size and lack of strength prevents it from being made useful as a beast of burden or
draught when living, every part of its carcase is available for some purpose when dead; and
then it amply repays the shepherd for the care lavished upon it. The trade in tallow and wool
occupies thousands upon thousands of persons; and every month ships are sailing half round
the world, to convey to England the tallow and wool procured from the sheep fed in the broad
plains of Australia and New Zealand. Food, clothing, and light during the darkness of winter
are all represented by this one creature; no wonder, then, that the keeping of sheep should be
one of the most universal, as it is one of the most ancient, of occupations. From the time of Abel,
who brought "the firstlings of his flock" to sacrifice to the Lord, to the present day, almost
every nation has included sheep farming among its branches of industry. On the rugged hills
and snow-covered valleys of Iceland, Norway, and Lapland, flocks of sheep find a scanty
pasturage, eating the Iceland moss" and lichens where grass is unattainable, and supplying
their owners with all the necessaries of the simple life in those regions; and in the burning plains
of tropical countries, where the woolly fleece gives place to a thin hairy covering better adapted
to the climate, the shepherd leads forth his flock, to pick a living as they can in the arid sun-
dried fields. The sheep is one of the best gifts of Providence to mankind; and it has been
scattered broadcast over the globe, as if with the intention that as large a portion as possible
of the human race should reap the advantage of its presence and its usefulness.
It is almost impossible to say from what wild stock the domestic sheep derived its origin;
but the majority of naturalists consider that our tame sheep are closely connected with the
animal whose description follows here, namely:


THE MOUFFLON (Plate v., a.)
This creature, which unites the qualities of the goat and the sheep, is found in the rocky
regions of Corsica, Sardinia, the Greek islands, &c. The colour is a reddish brown, with a darker
10




A WONDERFUL PAER.OT-CONCLUSION.


The parrot is especially adapted for climbing. Of his four toes two are pointed back-
wards, and thus he is enabled to grasp the bough on which he sits and to clamber from one
branch to another, sometimes swinging head downwards from his perch: his strong bill also
assists him in this exercise. He is sociable in disposition, living in his wild state in com-
panionship with many of his own kind. Both the upper and lower part of the beak are
moveable, and thus the parrot is enabled to seize and hold a much larger object than his beak
could otherwise grasp. The following account of the sagacity of a Brazilian parrot is taken
from the voyage of a naturalist in South America:
"A certain Brazilian woman, that lived in a village two miles distant from the island on
which we resided, had a parrot of this kind, which was the wonder of the place. It seemed
endued with such understanding as to discern and comprehend whatever she said to it. As we
sometimes used to pass by that woman's house, she used to call upon us to stop, promising, if
we gave her a comb or a looking-glass, that she would make her parrot sing and dance to
entertain us. If we agreed to her request, as soon as she had pronounced some words to the
bird, it began not only to leap and skip on the perch on which it stood, but also to talk and to
whistle, and imitate the shouting and exclamations of the Brazilians when they prepare for
battle. In brief, when it came into the woman's head to bid it sing, it sang; to dance, it
danced. But if, contrary to our promise, we refused to give the woman the little present
agreed on, the parrot seemed to sympathize in her resentment, and was silent and immoveable;
neither could we, by any means, provoke it to move either foot or tongue."
On Plate xxii. a specimen is given of each of the three chief classes of the parrot tribe.
Letter d represents the great RED AND BLUE MACAW, the most gorgeous of all the family.
His plumage glitters with mingled carmine, gold, and azure. He is a native of the West
Indies and the adjoining coasts of the mainland, especially Guiana and Brazil. The natives
of those regions eat the flesh of the macaw with great relish. The macaw builds its nest in
the hollow of a lofty tree, and lays one or two eggs twice in the year. It is easily tamed, and
is often seen in captivity in England. The SMALL GREEN PARROT is designated by letter e,
while f marks the GREAT BLACK COCKATOO, which has sometimes, from its noble colour, been
termed the INDIAN CRow.




CONCLUSION.-THE ARCTIC REGIONS.

Lastly, that our young friends may quit this book with an idea of the infinite variety
of creation, we turn from the birds of gorgeous pltmes inhabiting the torrid zone, to a very
different class of creatures, denizens of the frozen polar regions, where snow and ice cover the
iron ground during the greater part of the year, where the sun for half a year at a time does
not appear above the horizon;
"Where, for relentless months, continual night
Holds o'er the glittering waste her starry reign.
Here Winter holds his unrejoicing court;
And through his airy hall the loud misrule
Of driving tempests is for ever heard:
Here the grim tyrant meditates his wrath,
Here arms his winds with all-subduing frost;
Moulds his fierce hail, and treasures up his snows,
With which he now oppresses half the globe."
But, even here, a kind Providence has cared for man; and the dwellers in these frozen
zones have their meat. given to them in due season, just as the denizen of the burning climes





PAGE 1

TEACHABLENESS OF BIRDS-THEIR SAGACITY AND AFFECTION. developed. Some birds have the faculty of seeing at a great distance with marvellous acuteness., The hawk will discern his prey at a great distance; and in the cities of the East, where the wild birds are sometimes fed by the inhabitants as a matter of duty, if a man goes out upon the flat roof of a house, and strews food around him, in a few moments he will see the storks and other birds careering through the air towards him, though when he went up not a single bird was in view. Though they have no external ears, the sense of hearing is very fine in birds,. for many of them.can not only hear sounds at a great distance, but can distinguish the difference between the various notes and modulations. This is shown by the fact that bullfinches learn to whistle tunes, and many birds of the parrot and pye tribe to utter words and sentences. In sagacity, too, and the faculty of imitation, some birds are not inferior to the most teachable of quadrupeds. Every one in our large towns has seen the "performing canaries," trained to draw little waggons, to fire tiny cannon, to fall down as if shot, and to go through many similar feats and tricks; and an instance is 'recorded in which a stork played at hide-andseek with a party of children, taking his share in the amusement with an air of grave enjoyment very ludicrous to behold. The affection of many species for their young is also very remarkable. Some will lure the hunter or the dogs away from their nest by affecting to be wounded, and thus tempting their enemy to pursue them by the hope of capture; until, when they consider they have placed a sufficient distance between the pursuer and their nest, they rise suddenly in the air and speed away home, leaving the baffled foe gazing after them in astonishment. One of our great writers, Joseph Addison, especially notices the care and attention bestowed by the hen upon her domestic concerns. With what caution," he says, "does the hen provide herself a nest in places unfrequented and free from noise and disturbance! When she has laid her eggs in such a manner that she can cover them, what care does she take in turning them frequently, that all parts may partake of the vital warmth! When she leaves them, to provide for her necessary sustenance, how punctually does she return before they have time to cool and become incapable of producing an animal! In the summer you see her giving herself greater freedom, ard quitting her care for above two hours together; but in winter, when the rigour of the season would chill the principles of life and destroy the young ones, she grows more assiduous in her attendance, and stays away but half the time. When the birth approaches, with how much nicety and attention does she help the chick to break the prison--besides covering it from the injuries of the weather, providing it with proper nourishment, and teaching it to help itself!" In this book there will not be space to describe with any completeness the vast variety of birds found in different parts of the earth. -But we shall have something to say concerning the principal families and their habits and customs, so that our young readers may have a general idea of this beautiful part of the living creation, and may afterwards pursue the subject more at length in more advanced books on the subject. But whether the account be shortened or extended, one thing cannot fail to strike the observer; namely, the infinite goodness and beneficence of the great Creator, by whom all things were made, and by whose power and mercy every living being is sustained. "HE hears, and feeds their feathered families; HB feeds his sweet musicians, nor neglects Th' invoking ravens in the greenwood wide; And though their throats' hoarse rattling hurt the ear, They mean it all for music-thanks and praise They mean, and leave ingratitude to man. Oh, HE is good, HE is immensely good! Who all things formed, and formed them all for man; Who marked the climates, varied every zone, Dispensing all His blessings for the best, In order and in beauty." 30


TIMIDITY OF THE HARE-ITS CUNNING-ITS FECUNDITY.


THE HARE AND THE RABBIT TRIBE.

The hare belongs to a very well known and a very useful tribe of -the animal kingdom.
There are few children who have not seen the timid hare, dead, and exposed for sale in the
game dealer's window, even if they have not seen the creature alive scampering over the fields,
and generally presenting the very image of fleetness combined with fear. The Latin name given
by naturalists to the hare, Lepus timidus, points to the fearfulness which is the chief feature in
its character; and this timidity and aptitude to discern and fly from the first approach of danger
is the means given by Providence to the hare to escape from the many foes who lay snares for
its life. Unprovided with any effective weapons wherewith to fight, the hare is admirably
furnished with the means of discerning danger, and avoiding it by flight. Its hind legs are
much longer than the fore legs, and thus it can readily run up hill, and, indeed, generally seeks
a rising ground when flying from its foes. Its' ears are peculiarly long, and of tubular shape,
and thus are available, like the ear trumpets used by deaf persons, in distinguishing distant
sounds. (See Plate xi., a.) The eyes are placed so far back in the head that the hare can
almost literally see the pursuers behind it when it is running straight forward; and however
rich the pasture on which it feeds, its body never becomes fat or heavy. Thus its speed is
undiminished at all seasons of the year.
But speed is not the only means used by the hare to escape from its foes. When hunted,
no animal displays more cunning or greater resources of stratagem to baffle its pursuers.
Knowing that the hounds hunt by the scent, the hare will try to baffle them by doubling, or
returning on its own traces for a time, so that the hounds become bewildered. At others, it
will run for a considerable distance along the top of a quickset hedge, with the same object of
baffling the hounds; or will run and take refuge among a flock of sheep, or in the hole,' or, as
it is called, the form, of another hare. Frequently it will return by round-about ways to the
place whence it started when first alarmed: and to this fact the poet Goldsmith alludes in those
exquisite lines of the "Deserted Village" in which he expresses his hope of returning to his
old home. He says:
"And as a hare whom hounds and horns pursue
Pants to the place from whence at first he flew,
I still had hopes, my long vexations past,
Here to return, and die at home at last."

The hare is found in most parts of Europe and Asia, and there are also American varieties.
Its food is vegetables of all kinds, and many garden plants, especially parsley, of which it is
extravagantly fond. In winter, when the supply of fresh food fails, it feeds on the bark of
young trees, which it gnaws in such a manner as frequently to destroy the tree entirely.
Market gardens near towns often suffer from the depredations of the hare, especially when an
unusually hard time in winter drives the timid creatures from the fields to the vicinity of the
dwellings of man, where they hope to find subsistence.
The hare is not watchful and timid without good cause. Many beasts and birds of prey
are among its enemies; and such numbers are slain, that the species would quickly become
extinct, but for the number of young brought forth by all the hare and rabbit tribe. A hare
will frequently have four sets of young ones, three or four each time, in the course of the year.
For about three weeks she feeds the young leverets; and when they are only a month old, they
are left to provide for themselves. Still, in spite of their numerous foes, they seem rather to
increase than to diminish in number.
Although the flesh of the hare is esteemed delicate food, the Israelites were forbidden by




THE WILD ASS-CHASE OF A WILD ASS.


and render him stubborn and sluggish. Though his pace is slow, he will continue his journey
for many hours without showing signs of fatigue, and the coarsest fare suffices to keep him in
health. In rocky countries and over difficult roads his feet are more sure than those of the
horse, and he will carry his rider in safety along winding paths skirting the most tremendous
precipices. Hardy, vigorous, and temperate, he is very valuable to the poor man. Many a
wandering pedlar, and many a hawker of small commodities, has dated his rise in the world
from the day when he had saved enough to buy an ass to carry his goods, thus lessening his
labour by one-half, while the keep of the frugal animal scarcely increased his expenses.
The ass attains his full growth in about four years, and lives to the age of four or five
and twenty. The colt is rather pretty in appearance, and quick and playful; but the laborious
life led by the ass soon brings on that heavy appearance and sluggish gait which seem peculiar
to the race. In Eastern countries, where the ass is frequently used instead of the horse, it
appears under a better aspect than in Europe. It is larger and more lightly built, and is
evidently the object of more care and attention than here, where the horse is the valued servant,
and the ass only the slave. The female ass is very affectionate towards her colt, and will
encounter any danger in defence of her offspring. She has but one colt at a time; very rarely
two are born together.
The wild ass of the East is a very different creature from the poor domestic drudge. It is
large, shapely, and handsome, and runs with especial swiftness. It is found in Tartary, Asia
Minor, Persia, and many other countries. The Persians esteem its flesh a great delicacy, and
capture it in pits. The wild asses associate together in herds. They are exceedingly shy,
running off with great swiftness on the approach of men. Sir. R. K. Porter, the Eastern
traveller, gives the following account of an exciting chase after a wild ass:
"The sun was just rising over the summits of the eastern mountains, when my greyhound
Cooley suddenly darted off in pursuit of an animal, which my Persians said, from the glimpse
they had of it, was an antelope. I instantly put spurs to my horse, and with my attendants
gave chase. After an unrelaxed gallop of full three miles, we came up with the dog, which
was then within a short stretch of the creature he pursued; when, to my surprise, and at first
vexation, I found it to be an ass; but on a moment's reflection, judging from its fleetness that
it must be a wild one, which the Persians prize above all other animals as an object of chase,
as well as an article of food, I determined to approach as near to it as the very swift Arab
I was on would carry me. But the instant of checking my horse to consider had given our
game such a head of us, that, notwithstanding all our speed, we could not recover our ground
on him. I, however, happened to be considerably before my companions, when, at a certain
distance, the animal in its turn made a pause, and allowed me to approach within a pistol-shot
of him. He then darted off again with the quickness of thought, capering, kicking, and
sporting in his flight, as though he were not blown in the least, and as though the chase were
his pastime. The prodigious swiftness and peculiar manner in which he fled across the plain
coincided exactly with the description that Xenophon gives of the same animal in Arabia."
Such is the wild ass; but that, even in the most ancient times, the poor domestic species
was the sport and butt of the mischievous, is shown by the mention made of the ass by Homer
in the following lines of the "Iliad ":
"The sluggish ass, with heavy strength endued,
In some wild field by troops of boys pursued,
The shivering.sticks assail his sides in vain,
He crops the waving corn, and spoils the plain.
Whilst on his hide the feeble blows resound,
The beast, regardless, still maintains his ground;
Scarce from the field with all their efforts chased,
And scarce, though sated, mends his pace at last."
17 n




THE CUNNING FOX-AFFECTION OF THE FEMALE FOX TO HER YOUNG.


THE FOX.
"Foxes have holes, and the birds of the air have nests; but the Son of Man hath not
where to lay His head."-Luke ix., 58.
The fox (Plate xii., b) is an animal of the dog tribe. It is found in many varieties,
almost every part of the world having its own species, excepting the hottest latitudes. Among
the many varieties may be mentioned the arctic fox of the northern regions, the black fox of
Siberia, whose fur is exceedingly valuable, and the grey and silvery fox of the warmer parts of
North America. All these, and many other species, possess the main features of the fox,
namely, the sharp muzzle, long fur, short legs, and bushy tail. The arctic fox is a far less
sagacious animal than its relations who dwell in warmer climates.
In England the fox is well known, alike as a favourite animal of the chase, and a very
mischievous neighbour to the farmer, for whose poultry he has an especial liking. Indeed, he
is such a cunning thief, that were it not for the amusement he affords to the hunter, he would
probably have been long ago exterminated. There are three varieties in England, differing in
size, but all of the same reddish colour: the cur fox, the smallest of these, is the most common.
The fox possesses many qualities of the dog. For his size he is decidedly courageous; he will
bite his enemy fiercely, and when once he fixes his teeth in a foe, can hardly be made to let go
his hold. The sharpest pain will hardly force a cry from him. He can be tamed without
much difficulty, and will attach himself strongly to those who are kind to him; but his temper
is always uncertain, and he will often snap spitefully at the hand that caresses him. His food
is very various. He will eat small birds and frogs, snails and insects; mice and rats do not
come amiss to him; to berries and fruits he is very partial, and his fondness for grapes
especially has been proverbial since the days when JEsop wrote the fable of the Fox and the
Grapes." Even in the Bible we find reference to this fact, in the verse of Solomon's Song:
" Take us the foxes, the little foxes, that destroy the vines, for our vines have tender grapes."
On the sea shore he preys upon the crabs and shell-fish, and is said to entrap the unsuspecting
oyster by thrusting a pebble into its open shell, and thus preventing the valves from closing.
Frequently hunted himself, he is in his turn a great hunter, destroying young pheasants,
partridges, leverets, rabbits, and all small animals that are not strong enough to resist him.
Honey also has such charms for him, that he will risk the anger of the bees in his attempt to
steal it; but it is in attacking the poultry that he displays all his cunning.
The fox makes for himself a hole or burrow in the earth, generally in a bank, or under
the roots of a tree. He takes care to have more than one entrance to this retreat, so that, if
danger approaches through one door, he may escape by another. Accordingly the huntsman
is careful to stop up the holes, that the fox, who, when first started, generally makes for his
hole, may be compelled to flee across the country, finding his usual retreat cut off. Not
unfrequently he takes wrongful possession of the hole dug by a badger, and establishes himself
and his family therein. He chooses the night-time for his depredations; and thus the poet, in
describing the evening operations on a farm, rightly enumerates among the other precautions
taken against danger and loss, that
"The snare for master fox is set."
The female fox is remarkable for the care and affection with which she brings "up her
young. Instances are known, in which foxes have carried their cubs considerable distances
from their former abode, when they suspected the approach of danger; and sometimes they
have even been known to climb trees, that they might deposit the cubs in the forks of the
branches, out of the reach of the eager hounds.




THE MUSK OX-THE ZEBRA.


through his nose, to a post, and then ferocious bull dogs were set upon him, while men more
ferocious than either bull or dog stood round and enjoyed the cruel pastime. Fortunately, such
exhibitions of brutality are no longer allowed among us.
Among foreign varieties of oxen we must notice a few of the most important. First
comes

THE MUSK OX. (Plate .,.)

This is a very small variety of the ox tribe. It is a native of the northern part of North
America, and is uncommonly hardy and strong, though it hardly exceeds a large calf in size.
Its Latin name is Ovibos moschatus, or the musk skeep-ox. To defend it from the biting cold,
it has a thick coat of long hair, hanging down about its legs like a shaggy mat. In colour it is
a dark dull brown. The strong musky smell which hovers about this ox, and from which it has
obtained its name, renders its flesh very unpalatable; though the Esquimaux consider it a great
delicacy. Inhabiting, as it does, the craggy, rocky regions of the Hudson's Bay territory and
the banks of the Coppermine river of America, the musk ox becomes quite an expert climber,
and very quick and active, scrambling up steep places with amazing agility, especially when
pursued or alarmed. The horns are very peculiar in shape, curving downwards on each side of
the head, and then suddenly turning upwards at the tip. The female is not quite so large
as the male musk ox.
In Captain Franklin's "Journal of a Polar Voyage" we find the following particulars
relative to the musk ox: "The musk oxen, like the buffalo, herd together in bands, and
generally frequent barren grounds during the summer months, keeping near the rivers, but
returning to the woods in winter. They seem to be less watchful than other wild animals, and
when grazing are not difficult to approach, providing the hunters go against the wind. When
two or three men get so near a herd as to fire at them from different points, these animals,
instead of separating or running away, huddle closer together, and several are generally killed;
but if the wound is not mortal they become enraged, and dart in the most furious manner at
the hunters, who must be very dexterous to evade them. They can defend themselves with
their powerful horns against wolves and bears, which, as the Indians say, they not unfrequently
kill. The musk oxen feed on the same substances with the reindeer, and the prints of the
feet of these two animals are so much alike, that it requires the eye of an experienced hunter
to distinguish them. The largest killed by us did not exceed in weight three hundred pounds.
The flesh has a musky, disagreeable flavour, particularly when the animal is lean, which, un-
fortunately for us, was the case with all that we killed."


THE ZEBU.

This variety of the ox tribe is at home in India, though zebus are found also in
Africa and in the Asiatic islands. They are very various in size, some being as large as a
good sized English bull, while others are not bigger than an antelope. The distinguishing
features are: the hump on the back, which consists chiefly of fat, and is considered a great
delicacy by the Indians; the large beautiful mild eye, shining with the softness of a gazelle's;
and the long slender limbs, which enable some of these animals, when tamed to carry riders,
to run and leap with the agility of hunting horses: even a five-barred gate is no obstacle to
them. One kind of zebu, the Brahmin bull, is looked upon by the natives of India with
superstitious reverence. These bulls are dedicated to the god Seeva, and roam about at their
pleasure, after being marked with the figure of the god. They are allowed to do just as they
please; for to hurt or molest one of them would be considered the height of irreverence.

























- -


-~-~------0 ____-


:j j


-S


_ _----


'-


-I~ir''~~i~5 : T~N."~ I''.".~C


C-.-'C


. i
4,, "-
,, 11i I ./
3^',j ,


L==-~


1~3i


-p~e~:


-^-- ;


i i
si:





PAGE 1

S


I





PAGE 1

DIFFERENCE OF THE SHEEP IN ITS WILD AND TAME STATES-ITS VAALUE. upon the jutty points and crags of rocks; and the circumstance of its ability to remain thus poised may render its appearance less surprising, as it is sometimes seen in the Alps, and in all mountainous countries, with hardly any place for its feet, upon the sides and by the brink of most tremendous precipices. The diameter of the upper cylinder, upon which its feet ultimately remained until the Arab had ended his ditty, was only two inches, and the length of each cylinder was six inches." THE SHEEP. "And there was a man in Maon, whose possessions were in Carmel; and the man was very great, and he had three thousand sheep, and a thousand goats; and he was shearing his sheep in Carmel."-I. Samuel xxv. 2. It is usual' to look upon the sheep as a stupid animal; but this opinion is an error. All animals living in a domestic state lose some of the qualities which they possessed in their wild condition, simply because they are accustomed to have their wants provided for, instead of being obliged to cater for themselves; they rely on the protection of man, instead of acting in their own defence. The sheep, a confiding, social creature, has more confidence than any other kind in the protection and care of man, and thus completely loses the characteristics of its natural state. But the wild sheep of the northern parts of North America, and of other regions of the world, is as wary and cunning as the mountain goat, and the hunter well knows the difficulty of approaching near enough to get a shot at the agile prey. The male sheep or ram, even in a domesticated state, is by no means deficient in courage, and when roused will fight with the determination of a little bull. In usefulness the sheep is equal to the ox tribe. Though -its small size and lack of strength prevents it from being made useful as a beast of burden or draught when living, every part of its carcase is available for some purpose when dead; and then it amply repays the shepherd for the care lavished upon it. The trade in tallow and wool occupies thousands upon thousands of persons; and every month ships are sailing half round the world, to convey to England the tallow and wool procured from the sheep fed in the broad plains of Australia and New Zealand. Food, clothing, and light during the darkness of winter are all represented by this one creature; no wonder, then, that the keeping of sheep should be one of the most universal, as it is one of the most ancient, of occupations. From the time of Abel, who brought "the firstlings of his flock" to sacrifice to the Lord, to the, present day, almost every nation has included sheep farming among its branches of industry. On the rugged hills and snow-covered valleys of Iceland, Norway, and Lapland, flocks of sheep find a scanty pasturage, eating the Iceland moss" and lichens where grass is unattainable, and supplying their owners with all the necessaries of the simple life in those regions; and in the burning plains of tropical countries, where the woolly fleece gives place to a thin hairy covering better adapted to the climate, the shepherd leads forth his flock, to pick a living as they can in the arid sundried fields. The sheep is one of the best gifts of Providence to mankind; and it has been scattered broadcast over the globe, as if with the intention that as large a portion as possible of the human race should reap the advantage of its presence and its usefulness. It is almost impossible to say from what wild stock the domestic sheep derived its origin; but the majority of naturalists consider that our tame sheep are closely connected with the animal whose description follows here, namely: THE MOUFFLON (Plate v., a.) This creature, which unites the qualities of the goat and the sheep, is found in the rocky regions of Corsica, Sardinia, the Greek islands, &c. The colour is a reddish brown, with a darker 10



PAGE 1

DOMESTIC ANIMALS, BIRDS, &c. INTRODUCTION. "And God blessed Noah and his sons, and said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth. And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, upon all that moveth upon the earth, and upon all the fishes of the sea; into your hand are they delivered."Genesis ix. 1-2. THE Bible tells us that the animal creation was delivered into the hands of man for his use and benefit, and that man was to be acknowledged as its master by every living creature; such was the decree of the Almighty Creator. But as there are various kinds of animals, so the brute creation in various ways and degrees are adapted to minister to human wants or employ human energy. Against the lion and the tiger, and nearly all the flesh-eating animals, man has to exert his strength and prowess, as against his enemy. They are foes whose attacks are to be guarded against, and whose approach must be watched and noted, that they may be destroyed, or at least driven back into .the wilderness, which is their natural abode. Others, like the fishes, are pursued through the water with nets and lines, and many cunning engines and stratagems, that they may furnish meat for man, or that the various substances of which their bodies are composed may minister to his necessities. Thus the great whale ships sail out every year to catch the mighty whale of the Northern seas, .that the oil he furnishes may light up the darkness of many a chamber in the long wintry nights; and thus the horny substance that supplies the place of teeth in the huge jaws of the giant of the deep is devoted to many purposes in various manufactures; for whalebone plays an important part in the dress of the present day. And there is a third and very large division, that not only furnishes man with articles of food and raiment, but is made to live with him, and to form, as it were, part of the community on the farm and on the plain; and this class, losing its wildness and ferocity, and becoming tame and obedient, comprising creatures like the horse, ox, and sheep, who know their masters, and willingly submit to their sway, is known under the general name of THE DOMESTIC ANIMALS. The general features that distinguish the domestic trom the wild animals are these: They live in herds or flocks, being of a sociable disposition, and not inclined to fight savagely and devour one another, like many wild animals, as, for instance, the fierce cat tribe. They have a singular power of bearing changes of climate and different degrees of heat and cold, and are consequently found spread over a great space on the surface of the earth. Thus, for instance, in the cold island of Iceland, in the far north, where no tree will grow, and the ground is covered during the greater part of the year with ice and snow, a breed of strong useful horses is found:; and in the dry Indian plains, where the sun's rays beat down so fiercely that Europeans can hardly bear the fierceness of the heat, the horse bears his rider swiftly and bravely across the field, and the wild native warrior learns to fight on horseback. In the highlands of Scotland, amid the barren wilds and bleak hills, the hardy oxen manage to pick up a living; and in the burning forests of Central and Southern America, where the ground cracks and breaks with the heat, and during half the year the ground is parched to a desert for want of moisture, numbers of horned cattle run wild, and live in all the happiness of liberty. 1 5



PAGE 1

.41






PAGE 1

CATTLE SHOWS-LORD TANKERVILLE'S CATTLE-DISLIKE TO SCARLET. hide, others again for the quantity and richness of the milk yielded by the cows. The different kinds are divided into two classes according to the length of the horn, and are called Long Horns and Short Horns," and thus each part of England and even of Scotland has its particular breed. The establishment of Cattle Shows, at which horned cattle, sheep, and pigs are exhibited, and prizes are awarded for the best specimens of each breed, has done much to improve our domestic farm animals; and British oxen are now considered superior to those of any other part of the world. So great is the value attached to them, that bulls have been exported to Australia and New Zealand, being carried at great cost to the opposite side of'the world, and a thousand pounds has in several instances been the price of a prize bull. In old times the dense forests in Scotland and in northern.England were full of wild cattle, roaming about free and unfettered. These have now quite disappeared; but till within a few years some of these wild cattle remained at Chillingham Park, the seat of Lord Tankerville. They are described as being invariably of a creamy white colour, with a black muzzle; the whole of the inside of the ears, and the tips externally, are red; the horns are white, with black tips, very fine, and bent upwards. Some of the bulls have a thin upright mane, an inch and a half or two inches long. The following account is given of them: At the first appearance of any person, they set off in full gallop, and at the distance of about two hundred yards make a wheel round, and come boldly up again, tossing their heads in a menacing manner. On a sudden they make a full stop, at the distance of forty or fifty yards, looking wildly at the object of their surprise; but upon the'least motion being made, they all again turn round, and fly off with equal speed, but not to the same distance, forming a shorter circle; and again returning with a bolder and more threatening aspect than before, they approach much nearer, probably within thirty yards, when they again make another stand, and then fly off. This they do several times, shortening their distance, and advancing nearer and nearer, until they come within such a short distance, that most people think it proper to leave them, not choosing to provoke them further." Each separate country of continental Europe, such as Italy, Spain, Norway, Sweden, and the rest, has its separate kind of horned cattle. Denmark is celebrated for a very large kind; and cattle breeding forms one of the great sources of national wealth in Holland, whence immense quantities of butter and cheese, and many thousand head of oxen, are annually brought to England. A spotted breed without horns, which is mentioned by Tacitus, an old Roman historian who lived eighteen centuries ago, has been introduced even in the cold island of Iceland; and as that bleak country affords no grass for pasture, the oxen are frequently fed upon dried fish. A great dislike to scarlet is noticed among all kinds of horned cattle. A young officer, employed in surveying some land in Moldavia, where large herds of cattle roam half wild over U, the plains, nearly lost his life through the circumstance that he carried a small table covered with red morocco. At sight of this table the cattle began wheeling round the intruder in an angry crowd; and he probably saved his life by his presence of mind in turning the red part of the table towards his chest, so as to hide the hated colour from his horned assailant, whose rage was soon calmed when the cause that excited it had been removed. In London, not long ago, a bull who was proceeding peaceably to market was seized with such ungovernable fury at the sight of a detachment of soldiers marching by in scarlet coats, that he charged them at once, and they were obliged in self-defence to receive him upon their bayonets, which soon put an end to him. The courage of the bull has frequently caused the poor beast to be made the subject of very.cruel diversion, such as the bull fights in Spain, where he is made to contend against horsemen and combatants on foot, armed with spears and swords, whose attacks he'repels with great courage. In England too, until a recent period, the practice of bull baiting was pursued in many towns. The bull was fastened (by a rope passed round his horns, or by a ring 4



PAGE 1

7 T. I I






PAGE 1

ENCOUNTER BETWEEN AN EA'GLE AND A CAT. the WHITE EAGLE, the BLACK EAGLE, and the SPOTTED EAGLE, all distinguished by, and named after, their peculiar colour. THE OSPREY, OR SEA EAGLE (Plate xy., ), Is worthy of particular mention. This bird is an admirable example of the way in which the great Creator has fitted every creature for the kind of life it is intended to pursue. The sea eagle, as its name implies, dwells near the ocean, building its nest upon a crag on the shore, whence it can skim across the waters, catching the fish as they swim near the surface; for fish are its chief food, though it occasionally flies inland, robbing the farmyards, and seizing any bird or small quadruped that comes in its way. As fishes are slippery creatures, apt to wriggle and writhe themselves out of the grasp of their enemies, the osprey is furnished with long sharp talons, curving downwards in a half circle; and with these sharp talons it holds its prey as with hooks, and soars away towards its nest, while the poor captive struggles in vain to escape. Its legs, too, are devoid of feathers, as, from its manner of seeking its prey, they are almost always wet. The osprey is a large kind of eagle, measuring from three to four feet from the beak to the tip of the tail. An instance is recorded of an eagle of this kind in Westmoreland, that swooped down and seized an unfortunate cat, who was harmlessly sunning herself in the fields; but Puss showed she had talons as well as the eagle, and with her claws and teeth she made such a brave fight of it, that the osprey was dragged down to the ground, and was at last glad to make his escape, wondering, perhaps, what this new kind of hare might be, that tore and scratched so savagely. THE VULTURES Have a general resemblance to the eagle, but their featherless heads and naked legs give them a disagreeable appearance. Unlike the eagle, the vulture lives on carrion or putrid meat; and were its head covered with feathers like that of the eagle, it would become still more repulsive than it is, for the feathers would quickly become clogged and matted together with the disgusting food on which it lives. The vulture is confined to the hot latitudes, and in many Eastern countries is very useful in clearing away the dead animals whose carcases are left to rot in the city or on the plain, and would infect the air, if the vultures did not devour them. The largest species of vulture is the American condor, a bird of great size, but heavy, stupid, and cowardly. THE ERNE (Plate xv., a) Is distinguished by its iron colour, dark above and yellowish below. It is a small species, but flies very swiftly, and is said to discern its prey at a great distance. THE FALCON AND HAWK KIND, Among the rapacious birds (See Plates xv. and xvi.), though smaller than the eagle, are more like that royal bird, in form and in character, than is the heavy loathsome vulture. In the days of old, when all kinds of field sports were the chief delight of kings, princes, and nobles, when learning and study were considered as unimportant and foolish in comparison with a knowledge of hunting and hawking, the falcon was highly prized, and to kill a bird of this kind was a more serious matter than the slaying of a mere peasant. Immense sums were given for falcons; and though the people grew up in utter ignorance, the falconers were thoroughly educated and trained. 32



PAGE 1

INTRODUCTION OF CANARIES INTO ENGGLAND-PERFORMING CANARIES. THE CANARY (Plate x., b), So called from its supposed original abode, the Canary Islands. The first canaries seen in Europe are said to have been brought wild from the island of Elba; and the manner of their introduction into that island is related in the following account: ".A ship, bound for Leghorn, having on board a number of these beautiful finches, then first made an article of merchandise, was wrecked near the island of Elba, on which island the released birds found the climate so congenial to their nature that they settled and bred there, and would probably have become completely naturalized, had not their beauty and powers of: song attracted the attention of bird-catchers, who hunted them so assiduously, that, after a while, not a single specimen was left on the island. It was natural that the birds thus caught should be sent first into Italy; and from that country, accordingly, we have the earliest accounts of tame canaries. There and in Germany they are still bred in greater numbers than in any other part of the European continent. It is from the Rhineland, and about Thuringia especially, that we now derive our principal supply of imported birds; but some of the choicest canaries are those bred in this country." In its wild state the canary is of a greyish brown colour, tinged with green. The bright yellow birds, that are esteemed the most valuable, are only bred in captivity, and are not nearly so strong as the green varieties. The canary has always held his place as prime favourite as a cage bird. His song is exquisite in its melody and variety; but the little fellow is so well known among us that a lengthened description of him would be quite unnecessary. The docility of this pretty bird has been frequently seen. He seems, equally with the monkey, capable of exhibiting feats of skill and dexterity; and several exhibitions of the kind have been shown, in which the pretty little canary was the chief actor. The most remarkable of these exhibitions was that of a Belgian lady, Mdlle. Vandermeersch, shown in London some years ago, which astonished every spectator. The little conjurors seemed to perform their parts with a display of quite human reason. The following account appeared in a London newspaper at the time: The birds are in a cage with several compartments. In front of the cage is arranged a platform filled with cards, each exactly similar to the other on the side presented to the birds, but bearing various inscriptions on their prefaces, such as the letters of the alphabet, the numerals singly and in combination, the days of the week, month, or year, the months, the seasons, &c. On the bidding of any one of the company the birds tell the day of the week, month, or year; the seasons; the time by any one's watch; or they will spell any word indicated, provided it does not contain any one letter twice over. All these things are done with the most perfect precision, and there is no apparent collusion. Mdlle. Vandermeersch does not touch the birds or the cards, and the little animals hop out of their cages and pick out the cards with their beaks, seemingly with a very serious effort at recollection and calculation." We have here described the finches somewhat at length, because they are the birds, among our English songsters, with which our young friends who live in cities have most to do; but it would take a much larger book than this to speak of the many varieties of birds we have here in England; from the blackbird, or, as our great poet Shakspeare calls him, the ousel-cock, to the wren. "The ousel-cock so black of hue, with orange-tawney bill, The throstle with his note so true, the wren with little quill." There are the varieties of 40



PAGE 1

AMUSING STOTY OF TWO GOATS-SAGACITY OF THE GOAT. THE COMMON OR DOMESTIC GOAT Is so well known an animal that its appearance need scarcely be described. (Plate Iv., b, c.) The horns are generally carved backwards, and most species are provided with a beard. The domestic goat is distributed over nearly the whole world. The naturalist Buffon has given us a graphic description of his nature and character, especially noticing his love of change, and consequent tendency to wander; his hardy constitution, which renders him insensible to heat and cold, and enables him to browse on almost every herb; and his love of standing, climbing, and even sleeping on rugged and lofty eminences. Mr. Bell, in his History of British Quadrupeds," also says on this subject, It will find its food in places inaccessible to almost all other animals, and live and thrive by cropping the scanty herbage which they furnish. In the mountain ranges of Europe, on the Alps and Pyrenees, the goat is found at a great elevation, approaching as near the line of perpetual snow as it can find its scanty sustenance; and it feeds on many plants which to other ruminants are distasteful and even deleterious; thus hemlock, henbane, and digitalis (foxglove) is eaten by it with impunity, and even the acid euphorbia is not rejected." An amusing story is told of two goats who met face to face on a narrow ridge overhanging a great depth, on the ramparts at Plymouth. The ledge was far too narrow for them to pass one another, nor could they well retreat; but one of the goats sagaciously solved the difficulty by lying down, and allowing his fellow to walk over his back; and then each pursued "the even tenour of his way." Among the foreign varieties of this useful animal the Cashmere or Thibet goat of the Himalaya Mountains stands preeminent, and will probably maintain its position so long as Cashmere shawls are prized as costly and beautiful articles of apparel. The Cashmere goat has flat, spiral curved horns. Its body is covered with long, straight, shining hair; and under this coarser outward covering is concealed a soft down or wool, from which the exquisitely fine Cashmere shawls are made. The colder the climate inhabited by this goat, the thicker and closer is its downy coat; but in general the quantity of wool furnished by one goat is only about three ounces, so that ten or a dozen goats are required to furnish the wool for a shawl of moderate size. An attempt was made, early in the present century, to introduce the Cashmere goat into France. It was attended with partial success, and the goat of Cashmere has not only been naturalized in France, butthe breed has been considerably improved. Among other varieties may be mentioned the Angora goat, of a snowy white colour, with long silky hair; the Syrian goat, with very small horns, but with ears so long that the goatherds frequently crop them, lest they should incommode the goat while feeding; and the Rocky Mountain goat of North America. That the goat is both sagacious and teachable is proved by the fact that it is often used as a "performing animal," and carried about to excite the wonder of gaping audiences. In Dr. Clarke's "Travels we find an instance of a "learned" or performing goat of this kind. The traveller says, Upon our road we met an Arab with a goat, which he led about the country for exhibition, in order to gain a livelihood for itself and owner. He had taught this animal, while he accompanied its movements with a song, to mount upon little cylindrical blocks of wood, placed successively one above the other, and in shape resembling the dice boxes belonging to a backgammon table. In this manner the goat stood, first upon the top of one cylinder, then upon the top of two, and afterwards of three, four, five, and six, until it remained balanced upon the top of them all, elevated several feet frommthe ground, and with its four feet collected upon a single point, without throwing down the disjointed fabric upon which it stood. This practice is very ancient. Nothing can more conclusively show the tenacious footing possessed by this quadruped . 9 '. c ci~ g posse-* sed











I a-q--


a1l I.


'U:r


'V31


-~ .<~rt~ -A


- - - - -- -- --


_--: -~-~-- 7--; k


~~-U


- FJf i)f
1 0
I'S


f-
400


--~.r_
1-;-:-3~

----~


~ZBPS~Z~

d


;;
-----


IF: --~-1-- ,


-1
~i--_
~-
r
7:~
~~d


Z7h



ko-f;c=~~;~


-7----





PAGE 1

PAIRROTS-THEIR BRILLIANT PLUMAGE-DISPOSITION. tion of the assailant as well as the defender. For this reason, the most redoubtable birds of prey respect them; while the kite, the buzzard, and the crow seem rather to fear than'seek the engagement." The French call the butcher bird ecorcheur, or strangler; while one species is called. by the Germans Neuntodter, or nine-killer, in allusion to the number of creatures that fall victims to the fierce little robber. In fact, the butcher bird is a sort of feathered Jack the Giant Killer," and is feared accordingly. There are three species of this terrible little fellow. The GREAT ASH-COLOURED BUTCHER i, BIRD (Plate xxi., a) is seldom seen in England, but is numerous enough in France. Like most birds of its kind, it hides in the woods during the summer months, when food is plentiful; but in the winter it sallies forth into the plains, and hunger increases its natural fierceness. All butcher birds are remarkable for their attachment to their young. The female feeds the little. ones first with insects, afterwards with morsels of flesh; and the male bird flies to and fro most indefatigably to provide meat for the hungry little' brood. Through all Central and Southern Europe the butcher bird is found. The RED-BACKED BUTCHER BIRD (Plate xx., b) differs from the former in its more diminutive size, and in having a beautiful reddish tint piercing through the general grey tone of its plumage. This is a bird of passage, not unfrequently found in England during the summer, but flying away, when the autumn mists arise, to the warmer regions of Africa. This species is the "nine-killer" of the Germans. The SMALL BUTCHER BIRD (Plate xxi., c) has a yellowish tone. It is hardly bigger than a titmouse, and is decidedly the smallest of the birds of prey, though as fierce as the larger varieties. There are several foreign kinds, distinguished from each other by a slight difference in colour. And now we must conclude our sketch of the feathered portion of the 'creation with a description of a kind of bird often kept in captivity, and one which seems to adapt itself so well to the society of man, that it even imitates his speech: we have a few words to say respecting, THE PARROT TRIBE (Plate xxn.) These birds are found in wonderful variety in all the tropical parts of the Old and New I World; and as they cannot fly far, and are utterly unable to cross the seas, each region has its; own peculiar species. There are almost a hundred varieties; but the three general classes are the t COCKATOOS, known by the crest on their heads; the MACAWS, known by their large size, bright colours, and their fleshy, featherless cheeks; and the PARROTS, smaller in size than the macaws and cockatoos, and with feathers covering the whole of the head to the base of the beak. The ancient Greeks were acquainted with one or two species of the parrot tribe; and among the Romans, under the luxurious emperors, these birds became such favourites that enormous prices were given for them, and they were provided with regular tutors, whose office it was to develop their speaking powers to the utmost, and who were frequently obMiged to wield that tree of knowledge, the birch, to make their feathered scholars attend to the instruction given. When Columbus discovered the New World, his companions were greatly astonished and delighted at the gorgeous aspect of the parrots, then seen for the first time; and in the triumphal procession in which the spoils of the West India Islands were carried to the foot of the throne of Ferdinand of Arragon and Isabella of Castile, the parrot bore a distinguished part and attracted general admiration. In disposition, birds of the parrot tribe are generally much more spiteful than courageous. They will fight if compelled to defend themselves, but evidently consider that the better part of valour is discretion, and seem to act upon the old saw, that He who fights and runs away will live to fight another day." Therefore, when attacked, they look for an opportunity of escape, and only confront their foes when retreat is cut off. 42


INSTINCT OF THE REINDEER-THE STAG--THE ROE.


At starting, and when the snow is good, the deer set off at a gallop, relaxing at length into a
long and steady trot. Each deer follows the foremost sledge so closely, that the head of the
deer is generally in contact with the shoulders of the driver before it; and should the leader
of the whole train make a bend in his course, each one in succession follows close in the track,
instead of attempting to save ground by cutting off the angle made by-the first sledge. No
power can remove the deer from the track its predecessors have taken; and it is this remark-
able instinct that, no doubt, greatly contributes to the safety of his master; for, should any of
the party by accident be detached from the rest, the keen scent of the deer enables it to pursue
the track, and at last to overtake the train of carriages that has passed on before."
A wealthy Laplander will frequently be the owner of a herd of two thousand reindeer,
whose milk, flesh, skins, and horns are all put to good use. Thus in the arctic regions the
reindeer is to the inhabitant what the camel is to the traveller in the burning tropical desert -
the one creature indispensable to his comfort, and even to his very existence.

THE STAG

Is a creature of noble appearance, with his branching horns, bright eyes, and graceful form;
and appears worthy of the distinction of being placed at the head of the game animals. In
his wild state he is found throughout Northern and Central Europe, in the same portions of
Asia, and in the northern regions of America, especially in Canada. But for many centuries
he has been kept in a half domesticated state in deer parks and forests, so that in England and
Scotland, and even in France and Germany, he can hardly be looked upon as a wild animal.
'In disposition the stag is gentle and harmless, though when pursued and driven to desperation,
he will turn upon his pursuers and fight for his life. It was from a stag thus driven to bay that
the Norman Prince Richard, the favourite son of William the Conqueror, met his death in the
New Forest. The age of the stag can be told by the size of his horns or antlers, 'and by the
number of branches on them. A stag with ten branches was considered a very valuable
animal, and called a stag of ten." The swiftness of the stag, combined with the excellence
of his flesh, has always made him a favourite animal of the chase. He sheds his horns every
year, and hides himself in the thickest parts of the wood until his new antlers are grown.
The female of the stag is called the hind, and the young one the fawn. The attachment
of the hind to her fawn is very remarkable. She hides it in the deepest covert from every
foe, and tends it with admirable affection. In Scotland many wild red deer are still found.
The horns are made into knife-handles and other articles, the skin is excellent leather, and the
flesh, called venison, is esteemed a great delicacy.

TTIE ROE

Is a very small species of deer, still found wild in the highlands of Scotland, though it has
become extinct in England, except in a half tame state in parks. The buck or male is some-
what larger than the female or doe, and has short horns on his.head, while the female has none
(see Plate ix., b and c). The roe deer do not associate in herds, but in couples, their fawn
remaining with them till about nine months old. Their food in summer is grass, in winter
broom, heath, and the tender branches of the fir and birch, and the catkins of hazel and
willow. The roe is naturally a native of the mountains, and it is said that the flesh of those
which have been brought up in low and flat districts is always of an inferior quality. In
summer the hair is much shorter, thinner, and smoother than in winter, when nature seems
specially to provide the little roe with a coat suited to the season. The colour of the hair is
a mixture of deep red and grey. It is said that the roebuck can never be completely tamed.























JllIjI
''II


I,


--- 4-Ii. *. 2 4


-i;~~ -- _-~-.





_- =- .-_ - __
-s~


--'- .-- _
=.... a


I -
' .: . . -_
4' t -.-_ ^


r ;


r __


i e----


-_I ,r


%7


I.:..7



* ; ~


i I


I'r' i "'f'


K ( l>l


', s*.A
, A'l',,:1.. -^ *^ k '*'


-3 -

fe^ -


-S


U -~


'12M~


Fe `--L~

---~-,II

LI
7~;C~~
4-


_yZ~srgT. ~1
---


_I-~-L_


r_


. . . . . .


































C
















































































































a





PAGE 1

' yl i '.-;it 1;SiPBitr )I lE3i ;._ : :F 4 -OIY'U1A !h ,, CIP IbBBCg(lB=_5sCIIIIICe" 1 Ci+ a; i bissusrsolesri,1. B,: i'U" iiZ 5. I c.: :i;l I._irr IT :, r / i, I Y r . Ir 1 '' -e r( "i kllEsA"' ,psi-2 I"$ : /Y 4 : ,, r II ' R It I I ,, 1;; 3 t' I _e d ilr' d6%i -*I f i i I -. i' i .::: ;1 r c ii.



THE MERINO SHEEP-CLOTH MANUFACTURE.


charge. Notwithstanding all his care, however, many are lost by being blown over into the
ravines among the rocks, and others are buried beneath the drifting masses of snow. In some
cases sheep have manifested a remarkable tenacity of life under such circumstances, having
been found alive after being buried twenty and even thirty days beneath the snow. In most
countries on the Continent of Europe, and also in the East, the shepherd does not drive the
flock before him, but literally leads them, walking at the head of the troop, which follows him
wherever he goes.
The affection of the ewe for her lamb, the care with which she devotes herself to the little
helpless creature, and her grief when deprived of her nursling by death, as also the stratagem
employed by the shepherd, who strips the skin from the dead lamb and wraps it round some
little motherless thing, thus cheating the bereaved mother into the belief that her own offspring
has come back to her, have been admirably described by the poet Bloomfield, in the following
lines:
"Her tender offspring dead, the dam aloud
Calls, and runs wild amidst th' unconscious crowd,
And orphaned sucklings raise the piteous cry,
No wool to warm them, no defender nigh!
And must her streaming milk then flow in vain ?
Must unregarded innocence complain ?
No; ere this strongsolicltude subside,
Maternal fondness may be fresh applied,
And the adopted stripling still may find
A parent most assiduously kind.
For this he's doomed awhile disguised to range
(For fraud or force must work the wished-for change);
For this his predecessor's skin he wears,
Till, cheated into tenderness and cares,
The unsuspecting dam, contented grown,
Cherish and guard the fondling as her own.
Thus all by turns to fair perfection rise;
Thus twins are parted to increase their size;
Thus instinct yields as interest points the way,
Till the bright flock, augmenting every day,
On sunny hills and vales bf springing flowers,
With joyous bleatings greet the vernal hours."

The most famous of the foreign breeds is the merino sheep of Spain, which has been used
to improve the breeds of Saxony, Austria, and other Continental nations. The name merino "
signifies from beyond the sea;" and it is conjectured that the breed was considerably improved
by some Cotswold sheep, imported into Spain in the reign of Edward III. The rearing of
these sheep is considered a very important matter in Spain; and centuries ago the Spanish
Government took the matter in hand, and enacted laws regulating the privileges of pasture the
sheep were to enjoy on their journeys from one part of the country to another, which they were
made to perform twice a year, the number and pay of the shepherds, and, in fact, all matters
connected with the sheep-breeding interest. This system of migration of flocks was supposed
to improve both the fleece and the flesh of the sheep; but of late great doubt has been cast on
the fact, as it is asserted that the merinos in certain provinces, where the sheep are kept to the
same locality all the year round, thrive quite as well as those who occupy a full quarter of the
year in their journeyings.
Closely connected with the breeding of sheep is the history of the cloth manufacture.
The first knowledge possessed by the Britons of the art of cloth making came, no doubt, from
Gaul. The Romans had a factory for the making of cloth for soldiers' coats at Winchester;
and under the earlier Norman kings several cloth weavers found their way over to England
from Flanders, where the art was best understood. In the reign of Stephen we find that
12





PAGE 1

I .4 I



PAGE 1

SUPERSTITIONS CONNECTED WITH THE SHREW. to meddle. This power proceeds from a peculiarly tough and strong muscle with which his.ck is furnished; and so pertinaciously does he maintain his position when once he has rolled 'hi self up, that hardly anything short of the application of fire will induce him to unroll hims1 e and come out of his natural stronghold. The hedgehog is about ten inches in length, and h a long nose, not unlike the snout of a pig in shape. His legs are very short, and weak i appearance, and his eyes are small. During the day he lies asleep, but sallies out in the evening; and during the night he is very lively, going to and fro in quest of insects, fruits, and herbs, on which he feeds. During the winter he sleeps away most of his time in a bed of moss or dry leaves. He is quite harmless, though superstition has attached him, like the cat, to the service of witches. In Shakespeare's Macbeth," the whining of the hedge-pig is mentioned by one of the witches, as a signal that it is time to prepare their magic cauldron. The Rev. Gilbert White, the naturalist of Selborne, in speaking of this animal, says: "Hedgehogs abound in my gardens and fields (in Hampshire). The manner in which they eat the roots of the plantain in my grass walks is very curious. With their upper mandible, which is much longer than their lower, they bore under the plant, and so eat the root off upwards, leaving the tuft of leaves untouched. In this respect they are serviceable, as they destroy a very troublesome weed; but they deface the walks in some measure by digging little round holes. . . In June last I procured a litter of four or five young hedgehogs, which appeared to be about five or six days old; I find they are born blind, like puppies, and could not see when they came into my hands. Their spines are quite white at this age; and they have little hanging ears, which I do not remember to be discernible in the old ones." SHREWS. Of these little creatures there are no fewer than twelve species, not differing in any very essential particular from each other. They greatly resemble the rat in appearance, and all have sharp muzzles and cutting teeth. The first species is The FETID SHREW (Plate xiv., d). This shrew is only three inches long, and is found in most parts of Europe, and the northern division of Asia. It is very like the common mouse in appearance, and takes up its abode in ruined buildings, or burrows in the ground. Its food is insects, corn, and any refuse it can find. It obtains its name from the offensive odour of its flesh, which is so tainted that the cat and owl, though they hunt and kill it, will not eat it. Its eyes are small and its ears short. It is quite harmless. The WATER SHREW (Plate xiv., e) is somewhat larger than the fetid shrew. Its colour is black above, and grey or white below. It swims well, and takes up its, abode in the neighbourhood of water. The pike and other fish feed upon it greedily. It has a chirruping voice, like that of a cricket. It burrows like a water rat in the banks of streams, and lives upon grubs and other water insects. The PIGMY SHREW differs from the other species only in the smallness of its size. It is not more than an inch long, and is supposed to be the smallest of four-footed creatures; hence its name Pigmy, from the Pigmies, a supposed nation of dwarfs. There are other species, such as the MEXICAN, the PERFUMING SHREW, &C. Harmless and inoffensive as is the poor little shrew, the ignorance and superstition of the people in old days gave it a very bad name.. The simple villagers asserted that the bite of a shrew mouse was poisonous, and could only be cured by cutting a shrew in two, and laying the halves across the wound. Cattle over whose bodies a shrew mouse had run were supposed to become sick and ailing, and could only be cured by a shrew ash. The superstition is thus explained by Gilbert White: "A shrew ash is an ash whose twigs or branches, when gently applied to the limbs of cattle, will immediately relieve the pains which a beast suffers from the 28


THE IBEX-THE DOMESTIC GOAT.


"For hairy goats of equal profit are
With woolly sheep, and ask an equal care.
'T is true, the fleece, when drunk with Tyrian juice
Is dearly sold; but not for equal use;
For the prolific goat increases more,
And twice as largely yields her milky store.
Meantime the pastor shears their hoary beards,
And eases of their hair the loaded herds.
Their camelots warm in tents the soldiers hold,
And shield the shivering mariners from cold."

The "Tyrian juice here mentioned refers to the celebrated Tyrian purple, with which the
garments of wool were stained; but goats' hair was very largely employed in the dresses worn
by many European nations, and especially in the coarse garments of soldiers and sailors.
Many of the Greek fables of IEsop make mention of the goat; and the goatherd was an
important personage among the ancients. Who does not remember the story of the foolish
goatherd, who, having taken shelter with his goats in a cave, and finding a number of wild
goats already in possession there, gave the food of his flock to the wild goats, in hope of
making a prize of them? the consequence of which proceeding was, that his own flock perished
with hunger, while the wild goats escaped at the first opportunity, and thus he returned home
without either wild goats or tame. The difference between the goats and the sheep may be
compared to that which exists in many countries between the tribes inhabiting the mountain
regions and those dwelling in the plain. The mountaineers, like the goat, are hardy and bold,
insensible to danger, and fond of pursuing hazardous tracks among pathless crags; while the
dwellers in the plain, like the sheep, are peaceable rather than warlike, loving ease and plenty,
and unenterprising in character. Again, the goat, like the mountaineer, is prone to wander;
while the lowlander, like the sheep, is content to remain in one spot, provided it supplies him
with necessary food.
First in order among the goats we have to notice a wild kind, namely:


THE IBEX. (Plate v., d.)

This is a wild species of mountain goat, formerly common among the Alpine regions of
Central Europe, Switzerland, Savoy, and Northern Italy, but it has now become very scarce
and must soon disappear altogether before the rifle of the hunter. In the almost inaccessible
heights between Monte Rosa and Mont Blanc it is still occasionally found. The ibex is a fine
bold animal, inhabiting the highest mountains, and climbing precipices that seem inaccessible
with wonderful agility and safety. In the summer its food consists of the Alpine plants, but
in winter it resorts to the forests that clothe the mountain side, and browses on the bark and
branches of dwarf willows, birches, and other Alpine trees. But even in winter it seeks
the heights whenever this is practicable, resorting to the lowlands only when driven by necessity.
The large horns of the ibex are bent backward from the forehead, and surrounded at intervals
with broad rings. The horns of the female are much smaller than those of the male. The
colour of the skin is a dull reddish grey; the head is small, and the legs rather short and thick.
The ibex is much larger than the common domestic goat. Its voice is a peculiar whistle, which
it utters with great shrillness when alarmed. Hunting the ibex is a very dangerous pursuit,
not only from the necessity of scaling the terrific precipices to which the creature betakes itself
in'its flight; but also from the fact that the ibex, when its retreat is cut off, will frequently
spring in desperation upon the hunter, and roll headlong with him down the abyss. In its
manner of life and general habits the ibex resembles the chamois in many points.





PAGE 1

I



INTRODUCTION.


When the dry season prevails, they are sometimes in great distress for water; and then it i
that the cunning mule manages to satisfy his thirst by a very clever stratagem. He searches in
the burning plain for a round fruit like a melon, called the melocactus. This plant is covered
with prickles; but the mule does not-care for that, for he knows that it contains a watery pulp
or juice. So he stamps upon it and kicks at it till he has burst it open; and then, with his
large fleshy lips, he sucks out the juice with great delight, while the horses and oxen, less clever
than he, go about parched with thirst.
But when the rainy season sets in, all is changed. There is water now in plenty;, for the
rain pours down in streams, and the whole sky is black with clouds. The entire plain is covered
with pools and lakes, and the cattle have to swim about from one island to another, as if they
were amphibious animals, or adapted to live in the water as well as upon land; and not a few
of them are seized and devoured by the ravenous crocodiles ahd alligators that lurk in the
waters for their prey. And yet, through all these dangers and difficulties, the wild cattle and
horses of the steppes struggle on, and increase rather than diminish in numbers.
Another remarkable feature in the domestic animals is found in the various uses to which
they can be applied. Let us take, for instance, the ox. He can be used as a beast of draught
or burden, and will draw the plough with untiring strength, day after day. When he has
finished his wdrk on the farm, he falls into the hands of the slaughterman, and every part of
him, his horns, his hoofs, his hide, his flesh, and his bones, will be found valuable and useful.
In the sheep we see the same peculiarity. Wool, skin, flesh, bones, tendons, all and each
are made by man to serve some useful purpose, after the death of the patient animal to which
they belonged. Contrast the sheep with one of the feline animals-for example, the tiger.
When the beautiful striped hide has been stripped from the dead brute, the rest of his carcase
is absolutely useless, so far as 'man is concerned, and can only be left as a prey to the jackals
and vultures, and other beasts that feed upon carrion. For the tiger feeds upon meat, and this
renders his flesh unfit for food.
Another and a very noticeable feature in the animals adapted to be the servants of man,
and to live with him in a domestic or tame condition, is the wonderful increase in numbers
they exhibit. Many a man has begun in Australia, or elsewhere, with a few sheep, perhaps a
score or even fewer, and has found his flock increase year by year, until he has become a
wealthy man. The flocks of sheep and the herds of cattle have, indeed, been so important,
that some nations have depended upon them for their very existence. Even now there exists in
Asia and elsewhere numerous nations whose only wealth consists in the domestic animals they
possess. How valuable domestic animals were considered among the Eastern nations of old,
can be easily seen from the words of the Bible, where the wealth of Abraham is enumerated
thus: "He had sheep and oxen, and he-asses, and men-servants, and maid-servants, and she-
asses, and camels." We are also told that "Lot, which went with Abraham, had flocks, and
herds, and tents, and that the land was not able to bear them" (that is to say, to provide pasture
for their flocks and cattle), that they might dwell together; for their substance was great, so that
they could not dwell together. And there was a strife between the herdsmen of Abraham's
cattle and the herdsmen of Lot's cattle." And again, in the description of the rising fortunes
of Jacob, who tended the cattle of his uncle Laban, we are told, The man increased exceed-
ingly, and had much cattle, and maid-servants, and men-servants, and camels, and asses."
Of these domestic animals we have now to speak, beginning with the ox tribe.





PAGE 1

till, ] tJ'/ 5, (I I} / N' 0













S




a-F


1I-


,ilk


a


1-i


rnflrn~-~r~T 7 = __


de7
NGrs~-


,*


1 -4-.--.. Ir

VEf,~


ah -


4,
W 4. ,1:^~


*.'
j:"


VA


V -;-t".
' --^i


"4-'-


*' '.


F,


__b


c~~~
.


r


la*- *>
e *





PAGE 1

-d / I,



PAGE 1

DOCILITY OF THE HORSE-WILD HORSES. hundred chosen chariots, and all the chariots of Egypt, and captains over every one of them." And though in later times some breeds of horses have been devoted exclusively to the labours of the field and the road, the charger, or war horse, has always kept his place in the armies of the modern as he had it in those of the ancient world. Not the least famous among the "heroes" of the battle of Waterloo was "Copenhagen," the gallant charger who bore the Duke of Wellington upon his back, without apparent fatigue, during sixteen or seventeen hours on that eventful day. Among the circumstances which render the horse peculiarly valuable to man is the fact that each breed has 'separate qualities fitting it for some branch of usefulness. Thus, the characteristic of the racer is marvellous speed; while the hunter, with almost as great a swiftness of motion, combines a strength and an endurance which enable him to pursue the flying deer or fox for many hours over ground which would try the powers of the slim, graceful race horse far too severely. Again, for the plough horse and waggon horse, which has to draw heavy loads, but is only required to move slowly, we have a heavy, bulky kind, whose ponderous, heavy strength almost resembles that of the elephant, dragging, almost without effort, and by their own weight, loads that a lighter breed of horse could scarcely move with the most violent exertion. The rough, hardy Shetland ponies, again, are very useful in their way, being able to endure much fatigue, while they thrive upon scanty and coarse food. The sagacity of the horse, and his readiness to learn, also increase his value. With the exception of the dog and the elephant, no animal is more teachable than he. The war horse masters his exercise quickly, and remembers it well; the hunter soon learns to enter into the excitement of the chase, which he often pursues as eagerly as his master; and the heavy dray horse soon learns to pick his way through crowded streets with such skill that he scarcely requires the guiding-rein. He is also capable of considerable attachment to his master, for whose benefit he exerts himself even beyond his strength. The natural term of the horse's life seems to be between twenty and five and twenty years; but this period is generally shortened by over-work and ill-treatment, arising, in most cases, rather from thoughtlessness and ignorance on the part of the owner than from deliberate cruelty. Because the horse is strong, and willing to exert his strength, many persons seem to think that his powers are unlimited; and because he can run fast, that he may be driven or ridden for a long distance at the top of his speed; and thus his powers decay early, and he dies before his time. So generally is the horse spread throughout the world, that it is impossible to say with certainty what was originally his native country. Wild horses are still found in vast numbers in the great plains of Tartary and of Central Asia and in the prairies of North, and the pampas of South America. The wild horses of America are descendants of Spanish horses brought over by the first conquerors of the New World. Many horses regained their liberty, and became the progenitors of a wild race. In Southern Africa a race of small wild horses also exists. The following description of the wild species is given in a popular book on science: "Wild horses appear to be free from nearly all those diseases to which the domestic breed are prone. They are generally of a pale or greyish-brown colour, with brown mane and tail, a whitish muzzle, changing to black about the mouth. They are smaller than the domestic breed, with a larger head, longer legs, larger ears. . .They recognize the presence of man at a great distance, when he approaches them to windward, and fly from him with wonderful speed. They prefer sunny slopes, and avoid forests and steep places. They do not wander beyond the fiftieth degree, of north latitude." Horses are entirely herbivorous, feeding on vegetable productions. In their wild state they subsist almost exclusively on grass, though their teeth enable them to masticate hard corn and beans. They are naturally dainty as regards their food, and especially nice as to the purity 15



PAGE 1

THE CUNNING FOX-AFFECTION OF THE FEMALE FOX TO HEI YOUNG. THE FOX. "Foxes have holes, and the birds of the air have nests; but the Son of Man hath not where to lay His head."-Luke ix., 58. The fox (Plate xiii., 6) is an animal of the dog tribe. It is found in many varieties, almost every part of the world having its own species, excepting the hottest latitudes. Among the many varieties may be mentioned the arctic fox of the northern regions, the black fox of Siberia, whose fur is exceedingly valuable, and the grey and silvery fox of the warmer parts of North America. All these, and many other species, possess the main features of the fox, namely, the sharp muzzle, long fur, short legs, and bushy tail. The arctic fox is a far less sagacious animal than its relations who dwell in warmer climates. In England the fox is well known, alike as a favourite animal of the chase, and a very mischievous neighbour to the farmer, for whose poultry he has an especial liking. Indeed, he is such a cunning thief, that were it not for the amusement he affords to the hunter, he would probably have been long ago exterminated. There are three varieties in England, differing in size, but all of the same reddish colour: the cur fox, the smallest of these, is the most common. The fox possesses many qualities of the dog. For his size he is decidedly courageous; he will bite his enemy fiercely, and when once he fixes his teeth in a foe, can hardly be made to let go his hold. The sharpest pain will hardly force a cry from him. He can be tamed without much difficulty, and will attach himself strongly to those who are kind to him; but his temper is always uncertain, and he will often snap spitefully at the hand that caresses him. His food is very various. He will eat small birds and frogs, snails and insects; mice and rats do not come amiss to him; to berries and fruits he is very partial, and his fondness for grapes especially has been proverbial since the days when ZEsop wrote the fable of the Fox and the Grapes." Even in the Bible we find reference to this fact, in the verse of Solomon's Song: Take us the foxes, the little foxes, that destroy the vines, for our vines have tender grapes." On the sea shore he preys upon the crabs and shell-fish, and is said to entrap the unsuspecting oyster by thrusting a pebble into its open shell, and thus preventing the valves from closing. Frequently hunted himself, he is in his turn a great hunter, destroying young pheasants, partridges, leverets, rabbits, and all small animals that are not strong enough to resist him. Honey also has such charms for him, that he will risk the anger of the bees in his attempt to steal it; but it is in attacking the poultry that he displays all his cunning. The fox makes for himself a hole or burrow in the earth, generally in a bank, or under the roots of a tree. He takes care to have more than one entrance to this retreat, so that, if danger approaches through one door, he may escape by another. Accordingly the huntsman is careful to stop up the holes, that the fox, who, when first started, generally makes for his hole, may be compelled to flee across the country, finding his usual retreat cut off. Not infrequently he takes wrongful possession of the hole dug by a badger, and establishes himself and his family therein. He chooses the night-time for his depredations; and thus the poet, in describing the evening operations on a farm, rightly enumerates among the other precautions taken against danger and loss, that The snare for master fox is set." The female fox is remarkable for the care and affection with which she brings 'up her young. Instances are known, in which foxes have carried their cubs considerable distances from their former abode, when they suspected the approach of danger; and sometimes they have even been known to climb trees, that they might deposit the cubs in the forks of the branches, out of the reach of the eager hounds. 26



PAGE 1

.1



PAGE 1

F 4. -. U A 44 .4-, 4 4 4 N U $ 4' 4 A *U 0 >5 k I I


__ .'-.-.;.',i -...;'- ... Z. _ "-, .. '. . ...'.
.77F -F ... -7:p..,.3r,.bigr,'"-".W!i7rr.T..- ... Tj
.... .. i..;:i'.. - i.c., .s--.:";! ; 51 ..... -
. . -'-- -t'e;.;LjrE-ffF-' -.1,L.
7 ;-- 7'" 7 7;;'.'.' ..... zl' ..
-'T rll.= T .. _" .': .,
.. .",
... '
PF....:...,.-. -. ..... !!r7M .7 "U.- -_ I.. ".!" .:.;. ,p- 1.71S
7 .- -'- Rw w. F. 7 .7. .. .. : .' .....i.
....;..- ... I na v y" .!'X. .'.,. '.T. _11A.
.:. ; . 5
,.. F ;:;;;'...; .. z , ........ s. ..' . r., _'; ....
:!..-': ':' " -'i:,::.,:.-;.-...l.;-':. .... .. .. I I.,". '," -" em N I .... ...."
:'."'i` .... .;. ....z.'-i-;Lii;,i.:.-,:..,:;:,.-t ::,:--" ..
.11-:: 1 '..',..........,.....:..,..'I '-_r.j'
!!;;.1--'
.
"S 71.2'-- i;. .: ...41 .. .... ;': ;, ", -
.
W r ",.--!i;.'..!.-'..:".:.Tj,..-'il,;.,i.::.. I : iim- 4 .'V
'..'..M.- I 'ii4.'L. 'L__.;:'.-. !';:. i, lew"2 ..2 70. -- !-?l V -
I fii-l;- ;e`.-. ....- .....
-j.. ....-.': .'..; 4r.'!!;;;!.' ''!".. I '
V'.- : .; ; "', - ... .%i.',r .'.'W -ilp Ijti i :. ,mr-1 .. ... 7;.1. ...... "I .X .
' 4IK%.".,W,.%1,14!17i-l!'t?.Iir ...
..' ....... .'-.',-.....X,;.. ,.:. ..; -1:0
,' I.,.: ..' ::...' ., .'... "_:' i ' -t5Y' 0 .?r;J;tz'o'.4-g%- -3';- '- .. '.;'. `.2'52:" z ;"
--:.:.': -,-..i -I -- f- 9 ja fwQ .-;.;.':z";7 - --'-.'".'-'- . ..;. zi _; -, " -
'. .'. _; . -- ';-_._'- 1-
'45 lt-_z: !;:`.:. .. n... .;L I'A . .-' ..-':: v
...- ,.,;.,*..'.:.'..-;...!'.'..:r.;.4,7.;= ,-,-' i'.'.',,."...7:.,..,:;-..'.....,',.:..j:.. -.." -`U ; .
W 2 m n ..!"-. '. ..iFe5 .'.41,.!.,fA',.,...'...-,',.,i .__rW , :4plv"FW.l;;,:l..4c"I'r-v _X_'
-;x A V i .- .. ... .
,';'._'.'' ;-'_.'-.-- -
-j.;.;.. .-----.-a,..-.......!,- .-,-,.. A -- -"'-*:'EW'9!-P'f' "'A.U r'.fw' :!-;j'x. ".':;e
ji.-::;:.'!.'! _.'.....r. -'... F ;;.:5 .F .r A;: -..'.iR P,'. ..' -:..j' '7..':-'=%j. '- ... '' .. .... ;;; 51
.. .. 1r.1.! .i' . P '.... .. - w .....
'' F '.'-,`';P. . .rr't..j.A. k--.,!Ir...-:-;.74;"..V'..w;4,:i
1. ' "'p- -'n' .- 7-s'i.'...4Q.47,=
_j. -'.c. i. 4e -!:'--'.:::;,f...-7.' _ . , 11 -7-7L" 'j..'r t .
-1 ... ...... 1. .... .. _.... ,;. .- %; -I ..4 -.An---".-,-"'O' '-. '_.N.. -- --,M "7"-7j..'.i';'9jV .7 N7 915. - I itiek".I.- %-.....'..',;;..;.-;..- ... T., .."
-
.'. .t5w -O.".-. x_'-ij: 4". I ",
.., I j'. ;-;-7, _
.' z.W"'4.-. ;:, % .. rq -z.!.,'::7-':- '., -1. ...: i .,i j.
...; ;.' 'P `: ff jgr ;r :.;'
...', ., ;..." :-1". .70
. -.,.. ... .. 1,460i: '".'r.!. -A% m ..M.__ j .j: .... :-. ,- - ,; .' -" N ..' I '.. x.-
-;; t . -;- .- '-a. -- - - .k i0t'W il"Y '_'... ":t;j
. "'. _fr.'r .7, '. .0 .;.' "
-_;;.""'t ;44';-':'.-,.T:.t-,.;,-::,.;.,, _._...'....... ;-- _ .- Y.%7A. __"' "
.. .! .7 .' "'"k,;-' '4" ' -':-.T:AF!.A
,. ._., B ... I ' .. %' "L.--'-:.%'R-Ift -!q.rg !. - .. 12?E.11.%'... 'Z. . "`l _r%41 - --'.'.r-.;'jiK4N ., W '...'.'.'_'....;' if'.k,;.,LT'l,.,;-Iplll;'",,.,j-.:.
.. & '. V.'-i.:-F"; 11-;P'.,."Z"- .."c" '_ -.'..-l.i.;,_';!,.',7:4:".-c..:--";"t' -- ! ;--'1:4-71A;!.: -.., __ -"q
I.- _`: '-' -" p p -.1..... I 117i '...'._'R...'.V. ;..
1311 ` -_ ." _. .1.
.;n; V! 'r;. - '.A- -;."...; . '.i_. .....' '.. ,gji.
1 04 0 & I R. -W A Q w rt";i;5 .j ... iz.14! .0 .rEv, .. rg -'... -..A ..".. I. ... - s- 'j.,7",':;Js' -. .':.':. ;;.'.!;.'t.".
i; -.:! :._ ... ;_'. N"", . '4T4" 4,; 1 ..
;-, _-!.'.'!!i7- -. - .. 'V ?U 2- 7 '.- ---.- ,...N.4, -.-"-'; p'_'-' I, ".Aq,
_... I....,. N", J-; N ixi'f;4
:: 'Z.-:N .N-s V=Ifv ';'.4 t1--xw..g _ -A
- - '.. ;M ,.% ;__. I~
_:' -i..P;; .; :;.w..c::';P ._.1___."1..-_ --y '-. ---jF 0 . ....- .g
Ii'JP` 741"r-F."'; -or.--.-."k' -;:!.. '31. !. "'.VA:!'.'::: '. t .... 1 .
lawsysm - -
_'4 r ' ". Z.-i-.'.0 ., i r -.11s.....;:.. 4t'-;'._--"- -
,,
-; -N- ' !Vr":_ --- .';;;:.
-... ___ % - " ywww-wnm; -
ii%z,;-'-X...1.;. H ... . - '...; , -"' ... ... - .. -.:! ; ..P" .,.!::; . ...'. -* 1 ;' ""v.". - !: .17. '.- q'-..".:_ ' z I,, p ...............
. ;' .m. j'!'?.1 .-"..;' .. .: , 1 ...... ... 6i-.W.:-L.-.:- .!.-,..;z;. .- ';r'
C; V -_'.7'... ., M V 2 M .' -;.'F7-k'.O, - ..' .
... I-. si_ .I- I I ,I, i_a'.'Ij^ I .,-,7x .:g;'-'A,.'- 4 i";R 2'.."-'_-':jj - .... ...... .. ,.-JU, -'_.' '.... .,
.;,_.=;_.'j'..' T ... U1,11V Zi... .1 ....' ... ..-..,-,..-. '' - - 'Ll", .. %.
.:. i, .. R. : i `.','.".M ..,n'.' ,,,
.1 '. ..... . .-.-.-'E91--':.N ;k' `' -, .. .r "I W.- '%--' ;.,, 01:
;i-1. ';'"' I -..-,.'_.3 lt-.-t.:'- j
.. . ;.;]'-,!- .-----'7:-'.-_,r.".-' ... .- '.....q. . ,..:. ..
,;.T: .':' ';;j_.. q_ 6 ,!; .1 ':J-t. -.;.j:!;,91; '" _-4:!'' -..!.-",vq rg 11 IM ", 1.1::%
..' -". ":!ij.';J;-H"''z; '- ':'; i i" 1-n' Zr"61'4 j kzi: .;:`'-'."'q-z e -
.. .. .. :.-'1'.].::'-.;;;'9..-'' '-" -;".:n' --4 ze I : - 'A ,
i- ... _.-;_....:;_'. -..74-..n'., ..... _ -" .' -- ..- - -.1 I -.'. '..U .
11 .. .'. "'.',.: .. .!,;. L, ".;_. ;.'. ... -.1 .... .? ... .?,- ".-I-I.I..'. . ._.1.11'rA1"q_ .. 4 .... .. -... ; -;:.- - -..4#',.-..I.'-,.'!"..-'.-.-'--a'..''I ... wsl .,.! . V., . ..'r.r.j. ',' r4 .:....."- .::;- :._4
imp Ewwwjwf no ,, ,j ..' .;. .:!c.':;pt'.: .
.62':.-.it'' E4: -'. 4., ---...!P"'-:!: 1
-A;.:,.. r';.. 1 1. ;2 ' : -"!.... .i 4F7':!Ilt:'
._ ff! . 0 !-.,.--,-.,'-:-'.-.(l:",4 ..;._ ;'__..: _w -.'7'.;' IF17 111' " .q;' _.-'._;- ! 1: ...... :. I'- .. .. I-,
1--'-4v.':'. .7. ':'7; :.. a ':..!:....; ..:' ,.. :'q;R. ".I;. !.:'..'t --- .%. ... ..; .P. __- ,
. '...I.:- ... 10 :. '. _. n V . .. ..... :...
. 0:6:7 ".1. _; ; z:-.t,,zi:.-.-'i"";;,:%,;i..: .. . -'R'..' ... ... ..
i j:,' .: L'.. ..; ' : _... ---.011 tk:' ;o'.'7_.;';::: I
.. .]!'.4..; .,
,
"- 1 0 1M 0 &;I 0 ,e.';:.,.'..:-..','..' ... ;;'M 't",:; _1:.;...:;'W' y '. " '. ...... j"':;'xP'e-"'j';'.11:.';- A,
.... ... ... . el ::' :%.: L:::' ::! ", -.: _ -- -_ _.........-.'.7.= :;;F"' 4 '. ..:,.; ... -= _...'. :.';'L "IrT ' """" "_ :- ,:.....% ..
":..:1..1-;' ;. ;F;". 4"-!_"."7" j.Z'' .M"_'.- .. !'- ... ."
. e. ...'_ : ' I I -
;.' -.v..:7. L 1 -':;V:!
... ..' '-...--',t1 _.
K1_ -1w 1 __ -=My, fam s ` 11-. ... "."_113 - "'I.. ,
:'_-.'.-'n"::!:. - :
.. .. 1 I ... .; n . .. .;.' -,' !!!! _
, P., ia,;" N'..' !; ., ,.. ..: ; .
., .. .. ., '.-.':-. '_,.!-_ ,,,!t...-,;..:ji,'-.-;.T..,.:',- -.:'.-.':% jj '_': ... "!.::;:!'_e- -!.;
J.""- ';-,!:, " z,:- " A 15 5; "', z .1
... ..!:. .1.j_.;;':...:.... :;,: z'.; ---..'. '.' "; .U'' ;" ,.,. " V..W..N41 :;
... .. ,.: ' .. ................ -_`- i- '.:
"_ _;.:Q:;.'-;.:-.;.!.r. ,j.. ..; .... .. '": .". [ .."'-...-'_i.':i
..i --.-'. .-.L .. ' i:!.:';v -.L'.-.,'.:..;i:. ',' .... :.' I . ::: ...... ::!` 04,2'.- .-'.-"..-"',:,...,'--.':-%':----,- ".:., : ... ....i.:...!."..,!!.:''-,.. ....'.....'
.. -.. .... r " : 1m ....... ;.. . . 7
.j. : ;r .... : ; :: .-
: -. .. :" _1 : -
ir __ -,.: ::.' -..,-- - I .. ...... ;..,..':. ..'.'.,.'... I ,
',v;.. :4. "".;i., .' .;-;....;;z --: -:L` -'.--C..'F.'!.: ... ; '!s' -.:.: ..... -.1 -., W 7 1 11 P ... ,
.. '.;: .1. ...'.. .!:!i ':". '." _-, ..... .... . ,.... ,i
:"_ .!,'. "'.. .. _-,'-' ".:"'I. 2- ..'-'. : '.'!,:-.,".. i;-"':'-:'-.'.i..'-::
' : :!' "'. "i-7,;.2.:., ,...;:,., .
.. :4 :._.?41::X. ! -1. . .
::.; '.-'':;..". k.': -.._--':,-'--i:..1.';'' .'.'.;__.:-P:". :' .!' :;z ...'-j. j..:...:. .. %, :z-.] - .'!!..:::,% -..".' .:' :.:::.....:-..:..t,.I....,..:.. -.1....- :: "
''-- `- ; .- 4._; ..' '. '..,"` .
.
.: ; '.. I .; .. E .
;::::..::: jl' ... .I..... .. - fl ....
1 Z" ... .i : -'.-::::. : ),',..'..:_ '; r.- ' .. ,.".!... : .1-1 I I
'L.,.. '.'.." _.
.. .. -' _-- : :%.! i." "' ':.-.;'."'. :..,.7:.-
-..:;H'. a- -'.'.-."z4,.,,,.,..;,li..-.,.7.;.,..:--:.,.".',.-.."-."::,;-.z,.,."";;;,.-:-.4
:,.,.;. 1;;.'...'. !7'i - ... ... .-: _'.7i., "'!-'..' -'-.-.','.' I C,
I I :' '. .. .. '.... ..
,, 'T !!! f1 1 1 1 1 '' ;..1'._...-.'..":.- !
.- - i "F' : .:.:..'. ':L. _...._;:.' '
... ;! I ....'. ... --I., -, .j .. :. ,
.. I : !!.:..; H ,

-
T...,4... ;-r.'-.'._.;i: . ': V1 .. 111 .. ,
L. .'. ilii....... !! . .- = -.-':]-.-'i":-.. "...--..;. .,!..i;.. ....:.. ;'.:-;t.'.. ..; -
,'.;. .,. .1
.;:;i".-C; -. ... ..t';:" 1.-_-.'. .;.,!.:.;.. .; '-".1;;:. ...' .. _'.... .... _'... ..!...1,.AZ ...' I . _.- .
r ". ...
.. . _. "'. -.1
._ .' ; -
.. .......... ;2,-;'';A. ... !;.!.:: w "AW ...
.... .- !:-- - '. .`.;;'Z".:1:.' ..:_'.z-...:;i!;7.' ,,;..':-'-'.; .. ; _...', , . _' 11 1 En t Ex,
-::;::,. - ..:.:L." I ... :.:; ... :f., ... .
I
:!:P !!- .v .i ... ... :. 1; -:," z' I I : i ' r:.."..'..'.j.": . .:'. r ..i..: ,
.
w m 0 M q ..:: .. I ..;'. t : : ' .. ... '..' .: .' .. _- i ....- _:.; '
: _.:..:: .... : '_ '. ; ,, .. .. .,., I _...' .- .. '. .- ... -,".: , ', -":,; .; .
.._ : .r.. : Li...0%.... . ;11.
j" ";: 'i; %r'!".'-';.: .::4.:i;.;!.','It'i...,.:,;".!.,.-:,i.:.,..,.:.,-'..:!:-4:,!:.;il:..,-,.,. -'-..;:. :,: ;.;:;'V. -
..., . _=. `.r. -.j.':': !:X.";j..: __ _.:z%.,-.!qF'. __ '.
.
_. :::.':! I - . I 4-_:t .- .:. , ;
-';:g4.-'.'.:.r.' w Nm aw n .M K .--z. .. .. '.'. , ., .... ...... -, _ . .
; .:-' ,..-.. irl:: -.1 ,,,
..ii : -1-7 -'&;' ..' i I I _% ,,,, 1" ,
.;,. ... ,
"g V" = g Q !...' '. 1. `:C::'.'
':_ ` '.2...... I..
..'.... ... :-:..' 7 .;.i: 1'.7 ... 'V" ....'....- I '. , .. ,
Q n .i. .::Z::i:!:.7 .......... ; V..:..'_..-;-;._..._.;. .. ,.,. ". ..
.:::.,., -;':-:'- .. -e ..;.;.? : .. j W .- -.;..
.. .. ... .. ., r'..... :':''.. __ :?. .. .. _'.. '_ '7.,!? ;.' : -, .. .,. ' .1.
-A"!:-.:.'.i ;-:-::_. . ... .. I .. ....... ,
.. .....- r _- ..11.'.. .....-I... ... - ::.
-i -:; 44.:`-: = -.%-...::_ -""-';r::- -: : : I I i..... .I %;...
'. .. .. .. _ '-.:' ,::!, .': - : ;: _i' -_ :_ I I 1. ' :k ..! :_ ,
:11 g '.' w a :::.; ;:.f." '- L I '..; i:;:...'-': : :
... __ ",y jagym,, '' I -.
'i'.-,..::_- :.!...'.. % `::-1: ...... ; ... ..' 1 ' . .,.,: , , r . I , i:o'.".". i I --
.1.11 .. .' ..,_ .;._... ;... f.: ; . q .... ... .... .; i ...
J& 1;. ...'...; .. ._4.. ... '':!::: .:; . 1 w' . 7 11
:;. * '7`.'.':" ." -' 7 .j '- .-..-
t,- : .,,....,.:::::;.::::i..:,.:... _- .::.:.,.. ! .. _. ': .' I 11 : ,: I I I I I , ': : ,
': - ... : :-.',77'.".z '.
I ........ L'.. .- ", I I I '
.I -'%- :_'.-" : - ::!;. ... .. .....1. `4.. zs- .. ;:i:-,-'.-'-!."- I .
I41
,
1 .- IN ...... -'.-..'.:::'.!:..'.::.! :: .. ... .. - I I .'
.... - '.'i.;-'-".;:!-.z'.-.' .- --- : ; I r,
..' .. ]. ::"."';::: .'. - __; __;
.. 1*.__.: _. ; ;.. .. ,;: -;-"-. w!:':. 4 - -.1.` _.i;.:.','.'.- i' ; ..'. I , :' I I : : : . z
.. .. .. .. . t 4 _ _'. ;- ...
.: ..... :%. .. ...... ..... ..... _.. n
'. ..;; '1..::!.-1._.r-"';.: .' .'-';_ ... -..- .... .'_".__-'.' .1 I I i , I I -
. .. -, ;%:.... i : I ;r I -
.. ..: V.. ;z. .;:... ; ..... :.., -,- . .... .:.;:: . --- :...::. ;: I I -_::-."...:::
i ;f,.,;-. .. ... i.'.t...F::. . ."- :' :;: .
.? .. .. -::!;:, 'c_ -;.-4.... .." . ..'I ...... I ...... ... I I : I
.. ";:::...!._": :. '. 4, .1, ..... '_-' ..- ...z'.' -
...; I ..... _;;':-'1.;-....:7":. ........ -..".. I I I --
.! .. r. ... __-i:- .z :-a.:.'..:..s-i::;:. ;.; ...: : : -.j.-_.,,_- i::; I % : r 'i:'i.. 2. ,:
I .... ..: .. ,-_ I I I 11 ;
8- m m n 0 w K sy .-, ,....: I I I : : : -
.... ..'.. r I I :
.N.- ... .. ,n, - ". 1 2 I . i :' '
1 1 -;?.i. I 17. -';:: I, 111. I I I : , i
:: -1 -,- -.' .. 'i ;'..'.,.:_,_ _ "..::;%:;. I I 11. I 11 !: _f -!':.: I
... 1 ..:: ... _._ ' .;jq.'..-. I I : r I :':: .: : :: : ....'71.
0 :'i..;::i:.!.::..:...'i.:' "'..4.'..."le-...,-;'-.;;.!...-:;',11:.
.Ira
0 .. ; -4. '..-.....:;._:J.. . ..
:7:1.- '.' :i ;. i % .;.: ; ..!-',.;. ;:.-;-....;.z.;:;4:..'%i....!:!,-,,".'. .. .... ; !.'..:. ,.:. ....:. I I : : ' . ;
. ... ..... ... .. ., .'.. ... .... : I
I,! .-..` -- :':. ...-_.:_'.. I I , I .. , I I I I -;:-.6".'.'..,.'.._'.
.; V; .... ., -.'-7 .!i ::'!' ,:.:-'-"."-__!.-- Z-.':!E-L_'-:;.' ' z.::."'
"M w .. .... .. ". '.
.!. '-.' '.. - ;.':! k !.-.._.:._E;:.....'" A T O I I I I : : "..,';.'...
.... ;....'.:, !.!..'. '.,':. %:..._.'.1 :1 i-.'::'._.n .
4: ]:'.?_.... r.; - : ,:'q: -
I I .... .....'.. ,
11 ,:.-. .. ;-.-u :'.-;..;;y' ;. :.:.." .- '! ....;:. . : I ' .
I
.. .. -!::.1'::' ..-,..-.:. ..' I I :: : : :: . !... ..
.. , .2, .... ...'r.. .. :'_:'i : r : : ,
.,.-'.,';.....'.,.,,,....."..: I ... '
' .': , ,,,,,,,, :;. _ ...'7.:'.: 5:, , e .." - I I I'l l I 'i .
.- : zr..'. "-" L. _- .' .:.. -'- - - I
' i r.` ;_; :'...'.- ;; .-..'i _.-.'.: :;:::..;::V .: ... U -...,-....;:!,...%;.:..:..,I . -'........:;. .' I , ' I I 'll ' I , :' 1, :
,,,,-..,- ' -; ;'_:_'_::.'.."._ ,-; " Fc:;: : -
R I L' : :: : '': ''
. ..'. .. ..;.:. . .:_ .... .
.. "... 1, .' __ .... '..... =_;...".':'.'!;; I ... rn... --: I 11
T -' -" - : : I :.' . f .-.':.".',-- .;: I .. I I .:':
: 0'. ' i'; !'L .;' : r`."i: ...
.. I . .. ..... i .... .' -, -
. I s ... ",fi:::,.!.'.-..!'.',.t '.:V:"
....:.' ..'....... ( ..... . 1, :
.... d ::,. .....' V.'
I... I . . : ,. : I ,:
: ...! ::Ie'.,*_:% .. .. .;.,:.;. ., :: : .:: .
... .. -'-'...'.'.1.".: '_ ' I .'.11'.:'-.... .......;. - .. ;'.;. '.'.. I :' I I '- :. I I ., , .
' ." I I f
%" Y q w '-'. -:;:: : " - -'... . "..'s.s. z':;:.-';!,.":".:z ,.I....'.:.::.;.. ,
. -. !....-_.':- ;;. t'; __" '- :i::-.'.-;2!, '.i';.;4.: I _'.;..,;:. ..,_ w 0"... I I I _
'.cit :!--.;..-! - ,:. -.,. !:_ 5 - .:. ... "' - '... '' i :; ' :_
.. .
: :4 -.1..; _'. '4 .. :!'--'c'..'.."--.'_ .' : '', 1: : ::
-"`'-- _.`.'_.'. .-'!' i.' _ ''.'.;;...;. ; .::,..: tz'....' .. :' '.. .' .. -.,. -f'-.]t -'. -- I : : :': ,
.."', .-.':'... ' '.`-."!'.. Iz ..... .;; I I I I : :
'... ..... . It ." :'..; :: ... zz': ."':..;.. .';.--- ..:.: ..... ' : ,
` ...... ... '3 -.,-. r ,1::::;,-.':."!...,.:i;..-.'.,-.', 11 '' ...C.4 -_ .....
1: '4- -z'.4..-Ww 7 j-1 ... .--'N-&VTWWOT I
...
%% ;r.1:2 .-::..._. .; .: ; , "" ___ ., A I
.:. "':4":'.-'A'!,'; -'."...".;:.;j!%.c -; .r - ... ..... _......... .1 ..::, d., :1:_ .1 :]: I I ':.' _ : I r _: 11 r. ' 'i
.. ... ... ....
-.-. --,,..-. -. . -: .. .'::- ...- I I : : - ,
.... ... :':_- 6 -_ .: ,;:..;. .:w ..' ._ '
... ..... ., ..... . .. ;' .. ...' .:. '........ .. .... I I , .' ': i
. 1e..-..im;-.'_'?i..' .L_, , "V -.1-a : '-.7.F!_'..J.'-'.- .4. :......: :- -"."L '.'- . 11
,
z: -'.::.:::.r..:'.:' -- ..x. ':::.;_.. 'z' .W' p.#.' ' I" : I
I I
.'. ' '! .... . -;' I ... I .,.,
..,.:, ..'. "7 '::';;Z. ..: ... 7'. t -IN .10 %.: 1 "`'i .; . . I r : '
.. i ,,,.:-.:,:::..,:I.-.'.'':::..'I w, .... ... I. i ,.-.-. ; ;;74.. ... .s- W ." 9- I I :
"'1.:L"-;.-'.s.::';;;1 .4 ....: .,. 'i:;-; . ' 1 ', .
-."-_: ....... ...: ... Z.. . .L A & . m;* _' I
.
"
:.......r.j:!::: z;.i. ... I 11 ,: r.. .. ........... I., . " I I 'VEL. 1,
'li! .:-. : 7, ...-,;- 1,-., A I A N ."'.-f-' f' --,.. .!. ..
-' '. ..:.: : .;!_ _.-;-:.*:"-.--'-"r' .. ;$ # ..-. , I I .. : 7 .1 ' .
_. _
::i2_r ., .4 .-' U;:... :.Y-'.,F . I : '
;::,.::-.-. -.;'.I i:. .'. ,* ; . V._'Lh.. -- ' -'." ....... 'IZW_ 1. I :' : ''
.. : .' ... . ,; : . "
.. ": g' -r.. -, :... _.... .... ...
- I '.,' ": I .... :....: '."... ..... I .1 ..,.%: ".;. ... 2 t o ..' . .. \. $. J'r .. , : t' , ,
I
::;. .v, : _.':;:;-..-.--. ?. ...a Q Q I
:1, "-'-iz;- .. ST E A M "'IS-11. N --.V"' 94':: jk, - ,; ---.
;; I I : wSol, ., in k as 9 !V't _.... ..I.mp as sals .I_.".: - ..
.:-...-. :.... - ... .W i .,
... _......i., - '.'...'.' _e. -
!.'% ... _7; & 1.1 ... t .9 t .. .. L : , I I I I ,; ., W IT= . .j ;:r.... :'. .i. aw," :' I
._ .. : : .L
1, _1 .1 ...
.: :. 1.6'".. .... j. V '. .
_: : _..." .4 1.1% : -
I ._ .I- .. '. .,;-. '- .' 4, 1 ...
.... k 1. I I I 11
.. '.' w V.' ...." 11 I.- i..-! 1
.. :;!.':. ": .. :'T I "I .
". ... -' N'....'- ... . ... T 1. ", .
I : .... .. r .. ; I.? _Aek ... '4r;
`:;...'.'; 11 I ." ".'.. 'F4 4 '.-. -1 . `.- ' .
;'; ' : .. ... ; .1 V. . ", .1 ;& .4 I.., .:.. _
.. 1. V' %....
. !::; .. ;: .-' , i_ nr ;4 i.'_.. n 1.1.ww.. ... .. I 1. : .
:....' '. I
; i "- : 31 X. I I ; ' : : ; !;-;e'..:!: _-
-. --- ;L;-"g . 11 "'..' _'4- is .''_ ..
.. : _'. -


' . -:! ;; --- ;
. Vik. lli& ...: V _
1 ;.e

", I .'-.F:; ; . t- , I
I -x'N.. - i-W '. i
__ , I !. . ....- : I
1 ' ., -i .: ; ' .': : e I I : 's. 'j.':
f ----- I I R. .. . I : ...

,' : : : ... ;
.. V 1. I -.'Z ""I"" --!..-7 I ,
I -
I .'." -' ,.,..IT -1
....4....I.I...... 1 1 U, .; .: :':.', : i ' :: _' '' :! ;- - -1.1,
;;;; .0 ; ; I ::' .'-' I ... ,... -'.-....5.
.. T .1 .. ." I : i _' : ... .... : : I I I I -
__ ..-I..-- ". , , :_ Z" _' '_ : r ,: i.. I ,: : ; ! ..' .. .hl
: ..." .1
... .. ., .. -, '' I : ., -
.. __---_"_---_-;--,'. s
-: A . . . ' I '. : ;' I '
.... I I : : -.
..'. .1 -a, Ml '. '
::: I .
. -- -,- , 1
:. I I : : I I , ;' .. 4 -'
.11 I_: '. I % .1 I I I I : I .
.. :.' I I I I I , '' I I : : ::, :
1 .- .. i i : f' ' I I I
'.1.. 0I A 1 a I I I I ; I ; : , , 1
.1 ::;;. --- I r
.. ...... r. I I j I ....... .-..: If,- ,. '. .,.,,,-. .. .,
, -f. 1. "' ,;...".... -i _ ,: : ": ' ' ; :'
j. , I I I .4 I I 11 .:' -
& Nln I I :
.1 I I ': '; :r *
A I : :, I z: t ': .,
1 I : 111 : I I 11
. V. - : :
I I : : , .1 1. ::."_ 4 t .. . I . : I 11 -
I I I I I I j, I .1 J
.7 1 ''. I : , I I I I 1. I r' . : : ,
'4M. % I : "Ev ,
.1. 11
.... ..".;: I I : I I I I
.."'; : I I I I I I : e _: 1 ::
: : : I I I
'. :' '-, I I I
i I ...::;7z_:l : I : %'-, .. : ..
: ..-; It
Z=a -,.! -;.T: .. I 1, I I..;.. I I
'' I : .r . .ssy .' .. I :
..;.. "z ;.... I .. .,
.' ... ':.. !'... .:. ; -;., I I ;
;"" P -,.,.. '.:.:t- -_.': 1:' ., ...
...' : : .
4- 0 j : I I :' I I I
'%5 cz, -' C;
.. : -1 ,14.' I
"' :... .:.. :1 ; '... W.... . .. I I
.. .1 .. .. '.' 4" '.
_. r . .1 I '.... .
.:,- I ;:. .. . .. .... x.,.. -1-r . I : ; 'r 7; ,
%.: M ..'_- M '..
1 ...... -:' 5&"&
MR & ARM I .