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| Stories of Srotland.
The Baldwin Library
I Tee ee eee
PTL AOI OO
KNOXâ€™S HOUSE AT EDINBURGH.
STORIES OF SCOTLAND
And its Adjacent Islinds.
MRS. THOMAS GELDART,
AUTHOR OF â€˜â€˜ TRUTH IS EVERYTHING 3â€? â€œ RMILIE THE PEACEMAKER 3â€?
â€œSTORIES OF ENGLAND AND HER FORTY COUNTIES ;â€?
: â€˜STORIES OF IRELAND ;â€? .
ARTHUR HALL, VIRTUE, & CO.
NORWICH: J. FLETCHER.
Inrropuctory REMARKSâ€”THE Earty Kines
Taree Borper CountTizs.â€”BERWICKSHIREâ€”
SELKIRKSHIREâ€”PEEBLESHIRE, OR TWEEDDALE
AYRSHIREâ€”KIRKCUDBRIGHT, OR GALLOWAY
â€”WIGTONSHIRE, OR WxST GAaLLowayâ€”
HADDINGTONSHIRE.. 2c ee ee ee oe
LINLITHGOWâ€”EDINBURGH, OR Min-LoTHIAN
FIFesHiInEâ€”KINROSS .. Â«soe ee
â€”ARGYLESHIRE 6. os â€˜ee oe oe oe
PERTHSHIRE 4. ce oe ce ee ee ee
CHAPTER IX. â€œ4
Forrar-- KincaRDINEâ€”ABERDEENâ€” BANFFâ€”
ELGIN Â«. 60 +e ee oe we we
NAIRNSHIREâ€”-CROMARTYâ€”INVERNESS Â«- Â«oe
Rossâ€”SUTHERLAND--CAITHNESS .- Â«ee
HrpripEsâ€”MuLLâ€”BUTESHIRE .. 2... ee
CONCLUDING REMARKS .. .. Â«+ Â«se ee oe
Scale of English Miles.
FLEA SE â€”
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Published by Jostah Fletcher, Norwich .
5 Longitude West from Greenwich 4
_ Drawn &kngravedby lL Dower Pentonville, London.
STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
INTRODUCTORY REMARKSâ€”THE EARLY KINGS, &e.
Scorranp is the northern division of the cele-
brated island of Great Britain. If you look at
it on a map, you will be struck with its rugged
appearance. Its coast is jagged and irregular,
and its interior for the most part covered with
mountains and watered with lakes. Separated
from England by the Cheviot Hills, which ex-
tend almost from sea to sea, with a breadth of
from forty to sixty miles, it would seem as though
nature herself had determined the boundaries of
each country; but man willed it otherwise, and
from very early times these two neighbours,
isolated from other parts of the world by large
and stormy seas, began to quarrel and fight like
2 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
bitter enemies. Warsâ€”cruel, bloody, desolating
warsâ€”lasted at short intervals for many years ;
and it is very likely that this quarrelsome spirit
was encouraged .by those ambitious, battle-
loving people, the Romans.
The Romans, you know, had it in contempla-
tion to conquer the whole world, and to make
their own. city of Rome the head of all the
nations on the face of the earth. They suc-
ceeded better in the flat parts of Britain than
in the hilly countries; and, although they pos-
sessed themselves of England and a part of the
south of Scotland, they could not make their
way into those great northern mountains, where
the hardy mountaineers were prepared to resist
them steadily, and where the rough fare of a
barbarous country was distasteful enough to the
more civilized and luxurious Roman soldier; so
These wild people, however, having been once
unsettled, began to come down from their
mountain fastnesses, and invade that part of
the land which had already been conquered by
the Romans. The people of the northern part
of Scotland were not one nation; there were
INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 3
some called Scots and others Picts. The earliest
authentic information which we possess of the
Scots is that they were a people inhabiting
Ireland, which island they appear, in the 5th
century, to have divided with the Hiberni, the
previous inhabitants, over whom they gradually
acquired so decided a superiority as to give their
name to the country exclusively called Scotia
from the 5th to the 10th century. In the
beginning of the 6th century, a colony of this
people crossed over from the north of Ireland
to North Britain and settled in the county now
called Argyle. There have been many different
opinions however as to the origin both of the
Scots and Picts, the latter seeming to be a term
commonly used by Roman writers to describe
painted men rather than any distinct race; but
the discussion of this matter would not be inter-
esting to you. Quarrelsome as they were with
one another, the Picts and Scots made common
cause against the people who had attacked them ;
and their inroads were rather alarming to the
new settlers. The Romans therefore built a very
long wall between one side of the island â€˜and
the other, made towers on the wall, and filled
4 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
camps with soldiers in various places around ; so
that at the least alarm the men might hasten to
defend any part of the wall which was attacked.
This first Roman wall you may see marked on
the map; it was built between the two friths
of Clyde and Forth, just where the island of
Britain is at the narrowest. Some parts of it
still remain, but the work was quite a failure.
The Barbarians,* as the Romans called the Picts
and Scots, were not to be kept away by a wall,
so the Romans resolved to give up a portion of
the country in hopes of keeping them quiet;
and therefore built a new wall stronger than
before, about sixty miles further back. The
Barbarians made very persevering attempts to
get over this wall, but in vain: and in the midst
of the contest the Roman soldiers were wanted
in Rome, for civil war had broken out there,
and the Emperor sent orders for them all to
come and help to fight in their own country.
So leaving the Britons and Scots with the
fighting mania upon them, they forsook them
and returned, and then, indeed, the Barbarians
* Barbarians was a general name given by the Romans to
the inhabitants of most countries in central Europe.
THE EARLY KINGS. 5
rushed in like a flood on the poor Britons, who,
terribly alarmed, sent for help to Germany, and
these people, called Saxons, came over and, being
a very warlike nation, were glad to assist the
The Saxons, however, expected payment for
their trouble, and prepared to take advantage of
the condition of distress in which they found
the Britons, by helping themselves to the best of
everything they saw, taking possession of the
country, and using the inhabitants as slaves and
servants. Many of the Britons fled into Wales,
which country they defended for a long time,
and lived under their own government and laws;
until the English got possession of that also.
Scotland, however, was not so easy a conquest,
as England found to her cost, and still remained
The history of the early Scottish kings is
deeply interesting. There was old king Duncan
in the very early times, his sons Malcolm and
Donaldbane, and his famous relative Macbeth,
in whose story Shakespeare the poet has mixÃ©d
up truth and. fiction, till the former is hard to
come at. JI will tell you the tale of Macbeth
6 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
and the witches, as it is generally believed, when
we come to the proper place; but these events
occurred in the reign of our Saxon king, called
Edward the Confessor, who, in assisting the
Scottish king to recover possession of the throne,
acted more generously than his successors, and
never thought of paying himself for his help out
of the Scotch kingdom as his predecessors did.
Then came the Norman conquest, which,
although it did. not involve Scotland, had an
indirect effect on the. country.
Many Saxons who were driven from England
by Williamâ€™s cruelty and oppression took re-
fuge in Scotland, and this was one means of
greatly civilising the southern part of the land.
Edgar Atheling, a relation of the amiable
Edward the Confessor, accompanied the exiles,
and Malcolm Cammore, who had received much
kindness i in former times from Edward, remem-
bering â€˜that kindness, married the Princess
Margaret, and made her Queen of Scotland.
Malcolm tried to seat Edgar on the English
throne, but in vain; William and his Normans
were not to be vanquished. After Malcolm;
came three kings in succession, who made little
THE EARLY KINGS. Â© 7
figure in Scottish history; and then Malcolmâ€™s
sons, Edgar, Alexander, and David.
David made war against England, and in his
reign was fought the noted battle of the Standard.
He it was that founded the abbeys, to which you
will hear frequent reference. That at Holyrood,
in Edinburgh; Melrose, in Roxburghshire ;
Dryburgh, in Berwickshire, and others. He
appears according to his knowledge to have been
a religious man, and was called by fhe Roman
Catholics, Saint David.
James I of England and VI of. Scotland,
thought his predecessor rather too generous to
the church, for he once said of him that.â€œ Saint
David had proved a sore saint to the crown.â€
One reason which probably had weight with
David was that out of veneration to religion,
church lands were frequently spared, when other
parts of the country were laid waste and plunder-
ed. David, therefore, considered perhaps that by
putting land under the protection of the church,
he had done his best to secure them against
devastation, and most of his monasteries were
founded in those parts of the country peculiarly
exposed to danger from the enemyâ€™s attacks.
8 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
At.the time of Edward I, of England, Scot-
land was reduced almost to the condition of a
conquered country. The Lord High Justice
Ormesby, called all men to account who refused
an oath of allegiance to King Edward. Such
persons were summoned to the courts of justice,
fined, deprived of their estates, and otherwise
severely punished. Scotland was therefore in
great distress, and the inhabitants determined
to rise against the English or southern men, as
they called them, to recover the liberty and
independence of their country. Their leader
was the celebrated William Wallace, whose name
is still mentioned with reverence and affection
in Scotland. Some particulars of the story of
Wallace and Bruce you will read in the proper
place, for it is not my design to give you a
regular history of the kings in succession. Bruce
succeeded in his efforts to free his country from
much tyranny and oppression, but in his suc-
cessorâ€™s time, the warlike Edward III, war was
again declared against Scotland. Robert Bruce,
one of the greatest of the Scottish kings, being
dead, the kingdom descended to his son David,
who was but four years old when his father died.
THE EARLY KINGS. 9
There was, therefore, a Regent appointed,
Randolph, Earl of Murray; that is to say, a
person who exercised the authority of king for
a time, until the young king was of an age to
reign. Randolph was a just but very severe
ruler, he appears to have taken great pleasure
in putting criminals to death; there was no
mercy with his judgment. He once sent orders
to the Highlands to have certain thieves and
robbers executed, and his officer caused their
heads to be hung round the walls of the castle
to the number of fifty.. When Randolph came
down the lake in a barge and saw the castle of
Ellangowan, where the execution had taken
place, adorned with their bloody heads, he said
that he loved better to look on them than on a
garland of roses.
Edward Baliol, the son of .a certain John
Baliol, whom Edward I had formerly created
king, and afterwards dethroned, came over from
France, where he had been living since his
fatherâ€™s dethronement, and laid claim to the
crown. Edward III took up his cause, with a
view, no doubt, to secure Scotland for himself,
and the country was reducÃ©d to a sad state by
10 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
repeated wars. Hdward was busily engaged too
at this time against the French king, and this
rather weakened his force in Scotland, or it is
possible he might have completed the conquest.
Whilst he was.absent on one of his French
expeditions, the battle of Nevillâ€™s Cross. was
fought near Durham, when David II was taken
prisoner and led in triumph through the streets.
We are coming to the end of the Scottish
kings. After David Bruceâ€™s death the crown
was claimed by the Stuarts, a smgularly unfor-
tunate family. Robert Stuart, who had married
a daughter of David Bruce, was the first of the
line of Stuart kings. James I was assassinated ;
James IT was killed by a cannon, which burst at
the siege of Roxborough; James III fell in the
battle field, by the hands of his own subjects;
James IV also fell at the battle of Flodden Field,
fought against the English; James V, after a
great defeat in the time of Henry VITI, died it
isvsaid of grief. The fate of his daughter Mary,
Queen of Scots, is well known. After the union,
Charles I, king of Scotland and England, was
beheaded. Charles II wandered many years as
ITS PRODUCTIONS. li
an exile. James II was obliged to resign the
crown ; and his son and grandson, known by the
names of the Pretenders, vainly trying to recover
the kingdom, were proclaimed traitors, and had
a price of Â£4000 set upon their heads.
Thus we have glanced at the history of
Scotland, which will enable you, I hope, slight
as is the sketch, to understand the allusions
which may be made to the different kings in
the course of this little volume. And now let
us look for a moment at the country as a whole.
Those deep indentations made by the sea into
the land are, in the language of the country,
called friths or firths, such as the frith of Forth,
the friths of Clyde, &c., giving Scotland the
irregular outline, which you see on the map.
The lakes are called Lochs; thus you will hear
of Loch Lomond, Loch Katrine. The surface of
the country is extremely unequal and varied ; it
is divided into the Highlands and Lowlands.
The Grampians, a long chain of hills, dividing
the two districts.
The climate of Scotland, Sina with that
of England, is wet and cold, and corn, fruit, and
vegetables, are usually much more forward with
12 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
us than with our neighbours. The productions
are numerous and valuable.
There is a great quantity of coal, iron is
found very generally, as well as lead and marble
in the northern counties, plumbago in Dumfries,
one of the southern, and slate in Argyleshire
and Perthshire, which are more northerly.
The ancient name of this interesting country
was Caledonia, and its inhabitants probably
Celts, that migratory people who came from
the neighbourhood of the Euxine and Caspian
seas. We will now proceed to notice each county
separately, and see if we can accomplish the task
of learning the name and peculiarity of every
one of the thirty-three counties.
THREE BORDER COUNTIES,
Floddenâ€”-James the Fourthâ€™s deathâ€”Polworth and Lady Grizzell
King Davidâ€™s Abbeysâ€”Kelsoâ€”Siege of Roxburghâ€”Bursting of the Can-
nonâ€”Death of Jamesâ€”Jedburghâ€”Its Abbeyâ€”Dryburghâ€”Scottâ€™s
burial placeâ€”Melroseâ€”Sculptureâ€”Michael Scottâ€™s Tombâ€”Character
of the Monksâ€”Abbotsfordâ€”Galashielâ€™s Convenient Shop.
Gretnaâ€”Johnny Armstrotigâ€”Cure for great Talkersâ€”Gray Mareâ€™s Tail
Mountain Seeneryâ€”Stories of the Covenantersâ€” Feudal Systemâ€”
Tre divisions of Scotland are thirty-three. It
has eleven counties to the north, nine in the
middle, and thirteen in the south. We will first
try and learn the names of those which are
usually called the Border Counties. You must
look at the map and see which these counties
are, Do not merely take my account of them,
see for yourself. No book on geography can
stand in the place of a map. It is there that
you see the exact position and relation of one
14 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
country to another. Whilst its very form may
be helpful to you in recollecting its locality and
We will begin with Berwicxsuirne. This
county you see has a small portion of North-
umberland to the south-east : the German Ocean
to the east;. Haddington to the north; and a
part of Edinburgh and Roxburghshire to the
west and south.
Berwick, usually called Berwick upon Tweed,
is unlike every other town in Britam. It was
fortified by King Charles I in 1639, for the
purpose of overawing the Covenanters, part of
whose history I hope to give you in another
place. It is said that Berwickshire people are
unable to sound the letter R. This defect,
which is called the burr, gives a very singular
sound to their speech; I think if you have once
heard a native of Berwickshire talk, you will
not easily forget the peculiarity.
There is a ford across the river Tweed, about
twelve miles west of the town of Berwick, which
the Scotch and English armies usually crossed
when they invaded one anotherâ€™s country. It
was also a great place of conference; and
Holywell Haugh, close by, is the field where
Edward I had a meeting with the Scotch
nobility, to settle the dispute between Baliol
and Bruce, about the right to the throne of
Scotland, to which you have seen reference in
the previous chapter. Coldstream in this county
had at one time a handsome Priory. You may
have heard of a regiment. of soldiers called the
Coldstream Guards. It was originally raised
by General Monk, who lived at Coldstream in
Charles the Secondâ€™s reign ; and has ever since
borne the name of the Coldstream Guards.
The field, or rather hill, of Flodden, is about
six miles from this town. It is memorable as
the scene of a great battle, the particulars of
which, connected as they are with the Scot-
tish history at that period, I will give you.
James IV reigned over Scotland at the time
that Henry VII was king of England. James
had rebelled against his own father, who, after
receiving some wounds in the battle field, was
treacherously murdered by a priest who pretended
to come and hear his confession. James IV
had not long been on the throne before he
began to feel some remorse for his undutiful
16 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
conduct; and according to the doctrines of the
Roman Catholic Church, which but too greatly
tend to lead men away from the Saviour of
sinners, he tried to atone for it by various acts
of penance. Amongst other tokens of repent-
ance, he caused an iron belt or girdle to be made,
which he wore constantly under his clothes,
every year of his life adding another link of
an ounce or two to the weight of it. James
was, however, for the times in which he lived, a
good king. He was not fond of flatterers; but
ruled by the counsel of the wisest of his nobility,
and won the hearts of his people. He used to
go about in disguise amongst the poorer classes,
and ask questions about the king, thus dis-
covering his subjectsâ€™ opinion of him, and many
a good lesson did he receive, in these private
visits, from the simple chiefs or the lowlier part
of his subjects.
James IV being one of the most popular
monarchs. that ever reigned in Scotland, his
countrymen have endeavoured to make out that
he could not have been accessory to the insur-
rection against his father, as they affirm him to
have been but thirteen or fourteen when it
occurred. His birth, however, taking place in
1472, and his fatherâ€™s death having occurred in
1488, he must then have entered his seventeenth
year. Henry VII of England, who was very
anxious to make a friend of James IV, was
not a warlike king; for he loved money, and
wars are expensive affairs. He therefore pro-
jected a marriage between his eldest daughter,
Margaret Tudor, and James, whilst Margaret
was yet an infant; and when still an mexpe-
rienced girl of less than fourteen, the marriage
was actually completed. The king was eighteen
years older than his girl queen, and was at the
time of their marriage the handsomest sovereign
in Europe. Sir Walter Scott, in one of his
poems thus describes him :â€”
â€œ For hazel was his eagle eye,
And auburn of the darkest dye
His short curled beard and hair;
Light was his footstep in the dance,
And firm his stirrup in. the lists ;
And oh, he had that merry glance,
Which seldom ladyâ€™s heart resists.â€™â€™
The king appears to have been very kind and
persevering in his efforts to please and conciliate
his bride, but she was a difficult young lady to
please, it seems; and was somewhat like her
18 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
brother, King Henry VIII, in temper and dis-
position. Her first letter to her father after their
marriage was one of complaint and murmur,
although her husband was doing his utmost to
entertain and oblige her and bid her welcome
to Scotland. "
When Henry VII died, Margaretâ€™s brother
Henry, who was of a much more impetuous,
fiery, despotic disposition, could not agree with
James at all. The cause of their quarrel
you may read in Scottish history; the result
was the disastrous battle of Flodden, where
James and many of his warlike peers and loyal
gentry fell on the field. The conquerors lost
5000 men, but the Scots perhaps twice that
number.! The English lost but few of distinction,
whilst the Scots left on their battle fieldâ€”the
king, two bishops, two mitred abbots,? twelve
! This battle was fought in the year 1513.
2? You may wonder to hear of an abbotâ€™s mitre. In the
early history of the church, abbots did not wear mitres, only
bishops being permitted that. honour; but as the wealth and
importance of monasteries and abbeys increased so did the pomp
of their heads or superiors. -The abbot was then a person of
great importance, and was regarded in the monasteries as a lord
and father, no appeal being allowed from his decision. Abbots
or Priors sat in the upper House of Parliament and wore a
silver mitre, in order to distinguish it from that of the bishops,
which was of pure gold.
earls, thirteen lords, and five eldest sons of peers.
James was not permitted a burial, for the Pope
having excommunicated him no priest dared
pronounce the burial service over his body.
The corpse was therefore embalmed, and sent
to the monastery of Shene, in Surrey. It lay
there until the Reformation, when all religious
houses of the kind were broken up; anid the
monastery of Shene was given to the Duke of
Suffolk. After this period, the body, which
was wrapped up in lead, was tossed about the
house as a piece of useless lumber. Stowe, the
noted historian of Londen, who lived at this
time, saw it flung into a waste room among old
pieces of wood, lead, and other rubbish. â€˜â€œ Some
idle workmen, for their foolish pleasure,â€™ says
that historian, â€œhewed off the head; and one
Lancelot Young, master glazier to Queen
Elizabeth, finding a sweet. smell come from
thence, owing doubtless to the spices used for
embalming the body, carried the head home
and kept it for some time; but at last caused
the sexton of St Michaelâ€™s Wood Street to bury
it in the charnel house.â€ What a humiliating
end to that king, once so proud and powerful;
20 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
and what a lesson on the nothingness of human
Two miles north of Greenlaw, at the edge of
a vast black heath, are the remains of a Roman
camp. . You may have read an account in some
childâ€™s book, of Lady Grizzell Baillie. Polworth
Church, in this county, is the place where the
Earl of Marchmont concealed himself, for six
weeks, during the reign of King James II; he,
with many more, having fallen under the dis-
pleasure of that monarch for his religious. as
well as political opimions. The greater part
of his family were ignorant of the place of his
concealment, but it fell to his daughter Grizzellâ€™s
lot to carry him food; and one day, to the great
amusement of the elder and the indignation of
the younger childrÃ©n, she managed to take away
from the dinner table, a whole sheepâ€™s head, of
which dish she knew her father tobe fond. The
vault in which the Earl lay hidden was full of
bones, and he was surrounded by human skulls.
How strong is the love of life in manâ€™s heart;
he is content. to live with the dead awhile, if
hope of life be held out to him. The Earl
learned by heart the whole of Buchananâ€™s Psalms,
in this dreary lodging, and many portions of
Scripture. Lady Grizzell must have been very
courageous, as well as discreet, for she never
shrank from her midnight walk, although obliged
to perform it alone, or divulged the secret of
her fatherâ€™s hiding-place, a greater mark still of
a firm, well-disciplined mind. Joanna Baillie, a
poetess of some note, gives a pretty description
â€˜of Lady Grizzellâ€™s character when young. I
think you would like to read it :â€”
â€˜ And well, with ready hand and heart,
Each task of toilsome duty taking ;
Did one dear inmate take her part,
The last asleep, the earliest waking.
Her hands each nightly couch prepared,
And frugal meal on which they fared,
Unfolding spread the servet white,
And decked the board with tankard bright.
Through fretted hose and garment rent, '
Her tiny needle deftly went, \
Till hateful penury, so graced,
Was scarcely in their dwelling traced.
With reverence to the old she clung,
With sweet affection, to the young.
To her was crabbed lesson said ;
To her the sly petition made;
To her was told each petty care;
Toâ€™ her was lisped each tardy prayer ;
What time the urchin half undrest,
And half asleep, was put to rest.â€™â€â€™â€”
22 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
The next of the border counties is Rox-
BURGHSHIRE, which is bounded on the north
and north-west by Berwick and Selkirkshire,
on the west by Dumfries, on the south by the
Cheviot hills, and on the east by part of North-
Kelso, although not the county town, is the
largest in Roxburghshire; it is pleasantly situated
on the river Tweed. . Towering above the town,
are the remains of Kelso Abbey, one of that chain
of abbeys to which I have referred, founded by
King David, in 1128, for the protection of the
Roxburgh was besieged in 1460, by James IT.
It had formerly a strong border castle, which
had for many years been in the possession of
the English; and James, being very anxious to
gain possession of this bulwark, summoned the
full force of his kingdom to accomplish this
great enterprise. The nobles attended in great
numbers, and the siege of Roxburgh commenced.
A battery was formed, of such large clumsy
cannon as were constructed at that time, upon
the north of the Tweed. Those were awkwardly
framed out of bars of iron, fastened together by
hoops of the same metal, somewhat in the same
manner as casks are made, and far more liable
to accident than our modern cannon, which are
cast in one solid piece. It was one of those ill-
made guns which was the immediate cause of
Jamesâ€™ death. It burst in gomg off, and a
fragment of iron broke his thigh-bone and
killed him on the spot, he having unwisely
stood too near the cannon in order to mark the
effect of the shot. A thorn-tree in the park of
the Duke of Roxburgh still marks the spot
where he died at the early age of twenty-nine.
Jedburgh is a very picturesque village; it
consists of one long street; but the remains of
its fine old abbey are interesting and beautiful.
The Jedburgh people were a few years since,
a very simple set, and so little given to travel,
that it is related of a certain barber, that for
seventy-one years he had never left the town,
for a greater distance than three miles during
Dryburgh, another of King Davidâ€™s abbeys,
lies upon a level around which the river Tweed
sweeps. More of the domestic parts of the
abbey, than of the church remain. It is a spot
24 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
full of interest, and here Sir Walter Scott, the
celebrated novelist, is buried.
By far the most striking of the three, how-
ever, is the Abbey of Melrose: I cannot give
you any idea of the extreme beauty of these
ruins. I had heard a great deal of them, and
had seen many views of different parts of the
ruin, but neither drawing nor fancy. equalled
the reality. It is of that style of architecture
called Gothic. There is an oriel window almost
entire, and many of the shapely pillars are
standing. I think that Scottâ€™s description, which
an intelligent girl repeated to me on the spot,
will give you some idea of the extreme delicacy
and beauty of the carving. The sculpture of
two rows of pillars in particular may be com-
pared. to the figuring of richest lace.
Now slow and faint he led the way,
Where cloistered round, the garden lay;
The pillared arches were over their head,
And beneath their feet were the bones of the dead;
Spreading herbs and flowerets bright,
Glistened with the dew of night.
Nor hetb nor floweret glistened there
But was carved in the cloister arches fair ;
The moon on the east oriel shone
Throâ€™ slender shafts of shapely stone
S AH â€˜ \ =
a WTR SSNiRES OQ HACE
LAYS RO x : â€˜ ~ Wi
SSNS SN TRAY \ ASTIN â€œt
TEGAN aN \\ re ty)
DRUG PORN: < i
RUAN ( Gi A We \ IU
i Ne Hee SN ANS AK S" i
By foliaged tracery combined ;
Thou wouldst have thought some fairyâ€™s hand
Twixt poplars straight the osier wand
In many a freakish knot had twined;
Then framed a spell when the work was done,
, And changed the willow wreath to stone.
These lines are from Scottâ€™s â€œ Lay of the Last
Minstrel,â€ a little poem well worth your reading.
The above refer to a midnight visit paid by a
certain William of Deloraine to Melrose, whither
he had been dispatched by a lady from the
Border to search for a book of magic reputed to
be buried in the tomb of Michael Scott, who
was buried in the Abbey. Michael Scott is not
a fictitious character, but his great discoveries
in chemistry and alchemy brought on him the
suspicion of that ignorant and superstitious age
of being a wizard, and it is probable that he
encouraged the idea.
Sir Walter Scott has used the fact of his
being buried at Melrose as the foundation of
the story in his little ballad.
The knight had orders to go to fair Tweedside
and to inquire for the Monk of St. Maryâ€™s Aisle
at the Abbey, to bring back the treasured volume,
but into which he must by no means look. The
26 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
monk, who had been an old friend of Michaelâ€™s,
rather unwillingly led the way to the cloisters,
and sitting down on the tomb of Robert Bruce,
the old man told him of the mighty book which
lay in the magicianâ€™s tomb, and pointed out the
spot where he had been buried. . The knight
accomplished his task, carried away the book,
but the monk is reported to have been found
dead in his cell at noontide on the following day.
At the time of the Reformation, and probably
long before, the monks of Melrose bore a very
moderate character, especially as being too fond
of good living and breaking the rules of the
church which enjoined fasting on certain days.
There is an old verse in reference to this which
had only too much truth in it.
â€œThe monks of Melrose made gude kail!
On Fridays when they fasted ;
Nor wanted they good beef and ale, }
As lang as their neighbourâ€™s lasted.â€™?
It is much to be regretted that this beautiful
ruin has been so defaced. by the intemperate zeal
of Cromwellâ€™s army, who at the time of the
civil wars battered its fine walls from the Gat-
: ? Broth.
tonside hills. The village of Melrose is curious.
It is in the form of a triangle, having small
streets leading out of each corner.
Abbotsford, the seat of the late Sir Walter
Scott, is about three miles west of Melrose.
The house, garden, pleasure grounds, and woods,
were the creation of the owner, and many of
the trees were planted by his own hands. His
maxim was, â€œIf you have nothing to do, be aye
(ever) planting a tree, it will be growing when
you are sleeping.â€â€ I must not enter into par-
ticulars of the beauties of Abbotsford. They
would of themselves fill a chapter. J remember
seeing there a very striking picture of Mary
Queen of Scots, taken after her decapitation at
Fotheringay, and said to be an original. The
little study beyond the library where Sir Walterâ€™s
many works were written, contains one interest-
ing evidence of his affectionate disposition. The
old-fashioned bureau at which he always wrote,
belonged to his mother. ;
There is a large tartan manufactory at Gala-
shiels which has much increased of late years, but
within the memory of many was an insignifi-
cant little village with few shops, and possessing
28 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
not a single bookseller in the place. A singular
shopkeeper, known by the name of â€œWillie a
things,â€ used to keep in his warehouse, as his
advertisements will show, a strange variety, and
dealt in goods usually divided amongst a dozen
shopkeepers. Red herrings and parasols, yellow
sugar and yellow sand, treacle and linen, cradles
At Mount Benger the poet ot Hoge resided ; he
is known generally by the title of the Ettrick
Dumrrizs completes the border line, it
adjoims the county of Roxburgh, and is the
most important of the southern counties. It is
bounded on the south by part of Cumberland
and the Solway Frith, on the north-east by
Roxburgh and Selkirkshire, on the north by
Peebles and Lanark, and on the north-west by
Ayr and Kirkcudbright.
The entrance to Scotland from Carlisle is
certainly not pleasing. The first place you
come to on the border is the disgraceful village
of Gretna, where there have been so many
clandestine marriages. A man of the name of
1 Chambersâ€™ Picture of Scotland.
Paisley commenced the trade. Gretna is near
the village of Springfield, and is a dull, dis-
agreeable looking place. _
Moffat is noted for its medicinal springs, and
from its hills flow the Tweed, the Clyde, and
the Annan. The vale of the Esk is noted for
the deeds of the far-famed Johnnie Armstrong.
His strong tower of Gilnockie still stands,
although it is now converted into a cow-house.
Langholm is on the left bank of the river Esk.
It-was at Langholm that Johnnie and his band
of thirty-six men, gomg forth to meet king
James V, on one of his thief-destroying journeys,
met with a disastrous fate, for James instead of
receiving his allegiance, ordered them all out to
There used to be a curious instrument at
Langholm, called the Branks, which was put on
the head of very talkative ill-tempered wives,
called shrews, and by projecting a sharp spike
into the mouth, subdued the tongue at once.
There is some fine scenery in this county.
Near the village of Moffat is the great natural
curiosity called the Grey Mareâ€™s tail. It is a
cataract formed by a small stream which leaves
30 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
the mountain Lake Loch'Skene. The water
is precipitated over a rock three hundred feet
in height; it falls down a dark precipice with
slight ledges projecting, and the interruption
which the course of the tiny stream receives
produces a curious effect. The mountains are
very wild in these parts, but there are associa-
tions with them still more interesting than the
natural beauty of the spot; associations with
the Covenanters. Now how important does a
knowledge of history become in travelling !
The hills of this part of Scotland would not
attract you particularly if you were ignorant of
the scenes that were enacted amongst them.
Before you can understand the history of the
Covenanters you must be a little acquainted
with the circumstances which led to the con-
duct of those conscientious although enthusiastic
James VI of Scotland and I of England,
as you know, succeeded Queen Elizabeth on
the throne, thus uniting the two kingdoms
which for years had been at frequent and bitter
warfare. On ascending the throne of England,
James found himself at the head of a people
who had lost both the power and habit of con-
testing the will of their sovereign. The Tudors
were all but despotic in their rule. At the
arbitrary will of King Henry VIII the Church
of England was disjomed from Rome. After
the death of Henry VI, his sister Mary restored
the Roman Catholic Faith, and Elizabeth at her
accession again declared it Protestant, and all
this without much resistance. Now Scotland
was under different circumstances. The feudal
nobility retained much of their power and many
of their privileges ; but here again I am reminded
that you may not know the meaning of that
word feudal. The connexion of a king as sove-
reign over his princes and great men as vassals
must first be understood. A king or sovereign
prince gave large promises or grants of land to
his dukes, earls, and noblemen, and each of
them possessed nearly as much power within
his own district as the king in the rest of his
dominions; but then the vassal, whether duke,
earl, or lord, was obliged to provide his sovereign
with a certain number of men when he was
engaged in war. In like manner these vassals
of the crown, as they were called, divided the
82 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
lands which they held under the king into estates,
which they bestowed on knights and gentlemen
whom they thought fit to follow them in war,
and attend their courts in peace; for they too
held courts and administered justice each in his
own province and county. This system of hold-
ing lands for the purpose of providing soldiers
for the king in time of war was called the feudal
system, and was general throughout Europe for
This system was abolished in England before
it was done away with in Scotland. Henry VI,
a wise and cunning prince, had by his success
at Bosworth attained a secure seat on the throne.
He took advantage of the weak state of the
barons and peers to undermine the power which
the feudal system had given to the lords over
their vassals, and they submitted, feeling, I dare
say, that it had been a stormy sort of rule that
their forefathers had exercised. They now,
therefore, exacted rents from their tenants instead
of service in battle, and became peaceful and
wealthy. At the first appearance this is an im-
provement, but then on the other hand the taxes
which the king raised were enormous. James
tried, on his accession, to bring Scotland into the
same submissive state in which he had found
England, and proposed that the Parliament of
each country should appoint commissioners to
consider of the terms on which it might be pos-
sible to unite both under the same constitution.
But, as you may suppose, this did not answer ;
the English demanding that the whole system
of English law should be extended to Scotland,
and Scotland indignantly rejecting the proposal.
So for the time James was obliged to give that
up, but he was determined if possible to make
the form of the Scottish Church as near as
possible like that of England.
You must recollect that the Reformation in
Scotland was effected by different means from
that in England. The new plans of church
government differed no less than the outward
form. It is necessary that you should under-
stand this before you can at all appreciate
the firmness of the Covenanters in resisting the
religion forced upon them by James. To tell
you here the many distinctions between Epis-
copacy and Presbyterianism would occupy too
much space. The Presbyterians acknowledge
34 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
no visible head of the church but Jesus Christ
alone. The Episcopalians, whilst they acknow-
ledge Christ alone as their spiritual Head,
recognise the King or Queen as their temporal
head. To an ambitious man like James, there-
fore, their resistance was very provoking, and
without regard to it he elected thirteen bishops,
a step peculiarly offensive to the Presbyterian
There were other points on which James and
the Parliament insisted, and the Presbyterians,
feeling that the great work of the Reformation
was about to be undone by their King, were
much alarmed and aggrieved. To force a reli-
gion on a people with the principles of which
they do not unite, and cannot conscientiously
agree, is certainly an act of injustice, and you
must bear in mind in the history of the Cove-
nanters, that those points which to us may seem
unimportant, were to them great matters, in-
volving great principles. Charles I, who succeeded
his father James, was as a private gentleman an
amiable and virtuous man, but he inherited his
fatherâ€™s notions of kingly prerogative to the full,
and it was a legacy that proved his ruin. He
too resolved to bring the Church of Scotland,
in point of church government and ceremonies,
to the model of the Church of England.
The enforcing the use of the prayer book
brought matters to a crisis, and a species of
engagement, or declaration, was drawn up by
a large proportion of the Scotch; the principal
object of which was the eradication of Prelacy,
and the establishment of Presbytery. This
engagement was called the National Covenant,
and was sworn to by hundreds and thousands of
all ages, who were thence called Covenanters.
Now I do not expect that thus far the account
of the Covenanters has interested you, but it is
necessary that you should understand the matter
at the commencement of the book, as there will
be more than one reference to them in the course
of our notice of different parts of Scotland.
To return to Dumfries. The mountains of
which I spoke to you were the hiding places
of the Covenanters in Charles the Secondâ€™s
time, who continued the religious persecutions
of his ancestors. Though very wild and barren,
yet here they remained days, months, nay years,
without shelter; exposed to cold, rai, and the
86 ' Â«STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
killing night dews. Claverhouse, the inveterate
foe and scourge of the suffermg band, used to
pursue them into their mountain fastnesses, and.
hill sides are shown to this day almost as steep
as a wall, where, mounted on his great black
steed, he would gallop in pursuit of them. The
hill opposite the village of Burkhill is called the
â€œWatch hill,â€ on account of the custom that
these wanderers had of placing one of their
number to watch the motions of the soldiers,
whilst the rest were engaged in worship in the
deep.dell behind. On one occasion Claverhouse,
by means of a glass, discerned the watch and
made for the place, but long before he approached
the sentinel had given warning, and the wor-
shippers had dispersed amidst the heather. On
another occasion he surprised them at their
devotions. and four men fell almost in the act of
You have most likely heard of Burns, the
celebrated Scotch poet. He resided for many
years at the town of Dumfries, and was interred
â€˜in the same place.
PEEBLESHIRE, OR TWEEDDALE.
Border castlesâ€”The Tweed.
Glasgowâ€”The Cathedralâ€”Cemeteryâ€”Collegeâ€”Museumâ€”The Clyde ;
its fallsâ€”Hamilton â€” Bothwell bridgeâ€”More about the Cove-
Paisleyâ€”Founders of the cotton tradeâ€”Curious names of streetsâ€”
Elderslieâ€”Birthplace of Wallaceâ€”Greenockâ€”Watt.
SELKIRKSHIRE is the adjoining county to Rox-
burgh. Its boundaries are, Peebles on the
north and west, Roxburghshire on the east, and
Dumfries on the south.
Not many centuries ago, it was a royal
hunting forest; it is now for the most part a
desolate looking county. Selkirk, the capital,
stands on the river Ettrick. Near this town a
female was found dead with an infant at her
breast, after the battle of Flodden. She lad
88 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
gone out to meet her husband, but sank on the
way, exhausted. The vale of the river Yarrow
is narrow at the opening, and somewhat woody ;
but the greater part is composed of those
green pastoral: hills, celebrated in the poems of
Not far from the town of Selkirk, at Foul-
shiels, a farm on the banks of the Yarrow, the
well-known traveller, Mungo Park, was born.
Day by day little Mungo, with satchel on his
back, trod the path to the parish school at
Selkirk, and was often seen with book in hand
or thinking deeply whilst other lads were at
play. He did not, however, shun all the bold
adventurous sports of his age, and the greater
the danger, the greater temptation to the lad,
At fifteen years of age he was apprenticed to a
surgeon, at Selkirk, and afterwards removed to
Edinburgh, where he attended the lectures of
the University, When his studies were ended,
he obtained an appointment of assistant-surgeon
to the Worcester, Kast Indiaman, and made his
first voyage to Sumatra, at which time he added
to his stock of knowledge of natural history, and
during his stay on the coasts of the island made
many useful observations and discoveries on
fishes, eight of which had never been previously
described. At the period of his return there
was great interest in the minds of many in-
telligent people on the subject of Africa, and
especially as to the existence and course of the
river mentioned by old geographers as the Niger.
A traveller-who had already been sent out by
â€œthe African Associationâ€ for the purpose of
discovering its source, had recently died in
Africa, and men naturally shrank from encoun-
tering the dangers of an untried path.
Park at length offered himself to the Associ-
ation, and in July 1795 we find him at Pisania,
a British factory about 200 miles up the river
Gambia, which you will find marked on the map
of Africa. Here he studied the Mandingo lan-
guage under Dr. Lindley, and collected useful
information for his dangerous undertaking, on
which he embarked on the 2nd of December.
Many wild undisciplined bands beset his path,
negroes and wandering Moors, and at Yarra he
was detained prisoner by a Moorish chief, who
believed him to be a spy, where he remained
from February to July. When he obtained his
40 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
release, he had only his horse, a few articles of
clothing, and a pocket compass which he had
hidden in the sand. Alone and unprotected the
brave Scotchman set forth, and after a journey
of fifteen days arrived at Jolibe. At Kamalia,
500 miles from any European settlement, his
health gave way, and for more than five months
he was dependent on the care and charity of a
strange race, of some of whom, however, there
have been touching instances recorded of sym-
pathy and kindness. His lonely wanderings
occupied nineteen months, and he returned to
England with abundance of adventures to record,
but little of discovery or success. After a few
years passed in his native country, devoted to
close study of astronomy, geography, and the
Arabic language, he once more set forth. This
time under the escort of soldiers provided by the
Association, and merchandize to defray travel-
ling expenses. They left Pisania in May, 1805.
In November, he wrote word that of forty-four
Europeans, who had left the Gambia in health,
five soldiers only remained, having fallen victims
to the rainy seasons of the country. The fate
of Park was never correctly known, but it is
believed that he died either by the hands of the
natives, or from an accident on a rapid of that
river, Niger, whose source and history he had
devoted the energies of his life to discover.
PreesiesHire, or Tweeddale, is bounded on
the north by Midlothian, on the south by
Dumfries, on the west by Lanark, and on the
east by Selkirk. The Tweed takes its rise
here and gives to this district the popular
name of Tweeddale. It abounds in trout and
Peebles, the capital town, is a dull place.
The hilly region of Peebleshire was dreadfully
exposed, in early times, to the unfriendly
visits of marauding Englishmen. To provide
against these, strong castles were built by the
Scottish kings, on the lower part of the Tweed,
and the chain was continued by many great
proprietors of land, towards the head of the
river. These castles are now in ruins, but
there are many remains still to be seen. They
were built in the shape of square towers, of
stone and lime. They consisted usually of
three stories; the lower story, which was
vaulted in order to afford protection to the
42 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
cattle of the â€˜owner in time of danger; the
great hall in which the family lived; and the
highest, in which were the bed-rooms, designed
for the safety of the inhabitants. These were,
by common consent, built alternately on each
side of the river, and in a continued view of
each other. A fire, kindled on the top of these
towers, was the well known signal of the
approach of an enemy: the smoke gave notice
by day, and the flame by night. You cannot
travel in Scotland, without bemg constantly
reminded of the correctness of some of. Scottâ€™s
beautiful descriptions; and, when I saw the
ruins of the border castles, these lines, which
I will transcribe for you, came very pleasantly
into my mind ; .
â€˜ Sweet Teviot, on thy silver tide
The glaring hill-fires blaze no more;
No longer steel-clad warriors ride
Along thy wild and willowed shore.
Whereâ€™er thou windâ€™st by dale or hill,
AN], all is peaceful; all is still
As if thy waves, since Time was born,
Since first they rolled upon the Tweed,
Had only heard the Shepherdâ€™s reed,
Nor started at the bugle horn.â€™â€™
We may almost fancy the river murmur has
a joyful tone, now that the sound of the war-cry
is heard no more on its banks, and sheep graze
peacefully on green pastures once crimson with
the blood of dying warriors.
Lanark, otherwise called Clydesdale, is a
large and important county. It is bounded ou
the south by Dumfries and part of Ayr; on the
east by Peebles and Edinburgh ; on the north,
by Linlithgow and Dumbarton; and on the
west, by Renfrew and part of Ayr.
The capital of Lanark is Glasgow, a very
important town. It is the first city, in pomt
of population, in Scotland. The principal part
of the city occupies a plaim, on the north-east
side of the Clyde, which has of late years been
made navigable, at high tides, for vessels of great
burden. It has large manufactures of cotton.
T have heard old people speak of the time when
there was only one boat on the river for the
accommodation of travellers, which was drawn
by horses. Glasgow has some handsome streets,
and so many objects of interest, that I scarcely
know which to mention to you.
The cathedral, or high church as it is called,
stands at the upper end of High street, and was
44 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
founded in 1123. It narrowly escaped destruc-
tion at the time of the Reformation, and is, with
the exception of St. Magnus in Kirkwall, Orkney,
the only ancient. gothic cathedral Fee
entire, in all Scotland.
The inner church, and the arched roof of a
vestry supported by a single pillar, are very
beautiful, and the vaulted cemetery beneath the
inner church, is a curious and interesting place.
There is an extensive burial ground near, which
is situated on very high ground.
Then there is the college, with its library,
and the valuable museum, bequeathed to. the
university by the late celebrated Dr. William
Hunter, It consists of a rare library of books
and manuscripts, a fine collection of insects,
corals, and shells, and a cabinet of coins and
medals, besides a collection of Dr. Hunterâ€™s
anatomical preparations. Glasgow is not the
only interesting place in Lanarkshire; indeed
there are few countries so rich in associations,
as Scotland. The difficulty in writing its history,
is to select the most interesting among so many
The town of old Lanark; whichâ€™ travellers
ul ly ee iY r YN
S Wi ND i
\ XK v i i
\, \ yy
WN Ws, \S
a ZZ FF
from the south usually visit is not particularly
I told you that Lanarkshire is sometimes
called Clydesdale, from its being the vale
formed by the course of the river Clyde. To
see the falls of this river is alone worth a
journey to Scotland, 80, at least you and I may
say, who have never seen those of Niagara.
I must leave it for the pencil to give you a
faint idea of that which it is impossible justly
There are three falls made by the Clyde.
Corra Linnâ€”so called from a tradition that
Corra, daughter of an ancient Scottish king,
was drowned in itâ€”is the first of the three.
The river does not descend in an unbroken
sheet of water, but is precipitated eighty-four
feet, when two ledges of rock break it, as you
may see in the little drawing annexed ; but of
the beauty and richness of the foliage, the
grand effect of the sun upon the glittering
spray, and the sound of the cataract, it is
impossible to convey an idea. Boniton, the
second, is also very beautiful. Above the fall
the river is as calm and smooth as a lake,
46 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
when it suddenly throws itself into the abyss
below. The channel is narrow, and the banks
are composed of solid rock singularly and re-
gularly perpendicular. The extreme regularity
of these layers of rock is extraordinary. At
the first view it appears almost like the work
of art, but there is no architect like the
Almighty. The third fall is that of Stonebyres,
which was exhibited to us by a curious half-
cracked old woman, called Janet McDougal.
A guide is needful, for the best place for seeing
the fall is not free from danger, and although
a â€œdaftâ€ guide is not exactly the kind we
should choose to conduct us to the edge of a
precipice, old Janet was harmless and amusing
enough in her way.
Hamilton Palace, the seat of the â€˜duke of
Hamilton, stands on a plam between the town
of Hamilton and the river. The pictures at
the palace are worth seeing. There is one by a
great painter named Rubens, which is called
the â€œGlory of Hamilton.â€ The subject is
Daniel in the lionsâ€™ den. Rubens was born at
Cologne; in Germany, in 1557. He was not
only a fine painter, but a learned man, and
understood seven languages. This neighbour-
hood, however, owes its principal interest to a
great conflict which took place between Claver-
house and the Covenanters, at a place called
Drumclog. On one occasion a large body of
country people had collected at Harelaw, near
Loudon Hill, to hold a meeting, which, in con-
sequence of an Act of Parliament forbidding
such assemblies, was illegal. Many came armed,
and had, according to custom, posted a watch
on Loudon Hill, whilst the service was pro-
ceeding. Whilst they worshipped, Grahame of
Claverhouse, to whom I have already referred,
arrived at a village close by, bearing with him
two field preachers, whom he had just captured
near the town of Hamilton; and, hearing of the
large number collected at Loudon Hill, he pushed
forward to that place. Here he was opposed by
a large body in point of numbers but very rudely
armed, although there were fifty horse, and as
many infantry with guns, the principal part of
the little army consisted of men armed with
pikes, scythes, and forks, and women who en-
tered into the enthusiasm of the scene likewise
prepared to offer resistance. As they approached
48 ' STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
singing psalms, according to their custom, Cla-
verhouse ordered a volley of shot to be fired; to
avoid which the Covenanters fell on their faces
and little mischief ensued. They met on a
boggy piece of ground very unfit for the action
of cavalry, and a broad ditch between the parties
seems to have given the advantage to the Cove-
nanters ; for, when Claverhouse ordered his men
to charge, they, being ignorant of the nature of
the soil, plunged into a bog and were thrown
into the greatest disorder. The day was there-
fore in favour of the Covenanters. The famous
â€˜black steed of Claverhouse was wounded by a
scythe, and was scarcely able to bear him from
the battle-field, and thirty of the defeated party
were slain. As Claverhouse passed the place
where he had left the imprisoned. preachers in
the morning, King, the name of one of them,
called out to him, in derision, to stay and take
the afternoon sermon. . â€˜
This victory encouraged the Covenanters to
attempt bolder undertakings, but they were
doomed to suffer defeat more often than triumph.
Their zeal and vehemence could scarcely stand
against the superior military knowledge and
RENFREW. - 49
force of their enemies, and Bothwell Bridge, not
far from Hamilton palace, was the scene of one
of their most frightful defeats, when the Duke
of Monmouth scattered them like a flock of
sheep. The slaughter that took place on this
occasion was, however,-against his orders, and
partly owing to the temper of Claverhouse,
who was determined to avenge his, defeat at
Drumclog. Four hundred were killed and twelve
hundred made prisoners the latter were marched
to Edinburgh and imprisoned in the Greyfriarsâ€™
churchyard like cattle in a penfold, while several
ministers were ordered out for execution.
The county of Renrrew is very small. It is
bounded on the west and north-west by the Frith
of Clyde, on the south and south-west by Ayr, and
on the east by part of Dumbarton and Lanark.
The principal town is Paisley, which has very
extensive cotton manufactures. The persons
who commenced these manufactures were ped-
lars, accustomed to travel about the country,,
and the object of every such packmanâ€™s ambition
was. ultimately to become a merchant. Many of
them succeeded, and ended their days in comfort
and affluence.. At first Paisley was noted for
50. STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
a coarse chequered linen cloth, then for cotton
handkerchiefs; now silk gauze, thread, and
shawls form part of its manufactures. The names
of some of the streets are curious. There is a
Gauze Street, Cambric Street, and Thread Street.
Three miles west of Paisley is Elderslie, the
birth-place of the celebrated William Wallace.
Greenock may be called the Liverpool of
Scotland. It is a very important port, but
that which will be most interesting to you to
remember, connected with it, is the fact of its
being the birth-place of the celebrated James
Watt, who made such great improvements in
the steam engine. Both the grandfather and
uncle of Watt were men of repute as mathe-
matical teachers and surveyors in the west of
Scotland. Watt's father was a merchant in
Greenock, and his son James was born there
in 1736. At avery early age he showed great
skill in mechanics. Even when in after years
he could have employed hundreds to do his
bidding, he loved to work with his own hands.
Watt was a practical man. At eighteen he
went to London to be apprenticed to a mathema-
tical instrument maker, but his health failing,
he was obliged to return in little more than a
year. Shortly after his return, the University
of Glasgow appointed him their mathematical
instrument maker. Robert Simpson, Adam
Smith, and Dr. Black, all celebrated men, were
at that time professors there. In the winter
of 1763, his mind was directed to that subject
which has made his name illustrious all over the
world. He was employed to repair the working
model of a steam engine of Newcomenâ€™s con-
struction, by which he was led to discover that
there was a great waste of steam. in its mode of
working, and. consequently of fuel. By a long
course of experiments he brought to perfection
his invention of the condensing steam engine,
now most generally used in mines, factories,
and steam packets. It would be useless to
describe it more particularly here, as it would
be necessary that you should be more thoroughly
acquainted with the whole construction of that
wonderful machine than it may be supposed you
are. The patience and perseverance manifested
by Watt, are worth notice. He had many
discouragements, and at first few appreciated
the value of his invention. Of the importance
i STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
of it to trade, a child can have no idea; the use
of it in mines alone is immense. In the deep
mines of Cornwall the new engine was first
introduced, and the saving of fuel amounted to
three-fourths of the quantity consumed by the
old-fashioned ones. Independently of this great
attainment in mechanics, Watt was a wonderful
man. He was well informed, and well read,
and his conversation is described as having been
very delightful. He was amiable, unaffected,
and unpretending, disliked all parade and show,
and was an honest, straightforward character.
He died at Heathfield, in Staffordshire, at the
age of eighty-four.
eT a eG iy oF mee eal ae
Ailsa Craig.â€”Ayr the Capital.â€”Birth-places of Poets.â€”Burns arid
KIRKCUDBRIGHT OR GALLOWAY.
Dundrennan Abbey.â€”Amworth.â€”Story of Rutherford.
WIGTONSHIRE OR WEST GALLOWAY.
Preston.â€”Story of. the Pretender.â€”Battle of Preston Pans.â€”Colonel
Gardinerâ€™s Death.â€”Tranent.â€”Haddington.â€”Knoxâ€™s Birth-place.â€”
History of Knox.
AYRSHIRE is one of the largest counties south
of the Forth, it stretches eighty miles in a
crescent shape, and is a very productive county.
It is bounded on the north by Renfrew; on
the east by Lanark and Dumfries; on the
south by Kirkcudbright and Wigton; and on
the west by the Irish Channel.
Ailsa Craig is one of the must striking curi-
osities in Ayrshire; it rises fifteen miles from
the â€˜shore, out of the sea, like an inverted top.
On this singular island the Solan goose is found
54 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
in great abundance, and it is an aviary for a
variety of other sea birds, whose screaming is
quite deafening. It is about two miles in
circumference and uninhabited.
Ayr, the capital of Ayrshire, is a well-built.
town, at the mouth of a river of the same
name. A mile and a half from Ayr is the cot-
tage where the poet Burns was born; it consists
but of two rooms, and was the work of his
fatherâ€™s own hands. Montgomery, another poet,
was born at Irvine, a â€˜small sea-port im this
county; also Galt, a celebrated novel-writer,
and the author of an amusing book, called
the â€œAyrshire Legatees,â€ which is a humourous
account of a simple country minister coming
up to London on the event of some property
being left him. J remember there is one droll
account of a quarrel with a hackney coachman.
He had been told that if a coachman charged him
too much he was to take the number of the coach,
and a driver overcharging him he accordingly
proceeded tocut the number off thevehicle, having
thus literally interpreted his friendâ€™s advice.
Kirxcupsricnt is bounded by Ayr and
part of Dumfries on the north; on the-east and
south east is part of Dumfries and the Solway
Firth, on the west and south west a portion of
Wigton and Wigton Bay. Kirkcudbright is
the ancient district of Galloway. It is noted
for a breed of horses.. The Galloway horses
are a Spanish race.
At Dundrennan Abbey, in this county, the
unfortunate Mary Stuart spent her last night
in Scotland. She arrived late in the evening,
and was hospitably received by the monks.
The building is greatly dilapidated, but it bears
marks of former splendour. Its walls are now
covered with a grey moss.
Kirkcudbright, the principal town, is a sea-
At Amworth resided Rutherford, the eminent
Presbyterian divine; he lived in the reign of
Charles II. Archbishop Usher, who had heard
of the fame of Rutherford, once went secretly
to Amworth in order to hear him preach
and converse. .He appeared at the Manse
(so the parsonage house, or residence of the
minister, is called in Scotland,) disguised as a
beggar, and asked a nightâ€™s lodging. We should
now think a beggar very bold to make such a
56 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
request, but in those times amongst the simple
Scottish people this was not extraordinary.
He was desired to sit down in the kitchen, when
Mrs. Rutherford came, according to custom,.to
catechise their servants. She did not omit
to ask the beggar some questions, and amongst
others, inquired of him how many command-
ments there were. He replied, â€œeleven;â€ Mrs.
Rutherford was greatly shocked at his ignorance,
however she gave him a good supper and sent
him to bed in one of the garrets. The Arch-
bishop had a great desire to hear Rutherford
pray, and for some time listened for the sound
of his voice, at his evening devotions, as his
room was just over that of his host. Hearing
no voice, however, he commenced pouring out
his own soul in prayer to God. Rutherford,
now heard him, and at once suspecting the
truth, that the pretended beggar was the great
Archbishop Usher, forthwith proceeded to. the
strangerâ€™s room, when he told him his suspicion.
At Mr. Rutherfordâ€™s earnest request the visitor
consented to preach the next day at Amworth
church, but it was, of course, needful to keep
the matter a profound secret, for if it were
known that he had done so, great trouble and
disgrace would have ensued to the archbishop.
Disguised, therefore, in a suit of Myr. Ruther-
fordâ€™s clothes, the Bishop went out very early
into the fields, where Mr. Rutherford followed
him, and shortly brought him in to breakfast,
introducing him asa stranger who had promised
to preach for him that day. Mrs. Rutherford
hearing from the servants that the beggar had
left early, was not surprised, and after breakfast
they all went to church. The Archbishop
preached. from John xiii, 34, Â«A new com-
mandment give I unto you, that ye love one
another,â€ and observed that this might be called
the eleventh commandment. The ministerâ€™s
wife was puzzled. â€˜â€œ Why,â€ said she to herself,
â€œthat is the very answer the beggar gave me last
night, surÃ©ly this cannot be he.â€ In the morn-
ing the Bishop left without being discovered.
Wieronsuire, or West Galloway, consists
principally of two peninsulars jutting out from
the more continental part of Galloway. Luce
Bay divides the promontories. Its boundaries
are Ayr and Kirkcudbright on the north, the
Trish Sea on the west, and on the south, Luce
58 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
Bay. I have very little that is interesting to
tell you of Wigtonshire. Its capital, Wigton,
is a dull town; the principal street of which lies
within a space laid out in shrubberies. The soil
in many parts of Wigtonshire is very productive,
and the wheat grown there is considered of a
superior description. Port Patrick is the nearest
port to Ireland, the Channel in this part being
but twenty-one miles across; steamers are con-
stantly employed between the two countries.
The county of Happineton, or East Lothian,
is bounded on the south by Berwick, on the
north and east by the Frith of Forth, and on
the west by Mid-Lothian.
The story of the Pretender is so associated
with this county, that I will begin my account
of him in this chapter, endeavouring, after I
have explained the circumstances of his landing
in Scotland, to confine myself to those events
of his life which took place in Haddington.
Charles Edward, known by the name of the
Young Pretender, was the grandson of James
If, of England, who was, as you know, com-
-pelled to abdicate the crown, and was succeeded.
by his son-in-law, William, Prince of Orange,
and his daughter Mary; who reigned jointly
with William, and after their death by Anne
his youngest daughter. Historians have called
Anne the last Stuart, but George I, who
succeeded her, had no claim to the crown but
as a Stuart also. His mother was the Electress
Sophia of Hanover, the daughter of the Queen
of Bohemia, who was herself the daughter of
James I, of the Stuart line, who reigned in
England. George was a prince in his own
country, and governed Hanover as well as
England. It is not of James the Secondâ€™s son,
however, that I propose to write here, but of his
grandson. The Old Pretender from some cause
excited less sympathy and interest than his son.
After fruitless â€˜endeavours to obtain the crown,
he retired from the contest, and the Rebellion of
1715 ended, as an historian says, without even
the sad Ã©clat of a defeat. After his return from
Scotland he was.compelled to leave France, and
was obliged to settle in Italy, where his two sons
were born, Prince Charles Edward, known by
the name of the Young Pretender, and Henry
Benedict, who bore the title of Duke of York,
and was promoted to the rank of Cardinal in
60 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
the Roman Catholic Church. Prince Charles
Edward, at this time was, according to the
statements of those who were not so enthusiastic
in his cause as to be blind to his defects, a
young man of pleasant and courteous manners,
personal courage, and a good temper, but his
education had been strangely neglected. Instead
of being instructed in the constitution and rights
of the English nation, he had been trained up in
those absurd, perverse, and antiquated notions
of divine hereditary right,. out of which so many
of his grandfatherâ€™s misfortunes had arisen.
He had also been strictly brought up in the
Roman Catholic Faith, and. this was much
against his cordial reception by the greater. part
of the English. The Jacobites, as the adherents
of the Stuarts were called, had long ceased to
think of restoring the Old Pretender, but they
turned their thoughts to his eldest son, who was
deeply anxious to recover the throne of his
ancestors. After many discouragements from
his father, and disappomtments of help from
France, Charles determined to try upon his
own. resources, and set sail on his perilous
expedition with only a few attendants in a man-
of-war of sixty guns, to which a frigate was
added. He landed in Scotland after some days,
but received a very disheartening reception.
His reply to Lochiel, who attempted to reason
with him on the madness of his enterprise, and
advised him at once to return home was, â€œ Sir,
IT am come home, and, moreover, I am come with
my mind made up to reclaim my rights, or to
perish.â€ He soon gained followers, and collected
a considerable army; but not to pursue him
through this part of his eventful career in
Scotland, I will tell you that he arrived safely
at Edinburgh, and prepared. to take possession of
the palace of Holyrood. As Charles approached
the palace, crowds of persons pressed upon him.
His personal appearance was prepossessing. His
dress was after the Highland fashion. He worea
short tartan coat, anda blue bonnet with a white
rose. He had, in his course from the Highlands,
been joined by many persons of distinction.
The courage of the Highland soldiers was well
known, and hopes were high that victory and
restoration were in store for the exiled Stuarts.
He was proclaimed king at Edinburgh Cross,
by the title of James VIII, and for a while a
62 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
gleam of sunshine and splendour lighted up
Prince Charlesâ€™ fortunes.
While these things were going on at
Edinburgh, General Cope, with the govern-
ment force, landed at Dunbar, a seaport at
Haddington. Charles went forth to meet him.
The progress of the Highland regiment was
almost in silence, in order to conceal their
situation from the enemy, who were lying in
wait for them; not a whisper was heard
amongst them. On the 21st of September
they began their march whilst the sun was
three hours below the horizon. It was just
dawn, and the mist was fast retirmg, when the
Highlanders began their attack. A writer on
the subject, says: â€˜Morning was already on
the waters of the Forth, and the mist was
rolling in huge masses over the crofts, or
meadows, to the left, but it was not yet
sufficiently clear for the armies to perceive each
other. A darkness lay between.them, which
was soon to disclose the dreadful spectacle of
an armed enemy.â€! The Highlanders still kept
a silence broken only by the sound of their
1 Chambersâ€™ History of the Rebellion.
feet passing over the stubble. From General
Copeâ€™s army, an occasional drum was heard.
At setting out on the charge, the Highlanders
pulled off their bonnets and uttered a short
prayer. Their mode of fighting, so different to
that of the kingâ€™s soldiers, quite puzzled the
enemy. They. advanced with the utmost
speed, fired within musket length of the object,
then throwing down their pieces drew their
swords, and holding a target in their left,
and-a dirk in their right hand, darted on the
enemy through the smoke of their own fire,
and cut them down. The actual conflict,
on this memorable occasion, lasted but four
minutes. The royal army was quite defeated ;
nearly 400 slain, 700 taken prisoners, whilst
but 170 escaped. The celebrated Colonel
Gardiner was present at this battle; he was a
rare example of a conscientious, prayerful, and
religious man, amidst the excitement of a
warriorâ€™s life.. He was at this time very old,
and. so weak, that he had to be. carried, in a
chair, from Haddington to the field. Deserted
by his dragoons, and severely wounded, he put
himself at the head of a small body of foot, and
64 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
only ceased to fight when brought to the ground.
by severe wounds. He died in the Manse, or
Parsonage house, of Tranent. He was buried
in Tranent churchyard, and some years after-
wards, when the ground was disturbed, his head
was found, marked by the stroke of the scythe
that was the cause of his death. The wounded
were on this occasion treated very kindly by the
conquering army. A journalist of the time,
says: â€œâ€œWhatever notions Low country people
may have of the Highlanders, I can attest that
they gave many proofs of kindness. Many
after the battle ran to Port Seton, for ale and
other liquor, to revive the wounded or dying.
I saw a Highlander, with patient, tender kind-
ness, carrying a poor wounded soldier on. his
back, and leave him in a house with sixpence to
pay his chargeâ€? The wounded men of both
sides were taken to Colonel Gardinerâ€™s house
at Tranent, and a few years ago it was thought
possible to discern the stains of their blood on
the old oak floor. The Highlanders were very
active in despoiling the slain. Every article
of value, according to their notion, was appro-
priated, and in their simplicity they often
HADDINGTON. ; 65
made ludicrous mistakes. â€œOne who got a
watch, exchanged it for some worthless trifle,
remarking that he was glad he had done so, for
it had died that night, because it had stopped ;
another exchanged a horse for a pistol.â€ Rough
old Highlanders were seen going about with
the fine shirts of English officers, stretched
over the rest of their clothes; whilst boys were
seen strutting about with gold laced cockâ€™d
hats on their heads.. Thus ended the battle
of Preston Pans.! :
The Princeâ€™s conduct appears to have been
both moderate and merciful; he forbade any
outward signs of joy, inasmuch as he said,
blood had been shed and involved so many in
sorrow. The remainder of his history I will
relate in. its proper place, for I have something
more to tell you of Haddington, and we have
heard enough of battles for the present.
The county-town of Haddington is situated
on the south side of the Firth of Forth. In this
town, or in the neighbouring village of. Gifford,
was born the celebrated reformer John Knox.
Some writers have said that Knoxâ€™s parents
? Chambersâ€™ History of the Rebellion.
66 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
were in poor circumstances. This does not
appear to have been the case. They were able
to give their son a good education, which in
that age was far from a common advantage.
In his youth he was sent to the Haddington
Grammar School, and thence to the University
of St. Andrewâ€™s, at that time the first School
for learning in Scotland. He was ordained a
Priest in the Romish Church at an earlier age
than usual, and taught philosophy likewise in
the University. That you may rightly appre-
ciate the conduct and character of Knox, look
for a few moments at the circumstances of the
times in which he lived. Nothing perhaps has
given so great a prejudice to his actions as igno-
rance of the corruptions which reigned in the
Romish Church at that time. Full half of the
wealth of the nation belonged to the clergy.
Avarice and ambition, and the love of pomp and
show, influenced the men who pretended to teach
the religion of the meek and lowly Jesus. The
lives of the clergy were a scandal to their pro-
fession. Through the superstitions of princes
and. nobles, monasteries had multiplied greatly.
Dr. Mc Crie, in his life of Knox, says, â€œThe
kingdom swarmed with ignorant, idle, luxurious
monks, who like locusts devoured the fruits of
the earth. Friars, white, black, grey,â€ &c.
Then the clergy were shamefully ignorant.
Even bishops declared, and that without a blush,
that they never read any part of the Bible but
that which they met with im their missals or
Prayer Books. People were truly perishing for
lack of knowledge, for to that book which was
able te make them wise unto salvation, they had.
no access. It was locked up from them, and the
use of it in their own language was forbidden
under the heaviest penalties. The services were
mumbled in the Latin tongue, which many of
the priests did not understand, and some few
could scarcely read; and â€œscarce anything
remained of Christianity in Scotland, but its
name.â€ Many mediators were made to share
the honour of procuring the divine favour with
the â€œOne Mediator between God and man,â€™
and more prayers were offered to the Virgin
Mary, than to Him who â€œever liveth to make
intercession for us.â€ Men were taught to con-
fess to the Priests, to go on pilgrimageâ€™ to the
shrine of some saint, to eat no flesh on Friday,
68 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
to pay tithes and other church dues, and then
they were told they were safe. The sermons
were usually mere tales of the wonderful holi-
ness of a founder of some religious order, his
miracles, his watchings, fastings, combats with
the devil; but of the truths of the Bible, and
the glorious gospel of the blessed God, not a
word. The dying beds of rich men were visited
indeed, but for what purpose? was it to whisper
words of hope and comfort, or to point to Christ
as the Way, the Truth, and the Life? Noâ€”but
avaricious priests were ever hovering about the
dying man, to extort legacies for themselves or
the church. Nosooner had a poor husbandman
breathed his last, than the vicar came and
carried off the â€œcorpse present ;â€ this consisted
of the best cow belongmg to the deceased, and
the uppermost covering of his bed, or upper
clothes. The service of God was neglected,
churches deserted, and places of worship served
only for houses of traffic, resorts for pastime, or
sanctuaries for malefactors. Such was popery
The doctrines of the Reformation had made
some progress however, in the country, before
Knox embraced them. As early as 1526, before
Henry the Eighthâ€™s quarrel with the Pope, which
doubtless brought about the Reformation in
England, a youth of the name of Patrick
Hamilton, made known the glad tidings of the
gospel to his country-men. He was of a noble
family, and went over to Wittemberg to confer
with Luther; he came back after serious study,
of the Scriptures, and in 1528 was cruelly put to
death, at St. Andrewâ€™s, by Archbishop Beatoun.
A reformer, whose name was George Wishart,
was very useful to Knox, in instructing him
in the great doctrines of the Bible: he however
suffered martyrdom, leaving Knox; almost alone,
to follow in his steps.
Cardinal Beatoun, the great persecutor of
the reformers, was put to death by a small but
determined band of men, soon after Wishartâ€™s
martyrdom; and Knox has been accused of
being privy to the death of the cardinal. It is
impossible to justify Knox, if such were the
case, and his vindication of the act cannot be
denied. His sentiments were now so fully
known that his life was in great danger, and
he was obliged to take refuge in the castle
70 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
of St. Andrew, then held by the Protestants.
Here he began his ministry. He was shortly
after sent to France, and at the instigation of
the Pope was. kept close prisoner there, put in
chains, and treated with great severity. In 1549,
when Edward the Sixth came to the throne, he
was liberated, and returned to Scotland.
He was appointed to preach at Berwick, and
was very useful there. He resided in England
for some time, and was appointed one of King
Edwardâ€™s chaplains, but he did not agree with
the principles of the English Church nor with
the use of the common Prayer Book. In 1556
he went to Geneva, in Switzerland, to be Pastor
over an English Church there, and greatly en-
joyed Calvinâ€™s friendship. At thisâ€™ time he
assisted several exiles from England, in preparing
a translation of the Bible. This is commonly
called the Geneva Bible.
In 1557 Knox received letters from several,
good men in Scotland, entreating him to return.
Queen Maryâ€™s cruel persecution of the Protest-
ants, was the cause of a singular production of
the Reformer. Its title was, â€œThe first blast
of the trumpet against the monstrous Regiment
of Women,â€ i. e., regimÃ©n or government; in
which he freely attacked the practice of permit-
ting females to govern nations. In Elizabethâ€™s
reign he wrote an awkward apology, but it
is very likely that Cecil, her secretary, never
presented it to her, for he was friendly to the
Scotch Congregation, and knew that Knoxâ€™s
uncourtly style was not, likely to please his
royal mistress. Queen Mary, soon after her
arrival from France, had an interview with
Knox. Mary seems to have expected to awe
the bold man into submission by her authority,
but she little knew Knox. She accused him of
writing a book against her authority, and many
other charges. To these Knox replied that if
to teach the truth of God in sincerity, and to ex-
hort people to worship God according to his word,
were to excite subjects to rebel, he was guilty.
The conversation between him and the young
queen is extremely interesting, and so instructive
that I cannot resist copying you a portion of it.
After a long argument, Mary said, â€œWell, I
perceive that my subjects shall obey you and
not me: and will do what they please, not what
72 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
â€œGod forbid, madam,â€ replied Knox, â€œmy
travail and desire is that princes and subjects
may obey God. And think not, madam, that
wrong is done to you, that you are required to
be subject to God. He craves of kings that
they be as foster fathers, and queens as nursing
mothers to his people.â€
â€œBut you are not the church that I will
nourish,â€ said the wilful queen, â€œTI will defend
the church of Rome, for it is, I think, the true
church of God.â€
â€œYour will, madam, is no reason, neither
doth your thought make the Roman harlot the
spouse of Jesus Christ.â€
He also warmly opposed Maryâ€™s marriage
with a Papist; and in his interview with her,
his free uncourtly language so offended her
that she wept bitterly. His remarks on these
occasions brought him into sad disgrace, and he
was summoned to take his trial. When the
queen had taken her seat at the council, and
perceived Knox at the foot of the table, she
burst into a loud fit of laughter. â€œThat man,â€
she said, â€œhad made her weep and shed never a
tear himself; she would now see if she could
make him weep.â€™ He was, however, to. the
queenâ€™s bitter disappointment, not only un-
moved, but finally acquitted. He died in the
67th year of his age, worn out with anxieties
and Jabours. From the time that he embraced
the Reformed Religion, he enjoyed little rest.
For many years an outlaw and an exile, and
constantly exposed to danger, it must to him
have been a glorious exchange, when he fell
asleep in Jesus.
His character has been so differently judged,
that it is difficult to give a correct sketch of it.
Many of his faults may be traced to his natural
temperament, and to the character of the age
and country in which he lived. His passions
were strongâ€”he was an earnest man in every
thing, and knew neither disguise nor affectation.
His language was often coarse and intemperate,
and some of his actions seem to have sadly
lacked the spirit of Christian meekness. McCrie
says, at the close of his memoir, â€œIn contem-
plating such a character as that of Knox, it is
not the man so much as the reformer that ought
to engage our attention.â€
The wisdom of God in raising up persons
endued with qualities suited to the work
74 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
allotted to them, should engage our particular
admiration. It is easy for us in the present
day to censure the great movers in the grand
scheme of reforming a corrupt church, but we
may nevertheless take some useful lessons from
the manly, uncompromising Luther, and even
from the stern and somewhat coarse Knox,
in the stedfastness with which they followed
their mottoâ€”to â€œ hearken unto God rather than
to men.â€ They did not consider their fellow-
creaturesâ€™ opinions, they looked to no worldly
gain, to no rich preferment, to no future wealth
nor living ; but, â€œâ€˜ what says the word of God ?â€
was the question which ever and anon they put
when combatting with the obstinate superstitions
of the Romish church. Study the character of
such men as Knox now. It is a time thatâ€™ calls
upon the young to do this; and remember that
which men and children are too apt to forgetâ€”
that there is but one authority on earth for any
religious opmion whatever, the Holy Bible, the
sure word of God. We will now close our long
chapter on this interesting county, but I hope
you will not regret the space I have given to so
important a subject as that of the Reformation
The Palaceâ€”James [Vâ€”The apparition explainedâ€”Maryâ€™s birth-placo
EDINBURGH OR MIDLOTHIAN.
The Old Town--The Castleâ€”Description of the old-fashioned inhabitant
â€”Greyfriars Churchâ€”Signing of the Covenantâ€”The Covenantersâ€”
Holyrood House, story of Maryâ€”Dalkeithâ€”Roslinâ€”Hawthornden.
Of all the palaces so fair,
Built for the royal dwelling ;
In Scotland fair, beyond compare, |
Linlithgow is excelling.
Tus next county that we will consider is that of
Linuirugow. Its boundaries are the Frith of
Forth on the east, Stirlmgshire on the north,
Peebles and Lanark on the south, which last
county also bounds it on the west.
Linlithgow, the capital, lies in a hollow along
the borders of a lake, surrounded by hills. . The
village consists of a long narrow street, but the
principal object of terest is the fine old palace.
There are many interesting associations with
76 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
this place. The exterior is rather rough, and it
was evidently constructed in troublous times
with a view to defence. A few windows above
and as many slits below are the only apertures
that open to the outside'of the building. The
architecture of the interior court is the best.
No part of the ruins is roofed. The walls
are all that remain of this once noble palace.
Edward the First spent a whole winter at Lin-
lithgow, during the wars which succeeded his
invasion of Scotland.
You read in a former chapter of the disastrous
battle of Flodden. At the church in Linlith-
gow palace, James IV saw the apparition of
which the superstitious and ignorant have made
many strange tales, but the facts are, I believe,
Queen Margaret, his wife, who was sister of
Henry VIII, was at that time passing a few
days with James at this palace. The day before
the battle when the king was attending vespers,
as the evening service was called, and praying
for success on his intended expedition, there
â€œcame in a man clad in a blue gown or blowse,
belted about him with a roll of whiteâ€™ linen.
His head was bare, bald at the top, with yellow
locks hanging on each side, and his age about
fifty. He came fast forward among the lords
crying and speering especially for the king,
saying he wanted to.speak to him.â€ At last
the man reached the desk where King James
was at prayer; he made no reverence to him, but
leaned on him gruffling (or bending down to the
desk) and spoke thus. â€œ Sir king, my mother
hath sent me to thee, charging thee not to go
where thou hast purposed, which if thou do
thou shalt not fare well, nor none that is with
thee.â€ : ;
These words spoken, the messenger escaped
from among the assembly, and so suddenly dis-
appeared-that he â€˜seemed to vanish miraculously.
There is no doubt that those who wished to
dissuade James from the battle tried to work
on his superstitious mind by this means, and
therefore dressed up a man to represent St.
John, called the adopted son of the Virgin
The Roman Catholics believed in the pos-
sibility of the souls of departed saints and
apostles appearing on earth, and many impos-
78 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
tures of which you may read in history are of
this kind. Nothing, however, could dissuade
James, and the result you have already heard.
James V, the son of this king, and father of
Mary Stuart, was scarcely less unfortunate.
He died of grief at the loss of a large army, and
when news was brought him of her birth, gave
a mournful reply. He was scarcely thirty-one
years old, and survived his childâ€™s birth but a
few days. Her troubles â€˜began very early, and
in this old ruined palace did she first see the
light. The supposed room is still shewn, and
there is something very affecting in visiting the
birthplace of one whose life from the cradle to
the grave was a constant scene of disquietude
Henry VIII of England was very anxious to
get possession of this infant Queen, and eagerly
desired a marriage with her to his only son,
afterwards Edward VI, but the Scotch were a
little suspicious of King Henryâ€™s motives and
declined the honour. Mary, when very young;
was accordingly sent to France, with a view to
her education'and subsequent union with the
young heir of that kingdom, whilst Mary of
Guise, her mother, an ambitious woman and a
bigoted Catholic, was appointed Queen Regent,
and she and the persecuting Cardinal Beatoun,
who, as I told you, was the murderer of Hamil-
ton and Wishart, ruled the kingdom much as
they pleased during Maryâ€™s minority. Of her
marriage and early widowhood, it is no part of
the present pages to treat; we will talk more
of Mary bye and bye, when we come to any
place rendered memorable by her residence or
her misfortunes. __ â€œ
The Parliament â€˜hall is a long noble room,
but very ruinous. The kitchens are spacious,
and on the side of one of them is a large oven
with seats all round it,
A great part of Linlithgow Palace was
destroyed in 1746, when the royal army was
proceeding to meet the Pretender, and lay on
straw in thesÃ© princely halls. The town of
Queens-ferry, on the Frith of Forth, is a small
seaport, and derives its name from Margaret, wife
of Malcolm ITI, often crossing over that passage
to Dunfermline, where there was a palace.
We will now look at Epinpuren or Mip-
Loratan, which contains the capital of Scotland.
80 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
The county of Edinpurgh is bounded on the
north by the Frith of Forth, on the north-east
â€˜and east by Haddington and Berwickshire, on
the south by Lanarkshire, Peebles, and Selkirk-
shire, and on the west by Linlithgow.
Edinburgh, the capital, is a most interesting
town. It was at the beginning of George ITIâ€™s
reign an inconvenient, ill-built, and old-fashioned
place, of about 70,000 inhabitants. It is now a
kind of double city, first there is the picturesque
old town, occupied now by the poorer classes,
and secondly, there is the beautiful modern town,
inhabited by the upper classes. Many a poor
family now dwells in a fine house in the old
town, once the residence of some grand. person,
and many a fine oak-panclled room or carved
ceiling shelters poverty and misery where once
there were riches and comfort.
The city is built on three ridges running east
and west. The central ridge is ended by a
rocky precipice on which is the castle, a fine
old building. The rock on, which it stands
is two hundred feet in height, and many
interesting events have occurred within the
walls of this castle. Here Queen Mary gave
birth to her only son, afterwards James I of
Across the valley which separates the old
from the new town, a bridge was erected, and
further west, across the same valley, a mound
of earth, chiefly formed of the rubbish removed
in digging the foundations of the newly-erected
houses, was begun in 1783. A third and nearer
bridge connects the western part of the new town
with the southern district. Before these bridges
were built, the only communication to the south
and north was by those narrow, steep lanes,
called closes and wynds, which descend from
both sides of the high street. The meaning of
close, is a passage in a town for persons on
foot; wynds are passages for carriages. Some
of these curious narrow little streets are com-
posed of immensely high houses, and are so
narrow that persons may shake hands with their
It is really a treat to walk about this anti-
quated part of the town, and to recal the habits
of the simple people who once lived there.
Ladies used to have their tea drinkings at six,
and were lighted to their friendâ€™s house by a girl
82 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
bearing a lantern. Gas was unknown in the old
times at Edinburgh, but if the night were very
dark a sedan-chair was ordered, a kind of carriage
carried by men. The dresses of the ladies in the
last century were very odd. An old gentleman
has been heard to describe two hooped ladies
moving up and down the Lawn market on a
summerâ€™s evening, whose figures took up the
whole path. In the narrow lanes they had often
to tilt their hoops up and carry them under their
arms, Stays were made so stiff and long that
they touched the chair both before and behind
when the lady sat down, and she had to hold fast
by the bed post whilst the maid laced her. There
is a book called â€œTraditions of Edinburgh,â€ by
Mr. Robert Chambers, in which you may read
many amusing anecdotes. I will copy you a
curious advertisement of a school for young
ladies, which that book contains, and which was
extracted from an old Edinburgh Gazette, of
the year 1763. â€œWax work of all sorts taught
by a gentlewoman from London ; filigree work,
japan work on amber or glass; gum work ;
pastry of all sorts; boning a fowl without cutting
the back: butter work; preserving pickles ;
EDINBURGH. - 88
writing and arithmetic, music and dancing,â€
with many more accomplishments too tedious to
mention. In the College Wynd, in Edinburgh,
Sir Walter Scott was born. In the Netherbow,
in the old town, is the residence or manse of the
celebrated Reformer Knox, and perched in a
corner above the door is a curious little effigy of
him preaching in a stone pulpit. Grayfriarsâ€™
Church is a very interesting part of the old town,
it lies near the Grass Market, and. here are the
remains of many celebrated menâ€”Robertson,
the historian; Ramsay, who was induced by
his friend Fenelon, archbishop of Cambray, to
change his deistical opinions, and who afterwards
educated the children of the pretender, and
many others. But this churchyard will ever be
a memorable place, as the scene of the signing
of the covenant. The document was handed
outafter a sermon from one of their celebrated.
preachers, and multitudes signed on the flat
monumental stones, amidst prayers and tears,
some even writing with their blood.
At the south-west angle of the churchyard i is
a gateway leading to an inclosure where several
hundred of these faithful covenanters were
84 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
imprisoned after the Battle of Bothwell Bridge,
which I mentioned to you in a former chapter.
The cruelty these poor creatures endured seems
incredible. They were allowed scarcely any-.
thing to lie upon or to cover them, their food
was but four ounces of bread daily, and they
were guarded day and night. If any person
arose from the ground at night he was shot at.
Some gained their liberty by signing a bond
never to take up arms against the King, but
four hundred refusing were kept five months
in this frightful state, only being permitted
shingle huts at the approach of winter, which
was boasted of as a great mercy. A remnant,
about two hundred and fifty-seven in number,
were afterwards sent to Barbadoes, but the
vessel was wrecked and only forty-nine came on
shore alive. :
The old Tolbooth or prison of Edinburgh was
burnt in the time of George IT, during some
riots known by the name of the Porteous riots.
It was near St. Gilesâ€™ church. There used to
be a great many booths or shops around the
church, but the council ordered that none but
booksellersâ€™, watchmakersâ€™, and jewellersâ€™ shops
should be permitted in that neighbourhood.
The goldsmiths were quite a superior class of
tradesmen, and wore scarlet cloaks and cocked
hats. Their principal trade was in Parliament
Close. You have, no doubt, heard of the noted
George Heriot. His shop and workshop were
in this part of the town. King James I, who
had frequent occasion to borrow money of him,
often paid private visits to him in this little
seven-feet square shop. How unlike the gold-
smithsâ€™ shops of the present day. - Hume, the
celebrated historian, was born in Edinburgh. -
We must not omit to notice Holyrood house.
Of the ancient palace built by James V, but
little remains. It is at the east end of the
Canongate, and occupies the site of one of the
many abbeys of David I. In the chapel the
remains of many royal persons are â€˜buried.
There are some relics of Mary Queen of Scots
which are very interesting.
I have already told you a little about Mary,
and I cannot now give you the full particulars of
her story. She was sent very young to a French
court, and married the French King Francis.
At nineteen she was left a widow, and returned
86 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
to Scotland at a time when it was distracted
with quarrels and discord. Her second mar-
riage, with Darnley, was an unhappy one,
and her intimacy with her secretary, David
Rizzio, was a very ill-advised and foolish thing
in a married woman, to say the least of it.
She had received a bad education, and, in a
French court, which was at that time very
wicked, it is possible that her nice notions of
propriety were blunted. She had chosen a
foolish headstrong boy of nineteen for her
husband, who was extremely ambitious to have
the title of King. This crown-matrimonial
Mary had no intention of bestowing with her
hand, and Darnley, seeing Rizzio so high in
his wifeâ€™s favour, suspected that he encouraged
her in the refusal. About eight oâ€™clock one
Saturday night, Mary was sitting at supper in
a small room adjoining her bed chamber in
Holyrood Palace, with the Countess of Argyle.
Rizzio was at the cupboard in a closet of the
bed chamber, tasting some meats intended for
the queen; when suddenly a panel opened
and Darnley, accompanied by a certain Lord
Ruthven, entering by a secret staircase, burst
into the little dressing room and looked
gloomily at his victim Rizzio. The Queen and
Countess started up from table, and Rizzio at
once perceiving the intentions of the armed
men, got behind his mistress and clasped the
folds of her gown, earnestly imploring for
justice or mercy. â€˜The assassins threw down
the table and seized on Rizzio, whilst Darnley
held the Queen. It was their intention, doubt-
less, to have seized the Italian and dragged
him from her presence in order to kill him
elsewhere, but their impatience hurried them to
instant murder. He fell, pierced with fifty-six
wounds, at the head of the staircase, the Queen
continuing to beg his life with tears and prayers;
but when she learned that he was dead, she
dried her tears and said, â€œI will now think of
In the following June, 1566, Mary gave
birth to a son, and for a time it seemed as
though Darnley and she were reconciled; but
it was only an outward reconciliation. In
January of the next year, Darnley fell ill of
the small pox, and the Queen, either really or
in pretence, softened after a time, brought him
88 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
to a religious house near Edinburgh, called
the Kirk of Field, just without the city walls.
The Queen and infant remained at Holyrood.
On the 9th of February some servants of the
Earl of Bothwell, a person who had been in
Maryâ€™s confidence for some time, and a bitter
enemy of Darnley, found entrance to the cellars
underneath Darnleyâ€™s bed chamber, and placed
gunpowder there. About two hours after mid-
night, Bothwell, disguised in a riding cloak,
came to see the cruel scheme put in execution,
and soon an explosion took place. The body
of Darnley, and his chamber groom, were found
im an orchard the next day.
Whether Mary had any share in this horrid
crime it is not for us to determine. Had she
brought Bothwell to justice as he deserved, she
might not have been suspected; but although
there was a show of a trial, she shortly after,
and without much resistance, suffered herself to
be carried off and married by her late husbandâ€™s
murderer. We will leave her now, as her life in
Holyrood ends here. There is a babyâ€™s basket
in Maryâ€™s bedchamber, prepared, doubtless, by
her, before her infantâ€™s birth; besides some of
her needlework and other articles which belonged
to the unhappy queen, interesting and affecting
memorials of the past.
T have left little room to tell you of the new
town, which is very fine. Princeâ€™s Street, Queen
Street, and many handsome squares are worth
notice; but the description would not perhaps
gratify you much.
Dalkeith is, next to Edinburgh and Leith,
the most considerable town of Mid Lothian;
and it was for some time the residence of
General Monk, to whom Cromwell delegated
the government of Scotland.
Roslin chapel and castle, seven miles from
Edinburgh, are well worth seemg. The castle
overhangs the glen of the river Esk, and is
separated from the neighbouring ground by a
cut in the solid rock. The beautiful scenery
is confined to the banks of the Esk. Neigh-
bouring coal mines sadly deface the country
Hawthornden is a mansion of Charles the
Firstâ€™s time. The Scottish poet, Drummond, a
friend of Shakespeare, built this place. It is said
that Ben Jonson, the poet, wit, and dramatist,
90 - STORIES OF SCOTLAND. ct
actually walked from London to pay Drummond
a visit here. Like a good landlord, eran ae 4
met him at the gate, exclaimingâ€”
â€˜Welcome! welcome! royal Ben.â€
To which Jonson repliedâ€” |
â€œThank ye, thank ye, Hawthornden.â€â€™
We must now leave the interesting county of
Edinburgh and Mid Lothian.
io, i! | ne
es I a
Highlands and Lowlandsâ€”Dunfermline Abbeyâ€”Queen Margaretâ€”
Discovery of Bruceâ€™s coffinâ€”Charles the Firstâ€™s Birthplaceâ€”Sst.
Andrewâ€™sâ€”Largoâ€”Story of Alexander Selkirk.
Lochleven Castleâ€”Reason of its nameâ€”More about Maryâ€”Her escape
from Lochlevenâ€”Her defeatâ€”Flight to England.
Havine considered the thirteen southern coun-
ties of Scotland, it will be necessary before
I commence the next nine, to give you a
little history of the distinction which existed
between the Highlands and the Lowlands.
The range of mountainous counties of which
you are about to learn, was inhabited by a race
of men, different, in manners and language,
to those who lived in that part called the
Lowlands. The English used to call these
people the â€œWild Scots,â€ the French the
â€œScottish Savages.â€ The losses which the
Low Country had sustained in early. times,
92 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
by the English wars, had so weakened the
district. near the Highlands, that the people
became quite unable to repress the incursions of
the mountaineers, who came down from their
hills, burned, destroyed, and plundered them,
as if it were an enemyâ€™s country. These
were at one time divided into forty different
clans, families, or tribes, each clan dwelling on
its own portion of land or territory. This little
corner of Europe had been the last to shelter
the remains of that early race, called Celts,
of whom ancient history speaks as possessing
the old continent, but who were gradually dis-
persed by other nations, whom we call ancient,
to the extremities of the known world. The
Highlanders believing that the Lowlanders
were their foes, were always invading their
territories. This was the cause for the erection
of certain forts, of which I shallâ€™ have occasion
to speak presently, which were established and
garrisoned by government to keep the turbu-
lent clans in proper order. Hach clan was
governed by a chief or head of the family. In
almost every clan were subordinate chiefs or
HIGHLANDS AND LOWLANDS. 93
The Highland dress is very picturesque,
but it is not often used now, except on gala
days. In the reign of George II, a curious
act was passed to prohibit its beg worn. It
was enacted that from and after the first of
August, 1747, any person, whether man or boy,
within Scotland, excepting officers or soldiers
in his Majestyâ€™s service, who should on any
pretence wear or put on the clothes called
Highland clothes, namely, the plaid, philibeg,
trews, shoulder belts, or any part of the High-
land garb, or should use great coats made
of party-coloured plaid, or stuff, should be
imprisoned without bail for six months. The
dress is composed of a tartan, or plaid, grace-
fully folded round the body, and the philibeg,
or short petticoat, with tartan stockings and
The county of Fire is a district including
also that of Kinross. It is a sort of peninsular,
bounded on one side by the German Ocean, and
on two sides by the Frith of Forth and Tay.
The great passage across the, Forth, called
Queens Ferry, belonged, before the Reformation,
to the Abbot of Dunfermline.
94 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
Dunfermline is an ancient and interesting
town, and at a very early period of Scottish
history it was the seat of government. It
once had a wealthy abbey. Queen Margaret,
who gave the name to Queenâ€™s Ferry, was the
grandniece of our. Saxon king, called Edward
the Confessor. She fled from England at the
time of the Norman Conquest, and was kindly
received by the Scotch king, Malcolm, who
shortly after her arrival married her. She was
a learned, excellent woman, and softened the
eharacter of her rough and warlike â€˜husband.
Queen Margaret and Robert Bruce are both
said to be buried in Dunfermline Abbey; also
David I, the celebrated abbey builder; and it
was on the occasion of James the Firstâ€™s visit
to Dunfermline, that he made the well known
observation that king David had been â€œa sair
saunt to the crown.â€ The coffin of Bruce was
dug up in 1818, the lead in which the body was
wrapped was entire, and even some fragments of
fine cloth embroidered with gold, which formed
his shroud. Charles I was born at Dunfermline
Palace. He was the son of James I and Anne
of Denmark. The bed which Queen Anne
brought from her own country, a large, cumbrous
four-post affair, was for many years shown at
the public house of Dunfermline.
St. Andrewâ€™s is\an ancient city, and has.
a University. Its Cathedral, still a splendid
ruin, was destroyed by John Knoxâ€™s followers
in 1559. It was avery common saying of the
stern old Reformer, that â€œif the nest were pulled
down the rooks would fly away,â€ but certainly
with all due allowance for the excitement of the
times, we cannot but regret the untempered
zeal which has deprived us of so many of our
finest architectural ornaments, built in many
instances if with mistaken still with sincere
desires to glorify God.
At Largo, on the coast of Fifeshire, the
celebrated Alexander Selkirk was born, in 1796.
His father was a fisherman. Alexander was a
hot-tempered boy, and soon offended. He came
home one night from work, and being thirsty
took up a mug of water to drink, which turned
out to be salt water. This disgusted and irri-
tated him, and his brother who was sitting by
still further increased his anger by laughing
at the mistake. Alexander struck him, a fight
96 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
ensued, and the end of it was that he left Largo
He went to sea, and was shipwrecked on
the desert Island of Juan Fernandez, where
he lived sometime in solitude. He was taken
off the Island by a vessel, and after many
years absence returned home, bringing his gun,
sea chest, and the cup of his own making,
which the family still preserve with great care.
Alexander did not remain long at home, how-
ever, and was never heard of after the second
time he left it. .
Dr. Adam Smith, author of a work called the
â€œWealth of Nations,â€ was born at Kirkaldy in
Krwross is surrounded by the counties of Fife
and Perth. Lochleven castle is on an island of
about two acres, in the loch which has, according
to the Scotch, the following peculiarities. It
is eleven miles round, encompassed by eleven
hills, is fed by eleven streams, and contains
eleven kinds of fish, and is also studded with
eleven islands. This is doubtless the origin
of its name. The castle consists of one square
tower, not very massive, although five stories
in height. It is now partly in ruins and quite
Here Mary Queen of Scots was confined.
After her unpardonable indiscretion in marry-
ing Bothwell, her husbandâ€™s murderer, her fate
seemed sealed. He used her very ill, and
being disappointed in his hopes of getting
the young Prince into his keeping, used such
upbraiding language to her that she prayed for
a knife with which to stab herself, rather. than
endure his ill-treatment. In the meantime the
people were very indignant, anda large party of
the nobility determined to remove Bothwell from
his usurped power. An army was raised on
each side, and the Queen gave herself up. The
common soldiers hooted at her, and most believed
her guilty. As she approached Edinburgh, led
in triumph by the victors, the lower classes
grossly insulted her. A banner was carried
before her, coarsely displaying the portrait of
Darnley as he lay murdered under a tree in the
fatal orchard, with these words embroidered,
â€œJudge and avenge my cause O Lord!â€ and
on the other side, the little Prince on his knees,
holding up his hands. â€™
98 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
As the Queen rode through the streets, with
her hair loose, and her garments in disorder,
covered with dust and overpowered with shame,
grief, and fatigue, this dreadful flag was dis-
played before her eyes, while the voice of the.
people sounded in her ears, accusing her of
being privy to Darnleyâ€™s murder.
The castle of Lochleven was her prison, and
here a great many lords of the council with
Murray and the Regent, waited on her to
compel her to surrender her crown to James
her son. Murray was Maryâ€™s half-brother, but
she found little kindness or compassion from
him, and Lord Lindsay seized her delicate arm
with main force and left the print of his iron
glove there in his earnest effort to force her to
take the pen which was to sign away her right
to the crown of her ancestors. Sir William
Douglas, the Laird of Lochleven, was related
to the Regent Murray, and was a severe jailer,
but his younger brother, George, laid a plan to
deliver her from prison for which he was Pes
There was a boy in the castle, of fifteen or
sixteen years of age, a relationâ€™ of the family,
called â€œlittle William Douglas,â€ who at length
contrived to steal the keys of the castle, while
the family were at supper, and when all had gone
to rest, he let Mary and her attendant out of the
tower, locked the castle gates, put the Queen
and her waiting-woman in a little boat, rowed
them to shore, and threw the keys into the lake.
A large party of Maryâ€™s friends who knew of
the plot were waiting for her. On the Sunday
Mary was a helpless captive. On the Saturday
following she was at the head of a powerful army,
by which nine earls, nine bishops, eighteen lords,
and many gentlemen of rank engaged to defend
her person and restore her power. This army
however was completely defeated, and Mary,
escorted by a few faithful followers, rode sixty
miles before she stopped to rest at Dundrennan
Abbey, in Galloway, where her last night in
Scotland was spent.
Her resolution to take refuge in England,
and its consequences, axe not subjects for the
present little volume, which relates only to
Scotland. At twenty-six years of age a pall
was thrown over Maryâ€™s life, and the remaining
nineteen years were passed in a kind of living
, H 2
100 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
death. Her faults were many; and her misfor-
tunes and disadvantages, whilst they excite our
compassion, should not blind us to the greatness
of her indiscretion, if not of her guilt. Sorrow
and grief, persecution and injustice, cannot
make a saint of Mary.
I do not know of anything more to tell you
of the little county of Kinross, with which I
will end this chapter.
Origin of its name.
Castleâ€”James I at his Parliament Houseâ€”Carron Iron Works â€”
Castleâ€”Loch Lomondâ€”Mountainsâ€”Peat Islandâ€”Water Birds. .
Inverary~Â«Its Castleâ€”Marriage Treeâ€”General Wadeâ€™s Roadsâ€”Glencroe
â€”Massacre of Glencoe.
THERE is but little to tell you of the county
of CrackMannan. It is bounded on the north
by Perthshire, on the south by the Frith of
Forth, on the east by Fife, and on the west
by the Frith of Forth, which separates it from
Its capital, Clackmannan, is a miserable old
town. When King Robert Bruce lived in Clack-
mannan tower, before the town was built, he one
day, when going a journey, happened to stop at
a certain shapeless blue stone, on which he lay
his glove, and then went on his way. He did
102 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
not discover his loss for some little time, when
he sent his servant back, desiring him to go to
the clack, .or stone, and seek his mannan, or
glove. This it is said gives the name of Clack-
mannan to the town. It. is usual for visitors to
chip a piece out of the stone, in remembrance
of the great fighting hero. -
STIRLINGSHIRE is one of the most beautiful
of the Scottish counties. It is bounded on the
north by Perth; on the south by Lanark and
Dumbarton, which county also bounds it on the
west ;.and on the east by the isthmus formed
by the Firths of Forth and Clyde.
Stirling, the capital, is a town of more than
nine thousand inhabitants, situated on an
eminence overlooking the Frith of Forth. Its
castle is a very striking object. James II of
Scotland was born there. James III, who was
very fond of Stirling as a residence, erected a
Parliament House there, which is now converted
into barracks. It is related of King James VI,
that when a very little child, according to the
formal usages of. the times, he was compelled to
be present at a somewhat stormy meeting of the
Parliament, and that his little Majesty casting
up his eyes, observed a hole in the roof of the
hall; the Scottish treasury being rather low in
its funds. Upon which he remarked, â€œTI think
this be but a broken Parliament,â€ an uncon-
scious satire with more truth in it than the
Upon the road, between Falkirk and Stirling,
there are the remains of a forest, famous in the
history of Wallace, a tree existed there until
lately which is said to have sheltered him se
Carron iron works, in this county, are the
largest of the kind in the world. Every de-
scription of cast-iron articles is made here;
instruments of war, implements of agriculture,
and articles for domestic use. They are always
sold at a very reasonable rate. The beauty of
the casting, and the finish, is considered superior
to any in the world.
Bannockburn is noted for the great battle
fought between Edward II and Robert Bruce,
in which Edward lost thirty thousand men and
seven hundred knights.
There are many coal mines in n Stirlingshire.
Its principal river is the Forth.
104 STORIES OF SCOTLAND. |
DumpBarton.â€”The scenery of Dumbarton-
shire is extremely fine, and owns the celebrated
Loch Lomond as its principal ornament. This
loch or lake divides the county from Stirling-
shire on the north-east; on the north-west it
is bounded by Loch, or Lake Long; and on the
south by the river Clyde.
Theâ€™ capital, Dumbarton, is noted for its
castle, which is built on a rock shooting up
five hundred and sixty feet out of a plain, just
at the part of the river which joins the sea. It
measures nearly a mile in circumference, and
its situation is very picturesque.
The little village of Luss is built on a head-
larid that projects into the lake. Many persons
speak the Gaelic language there, and you may
frequently see the Highland dress.
Tarbet is a place where persons travelling in
Scotland usually stay, in order to see the beauty
of this splendid Loch Lomond, which, with its
polished surface, its soft hills in the distance,
and its lovely little green islands, cannot fail to
delight even those who may have seen the larger
and grander lakes of other countries. The loch
extends thirty miles. It is seldom wider than
eight or ten miles, and gradually narrows until
it ends in a little mountain streamlet. The
mountain called Ben Lomond is a striking
object. It is not, as is often the case with
mountains, so surrounded with inferior hills that
it is difficult to recognize it from its companions.
It rises three thousand two hundred and forty
feet above the level of the sea, and looks, indeed,
like a king of the whole territory.
There are other high mountains to be seen in
the neighbourhood of Tarbet. Ben Voizlich,
Benvenue, and Ben Arthur. Peat Island, on
Loch Lomond, is a favourite resort of waterfowl.
At the end of some little point of land may the
patient heron be seen, waiting till the incautious
fish, tempted by the warm sun to the shallows,
shall be within reach of its harpoon bill. The
rock and river ousel, also abound in the vicinity
and about the banks of Loch Lomond. The
rock ousel is fond of rocks and precipices, and
usually builds among them. When disturbed
it will fly from stone to stone, uttering a grating
chirp. The male ousel has a white ring round
the throat, the female none. The little river-
ousel, or dipper, another variety, feeds on water
106 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
insects and fish roe. It does not migrate, that
is to say, it does not leave the island at the
approach of winter, and is a hardy little bird,
for sometimes when both land and water are
bound in frost, it will strike up its cheerful song,
a sound as cheerful and strange as that of the
nightingale at midnight.
The next county is AreyLesHiIne, which is
bounded by Inverness on the north, Perth and
Loch Long on the east, the Firth of Clyde
on the south, and Jura Sound on the west.
Argyleshire signifies the land of strangers. The
Scots or Scoti, who came from Ireland, first
Inverary, the county town, stands on a small
bay at the head of Loch Fine. The herring
fishery of Loch Fine has long been famous, and
the arms of the town are a net with a herring
in it. ;
A short distance from Inverary is an extra-
ordinary tree, called the marriage tree, from
the circumstance of its trunk, which separates
a few feet above the ground, again uniting
twenty feet higher up. This junction is formed
by a small branch, extending from the one stem
to the other. The handsome castle belonging
to the Duke of Argyle is worth seeing. It is
an interesting place, but I must not describe it
particularly, as I cannot undertake to write a
guide-book to all the wonders of this beautiful
country. The Argyle family have inhabited
Inverary castle for more than four hundred years,
but the foundation of the present castle was not
laid until 1745, and finished many years after-
wards. It is built of blue granite, in the style
of a castle, with towers at its angles.
There is a wild district in this part. of the
county, called Glencroe, which is about six
miles long, and with its frowning mountains, and
desolate cliffs, is a remarkable place. After
ascending gradually for about three miles, the
road runs, in a winding â€˜direction, up the side of
the mountain, to the summit of a pass, where
is a stone seat, on which are inscribed the
words, â€œRest and be thankful.â€ The road on
looking back looks like a narrow ribbon. You
will be told that this is one of General Wadeâ€™s
roads. This will not be very useful informatiqn
to you, unless you know when and wherefore
these roads were constructed. I will tell you.
108 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
After the rebellion in favour of the first
Pretender, that is to say the son of James II,
in which the Highlanders were so. active, the
English government determined to make great
efforts entirely to subdue this warlike race. A
warrant was therefore granted to Field Marshal
General Wade to inspect and report upon the
state of the Highlands. Their arms were taken
away in the first stance, and General Wade
boasted that the Highlanders, instead of going
armed with guns, swords, and dirks, now tra-
velled to market and to church with only staff
in hand; but little did General Wade suspect
how many thousand weapons lay in Highland
caverns concealed, ready for use whenever occa~
sion should offer. The great work, however,
that Wade had in view, and that with which
we have now more particularly to do, was the
establishment of military roads, through the
desolate and rugged regions of the north, insuring
a free passage for troops in a country of which
it might be said that every mountain was a
fortress built by nature. Hitherto the Highland
roads were mere tracts, made by the feet of men
and cattle, interrupted by rocks, morasses, and
torrents. These paths, Wade formed into solid
and excellent roads, and. the soldiers were, after
the fashion of the Romans, employed in the
undertaking. Now you will understand any
references hereafter made to General Wadeâ€™s
At Glencoe, which you must not confound
with Glencroe, in the northern part of Argyle-
shire, was a frightful massacre of the inhabitants,
in the reign of William and Mary, 1691. The
Clan of Glencoe inhabited a valley formed by
the river Coe, which falls into Loch Leven, not
fax from Loch Etive. The Government had sent
orders to the Highland Chiefs in August, 1691,
to submit toâ€˜the king on â€˜the first of January,
1692, and if they did not they -were threatened
with fire and sword. â€˜Whis prodlamation -was
framed â€œby the Privy Council, unter â€˜the â€˜influ-
ence of Sir John â€˜Dalrymple, master of Stair,
as. he was called. The Highlanders, I should
tell you, secretly retained their fidelity to King
James. The massacre was in winter; the scene
must have been dreadful; flying from their
burning huts, the half-naked Highlanders com-
mitted themselves to the darkness, snow, and
110 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
storm, of a winterâ€™s morning; and bewildered
in snow-wreaths, many sank to rise no more.
The number massacred was thirty-eight, and
certainly this act is a stam on King Williamâ€™s
character, who signed the warrant for the deed
Perthâ€”The Reformationâ€”John Knoxâ€™s Sermonâ€”Murder of James I, at
Black Friarsâ€™ Abbey-â€”-The house in which Charles Edward sleptâ€”
Scone Palaceâ€”Coronation chairâ€”The hills and crags of Kinnoul,
flowers and plantsâ€”Dunkeld--Dumblaneâ€”Archbishop Leightonâ€”
Battle of Sheriffmuirâ€”Loch Katrineâ€”Scottâ€™s descriptionâ€”â€”Rob Roy.
Tue county of Pertusutre is one of the largest
counties in Scotland; it may be called the
Yorkshire of the country. It is partly situated
in the Highlands and partly im the Lowlands.
Its boundaries are, Stirlmg, Clackmannan, and
Kinross, on the south; Angus, and the Firth
of Tay, on the east; Inverness, and part of
Aberdeen, on the north; and Argyle, on the
The capital, known by the name of the â€œ fair
city of Perth,â€ well deserves the appellation.
It has manufactures of gingham, shawls, and
handkerchiefs, and also carries on a great trade
in salmon. Jt is situated on the river Tay, and
112 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
the scenery around is lovely ; but it will be more
interesting to you to recall some of the scenes
in history, which have taken place within its
walls. It was at Perth that the reformed religion
was first publicly avowed. John Knox preached
a sermon in the parish church, against idolatry,
on the 11th of May, 1559; after the sermon,
one of the priests having given some provocation,
a number of people, in their zeal, broke down
all the altars and images in the church, and
then proceeded to demolish the monasteries.
After that Thursday, an afternoon sermon was
on that day preached for many years, and I
believe remains the custom still. .
Scone palace is about two miles from the town
of Perth, and the scene of the coronation of
many a Scottish king. Here too was the famous
stone chair, which Edward the First carried off
from Scotland as a trophy of one of his victo-
ries, and in which chair, since that time to the
present, all our kings and queens have been
crowned in Westminster Abbey. - There are
many fables. told of it, but of its antiquity
there can be no doubt. The stone is said to
have been originally conveyed from the kingdom
of Gallicia in Spain, into Ireland, about 700
years before the birth of Christ, and thence
into Scotland, by King Fergus, about 370 years
afterwards, and in the year 850 it was placed
in the abbey of Scone, by King Kenneth, who
caused it to be inclosed in a wooden chair.
The old Palace does not now exist, but a
new building has been erected in its place; and
much of the ancient furniture and monuments
belonging to the old palace, are still preserved
in the present one. How many interesting
associations and recollections are connected with
this spot. Here was the coronation known in
Scotland as the â€œ Mourning Coronationâ€ of the
Infant King, James the Fifth, father of Mary
Stuart. The old crown of Scotland being held
over the brow of a fatherless babe of one year and
five months, most of the witnesses and assistants
burst into a passion of sobs and tears; they wept
not only in recollection of their own losses at
Flodden, but of their late king who was dear to
all men whilst living, and, as Buchanan says,
â€œmightily lamented by his people at his death.â€â€™
It was at Perth that James the First, King
of Scotland, was murdered. He was a just and
114 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
wise king, but his predecessors had not ruled
the nation wisely, and this reign was a constant
struggle with the nobles and priests.. These
nobles, who reigned like kings in their little
territories, resisted the new rules of their sensible
monarch, and a plot was laid for his assassination.
Sir Robert Grahame was the chief person con-
cerned in the undertaking. The king, whilst
at Perth, lived in the Abbey of Blackfriars,
there being no castle or palace suitable for his
residence. The day of the murder had been
spent in feasting and mirth, and at midnight the
assassins secretly entered the house, and stood
around: the kingâ€™s bed-chamber door, who was
in his night-gown and slippers, and was standing
gaily conversing with the queen before the fire.
At this moment a noise was heard, and the
king immediately took alarm, remembering his
bitter enemy Grahame. It is related that a
maid of honor, missmg the bar which should
have secured the door, and which had been
previously removed, thrust. her arm into the
aperture, which snapped in two as the murderers
forced their way in. James first tried to get
out of the windows, but they were barred. The
description of his death is too horrid to relate ;
he fell pierced by sixteen wounds, in the forty-
fourth year of his age, in the year 1437. He is
described by an abbot who was at Perth on the
night of the murder, as â€œfair and comely in
person, under the middle size, but strong and
manly.â€ He was â€œskilled in music, and was
no mean poet.â€ It was the misfortune of James,
says an author, that his maxims and manners
were. too refined for the age in which he lived.
Prince Charles Edward, on his way to Edin-
burgh, slept at Perth in an antique house with
a wooden front, where the Union Bank now
stands; it belonged to Viscount Stormont.
Charles had but a guinea in his fee on that
night at Perth.
The hills in the neighbourhood of this inter-
esting town, are rich in minerals. On the right
bank of the Tay, the hills of Moncrief possess
many rare plants. Among the crags of Kinnoul
are the cat-mint, vine, garlick, silver cinque-foil,
and rock speed-well; there are foxes and weasels
in abundance, â€˜as well as pole-cats among the
Dunkeld is a beautiful spot.
116 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
At the ancient cathedral-city of Dumblane,
lived the good Archbishop Leighton, whose
works are, even to the present day, greatly
valued. He lived in the reign of Charles II,
and favored the Presbyterian party. There is
a walk near the town still called the bishopâ€™s
The battle of Sheriff Muir, near Dumblane,
was fought by the son of James IT, called the
Old Pretender, or the Chevalier St. George,
in which he was entirely defeated.
Perthshire has so many natural beauties that
it is impossible to tell you one half of theni.
The lochs are extremely fine. Loch Katrine,
at the south of the county, is the most remark-
able. The description of the lake, by Seott, in
the little poem called the â€œ Lady of the Lake,â€
is more impressive than any that I could give
you, and so you will say if ever you see it.
â€œ Gleaming with the setting sun,
One burnished sheet of living gold,
Loch Katrine lay before him rolled.
In all her length fair winding lay,
â€˜With promontory, creek, and bay;
And islands that, empurpled bright,
Floated amid the livelier light ;
PERTHSHIRE. : 117
And mountains that like giants stand,
To sentinel enchanted land.
High on the south huge Benvenue,
Down on the lake its masses threw;
Crags, knolls, and mounds, confusedly hurled,
The fragments of an earlier world.â€
There is an island at the eastern extremity
of the lake, the shores of which are covered
with a fine white sand and gravel. Many of
these localities are celebrated by Scott, but as
they are not facts, but tales, I will not allude
to. them in a book which is intended only to
relate simple truths. +
The Trosachs, so called in this part of the
country, means, in Gaelic, a rough, bristled
Benledi is the most magnificent mountain in
Scotland, three thousand feet in height. Its
name signifies, â€œthe hill of God!â€ It is sup-
posed that the Druids used to worship here.
In Balquidder church is Rob Royâ€™s grave.
You may have heard Rob Royâ€™s name, but are
not, perhaps, quite clear about his history, which
is so mixed up with tales and romances that it
is not.easy to arrive at the facts. Rob Roy,
who was also called Campbell and Mc Gregor,
118 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
was the brother of the Laird of Mc Gregor, a
chief of the clan Mc Alpine, once a powerful
tribe of Highlanders, and was, on an expedition
in his brotherâ€™s absence, appointed to the com-
mand of the clan. He was always a great enemy
to the oppressions of the rich and powerful,
but whatever romance may be thrown over his
history, he was, in fact, a turbulent and dishonest
man, and was finally out-lawed by the govern-
ment. Many a cave and hiding place is shown
where Rob is said to have concealed himself,
but, as I said before, it is difficult to say how
far such accounts are to be depended upon.
The red deer, roe deer, hares, foxes, rabbits,
badgers, pine martens, polecats, weasels, and
moles, abound in these districts. - From the
wooded shelter afforded by the banks of the
Tay, many birds are to be found. Among the
native birds are the grouse, black-cock, eagle,
kite, buzzard,. and several of the hawk tribe.
Grouse shooting is a favourite amusement here
with many persons who visit Scotland for this
FORFAR OR ANGUS,
The Tayâ€”Story of Macbethâ€”Glamis Castle.
Dunnottar Castleâ€”The regaliaâ€”Queen Margaret.
Old and New Townâ€”Curious Bridgeâ€”Collegeâ€”Trade of Aberdeen.
â€˜Capitalâ€”Archbishop. Sharpeâ€™s Murderâ€”The Spey.
ELGIN OR MORAYSHIRE. =
Remains of the Cathedralâ€”Removal of the Leadâ€”Fate of the Vesselâ€”
History of the Witches.
Tue county of Forrar is bounded on'the north
by Aberdeen and Kincardine; on the west by
Perthshire; on the south by the Firth of Tay,
â€˜which separates it from Fife; and on the east
by the German Ocean.
, Dundee, the capital, is remarkable for the
many sieges it has undergone. It is a well-
built seaport, and has a fine harbour on the
Frith of Tay. The Tay at this place is very
wide, and is supposed to discharge more water
120 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
into the sea than any other river in Great
Britain. The place where the Forfar witches
used. to be burned, is a little to the north of the
I wonder whether you know the. story of
Macbeth and the witches. I fear. that, like
some other historical tales, it owes some interest
to romance, but I will give you, as nearly as I
can, the facts.of Macbethâ€™s history. At Glamis
there was, in old times, a castle, and Glamis
Castle, in Forfarshire, is the place: where the
event occurred which I am about to relate,
Very early in the history of Scotland, when the
Scots and Picts were one people, there was a
King of Scotiand, called Duncan. He had two
sons, Malcolm and Donaldbane. The Danes,
at the close of good old King Duncanâ€™s reign,
landed in Scotland, with a great army. The
Danes, you know, were the dread of all the
nations in Europe. They were a. wandering,
mischievous, and cruel race of menâ€™; and did so
much mischief, that in church people used to
put up prayers to God to save them from these
destructive northmen. King Duncan being too
old to go to battle against them, sent out one
of his near. relations, called Macbeth: he was
son of Finel, who was thane of Glamis. The
governors of provinces â€˜were at that time
called thanes; they were afterwards called earls.
Macbeth put himself at the head of an army,
therefore, and marched against the Danes. A
relation of his, called Banquo, accompanied him,
and a great battle was fought, in which Macbeth
and Banquo were victorious. Then Macbeth
and his army marched back to a town in the
north of Scotland, called Forres. There lived
at. Forres (so the tale runs, at least) three old
women who people thought were witches, and
witches were supposed by the ignorant and
superstitious people of early times to be able to
tell what would happen. These old women saw
that they were respected and feared, and they
used to impose upon people very often, and get
a great deal-of money by their witchcraft. So
the three old women went and stood by the
wayside, and stepping before Macbeth as he
marched at the head of his soldiers, the first
woman said, â€œAll hail, Macheth! hail to the
Thane of Glamis.â€ The second said he should
be the Thane of Cawdor; but the third said,
122 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
* All hail to thee, Macbeth, that shalt be King
of Scotland!â€™ Before: Macbeth could recover
from his astonishment, a messenger came to
tell him that his father was dead, so that he was
Thane of Glamis by inheritance; and that the
Thane of Cawdor had lost his office and that
Macbeth was to be thane in his place. But do
you not think that the witches had had some
news of these events before? I should think
there was no doubt of it. The third compliment
was very likely occasioned by his great victory,
which made the old women think flattery sea-
Macbeth seeing that part of their words were
come true, began to think how the rest was to
come to pass; and he and his wife plotted
together how they should get possession of the
crown of Scotland. He invited Duncan, there-
fore, to come and see him at his castle; and the
poor old king innocently went. Macbeth and
his lady received him with apparent joy, and
made a great feast in honour of the kingâ€™s visit.
About the middle of the night the king retired
to rest. Two armed men, as was the custom in
those barbarous times, slept in his chamber to
defend him; but Lady Macbeth put some drugs
into their wine, in order to make. them sleep
soundly. Then came Macbeth, about two in
the morning, to the three sleepers, and, taking
the dirks of the watchers from them, stabbed
poor king Duncan to the heart. Then Macbeth
put the bloody daggers into the hands of the
sentinels and went to bed.
Next morning you may suppose the confusion
and excitement there was in the castle. Macbeth
of course pretended the greatest surprise and
indignation, but King Duncanâ€™s sons did not
believe his story, and Malcolm, the eldest son,
went oyer to England to beseech assistance from
the English king to place him on the Scottish
throne. In the meantime Macbeth was king,
but terribly fearful and unhappy. Edward the
Confessor, one of the Saxon kings, gave Malcolm
the help he desired, and Macbeth was killed in
Shakspeare the poet has made use of these
circumstances in one of his most celebrated
plays, which is called Macbeth, after the hero
of the story.
I have now mentioned all the nine middle
124 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
counties, with the exception of Bute, which is
an island, and with that of Arran, forms the
ninth county. I will notice it in the chapter
upon the islands.
There are eleven counties to the north, the
first at which you must look is that of Krv-
cARDINE or Mearns. Kincardine is bounded
on the north by Aberdeenshire, on the west
and south by Forfar, and on the east by the
Its capital, Kincardine, is not remarkable,
although some ship-building is carried on there.
There are the ruins of Dunnottar castle, a very
ancient. place, built as early as Bruceâ€™s time, in
which the Scottish Regalia were kept after 1650,
and in the reign of Charles IT it was used as a
prison for the Covenanters. In order to preserve
it from the English republican army, it is related
that the garrison at Dunnottar castle, held out
against the English for some time, but being
reduced by famine, the regalia were conveyed
away, and hid under the pulpit of Kineff church.
Mrs. Grainger, wife of the minister of Kineff,
having obtained permission to visit Mrs. Ogilvy,
the governorâ€™s lady, packed up the crown in
some clothes, and carried it out of the castle in
her lap, whilst her maid carried the sword and
sceptre in a bag of flax upon her back. Here
James the Fourthâ€™s young queen, Margaret,
sister of King Henry VIII, of England, resided
for a short time in the early part of her married
life, on account of some disturbances among the
clans, which almost caused a civil war in Scot-
land. She was very young at the time of her
marriage, being scarcely fourteen years old, and
a wilful, spoiled little lady she seems to have
been; a very unfit partner for a husband of
thirty-one. She was much like her brother, the
bluff King Harry, im disposition, as her acts,
when Queen Regent, proved.
The county of ABERDEENSHIRE is a long
county, bounded by the German Ocean or
North Sea on the east and north; by Banff on
the west; and by the Grampian mountains and
Kincardine on the south.
Aberdeen, the capital of the county, and
indeed of the north of Scotland, is very different
in its appearance to most towns in the country.
The houses are built of the grey granite which
is found in the neighbourhood, and which,
126 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
although handsome, gives it rather a gloomy
appearance. The ancient city of Aberdeen is
called Old Aberdeen, and is about a mile north
of the: modern city. The principal curiosity
in its neighbourhood, is the bridge over the river
Don, which consists of one spacious gothic arch,
stretching from the rock on one side to the rock
on the opposite bank.
The college of Old Aberdeen is celebrated.
Dr. Beattie also lived and died in this town.
He was a poet, and his poem, called â€œthe Min-
atrel,â€ is considered very beautiful. The Old
Pretender landed at Aberdeen on his fruitless
expedition to Scotland in 1715, disguised as a
sailor. He did not declare his real character for
some days, and the site of the house in which
he lodged is still shown.
Lord Byron, when a boy, lived in Broad
Street, in the new town of Aberdeen.
Aberdeen has a great trade with the Baltic
Sea and the West India Islands; it manufac-
tures stockings, thread, white and coloured
calicoes, and cotton. It carries on large fisheries
of salmon, herrings, and haddocks, cured in a
The county of Banrr is bounded on the
north by the North Sea; on the east and south
by Aberdeen; and on the west by Elgin.
The capital, Banff, on the river Doveran, is
noted for its salmon fisheries.
Archbishop Sharpe was a native of Banff.
This man incurred the contempt and suspicion
of the Presbyterians by having changed his
principles, for he was before the time of the
Restoration, their warm supporter and leader,
but accepted the highest office in the new Epis-
copal establishment in the reign of Charles IT.
In the year 1688, a preacher, of the name of
Mitchell, fired a pistol into the archbishopâ€™s
coach, but missed his aim, and escaped in the
confusionj The affair was hushed up, but
sometime after the archbishop, on one occasion,
observed a man whose face was imprinted on
his memory, who proved to be Mitchell. He was
seized and put to the most frightful tortures, and
then sent to the Bass Rock prison, in the Frith
of Forth, where after four years imprisonment
he was executed. Another and successful at-
tempt was soon afterwards made on the unpopular
archbishop. .A band of murderers followed his
128 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
carriage on horseback, and although the old
man came out of the coach and entreated for
mercy, he was cruelly pierced with the sword.
This act brought much scandal on the Pres-
byterians; although Sharpe had been a cruel
persecuting man, there could be no excuse for
attacking him, when defenceless, in so cruel and
cowardly a manner, and the increased severity
with which the Covenanters were afterwards
treated, may somewhat be accounted for although
â€˜I do not know of anything else likely to
interest you in the county of Banff. I ought,
however, to mention the river Spey, which is
noted for thÃ© extreme rapidity of its stream.
The province of Morayshire comprehends the
already named county of Banff, as well as that
of Elgin. Exner is bounded on the north by
the Murray Frith; on the east by Banff; and
on the south and south-west by Inverness.
Elgin, the capital, is a fine old-fashioned city,
on a level piece of ground, within a few miles
of the sea. The remains of the cathedral form
the principal object of interest. This cathedral
was rebuilt after a fire in 1890, and the height
ELGIN. : 129
of the spire was 198 feet. After the Reforma-
tion, the Sheriff of Aberdeen had orders from
government to take the lead off the cathedral
churches of Aberdeen and Elgin, and to sell it
for the maintenance of Regent Murrayâ€™s soldiers.
The ship had scarcely left Aberdeen harbour,
with its cargo for Holland, when it sunk.
There is a very useful free school established
at Elgin for children, with a provision for the
clothing and maintenance of such whose parents
are very poor. Major Andrew Anderson, a native
of Elgin, established it,
His history is a singular one. His mother was
a poor widow who lived in a small apartment
amongst the ruins of the cathedral, surrounded
by gravÃ©s. Here Anderson. spent his child-
hood; he was, perhaps, the most wretched and
despised boy in the town. His good conduct
and exertions, however, raised him to affluence,
he made his fortune in foreign countries, and the
remembrance of his early sufferings, in poverty,
inspired: him with the benevolent desire to give his
fellow-townspeople the advantages of education.
Forres is a neat, clean town, consisting of one
long, straight street. It was near this spot that
180 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
the three witches are said to have met Macbeth,
and put into his head the ambitious design of
becoming King of Scotland.
I may as well in this place give you a little
more detailed account of witchcraft, and the
influence it had with all classes of society in
Scotland a century or two ago, than I was able
to do in the former part of this chapter. The
Bible, you know, refers to the existence of
witches; and most European nations have, during
the darker periods of their history, retained in
their statutes, laws founded on the text in Exodus,
â€œThou shalt not suffer a witch to liveâ€? Even
after the Reformation the Church believed in
their existence, and enforced heavy penalties on
all whom they believed to be witches, wizards,
or the like. It has been remarked by a learned
writer, that since God has ceased to manifest
his power by direct suspension of the laws of
nature, it is inconsistent to believe that evil
spirits should be: left at liberty, in the present
day, to form a league with wretched mortals,
and to impart to them supernatural powers of
injuring or tormenting others. In the seven-
teenth century, however, belief in witchcraft
was general, especially in Scotland, and James
the VI, wrote a treatise against it, for the cre-
dulity of the people led to great evils. Impostors
of both sexes were found, who practised dreadful
deceptions by pretending to have intercourse
with supernatural powers, and furnished those
who consulted them with potions for the purpose
of revenging themselves on their enemies. Most
of those who suffered death for witchcraft, how-
ever, were poor old lone women; cross, perhaps,
or envious, who sometimes in one of their bad
moods would desire or express a desire for their
neighbourâ€™s injury. If a child fell sick, or a horse
lame, or a cow died, or any misfortune happened
in the family against which ill-will had been
thus expressed ; woe to the poor witch, so called.
She was brought to trial and charges were made
against her. The crossness of her temper, her
habit of speaking to herself, or any other oddity
in which she might indulge, were received as
evidence, and.she rarely escaped being burnt to
death. The lastexecution for witchcraft took place
in Sutherland, in 1727. The laws against witch-
craft are now abolished, and it is very rare to
hear of it, even amongst the vulgar and ignorant.
Nairnâ€”James the Firstâ€™s description of the townâ€”Cawdor Castleâ€”Story
of Simonâ€”Lord Lovyat.
The Great Caledonian Canalâ€”Battle of Cullodenâ€”Defeat of the Pre-
tenderâ€”Cruelty of the victorsâ€”Fortsâ€”Ben Nevis.
NarrnsHirE is bounded on the north by the
Firth of Moray; on the east and north-east by
Elgin: and on the south and west by Inverness-
Its capital, Nairn, is a small, ill paved town,
although improved within the last few years;
Gaelic was formerly spoken at one end of the
town, and Lowland Scotch or English at the
other. James I, of England, once astonished
some of his new English courtiers, who were
joking him about the insignificant country of
his birth, by saying, â€œGentlemen, I can tell
ye though, that I have a town in Scotland, that
of Nairn, which is sae big that twa different
NAIRNSHIRE. ; 133
tongues are spoken in it, and the natives at the
ae end canna understand what is spoken by the
natives of the other.
At Cawdor Castle is a curiously contrived
secret. chamber, where the noted Simon, Lord
Lovat, hid in the insurrection of 1745. Lord
Lovat, who was affronted with the government
for some of their proceedings against him, was
one of those who invited Prince Charles Edward
over to Scotland, in order to regain possession
of his dominions. He was a mean and con-
temptible character however, thoroughly selfish,
and quite incapable of any sincere regard to
the Pretender or any one else.- He was very
undecided in his conduct and deficient in all
principle. Lord Lovat was twice married. His
second wife he treated with terrible cruelty, and
without provocation shut up the poor lady in
a turret of his castle, neither allowing her food
nor clothes suitable to her situation. It is said
that a friend of hers went to Castle Downie, to
see if the report she had heard of her lot were
true. She did not give Lovat any warning of
her intention, and he was obliged, therefore, to
let her see his wife. Accordingly he went to
134 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
her lonely prison chamber and announced the
arrival of her friend. â€œAs it is my pleasure,
madam,â€ he said, â€œ that you receive your visitor
in the character of a contented, affectionate wife,
be pleased to dress yourself and come down
with the free air of the mistress of the mansion,
happy in her husbandâ€™s affections. It will become
you to beware how you. give the least hint of
discord between you and me; for secret eyes
will be wpon you.â€ In this manner the poor
lady met her friend, who, although she had no
opportunity of speaking to her in private, saw
quite enough to convince her of her wretched-
ness; and when she left the castle implored
Lady Lovatâ€™s family to liberate her, and soon
afterwards she was freed from her long and cruel
confinement, and obtained a separation from her
He was beheaded at the Tower for his part
in the rebellion. He was very old at the time
of his death, and shewed no signs of fear or
regret. There is an old adage, that â€œit is easier
to die well than to live well,â€™ but there are
Scripture words still more to the purpose, that
â€œ the wicked have no bands in their death.â€
CROMARTY. : 185
I have not any thing interesting to tell you
of the county of Nairn, and we will therefore
proceed to that of Cromarry, a very small
county, which seems as though it ought to be
included in Ross, by which county it is bounded
on the south, and by the Cromarty Frith on
The capital, Cromarty, is one of the prettiest
towns in Scotland; it lies on a promontory jutting
out between the Cromarty and Moray Friths,
and the ground is slightly elevated. The common
people are very industrious and fully employed
in herring fisheries. It has a capital harbour
capable of admitting vessels of 400 tons.
- Weare now come to consider that part of Scot-
land usually called the North Highlands, which
in a general sense comprehends the counties of
Inverness, Ross, Sutherland, and Caithness; all
that vast tract lying beyond the Caledonian
canal, which you may see marked on the map.
The county of Invernzss is bounded on the
north by Ross; on the south by Argyle and
Perth ; on the east by Nairn, Elgin, and Banff;
and on the west by Skye and the Atlantic
186 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
The Great Caledonian Glen, which stretches
upwards of 50 miles, is almost entirely occupied
by a chain of beautiful lakes. Its eastern ex-
tremity opens at the passage at the river Ness
into the Moray Firth, and on the west it com-
municates with the ocean, by a long inlet of sea,
called Linnhe Loch. The long chain of lakes
which occupy the Great Glen, suggested the
idea of opening one grand passage through this
part of the country, between the German Ocean
on the east and the Atlantic on the west, in
order to obviate the danger of sailing round the
entire north of Scotland. It was also imagined
that as the depth of the lakes was uniform, the
expense of making this canal would not be very
great. Government granted twenty thousand
pounds for the purpose, but the work cost more
than a million of money. The length of this
eanal or artificial river is sixty miles and a half,
of which more than thirty-seven pass through
Loch Ness, Loch Oich, and Loch Lochie. It
begins at Clachnacary, near Inverness, and ends
at Corpach, near Fort William. This great un-
dertaking after twenty yearsâ€™ labour was opened.
from sea to sea, in the year 1822. The canal,
INVERNESS. * 187
where artificial, is one hundred and twenty feet
wide at the surface, and twenty feet in depth,
and is capable of passing a thirty-two gun frigate,
or any of the largest of the ships which sail
from the Baltic, from sea to sea. The extreme
depth of Loch Ness, one of the largest fresh
water lakes, is one hundred and thirty-five
fathoms, and it has never been known to freeze.
The town of Inverness stands on the river
Ness. It is a large well built town, and is
considered the capital of the North Highlands.
It is a place of great antiquity. In 1816 an
earthquake which extended over the greater
part of Scotland, was severely felt in Inverness.
The shock was preceded by a great rumbling
noise, bells rung, birds were knocked from their
perches, and much damage was done to many
buildings. The imhabitants were terrified, and
many hurried. to the fields, where they remained
till evening. The married women of the lower
ranks in this town walk the streets without
bonnets, and the single women without even
caps. There was in 1819 only one mail coach,
established between Inverness and Thurso.
When a great man once. entered the town in a
1388 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
carriage, before this period, the simple people
made low bows to the coachman, actually be-
lieving him to be the most important person in
The object.of the greatest interest in the
vicinity of Inverness, is a steep rugged hill, called
Craig Phadric, one thousand one hundred and
fifty feet above the river Ness. It lies nearly
a mile west of the town, and commands a
beautiful view. Craig Phadric is noted for the
remains of one of those fortifications common
in the north and west of Scotland and which
from the appearance of the stones, have received
the name of Vitrified Fort. Vitrification comes
from a Latin word signifying glass, and these
stones or flints appear of a glassy nature. These
forts are supposed to have been the work of the
very early inhabitants of Scotland.
Culloden in this county is noted for the defeat
of Prince Charles Edward, the Pretender. His
triumph at Preston encouraged him to go to
England, but he was soon obliged to retreat.
A curious incident is told as having occurred
during this march, which will show you how
ignorant in the seventeenth century, were the
English of their northern neighbours. A poor
woman at Carlisle actually hid up her children,
and confessed to one of the soldiers, that she, in
common with many of her neighbours, believed
that Highlanders were cannibals, and particu-
larly loved the flesh of young children.
After several contests the two armies drew
up on Culloden Moor. The Government army
was commanded by the Duke of Cumberland,
son of George II. The defeat of the Pretender
was total. Many accounts are given of the ex-
treme cruelty of the Duke of Cumberland after
battle, but it is very likely they are exaggerated
by his enemies. The Duke had learned war in
Germany, where the severest infliction upon the
enemy was never withheld, if necessary, or sup-
posed necessary, either to obtain an advantage
or to preserve one when gained: Even the day
after the battle, when the first excitement was
passed, parties of wounded men were dragged
from the thickets and huts in which they had
found refuge, and cruelly fired upon, or coolly
knocked on the head by the soldiers with thick
muskets. The conquering army lost one thou-
sand men. One thousand men! You read it
140 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
carelessly, perhaps; but stop a moment and
consider. One thousand men, out of whom
one trembles to think how few were preparedâ€”
one thousand men hurried to. eternity by the
dreadful heartless, cruel, desolating scourge of
war. And yet in this our nineteenth century it
is not uncommon to hear war excused, nay, even
extolled. Boys are wont to read of battles in
history with all the interest that they would
feel in an exciting cricket match; and, in fancy,
stand upon the battle field, caring little for the
wounded or the dying around, if but their
favourite side win the day. There is no glory in
battle, children; it cannot be too often sounded
in your ears.. There is no glory in war. Look
at Culloden. It is not an extreme case.
After the battle the prisoners were sent to
the Tolbooth, or jail, at Inverness; allowed but
a scanty portion of meal for food; and after a
season of confinement they were put into a vessel
and sent to London, to be dealt with according
to the pleasure of government. In one vessel
one hundred and fifty-seven half-starved, half-
clad, creatures were crowded ; they were kept at
sea nearly eight months, and out of one hundred
INVERKESS. / 141
and fifty-seven, but forty-nine lived to land.
Of Charlesâ€™ escape and melancholy end, I will
tell you in another place.
Fort George stands on a peninsular running
into the Moray Frith; it was begun in 1747,
and cost more than Â£160,000. There are many
wild and beautiful scenes in Invernessshire-
The fall of Foyers is well worth seeing ; the poet
Burns, when standing by this fall, described it
â€œ Among the heathy hills and ragged woods,
The roaring Foyers pours his mossy floods,
Till full he dashes on the rocky mounds,
Where through a shapeless breach his stream resounds ;
Prone down the rock the whitening sheet descends,
And viewless Echoâ€™s ear astonished rends.â€â€™
In the rocks adjoining the falls are many
curious caverns. Near Fort William is the
beautiful mountain of Ben Nevis, which is no
less than four thousand three hundred and eighty
feet in height,.and part of it is composed of
porphyry, or red granite; the ascent is not very
easy, but the views are considered sufficiently
fine to repay the traveller for his toil. At the
summit, and towards the north-east side, of the
mountain is a tremendous precipice, and snow
142 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
lies there throughout the year. You may on a
clear day, and that it must be confessed by
mountain climbers is not a very common event,
see across the whole island, from the German
to the Atlantic ocean. The chain of lakes, the
lofty mountains, and the scattered islands, may,
if fogs clear away and the day be fine, be seen
distinetly. And now we must leave Inverness-
shire, after but a fait description of its great
and many beauties.
Dornochâ€”An Old Cathedralâ€”Once a Bishopric.
Story of the family of Groatâ€”Origin of John Oâ€™Groatâ€™s houseâ€”Orkney
Islands â€” Manufacture of Kelp â€” Otters â€” Guillemots â€” Shetland
â€™ Islandsâ€”Simplicity of the Inhabitantsâ€”Shetland Ponies.
Tue county of Ross is bounded on the north
by Sutherland; on the South by Inverness; onâ€™
the east by Moray and Dornoch Friths; and
on the west by the great Minch. :
This is a mountainous county stretching from
sea to sea. Dingwall, its capital, is a neat town,
but Tain is the chief town of the county. It is
said that James IV, who lost his life at Flodden,
once made a pilgrimage to Tain to expiate some
offence. There are the ruins of a very ancient
church here. Ben Wyvis, a lofty mountain
whose top is covered with snow, is worth notice,
but there is little of interest connected with
these northern counties.
144 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
SurHERLAND is bounded on the south by
Ross; on the north-east by Caithness ; on the
west by the great Minch; and on the north by
the Atlantic Ocean.
It is a large square county.â€™ At its north-
western extremity is Cape Wrath, a very singular
and gigantic headland. The hills in Sutherland
are mostly dark and bleak, but here and there
are some lovely vales. Dornoch, the county
town of Sutherlandshire, was once a bishopric.
It has now fallen into decay and is but a poor
village. Its old cathedral is used as a parish
â€˜church, and the palace as a county jail. It
stands on a low sandy beach, half sand, half moor,
and carries on some trade in fishing. Dornoch
was one of the earliest settlements in Scotland.
And now we are come to Carruness, the
most northerly of Scotlandâ€™s thirty-three coun-
ties, bounded on the north by the Atlantic; on
the south and east by the German Ocean; and
on the west by Sutherlandshire.
Caithness is generally a level county, but
destitute of trees; its appearance, therefore,
is not pleasing. Wick, the county town, is
irregularly built and stands low, upon a river of
CAITHNESS. â€˜ 145
the same name. It is greatly improved within
the last few years by the number of trees that
have been planted. The northern part is called
John oâ€™Groatâ€™s house.
The tale of John oâ€™Groat I will tell you. For .
its truth Iâ€™ cannot vouch, but I think it is not
wise to discard all legends, as there is usually
some foundation for such stories, and some truth â€”
at the bottom of a heap of fiction. A lowlander
of the name of Groat once arrived at Caithness
bearmg a letter of recommendation to the gen-
tlemen of the county from king James IV, with
a request to some lairds, or land owners, to
grant this Mr. Groat and his brother some land.
They obtained land, settled, married, and became
founders of families.
One night when the Groats had become a
numerous race there was a grand family party ;
on what occasion I forget, but it might be
Christmas. Unfortunately a quarrel arose as
to who should have the privilege of heading
the table and occupying that seat, considered in
Scotland the most honourable, next to the door.
High words began, and fighting was threatened,
when John, a person of some importance and
146 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
owner of the ferry to Orkney, rose, and, having
with difficulty stilled the tumult by those soft
words which usually turn away wrath, promised
at the next meeting to settle the point peaceably
and to the satisfaction of all parties. Accordingly
he set to work and erected on the extreme point
of land an octagonal or eight-sided building,
corresponding to. the eight branches of the
family, having a door and window at each side,
each division being furnished with a table of
precisely the same shape; and when the next
family gathering took place, he introduced his
guests into the new building, desirimg each of
his relatives to enter at his own door, and take
his seat at his own table. Thus the whole affair
tumed into a joke, and this is the commonly
received story of John oâ€™Groatâ€™s house; the
ruins of which are still to be seen at the extreme
point of Caithness, the most northerly county
To the north of Caithness lie several islands
which are reckoned amongst the thirty-three
counties of Scotland as one county. The
Orkneys, that cluster which is nearest to
Scotland, consist of a number of small islands
THE ORKNEY ISLES. 147
surrounding one much larger, called Pomona,
the capital of which, Kirkwall, has about two
thousand two hundred inhabitants, and its
ancient cathedral is well worth seeing. It is
the only cathedral with the exception of that
at Glasgow, which survived the Reformation
A large fair is held yearly at Kirkwall, which
used to last twenty days. The Orkney isles
export a great deal of kelp, and there is
much cod, ling, and other fish, caught by the
The situation of these northern islands is
such that fuel is of course very scarce, and the
sea is made to compensate for this deficiency by
providing immense quantities of a weed, called,
in Scotland, tangle. The common English name
is sea girdle, or sea hanger. The scientific
name is Jaminaria digitata, so called because
the frond is curiously divided into an unequal
number of strap-shaped segments, somewhat
resembling digits or fingers. This weed is very
useful as manure, but especially so as fuel.
When young the tender stalks of the frond are
cried about the streets of Edinburgh as an
148 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
article of food. Dulse, too, another sea-plant,
has been very useful in. time of scarcity, and.
formed a principal part of the food of the poor
Highlanders during a dreadful famine.
I told you that the Orkney Isles exported a
great deal of kelp. I will tell you what kelp is.
It is manufactured from seaweed. â€˜All the larger
fuci, (a class of marine plants,) are employed for
the purpose, but some are more productive than
others. The crop is collected in summer, when
most of the weeds have attained their full growth.
Like hay they are dried as rapidly as possible,
collected in heaps, and at the end of the season
burnt; this is done by placing them in pits
along the sea-shore, when they are set on fire
till they are reduced to dark hard cakes, and im
that state called kelp and exported; it is very
useful as manure. When the manufacture of
kelp was first introduced into Scotland, the
country people opposed it, dreading the smoke
which they said would arise from the kilns
where the weed was burnt. The smell they all
declared would sicken, or kill, all the fish, or
drive them far beyond the fishermanâ€™s reach ;
but the value of this manufacture to the poor
. THE ORKNEY ISLES. 149
islanders is great, and their fears and prejudices
have proved groundless.
Seals and otters are to be seen about the
coasts of the Orkneys, and both seal and otter
hunting is a favourite diversion of the Scotch.
As I have described the seal in a former little
volume which I wrote on Ireland, and think it
likely you may have read it, I will give a page
to that curious creature the otter.
The otter belongs to the Mustela tribe, and
is a kind of water weasel; it is distinguished
by a peculiarly broad, flat, head; the lips are
large and fleshy, furnished with strong whiskers,
which evidently communicate feeling; the ears
are small and close to the skull; â€˜and the eyes
are provided with a membrane as a defence to
the surface. Its tail is long, very stout, and
muscular. In swimming and diving it uses
this long tail as a rudder. Its fur is close,
short, and_ fine, consisting of a thick woolly
under-coat, and an upper layer of smooth glossy
hairs. It dwells in hollows or caverns, and is
an amphibious animal, going out to sea to fish,
or entering mouths of rivers, where it makes sad
havoc among the salmon; so much so, that in
1506 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
some places a price is set upon its head. The
otter goes out to hunt for its prey by night.
In the day time it hides in some deep recess.
Its movements im the water are very elegant.
When fish is scarce the otter will feed on rats
or frogs. It has even been known to go far
inland, and to attack lambs, poultry, and suck-
ing pigs. When the female wants to obtain
fish for her young she will sometimes go five,
six, or even ten miles in a night. The otter
may be tamed, but it is capable of inflicting
a very severe bite, and it does not look a very
pleasant or amiable animal. There are otters
in the Zoological Gardens in London, which T
recommend you to observe if you have an
opportunity of going there.
The variety of aquatic birds which frequent
these islands is very interesting. There is a
curious bird called by naturalists the Foolish
Guillemot, or Uria Troile, which abound in the
Orkneys. It obtains its name from suffering
itself to be taken rather than quit the single
egg over which it broods. They are migratory
in their habits, and in winter time immense
flocks pass along the coasts of Norway, France,
THE ORKNEY ISLES. Lt
England, and Holland. - They cover the ledges
of the rocks, ranged in crowded rows, each
female sitting quite upright upon her solitary
egg, which she lays on the bare rock. They sit
a whole month. In the autumn the guillemots
leave the rock, and betake themselves entirely
to the ocean, when the old bird moults or
changes its feathers. The flocks now gradually
pass southward, and following the shoals of
fishes which leave our coast, they at length
reach the Mediterranean and the coast of Sicily,
where they feed on little fish, called anchovies
In summer the plumage of the guillemot is
black about the head and neck, but the new
plumage white, and in spring it becomes black,
clouded. with ash colour.
The black guillemot, another species, breeds
abundantly both in the Orkney and Shetland
Isles, but is little known in the southern parts
of the kingdom.
- The Suerianp Istus, which were formerly
attached to the Danish. kingdom, are very
numerous. The principal are Yell, Unst,
Bressa, and the largest, called Mainland.
152 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
Shetland is about sixty miles long. The
chief town is Lerwick. These Shetlanders, cut
off as they are from all communication with
others, one would suppose were very sociable
amongst themselves, but this seems to be by no
means the case. They know very little about
There are no trees, and the general aspect is
dreary enough, but the Shetlanders live happy
simple lives. There are not, as you may suppose,
many shops, and it is not an uncommon thing
for a shopkeeper, if he wants a holiday, to shut
up his shop at noon, and go out on a summer
They are famous for a small breed of ponies.
The Shetland pony is often handsome, but
the shoulders are low and thick; the limbs
however are well made, and the strength of the
animal, in proportion to its size, is very great.
It is a sure-footed, useful little animal, and of
great value amongst the Highland mountains.
It would. surprise you to see how surely and
carefully the little Shetlander ascends difficult
and stony paths, or crosses the rocky beds of the
THE SHEELAND ISLES. 1538
The wool of the Shetland sheep is very
beautiful. The Shetlanders are said to pass a
great deal of time in sleep. They suffer much
from poverty, and in time of scarcity the want
of food is severely felt by these poor islanders.
Skye â€” Uistâ€” Benbeculaâ€”Story of Flora Macdonaldâ€”Eseape of the
Pretenderâ€”His disappointmentâ€”The close of his Life.
Mineralsâ€”Its mountains, &c.â€”Staffaâ€”Iona.
Story of the Duke of Rothsayâ€”St. Kildaâ€”Lady Grange.
Tue Hesripes or Western Istes amount to
nearly three hundred, of which eighty-six are
inhabited. In habits, language, dress, and cus-
toms, they are not to be distinguished from the
Highlanders of the main land. These islands
were at one time independent, and governed by
their own princes until the ninth century, when
the Danes and Norwegians invaded and con-
quered them. They then gradually became the
haunts of pirates, as the robbers of the sea are
called. In the thirteenth century the Hebrides
were nominally yielded to the Scottish King,
THE HEBRIDES. 155
but still in reality governed by powerful chief-
tains, who were very unwilling to submit to, or
acknowledge, higher authority. These chiefs
and their descendants are known in history as
the lords of the isles.
Several of these islands are interesting, as
having afforded shelter to the Pretender, whose
story I promised to finish. When last we left
him it was after the battle of Culloden, and
from this time the account of his life among
these islands might almost make a tale of itself.
After the total defeat of Culloden he and a few
companions fled from the field. They had to
encounter a dreadful storm before landing at
Long Island, from which place he hoped to
escape by a friendâ€™s ship. You must look for
this island on the map. " â€œ His palace that night
was a cowhouse, without a door; his couch of
state was a dirty sail cloth and straw, and his
banquet oatmeal and a portion of a boiled cow.â€
Benbecula, another of the western isles, and
South Uist, were by turns his retreat, where he
make known his arrival to Clanranald, a chief,
and a friend of his cause. When Clanranald
went to pay his respects to the young prince,
156 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
he found him in a wretched hovel, little better
than a pigsty, his face haggard and his clothes
dirty and torn.
At Glencoridale, in South Uist, after various
dangers, he spent a few weeks in comparative
comfort. Every lurking place, however, was
carefully sought, and there was no rest for
the poor wanderer. General Campbell, in the
employ of the government, at length landed at
South Uist, and poor Charles was then in the
utmost danger, on which occasion he owed his
preservation to a young lady of the name of
Flora Macdonald. The home of this lady was
at Skye, but she was, at the very time of
the Pretenderâ€™s need, at South Uist, on a. visit
to her brother, and, fortunately for Charles,
intimate with the Clanranalds, who, as I told
you, favoured his cause. Her step-father was
an enemy to the prince, and as he had the com-
mand of the soldiers then stationed at South
Vist, to get Charles away was rather a difficult
matter.. She therefore obtained a disguise for
him, and dressing him in a flowered cotton gown,
a light-coloured quilted petticoat, a white apron,
and a dun camlet, made after the Irish fashion,
THE HEBRIDES. . 157
resolved that he should personate an Irish girl
who she was going to take to the service of
some friend of hers in Skye. Thus disguised
she obtained from her father a passport for
herself and the pretended Betty Burke, with a
man servant who accompanied them. During
their wandermgs they excited great curiosity ;
the servant, who did not know the secret, said
to Flora one day, â€œ What long strides that jade
takes, I dare say sheâ€™s an Irish woman, or may
be a man dressed up in womanâ€™s clothes.â€ . In
crossing a stream Charles once held his petticoats
so high that Flora told him he would certainly
be discovered if he were not more careful, so
the next time he let them float in the water,
and this did no better. â€˜ Your enemies,â€ said
one of his friends who joined them, â€œcall you
the Pretender ; all I can say is, that you are the
worst I ever saw at your trade.â€
After many dangers and narrow escapes they
reached Kilbride in the Isle of Skye; but
they were now in the country of Alexander
Macdonald, the princeâ€™s.enemy; and you will
say that Flora ran some risk, when I tell you
that she actually took the disguised prince into
158 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
Macdonaldâ€™s house. He was absent, indeed,
but the house was full of watchful, armed militia,
and Flora had no alternative but to trust the
secret to his wife, Lady Margaret Macdonald,
who, although alarmed, did not betray him.
He was then put under the guidance of
another person, and shortly afterwards Flora
herself fell into the hands of the soldiers. She
was taken to London and kept in a kind of
honourable imprisonment until the act of indem-
nity was passed, in 1747, when this courageous
girl returned to Scotland. She was very much
courted after her liberation, but flattery never
spoiled her. She was modest and unaffected,
never appearing to think that she had done
any thing but an act of common humanity.
She married in Scotland and went to reside in
America, but returned to her native island and
died at Skye at the age of seventy. She was
buried in one of the sheets that Charles slept in
on one of his visits during his wanderings in
the Hebrides, so romantic was her attachment
through life to the Stuart family. â€”
And now we must close the story of Charles.
After five monthsâ€™ hardships and dangers, skulk-
THE HEBRIDES. 159
ing about the seas, the islands, and finally the
mountains of the western islands, he received
intelligence that two French frigates had arrived
at Loch-na-Nuagh, a bay in the county of
Inverness, which were ready to convey him and
others of his party to France. The parting
with the old companions of his adventures was
very touching; many shed tears. He arrived
safely in France, but quite failed in persuading
King Louis to. help him to renew his attempts
at recovering his kingdom. He quarrelled with
his father and brother also, who tried to dis-
suade him from the attempt, and at last he was
banished from France. It is related that he
came over to London privately, and had a secret
interview with one or two of the Jacobite party,
but nothing encouraging transpired, and he
returned a disappointed man.
The last years of his life were wretched. | As
a young man, whilst hope was high in his heart,
and be was occupied in endeavouring to secureâ€™
the darling object of his life, there appeared
some good and amiable features in his character.
He was, undoubtedly, very dear to many of the
Highlanders. When first he entered on his
160 - STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
campaign in Scotland, he would walk by the side
of some old Highland chief, talking familiarly
with him on things that he knew would interest
him; would listen with untiring attention to
long details of his ancestors, family affairs, songs
and legends, and so did he win on the affections
of those simple people, that many years after-
wards his fellow-adventurers could not speak
of him without a sigh or a tear. After his
banishment from France and the death of all
his hopes, he fell into very bad habits. He had,
during his Highland wanderings, contracted
a taste for drinking, and this grew upon him.
Disappointment had soured his temper, and he
made his wife; Louisa Princess Stolberg, so
unhappy that she retired to a convent.
Some gleams of love of his country, and of
romantic and ardent attachment to the High-
lands are mentioned amidst the dark closing
years of his life. Mr. Greathead, a friend of the
celebrated statesman Fox, succeeded in obtaining
an interview with Prince Charies, who then
resided at Rome, and he led the conversation
to the failure of his enterprise years before.
At first Charles. seemed reluctant to speak of
THE HEBRIDES. 161
it, but after a time he shook off his wonted
dulness, and the poor old man grew bright as
he narrated all his wanderings, his campaigns,
and finally his escapes from the Hebrides; but
suddenly the tide of recollection grew too strong,
his eye glazed, and he fell in convulsions on the
floor... The noise brought in his daughter, who
said to Mr. Greathead, â€œ Sir, what is this? no
one dares to mention these subjects to my
father. You-have been talking of Scotland and
the Highlands.â€ He died at Florence, in 1798,
of palsy, and was buried at Frescati. We have
only noticed the Hebrides as connected with
the history of the Pretender, but they possess
The island of Mull is of considerable extent,
â€˜and is very much intersected with arms of the
sea. It is hilly and even mountainous.
The mineralogy of this island is very inter-
esting; a great part of it hes upon a bed of
greenstone or whinstone, and in a great many
places the rocks are of basalt. Limestone is
also abundant, and coals have been found in
differentâ€™ parts. There are rocks of a rare
mineral, called white lava. Pebbles of great
162 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
variety and beauty are found upon the sea-
shore, and there are some curious caves in the
The mountain called Ben More, near the
head of Lock-na-Keal, is supposed to rise three
thousand feet above the level of the sea, and
commands a view of nearly the whole of the
Hebrides. There are numerous herds of deer,
with large coveys of grouse, black-cock, and
The island of St. Kilda was a place of con-
finement for the unfortunate Lady Grange.
Lord and Lady Grange had lived happily
together for some years, and had had several
children, when, in 1730, they determined to
separate. Of course it is difficult to determine
who was really in fault, and very likely, as is the
case with quarrels generally, there were faults
on both sides. However this may have been,
they separated, Lord Grange agreeing to give
his wife one hundred pounds a-year if she kept
away from him. After spending some time in
the country she came to Edinburgh, that she
might sometimes see her children, and tried to
imduce him to take her back. According to
THE HEBRIDES. 163
Lord Grange, she used to follow him and tor-
ment him by calling after him in the street and
even at church. It appears, however, that her
threats to expose some, treasonable practices of
Lord Grange, frightened him, for she was once
actually on her way to London for that purpose.
â€œ What,â€ said he, â€œwas a man to do with such
awife?â€ I will tell you what hedid. He laid'a
plan with some Highland chiefs, amongst whom
was the noted Lord Lovat, to seize her at her
lodgings, gag her, and carry her off as though
she had been dead. After being imprisoned in
different places she was conveyed to the lonely
island of St. Kilda. There she must have led a
desolate life imdeed, for the few inhabitants
there were could only speak Gaelic. -No books,
no intelligence from the world, reached her.
In this manner seven dreary years passed at
St. Kilda. She often made efforts to bribe the
islanders to rescue- her. Once a stray vessel
sent a boat ashore for water. She no sooner
heard of it than she sent the ministerâ€™s wife to
apprize the sailors of her situation, but Mrs.
Maclennan did not reach the spot in time. â€˜She
was kind to the poor people, often giving them
164 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
of her stores, but her temper and habits did not
gain their esteem. She often drank too much,
and whenever any one near her made any mis-
take, she flew into a violent passion.
At last Mrs. Maclennan, who left the island,
communicated the secret of her confinement to
her friends. A vessel was sent to liberate her,
but did not succeed in arriving at the island.
And. shortly after she died in her place of im~
prisonment. This circumstance shews us how
barbarous, even at that time, were the habits
of the Scottish gentry. Lady Grange died as
late as 1785. Now-a-days she would have
been kindly and humanely treated, and placed in
temporary confinement, where her ungovernable
temper would have been treated as a mental
defect, and every means used to restore her to
reason and liberty.
About eight miles from Mull is the island of
Staffa. It is about two miles in circumference,
bounded by cliffs and broken into numerous
recesses and promontories. The Clamshell cave,
so called from its supposed resemblance to a
shell of that description, is very remarkable.
The magnificent columns which form the
THE HEBRIDES. 165
principal objects of interest in Staffa, com-
mence here upon the left of the entrance, and
over-hanging it, they extend from forty to fifty
feet without a joint, and are so bent as to form
a series of ribs not unlike the timbers of a ship.
On the other side, the broken ends of columns
look like a honey-comb; but by far the most
singular of the caverns is that which is known
by the name of Fingalâ€™s cave. The original
Gaelic name is Uaimh Binn, the musical cave,
a name derived from the echo of the waves.
The entrance to the cave is about sixty-six feet
high, and the full wonders and beauties of this
curious place can only be seen by entering it in
a boat. The roof is in some places formed of
rock, and in others of the broken ends of pillars;
from the crevices stalactites appear, and the
variety of tints reflected on these, cause a mar-
vellous and beautiful effect. As the sea never
entirely leaves the cave, the only floor is the
lovely green water.
The island of Staffa lies in the same longitude
as the celebrated Giantâ€™s causeway on the north
eoast of Ireland, and it is thought probable
that the curious basaltic formation is contiued
166 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
underneath the sea from one to the other. Its
name Staffa is Norwegian, and derived from
Staf or Stave, its pillars having been supposed to
resemble staves. The diameter of the columns
varies from two to four feet.
- The island of Iona or Icolmkill lies south-west
of Staffa, at a distance of nine miles, Both
Tona and Staffa lie in the great bay called
Loch-na-Keal, which, as you may observe on
ov the map, almost divides the island of Mull.
The common name is Iona, which signifies island
of waves. Before Christianity was imtroduced,
there is said to have been a druidical estab-
lishment on the island; and a green eminence
still retains the name of the Druidsâ€™ Burial
In 565 St. Columba landed here from Ireland,
to preach Christianity to the Picts, who made
him a grant of the whole island. Here he
founded an order of monks, who differed in
some particulars from the Romish church.
Columba died in the seventy-seventh: year of
his age. The religious establishment flourished
for more than two centuries, but. in 807 the
Danes invaded Iona, killed most of the monks,
THE HEBRIDES. 167
and compelled the others, with Collach their
abbot, to take flight.
The cathedral is said to have been rebuilt by
Queen Margaret about the end of the eleventh
century. The high altar of white marble which
stood at the head of the chancel, has been
removed. piece-meal, from a superstitious notion
that a fragment of it was a sure protection
against shipwrecks or other calamities. . The
remains of the cloisters and the college are very
interesting. It was the usual cemetery of the
ancient Scottish Kings. This is the ground
alluded to by Shakespeare in his tragedy of
Macbeth, which I have already mentioned to
you. The lines to which I refer, in speaking
of King Duncanâ€™s body, are these,
â€œ Carried to Colmes-kill; a
The sacred storehouse of his predecessors,
And guardian of their bones.â€
Here are the remains of forty-eight Scotch, four
Irish, eight Norwegian, and one French King,
and near the royal tombs repose many lords
of the isles. At the monastery of Iona were
deposited the old Scottish-records.
168 ' STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
The island is about three miles long, and con-
tains some inhabitants. A place of worship has
been erected. In the middle of the island there
are some slight hills, but it is generally flat.
The hills produce fine pasture. It abounds in
valuable minerals, particularly a beautiful kind
of mineral called the green serpentine. In the
bay of Port-na-Curaich, where Columba first
landed, are some very curious green pebbles, and
many rare plants are found in different parts.
The county of Bure comprises the three
islands, Bute, Arran, and Cumbray. Bute is a
healthy, pleasant place, and its climate is much
milder than that of many parts of Scotland.
The old castle of Rothsay was a favorite
residence of Robert III, who made: his eldest
son Duke of Rothsay, a title since borne by the
heir to the British crown. King Robert III
was a peaceful, religious man, but not firm, and
easily imposed upon, particularly by his brother,
the Duke of Albany. â€˜This Prince, the next
heir to the crown, continually made mischief
between the Duke and his father, and at last
persuaded the King to consign the young man
to his care. The history of that time is imper
THE HEBRIDES. 169
fect, and I am not sure what charges were made
against the Duke, but he was imprisoned in
Falkland castle, in Fife, belonging to Albany.
When in that gloomy place he was shut up in
a dungeon, and deprived of food. It is said
that one woman, who heard his groans, con-
veyed a few barley cakes to the captive, but she
was discovered, and the unhappy prince was
actually allowed to starve to death, in the month
of March, 1402. There is no evidence that the
poor old king suspected the foul play which his
son received; he did not live very long after,
but, died broken hearted.
The island of Arran, celebrated for its moun-
tains and glens, of which Goat Fell is the
highest, has some very picturesque scenery, and
part of it is well farmed. I do not think that
any of the other islands belonging to Scotland
are worthy of particular notice.
We have now finished our account of Scotland,
its thirty-three counties, and adjacent islands.
It has been difficult to resist many interesting
subjects, which would have swelled the little
volume to an undesirable size; but if the few
sketches we have given should induce you to
look deeper into the history of the country, it
will have answered the end for which it was
written. The Scotch character is, like that of
the Irish, variously dealt with. You will hear
some persons abuse the Scotch, call them a
crafty, double minded, over-reaching nation, and
so forth, Now bear in mind that of all preju-
dices national prejudices are the most foolish.
Burns has said :-â€” .
â€œ Oh if some power the gift would gie us,
To see ourselves as others see us,â€™â€™
CONCLUDING CHAPTER. : 171
and certainly our self-conceit would be wonder-
fully humbled, and our national conceit be
brought equally low if we had that power. The
Scotch do not view us as perfect. And it is
worth while sometimes to see what foreigners
say of us.
_ Dr. Carus, a physician in the train of the King
of Saxony, who travelled through England and
Scotland in 1844, speaks of the English as pos-
sessing plenty of pedantry and unconcealed and
cofispicuous egotism. He says, moreover, that
we have never owned one great historical painter,
sculptor, or musician. Of some things in the
great city of London, of which we, and especially
Londoners, are so proud, this same Carus says,
â€œSt. Paulâ€™s is one of the most tasteless collections
of columns, vaulted roofs, eaves, and statues,
that encumbers the earth; Westminster Abbey
is great, but not imposing, and the design of the
New Houses of Parliament irrational. In the
exhibition of paintings, he complains that he had
to read in the catalogue all he did not see in the
pictures; and of our musical taste he says, â€œthe
English are prone to mistake mere noise for
music,â€ &. So you see how we strike strangers.
172 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
Kohl, the author of some interesting books
of travel, speaks of a conversation with a
Scotchman on the pay of schoolmasters. He
asked Kohl what a schoolmaster was paid in
Germany. â€œIt varies,â€ replied Kohl; â€œsome
have a hundred, some a hundred and fifty, but
many no more than fifty dollars.â€ â€œHow
many dollars go to a pound?â€ he asked.
â€œSeven dollars go to a pound,â€ said Kohl.
â€œWhat!â€ replied his fellow-traveller, starting
up, â€œdo you mean to say they pay a school-
master only seven pounds a-year? I know no
one who gets less than forty to fifty pounds in
all Scotland, but the average is seventy or
eighty pounds, and many go as high as a
hundred and fifty pounds.â€ This will show
you that the â€˜Scotch value education,â€”some
proof surely of intelligence and good sense.
Scotland is a beautiful country, but it is sad
to reflect how, amidst the loveliest of natureâ€™s
scenes, poverty darkens the fairest picture.
How suffering and starvation oppress those
whose eyes behold, day by day, some of the
noblest of the Creatorâ€™s works. Within a few
miles of Dunkeld, in the lovely county of
CONCLUDING CHAPTER. 178
Perthshire, there is a wretched group of huts,
worse than which are scarcely to be met with
even amidst the wildest mountain scenery, and
fay in the Highlands the misery of the inhabit-
ants is not surpassed by that of the poor Irish.
The love of drink is, alas, a great snare to the
Scotch. In Glasgow, the amount of spirituous
liquors consumed is enormous. And this habit
has a very evil influence on the poorer classes.
The Scotch are generally industrious and thriv-
ing; they are great gardeners, are active in
their habits, and a strong muscular people.
They ascribe much of this to their national food
of oatmeal, which forms a large portion of the
diet of the peasantry. It is made into thin
cakes, and some persons are very fond of it, but
it is a taste that has usually to be acquired.
Old differences and feuds are now healed,
and there is little more to distinguish the Scotch
from the English than the variety of dialect
and some few habits. A Cornish man is not
exactly like a Yorkshire man; neither is an
inhabitant of Scotland like an Englishman in
all respects, but there is less and less jealousy
and more and more friendly and brotherly feel-
174 STORIES OF SCOTLAND.
ing between the two countries, united under one
government. Civilization and increased facilities
for travelling bring us nearer together, and as -
we see more of one another we shall be disposed
both to feel and to be brotherly and charitable
to the defects which we each possess; and to
rejoice like those of one family in the good and
prosperity which each enjoys.
AEBOTSFORD. SEE PAGE 27,
J. FLETCHER, NORWICH.
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Essay on Love to God,
Considered as a preparation for Heaven. Eighth edition.
Price 1s. 6d. cloth.
Tour in Ireland.
Report addressed to the Marquis Wellesley, Tord
Lieutenant of Ireland, by Elizabeth Fry an "Joseph:
John Gurney, respecting their late Visit to that country,
1828. Price 2s. 6d.
Brief Memoir of J. J. Gurney.
By Jonn ALEXANDER, Minister of Princeâ€™s Street
Chapel, Norwich. With Portrait. Price 1s,
Memoirs of Joseph John Gurney ;
with Selections from his Journal and Correspondence.
Edited by Josrpu Brvan Brarruwairs. Second
edition. In 2 vols. post 8vo. cloth. Price 12s.
Texts for Every Day in the Year ;
Principally Devotional and Practical. Selected by
Euizaberyu Fry. Cloth 6d., roan tuck 1s.
Publishes by J. Hletcher, Porivich.
Stories about Birds, by Mrs. Fairfield.
Square 16mo., elegantly boarded. Price. 2s. 6d.
*,* This charming liitle book, under the assumed name of
Mrs. Fairfield, is by Miss Brightwell, the author of
â€œâ€œ Life of Mrs. Opie,â€™â€™ ge.
â€œMiss Brightwell is aiready favorably known in connexion
with natural history of an elementary character, she having
written the â€˜Life of Linneus,â€™ and two volumes about birds,
published by the Tract Society. Those to whom the last-
named works are familiar will be prepared to find the present
addition to our elementary ornithological knowledge accept-
able and pleasing, and they will not be disappointed.â€
The Preacher from the Press.
Sermons to Explain and to Recommend the Gospel of
Jesus Christ. By Joun ALEXANDER, Minister of
Princeâ€™s Street Chapel, Norwich. 2 vols. cloth. Price 6s.
Memoir of the Rev. Wm. Alexander,
by his Son, Jouw ALEXANDER, Minister of Princeâ€™s
Street Chapel, Norwich. Feap. 8vo. Cloth, 2s. 6d.
Seaman's and Fishermanâ€™s Friendly
Visitor. Published on the first of every month, price 1d.
The New Series of this Magazine was commenced Jan., 1858.
Fletcher's Farm Labour Book.
Fletcher's Farm Ledger.
Price 3s. 6d.
Spelmanâ€™s Farmerâ€™s Account Book.
Ditto, for Small Farms.
Price 2s. 6d.
These are the most concise methods of Farm Book-keeping
extant, and may be had commencing the week either Monday
Publishes by 3. Hletcher, Norwich.
Seripture Geographical Exercises.
Scriptural Exercises on the Geography of the Gospels;
calculated to impress on the Mind the situation of the
aps Places recorded in the Gospels, and the leading
vents of our Saviourâ€™s Ministry. By the Right Rev.
Epwaxp STan.ey, D.D,, late Lord Bishop of Norwich.
With a Map. Price 6d.
The Truth and Excellence of the
CuRistTiIaN REVELATION DEMoNnsTRATED, in Two
Addresses, intended principally for the Young and the -
Unlearned. By W. Youneaman, Author of The Life of
Alexander Cruden, &c., &e. Third Edition. Price 6d.
paper covers, 1s. cloth.
Selected from Various Authors, for the Use of Young
Persons. By Prisctzta Guanzey. Ninth edition.
82mo. Price Is. 6d. cloth.
By James Cooper, of Norwich, with a recommendatory
Preface by the Rev. John Angell James, of Birmingham.
12mo. Price 4s. 6d.
+ Â« Â« Â» â€œtiga thoroughly savoury bookâ€”very much,
we think, some such a book as might have been looked for
from the late Mr. Cecil, John Newton, Mr. Jay, or Mr. James
himself. We have not fora long time met with anything
more interesting and refreshing. It will be read throughout
with unflagging interest, and, when completed, it is probable
many a reader will soon commence its perusal again.â€
NORWICH GOSPEL TRACTS.
No. 1. Apvicz to toe Dusror. Price 6d. per doz.
No. 2. Tue Roraway Stave. Price 6d. per doz.
No. 3. Tue Crucrriup Tauren. Price 6d. per doz.
No. 4. How ro pz Savep. Price 2d.
No. 5. Tue Gosprn or tue Passover. Price 1d.
No. 6. Farrag. Price 6d. per doz.
Publishes by J, Hletcher, Norkwich.
Sizth thousand, elegantly boarded, price 2s. 6d.
ALL ABOUT IT:
HISTORY & MYSTERY OF COMMON THINGS,
â€œAn admirable little book, full of careful and interesting
instruction, sct forth in the best possible manner; that is to
say, simply, comprchensively, and with the aid of a complete
â€˜A great deal of information is here given on the history
and uses of natural and artificial productions; and the work
would be a good occasional reading book for families and
â€œThe style possesses the invaluable recommendation of
simplicity and clearness, and the matter has been judiciously
selected and arranged.â€ â€”Morning Post.
â€œ Amongst books of this class a very high place is due to
the volume before us, which is a sort of encyclopedia, reveal-
ing a mass of knowledge where nothing was supposed to be
hid. Foods, clothing, paper, metals, medicine, fermented
liquors minerals, geology,â€”all unite in demanding attention
and richly recompensing it.â€™â€™â€”-British Standard.
â€˜A considerable amount of information is compressed
within a small compass, the explanatory matter being neat in
style and conscientiously compiled.â€™â€™â€”Atheneum,
â€˜It gives simple information on a great many useful things,
and no child can read it without gaining a great deal of manu-
facturing knowledge.â€â€™â€” Journal of Education.
â€˜â€˜ Here we have a thoroughly well-digested account of things
we eat, drink, and use, (physic not exciuded) forming a very
sensible epitome of household necessaries and making a good
table book.â€â€”Yuthsâ€™ Magazine. "
â€œJt would be easier to say what this book is mot about than
what it Ã©s, for its range is wide and discursive, and the sub-
jects treated almost innumerable.â€™â€™â€”WNorfolk Chronicle.
â€œThe work is fall of information of the most useful kind,
is written in a very pleasing style, and cannot fail to become
a great favourite, whether used as a schoo) book, a present to
a child, or a boo of reference for home use.â€?â€” Bookselle-.
â€œIts contents are admirably selected and arranged. The
contents of many volumes are here compressed into one.â€â€”
PRINTED BY FLETCHER AND ALEXANDER.
A Hook for ebery Family ans School.
Fifth thousand, just issued, cloth gilt, 2s. 6d.
AIL about it:
OR THE 7
HISTORY & MYSTERY OF COMMON THINGS.
ecg on |
â€œThis is a valuable encyclopzdia for old and young.â€
~â€”Eelectic Review. : |
â€œThe knowledge of common things is here imparted |
in a catechetical form, and people who are troubled
with inquisitive children, will do well to buy the |
book.â€™ â€”Literary Gazette. !
â€œThe topics are well selected, and are accurately |
and sufficiently treated; so that as a class-book for |
schools or for home tuition, it may be safely recom.
mended.â€™ â€”CritÃ©e. â€˜
Stripture Lessons for my Infant Class.
Illustrated. Cloth extra. Price 1s. 6d. i
AA AA ARAL AA RAL AR AR IAAL
STORIES ABOUT BIRDS,
By Mrs. Farrrizip. Coloured. Illustrations.
16mo. cloth, elegant. Price 2s. 6d.
*,* This charming little book, under the assumed name of
Mrs. Fairfield, is by Miss Brightwell, the author of |
â€œLife of Mrs. Opie,â€ Â§&e.
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The element type "div" must be terminated by the matching end-tag "