Citation
Every child's history of England

Material Information

Title:
Every child's history of England from the earliest period to the present time
Portion of title:
History of England
Creator:
Corner ( Julia ), 1798-1875
Clapp, S ( Illustrator, Engraver )
Dean & Son
Place of Publication:
London (11 Ludgate Hill)
Publisher:
Dean & Son
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1860
Language:
English
Physical Description:
162, [6] p., [1] leaf of plates (folded) : col. map ; 15 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
History -- Juvenile literature -- Great Britain ( lcsh )
Kings and rulers -- Juvenile literature -- Great Britain ( lcsh )
Gold stamped cloth (Binding) -- 1860 ( local )
Hand-colored illustrations -- 1860 ( local )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1860 ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1860
Genre:
Gold stamped cloth (Binding) ( local )
Hand-colored illustrations ( local )
Publishers' catalogues ( rbgenr )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
"1s. sewed; or 1s. 6d. bound, with map"--T.p.
General Note:
Approximate date established from Brown, P. London publishers and printers c.1800-1870.
General Note:
Wood engraving: folding frontispiece map of England and Wales; drawn and engraved by S. Clapp.
General Note:
Frontispiece is partially hand-colored.
General Note:
Publisher's catalogue follows text and on endpapers.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Miss Corner.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
AAA8262 ( LTQF )
ALG0150 ( NOTIS )
32361081 ( OCLC )
026536675 ( AlephBibNum )

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EVERY CHILD'S

HISTORY OF ENGLAND;

FROM THE
EARLIEST PERIOD TO THE

PRESENT TIME.

BY MISS CORNER,

AUTHOR OF THE FIRST HISTORY OF ENGLAND
THAT SHOULD BE PLACED IN THE HANDS OF A CHILD,-

PLAY GRAMMAR,—HISTORY OF GREECE,—ROME,—FRANCE,—SPAIN AND
PORTUGAL,—TURKEY AND THE HOLY LAND,—ENGLAND,~-IRELANS}~
AND SCOTLAND,—NORWAY, DENMARK, AND SWEDEN,—
HOLLAND AND BELGIUM,—ITALY,—&e. &c.

LONDON:
DEAN & SON, 11, LUDGATE HILIE.

=

ls. sewed, or, 1s. 6d. bound, with Map.






PREFACE.

I wave endeavoured to write a pleasing and
instructive History of England for little Chil-
dren, adapted to their capacities, and not
burthened with details that are unimportant
for them to know.

This little work, therefore, treats briefly, but
accurately, of the reigns of the sovereigns of
the country; and its purpose is to present to
the young reader a clear and correct picture of
the conquests and revolutions that have taken
place in this Island at different periods, and the
progress of freedom, knowledge, and industry,

among its people.



A PREFACE,

History for Children ought to be told in
their own simple language, or it fails to interest.
them; while all that is unfitted for childish
ears, or unsuited to a childish understanding,
should be carefully omitted; at the same time,
it is essential to avoid making false or imperfect
impressions, by an injudicious brevity.

I have allotted a distinct period for the
subject of every chapter, and have arranged
a series of Questions at the end of each, to
render my History useful, as a School-book,

for the junior Classes.

SULIA Connex.



EVERY CHILD’S
HISTORY OF ENGLAND.

THE ANCIENT BRITONS.

Wovuxtp you not lke to read about your own
country, and to know what sort of people lived
in it a long while ago, and whether they were
any thing like us? Indeed, they were not; nei-
ther was England, in ancient times, such as it
is now. There were no great cities, no fine
buildings, no pleasant gardens, parks, or nice
roads to go from one place to another; but the
people lived in caves, or in the woods, in clus-
ters of huts, which they called towns.

The country was not then called England,
but Britain; and its mbhabitants were called
Britons. They were divided into many tnibes ;
and each tribe had a king or chief, like the
North American Indians; and these chiefs often
went to war with one another. Some of the
tribes lived like savages, for they had no
elothes but skins, and did not know how to cul-
tivate the land: so they had no bread, but got
food to eat by hunting animals in the forests,

B



6 EVERY CHILD’S

fishing in the rivers, and some of them vy
keeping herds of small hardy cattle, and gather-
ing wild roots and acorns, which they roasted
and eat.

But all the Britons were not equally uncivi-
hised, for those who dwelt on the south coasts of
the island, had learned many useful things from
the Gauls, a people then living in the country
now called France, who used to come over to
trade with them, and with many families of
Gauls who had at various times settled amongst
them. They grew corn, brewed ale, made
butter and cheese, and a coarse woollen cloth
for their clothing. And they knew how to dye
the wool of several colours, for they wore plaid
trowsers and tunics, and dark coloured woollen
mantles, in shape like a large open shawl.

Perhaps you would like to know what they
had to sell to the Gauls; so I will tell
you. Britain was famous for large dogs; and
there was plenty of tin; and the South Britons
sold also corn and cattle, and the prisoners
which had been taken in war, who were bought
for slaves; and you will be sorry to hear that
many of the ancient Britons sold their children
ito slavery.

They carried these goods in carts, drawn by
oxen, to the coast of Hampshire, then crossed
over to the Isle of Wight, in light boats, made of
wicker, and covered with hides or skins, in shape
something like half a walnut shell. The mer-
chants from Gaul met them in the Isle of



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 7

Wight; and as they brought different kinds of
merchandise to dispose of, they managed their
business almost entirely without money, by ex-
changing one thing for another.

The Britons were very clever in making things
of wicker work, in the form of baskets, shields,
coated with hides, boats, and chariots, with flat
wooden wheels. These chariots were used in
war, and sharp scythes were fixed to the axles of
the wheels, which made ternble havoc when
driven through a body of enemies. But I shall
not say much about the wars of the ancient
Britons, or their mode of fighting; as there
are many things far moye pleasant to read of,
and more useful to know.

At that time, which is about one thousand nine
hundred years ago, the country was almost co-
vered with forests; and when the people wanted
to build a town, they cleared a space for it by
cutting down the trees, and then built a number
of round huts of branches and clay, with high
pointed roofs, like an extinguisher, covered with
rushes or reeds. This was called a town; and
around it they made a bank of earth, and a
fence of the trees they had felled; outside the
fence, they also dug a ditch, to protect them-
selves and their cattle from the sudden attacks
of hostile tribes.

As to furniture, a few stools or blocks of wood
to sit upon, some wooden bowls and wicker
baskets to hold their food, with a few jars
and pans of coarse earthenware, were all



8 EVERY CHILD’S

the things they used; for they slept on the
ground on skins, spread upon dried leaves, and
fern, or heath. Their bows and arrows, shields,

«Spears, and other weapons, were hung round
the insides of their huts.

The Britons were not quite ignorant of the art
of working in metals; for there was a class of
men living among them who understood many
useful arts, and were learned too, for those times,
although they did not communicate their learning
to the rest of the people. These men were the
Druids or priests, who had much more authori-
ty than the chiefs, because they were so much
cleyerer, therefore the people minded what they
said. They made all the laws, and held courts
of justice in the open air, when they must have
made a very venerable appearance, seated in a
sircle on stones, dressed in long white woollen’
robes, with wands in their hands, and long
geards descending below their girdles. The ig-
norant people believed they were magicians, for
they knew something of astronomy, and of the
medicinal qualities of plants and herbs, with
which they made medicines to give to the sick,
who always thought they were cured by magic.

Some of the Druids were bards, that is poets,
and musicians; others taught young men to
become Druids; and some of them made a great
many useful things out of the metals that were
found in the mines. You will perhaps wonder
where the Druids gained all their knowledge. I
cannot tell you; but many learned men think



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 9

that the first Druids came from India or Persia,
as the religion they taught was very similar to
that of the Persians and Hindoos. They did
not believe in the true God, but told the people °
there were many gods, and that they were in
trees, and rivers, and fire, which they worshipped
for that reason.

They had no churches, but made temples, by
forming circles of large stones, of such immense
size, that nobody can guess how they were
carried to the places where they stood, for there
are some of them still remaining. They used
to hold several religious festivals in the course
of the year, when all the people made holiday,
and the Bards played on their harps and sang,
and there was plenty of feasting, and merry
making; and they used to light bonfires, and
make an illumination by running about with
torches in their hands, for they believed that a
display of fire was pleasing to their gods; and
so you see that our custom of having fireworks,
and illuminations, and bonfires, on days of public
rejoicing, is as old as the time of the ancient
Britons. |

The Druids had a great deal to do on those
days; for they used to go to their temples and
say prayers, and sacrifice animals for offerings to
their false gods; and on New Year’s Day, they
walked in procession to some old oak tree to cut
the mistletoe that grew upon it, for this was one
of their religious ceremonies; and the oldest
Druid went up into the tree to cut the plant,

BOS



10 EVERY CHILD’S

while the rest stood below singing sacred songs,
and holding their robes to catch the boughs as
they fell; and crowds of men and women stood
round to see them.

But I must make an end of this chapter
about the ancient Britons, and tell you how the
Romans came and conquered the country, and
made quite a different place of it.

QUESTIONS.

What was England called in ancient times ?

How did the Britons resemble the American Indians ?
Describe the tribes that were most civilized ?

What were the habits of the more Southern tribes ?
With whom did they trade, and in what commodities ?
How and where was their trade carried on?

For what manufacture were the Britons famous ?
How did they build a town?

Describe the furniture of their habitations.

Who were the Druids?

Tell me what you know about them.

Mention the different employments of the Druids.
Where is it supposed the first Druids came from ?
Describe their temples.

THE ROMANS IN BRITAIN.

THe Romans, about the time of the Birth of
Christ, were the richest, the most powerful, and
the cleverest people in the world. Rome was a
grand city, and there were many other fine cities



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. ll

in Italy belonging to the Romans, who knew
how to build handsome houses, and make beau-
tiful gardens, besides being excellent farmers.
They had elegant furniture, and pictures, and
marble statues; and they were well educated,
and wrote a great number of books in Latin,
for that was their language, and many of those
books are used in our schools to this day.

They had large armies, and had conquered a
great many countries, when Julius Cesar, a
great Roman General, brought an army to
Britain, about fifty years before the birth of our
Saviour, to try to conquer the Britons also; but
thousands of British warriors went down to the
sea shore, by Dover cliffs, to fight the Romans
as soon as they landed; and they took a great
many war chariots with them, and fought so
bravely, that after two or three battles, Cesar
offered to make peace with them, and go away,
if their princes would pay tribute to the Roman
government; which they consented todo. How-
ever, the Romans thought no more about Britain
for nearly a hundred years, when they came
again, and went to war in earnest with the na-
tives, who at length were obliged to submit to
them; and Britain became a part of the Roman
Empire, just as India is at this time a part of
the British Empire.

Now this was a good thing for the Britons,
although they did not then think so; for as soon
as they left off fighting, the Romans began to
teach them all they knew, and to make a much



12 EVERY CHILD’S

better place of Britain than it had ever been
before.

As soon as a part of the country was con-
quered, some great man was sent from Rome to
govern it, and to make the people obey the Ro-
man laws. Then other great men came to live
here, and brought their families and furniture
and plate from Rome; and built fine houses, and
planted gardens, with flowers and fruit trees,
and vegetables, that were never seen here before,
for they brought the roots and seeds and young
trees with them.

At first, the Roman Governors made the
Britons pay very heavy taxes; not in money, for
they had none; but they were obliged to give a
part of their cattle, and corn, and metals, or
any thing else that they had; and to work with
the Roman soldiers at building, making roads,
draining the watery lands, and cutting down
trees, to make room for houses and gardens.
They did not hke this, and one of the tribes,
named the Iceni, who lived in that part of Britain
which is now called Norfolk and Suffolk, deter-
mined to make another effort to drive the Ro-
mans out of the country.

You will be surprised to hear that they were
headed by a woman; but there were queens
among the Britons as well as kings; and the
king of the Iceni being dead, his widow Boadi-
cea governed in his stead. She encouraged her
people to rebel against their new rulers, and led
them to battle herself, mounted in a chariot, and



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 13

armed like a warrior; but the Romans won the
battle, and the brave but unfortunate queen put
an end to her own life. After this, there was
another long war, which lasted till all the South
British tribes were subdued, and the Roman
government established all over the country,
except the north part of Scotland.

It was lucky for the Britons that a very good
Roman, named Agricola, was made governor
about this time, for he behaved so kindly that
they began to like the Romans, and to wish to
live as they did, and to know how to do al
the clever things they could do.

I should tell you that all the Roman soldiers,
were educated as engineers and builders, survey-
ors, and cultivators of land, and when not
actually engaged in fighting, they were employed
daily for four hours in some such out-of-door
labour or occupation; so, when the war was
over, they were set to work to improve the
country, and the Britons had to help them.
They made good hard broad roads, paved with
stones firmly cemented together, and set up
mile stones upon them.

The Romans had built London during the
war, and given it the name of Augusta, but the
houses were almost all barracks for the soldiers
and their families, so that it was not nearly so
handsome as York and Bath, and many other
cities that they built in place of the old British
towns. The Britons, who had never seen any
thing better than their own clay huts, must



14 ° EVERY CHILD’S

have been quite astonished at the fine houses
constructed by the Romans; who also built, in
every city, temples, theatres, and public baths,
with large rooms for people to meet in, like a
coffee house. Then, in each town, was a market
place for people to buy and sell goods, and the
Romans taught the Britons generally to use
money, which was more convenient than taking
things in exchange.

The Romans were excellent farmers, as I said
before; so they shewed the natives how to ma-
nage their land better than they had done, and
how to make many useful implements of hus-
bandry. By cutting down the forest trees, which
they used in building, they obtamed more land
for cultivation, and grew so much corn that there
was more than enough for the people in Britain,
so that a great deal was sent every year to the
Roman colonies in Germany. By degrees, the
Britons left off their old habits, and those above
the lowest rank wore the Roman dress, spoke the
Roman language, and adopted the manners and
customs of their conquerors, who treated them
as friends and equals.

There were schools opened in all the towns,
where British and Roman boys were instructed
together, and the former were all brought up to
serve in the Roman armies; for there were no
more wars among the British princes; who held
the same rank as before, but paid tribute
to the Roman Governor, and were under his au-
thority, as many of the princes of India are



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Ld

now under the authority of the English Governor
General, in India.

The Britons had to pay a great many taxes,
but they likewise enjoyed many rights, for the
Roman laws were much better laws than those
of the Druids, which were made for barbarians,
and not for civilized people, such as the Britons
had now become.

You will, perhaps, wonder what the Druids
were about all this time. The Romans did not
approve of their religion, so they put an end to
it very soon after they came here; but what be-
came of the Druids, is not exactly known. It
is supposed that many of them were killed by
the Romans in the isle of Anglesea, where the
chief Druid always resided; and that the rest
fled to Scotland, or the Isle of Man. The
Romans, however, were themselves heathens,
when they first settled in Britain, and worship-
ped a number of false gods; but their gods were
different from those of the Druids, and the
rites and ceremonies of their religion, were
different too. But, im course of time, many of
the Romans became Christians, and Christianity
was taught in Brita, where the heathen tem-
ples were converted into Christian churches,
and the Britons, as well as the Romans, at length
learned to worship the one true God.

The Romans had kept possession of Britain
for more than three hundred years, when it
happened that great armies of barbarians went
to fight against Rome, and all the soldiers were



16 EVERY CHILD’S

sent for, to try to drive them away again; so
that this country: was left unprotected, for it
was the Roman soldiers who had kept enemies
from coming here. The Britons hoped they
would come back again, as they did more than
once; but affairs got worse and worse at Rome,
so the rulers there sent word to the British
princes, that they did not wish to keep the island
any longer, therefore the Britons might con-
sider themselves a free people. But was free-
dom a blessing to them? I think we shall find
it was not.

QUESTIONS.

By whom was Britain first invaded ?

How did this invasion terminate ?

When did the Romans again appear ?

What was their success ?

Was this conquest a good or bad thing for the Britons,
and why ?

What occasioned the revolt of the Iceni ?

Who headed the insurrection, and what were its
consequences ?

Who was Agricola ?

How were the Roman soldiers em ployed i in time of peace?

Tell me of the improvements made in Britain by the
Romans?

What became of the Druids ?

When and why did the Romans leave Britain”



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 17

THE SAXON HEPTARCHY.

Tr is now time to tell you something about the
Picts and Scots. They were the people of Scot-
land, and were called by the Romans Caledoni-
ans, which meant men of the woods, because
they were very rude and fierce, and lived among
woods and wilds. They had always been sad
enemies to the Britons; but the Romans had
kept them away, and the good governor Agricola
built a row of strong forts, all across their coun-
try, and placed soldiers in them, to make tha
Caledonians keep on the other side. However,
they sometimes managed to break through; so
the Emperor Severus, who was here from the
year 207 to 21], had a stone wall built across
that narrow part, where Northumberland joins
Cumberland, and it was so strong, that parts of
the banks and forts are still remaining.

But when all the Roman soldiers were gone,
the Picts and Scots began to come again, and
robbed the people of their corn and cattle, and
stole .neiwr children for slaves, and did a great
deal of mischief. Now, if the British princes
had agreed among themselves, and jomed toge-
ther, to drive out these terrible foes, things might
have gone on very well; but they were foolish
enough to quarrel, and go to war with one ano-
ther; while some of the captains, who wanted to
be princes, got a number of soldiers to heip
them, and took possession of different places,

Cc



i8 EVERY CHILD’S

where they called themselves kings, and made the
people obey them. They did not continue the
good Roman laws; nor elect magistrates to keep
order in the cities. as used to be done while
the Romans were here; and tillage was neglect-
ed, because the farmers were afraid their crops
would be destroyed, so that numbers of people
died of famine.

There were still many Romans in Britain, who
were not soldiers, but were settled here, most of
them having married into British families; and
there were a great number of people who were
Britons by birth, but whose axcestors had been
Romans; and all these were desirous that the
country should still be governed by the Roman
laws, and formed what was called, the Roman
varty. But there was a British party also, that
wanted to do away with the Roman laws alto-
gether, and not to let the Romans have any
thing to do with ruling the country; so each of
these parties elected a king. The Britons chose
a prince named Vortigern; and the Romans
chose one called Aurelius Ambrosius; and
there was war between them.

Then Vortigern, the British kmg, thought it
‘would be a good thing to get some other brave
peopie tojoin his party, that he might be able to
overcome his rival, as well as to drive away the
Picts and Scots; so he proposed to some of the
British chiefs that they should ask the Saxons to
come and help them, and they thought it would
be a good plan.



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 19

The Saxons inhabited the north of Germany,
and parts of Holland and Denmark, which were
then poor and barren countries. Many of their
chiefs were pirates, that is, they hved by going
out on the seas to fight and plunder; nor did they
think it wicked so to do; but, on the contrary,
imagined it was brave and noble.

Two of them, Hengist and Horsa, happened
to be eruising near the British coast, when they
received a message from Vortigern; who made a
bargain with them, and offered to give them the
little island of Thanet, if they would come with
all their men, to assist him in driving out the
Picts and Scots. Thanet is that part of Kent
where Margate is now situated, but was then se-
parated by an arm of the sea, so that it wasa
small island, standing alone, nearly a mile from
the coast. The Saxons were very ready to come,
for they knew that Britain was a pleasant, fertile
country, and hoped to get some of it for them-
selves; but they did not let the Britons know
they thought of doing so.

Hengist and Horsa were very brave, and their
men were well armed, so they soon forced the
Picts and Scots to retreat to their own country;
and shortly afterwards they went to the Isle of
Thanet, which they fortified, and many more
Saxons came there to them. I cannot tell you
how the affairs of the Britons went on, or what
became of Vortigern; but this I can tell -you,
that the Saxons soon began to quarrel with the
people of Kent, and fought with them, and



20 EVERY CHILD’S

having driven most of them away, took the
land for themselves, and began to live there.
The chief who made this conquest, was Esca,
the son of Hengist, who called himself king
of Kent, which, from that time, was a small
Saxon kingdom, for the Britons never won it
back again.

Then other chiefs, hearing how Esca had suc-
ceeded, got together bands of soldiers, and landed
in different parts of the country, to try to gain
kingdoms also; but they did not all come at
once, and their conquests were made by such
slow degrees, that the wars lasted more than 150
years; so you may guess how hard the Britons
fought in defence of their liberty.

We can learn but very little about those un-
happy times, for the few histories that were then
written were mostly destroyed in these long wars;
and though songs were composed by the bards or
poets, which the people used to learn and teach to
their children, these songs were not all true.
They were mostly about the wars, and the brave
British chiefs who defended the country against
the Saxons; and if you should ever hear any
body speak of king Arthur, and the knights of
the Round Table, you may remember that he is
said to have been one of those chiefs; and, if we
may believe the tale, killed four hundred Saxons
with his own hand im one battle. Those who
made the story about him, say that the nobles
of his court were all so equal m bravery and
goodness, that he had a large round table made



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. OT

for them to feast at, that no one might sit above
another; so they were called knights of the Round
Table. But let us return to our history.

The Saxons went on making one conquest
after another, till, at last, they were 1m posses-
sion of the whole country; where very few of
the natives were left, for most of those who had
not been killed m the wars, had fled into Gaul,
or taken refuge among the Welsh mountains; so
from this time we shall hear no more of the
Britons, but must look upon the Saxons as the
people of England.

I told you how Esca had established the little
kingdom of Kent. Well, in the course of the
wars, six more kingdoms had been formed in the
same manner, by different Saxon chiefs, so that,
by the time the conquest was completed, there
were seven kingdoms in Britain, namely, Kent,
Sussex, Essex, and East Anglia, Northumbria,
Wessex, and Mercia; and this division of the
country among seven kings, was called the Saxon
Heptarchy.

The Saxons were not clever people, hke the
Romans, but were rough and ignorant, and
cared for nothing but fighting; so while the
wars were going on, they ruined and destroyed
all the beautiful and useful works that had been
done in the Roman times; for they did not un-
derstand their value, and only thought it was a
fine thing to destrov all that belonged to their
enemies. But the warks of the Romans were
very strong; for even now, when workmen are



22 EVERY CHILD’S

digging in London, and different parts of the
country, they sometimes find Roman walls, and
pavements, and foundations of houses, that show
what good architects the Romans were.

When the Saxons had got possession of the
whole country, you may perhaps suppose they
would be quiet and contented, but this was not
the case; for as long as there were separate king-
doms, they were continually at war with each
other, and the principal cause of disagreement
was, that, among the kings, there was always
one called the Bretwalda, or ruler of Britain,
who had some degree of authority over the rest;
but as any one of them might be raised to this
dignity, it was a constant source of quarrels
and warfare, until, at length, the weaker king-
doms were overcome by the more powerful ones,
and there was but one king over the whole coun-
try, which then took the name of Angleland or
England, from a particular tribe of people call-
ed the Angles, who came here in great numbers
with the Saxons.

I dare say you did not know before how
Britain came to be called England; and you
would be very much amused to hear how many
of the places in it, came by their present names.
We will take for example Norfolk and Suffolk,
which, with Cambridge, formed the kingdom of
East Anglia, and was conquered by the Angles.
Now these Angles consisted of two tribes, who
divided their conquest between them, one tribe
settling in the north part, the other in the south;



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 25

so that they were called North folk, and South
folk, and thus came the names of the two coun-
ties.

QUESTIONS.

Who were the Caledonians ?

How did they molest the Britons ?

What was the state of the country at this time ?

What was the Roman party ?

What was the British party ?

Who was Vortigern, and what did he do?

Who was Ambrosius ?

Tell me something about the Saxons.

Who were Hengist and Horsa, and how did they assist
the Britons?

What did the Saxons do after this ?

How long did it take the Saxons to conquer Britain ?

What was the Heptarchy ?

How was the country changed by the wars ?

How was the Heptarchy destroyed ?

MANNERS OF THE SAXONS.

I am now going to tell you what sort of peo-
ple the Saxons were, and how they lived after
they were quite settled in England; for you
ought to know all about them, as they were our
own ancestors, and made a great many of our
laws; and their language was English too, al-
though it has been so much altered that you
would hardly know it for the same.



D4, EVERY CHILD’S

The Saxons were not Christians when they first
came here; but thei religion was different
from that of both the Druids and heathen Ro-
mans; for they worshipped great images of
stone or wood, that they made themselves, and
called gods; and from the names of their gods
and goddesses, our names of the days of the
week are derived. At length, the bishop of
Rome, who was called the Pope, sent some
good men to persuade the Saxons to leave off
praying to wooden idols, and to worship the
true God.

These missionaries first went to Ethelbert,
king of Kent, who was then Bretwalda, and rea-
soned with him, so that he saw how wrong he
had been, and not only became a Christian him-
self, but let the missionaries go and preach
among the people, who were baptized in great.
numbers, and taught to believe in God and
Jesus Christ.

The missionaries were all priests or monks;
and some of them lived together in great houses
called monasteries, which they built upon lands
given them by the kings and nobles, on which
they also raised corn, and fed sheep and cattle.
They had brought from Rome the knowledge of
many useful arts, which they taught to the
people, who thus learned to be smiths and car-
penters, and to make a variety of things out of
metal, wood, and leather, which the Saxons did
not know how to make before. Then the priests
could read and write, which was more than the



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Q¥*®

nobles, or even the kings could do; and they used
to write books, and ornament the pages with
beautiful borders, and miniature paintings; and
the books, thus adorned, are called illuminated
manuscripts.

Still the Saxons, or English, as I shall hence-
forth call them, were very rough and ignorant as
compared with the Romans. Their churches
and houses, and even the palaces of the kings,
were rude wooden buildings, and the cottages
of the poor people were no better than the huts
of the ancient Britons. The common people
were almost all employed in cultivating the
land, and lived in villages on the different
estates to which they belonged; for the Saxon
landlords were not only the owners of the.
land, but of the people also; who were not:
at liberty, as they are now, to go where they
pleased ; neither could they buy land for them-
selves, nor have any property but what their
lords chose. I will tell you how it was.

The Saxon lords had divided all the land
amongst themselves, and had brought from
their own countries thousands of ceorls, or
poor people, dependent on them, to be their
labourers. Each family of ceorls was allowed
to have a cottage, with a few acres of land,
and to let their cattle or sheep graze on the
commons, for which, instead of paying rent,
they worked a certain number of days in each
year for their lord, and, besides, gave him a
stated portion of those things their little farms



26 EVERY CHILD’S

produced; so that whenever they killed a pig,
they carried some of it to the great house; and
the same with their fowls, eggs, honey, milk
and butter; and thus the chief’s family was well
supplied with provisions by his tenants, some
of whom took care of his sheep and herds,
cultivated his fields, and got in his harvests.
Then there were always some among them
who had learned useful trades, and thus they
did all the kinds of work their masters wanted.
Yet, with all this, the poor ceorls generally had
enough for themselves, and some to spare,
which they sold at the markets, and thus were
able to save a little money.

Their cottages were round huts, made of the
rough branches of trees, coated with clay, and
thatched with straw. They had neither windows
nor chimneys; but a hole was made in the roof
to let out the smoke from the wood fire, kindled
on a hearth in the middle of the room; and
they used to bake their barley-cakes, which
served them for bread, on these hearths, without
any oven. They made a coarse kind of cloth
for clothing from the wool of their sheep, a part
of which was also given to their lord, and was
used to clothe the servants of his household,
for the rich people got a finer cloth for them-
selves, which was brought from other countries.

Great men usually wore white cloth tunics
that reached to the knee, with broad coloured
borders, and belts round the waist. They had
short cloaks, linen drawers and black leather



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 27

shoes, with coloured bands crossed on their legs,
instead of stockings. The common people wore
tunics of coarse dark cloth, and shoes, but no
covering on the legs.

But I must tell you something more about
these country folks, who, at that time, formed
the great mass of the Enghsh population.
They were, strictly speaking, in bondage, for
they could not leave the place where they were
born, nor the master they belonged to, unless he
gave them their freedom; they were obliged to
serve as soldiers in war time, and when the
land was transferred to a new lord, the people
were transferred with it. All they had might
at any time be taken from them, and their sons
and daughters could not marry, without the
consent of their lord.

Yet these people considered themselves free,
because they could not be sold like the slaves ;
for I ought to tell you there was a lower class
of bondmen, called thralls, and there were
regular slave markets where they were bought
and sold. A landowner could sell a thrall just
as he could sell an ox; but he could not sell 2
vassal tenant, or, as they were called in the
Saxon times, a ceorl, or churl, without the
estate to ‘which he belonged. The thralls were
employed to do the hardest and meanest work,
had nothing of their own, and were as badly
off as the poor negro slaves used to be in the
West Indies, before they were made free.



28 EVERY CHILD’S

The houses of the great men were very like
large barns, and each house stood om an open
space of ground, enclosed by a wall of earth and
a ditch, within which there were stacks of hay
and corn, sheds for the horses and cattie, and
huts for the thralls to sleep m. ‘The principal
room was a great hall, strewed with rushes, and
furnished with long oak tables and benches.
The windows were square holes crossed with
thin laths, called lattices, and the fire-place was
a stone hearth in the middle of the earthen
floor, on which they used to burn great logs
of wood, and let the smoke go out at a hole
in the roof.

But the great people often had merry doings
in these halls, for they were fond of feasting,
and used to sit at the long wooden tables, with-
out table cloths, and eat out of wooden platters
or trenchers with their fingers. Boiled meats
and fish, usually salted, were put on the table
in great wooden dishes, but roast meats were
brought in on the spits on which they were
cooked, and handed round by the thralls, to the
company, who helped themselves with knives
which they carried at their girdles. There was
plenty of ale, and among the richest, wine also,
which they drank out of horn cups; and when
the meats were taken away, they used to drink
and sing, and Play on the harp, and often had
tumblers, jugglers, and minstrels to amuse them.
Then the visitors used to lie down on the floor
to sleep, covered with their cloaks; for very tew



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 29

people had bedsteads, and the only beds were a
kind of large bags, or bed-ticks, filled with
straw, and blocks of wood for pillows.

Such were the rough manners of our Saxon
forefathers, who were, however, in some respects
a good sort of people, and you will be sorry for
them by and by, when you read how the Nor-
mans came, and took away their lands, and
made slaves of them. But I must first tell you
what happened in the Saxon times, after the
Heptarchy was broken up, and there was only
one king of England.

QUESTIONS.

How were the Saxons converted to Christianity ?
By what means did they learn many useful arts ?
What was the condition of the common people ?
Describe the cottages of the poor.

How did the Saxons dress ?

What were ceorls? and what were thralls?
Describe the house of a Saxon chief?

THE DANES AND ALFRED THE GREAT,

It was nearly 380 years after the first Saxons
came here with their two pirate chiefs, Hengist
and Horsa, that England began to have only
‘one king. There were still some other princes,
who bore that title, but they had so little power,
that they could hardly be called kings; so that
a brave prince, named Egbert, who conquered
D



30 EVERY CHILD’S

the last kingdom of the Heptarchy, is usually
called the first king of England. The civil wars
were thus, for a time, ended; but it seemed as
if the English were never to be Jong at peace, for
they now had some terrible enemies to contend
with, who kept the country in constant alarm.
These were the Danes, who came from Den-
mark, Norway, and Sweden, and were almost
the same people as the Saxons; for they spoke
the same language, followed the same customs,
and lived by piracy, as the Saxons did in former
times.

I have not room to tell you of half the mis-
chief they did in England. Sometimes they
would land suddenly from their boats in the
night, when the affrighted people were awakened
by a ery of, “The Danes! the Danes!” and,
starting up, perhaps, beheld their villages in
fiames; and, as they ran in terror from their
cottages, were either killed or dragged away to
the pirate vessels, with the cattle and any thing
else that could be found, and made slaves.

Egbert had fought a battle with them in
Cornwall, and forced them to depart; bet,
during the reign of Ethelwulf, the next king,
and three of his sons, they not only attacked
the towns and villages on the sea-coast, but
used to seize the horses and ride about the
country in search of plunder. They broke into
the monasteries, where the people often put
their money and jewels for safety; and if the
inmates made any resistance they would set the



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. ol
puilding on fire. Then they set up fortified
camps, in many places; that is, a number of
tents, arranged together, like a town surrounded
with a wall and ditch; and thus a great many
of the Danes established themselves in the coun-
try, and conquered all the northern part of it.
This was the sad state of affairs when Alfred the
Great came to the throne.

I dare say you have heard of this good prince,
who was the youngest and favourite son of king
Ethelwulf, for he was the cleverest and best.
His mother, being an accomplished lady, tried
to teach all her sons to read; but none of them
would learn except Alfred, who afterwards went
to Rome to study Latin, and learn to write,
so that he was a good scholar for those times.
His three brothers had all reigned in turn, and
were all dead by the time he was twenty-two.
years old, therefore he was then heir to the
crown; but, instead of being able to think
about the best way of governing the country,
he was obliged to get together as many soldiers
as he could, and go out with them to fight the
Danes. There was no regular army then, as
there is now; but, when the king wanted sol-
diers, he sent to all the noblemen and land-
holders in the kmgdom, who were obliged to
come themselves and bring so many men with
them, according to the size of their estates,
some on horseback, some on foot, and all well
armed.

You must remember that people could not buy



32 EVERY CHILD’s

Jand then for money, nor have it for paying rent;
but large estates were given to the thanes and
nobles by the king, on condition that they should
perform certain services for him; and you have
already seen how the vassals of the nobles held
their little farms on similar terms. This was
called the feudal system, which means, holding
land for services instead of rent; and the per-
son holding the land was called the vassal of
him to whom it belonged, whether rich or poor,
so the nobles were the vassals of the king, and
the ceorls were the vassals of the nobles.

I think you now understand what the feudal
system was, therefore I shall proceed with the
history of Alfred the Great.

The war had gone on for several years, and
the king was so unfortunate that, at last, he was
obliged to hide himself in a woody marsh in So-
mersetshire, called the Isle of Athelney, because
it was surrounded by bogs and rivers. The Danes
were then in pursuit of him; and, one time, fear-
ing to be taken prisoner, he got some man to let
him keep his cows, or pigs, I do not know which;
so that, if the Danes happened to see him, they
might not guess who he was. I dare say, you
have heard the story of this peasant’s wife scold-
ing Alfred one day, for letting some cakes burn,
which she had left to bake on the hearth, whilst
she was out; but she did nct know that he was
the king, or, of course, she would not have taken
that hberty.

At last, Alfred heard there were many chiefs



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 33

and noblemen, with their vassals, ready to join
him again; so he determined to try another
battle, but thought 1t would be prudent first to
learn what was the real strength of the enemy.
Now the Danes, like the Saxons, were fond of
good cheer, and liked to have songs and music
to make them merry while they were feasting ;
and this put it ito Alfred’s head to go inio
their camp disguised as a harper, for he could
play the harp and sing very well. So away he
went, with his harp at his back, and, when he
came there, the Danish chiefs had lim called
into their tents, and made him sit down and
play to them, and gave him plenty to eat and
drink. Then he heard them talking about king
Alfred, and saying, they supposed he was dead,
as he did not come to fight them, so they need
think of nothing but enjoying themselves; and
thus he discovered they were not prepared for a
battle, and were almost sure to be defeated, if
taken’ by surprise.

He, therefore, left the camp as soon as he
could, and sent a message to his friends to meet
him in Selwood Forest, also in Somersetshire,
with all the men they could muster; and, when
they were all come, he put himself at their head,
and, marching suddenly down upon the Danes,
fought and won a great battle at Ethandune, a
place in Gloucestershire, now called Woeful
Danes’ Bottom, from the terrible slaughter ot
the Danes there.

But there were a great many Danes in Eng-



oA EVERY CHILD’S

land, who had not been engaged in this battle,
and who had possession of almost all the north-
ern part of the country; so the king wisely
considered that it would be much better to in-
duce them to settle peaceably in the country as
friends, rather than prolong those dreadful wars,
which had already caused so much misery.

He, therefore, proposed to the Danish chief
that, if he would promise to keep at peace, he
should have a wide tract of country, which had
been desolated by these wars, all along the east
coast, from the river Tweed to the river Thames,
for himself and his people, to be called the Dane
land; so Guthrun, the Danish chief, accepted
the offer, and parcelled the land out amongst his
followers, who settled there with their vassals,
and lived in the same manner as the Saxons.

You may think how glad the people were that
the wars were over, and the king was very glad
too, for he now had time to do what was more
pleasant to him than fighting, which was, to do
all the good he could for the country. He thought
the best way to defend it against its enemies
was to have good ships to keep them from land-
ing; but, as the English did not know much
about ship- building, he sent for men from Italy
to teach them, and also had models of ships
brought that they might see how they were con-
structed, and men were taught to manage them,
so that England, for the first time, had a navy.

These ships were called galleys, and were
worked both with oars and sails, they were twice



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 35

as long as those of the Danes, and stood higher
out of the water. While some workmen were
making ships, others were employed in rebuilding
of the towns and villages that had been burned
down by the Danes; and the king ordained that
there should be schools in different parts of the
kingdom, where noblemen’s sons might be edu-
cated, for he had found the benefit of learning
himself, and thought it a sad thing that all the
great men should be so ignorant as they were.

You may, perhaps, wonder why so good a
man as Alfred should only think of having the
great people taught to read; but, reading would
have been of no use to the common people, as
the art of printing was unknown, and there were
no books but those written by the monks or nuns,
which were so expensive that none but very rich
people could afford to have even two or three
of them. The principal school founded by king
Alfred was at Oxford, which was then a small,
poor place, with a monastery, and a few mean
wooden houses for the scholars to live in, very
different from the present grand university, and
the masters, who were all churchmen, and called
Jearned clerks, resided in the monastery.

Alfred, with the help of some good and clever
men, whom he consulted in every thing, made
some very wise laws, and obliged the people to
obey them, by having courts of justice held in
the principal cities, regularly once a month; for
nobody had thought much about law or justice
either, while the wars were going on, so that



36 EVERY CHILD'S

there was need of some very strict regulations
to restore good order, without which there can
be neither happiness nor comfort any where.
Under the good government of Alfred the Great,
England enjoyed more peace and prosperity
than it had known since the days of the Romans;
and as his son and grandson both endeavoured
to follow his example, the influence of his wis-
dom was felt long after his death, which hap-
pened when he was about fifty years old, in the
year 900.

QUESTIONS.

Who was called first king of England?

Who were the Danes, and what was their mode of
invasion ?

How did they establish themselves in the country?

Who went to war with them ?

How was an army raised in those times?

What was the feudal system ?

What happened to Alfred?

What was the battle of Ethandune?

How did Alfred make friends of the Danes?

How was a navy first formed ?

Which of our universities was founded by Alfred the Great?

FROM THE DEATH OF ALFRED TO
THE NORMAN CONQUEST.

ALFRED was succeeded by his son Edward, who
was avery good king, though not so clever as his



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 37

father. He built walls round a great many of the
towns, to defend them, in case the Danes should
come again ; for, although so many of them were
living quietly in the country, those who did
not live here were still enemies, and the resi-
dent Danes were always ready to join their coun-
trymen. But they could not do much mischief
while Edward was king, or in the reign of his
brave son Athelstan, who was almost as great a
prince as Alfred himself. He knew that com-
merce was one of the best things in the world
for any country, so he had more ships built, and
sent them to trade with foreign countries; and
he said that, when any man had made three
voyages in a vessel of his own, he should be
made a Thane; which was the same as knight-
ing a gentleman i in these days.

There were no shops in England at this time,
but the people bought every thing they wanted
at markets and fairs; and they used to salt a
great deal of their meat and fish, that it might
keep a long time. In buying and selling, they
sometimes used slaves and cattle, instead of
money, a man slave being worth a pound of sil-
ver, and an ox worth a quarter of a pound, whick
was called five shillings, as a shilling was the
twentieth part of a pound in weight. If a noble-
man, therefore, wanted to buy any thing of two
pounds value, he could pay for it with two of
his thralls, or eight oxen, and the seller was
obliged to take them; but he could sell them
again directiy ; for I am sorry to say there were



38 EVERY CHILD’S

slave markets in England till some time after
the Norman Conquest.

Athelstan had a good deal of fighting to do,
for the people of the Daneland revolted, and he
was obliged to lead his soldiers into their terri-
tory, to bring them to order; and then he had
to march against Howel, the Prince of Wales,
who was defeated in battle, when Athelstan no-
bly gave him back his dominions, saying, “ There
was more glory in making a king than in de-
throning one.”

E shall not mention all the kings that reigned
after Athelstan, because there were many of
them who did nothing that is worth telling
about; but I must speak of a great churchman,
named Dunstan, who was Archbishop of Can-
terbury, and, for several reigns, ruled the whole
country, for the kings and nobles were obliged
to do just as he pleased. He was a very clever
man, and so good a worker in metals that he
made jewellery and bells, and gave them to some
of the churches, which was considered an act of
piety; for it was about this time that bells began
to be used in England, and they were highly
valued. Dunstan persuaded the kings and rich
noblemen, to rebuild the monasteries that had
been plundered and destroyed by the Danes, and
endow them with lands; so that, at last, nearly
one-third of all the landed property in the king-
dom belonged to the clergy.

There was a kmg named Edgar, the fourth
after Athelstan, who did many useful things for



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. og

the country; and, among others, he thought of
a plan to destroy the wolves,which were so nu-
merous in all the forests, that the people were
in constant alarm for the safety of their sheep,
and even of their little children. Edgar, there-
fore, ordered that each of the princes of Wales,
who had to pay tribute to the kings of England,
should send, instead of money, three hundred
wolves’ heads every year; so they were obliged
to employ huntsmen to go into the woods to kill
those dangerous animals, which were so gene-
rally destroyed in a few years that they have
seldom been found in England ever since. Then
Edgar kept the Danes away by having as many
as three hundred and sixty vessels always ready
for service; but, when he and Dunstan were
dead, the navy was neglected, and the country
was again overrun with those terrible enemies,
who fought with the English every where, robbed.
them of their property, took their honses for
themselves, and acted just as if they were the
conquerors and lords of the land.

At last, the Danish king, Sweyn, landed with
a great army, and began a dreadful war with
Kthelred, who was then king of England, that
lasted about four years, in the course of which
he and Ethelred both died; but the war was con-
tmued by Canute, the son of Sweyn, and with
such success, that, m the end, he was crowned
king of England.

It was lucky for the English that Canute hap-
pened to be a wise and eood prnce; for he said



40 EVERY CHILD’S

to himself, “ As I am now king of these peopie,
I will behave kindly to them, that they may love
me, and then we shall all go on comfortably to-
gether.” So he began to repair the mischief
that had been done in the late wars, by setting
people to work to rebuild the towns that had
been destroyed; which was soon done in those
days, when the houses were so roughly built,
and only of wood. He also made a law that the
Danes should not rob and insult the English, as
they had been in the habit of doing; and ordered
that they should obey the other laws of the coun-
try; which he did not alter in the least; neither
did he interfere with the estates of the nobles,
nor with their nights over their vassals; and he
consulted with the Witanagemote, or Parliament,
‘in all affairs of importance.

This Parliament was composed of the great
nobles and the bishops, so that it was like our
House of Lords; and, when the king made a
new law, the people were not obliged to obey it,
until it had been approved by the Witanage-
mote. As long as Canute reigned, which was
nineteen years, there was peace and plenty, and
the poor people were much happier than they
had been for a long time, for they could stay at
home and mind their farms, or work at their
trades, without being called away continually to
fight the Danes. The king, it is true, kept a
large army of Danish soldiers, and the people
had to pay heavy taxes to support them; but
this was better than seeing them come as ene-



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Al

mies into the towns and villages to destroy or
take every thing.

After the death of Canute, his two sons
reigned in succession, but they were neither
very good nor very clever, and both died within
six years. All this while, there was a Saxon
prince, named Edward, son of king Ethelred,
living at the court of the Duke of Normandy,
who was his uncle, and had afforded him shel-
ter and protection whilst his enemies were rul-
ing in England. He was now restored to the
throne, and the English people thought them-
selves happy in having again a king of their
own nation; but they little foresaw the terrible
consequences of placing over them one who had
formed so close a connection with the Normans.
Edward was attached to the Normans, for they
had been kind to him in his misfortunes; but it
was neither wise nor just to bring a great num-
ber of them to his court, and set them up above
his own countrymen, by giving them the highest
appointments in the government, which, of
course, gave offence to the English noblemen.

Edward was called the Confessor, because he
spent much of his time in devotion, from a mis-
taken sense of religious duty. I call it mistaken,
because God does not require that we should
neglect all other duties for this one, but has
given us plenty of time to pray and go to church
and read good books, besides doing every thing
else that we ought todo. Edward the Confessor
rebuilt Westminster Abbey, which was founded



42 EVERY CHILD’S

during the Heptarchy; but this building was
pulled down about 160 years afterwards, by
Henry the Third, who erected the present edifice
in its place.

But I was going to tell you what happened
im consequence of the king’s attachment to the
Normans. His uncle was dead, and his cousin
William, a bold spirited prince, who was now
Duke of Normandy, came over to England to:
visit the king, and see what sort of a place it
was. He brought a great many noblemen with
him, and it seems they all liked the country so
much that the Duke thought he should lke to
be its king, and his friends thought they should
like to get good estates here; so king Edward
was persuaded to make a will, or give his pro-
mise, that, when he died, his cousin William,
who was more than twenty years younger chan
himself. should be his successor. The English
lords knew nothing about this at the time, but
they had reason enough to know it afterwards,
as you will presently find.

Edward the Confessor died at the beginning
of the year 1066, when Harold, his wife’s bro-
ther, a brave and popular nobleman, took pos-
session of the throne, with the consent of the
chief nobles and clergy.

QUESTIONS.

Who succeeded Alfred ?
How did he provide for the safety of the people.



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 40

Who was the next king?

How was trade encouraged by him?

Tell me the way of making purchases at this period..

Were there any wars in the reign of Athelstan ?

Who was Dunstan ?

Who was Canute, and how did he obtain the throne 2

What were the chief acts of Canute ?

What was the Witenagemote?

How long did Canute reign ?

What was the general state of the country under his
government ?

Who succeeded Canute ?

How was the Saxon government restored ?

How did the king displease his subjects?

Why was Edward called the Confessor ?

What was the consequence of is attachment to the
Normans?

When did Edward die, and who ..xucceeded him ?

THE NORMAN CONQUEST.

As soon as the Duke of Normandy knew that
Edward the Confessor was dead, and Harold
made king, he called his friends together, and
promised tc bestow lands and honours in Eng-
land on all who would assist him to win the
crown ; which, he said, was his by right, and that
Harold was an usurper. Now this is a doubt-
ful question; for, although the king could ap-
point a successor, if he thought proper; yet it
was necessary that his choice should have the



4A, EVERY CHILD’S

approval of the Witenagemote, which had not
been given in this case; so the Iinglish said
that, notwithstanding king Edward’s will, the
Duke of Normandy had no right to the throne.
I cannot pretend to say which was right; but,
as itis of more consequence to know how the
dispute ended, we will proceed to the history of
the Conquest.

The Normans were great warriors; so that
even many of the clergy would sometimes put
on armour under their robes, and lead their own
vassals to battle; and they had as much interest
in the dispute as the nobles, for they expected
to come into possession of some of the Bishops’
sees and rich abbeys, and abbey lands, provided
Duke William should succeed in his enter-
prise.

While all this was goimg on in Normandy,
Harold’s brother, Tosti, had raised a rebellion
in the north of England, and was joined by the
king of Norway, who landed with an army in
Yorkshire: so Harold had to go and fight with
them, and there was a great battle at Stamford
Bridge, where the king gained a complete vic-
tory. Two or three days after this he was enjoy-
ing himself at a great feast, at York, when news
was brought to him that the Normans had landed
in Sussex, where they were doing all manner of
mischief, driving the people away from the towns
and villages, and taking every thing they could
lay their hands on. The king made all the
haste he could to get his soldiers together, and



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Ay

began his march to oppose the invaders, but it
took nearly a fortnight to get to where they
were; and all that time the invaders were mak-
ing dreadful havoc for miles round their camp,
so that the terrified people fled to the weods, or
shut themselves up in the churches, for fear of
being killed.

At last, Harold came, and a battle was fought
near Hastings, on the 14th of October, 1066,
where the king and two of his brothers, with a
ereat many of the English nobles, were slain,
and the conqueror from that day looked upon
himself as master of the country.

But the English had seen enough of the Nor-
mans to know they should be very badly treated
if they once suffered a Norman government to
be established, so they resolved to do their ut-
most to prevent it, and thus the Normans had
to fight for every town, and castle, before it was
given up to them.

William had marched to London, and laid
siege to it, soon after the Battle of Hastings,
and the people having submitted to him, he was
crowned in Westminster Abbey, on Christmas
Day. A few of the English nobles went to offer
their submission, that is, they. agreed to obey
him as their king, since he had promised that all
who did so should be permitted to enjoy their
rank and property undisturbed. But it was only
a few who: trusted to these promises, and they
were deceived in the end, for it is almost certain
that the Conqueror intended, from the first, to

EO



46 EVERY CHILD’S

take every thing from the English to give to
the Normans. I mean the English lords; for he
meant to make the common people remain on
the estates to which they belonged, that the new
masters, might have vassals and slaves to culti-
vate their lands. Now the poor people did not
like this any more than the nobles themselves,
so they fought bravely for their masters in many
places ; but it was all to no purpose; for, at the
end of seven years, the Normans were in pos-
sesion of all the land in the country, and most
of its former lords had either been killed, or
were reduced to such a state of poverty and
wretchedness that it is melancholy to think of.

I will not attempt to describe the sufferings
of the people during that long period, but you
may imagine how very miserable they must have
been, for the Normans got the better of them
all over the country, and took delight in rob-
bing and insulting their unhappy victims. I
told you that the design of the Conqueror was
to take all the land, and divide it among his
followers, except what he chose to keep for him-
self, as crown lands. Now there were many
Saxon ladies who possessed estates, in conse-
quence of their fathers or brothers having been
killed at the battle of Hastings; and most of
these heiresses were compelled, against their will,
to marry Norman lords, who thus gained lands
as well as brides. Then the estates of all those
who had not submitted to the king were de-
clared to be forfeited, and William gave them to



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 47

the Normans, or, more properly speaking, he
gave the Barons leave to take them by force; so
the English lords had to fight for their houses.
and lands, and many were killed, and many fled
to other countries: The rustics, on these for-
feited estates, would fight for their lord to the
last ; but, when he was forced to yield, they had
no choice but to submit to the new lord, or to.
see their cottages set on fire, and their wives
and children perhaps murdered before their eyes.
Some of the English nobles hid in the forests.
with their families, and as many of their vassals
as would go with them, where they made habit-
ations, and supported themselves by robbery and
hunting; and this was the origin of the numer-
ous bands of robbers that, in after times, were
the terror of the country. The famous Robin
Hood, who lived in the reign of Richard the
First, is supposed to have been a descendant of
one of these unfortunate English nobles.

The Bishops’ sees and abbey lands were seized
in the same violent manner as the estates of the
nobles, and given to the Norman clergy; and
many of the monasteries, after being broken
open and plundered, were taken for the abode
of monks who came over from Normandy in
great numbers. ‘The Normans built a great
many castles in different parts of the country;
and, if they wanted to build one on a spot where
there happened to be houses, they thought no-
thing of turning out the inhabitants, and pul-.
ling down the houses, to make room: and they



48 EVERY CHILD’S

pressed the poor people, both men and women,
to do all the labour, without pay, and treated
them very cruelly besides; for, if they did not
work hard enough, these unfeeling taskmasters
would urge them on with blows. Then wher-
ever the Norman soldiers stayed, they went and
lived in the houses of the people, took what they
pleased, and made the family wait upon them.

The king, himself, cruelly laid waste different
parts of the country in revenge for the opposi-
tion made to his progress by some of the English
earls, especially in the north, where, about three
years after the battle of Hastings, such a scene
of desolation was made by fire and sword, that,
from York to Durham, the houses, the people, and
all signs of cultivation, were utterly destroyed.
The last stand made against the Normans was
ia a little island, formed by bogs and lakes, in
Cambridgeshire, and still called the Isle of Ely.
There, a brave chief, named Hereward, set up a
fortified camp, and was joined by other noble-
men, and many of their dependents, who, with
the ceorls, or tenants, belonging to the Abbey
of Ely, made quite an army. It was a secure
place of refuge, because the only safe paths into
the island were unknown to the Normans, who
would most likely have been lost in the bogs, if
they had ventured to approach. But they had
built a castle close by, at Cam Bridge, and they
brought boats and tried to make causeways by
which they might get into the camp of refuge;
but the English would go out in bands at night



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 49

and destroy all that their enemies had done,
and kept constantly on the watch for straggling
parties, who were often attacked unawares, and
many of them killed, while the Enghsh could
always retreat to their camp, where they were
safe from pursuit.

At last, the Normans established a blockade
of boats round the island, and provisions began
to get scarce within it; so two or three bad self-
ish men, who lived in the abbey, went to the
Normans, at Cam Bridge, and said, they would
show them the way into the island, if they would
promise not to meddle with the abbey. These
men led the Normans secretly into the island,
and a terrible battle was fought, in which al-
most all the English were killed.

When Hereward saw it was useless to fight
any longer, he made his escape, and went to his
own castle of Bourn, in Lincolnshire; where I
believe, he afterwards made peace with the king,
and was allowed to keep his estate. I have given
you a long history of the Conquest, because it
was the most important event that ever occurred
in the history of England, and was the last sudden
and violent change made in this country by
foreign invasion.

QUESTIONS.

Jixplain the cause of the Norman invasion ?
What was the battle of Hastings, and where was it fought ?
Did the English make any further resistance ?



50 EVERY CHILD’S

How long was it before the conquest was completed ?
How did many of the Norman lords obtain their estates ?
What became of the English nobles ?

How were the monasteries disposed of ?

How were the English treated by the Norman soldiers ?
What was the Camp of Refuge, and by whom established?
How was the Camp destroyed ? ~

What became of Hereward ?

THE NORMAN PERIOD.

Tue Normans were a cleverer people than the
English, and lived in a superior manner. They
were better acquainted with the arts of agricul-
ture and architecture, and they knew a great
deal more about useful gardening; for all
the convents in Normandy had good gardens,
planted with vegetables and herbs; and the
monks brought over plenty of seeds and roots
to sow or plant in gardens here. The Normans
built stone castles, and strong houses of timber,
with upper stories, so that their dwellgs, in
general, were higher and more substapfial than
those of the Saxons; and one greaf improve-
ment was that they had chimneys; but their
furniture was as rough and clumsy as the fur-
niture used in the Saxon times, and thelr way
of living was almost the same, except that they
did not care so much about feasting, but pre-
rorred spending their time in hunting, hawking,
and fighting in sport, for pastime.



HISTORY OF ENGLAND, 5t

i should here tell you that Wilham the Con-
queror made the first game laws, and very severe
they were, and very hard upon the poor people,
who used to be at lberty to kill game in the
forests; but, after these new laws, they dared
not so much as take even a hare or a partridge
in their own fields. It was not only the English,
who were forbidden to hunt on the royal do-
mains, but the Normans also, unless they had
especial leave to do so; and, if any one was bold
enough to kill a deer in the king’s forests, he
was punished in the most cruel manner, by hav-
ing his eyes put out, or his hands cut off.

The king’s palace was at Winchester, and he
wanted to have a forest close by for hunting, so
he ordered that all the towns and villages should
be pulled down for about thirty miles, and the
land planted with trees; and, what was worse,
he gave nothing to the poor people for turning
them out of their homes; and this is still called
the New Forest. In imitation of this bad ex-
ample, many of the nobles began to make large
parks, enclosed with walls, to keep deer, and
they cared no more than William had done
about taking away the fields and pasture lands
of the poor cottagers, who dared not complain.
and were even obliged to run to their doors.
with refreshments to offer to the Norman lords
and their followers when they were out hunting,
although they often saw them riding over thei
corn, and breaking through their hedges.

It was not till after several reions that the



52 EVERY CHILD’S

descendants of the Norman Conquerors began
to consider themselves Englishmen, and to treat
their vassals more like fellow countrymen. The
first hundred years after the conquest is there-
fore usually called the Norman period, and in-
cludes the reigns of Wilham the Conqueror,
William Rufus, Henry the First, and Stephen.

I have already told you that the Feudal sys-
tem was brought into England by the Saxons,
and I explained what it was; but I must now
mention that this system was carried much far-
ther by the Normans, that is, their feudal laws
were stricter, and the nobles themselves were
bound by them as well as the common people.

I should wish you to understand this as clearly
as possible, because the manners and customs
of the age were governed entirely by those laws.
First, then, the king was lord of the land, and
kept a great portion of it for himself, which made
what were called crown lands; and all the people,
who lived on the crown lands, whether in burgh,
town, or country, were his tenants, and paid him
rent, or taxes, both in money and produce, be-
sides being obliged to furnish him with soldiers
at their own expense. For example, if a town
had to find two or more horse-soldiers, the inha-
bitants were, besides, obliged to pay the expenses
of their arms, horses, and maintenance, for the
time they were on service. The Manors and
Abbey lands were held of the king on the same
conditions ; and every man, who had a certain
quantity of land, was bound either to serve as
a soidier himseif, or sen? a substitute.



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 58

The rest of the country was divided by the
king amongst the great barons, who agreed, in
return, that whenever he went to war they
would go with him, and take with them so
many men, properly armed and trained for war-
fare, perhaps fifty or a hundred, or even more,
according to the extent of lands ke they held.
These great Baronies were called Feods, and
the king was the feodal or feudal lord of the
barons, who were called crown vassals; and,
when any one of them died, the king took the
lands again until the heir paid him a large sum
of money to redeem them. Some of the kings
behaved very ill in this, m making the heirs
pay a great deal more than was just; and, if a
baron died, and left a daughter only, she was
obliged to marry any one the king chose, or he
would not let her have her inheritance at all.
The feudal laws were therefore very bad, because
they gave men the power of being tyrants to
each other; for the nobles had the same power
of oppressing their vassals that the king had of
oppressing them.

You must understand that the great Barons,
who held very extensive domains, gave small
estates out of them to men who were not so
high m rank as themselves, on the same con-
ditions as the king had given the large baronies
to them, so that the lesser nobles were the vas-
sals of the great ones, and were bound to aid
them with men and money when required. Then
all the nobles, from the highest to the lowest de-

F



54 EVERY CHILD’S

gree, were the absolute lords of all the common
people that dwelt on thei lands, and could
make them do just whatever they pleased, as I
told you they could in the Saxon times; but
then the Norman lords treated them, at first, a
great deal more harshly than the Saxon lords.
did, and took a great deal more from them.
After the Norman conquest they were called
villeins, which meant villagers, and they lived in
the same manner, and had the same kind of
duties to perform for their lords, as in the Saxon
times; but there were many new feudal customs
brought here by the Normans; as for example,
a mill was set up on every estate, to which all
the poor people were obliged to take their corn
to be ground, instead of grinding it at home
with hand-mills, as they used to do; and, out of
each measure, a part was taken for the baron,
which was a very hard tax upon them, especially
if they had large families. Another feudal cus-
tom was this: a duty was laid on every thing
sold at the fairs and markets; that is, if a man
went to the market to buy a sheep, he must pay
so much for the sheep, and so much for duty,
the duty being for the baron, or lord of the
manor. There were a great many other customs
which I have not room to mention, but I think
I have said enough to show you what the feudal
system was in the first ages after the Norman
conquest; so now I will tell you something
about the first Norman sovereigns.

William the Conqueror died in 1087, and was



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 55

succeeded by his eldest son, Robert, in Nor-
mandy, and by his second son, William Rufus, in
England; but after a time Duke Robert wanted
money to go to the Holy Wars, which I will tell
you about presently, so he mortgaged his duchy
of Normandy to his brother Wiliam, who thus
became sovereign of both countries, as his father
had been. He was a sad tyrant, and so rude in
his manners that nobody liked him. I told you
what strict game laws were made by the Con-
queror, but William Rufus made them more
severe still, and so displeased the noblemen, by
forbidding them to hunt without his leave, that
some of them formed a conspiracy to dethrone
him; but the plot was discovered, and the Earl
of Northumberland, who was at the head of it,
was taken prisoner, and confined in Windsor
Castle all the rest of his life.

There was another great lord, the Count d’ Eu,
who was accused of being engaged in this plot,
by a knight called Geoffrey Bainard, so the king
had him arrested. ‘The Count, however, denied
having any thing to do with it, and said he
defied his accuser, and was ready to fight with
him, and that God would give the victory to
whichever of them was in the right. So they
fought with swords, in the presence of the king
and court, when Bainard was victorious, and
the Count being thus convicted, was condemned
to have his eyes torn out. This was a strange
way for a man to prove his innocence of any
erime, but it became a common custom in Eng-



56 EVERY CHILD’S

land, and was called “ Wager of battle.” Even
law-suits, respecting right of property, were often
thus decided; and, if a lady had a quarrel or a
lawsuit, she might get a man to do battle for
her, and he was called her champion.

It was the fashion for many ages, not only in
England, but all over Europe, for young men of
noble birth to roam about the world in search
of adventures; and, as they were generally poor
and depended chiefly on their swords for sub-
sistence, they would engage in any body’s quar-
rels ; fight in the cause of women or children who
were either injured or oppressed, and enlist in
the service of princes and barons who were at
war. This was called chivalry, and these knights
errant, or wandering knights, were made wel-
come wherever they went, and treated with hos-
pitality at the castles of the great.

Numbers of them went to the Holy Wars,
but, as I suppose you do not know what the Holy
Wars were, I will tell you about them. Many
pious Christians in those days thought it a duty to
make a journey, or pilgrimage as it was called, to
Jerusalem, once in their lives, to say their prayers
at our Saviour’s tomb; but Jerusalem had been
conquered by the Mahomedans, who hated the
Christians, and behaved very cruelly to the pil-
grims; so the Pope, who you know is the great
Bishop of Rome, and at that time had more
authority over all the countries of Europe than
the kings had, said that it was the duty of all
Christian warriors to go to Palestine, or the



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 57

Holy Land, to fight against the Saracens, and try
to drive them from Jerusalem. Then a religi-
ous man, called Peter the Hermit, went about
preaching a crusade, that is, exhorting the
princes and nobles in France, Germany, and
Italy, to undertake this war, which was called a
crusade, or croisade, because the ensign on their
banners was to be the Cross.

Robert, Duke of Normandy, was among the
first crusaders, and, as he wanted money to keep
himself and all the fighting men he took with
him, he pledged his duchy to his brother, Wil-
liam Rufus, for a very large sum. The English
did not join in these wars, at first, but after a
time there was scarcely a knight or noble in the
land that did not go to the Crusades, for they
were continued, im all, more than two hundred
years; and, during that time, great numbers of
the lower order of people in England were
freed from bondage, in consequence of being
allowed to purchase their liberty to supply their
lords with money for these wars.

Wilbam Rufus, who was killed by accident as
he was hunting in the New Forest, was suc-
ceeded by his brother, Henry the First, sur-
named Beauclerk, because he was a learned
man, who behaved much better to the Saxon
English than the two former kings had done,
and restored to some of the old families a part
of their ancient possessions. He likewise al-
tered the forest laws, which had given so much
discontent, and gave the citizens of London

FS



58 EVERY CHILD’S

leave to hunt in Epping Forest, which then
reached very nearly to the walls of the city.

Winchester was then the capital of England,
but London was one of the best cities and the
richest, as many of its inhabitants were mer-
chants who traded with foreign countries; yet
the houses were only mean wooden buildings,
with no glass in the windows, and thatched
with straw. Westminster was quite a separate
city, and divided from London by country-
houses, fields, and a village. The king had a
palace at Westminster, and William Rufus built
Westminster hall adjoining it, for his Christmas
feasts.

A curious privilege was granted by Henry the
First to the citizens of London, which will serve
to show you what grievances the people were
subject to m those times. There were a great
number of persons who were employed in vari-
ous ways about the court, and who followed the
king wherever he went; for great men, when
they travelled, were obliged to take every thing
they wanted with them, there being no public
accommodation to be had any where; so they
carried with them waggon loads of furniture,
plate, wine, cooking utensils, and I do not know
what besides; with their domestics and retainers.
of all descriptions, who formed a numerous re-
tinue. Now, the inhabitants of any city, where
the king happened to be holding his court, were
obliged to give board and lodging, at free cost,
to all these people, who generally behaved very



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 5G

ill; for they would insist upon having the best
rooms, order whatever they chose, and treat the
family just as if they were their servants. It
was, therefore, a very good thing for the Lon-
doners when king Henry released them from
this heavy burthen, but all other towns had to
bear it for a very long period.

In this reign the first manufactory for wool-
len cloth was established im this country, by
some weavers from Flanders, where the best
cloth was made from English wool, which was
the staple commodity of England at that period ;
I mean, the thing of which they had most to
sell; for quantities of sheep were reared on
every estate, more for the sake of wool, than
mutton, as the large landowners made a great
deal of money by trading in wool. England
had no manufactures then, so there were no
employments for the lower classes but agricul-
ture, and the few useful arts, that were but very
imperfectly understood.

Henry the First died in the year 1135. He
left the crown to his daughter Matilda, who had
been twice married; first, to the Emperor of
Germany, and again to Geoffrey Plantagenet,
Karl of Anjou, who was dead also, therefore she
was again a widow. But there was a nephew of
the late king, named Stephen, who was rather a
favourite among the Barons, and was quite wi!-
ling to take advantage of their good will; so,
before Matilda could reach England, her cousin
Stephen had mounted the throne. Then there



60 EVERY CHILD’S

was a civil war in this country, which was car-
ried on, at times, for fifteen years, for a great
many French noblemen came here with Matilda
to fight for her; and some of the English Ba-
rons, who had become dissatisfied with Stephen,
because he had not done all they expected he
would do, jomed the other party, and there was
fighting all over the country.

Wherever there is civil war, there is sure to
be famine and misery of all kinds, and there
never was more misery in England than during
the reign of king Stephen; for, in order to keep.
as many of the Barons on his side as‘he could,
he let them do just as they pleased; and he
gave titles and estates to a great many bold and
bad men, who built castles and kept bands of
ruffians, who went at night to rob and plunder
the towns and villages; so that the people,
when they shut up their houses at night, used
to kneel down and pray that God would protect
them from robbers and murderers.

At last, it was settled that Stephen should
keep the crown as long as he lived; but.that
Matilda’s son, Henry Plantagenet, should suc-
ceed him; and, soon after this arrangement,
he died, having reigned nineteen years.

QUESTIONS.

How did the Normans improve the country ?
What is the origin of the game laws?
How was the New Forest made?



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 61

Which reigns are called the Norman period ?

What were crown vassals?

When a baron died, how were his lands disposed of ?

How did the lesser barons become vassals of the great
ones ?

Who were the villeins, and how did they live?

What new feudal customs were brought here by the
Normans?

Who succeeded Wiliam the Conqueror?

What was the character of William Rufus?

What was the custom called wager of battle ?

What was chivalry ?

Give some account of the Crusades?

Who succeeded William Rufus ?

How did he gain popularity ?

What was the first manufacture in England ?

To whom did Henry leave the crown ?

Who usurped the throne ?

What followed ?

How was the civil war ended ?

HENRY THE SECOND, RICHARD 'THE
FIRST, AND JOHN.

As soon as Henry the Second came to the throne,
he began to set things to rights again. He had
all the new castles pulled down, and made the
bad men, who had lived in them, leave the coun-
try; then he set people to work to rebuild the
towns that had been burned down in the late



62 EVERY CHILD’S

wars; and ordered that the judges should go on
circuits; that is, travel to all the cities, and hold
assizes, two or three times a year, as they do
now, to see that justice was done to every body.
But it was not quite so easy to do justice then ;
for, as long as the feudal laws lasted, the rich
could always oppress the poor, and every great
man had an army of his own vassals, who would
do any thing he bade them, whether it was lawful
or not. Now the king wisely thought that the
best thing in the world for the country would be
to give more freedom to the people, so that the
Barons might not have quite so much power.
He, therefore, granted charters to some of the
cities, which made them a little more independ-
ent; but it was by very slow degrees that the
people of England became free, although this
happy change was beginning to take place.

Another thing the king wanted to do, was to
make the clergy answerable to the judges for
any bad acts they might commit, instead of
having particular laws and judges for them-
selves; avd, I am sorry to say, they some-
times did very wicked things, for which they
were not punished half so severely as other peo-
ple would have been for similar offences, which
certainly was unjust. But the bishops were un-
willing to let the king have any thing to do with
church affairs, and the Pope encouraged them
to oppose him, in this respect; for the Pope, in
those days, had more power over all Europe
than the kimgs themselves, who seldom dared to
disobey him.



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 63

The person who quarrelled most with Henry
about these things was Thomas 4 Becket, arch-
bishop of Canterbury, a very proud man, who
wanted to rule both king and state his own way.
The king was so much annoyed at the opposition
he constantly met with from the archbishop,
that, one day, in a fit of passion, he said he
wished that troublesome priest was dead; on
which some persons, who heard these incautious
words, thinking to get imto favour, rode off
to Canterbury, and killed the archbishop in his.
Cathedral. But they gaimed nothing by this
wicked deed; for the king was shocked when
he heard of it, and sorry for what he had said ;
which shows how wrong it is for people to use
violent expressions when they feel angry.

One very remarkable event which occurred in
this reign, was the conquest of Ireland. That
country had been, for many years, divided into
several small kingdoms, and the disputes of the
chiefs had often given rise to warfare among
themselves; but it now happened that the king
of Leimster, having been deposed by another
prince, went direct to the king of England, to
beg his assistance, which Henry readily promised,
on condition that, if he were restored, he should
hold his kingdom as a vassal of the English
crown. Dermot, that was the name of the Irish
prince, agreed to these terms, and several Eng-
lish knights and noblemen undertook the enter-
prise. After a great many interesting adven-
tures, which are told in the history of Ireland,



64: EVERY CHILD’S

Dermot was replaced on his throne; but other
quarrels arising among the chiefs, the English
continued the war, and, after some time, the
Irish chiefs acknowledged the king of England
as lord and master of Ireland, which has been
under the authority of the English government
ever since.

Heury the Second died in 1189, and was suc-
ceeded by his son Richard, who was called Cceur-
de-lion, because he was very brave, so that every
body said he had the heart of a lion. Now it
is a very good thing for men to be brave, for I
do not know what we should do without brave
men for soldiers and sailors, to fight for us; but
it is not the most useful quality a king can
possess; and I think you will agree with me,
when I tell you that Richard the First, instead
of staying at home to make good laws, and
take care of his subjects, went away to fight, or
gain glory, as fighting was then called, in the
Holy Land, while all things were going wrong
in England, for the want of somebody to keep
order. But there was some excuse for him, as
every body in those days thought that the most
praiseworthy act princes and nobles could do,
was to fight for their religion against all persons
who believed differently from themselves; so
Richard was very much admired by his people,
although he did nothing for their real benefit ;
but, on the contrary, caused them very much
misery, and great distress.

‘Another evil was that the Barons, who went



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 65

with him to the Crusades, took all their own
money as well as all they could get from their
tenants, to support themselves and their fight-
ing men abroad, so that the generality of the
people were left very poor. A great number,
indeed, obtained their freedom, by giving up
all they had to their lords; but then they were
left without money or employment, and many
turned robbers, to save themselves from starving;
therefore, you see, it was not always a good
thing, at first, for the bondmen to be set at
liberty; but it was good in the end, for their
children were born free, and, as times got better,
the free middle classes began to be of some con-
sequence, and have gone on gradually increasing
in wealth and importance, till they have now
become the best safeguard and support of the
country.

While Richard was gone to the wars, his bro-
ther John, who was a very bad man, wanted to
make himself king in England, and there were
some of the nobles who encouraged him, while
others defended the nights of the absent mon-
arch; so that there was great confusion, and the
laws were sadly disregarded.

At last, Richard heard of all these bad doings,
and left the Holy Land, mtending to come home
as fast as he could; but, unfortunately, he was
made prisoner, on his way, by the Duke of Aus-
tria, and confined in a castle in Germany for
some time before the English people knew what
had become of him. Richard knew this duke

G



66 EVERY CHILD’S

was his enemy, because he had affronted hir
when in the Holy Land, so he had taken the pre-
caution of disguising himself in passing through
his dominions, and took with him only a single
page; but, one day, being tired and hungry, he
stopped to rest at a village near Vienna, and
sent his page into that city to buy some pro-
visions. The youth, foolishly, hung a pair of
handsome gloves in his belt, and as gloves were,
in those days, only worn by persons of the high-
est rank, this circumstance excited suspicion,
and he was arrested, and obliged to confess the
truth. The duke immediately sent a band of
soldiers to seize the king, whom they found busy
turning some meat that was roasting at the fire.
He started up, drew his sword, and fought vali-
antly, but was captured, and sent to a strong
fortress, where he had remained a prisoner some
months, when he was discovered, it has been
stated, by a wandering minstrel, who heard him
singing in his prison, and knew his voice. But
this is a fabulous tale. A large sum was raised
in imgland, by taxes, for his ransom, and he
came back; but he did not stay long at home ;
for he had quarrelled, while in the Holy Land,
with the king of France, and went over to Nor-
mandy for the purpose of going to war with him,
where he was killed by a poisoned arrow, aimed
at him from the walls of a castle he was besieg-
ing, in the year 1199, having reigned ten years.

Prince John was now made king of England,
but he had no lawful right to the throne, as



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 67

prince Arthur, the orphan son of an elder bro-
ther, was living, and was the true heir, accord-
ing to the rules of succession. But this unfor-
tunate youth was made prisoner, in Normandy,
by his wicked uncle, and most people believe
he met with a violent death. It was a very seri-
ous misfortune for the country when the king
happened to be a bad man, because the govern-
ment was, at that time, despotic; that is, the
king made the laws himself, and had the power
of doing whatever he pleased; whereas, now, the
laws are made by the parliament; so that, before
any new act can be passed, a great many good
and clever men must agree to it, which is a
great protection to the people.

However, kmg John was compelled, much
against his will, to make some very good laws,
and the reason of this was, that his tyranny was
felt by the nobles even more than the common
people, for their estates were often unjustly
seized, and they were obliged to give him large
sums of money to get them back again; then
he would not let them marry unless they paid
him for leave to do so; and, if any persons
wanted to go out of the country, they were
obliged to buy his permission. In short, no one
was free to do any thing till the consent of the
king was obtained by a handsome present.

At length, his tyranny was carried to such a
height that the chief nobles resolved to make
him act more justly, or dethrone him; so they
wrote down, on parchment, all the things they



68 EVERY CHILD’S

wished to have done, or altered, and agreed with
each other that, if he refused to sign it, they
would go to war with him, and they took care
to have all their vassals armed, and in readiness.

John was very much frightened when he found
the barons were in earnest, and agreed to meet
them at a place called Runnymede, between
Staines and Windsor, where, after a great deal
of disputing, he was obliged to sign his name to
what they had written, which thus became the
law of the land. An ancient copy of this parch-
ment is now in the British Museum. It 1s called
Magna Charta, which is the Latin name for ‘ the
Great Charter ;? and it was framed with a view
to take from the king the power of doing unjust
things, and to make him govern according to
the laws, and not to be able to make new laws,
or impose new taxes, at his pleasure. This
famous act is generally regarded as the begin-
ning of the liberty which all Enelishmen are so
justly proud of; but the laws it contained were,
in many respects, often broken by the sovereigns
of England, for a very long period.

The Barons of England still lived in their
castles, on their own estates, in the midst of
their vassals and serfs. Their castle-halls were
crowded with knights, squires, pages, and mili-
tary dependents, for it was their pride to have
as many of such retainers as they could possibly
maintain. ‘The pages were boys of high rank,
generally the younger sons of noblemen, whose
profession was to be knight errantry. Now, in



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 69

order to obtain the honour of knighthood, they
were obliged to serve some great baron, first as
pages, then as esquires, for several years, and to
be very obedient and respectful in their conduct,
and do all that was required of them readily
and cheerfully. While pages, they had to wait
upon their lords and his guests at dinner and
supper, to carry messages, and perform little
services for the ladies of the family; but they
were themselves waited upon by the domestic
slaves, and, when they had finished their day’s
duties, were allowed to mix with the company.
They were taught to use the sword and lance,
and to manage a horse skilfully, and were in-
structed in religious duties by the priests of
their lord’s household. When old enough, they
were made esquires, and then their duties were
to take care of the horses and armour, and to
attend their lords on all occasions; which ser-
vices he usually rewarded by making them
knights, when they were free to go wherever
they pleased; and you have already been told
what their mode of life was afterwards.

The great people were very fond of hunting
and hawking, and fighting at tournaments; but,
perhaps, you do not know what a tournament
was, so I will tell you. There was a place built
up, something lke a large theatre, with galle-
ries for the ladies and gentlemen, to sit and see
the combats in the open space below, and this
was called the lists. Then the gentlemen, who
wished to exhibit their valour, used to come

GO



70 EVERY CHILD’S

in armour, and fight with each other on horse-
back, till one was conquered, when the victor
received a prize from the greatest lady present.
When only two knights fought, it was called a
tilt; but if there were several on each side, it
was a tournament; and, although these combats
were held for sport, the combatants were often
dangerously wounded, and sometimes killed.

When John had signed Magna Charta, the
Barons went home to their castles, to enjoy
their usual pleasures; but the king had no in-
tention of behaving any better than before, and
secretly sent agents to Flanders, to raise troops
of foreigners, promising that they should be al-
lowed to plunder the estates of the Barons, if
they would enlist in his service. Thus he soon
appeared at the head of an army, and went to
war with the nobles, who, in revenge, did a very
wrong and foolish thing, which was, to offer the
crown to Louis, the son of the king of France.
Louis soon came over with a French army, and,
after having in vain tried to take Dover Castle,
he entered London in triumph, whilst John was
obliged to retreat; but the Barons began to
think they had done wrong; and, as John died
suddenly, in the midst of this confusion, they
turned their arms against Louis, and forced hire
to leave the country.

QUESTIONS.

What were the first acts of Henry the Second ?
Who was Thomas 4 Becket?



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 71

Why was he at enmity with the king?

How was the death of Becket caused ?

What conquest was made in this reign ?

Relate the circumstances ?

When did Henry die, and who succeeded him ?

How did Richard employ the chief part of his reign ?
What occurred in England during his absence ?
What happened to the king on his way home?

How was he liberated ?

State the date and manner of his death?

Who was the next king ?

Why was John a usurper?

How did the king act towards the nobles ?

What was Magna Charta ?

What did the king do after he had signed that Charter ?

FROM THE DEATH OF KING JOHN

TO THE ACCESSION OF

RICHARD THE SECOND.

THe reign of Henry the Third, who was only nine
years of age when he succeeded his father, was
a very long and avery unhappy one. At first,
things went on very well, because the king had
a good guardian, the Earl of Pembroke, who
managed the government wisely; but he, in a
few years, died, and others came into power
who did not act so well, and the king was too
young to know what was right himself. It was

a pity the good earl died, for, if Henry had



79 EVERY CHILD’S

been fortunate enough to have had a wise in-
structor, he might have been a better sovereign,
but, as it was, he was a very bad one. The great
mischief was this. He married a French prin-
tess, who had no more wisdom than himself;
and they were both so extravagant that they
spent a great deal more money than they could
afford ; and, then, to get fresh supplies, the king
ordered the people to pay more taxes, and began
to do all the unjust things that had caused so
much misery in the time of his father.

Sometimes the Barons assembled and obliged
him to promise he would abide by the terms of
Magna Charta; but he soon forgot his promises,
and went on the same as before, so that the
people were worse and worse off every year, and
many men became robbers on the highways,
because they could not support their families by
honest industry. This was the state of affairs
for many years, till, at last, there was a civil
war again, and, after a great deal of fighting
and bloodshed, the king and his eldest son, Ed-
ward, were made prisoners in a battle, fought
at Lewes, in Sussex, in 1264, and the Earl of
Leicester, the king’s brother-in-law, took the
government upon himself.

This was an important event, because the earl
summoned a parliament to consult as to what it
would be best to do under these circumstances ;
and he desired that, besides the nobles and

‘bishops, there should come to this parliament
knights, or gentlemen, from every county, and



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 73

citizens and burghers, from every city and burgh,
to state what the condition of the people really
was, and to help to advise what could be done
for them; so that the commoners were now,
probably, for the first time, admitted to some
share in the government of the country, which
was a great step gained by the people, who, be-
fore this, had no representatives in the national
council, or parhament, to take their part; and
this was the beginning of our House of’ Com-
mons, so it is worth remembering. Prince Ed-
ward, after this, escaped from Hereford, where
he had been kept a prisoner, and gained a great
victory over the Barons, and replaced his father
Henry on the throne; after which, he went on
a crusade to the Holy Land. He had married
a Spanish princess, named Eleanor, who was
the first person, in England, that had a carpet,
which she brought from Spain, for the floors of
the best apartments im the palace were strewed
with rushes; and, in houses, where they could
not get rushes, they used straw.

Henry the Third died about seven years after
his restoration, in the year 1272, having reigned
fifty-seven years; and, although the news was
sent to his son as soon as possible, it was nearly
two years before he returned to England; such
was the difference between travelling then and
now; for the journey to and from the Holy Land
may now be accomplished in a few weeks.

Edward the First was a much wiser and better
prince than his father, but he was too fond of



74, EVERY CHILD’S

war, and too anxious to be renowned as a con-
queror, which was the cause of the long wars in
Scotland, for his great ambition was to conquer
that country. But, the first thing he thought
of, when he came home, was to make such regu-
lations as were most hkely to protect the people
from robbery; so he had watchmen and patrols
appointed in all the cities, and ordered that no-
body should be abroad in the streets of London,
nor any taverns kept open, after the curfew bell
had tolled. The curfew was instituted by Wil-
ham the Conqueror, to prevent fires, which were
very frequent, when houses were, in general,
built of wood, and thatched; so, when this bell
tolled at eight o’clock, the people, for a long
time after the conquest, were obliged to put out
their fires and candles; but the custom of toll-
ing the bell was continued after that of putting
out fire and candle was done away with, and
even to this day, in many places.

Edward the First took care that the magis-
trates should do their duty, and punished those
who broke the laws, which the kings had been
afraid to do in the last two reigns, because their
lives would have been in danger if they had. Ll
must also tell you that this wise monarch did
not alter what the Harl of Leicester had done
about the parliament; but he made it a rule
that the people should continue to send their
members, and every freeholder of land in the
counties, and, in general, all men, in the cities
and burghs, who paid taxes, had a right to vote
at the election of members of parliament.



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 75

T should be glad to have nothing to say about
warfare in this reign; but the Scottish wars form
so large a portion of the history of the times,
that you ought to know something about them.
First, however, the king invaded the northern
part of Wales, which had never heen conquered
oy the English, and was then governed by a
prince, named Llewellyn. This chief made a
gallant resistance, but he was killed, and the
whole country was then united to England, and
afterwards, in the reign of Henry the Highth,
divided into shires. The queen, Eleanor, of
Castile, Edward’s first wife, went to visit Wales
soon afterwards, and her son Edward was born
there, so the king said he should be called prince
of Wales, and that is the reason why the eldest
son of the English sovereign has since had that
title.

After this, there were a few years of peace,
before the wars with Scotland were begun; so
I will fill up the time by saying a little about
the manners and customs of the English at this
period. The nobles lived in, what we should
think, a very rough way indeed. Their large
comfortless rooms, and floors without carpets,
unglazed windows, and clumsy furniture, would
not suit our modern notions, either of comfort
or convenience. They had their dinner at ten
o’clock in the morning, in the great hall of the
castle; lords, ladies, knights, esquires, priests,
dependents, and strangers, all together; for,
when there were no inns, it was usual for tra-



76 EVERY CHILD’S

vellers to stop at any castle, or monastery, on
the road, where they were never refused lodgin
and entertainment. There were no table cloths,
and the dishes and cups were mostly of wood,
but they were well filled with meat, game, fish,
or poultry, which, with bread and ale, consti-
tuted the rude, but substantial meal. The Ba-
ron, with his friends, sat at an upper table, which
was served with wine; and, sometimes, he would
have his hounds lying at his feet, and his fa-
vourite hawk, on a perch, beside him.

The supper, at five o’clock, was just like the
dinner, and these were the only regular meals
at that period.

I said there were no inns in those days, which
reminds me to speak of the difficulty and dan-
ger of travelling. The roads were very bad and
lonely, often running through forests and across
wide heaths, infested with robbers. Then there
were no public conveyances of any kind, nor
any way of making a journey, but on horse-
back, or on foot; and, as to stopping at the
country towns, there was very little accommo-
dation to be had there, for they were poor places,
the houses in them bemg very little better than
wooden sheds. ‘There were no shops, so that
every thing was bought, as formerly, at the mar-
kets and fairs. A great many merchants, from
London, France, and Flanders, used to bring
goods to the fairs for sale, and they were obliged
to pay tolls and duties to the lord of the manor,
which came to a great deal of money, because



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 77

they brought a quantity of valuable merchan-
dise, as the nobles themselves purchased their
wearing apparel, jewellery, spices, and many
other commodities, at the fairs, which sometimes
lasted fifteen days.

The dress of the great nobility, in the four-
teenth century, was very handsome, for they
wore mantles of satin or velvet, with borders
worked in gold, over jackets highly embroidered ;
and their velvet caps were often adorned with
jewels. The middle classes wore close coats of
cloth, with leather belts round the waist, such
as the Blue-Coat boys now wear, and they had
tight pantaloons, short boots, and cloth caps.
The clothing of the working people was made
of very coarse wool, sometimes undyed, and all
spun and woven at home by the women, who
had nothing else for their own wearing, as there
were no cottons, or stuffs, made in England,
then, nor any of the nice comfortable things
that poor people can get so cheap now.

The country towns were at this period inha-
bited chiefly by free artisans, such as black-
smiths, carpenters, and others, of different
trades; but there were still a great many vil-
leins and serfs, on all the cultivated lands, for
slavery was never abolished in England by any
act of parhament, but gradually died away with
the feudal laws. The armies were not raised
then as they were at an earlier period, by feudal
service, but soldiers were hired and paid by the
day; but there was no standing army, as there

H



79 EVERY CHILD’S

is at present; for, as soon as the wars were over,
the men were all discharged, which was a bad
thing, as it often happened they had no homes
er employment to return to, and so formed
themselves into bands of robbers.

. However, fighting men had plenty of occupa-
tion during the reign of Edward the First, of
whose wars in Scotland I am now about to
speak.

The King of Scotland died about this time,
and as he left no son, and his grand-daughter
and heiress, Margaret, died soon after, unmar-
ried, there were two princes, who each thought
he had a right to succeed to the throne; so
they agreed to let the king of England decide
the dispute, which he readily took upon himself
to do. One prince was named Robert Bruce,
the other, John Baliol. Edward said Baliol
ought to be king, and he was crowned accord-
ingly; but the English monarch soon began to
find fault: with him, and at last went to war, for
ke had made up his. mind to try to unite Eng-
‘and and Scotland into one kingdom, and to be
the kmg of both countries himself; but he did
not succeed, although he dethroned Ball, and
was at war with Scotland for nearly eleven years.

i dare say you have heard of a rcnowned
Scottish chief, called Sir Wiliam Wallace. He
fought bravely for his country in these wars,
but he was taken prisoner at the battle of.
Falkirk; and, I am sorry to say, king Edward
was so cruel and unjust as to have his head cut



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. "79

off. But this did not put an end to the war, for
another chief, Robert Bruce, grandson of him
before-mentioned, took the place of Wallace,
gained several victories, and was crowned king.
The two sovereigns then prepared for a long
war, and Edward was on his way to Scotland,
with his army, when he was taken ill, and died
in the year 1807, having reigned thirty-four
years.

His son, Edward the Second, was so careless
of every thing but his own pleasure, that he
neglected the affairs of both England and Scot-
land, so that the Scots recovered all they had
lost; and when, at last, the king was persuaded
to renew the war, he met with such a terrible
defeat at the battle of Bannockburn, that the
Scots are proud of it to this very day.

There is nothing more worth telling about
the reign of Edward the Second, whose miscon-
duct caused many of the barons to rebel, and
he was, at last, made prisoner by them, and
cruelly murdered, in Berkeley castle, im 1827
having reigned about twenty years.

His son, Edward the Third, was scarcely
fifteen, at the time of his father’s death; but he
was a very clever prince, and soon began to
manage the affairs of the country himself. He
married a Flemish princess, named Philippa, who
was much beloved by the English people, as,
indeed, she deserved to be, for she was both
good and beautiful, as well as one of the cle-
verest ladies of her time, and ske employed her



80 EVERY CHILD’S

talents in doing all the good she could for
England. She knew that the people of her own
country, which was Flanders, had grown rich
by their trade and manufactures, so she did all
in her power to increase the trade of England,
and paid a number of Flemish weavers to come
over here and settle at Norwich, that they
might improve the people there, in the art of
making woollen cloth and stuffs, for which a
manufactory had been established by Edward
the First. She also founded several schools,
and was a friend to those who distinguished
themselves by their learning.

I must not forget to tell you that Chaucer,
the first great poet that wrote in English, lived
at this time, and received much kindness from
the King and Queen. The English language
was now beginning to be spoken by the higher
classes, instead of French, and was not very
unlike the English spoken now, as you might
see, if you were to look at the poems written
vy Chaucer.

Edward the Third was, unfortunately, as fond
of war as his grandfather. He renewed the
war with Scotland, but his great wars were in
France, for his ambition was to be king of that
country, and he pretended he had a right to the
throne, because his mother was the sister of the
late king. But the French thought otherwise,
and chose another prnicc for their king, so
Edward invaded France, where he commenced
along and destructive war, whith lasted nearly



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Sl

forty years, and was carried on, for a great part
of that time, by his eldest son, who was called
the Black Prince, because he wore black
armour.

He made great conquests in the south of
France, and, at the celebrated battle of Poictiers,
took the French king prisoner, and brought
him to England, where he remained a captive
for the rest of his life, but was treated with so
much kindness and respect, that he had little
to complain of but the loss of his hberty. The
Black Prince was not only a brave warrior, but
was a good and clever man; therefore, his death,
which happened a few months before that of his
father, was a great grief to the inglish people.

Edward the Third died in 1877, after a long
reign of fifty years. He had been a pretty good
king, had made the people obey the laws, and,
in general, observed them himself. When he
wanted money for the French wars, he had
allowed the villeins and serfs, on his manors,
or crown lands, to buy their freedom, so that
there were now, comparatively, but few of
the lower orders remaining in bondage; and
the agricultural labourers were paid for their
labour, as well as the artisans and mechanics.’
Their wages were, in general, from twopence to
threepence a day, but you must remember that
twopence, at that time, was equal, in purchasing
the necessaries of life, to about one shilling and
eightpence of our money, and would buy much
more than sufficient food for a whole family

HS



32 EVERY CHILD’S

They lived chiefly on meat, brown bread, and
ale; for there were no vegetables for the table,
cultivated by the people in England, till the
time of Henry the Eighth; nor any potatoes,
till that of Queen Elizabeth; and then they
were considered a dainty dish, and only seen at
the tables of very rich people. However, there
were gardens, orchards, and vineyards, belong-
ing to the monasteries, and to persons of high
rank and fortune.

QUESTIONS.

Who succeeded king John ?

How was much distress occasioned ?

What were the consequences of the king’s misconduct ?

What great change was made in parliament, and how?

Who first brought a carpet into England :

How long did Henry the Third reign? and by whom
was he succeeded ?

What was the character of Edwars the First?

Mention some of his first acts ?

How did he regulate the parliament?

How was Wales united to England ?

What gave rise to the Scottish wars?

Who was the great Scottish chicf and patriot; and what

_ was his fate? |

‘Who was made king of Scotland?

When did Edward die? and who succecded him?

What was the battle of Bannockburn ?

What became of Edward the Second ?

Woo was the next king ?

Whom did he marry ?

How did the queen promote the welfare of the country?



HISTORY OF ENGLAND, 83

Who was the first great English poet?

Why did Edward the Third invade France?

Who conducted the wars ?

When did the deaths of Edward and his son happen?
How did Edward the Third raise money for the wars?
What was the value of two pence at this time?

FROM THE

ACCESSION or RICHARD THE SECOND,
TO THE

WARS OF THE ROSES.

Ricuarp the Second, the son of Edward, the
Black Prince, was but eleven years old when, by
the death of his grandfather, he became king of
England. His uncles governed the country till
he was old enough to act for himself; but they
did not teach him to be a wise, nor a just man,
and this injustice was the cause of all his mis-
fortunes.

One of the first things he did on his own
account, was to break a promise he made to the
people; and this was how it happened. A new
tax had caused great discontent among the
labouring classes, and their unwillingness to
pay if was increased by the insolence of the
collectors, who, one day, in the house of a man
called Walter, or Wat Tiler, behaved so ill to
his daughter, that ne gave one of them a blow
on the head with Ins hammer, which unluckily



R4. EVERY CHILD’S

killed him. Now the neighbours knew that if
Walter should be taken, he would be put to
death for the offence, and as they all had cause
to complain of the tax-gatherers, they assem-
bled in front of his cottage, and declared they
would protect him.

This was at Deptford, and they all proceeded
to London, being jomed by thousands of men
from different towns, and a dreadful riot there
was; so that it was thought necessary for the
king to take some means of pacifying the
rebels. Accordingly he went, with the lord
mayor and some nobles and gentlemen, to meet
them in Smithfield, and whilst Tiler, their
leader, was talking with the king, the mayor
came behind him, and struck him on the head
with his mace, and stunned him, and he
was killed by Richard’s party; and then the
king, fearing the rioters would kill him in
return, asked them what they wanted, saying,
he was ready to do any thing that was right and
just. They said they desired that the poll tax
should be taken off; slavery and villeimage
abolished by law; so that all who were still in
bondage should be made free; and that the old
feudal custom of paying duties on goods, at all
the markets and fairs, should be done away
with. All this Richard promised to do; but no
sconer had the men dispersed and gone back to
thei homes, than he sent out a military force
to seize all who had been concerned in the
rebellion; and I grieve to say that, although he



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 85

had given his word that they should all be par-
doned, he ordered the judges to have every one
of them executed.

After such conduct as this, you will not
expect to hear much good of Richard the Se-
cond, whose selfish extravagance led him to do
all kinds of unjust things, for the purpose of
raising money to spend on his own pleasures ; so
that it might truly be said that he was con-
stantly robbing his subjects; as, for instance, he
once wanted to borrow a large sum of the citi-
zens of London, which they would not lend
him, because they knew very well he would
never return it; so he took away their charter,
that is, the grant which gives them a right to
elect a lord mayor, and to manage the affairs of
the city independently of the king; and they
were obliged to give him ten times as much to
get it back again, as they had refused to lend.

The citizens of London were very rich at this
period, many of them being great merchants,
and it was in this reign that the famous
Whittington was Lord Mayor. He had made
a large fortune in the coal trade, which was then
a new branch of commerce, for coals were very
little used for firing till the time of Edward the
Third.

King Richard had unjustly banished his
cousin Henry, [Marl of Hereford, and on the
death of Henry’s father, the Duke of Lancaster,
had taken possession of his estates. This noble-
man was a grandson of Edward the Third, an



86 EVERY CHILD’S

was much hiked by the Enghsh, who would rather
have had him for their king than the unworthy
sovereign they had got, although he would have
had no right to the throne, even if Richard had
been dead. However, he came back to Eng-
land, and finding most of the nobles as well as
the people willing to make him king, Richard
was obliged to resign the crown, and was im-
prisoned in Pomfret castle, where it is supposed
he died by unfair means; but as this is not quite
certain, we will hope it was not so. He had
reigned twenty-two years, when he was deposed,
in 1399.

This usurpation of Henry the Fourth was the
cause of the long civil wars in England, called
the Wars of the Roses, which began in the time
of Henry the Sixth, whose right to the throne
was disputed, although his father and grand-
father had been suffered to reign without opposi-
tion. Henry the Fourth was, on the whole, a
popular monarch, and under his government
things went on pretty well with the generality
of the people.

There was an insurrection in Wales, headed
by a gentleman, named Owen Glendovwer, who
wished to restore the Welsh to their former in-
dependence, and to be their prince, as he was of
the ancient royal family; and he was joined by
the powerful Karl of Northumberland, and his
son Henry Percy, better known by the name of
Tiotspur, who was one of the bravest knights of
the age. These noblemen had a quarrel with



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 87

the king, and wanted to depose him; but he
gained a victory over them in a battle fought
near Shrewsbury, where Hotspur was killed.
These events are not of much importance, but I
tell them because when you hear any celebrated.
characters spoken of, you ought to know who
they were, and when they lived.

The prince of Wales, afterwards Henry the
Fifth; was also celebrated for his valour, but not
for his good behaviour in his youth; for his con-
duct was sometimes so disgraceful that his father
was quite ashamed of him, and nobody would
have supposed he was the son of aking. One
thing he used to do was to go out at night, with
some idle companions, and rob people on the
highway, for amusement; yet he had not a bad
disposition, for once one of the judges sent him
to prison for trying to rescue one of his wicked
companions; and he not only submitted to the
punishment, but when he came to be king, he
treated that judge with great respect and atten-
tion, because he knew he was a just man, and
would punish the rich as well as the poor, if
they did wrong. King Henry the Fourth died
in 1413, in the fourteenth year of his reign.

Henry the Fifth is famed as the conqueror of
France. He went to war with that country, on
the same pretext that Edward the Third did
before ; and with better success, for the French
king was at last glad to make peace by agreeing
that Henry should be king of France after his
death. The greatest victory gained by the



88 EVERY CHILD’S

English, was at the battle of Agincourt. King
Henry married the French king’s daughter, but
he died soon afterwards, in 1422, having reigned
nine years; and leaving an infant son; andina
little while the king of France died too, and he
also left a son. Then there was a dispute which
of these princes should be king of France, and
a new war was begun which lasted many years,
during which the English lost all that the
armies of Henry the Fifth had won.

In the mean time the young king, Henry the
Sixth, grew up so weak in mind and sickly in
aody, that he was not able to govern the coun-
try; therefore, his ministers and the queen, a
French princess, named Margaret of Anjou,
had to manage every thing for him. But many
people did not like the queen, and began to say
that her husband had no right to the throne as
his grandfather was a usurper; but that Richard,
Duke of York, ought to be king of England;
while others said that, as the Parliament had
consented to let the family of the Duke of Lan-
caster reign, it was lawful for them to keep the
crown; and that although king Henry was not
fit for a ruler, the rights of his son, prince Ed-
ward, ought to be protected. The Duke of
York was then governor of Ireland, but when
he heard of these disputes, he came: back, and
was placed at tne head of the government here,
instead of the queen.

I thmk you will now quite understand why
there was a civil war in England. Every noble-



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 89

man in the country took one side or the other,
and the friends of the Duke of York wore a
white rose or ribbon rosette; while those who
supported the king, or House of Lancaster, wore
a crimson one; as people now wear different
coloured ribbons at an election, to show which
party they belong to; and this is why these
wars are called the Wars of the Roses.

QUESTIONS.
Who succeeded Edward the Third?
Who was Wat Tiler, and how was his rebellion occasioned ?
How did the rebels proceed ?
What means were taken to quell the insurrection ?
What were the demands of the rebels?
What was the conduct of Richard on this occasion?
Why were the people in general discontented with the
sing?
Who was the earl of Hereford?
How was Richard dethroned, and what became of him?
What battle was fought in this reign, and why ?
Who was killed in this battle ?
Who succeeded Henry the Fourth ?
How did Henry the Fifth distinguish himself?
On what terms was peace made?
How did this agreement occasion more wars ?
What was the result?
What was the character of Henry the Sixth?
What gave rise to the Wars of the Roses?

THE WARS OF THE ROSES.

Tue civil wars may be said to have lasted
I



90 EVERY CHILD’S

thirty years, from the first battle at St. Alban’s,
in 1455, to the battle of Bosworth, m 1485; for
although there were intervals of peace, the quar-
rel between the houses of York and Lancaster
was not finally settled till the two families were
united by the marriage of Henry the Seventh,
who was heir of the House of Lancaster, with
Elizabeth, the grand-daughter of Richard, Duke
of York, and heiress of that family.

During that thirty years, the country was, as
you may suppose, in a very unhappy condition.
Every Baron wanted to collect as many men
around him as he could, to defend his castle in
case of siege; so the countrymen left their
rural labours and went to enlist in the service
of this or that nobleman, because they were
sure of getting plenty to eat and drink. Thus
the castle halls were crowded, but the fields
were left without sufficient labourers to plough
and sow them, consequently the crops were
generally bad, and bread was, at times, so dear,
that many poor families could get none at all,
but were obliged to eat herbs and berries that
they found in the woods, which did not nourish
them, so that numbers died of want.

Many battles were fought in different parts of
England, and the queen was present at some of
them, for it was she who conducted the war, as
the king was incapable of so much exertion, and
Margaret could not bear to see her young son
Edward deprived of his birthright. Three vic-
tories had been gained by the Duke of York,



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 91

when he was killed at the battle of Wakefield ;
but this event did not put an end to the contest,
ior his son Edward, who succeeded to his title,
continued the war and, in the end, became king
of England, while poor king Henry was kept a
prisoner in the Tower, where he died in 1471.

Edward owed his success chiefly to the Earl
of Warwick, the richést and most powerful no-
bleman in England, and considered as the last
of the great feudal Barons, for it is said that he
maintained no less than thirty thousand people
at his own expense, who were all ready to devote
their lives to his service. He had a great many
castles in different parts of England, and a
noble mansion in Warwick lane, London, which
still bears that name, although it presents a very
different appearance from what it did when this
mighty Earl lived there like a sovereign prince,
and the place was crowded with his armed re-
tainers.

Edward had been very well received by the
citizens of London, and crowned, with their con-
sent, long before the death of king Henry. Two
dattles were fought soon after his accession to
the throne, one at Towton, the other at Hexham;
and it was after the latter, that a story is told
uow queen Margaret wandered about in a forest
with her little boy, till they were both half dead
with hunger and fatigue, when she met with a
vobber, and, instead of trying to avoid him, told
iim who she was, and begged he would protect
her child. The man took them to a cave, and



G2 EVERY CHILD’S

gave them food and shelter, until he found an
opportunity of getting them on board a vessel
that was going to Scotland.

People were now in hopes there would be
peace; but the new sovereign was so unwise as
to quarrel with the Earl of Warwick, who be-
eame his enemy, and resolved to deprive him of
the crown he had helped him to win. Then the
war was begun again, and went on for several
years longer, till Warwick was killed at the
battle of Barnet, on Easter Sunday, 1471, just
ten years after the battle of Towton.

On the day of this battle, queen Margaret,
and her son, prince Edward, then a youth of
eighteen, landed in England, for they had lived
in France some years, and were sadly grieved
at the news of Warwick’s defeat and death;
but as they had a great many friends, the queen
determined upon trying another battle, which
was a great pity, for both herself and her son
were made prisoners, and the young prince was
killed in king Edward’s tent, for making a
spirited answer to some insulting question put
to him by the haughty monarch. The miser-
able mother was sent to the Tower, where her
husband had just died; but she was afterwards
released, and ransomed by her father; and she
returned to live with him in France, her native
country.

And now, that we have done with the wars,

we may begin to think of something more plea-
sant. Have you ever heard it was in the reign



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 93

of Edward the Fourth that books were first
printed in England ?

The art of printing, which enables us to have
so many nice books to instruct and amuse us,
had lately been invented in Germany, and was
brought here by an English merchant, named
William Caxton, who went to Cologne, on pur-
pose to learn how to print, and when he came
back, he set up a printing-press in Westminster
Abbey, which, at that time, was a monastery.
We ought to be very much obliged to the clever
person that invented printing; for only think
how very ignorant we should be, and how much
pleasure we should lose, if there were no books
to tell us any thing. There were books, certainly,
before that time; but they were all written, and
it took so long to copy them, that they were very
expensive, so that none but very rich people
could have even a few volumes. Printed books
were also, for a long time, much too dear to be
in general use, but people of rank soon began to
be much better educated than in former times,
and their habits and manners became much
improved im consequence.

Then a great many of the old Norman cas<
tles had been destroyed in the wars, which put
an end, after a time, to the customs of chivalry;
and the nobles, instead of sending their sons to
be brought up for warlike knights, sent them to
Oxford, or Cambridge, to become scholars; or to
Eton College, which had been founded by Henry
the Sixth.

oO

Io



94, EVERY CHILD’S

King Edward died in 14838, when his eldest
son, who is called Ekdward the Fifth, although he
never was really king, was only thirteen years
old; and he, and his younger brother, the Duke
of York, were under the guardianship of their
uncle Richard, Duke of Gloucester, who was a
very bad man. Instead of protecting the father-
less children entrusted to his care, he only
thought how he might take advantage of their
youth to obtain the crown himself; so he sent
them both to the Tower, but not as prisoners,
for it was then used occasionally as a royal resi-
dence, especially in times of public disturbances;
so Richard told the people the boys would be
safe there; but in a little while it was reported
that they were dead, and it was thought he had
caused them to be murdered, which was most
likely the truth, although some people think
they were not put to death, but were kept there
as prisoners for some years.

Richard the Third was not a very bad king,
for he made some laws that were very useful to
the merchants who traded with foreign countries,
and he was the first who thought of having post-
men, or couriers, to carry letters, so that, wicked
as he was, we cannot say he did no good as a
sovereign. ‘The post was, at first, only for go-
vernment letters, and it was a long time before
any arrangements were made for private persons
to correspond by the same means; but this was
done by degrees, and in the time of Oliver
Cromwell, the General Post Office was esta-



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7




EVERY CHILD'S

HISTORY OF ENGLAND;

FROM THE
EARLIEST PERIOD TO THE

PRESENT TIME.

BY MISS CORNER,

AUTHOR OF THE FIRST HISTORY OF ENGLAND
THAT SHOULD BE PLACED IN THE HANDS OF A CHILD,-

PLAY GRAMMAR,—HISTORY OF GREECE,—ROME,—FRANCE,—SPAIN AND
PORTUGAL,—TURKEY AND THE HOLY LAND,—ENGLAND,~-IRELANS}~
AND SCOTLAND,—NORWAY, DENMARK, AND SWEDEN,—
HOLLAND AND BELGIUM,—ITALY,—&e. &c.

LONDON:
DEAN & SON, 11, LUDGATE HILIE.

=

ls. sewed, or, 1s. 6d. bound, with Map.
PREFACE.

I wave endeavoured to write a pleasing and
instructive History of England for little Chil-
dren, adapted to their capacities, and not
burthened with details that are unimportant
for them to know.

This little work, therefore, treats briefly, but
accurately, of the reigns of the sovereigns of
the country; and its purpose is to present to
the young reader a clear and correct picture of
the conquests and revolutions that have taken
place in this Island at different periods, and the
progress of freedom, knowledge, and industry,

among its people.
A PREFACE,

History for Children ought to be told in
their own simple language, or it fails to interest.
them; while all that is unfitted for childish
ears, or unsuited to a childish understanding,
should be carefully omitted; at the same time,
it is essential to avoid making false or imperfect
impressions, by an injudicious brevity.

I have allotted a distinct period for the
subject of every chapter, and have arranged
a series of Questions at the end of each, to
render my History useful, as a School-book,

for the junior Classes.

SULIA Connex.
EVERY CHILD’S
HISTORY OF ENGLAND.

THE ANCIENT BRITONS.

Wovuxtp you not lke to read about your own
country, and to know what sort of people lived
in it a long while ago, and whether they were
any thing like us? Indeed, they were not; nei-
ther was England, in ancient times, such as it
is now. There were no great cities, no fine
buildings, no pleasant gardens, parks, or nice
roads to go from one place to another; but the
people lived in caves, or in the woods, in clus-
ters of huts, which they called towns.

The country was not then called England,
but Britain; and its mbhabitants were called
Britons. They were divided into many tnibes ;
and each tribe had a king or chief, like the
North American Indians; and these chiefs often
went to war with one another. Some of the
tribes lived like savages, for they had no
elothes but skins, and did not know how to cul-
tivate the land: so they had no bread, but got
food to eat by hunting animals in the forests,

B
6 EVERY CHILD’S

fishing in the rivers, and some of them vy
keeping herds of small hardy cattle, and gather-
ing wild roots and acorns, which they roasted
and eat.

But all the Britons were not equally uncivi-
hised, for those who dwelt on the south coasts of
the island, had learned many useful things from
the Gauls, a people then living in the country
now called France, who used to come over to
trade with them, and with many families of
Gauls who had at various times settled amongst
them. They grew corn, brewed ale, made
butter and cheese, and a coarse woollen cloth
for their clothing. And they knew how to dye
the wool of several colours, for they wore plaid
trowsers and tunics, and dark coloured woollen
mantles, in shape like a large open shawl.

Perhaps you would like to know what they
had to sell to the Gauls; so I will tell
you. Britain was famous for large dogs; and
there was plenty of tin; and the South Britons
sold also corn and cattle, and the prisoners
which had been taken in war, who were bought
for slaves; and you will be sorry to hear that
many of the ancient Britons sold their children
ito slavery.

They carried these goods in carts, drawn by
oxen, to the coast of Hampshire, then crossed
over to the Isle of Wight, in light boats, made of
wicker, and covered with hides or skins, in shape
something like half a walnut shell. The mer-
chants from Gaul met them in the Isle of
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 7

Wight; and as they brought different kinds of
merchandise to dispose of, they managed their
business almost entirely without money, by ex-
changing one thing for another.

The Britons were very clever in making things
of wicker work, in the form of baskets, shields,
coated with hides, boats, and chariots, with flat
wooden wheels. These chariots were used in
war, and sharp scythes were fixed to the axles of
the wheels, which made ternble havoc when
driven through a body of enemies. But I shall
not say much about the wars of the ancient
Britons, or their mode of fighting; as there
are many things far moye pleasant to read of,
and more useful to know.

At that time, which is about one thousand nine
hundred years ago, the country was almost co-
vered with forests; and when the people wanted
to build a town, they cleared a space for it by
cutting down the trees, and then built a number
of round huts of branches and clay, with high
pointed roofs, like an extinguisher, covered with
rushes or reeds. This was called a town; and
around it they made a bank of earth, and a
fence of the trees they had felled; outside the
fence, they also dug a ditch, to protect them-
selves and their cattle from the sudden attacks
of hostile tribes.

As to furniture, a few stools or blocks of wood
to sit upon, some wooden bowls and wicker
baskets to hold their food, with a few jars
and pans of coarse earthenware, were all
8 EVERY CHILD’S

the things they used; for they slept on the
ground on skins, spread upon dried leaves, and
fern, or heath. Their bows and arrows, shields,

«Spears, and other weapons, were hung round
the insides of their huts.

The Britons were not quite ignorant of the art
of working in metals; for there was a class of
men living among them who understood many
useful arts, and were learned too, for those times,
although they did not communicate their learning
to the rest of the people. These men were the
Druids or priests, who had much more authori-
ty than the chiefs, because they were so much
cleyerer, therefore the people minded what they
said. They made all the laws, and held courts
of justice in the open air, when they must have
made a very venerable appearance, seated in a
sircle on stones, dressed in long white woollen’
robes, with wands in their hands, and long
geards descending below their girdles. The ig-
norant people believed they were magicians, for
they knew something of astronomy, and of the
medicinal qualities of plants and herbs, with
which they made medicines to give to the sick,
who always thought they were cured by magic.

Some of the Druids were bards, that is poets,
and musicians; others taught young men to
become Druids; and some of them made a great
many useful things out of the metals that were
found in the mines. You will perhaps wonder
where the Druids gained all their knowledge. I
cannot tell you; but many learned men think
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 9

that the first Druids came from India or Persia,
as the religion they taught was very similar to
that of the Persians and Hindoos. They did
not believe in the true God, but told the people °
there were many gods, and that they were in
trees, and rivers, and fire, which they worshipped
for that reason.

They had no churches, but made temples, by
forming circles of large stones, of such immense
size, that nobody can guess how they were
carried to the places where they stood, for there
are some of them still remaining. They used
to hold several religious festivals in the course
of the year, when all the people made holiday,
and the Bards played on their harps and sang,
and there was plenty of feasting, and merry
making; and they used to light bonfires, and
make an illumination by running about with
torches in their hands, for they believed that a
display of fire was pleasing to their gods; and
so you see that our custom of having fireworks,
and illuminations, and bonfires, on days of public
rejoicing, is as old as the time of the ancient
Britons. |

The Druids had a great deal to do on those
days; for they used to go to their temples and
say prayers, and sacrifice animals for offerings to
their false gods; and on New Year’s Day, they
walked in procession to some old oak tree to cut
the mistletoe that grew upon it, for this was one
of their religious ceremonies; and the oldest
Druid went up into the tree to cut the plant,

BOS
10 EVERY CHILD’S

while the rest stood below singing sacred songs,
and holding their robes to catch the boughs as
they fell; and crowds of men and women stood
round to see them.

But I must make an end of this chapter
about the ancient Britons, and tell you how the
Romans came and conquered the country, and
made quite a different place of it.

QUESTIONS.

What was England called in ancient times ?

How did the Britons resemble the American Indians ?
Describe the tribes that were most civilized ?

What were the habits of the more Southern tribes ?
With whom did they trade, and in what commodities ?
How and where was their trade carried on?

For what manufacture were the Britons famous ?
How did they build a town?

Describe the furniture of their habitations.

Who were the Druids?

Tell me what you know about them.

Mention the different employments of the Druids.
Where is it supposed the first Druids came from ?
Describe their temples.

THE ROMANS IN BRITAIN.

THe Romans, about the time of the Birth of
Christ, were the richest, the most powerful, and
the cleverest people in the world. Rome was a
grand city, and there were many other fine cities
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. ll

in Italy belonging to the Romans, who knew
how to build handsome houses, and make beau-
tiful gardens, besides being excellent farmers.
They had elegant furniture, and pictures, and
marble statues; and they were well educated,
and wrote a great number of books in Latin,
for that was their language, and many of those
books are used in our schools to this day.

They had large armies, and had conquered a
great many countries, when Julius Cesar, a
great Roman General, brought an army to
Britain, about fifty years before the birth of our
Saviour, to try to conquer the Britons also; but
thousands of British warriors went down to the
sea shore, by Dover cliffs, to fight the Romans
as soon as they landed; and they took a great
many war chariots with them, and fought so
bravely, that after two or three battles, Cesar
offered to make peace with them, and go away,
if their princes would pay tribute to the Roman
government; which they consented todo. How-
ever, the Romans thought no more about Britain
for nearly a hundred years, when they came
again, and went to war in earnest with the na-
tives, who at length were obliged to submit to
them; and Britain became a part of the Roman
Empire, just as India is at this time a part of
the British Empire.

Now this was a good thing for the Britons,
although they did not then think so; for as soon
as they left off fighting, the Romans began to
teach them all they knew, and to make a much
12 EVERY CHILD’S

better place of Britain than it had ever been
before.

As soon as a part of the country was con-
quered, some great man was sent from Rome to
govern it, and to make the people obey the Ro-
man laws. Then other great men came to live
here, and brought their families and furniture
and plate from Rome; and built fine houses, and
planted gardens, with flowers and fruit trees,
and vegetables, that were never seen here before,
for they brought the roots and seeds and young
trees with them.

At first, the Roman Governors made the
Britons pay very heavy taxes; not in money, for
they had none; but they were obliged to give a
part of their cattle, and corn, and metals, or
any thing else that they had; and to work with
the Roman soldiers at building, making roads,
draining the watery lands, and cutting down
trees, to make room for houses and gardens.
They did not hke this, and one of the tribes,
named the Iceni, who lived in that part of Britain
which is now called Norfolk and Suffolk, deter-
mined to make another effort to drive the Ro-
mans out of the country.

You will be surprised to hear that they were
headed by a woman; but there were queens
among the Britons as well as kings; and the
king of the Iceni being dead, his widow Boadi-
cea governed in his stead. She encouraged her
people to rebel against their new rulers, and led
them to battle herself, mounted in a chariot, and
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 13

armed like a warrior; but the Romans won the
battle, and the brave but unfortunate queen put
an end to her own life. After this, there was
another long war, which lasted till all the South
British tribes were subdued, and the Roman
government established all over the country,
except the north part of Scotland.

It was lucky for the Britons that a very good
Roman, named Agricola, was made governor
about this time, for he behaved so kindly that
they began to like the Romans, and to wish to
live as they did, and to know how to do al
the clever things they could do.

I should tell you that all the Roman soldiers,
were educated as engineers and builders, survey-
ors, and cultivators of land, and when not
actually engaged in fighting, they were employed
daily for four hours in some such out-of-door
labour or occupation; so, when the war was
over, they were set to work to improve the
country, and the Britons had to help them.
They made good hard broad roads, paved with
stones firmly cemented together, and set up
mile stones upon them.

The Romans had built London during the
war, and given it the name of Augusta, but the
houses were almost all barracks for the soldiers
and their families, so that it was not nearly so
handsome as York and Bath, and many other
cities that they built in place of the old British
towns. The Britons, who had never seen any
thing better than their own clay huts, must
14 ° EVERY CHILD’S

have been quite astonished at the fine houses
constructed by the Romans; who also built, in
every city, temples, theatres, and public baths,
with large rooms for people to meet in, like a
coffee house. Then, in each town, was a market
place for people to buy and sell goods, and the
Romans taught the Britons generally to use
money, which was more convenient than taking
things in exchange.

The Romans were excellent farmers, as I said
before; so they shewed the natives how to ma-
nage their land better than they had done, and
how to make many useful implements of hus-
bandry. By cutting down the forest trees, which
they used in building, they obtamed more land
for cultivation, and grew so much corn that there
was more than enough for the people in Britain,
so that a great deal was sent every year to the
Roman colonies in Germany. By degrees, the
Britons left off their old habits, and those above
the lowest rank wore the Roman dress, spoke the
Roman language, and adopted the manners and
customs of their conquerors, who treated them
as friends and equals.

There were schools opened in all the towns,
where British and Roman boys were instructed
together, and the former were all brought up to
serve in the Roman armies; for there were no
more wars among the British princes; who held
the same rank as before, but paid tribute
to the Roman Governor, and were under his au-
thority, as many of the princes of India are
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Ld

now under the authority of the English Governor
General, in India.

The Britons had to pay a great many taxes,
but they likewise enjoyed many rights, for the
Roman laws were much better laws than those
of the Druids, which were made for barbarians,
and not for civilized people, such as the Britons
had now become.

You will, perhaps, wonder what the Druids
were about all this time. The Romans did not
approve of their religion, so they put an end to
it very soon after they came here; but what be-
came of the Druids, is not exactly known. It
is supposed that many of them were killed by
the Romans in the isle of Anglesea, where the
chief Druid always resided; and that the rest
fled to Scotland, or the Isle of Man. The
Romans, however, were themselves heathens,
when they first settled in Britain, and worship-
ped a number of false gods; but their gods were
different from those of the Druids, and the
rites and ceremonies of their religion, were
different too. But, im course of time, many of
the Romans became Christians, and Christianity
was taught in Brita, where the heathen tem-
ples were converted into Christian churches,
and the Britons, as well as the Romans, at length
learned to worship the one true God.

The Romans had kept possession of Britain
for more than three hundred years, when it
happened that great armies of barbarians went
to fight against Rome, and all the soldiers were
16 EVERY CHILD’S

sent for, to try to drive them away again; so
that this country: was left unprotected, for it
was the Roman soldiers who had kept enemies
from coming here. The Britons hoped they
would come back again, as they did more than
once; but affairs got worse and worse at Rome,
so the rulers there sent word to the British
princes, that they did not wish to keep the island
any longer, therefore the Britons might con-
sider themselves a free people. But was free-
dom a blessing to them? I think we shall find
it was not.

QUESTIONS.

By whom was Britain first invaded ?

How did this invasion terminate ?

When did the Romans again appear ?

What was their success ?

Was this conquest a good or bad thing for the Britons,
and why ?

What occasioned the revolt of the Iceni ?

Who headed the insurrection, and what were its
consequences ?

Who was Agricola ?

How were the Roman soldiers em ployed i in time of peace?

Tell me of the improvements made in Britain by the
Romans?

What became of the Druids ?

When and why did the Romans leave Britain”
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 17

THE SAXON HEPTARCHY.

Tr is now time to tell you something about the
Picts and Scots. They were the people of Scot-
land, and were called by the Romans Caledoni-
ans, which meant men of the woods, because
they were very rude and fierce, and lived among
woods and wilds. They had always been sad
enemies to the Britons; but the Romans had
kept them away, and the good governor Agricola
built a row of strong forts, all across their coun-
try, and placed soldiers in them, to make tha
Caledonians keep on the other side. However,
they sometimes managed to break through; so
the Emperor Severus, who was here from the
year 207 to 21], had a stone wall built across
that narrow part, where Northumberland joins
Cumberland, and it was so strong, that parts of
the banks and forts are still remaining.

But when all the Roman soldiers were gone,
the Picts and Scots began to come again, and
robbed the people of their corn and cattle, and
stole .neiwr children for slaves, and did a great
deal of mischief. Now, if the British princes
had agreed among themselves, and jomed toge-
ther, to drive out these terrible foes, things might
have gone on very well; but they were foolish
enough to quarrel, and go to war with one ano-
ther; while some of the captains, who wanted to
be princes, got a number of soldiers to heip
them, and took possession of different places,

Cc
i8 EVERY CHILD’S

where they called themselves kings, and made the
people obey them. They did not continue the
good Roman laws; nor elect magistrates to keep
order in the cities. as used to be done while
the Romans were here; and tillage was neglect-
ed, because the farmers were afraid their crops
would be destroyed, so that numbers of people
died of famine.

There were still many Romans in Britain, who
were not soldiers, but were settled here, most of
them having married into British families; and
there were a great number of people who were
Britons by birth, but whose axcestors had been
Romans; and all these were desirous that the
country should still be governed by the Roman
laws, and formed what was called, the Roman
varty. But there was a British party also, that
wanted to do away with the Roman laws alto-
gether, and not to let the Romans have any
thing to do with ruling the country; so each of
these parties elected a king. The Britons chose
a prince named Vortigern; and the Romans
chose one called Aurelius Ambrosius; and
there was war between them.

Then Vortigern, the British kmg, thought it
‘would be a good thing to get some other brave
peopie tojoin his party, that he might be able to
overcome his rival, as well as to drive away the
Picts and Scots; so he proposed to some of the
British chiefs that they should ask the Saxons to
come and help them, and they thought it would
be a good plan.
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 19

The Saxons inhabited the north of Germany,
and parts of Holland and Denmark, which were
then poor and barren countries. Many of their
chiefs were pirates, that is, they hved by going
out on the seas to fight and plunder; nor did they
think it wicked so to do; but, on the contrary,
imagined it was brave and noble.

Two of them, Hengist and Horsa, happened
to be eruising near the British coast, when they
received a message from Vortigern; who made a
bargain with them, and offered to give them the
little island of Thanet, if they would come with
all their men, to assist him in driving out the
Picts and Scots. Thanet is that part of Kent
where Margate is now situated, but was then se-
parated by an arm of the sea, so that it wasa
small island, standing alone, nearly a mile from
the coast. The Saxons were very ready to come,
for they knew that Britain was a pleasant, fertile
country, and hoped to get some of it for them-
selves; but they did not let the Britons know
they thought of doing so.

Hengist and Horsa were very brave, and their
men were well armed, so they soon forced the
Picts and Scots to retreat to their own country;
and shortly afterwards they went to the Isle of
Thanet, which they fortified, and many more
Saxons came there to them. I cannot tell you
how the affairs of the Britons went on, or what
became of Vortigern; but this I can tell -you,
that the Saxons soon began to quarrel with the
people of Kent, and fought with them, and
20 EVERY CHILD’S

having driven most of them away, took the
land for themselves, and began to live there.
The chief who made this conquest, was Esca,
the son of Hengist, who called himself king
of Kent, which, from that time, was a small
Saxon kingdom, for the Britons never won it
back again.

Then other chiefs, hearing how Esca had suc-
ceeded, got together bands of soldiers, and landed
in different parts of the country, to try to gain
kingdoms also; but they did not all come at
once, and their conquests were made by such
slow degrees, that the wars lasted more than 150
years; so you may guess how hard the Britons
fought in defence of their liberty.

We can learn but very little about those un-
happy times, for the few histories that were then
written were mostly destroyed in these long wars;
and though songs were composed by the bards or
poets, which the people used to learn and teach to
their children, these songs were not all true.
They were mostly about the wars, and the brave
British chiefs who defended the country against
the Saxons; and if you should ever hear any
body speak of king Arthur, and the knights of
the Round Table, you may remember that he is
said to have been one of those chiefs; and, if we
may believe the tale, killed four hundred Saxons
with his own hand im one battle. Those who
made the story about him, say that the nobles
of his court were all so equal m bravery and
goodness, that he had a large round table made
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. OT

for them to feast at, that no one might sit above
another; so they were called knights of the Round
Table. But let us return to our history.

The Saxons went on making one conquest
after another, till, at last, they were 1m posses-
sion of the whole country; where very few of
the natives were left, for most of those who had
not been killed m the wars, had fled into Gaul,
or taken refuge among the Welsh mountains; so
from this time we shall hear no more of the
Britons, but must look upon the Saxons as the
people of England.

I told you how Esca had established the little
kingdom of Kent. Well, in the course of the
wars, six more kingdoms had been formed in the
same manner, by different Saxon chiefs, so that,
by the time the conquest was completed, there
were seven kingdoms in Britain, namely, Kent,
Sussex, Essex, and East Anglia, Northumbria,
Wessex, and Mercia; and this division of the
country among seven kings, was called the Saxon
Heptarchy.

The Saxons were not clever people, hke the
Romans, but were rough and ignorant, and
cared for nothing but fighting; so while the
wars were going on, they ruined and destroyed
all the beautiful and useful works that had been
done in the Roman times; for they did not un-
derstand their value, and only thought it was a
fine thing to destrov all that belonged to their
enemies. But the warks of the Romans were
very strong; for even now, when workmen are
22 EVERY CHILD’S

digging in London, and different parts of the
country, they sometimes find Roman walls, and
pavements, and foundations of houses, that show
what good architects the Romans were.

When the Saxons had got possession of the
whole country, you may perhaps suppose they
would be quiet and contented, but this was not
the case; for as long as there were separate king-
doms, they were continually at war with each
other, and the principal cause of disagreement
was, that, among the kings, there was always
one called the Bretwalda, or ruler of Britain,
who had some degree of authority over the rest;
but as any one of them might be raised to this
dignity, it was a constant source of quarrels
and warfare, until, at length, the weaker king-
doms were overcome by the more powerful ones,
and there was but one king over the whole coun-
try, which then took the name of Angleland or
England, from a particular tribe of people call-
ed the Angles, who came here in great numbers
with the Saxons.

I dare say you did not know before how
Britain came to be called England; and you
would be very much amused to hear how many
of the places in it, came by their present names.
We will take for example Norfolk and Suffolk,
which, with Cambridge, formed the kingdom of
East Anglia, and was conquered by the Angles.
Now these Angles consisted of two tribes, who
divided their conquest between them, one tribe
settling in the north part, the other in the south;
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 25

so that they were called North folk, and South
folk, and thus came the names of the two coun-
ties.

QUESTIONS.

Who were the Caledonians ?

How did they molest the Britons ?

What was the state of the country at this time ?

What was the Roman party ?

What was the British party ?

Who was Vortigern, and what did he do?

Who was Ambrosius ?

Tell me something about the Saxons.

Who were Hengist and Horsa, and how did they assist
the Britons?

What did the Saxons do after this ?

How long did it take the Saxons to conquer Britain ?

What was the Heptarchy ?

How was the country changed by the wars ?

How was the Heptarchy destroyed ?

MANNERS OF THE SAXONS.

I am now going to tell you what sort of peo-
ple the Saxons were, and how they lived after
they were quite settled in England; for you
ought to know all about them, as they were our
own ancestors, and made a great many of our
laws; and their language was English too, al-
though it has been so much altered that you
would hardly know it for the same.
D4, EVERY CHILD’S

The Saxons were not Christians when they first
came here; but thei religion was different
from that of both the Druids and heathen Ro-
mans; for they worshipped great images of
stone or wood, that they made themselves, and
called gods; and from the names of their gods
and goddesses, our names of the days of the
week are derived. At length, the bishop of
Rome, who was called the Pope, sent some
good men to persuade the Saxons to leave off
praying to wooden idols, and to worship the
true God.

These missionaries first went to Ethelbert,
king of Kent, who was then Bretwalda, and rea-
soned with him, so that he saw how wrong he
had been, and not only became a Christian him-
self, but let the missionaries go and preach
among the people, who were baptized in great.
numbers, and taught to believe in God and
Jesus Christ.

The missionaries were all priests or monks;
and some of them lived together in great houses
called monasteries, which they built upon lands
given them by the kings and nobles, on which
they also raised corn, and fed sheep and cattle.
They had brought from Rome the knowledge of
many useful arts, which they taught to the
people, who thus learned to be smiths and car-
penters, and to make a variety of things out of
metal, wood, and leather, which the Saxons did
not know how to make before. Then the priests
could read and write, which was more than the
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Q¥*®

nobles, or even the kings could do; and they used
to write books, and ornament the pages with
beautiful borders, and miniature paintings; and
the books, thus adorned, are called illuminated
manuscripts.

Still the Saxons, or English, as I shall hence-
forth call them, were very rough and ignorant as
compared with the Romans. Their churches
and houses, and even the palaces of the kings,
were rude wooden buildings, and the cottages
of the poor people were no better than the huts
of the ancient Britons. The common people
were almost all employed in cultivating the
land, and lived in villages on the different
estates to which they belonged; for the Saxon
landlords were not only the owners of the.
land, but of the people also; who were not:
at liberty, as they are now, to go where they
pleased ; neither could they buy land for them-
selves, nor have any property but what their
lords chose. I will tell you how it was.

The Saxon lords had divided all the land
amongst themselves, and had brought from
their own countries thousands of ceorls, or
poor people, dependent on them, to be their
labourers. Each family of ceorls was allowed
to have a cottage, with a few acres of land,
and to let their cattle or sheep graze on the
commons, for which, instead of paying rent,
they worked a certain number of days in each
year for their lord, and, besides, gave him a
stated portion of those things their little farms
26 EVERY CHILD’S

produced; so that whenever they killed a pig,
they carried some of it to the great house; and
the same with their fowls, eggs, honey, milk
and butter; and thus the chief’s family was well
supplied with provisions by his tenants, some
of whom took care of his sheep and herds,
cultivated his fields, and got in his harvests.
Then there were always some among them
who had learned useful trades, and thus they
did all the kinds of work their masters wanted.
Yet, with all this, the poor ceorls generally had
enough for themselves, and some to spare,
which they sold at the markets, and thus were
able to save a little money.

Their cottages were round huts, made of the
rough branches of trees, coated with clay, and
thatched with straw. They had neither windows
nor chimneys; but a hole was made in the roof
to let out the smoke from the wood fire, kindled
on a hearth in the middle of the room; and
they used to bake their barley-cakes, which
served them for bread, on these hearths, without
any oven. They made a coarse kind of cloth
for clothing from the wool of their sheep, a part
of which was also given to their lord, and was
used to clothe the servants of his household,
for the rich people got a finer cloth for them-
selves, which was brought from other countries.

Great men usually wore white cloth tunics
that reached to the knee, with broad coloured
borders, and belts round the waist. They had
short cloaks, linen drawers and black leather
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 27

shoes, with coloured bands crossed on their legs,
instead of stockings. The common people wore
tunics of coarse dark cloth, and shoes, but no
covering on the legs.

But I must tell you something more about
these country folks, who, at that time, formed
the great mass of the Enghsh population.
They were, strictly speaking, in bondage, for
they could not leave the place where they were
born, nor the master they belonged to, unless he
gave them their freedom; they were obliged to
serve as soldiers in war time, and when the
land was transferred to a new lord, the people
were transferred with it. All they had might
at any time be taken from them, and their sons
and daughters could not marry, without the
consent of their lord.

Yet these people considered themselves free,
because they could not be sold like the slaves ;
for I ought to tell you there was a lower class
of bondmen, called thralls, and there were
regular slave markets where they were bought
and sold. A landowner could sell a thrall just
as he could sell an ox; but he could not sell 2
vassal tenant, or, as they were called in the
Saxon times, a ceorl, or churl, without the
estate to ‘which he belonged. The thralls were
employed to do the hardest and meanest work,
had nothing of their own, and were as badly
off as the poor negro slaves used to be in the
West Indies, before they were made free.
28 EVERY CHILD’S

The houses of the great men were very like
large barns, and each house stood om an open
space of ground, enclosed by a wall of earth and
a ditch, within which there were stacks of hay
and corn, sheds for the horses and cattie, and
huts for the thralls to sleep m. ‘The principal
room was a great hall, strewed with rushes, and
furnished with long oak tables and benches.
The windows were square holes crossed with
thin laths, called lattices, and the fire-place was
a stone hearth in the middle of the earthen
floor, on which they used to burn great logs
of wood, and let the smoke go out at a hole
in the roof.

But the great people often had merry doings
in these halls, for they were fond of feasting,
and used to sit at the long wooden tables, with-
out table cloths, and eat out of wooden platters
or trenchers with their fingers. Boiled meats
and fish, usually salted, were put on the table
in great wooden dishes, but roast meats were
brought in on the spits on which they were
cooked, and handed round by the thralls, to the
company, who helped themselves with knives
which they carried at their girdles. There was
plenty of ale, and among the richest, wine also,
which they drank out of horn cups; and when
the meats were taken away, they used to drink
and sing, and Play on the harp, and often had
tumblers, jugglers, and minstrels to amuse them.
Then the visitors used to lie down on the floor
to sleep, covered with their cloaks; for very tew
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 29

people had bedsteads, and the only beds were a
kind of large bags, or bed-ticks, filled with
straw, and blocks of wood for pillows.

Such were the rough manners of our Saxon
forefathers, who were, however, in some respects
a good sort of people, and you will be sorry for
them by and by, when you read how the Nor-
mans came, and took away their lands, and
made slaves of them. But I must first tell you
what happened in the Saxon times, after the
Heptarchy was broken up, and there was only
one king of England.

QUESTIONS.

How were the Saxons converted to Christianity ?
By what means did they learn many useful arts ?
What was the condition of the common people ?
Describe the cottages of the poor.

How did the Saxons dress ?

What were ceorls? and what were thralls?
Describe the house of a Saxon chief?

THE DANES AND ALFRED THE GREAT,

It was nearly 380 years after the first Saxons
came here with their two pirate chiefs, Hengist
and Horsa, that England began to have only
‘one king. There were still some other princes,
who bore that title, but they had so little power,
that they could hardly be called kings; so that
a brave prince, named Egbert, who conquered
D
30 EVERY CHILD’S

the last kingdom of the Heptarchy, is usually
called the first king of England. The civil wars
were thus, for a time, ended; but it seemed as
if the English were never to be Jong at peace, for
they now had some terrible enemies to contend
with, who kept the country in constant alarm.
These were the Danes, who came from Den-
mark, Norway, and Sweden, and were almost
the same people as the Saxons; for they spoke
the same language, followed the same customs,
and lived by piracy, as the Saxons did in former
times.

I have not room to tell you of half the mis-
chief they did in England. Sometimes they
would land suddenly from their boats in the
night, when the affrighted people were awakened
by a ery of, “The Danes! the Danes!” and,
starting up, perhaps, beheld their villages in
fiames; and, as they ran in terror from their
cottages, were either killed or dragged away to
the pirate vessels, with the cattle and any thing
else that could be found, and made slaves.

Egbert had fought a battle with them in
Cornwall, and forced them to depart; bet,
during the reign of Ethelwulf, the next king,
and three of his sons, they not only attacked
the towns and villages on the sea-coast, but
used to seize the horses and ride about the
country in search of plunder. They broke into
the monasteries, where the people often put
their money and jewels for safety; and if the
inmates made any resistance they would set the
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. ol
puilding on fire. Then they set up fortified
camps, in many places; that is, a number of
tents, arranged together, like a town surrounded
with a wall and ditch; and thus a great many
of the Danes established themselves in the coun-
try, and conquered all the northern part of it.
This was the sad state of affairs when Alfred the
Great came to the throne.

I dare say you have heard of this good prince,
who was the youngest and favourite son of king
Ethelwulf, for he was the cleverest and best.
His mother, being an accomplished lady, tried
to teach all her sons to read; but none of them
would learn except Alfred, who afterwards went
to Rome to study Latin, and learn to write,
so that he was a good scholar for those times.
His three brothers had all reigned in turn, and
were all dead by the time he was twenty-two.
years old, therefore he was then heir to the
crown; but, instead of being able to think
about the best way of governing the country,
he was obliged to get together as many soldiers
as he could, and go out with them to fight the
Danes. There was no regular army then, as
there is now; but, when the king wanted sol-
diers, he sent to all the noblemen and land-
holders in the kmgdom, who were obliged to
come themselves and bring so many men with
them, according to the size of their estates,
some on horseback, some on foot, and all well
armed.

You must remember that people could not buy
32 EVERY CHILD’s

Jand then for money, nor have it for paying rent;
but large estates were given to the thanes and
nobles by the king, on condition that they should
perform certain services for him; and you have
already seen how the vassals of the nobles held
their little farms on similar terms. This was
called the feudal system, which means, holding
land for services instead of rent; and the per-
son holding the land was called the vassal of
him to whom it belonged, whether rich or poor,
so the nobles were the vassals of the king, and
the ceorls were the vassals of the nobles.

I think you now understand what the feudal
system was, therefore I shall proceed with the
history of Alfred the Great.

The war had gone on for several years, and
the king was so unfortunate that, at last, he was
obliged to hide himself in a woody marsh in So-
mersetshire, called the Isle of Athelney, because
it was surrounded by bogs and rivers. The Danes
were then in pursuit of him; and, one time, fear-
ing to be taken prisoner, he got some man to let
him keep his cows, or pigs, I do not know which;
so that, if the Danes happened to see him, they
might not guess who he was. I dare say, you
have heard the story of this peasant’s wife scold-
ing Alfred one day, for letting some cakes burn,
which she had left to bake on the hearth, whilst
she was out; but she did nct know that he was
the king, or, of course, she would not have taken
that hberty.

At last, Alfred heard there were many chiefs
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 33

and noblemen, with their vassals, ready to join
him again; so he determined to try another
battle, but thought 1t would be prudent first to
learn what was the real strength of the enemy.
Now the Danes, like the Saxons, were fond of
good cheer, and liked to have songs and music
to make them merry while they were feasting ;
and this put it ito Alfred’s head to go inio
their camp disguised as a harper, for he could
play the harp and sing very well. So away he
went, with his harp at his back, and, when he
came there, the Danish chiefs had lim called
into their tents, and made him sit down and
play to them, and gave him plenty to eat and
drink. Then he heard them talking about king
Alfred, and saying, they supposed he was dead,
as he did not come to fight them, so they need
think of nothing but enjoying themselves; and
thus he discovered they were not prepared for a
battle, and were almost sure to be defeated, if
taken’ by surprise.

He, therefore, left the camp as soon as he
could, and sent a message to his friends to meet
him in Selwood Forest, also in Somersetshire,
with all the men they could muster; and, when
they were all come, he put himself at their head,
and, marching suddenly down upon the Danes,
fought and won a great battle at Ethandune, a
place in Gloucestershire, now called Woeful
Danes’ Bottom, from the terrible slaughter ot
the Danes there.

But there were a great many Danes in Eng-
oA EVERY CHILD’S

land, who had not been engaged in this battle,
and who had possession of almost all the north-
ern part of the country; so the king wisely
considered that it would be much better to in-
duce them to settle peaceably in the country as
friends, rather than prolong those dreadful wars,
which had already caused so much misery.

He, therefore, proposed to the Danish chief
that, if he would promise to keep at peace, he
should have a wide tract of country, which had
been desolated by these wars, all along the east
coast, from the river Tweed to the river Thames,
for himself and his people, to be called the Dane
land; so Guthrun, the Danish chief, accepted
the offer, and parcelled the land out amongst his
followers, who settled there with their vassals,
and lived in the same manner as the Saxons.

You may think how glad the people were that
the wars were over, and the king was very glad
too, for he now had time to do what was more
pleasant to him than fighting, which was, to do
all the good he could for the country. He thought
the best way to defend it against its enemies
was to have good ships to keep them from land-
ing; but, as the English did not know much
about ship- building, he sent for men from Italy
to teach them, and also had models of ships
brought that they might see how they were con-
structed, and men were taught to manage them,
so that England, for the first time, had a navy.

These ships were called galleys, and were
worked both with oars and sails, they were twice
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 35

as long as those of the Danes, and stood higher
out of the water. While some workmen were
making ships, others were employed in rebuilding
of the towns and villages that had been burned
down by the Danes; and the king ordained that
there should be schools in different parts of the
kingdom, where noblemen’s sons might be edu-
cated, for he had found the benefit of learning
himself, and thought it a sad thing that all the
great men should be so ignorant as they were.

You may, perhaps, wonder why so good a
man as Alfred should only think of having the
great people taught to read; but, reading would
have been of no use to the common people, as
the art of printing was unknown, and there were
no books but those written by the monks or nuns,
which were so expensive that none but very rich
people could afford to have even two or three
of them. The principal school founded by king
Alfred was at Oxford, which was then a small,
poor place, with a monastery, and a few mean
wooden houses for the scholars to live in, very
different from the present grand university, and
the masters, who were all churchmen, and called
Jearned clerks, resided in the monastery.

Alfred, with the help of some good and clever
men, whom he consulted in every thing, made
some very wise laws, and obliged the people to
obey them, by having courts of justice held in
the principal cities, regularly once a month; for
nobody had thought much about law or justice
either, while the wars were going on, so that
36 EVERY CHILD'S

there was need of some very strict regulations
to restore good order, without which there can
be neither happiness nor comfort any where.
Under the good government of Alfred the Great,
England enjoyed more peace and prosperity
than it had known since the days of the Romans;
and as his son and grandson both endeavoured
to follow his example, the influence of his wis-
dom was felt long after his death, which hap-
pened when he was about fifty years old, in the
year 900.

QUESTIONS.

Who was called first king of England?

Who were the Danes, and what was their mode of
invasion ?

How did they establish themselves in the country?

Who went to war with them ?

How was an army raised in those times?

What was the feudal system ?

What happened to Alfred?

What was the battle of Ethandune?

How did Alfred make friends of the Danes?

How was a navy first formed ?

Which of our universities was founded by Alfred the Great?

FROM THE DEATH OF ALFRED TO
THE NORMAN CONQUEST.

ALFRED was succeeded by his son Edward, who
was avery good king, though not so clever as his
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 37

father. He built walls round a great many of the
towns, to defend them, in case the Danes should
come again ; for, although so many of them were
living quietly in the country, those who did
not live here were still enemies, and the resi-
dent Danes were always ready to join their coun-
trymen. But they could not do much mischief
while Edward was king, or in the reign of his
brave son Athelstan, who was almost as great a
prince as Alfred himself. He knew that com-
merce was one of the best things in the world
for any country, so he had more ships built, and
sent them to trade with foreign countries; and
he said that, when any man had made three
voyages in a vessel of his own, he should be
made a Thane; which was the same as knight-
ing a gentleman i in these days.

There were no shops in England at this time,
but the people bought every thing they wanted
at markets and fairs; and they used to salt a
great deal of their meat and fish, that it might
keep a long time. In buying and selling, they
sometimes used slaves and cattle, instead of
money, a man slave being worth a pound of sil-
ver, and an ox worth a quarter of a pound, whick
was called five shillings, as a shilling was the
twentieth part of a pound in weight. If a noble-
man, therefore, wanted to buy any thing of two
pounds value, he could pay for it with two of
his thralls, or eight oxen, and the seller was
obliged to take them; but he could sell them
again directiy ; for I am sorry to say there were
38 EVERY CHILD’S

slave markets in England till some time after
the Norman Conquest.

Athelstan had a good deal of fighting to do,
for the people of the Daneland revolted, and he
was obliged to lead his soldiers into their terri-
tory, to bring them to order; and then he had
to march against Howel, the Prince of Wales,
who was defeated in battle, when Athelstan no-
bly gave him back his dominions, saying, “ There
was more glory in making a king than in de-
throning one.”

E shall not mention all the kings that reigned
after Athelstan, because there were many of
them who did nothing that is worth telling
about; but I must speak of a great churchman,
named Dunstan, who was Archbishop of Can-
terbury, and, for several reigns, ruled the whole
country, for the kings and nobles were obliged
to do just as he pleased. He was a very clever
man, and so good a worker in metals that he
made jewellery and bells, and gave them to some
of the churches, which was considered an act of
piety; for it was about this time that bells began
to be used in England, and they were highly
valued. Dunstan persuaded the kings and rich
noblemen, to rebuild the monasteries that had
been plundered and destroyed by the Danes, and
endow them with lands; so that, at last, nearly
one-third of all the landed property in the king-
dom belonged to the clergy.

There was a kmg named Edgar, the fourth
after Athelstan, who did many useful things for
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. og

the country; and, among others, he thought of
a plan to destroy the wolves,which were so nu-
merous in all the forests, that the people were
in constant alarm for the safety of their sheep,
and even of their little children. Edgar, there-
fore, ordered that each of the princes of Wales,
who had to pay tribute to the kings of England,
should send, instead of money, three hundred
wolves’ heads every year; so they were obliged
to employ huntsmen to go into the woods to kill
those dangerous animals, which were so gene-
rally destroyed in a few years that they have
seldom been found in England ever since. Then
Edgar kept the Danes away by having as many
as three hundred and sixty vessels always ready
for service; but, when he and Dunstan were
dead, the navy was neglected, and the country
was again overrun with those terrible enemies,
who fought with the English every where, robbed.
them of their property, took their honses for
themselves, and acted just as if they were the
conquerors and lords of the land.

At last, the Danish king, Sweyn, landed with
a great army, and began a dreadful war with
Kthelred, who was then king of England, that
lasted about four years, in the course of which
he and Ethelred both died; but the war was con-
tmued by Canute, the son of Sweyn, and with
such success, that, m the end, he was crowned
king of England.

It was lucky for the English that Canute hap-
pened to be a wise and eood prnce; for he said
40 EVERY CHILD’S

to himself, “ As I am now king of these peopie,
I will behave kindly to them, that they may love
me, and then we shall all go on comfortably to-
gether.” So he began to repair the mischief
that had been done in the late wars, by setting
people to work to rebuild the towns that had
been destroyed; which was soon done in those
days, when the houses were so roughly built,
and only of wood. He also made a law that the
Danes should not rob and insult the English, as
they had been in the habit of doing; and ordered
that they should obey the other laws of the coun-
try; which he did not alter in the least; neither
did he interfere with the estates of the nobles,
nor with their nights over their vassals; and he
consulted with the Witanagemote, or Parliament,
‘in all affairs of importance.

This Parliament was composed of the great
nobles and the bishops, so that it was like our
House of Lords; and, when the king made a
new law, the people were not obliged to obey it,
until it had been approved by the Witanage-
mote. As long as Canute reigned, which was
nineteen years, there was peace and plenty, and
the poor people were much happier than they
had been for a long time, for they could stay at
home and mind their farms, or work at their
trades, without being called away continually to
fight the Danes. The king, it is true, kept a
large army of Danish soldiers, and the people
had to pay heavy taxes to support them; but
this was better than seeing them come as ene-
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Al

mies into the towns and villages to destroy or
take every thing.

After the death of Canute, his two sons
reigned in succession, but they were neither
very good nor very clever, and both died within
six years. All this while, there was a Saxon
prince, named Edward, son of king Ethelred,
living at the court of the Duke of Normandy,
who was his uncle, and had afforded him shel-
ter and protection whilst his enemies were rul-
ing in England. He was now restored to the
throne, and the English people thought them-
selves happy in having again a king of their
own nation; but they little foresaw the terrible
consequences of placing over them one who had
formed so close a connection with the Normans.
Edward was attached to the Normans, for they
had been kind to him in his misfortunes; but it
was neither wise nor just to bring a great num-
ber of them to his court, and set them up above
his own countrymen, by giving them the highest
appointments in the government, which, of
course, gave offence to the English noblemen.

Edward was called the Confessor, because he
spent much of his time in devotion, from a mis-
taken sense of religious duty. I call it mistaken,
because God does not require that we should
neglect all other duties for this one, but has
given us plenty of time to pray and go to church
and read good books, besides doing every thing
else that we ought todo. Edward the Confessor
rebuilt Westminster Abbey, which was founded
42 EVERY CHILD’S

during the Heptarchy; but this building was
pulled down about 160 years afterwards, by
Henry the Third, who erected the present edifice
in its place.

But I was going to tell you what happened
im consequence of the king’s attachment to the
Normans. His uncle was dead, and his cousin
William, a bold spirited prince, who was now
Duke of Normandy, came over to England to:
visit the king, and see what sort of a place it
was. He brought a great many noblemen with
him, and it seems they all liked the country so
much that the Duke thought he should lke to
be its king, and his friends thought they should
like to get good estates here; so king Edward
was persuaded to make a will, or give his pro-
mise, that, when he died, his cousin William,
who was more than twenty years younger chan
himself. should be his successor. The English
lords knew nothing about this at the time, but
they had reason enough to know it afterwards,
as you will presently find.

Edward the Confessor died at the beginning
of the year 1066, when Harold, his wife’s bro-
ther, a brave and popular nobleman, took pos-
session of the throne, with the consent of the
chief nobles and clergy.

QUESTIONS.

Who succeeded Alfred ?
How did he provide for the safety of the people.
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 40

Who was the next king?

How was trade encouraged by him?

Tell me the way of making purchases at this period..

Were there any wars in the reign of Athelstan ?

Who was Dunstan ?

Who was Canute, and how did he obtain the throne 2

What were the chief acts of Canute ?

What was the Witenagemote?

How long did Canute reign ?

What was the general state of the country under his
government ?

Who succeeded Canute ?

How was the Saxon government restored ?

How did the king displease his subjects?

Why was Edward called the Confessor ?

What was the consequence of is attachment to the
Normans?

When did Edward die, and who ..xucceeded him ?

THE NORMAN CONQUEST.

As soon as the Duke of Normandy knew that
Edward the Confessor was dead, and Harold
made king, he called his friends together, and
promised tc bestow lands and honours in Eng-
land on all who would assist him to win the
crown ; which, he said, was his by right, and that
Harold was an usurper. Now this is a doubt-
ful question; for, although the king could ap-
point a successor, if he thought proper; yet it
was necessary that his choice should have the
4A, EVERY CHILD’S

approval of the Witenagemote, which had not
been given in this case; so the Iinglish said
that, notwithstanding king Edward’s will, the
Duke of Normandy had no right to the throne.
I cannot pretend to say which was right; but,
as itis of more consequence to know how the
dispute ended, we will proceed to the history of
the Conquest.

The Normans were great warriors; so that
even many of the clergy would sometimes put
on armour under their robes, and lead their own
vassals to battle; and they had as much interest
in the dispute as the nobles, for they expected
to come into possession of some of the Bishops’
sees and rich abbeys, and abbey lands, provided
Duke William should succeed in his enter-
prise.

While all this was goimg on in Normandy,
Harold’s brother, Tosti, had raised a rebellion
in the north of England, and was joined by the
king of Norway, who landed with an army in
Yorkshire: so Harold had to go and fight with
them, and there was a great battle at Stamford
Bridge, where the king gained a complete vic-
tory. Two or three days after this he was enjoy-
ing himself at a great feast, at York, when news
was brought to him that the Normans had landed
in Sussex, where they were doing all manner of
mischief, driving the people away from the towns
and villages, and taking every thing they could
lay their hands on. The king made all the
haste he could to get his soldiers together, and
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Ay

began his march to oppose the invaders, but it
took nearly a fortnight to get to where they
were; and all that time the invaders were mak-
ing dreadful havoc for miles round their camp,
so that the terrified people fled to the weods, or
shut themselves up in the churches, for fear of
being killed.

At last, Harold came, and a battle was fought
near Hastings, on the 14th of October, 1066,
where the king and two of his brothers, with a
ereat many of the English nobles, were slain,
and the conqueror from that day looked upon
himself as master of the country.

But the English had seen enough of the Nor-
mans to know they should be very badly treated
if they once suffered a Norman government to
be established, so they resolved to do their ut-
most to prevent it, and thus the Normans had
to fight for every town, and castle, before it was
given up to them.

William had marched to London, and laid
siege to it, soon after the Battle of Hastings,
and the people having submitted to him, he was
crowned in Westminster Abbey, on Christmas
Day. A few of the English nobles went to offer
their submission, that is, they. agreed to obey
him as their king, since he had promised that all
who did so should be permitted to enjoy their
rank and property undisturbed. But it was only
a few who: trusted to these promises, and they
were deceived in the end, for it is almost certain
that the Conqueror intended, from the first, to

EO
46 EVERY CHILD’S

take every thing from the English to give to
the Normans. I mean the English lords; for he
meant to make the common people remain on
the estates to which they belonged, that the new
masters, might have vassals and slaves to culti-
vate their lands. Now the poor people did not
like this any more than the nobles themselves,
so they fought bravely for their masters in many
places ; but it was all to no purpose; for, at the
end of seven years, the Normans were in pos-
sesion of all the land in the country, and most
of its former lords had either been killed, or
were reduced to such a state of poverty and
wretchedness that it is melancholy to think of.

I will not attempt to describe the sufferings
of the people during that long period, but you
may imagine how very miserable they must have
been, for the Normans got the better of them
all over the country, and took delight in rob-
bing and insulting their unhappy victims. I
told you that the design of the Conqueror was
to take all the land, and divide it among his
followers, except what he chose to keep for him-
self, as crown lands. Now there were many
Saxon ladies who possessed estates, in conse-
quence of their fathers or brothers having been
killed at the battle of Hastings; and most of
these heiresses were compelled, against their will,
to marry Norman lords, who thus gained lands
as well as brides. Then the estates of all those
who had not submitted to the king were de-
clared to be forfeited, and William gave them to
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 47

the Normans, or, more properly speaking, he
gave the Barons leave to take them by force; so
the English lords had to fight for their houses.
and lands, and many were killed, and many fled
to other countries: The rustics, on these for-
feited estates, would fight for their lord to the
last ; but, when he was forced to yield, they had
no choice but to submit to the new lord, or to.
see their cottages set on fire, and their wives
and children perhaps murdered before their eyes.
Some of the English nobles hid in the forests.
with their families, and as many of their vassals
as would go with them, where they made habit-
ations, and supported themselves by robbery and
hunting; and this was the origin of the numer-
ous bands of robbers that, in after times, were
the terror of the country. The famous Robin
Hood, who lived in the reign of Richard the
First, is supposed to have been a descendant of
one of these unfortunate English nobles.

The Bishops’ sees and abbey lands were seized
in the same violent manner as the estates of the
nobles, and given to the Norman clergy; and
many of the monasteries, after being broken
open and plundered, were taken for the abode
of monks who came over from Normandy in
great numbers. ‘The Normans built a great
many castles in different parts of the country;
and, if they wanted to build one on a spot where
there happened to be houses, they thought no-
thing of turning out the inhabitants, and pul-.
ling down the houses, to make room: and they
48 EVERY CHILD’S

pressed the poor people, both men and women,
to do all the labour, without pay, and treated
them very cruelly besides; for, if they did not
work hard enough, these unfeeling taskmasters
would urge them on with blows. Then wher-
ever the Norman soldiers stayed, they went and
lived in the houses of the people, took what they
pleased, and made the family wait upon them.

The king, himself, cruelly laid waste different
parts of the country in revenge for the opposi-
tion made to his progress by some of the English
earls, especially in the north, where, about three
years after the battle of Hastings, such a scene
of desolation was made by fire and sword, that,
from York to Durham, the houses, the people, and
all signs of cultivation, were utterly destroyed.
The last stand made against the Normans was
ia a little island, formed by bogs and lakes, in
Cambridgeshire, and still called the Isle of Ely.
There, a brave chief, named Hereward, set up a
fortified camp, and was joined by other noble-
men, and many of their dependents, who, with
the ceorls, or tenants, belonging to the Abbey
of Ely, made quite an army. It was a secure
place of refuge, because the only safe paths into
the island were unknown to the Normans, who
would most likely have been lost in the bogs, if
they had ventured to approach. But they had
built a castle close by, at Cam Bridge, and they
brought boats and tried to make causeways by
which they might get into the camp of refuge;
but the English would go out in bands at night
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 49

and destroy all that their enemies had done,
and kept constantly on the watch for straggling
parties, who were often attacked unawares, and
many of them killed, while the Enghsh could
always retreat to their camp, where they were
safe from pursuit.

At last, the Normans established a blockade
of boats round the island, and provisions began
to get scarce within it; so two or three bad self-
ish men, who lived in the abbey, went to the
Normans, at Cam Bridge, and said, they would
show them the way into the island, if they would
promise not to meddle with the abbey. These
men led the Normans secretly into the island,
and a terrible battle was fought, in which al-
most all the English were killed.

When Hereward saw it was useless to fight
any longer, he made his escape, and went to his
own castle of Bourn, in Lincolnshire; where I
believe, he afterwards made peace with the king,
and was allowed to keep his estate. I have given
you a long history of the Conquest, because it
was the most important event that ever occurred
in the history of England, and was the last sudden
and violent change made in this country by
foreign invasion.

QUESTIONS.

Jixplain the cause of the Norman invasion ?
What was the battle of Hastings, and where was it fought ?
Did the English make any further resistance ?
50 EVERY CHILD’S

How long was it before the conquest was completed ?
How did many of the Norman lords obtain their estates ?
What became of the English nobles ?

How were the monasteries disposed of ?

How were the English treated by the Norman soldiers ?
What was the Camp of Refuge, and by whom established?
How was the Camp destroyed ? ~

What became of Hereward ?

THE NORMAN PERIOD.

Tue Normans were a cleverer people than the
English, and lived in a superior manner. They
were better acquainted with the arts of agricul-
ture and architecture, and they knew a great
deal more about useful gardening; for all
the convents in Normandy had good gardens,
planted with vegetables and herbs; and the
monks brought over plenty of seeds and roots
to sow or plant in gardens here. The Normans
built stone castles, and strong houses of timber,
with upper stories, so that their dwellgs, in
general, were higher and more substapfial than
those of the Saxons; and one greaf improve-
ment was that they had chimneys; but their
furniture was as rough and clumsy as the fur-
niture used in the Saxon times, and thelr way
of living was almost the same, except that they
did not care so much about feasting, but pre-
rorred spending their time in hunting, hawking,
and fighting in sport, for pastime.
HISTORY OF ENGLAND, 5t

i should here tell you that Wilham the Con-
queror made the first game laws, and very severe
they were, and very hard upon the poor people,
who used to be at lberty to kill game in the
forests; but, after these new laws, they dared
not so much as take even a hare or a partridge
in their own fields. It was not only the English,
who were forbidden to hunt on the royal do-
mains, but the Normans also, unless they had
especial leave to do so; and, if any one was bold
enough to kill a deer in the king’s forests, he
was punished in the most cruel manner, by hav-
ing his eyes put out, or his hands cut off.

The king’s palace was at Winchester, and he
wanted to have a forest close by for hunting, so
he ordered that all the towns and villages should
be pulled down for about thirty miles, and the
land planted with trees; and, what was worse,
he gave nothing to the poor people for turning
them out of their homes; and this is still called
the New Forest. In imitation of this bad ex-
ample, many of the nobles began to make large
parks, enclosed with walls, to keep deer, and
they cared no more than William had done
about taking away the fields and pasture lands
of the poor cottagers, who dared not complain.
and were even obliged to run to their doors.
with refreshments to offer to the Norman lords
and their followers when they were out hunting,
although they often saw them riding over thei
corn, and breaking through their hedges.

It was not till after several reions that the
52 EVERY CHILD’S

descendants of the Norman Conquerors began
to consider themselves Englishmen, and to treat
their vassals more like fellow countrymen. The
first hundred years after the conquest is there-
fore usually called the Norman period, and in-
cludes the reigns of Wilham the Conqueror,
William Rufus, Henry the First, and Stephen.

I have already told you that the Feudal sys-
tem was brought into England by the Saxons,
and I explained what it was; but I must now
mention that this system was carried much far-
ther by the Normans, that is, their feudal laws
were stricter, and the nobles themselves were
bound by them as well as the common people.

I should wish you to understand this as clearly
as possible, because the manners and customs
of the age were governed entirely by those laws.
First, then, the king was lord of the land, and
kept a great portion of it for himself, which made
what were called crown lands; and all the people,
who lived on the crown lands, whether in burgh,
town, or country, were his tenants, and paid him
rent, or taxes, both in money and produce, be-
sides being obliged to furnish him with soldiers
at their own expense. For example, if a town
had to find two or more horse-soldiers, the inha-
bitants were, besides, obliged to pay the expenses
of their arms, horses, and maintenance, for the
time they were on service. The Manors and
Abbey lands were held of the king on the same
conditions ; and every man, who had a certain
quantity of land, was bound either to serve as
a soidier himseif, or sen? a substitute.
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 58

The rest of the country was divided by the
king amongst the great barons, who agreed, in
return, that whenever he went to war they
would go with him, and take with them so
many men, properly armed and trained for war-
fare, perhaps fifty or a hundred, or even more,
according to the extent of lands ke they held.
These great Baronies were called Feods, and
the king was the feodal or feudal lord of the
barons, who were called crown vassals; and,
when any one of them died, the king took the
lands again until the heir paid him a large sum
of money to redeem them. Some of the kings
behaved very ill in this, m making the heirs
pay a great deal more than was just; and, if a
baron died, and left a daughter only, she was
obliged to marry any one the king chose, or he
would not let her have her inheritance at all.
The feudal laws were therefore very bad, because
they gave men the power of being tyrants to
each other; for the nobles had the same power
of oppressing their vassals that the king had of
oppressing them.

You must understand that the great Barons,
who held very extensive domains, gave small
estates out of them to men who were not so
high m rank as themselves, on the same con-
ditions as the king had given the large baronies
to them, so that the lesser nobles were the vas-
sals of the great ones, and were bound to aid
them with men and money when required. Then
all the nobles, from the highest to the lowest de-

F
54 EVERY CHILD’S

gree, were the absolute lords of all the common
people that dwelt on thei lands, and could
make them do just whatever they pleased, as I
told you they could in the Saxon times; but
then the Norman lords treated them, at first, a
great deal more harshly than the Saxon lords.
did, and took a great deal more from them.
After the Norman conquest they were called
villeins, which meant villagers, and they lived in
the same manner, and had the same kind of
duties to perform for their lords, as in the Saxon
times; but there were many new feudal customs
brought here by the Normans; as for example,
a mill was set up on every estate, to which all
the poor people were obliged to take their corn
to be ground, instead of grinding it at home
with hand-mills, as they used to do; and, out of
each measure, a part was taken for the baron,
which was a very hard tax upon them, especially
if they had large families. Another feudal cus-
tom was this: a duty was laid on every thing
sold at the fairs and markets; that is, if a man
went to the market to buy a sheep, he must pay
so much for the sheep, and so much for duty,
the duty being for the baron, or lord of the
manor. There were a great many other customs
which I have not room to mention, but I think
I have said enough to show you what the feudal
system was in the first ages after the Norman
conquest; so now I will tell you something
about the first Norman sovereigns.

William the Conqueror died in 1087, and was
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 55

succeeded by his eldest son, Robert, in Nor-
mandy, and by his second son, William Rufus, in
England; but after a time Duke Robert wanted
money to go to the Holy Wars, which I will tell
you about presently, so he mortgaged his duchy
of Normandy to his brother Wiliam, who thus
became sovereign of both countries, as his father
had been. He was a sad tyrant, and so rude in
his manners that nobody liked him. I told you
what strict game laws were made by the Con-
queror, but William Rufus made them more
severe still, and so displeased the noblemen, by
forbidding them to hunt without his leave, that
some of them formed a conspiracy to dethrone
him; but the plot was discovered, and the Earl
of Northumberland, who was at the head of it,
was taken prisoner, and confined in Windsor
Castle all the rest of his life.

There was another great lord, the Count d’ Eu,
who was accused of being engaged in this plot,
by a knight called Geoffrey Bainard, so the king
had him arrested. ‘The Count, however, denied
having any thing to do with it, and said he
defied his accuser, and was ready to fight with
him, and that God would give the victory to
whichever of them was in the right. So they
fought with swords, in the presence of the king
and court, when Bainard was victorious, and
the Count being thus convicted, was condemned
to have his eyes torn out. This was a strange
way for a man to prove his innocence of any
erime, but it became a common custom in Eng-
56 EVERY CHILD’S

land, and was called “ Wager of battle.” Even
law-suits, respecting right of property, were often
thus decided; and, if a lady had a quarrel or a
lawsuit, she might get a man to do battle for
her, and he was called her champion.

It was the fashion for many ages, not only in
England, but all over Europe, for young men of
noble birth to roam about the world in search
of adventures; and, as they were generally poor
and depended chiefly on their swords for sub-
sistence, they would engage in any body’s quar-
rels ; fight in the cause of women or children who
were either injured or oppressed, and enlist in
the service of princes and barons who were at
war. This was called chivalry, and these knights
errant, or wandering knights, were made wel-
come wherever they went, and treated with hos-
pitality at the castles of the great.

Numbers of them went to the Holy Wars,
but, as I suppose you do not know what the Holy
Wars were, I will tell you about them. Many
pious Christians in those days thought it a duty to
make a journey, or pilgrimage as it was called, to
Jerusalem, once in their lives, to say their prayers
at our Saviour’s tomb; but Jerusalem had been
conquered by the Mahomedans, who hated the
Christians, and behaved very cruelly to the pil-
grims; so the Pope, who you know is the great
Bishop of Rome, and at that time had more
authority over all the countries of Europe than
the kings had, said that it was the duty of all
Christian warriors to go to Palestine, or the
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 57

Holy Land, to fight against the Saracens, and try
to drive them from Jerusalem. Then a religi-
ous man, called Peter the Hermit, went about
preaching a crusade, that is, exhorting the
princes and nobles in France, Germany, and
Italy, to undertake this war, which was called a
crusade, or croisade, because the ensign on their
banners was to be the Cross.

Robert, Duke of Normandy, was among the
first crusaders, and, as he wanted money to keep
himself and all the fighting men he took with
him, he pledged his duchy to his brother, Wil-
liam Rufus, for a very large sum. The English
did not join in these wars, at first, but after a
time there was scarcely a knight or noble in the
land that did not go to the Crusades, for they
were continued, im all, more than two hundred
years; and, during that time, great numbers of
the lower order of people in England were
freed from bondage, in consequence of being
allowed to purchase their liberty to supply their
lords with money for these wars.

Wilbam Rufus, who was killed by accident as
he was hunting in the New Forest, was suc-
ceeded by his brother, Henry the First, sur-
named Beauclerk, because he was a learned
man, who behaved much better to the Saxon
English than the two former kings had done,
and restored to some of the old families a part
of their ancient possessions. He likewise al-
tered the forest laws, which had given so much
discontent, and gave the citizens of London

FS
58 EVERY CHILD’S

leave to hunt in Epping Forest, which then
reached very nearly to the walls of the city.

Winchester was then the capital of England,
but London was one of the best cities and the
richest, as many of its inhabitants were mer-
chants who traded with foreign countries; yet
the houses were only mean wooden buildings,
with no glass in the windows, and thatched
with straw. Westminster was quite a separate
city, and divided from London by country-
houses, fields, and a village. The king had a
palace at Westminster, and William Rufus built
Westminster hall adjoining it, for his Christmas
feasts.

A curious privilege was granted by Henry the
First to the citizens of London, which will serve
to show you what grievances the people were
subject to m those times. There were a great
number of persons who were employed in vari-
ous ways about the court, and who followed the
king wherever he went; for great men, when
they travelled, were obliged to take every thing
they wanted with them, there being no public
accommodation to be had any where; so they
carried with them waggon loads of furniture,
plate, wine, cooking utensils, and I do not know
what besides; with their domestics and retainers.
of all descriptions, who formed a numerous re-
tinue. Now, the inhabitants of any city, where
the king happened to be holding his court, were
obliged to give board and lodging, at free cost,
to all these people, who generally behaved very
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 5G

ill; for they would insist upon having the best
rooms, order whatever they chose, and treat the
family just as if they were their servants. It
was, therefore, a very good thing for the Lon-
doners when king Henry released them from
this heavy burthen, but all other towns had to
bear it for a very long period.

In this reign the first manufactory for wool-
len cloth was established im this country, by
some weavers from Flanders, where the best
cloth was made from English wool, which was
the staple commodity of England at that period ;
I mean, the thing of which they had most to
sell; for quantities of sheep were reared on
every estate, more for the sake of wool, than
mutton, as the large landowners made a great
deal of money by trading in wool. England
had no manufactures then, so there were no
employments for the lower classes but agricul-
ture, and the few useful arts, that were but very
imperfectly understood.

Henry the First died in the year 1135. He
left the crown to his daughter Matilda, who had
been twice married; first, to the Emperor of
Germany, and again to Geoffrey Plantagenet,
Karl of Anjou, who was dead also, therefore she
was again a widow. But there was a nephew of
the late king, named Stephen, who was rather a
favourite among the Barons, and was quite wi!-
ling to take advantage of their good will; so,
before Matilda could reach England, her cousin
Stephen had mounted the throne. Then there
60 EVERY CHILD’S

was a civil war in this country, which was car-
ried on, at times, for fifteen years, for a great
many French noblemen came here with Matilda
to fight for her; and some of the English Ba-
rons, who had become dissatisfied with Stephen,
because he had not done all they expected he
would do, jomed the other party, and there was
fighting all over the country.

Wherever there is civil war, there is sure to
be famine and misery of all kinds, and there
never was more misery in England than during
the reign of king Stephen; for, in order to keep.
as many of the Barons on his side as‘he could,
he let them do just as they pleased; and he
gave titles and estates to a great many bold and
bad men, who built castles and kept bands of
ruffians, who went at night to rob and plunder
the towns and villages; so that the people,
when they shut up their houses at night, used
to kneel down and pray that God would protect
them from robbers and murderers.

At last, it was settled that Stephen should
keep the crown as long as he lived; but.that
Matilda’s son, Henry Plantagenet, should suc-
ceed him; and, soon after this arrangement,
he died, having reigned nineteen years.

QUESTIONS.

How did the Normans improve the country ?
What is the origin of the game laws?
How was the New Forest made?
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 61

Which reigns are called the Norman period ?

What were crown vassals?

When a baron died, how were his lands disposed of ?

How did the lesser barons become vassals of the great
ones ?

Who were the villeins, and how did they live?

What new feudal customs were brought here by the
Normans?

Who succeeded Wiliam the Conqueror?

What was the character of William Rufus?

What was the custom called wager of battle ?

What was chivalry ?

Give some account of the Crusades?

Who succeeded William Rufus ?

How did he gain popularity ?

What was the first manufacture in England ?

To whom did Henry leave the crown ?

Who usurped the throne ?

What followed ?

How was the civil war ended ?

HENRY THE SECOND, RICHARD 'THE
FIRST, AND JOHN.

As soon as Henry the Second came to the throne,
he began to set things to rights again. He had
all the new castles pulled down, and made the
bad men, who had lived in them, leave the coun-
try; then he set people to work to rebuild the
towns that had been burned down in the late
62 EVERY CHILD’S

wars; and ordered that the judges should go on
circuits; that is, travel to all the cities, and hold
assizes, two or three times a year, as they do
now, to see that justice was done to every body.
But it was not quite so easy to do justice then ;
for, as long as the feudal laws lasted, the rich
could always oppress the poor, and every great
man had an army of his own vassals, who would
do any thing he bade them, whether it was lawful
or not. Now the king wisely thought that the
best thing in the world for the country would be
to give more freedom to the people, so that the
Barons might not have quite so much power.
He, therefore, granted charters to some of the
cities, which made them a little more independ-
ent; but it was by very slow degrees that the
people of England became free, although this
happy change was beginning to take place.

Another thing the king wanted to do, was to
make the clergy answerable to the judges for
any bad acts they might commit, instead of
having particular laws and judges for them-
selves; avd, I am sorry to say, they some-
times did very wicked things, for which they
were not punished half so severely as other peo-
ple would have been for similar offences, which
certainly was unjust. But the bishops were un-
willing to let the king have any thing to do with
church affairs, and the Pope encouraged them
to oppose him, in this respect; for the Pope, in
those days, had more power over all Europe
than the kimgs themselves, who seldom dared to
disobey him.
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 63

The person who quarrelled most with Henry
about these things was Thomas 4 Becket, arch-
bishop of Canterbury, a very proud man, who
wanted to rule both king and state his own way.
The king was so much annoyed at the opposition
he constantly met with from the archbishop,
that, one day, in a fit of passion, he said he
wished that troublesome priest was dead; on
which some persons, who heard these incautious
words, thinking to get imto favour, rode off
to Canterbury, and killed the archbishop in his.
Cathedral. But they gaimed nothing by this
wicked deed; for the king was shocked when
he heard of it, and sorry for what he had said ;
which shows how wrong it is for people to use
violent expressions when they feel angry.

One very remarkable event which occurred in
this reign, was the conquest of Ireland. That
country had been, for many years, divided into
several small kingdoms, and the disputes of the
chiefs had often given rise to warfare among
themselves; but it now happened that the king
of Leimster, having been deposed by another
prince, went direct to the king of England, to
beg his assistance, which Henry readily promised,
on condition that, if he were restored, he should
hold his kingdom as a vassal of the English
crown. Dermot, that was the name of the Irish
prince, agreed to these terms, and several Eng-
lish knights and noblemen undertook the enter-
prise. After a great many interesting adven-
tures, which are told in the history of Ireland,
64: EVERY CHILD’S

Dermot was replaced on his throne; but other
quarrels arising among the chiefs, the English
continued the war, and, after some time, the
Irish chiefs acknowledged the king of England
as lord and master of Ireland, which has been
under the authority of the English government
ever since.

Heury the Second died in 1189, and was suc-
ceeded by his son Richard, who was called Cceur-
de-lion, because he was very brave, so that every
body said he had the heart of a lion. Now it
is a very good thing for men to be brave, for I
do not know what we should do without brave
men for soldiers and sailors, to fight for us; but
it is not the most useful quality a king can
possess; and I think you will agree with me,
when I tell you that Richard the First, instead
of staying at home to make good laws, and
take care of his subjects, went away to fight, or
gain glory, as fighting was then called, in the
Holy Land, while all things were going wrong
in England, for the want of somebody to keep
order. But there was some excuse for him, as
every body in those days thought that the most
praiseworthy act princes and nobles could do,
was to fight for their religion against all persons
who believed differently from themselves; so
Richard was very much admired by his people,
although he did nothing for their real benefit ;
but, on the contrary, caused them very much
misery, and great distress.

‘Another evil was that the Barons, who went
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 65

with him to the Crusades, took all their own
money as well as all they could get from their
tenants, to support themselves and their fight-
ing men abroad, so that the generality of the
people were left very poor. A great number,
indeed, obtained their freedom, by giving up
all they had to their lords; but then they were
left without money or employment, and many
turned robbers, to save themselves from starving;
therefore, you see, it was not always a good
thing, at first, for the bondmen to be set at
liberty; but it was good in the end, for their
children were born free, and, as times got better,
the free middle classes began to be of some con-
sequence, and have gone on gradually increasing
in wealth and importance, till they have now
become the best safeguard and support of the
country.

While Richard was gone to the wars, his bro-
ther John, who was a very bad man, wanted to
make himself king in England, and there were
some of the nobles who encouraged him, while
others defended the nights of the absent mon-
arch; so that there was great confusion, and the
laws were sadly disregarded.

At last, Richard heard of all these bad doings,
and left the Holy Land, mtending to come home
as fast as he could; but, unfortunately, he was
made prisoner, on his way, by the Duke of Aus-
tria, and confined in a castle in Germany for
some time before the English people knew what
had become of him. Richard knew this duke

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66 EVERY CHILD’S

was his enemy, because he had affronted hir
when in the Holy Land, so he had taken the pre-
caution of disguising himself in passing through
his dominions, and took with him only a single
page; but, one day, being tired and hungry, he
stopped to rest at a village near Vienna, and
sent his page into that city to buy some pro-
visions. The youth, foolishly, hung a pair of
handsome gloves in his belt, and as gloves were,
in those days, only worn by persons of the high-
est rank, this circumstance excited suspicion,
and he was arrested, and obliged to confess the
truth. The duke immediately sent a band of
soldiers to seize the king, whom they found busy
turning some meat that was roasting at the fire.
He started up, drew his sword, and fought vali-
antly, but was captured, and sent to a strong
fortress, where he had remained a prisoner some
months, when he was discovered, it has been
stated, by a wandering minstrel, who heard him
singing in his prison, and knew his voice. But
this is a fabulous tale. A large sum was raised
in imgland, by taxes, for his ransom, and he
came back; but he did not stay long at home ;
for he had quarrelled, while in the Holy Land,
with the king of France, and went over to Nor-
mandy for the purpose of going to war with him,
where he was killed by a poisoned arrow, aimed
at him from the walls of a castle he was besieg-
ing, in the year 1199, having reigned ten years.

Prince John was now made king of England,
but he had no lawful right to the throne, as
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 67

prince Arthur, the orphan son of an elder bro-
ther, was living, and was the true heir, accord-
ing to the rules of succession. But this unfor-
tunate youth was made prisoner, in Normandy,
by his wicked uncle, and most people believe
he met with a violent death. It was a very seri-
ous misfortune for the country when the king
happened to be a bad man, because the govern-
ment was, at that time, despotic; that is, the
king made the laws himself, and had the power
of doing whatever he pleased; whereas, now, the
laws are made by the parliament; so that, before
any new act can be passed, a great many good
and clever men must agree to it, which is a
great protection to the people.

However, kmg John was compelled, much
against his will, to make some very good laws,
and the reason of this was, that his tyranny was
felt by the nobles even more than the common
people, for their estates were often unjustly
seized, and they were obliged to give him large
sums of money to get them back again; then
he would not let them marry unless they paid
him for leave to do so; and, if any persons
wanted to go out of the country, they were
obliged to buy his permission. In short, no one
was free to do any thing till the consent of the
king was obtained by a handsome present.

At length, his tyranny was carried to such a
height that the chief nobles resolved to make
him act more justly, or dethrone him; so they
wrote down, on parchment, all the things they
68 EVERY CHILD’S

wished to have done, or altered, and agreed with
each other that, if he refused to sign it, they
would go to war with him, and they took care
to have all their vassals armed, and in readiness.

John was very much frightened when he found
the barons were in earnest, and agreed to meet
them at a place called Runnymede, between
Staines and Windsor, where, after a great deal
of disputing, he was obliged to sign his name to
what they had written, which thus became the
law of the land. An ancient copy of this parch-
ment is now in the British Museum. It 1s called
Magna Charta, which is the Latin name for ‘ the
Great Charter ;? and it was framed with a view
to take from the king the power of doing unjust
things, and to make him govern according to
the laws, and not to be able to make new laws,
or impose new taxes, at his pleasure. This
famous act is generally regarded as the begin-
ning of the liberty which all Enelishmen are so
justly proud of; but the laws it contained were,
in many respects, often broken by the sovereigns
of England, for a very long period.

The Barons of England still lived in their
castles, on their own estates, in the midst of
their vassals and serfs. Their castle-halls were
crowded with knights, squires, pages, and mili-
tary dependents, for it was their pride to have
as many of such retainers as they could possibly
maintain. ‘The pages were boys of high rank,
generally the younger sons of noblemen, whose
profession was to be knight errantry. Now, in
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 69

order to obtain the honour of knighthood, they
were obliged to serve some great baron, first as
pages, then as esquires, for several years, and to
be very obedient and respectful in their conduct,
and do all that was required of them readily
and cheerfully. While pages, they had to wait
upon their lords and his guests at dinner and
supper, to carry messages, and perform little
services for the ladies of the family; but they
were themselves waited upon by the domestic
slaves, and, when they had finished their day’s
duties, were allowed to mix with the company.
They were taught to use the sword and lance,
and to manage a horse skilfully, and were in-
structed in religious duties by the priests of
their lord’s household. When old enough, they
were made esquires, and then their duties were
to take care of the horses and armour, and to
attend their lords on all occasions; which ser-
vices he usually rewarded by making them
knights, when they were free to go wherever
they pleased; and you have already been told
what their mode of life was afterwards.

The great people were very fond of hunting
and hawking, and fighting at tournaments; but,
perhaps, you do not know what a tournament
was, so I will tell you. There was a place built
up, something lke a large theatre, with galle-
ries for the ladies and gentlemen, to sit and see
the combats in the open space below, and this
was called the lists. Then the gentlemen, who
wished to exhibit their valour, used to come

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70 EVERY CHILD’S

in armour, and fight with each other on horse-
back, till one was conquered, when the victor
received a prize from the greatest lady present.
When only two knights fought, it was called a
tilt; but if there were several on each side, it
was a tournament; and, although these combats
were held for sport, the combatants were often
dangerously wounded, and sometimes killed.

When John had signed Magna Charta, the
Barons went home to their castles, to enjoy
their usual pleasures; but the king had no in-
tention of behaving any better than before, and
secretly sent agents to Flanders, to raise troops
of foreigners, promising that they should be al-
lowed to plunder the estates of the Barons, if
they would enlist in his service. Thus he soon
appeared at the head of an army, and went to
war with the nobles, who, in revenge, did a very
wrong and foolish thing, which was, to offer the
crown to Louis, the son of the king of France.
Louis soon came over with a French army, and,
after having in vain tried to take Dover Castle,
he entered London in triumph, whilst John was
obliged to retreat; but the Barons began to
think they had done wrong; and, as John died
suddenly, in the midst of this confusion, they
turned their arms against Louis, and forced hire
to leave the country.

QUESTIONS.

What were the first acts of Henry the Second ?
Who was Thomas 4 Becket?
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 71

Why was he at enmity with the king?

How was the death of Becket caused ?

What conquest was made in this reign ?

Relate the circumstances ?

When did Henry die, and who succeeded him ?

How did Richard employ the chief part of his reign ?
What occurred in England during his absence ?
What happened to the king on his way home?

How was he liberated ?

State the date and manner of his death?

Who was the next king ?

Why was John a usurper?

How did the king act towards the nobles ?

What was Magna Charta ?

What did the king do after he had signed that Charter ?

FROM THE DEATH OF KING JOHN

TO THE ACCESSION OF

RICHARD THE SECOND.

THe reign of Henry the Third, who was only nine
years of age when he succeeded his father, was
a very long and avery unhappy one. At first,
things went on very well, because the king had
a good guardian, the Earl of Pembroke, who
managed the government wisely; but he, in a
few years, died, and others came into power
who did not act so well, and the king was too
young to know what was right himself. It was

a pity the good earl died, for, if Henry had
79 EVERY CHILD’S

been fortunate enough to have had a wise in-
structor, he might have been a better sovereign,
but, as it was, he was a very bad one. The great
mischief was this. He married a French prin-
tess, who had no more wisdom than himself;
and they were both so extravagant that they
spent a great deal more money than they could
afford ; and, then, to get fresh supplies, the king
ordered the people to pay more taxes, and began
to do all the unjust things that had caused so
much misery in the time of his father.

Sometimes the Barons assembled and obliged
him to promise he would abide by the terms of
Magna Charta; but he soon forgot his promises,
and went on the same as before, so that the
people were worse and worse off every year, and
many men became robbers on the highways,
because they could not support their families by
honest industry. This was the state of affairs
for many years, till, at last, there was a civil
war again, and, after a great deal of fighting
and bloodshed, the king and his eldest son, Ed-
ward, were made prisoners in a battle, fought
at Lewes, in Sussex, in 1264, and the Earl of
Leicester, the king’s brother-in-law, took the
government upon himself.

This was an important event, because the earl
summoned a parliament to consult as to what it
would be best to do under these circumstances ;
and he desired that, besides the nobles and

‘bishops, there should come to this parliament
knights, or gentlemen, from every county, and
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 73

citizens and burghers, from every city and burgh,
to state what the condition of the people really
was, and to help to advise what could be done
for them; so that the commoners were now,
probably, for the first time, admitted to some
share in the government of the country, which
was a great step gained by the people, who, be-
fore this, had no representatives in the national
council, or parhament, to take their part; and
this was the beginning of our House of’ Com-
mons, so it is worth remembering. Prince Ed-
ward, after this, escaped from Hereford, where
he had been kept a prisoner, and gained a great
victory over the Barons, and replaced his father
Henry on the throne; after which, he went on
a crusade to the Holy Land. He had married
a Spanish princess, named Eleanor, who was
the first person, in England, that had a carpet,
which she brought from Spain, for the floors of
the best apartments im the palace were strewed
with rushes; and, in houses, where they could
not get rushes, they used straw.

Henry the Third died about seven years after
his restoration, in the year 1272, having reigned
fifty-seven years; and, although the news was
sent to his son as soon as possible, it was nearly
two years before he returned to England; such
was the difference between travelling then and
now; for the journey to and from the Holy Land
may now be accomplished in a few weeks.

Edward the First was a much wiser and better
prince than his father, but he was too fond of
74, EVERY CHILD’S

war, and too anxious to be renowned as a con-
queror, which was the cause of the long wars in
Scotland, for his great ambition was to conquer
that country. But, the first thing he thought
of, when he came home, was to make such regu-
lations as were most hkely to protect the people
from robbery; so he had watchmen and patrols
appointed in all the cities, and ordered that no-
body should be abroad in the streets of London,
nor any taverns kept open, after the curfew bell
had tolled. The curfew was instituted by Wil-
ham the Conqueror, to prevent fires, which were
very frequent, when houses were, in general,
built of wood, and thatched; so, when this bell
tolled at eight o’clock, the people, for a long
time after the conquest, were obliged to put out
their fires and candles; but the custom of toll-
ing the bell was continued after that of putting
out fire and candle was done away with, and
even to this day, in many places.

Edward the First took care that the magis-
trates should do their duty, and punished those
who broke the laws, which the kings had been
afraid to do in the last two reigns, because their
lives would have been in danger if they had. Ll
must also tell you that this wise monarch did
not alter what the Harl of Leicester had done
about the parliament; but he made it a rule
that the people should continue to send their
members, and every freeholder of land in the
counties, and, in general, all men, in the cities
and burghs, who paid taxes, had a right to vote
at the election of members of parliament.
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 75

T should be glad to have nothing to say about
warfare in this reign; but the Scottish wars form
so large a portion of the history of the times,
that you ought to know something about them.
First, however, the king invaded the northern
part of Wales, which had never heen conquered
oy the English, and was then governed by a
prince, named Llewellyn. This chief made a
gallant resistance, but he was killed, and the
whole country was then united to England, and
afterwards, in the reign of Henry the Highth,
divided into shires. The queen, Eleanor, of
Castile, Edward’s first wife, went to visit Wales
soon afterwards, and her son Edward was born
there, so the king said he should be called prince
of Wales, and that is the reason why the eldest
son of the English sovereign has since had that
title.

After this, there were a few years of peace,
before the wars with Scotland were begun; so
I will fill up the time by saying a little about
the manners and customs of the English at this
period. The nobles lived in, what we should
think, a very rough way indeed. Their large
comfortless rooms, and floors without carpets,
unglazed windows, and clumsy furniture, would
not suit our modern notions, either of comfort
or convenience. They had their dinner at ten
o’clock in the morning, in the great hall of the
castle; lords, ladies, knights, esquires, priests,
dependents, and strangers, all together; for,
when there were no inns, it was usual for tra-
76 EVERY CHILD’S

vellers to stop at any castle, or monastery, on
the road, where they were never refused lodgin
and entertainment. There were no table cloths,
and the dishes and cups were mostly of wood,
but they were well filled with meat, game, fish,
or poultry, which, with bread and ale, consti-
tuted the rude, but substantial meal. The Ba-
ron, with his friends, sat at an upper table, which
was served with wine; and, sometimes, he would
have his hounds lying at his feet, and his fa-
vourite hawk, on a perch, beside him.

The supper, at five o’clock, was just like the
dinner, and these were the only regular meals
at that period.

I said there were no inns in those days, which
reminds me to speak of the difficulty and dan-
ger of travelling. The roads were very bad and
lonely, often running through forests and across
wide heaths, infested with robbers. Then there
were no public conveyances of any kind, nor
any way of making a journey, but on horse-
back, or on foot; and, as to stopping at the
country towns, there was very little accommo-
dation to be had there, for they were poor places,
the houses in them bemg very little better than
wooden sheds. ‘There were no shops, so that
every thing was bought, as formerly, at the mar-
kets and fairs. A great many merchants, from
London, France, and Flanders, used to bring
goods to the fairs for sale, and they were obliged
to pay tolls and duties to the lord of the manor,
which came to a great deal of money, because
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 77

they brought a quantity of valuable merchan-
dise, as the nobles themselves purchased their
wearing apparel, jewellery, spices, and many
other commodities, at the fairs, which sometimes
lasted fifteen days.

The dress of the great nobility, in the four-
teenth century, was very handsome, for they
wore mantles of satin or velvet, with borders
worked in gold, over jackets highly embroidered ;
and their velvet caps were often adorned with
jewels. The middle classes wore close coats of
cloth, with leather belts round the waist, such
as the Blue-Coat boys now wear, and they had
tight pantaloons, short boots, and cloth caps.
The clothing of the working people was made
of very coarse wool, sometimes undyed, and all
spun and woven at home by the women, who
had nothing else for their own wearing, as there
were no cottons, or stuffs, made in England,
then, nor any of the nice comfortable things
that poor people can get so cheap now.

The country towns were at this period inha-
bited chiefly by free artisans, such as black-
smiths, carpenters, and others, of different
trades; but there were still a great many vil-
leins and serfs, on all the cultivated lands, for
slavery was never abolished in England by any
act of parhament, but gradually died away with
the feudal laws. The armies were not raised
then as they were at an earlier period, by feudal
service, but soldiers were hired and paid by the
day; but there was no standing army, as there

H
79 EVERY CHILD’S

is at present; for, as soon as the wars were over,
the men were all discharged, which was a bad
thing, as it often happened they had no homes
er employment to return to, and so formed
themselves into bands of robbers.

. However, fighting men had plenty of occupa-
tion during the reign of Edward the First, of
whose wars in Scotland I am now about to
speak.

The King of Scotland died about this time,
and as he left no son, and his grand-daughter
and heiress, Margaret, died soon after, unmar-
ried, there were two princes, who each thought
he had a right to succeed to the throne; so
they agreed to let the king of England decide
the dispute, which he readily took upon himself
to do. One prince was named Robert Bruce,
the other, John Baliol. Edward said Baliol
ought to be king, and he was crowned accord-
ingly; but the English monarch soon began to
find fault: with him, and at last went to war, for
ke had made up his. mind to try to unite Eng-
‘and and Scotland into one kingdom, and to be
the kmg of both countries himself; but he did
not succeed, although he dethroned Ball, and
was at war with Scotland for nearly eleven years.

i dare say you have heard of a rcnowned
Scottish chief, called Sir Wiliam Wallace. He
fought bravely for his country in these wars,
but he was taken prisoner at the battle of.
Falkirk; and, I am sorry to say, king Edward
was so cruel and unjust as to have his head cut
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. "79

off. But this did not put an end to the war, for
another chief, Robert Bruce, grandson of him
before-mentioned, took the place of Wallace,
gained several victories, and was crowned king.
The two sovereigns then prepared for a long
war, and Edward was on his way to Scotland,
with his army, when he was taken ill, and died
in the year 1807, having reigned thirty-four
years.

His son, Edward the Second, was so careless
of every thing but his own pleasure, that he
neglected the affairs of both England and Scot-
land, so that the Scots recovered all they had
lost; and when, at last, the king was persuaded
to renew the war, he met with such a terrible
defeat at the battle of Bannockburn, that the
Scots are proud of it to this very day.

There is nothing more worth telling about
the reign of Edward the Second, whose miscon-
duct caused many of the barons to rebel, and
he was, at last, made prisoner by them, and
cruelly murdered, in Berkeley castle, im 1827
having reigned about twenty years.

His son, Edward the Third, was scarcely
fifteen, at the time of his father’s death; but he
was a very clever prince, and soon began to
manage the affairs of the country himself. He
married a Flemish princess, named Philippa, who
was much beloved by the English people, as,
indeed, she deserved to be, for she was both
good and beautiful, as well as one of the cle-
verest ladies of her time, and ske employed her
80 EVERY CHILD’S

talents in doing all the good she could for
England. She knew that the people of her own
country, which was Flanders, had grown rich
by their trade and manufactures, so she did all
in her power to increase the trade of England,
and paid a number of Flemish weavers to come
over here and settle at Norwich, that they
might improve the people there, in the art of
making woollen cloth and stuffs, for which a
manufactory had been established by Edward
the First. She also founded several schools,
and was a friend to those who distinguished
themselves by their learning.

I must not forget to tell you that Chaucer,
the first great poet that wrote in English, lived
at this time, and received much kindness from
the King and Queen. The English language
was now beginning to be spoken by the higher
classes, instead of French, and was not very
unlike the English spoken now, as you might
see, if you were to look at the poems written
vy Chaucer.

Edward the Third was, unfortunately, as fond
of war as his grandfather. He renewed the
war with Scotland, but his great wars were in
France, for his ambition was to be king of that
country, and he pretended he had a right to the
throne, because his mother was the sister of the
late king. But the French thought otherwise,
and chose another prnicc for their king, so
Edward invaded France, where he commenced
along and destructive war, whith lasted nearly
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Sl

forty years, and was carried on, for a great part
of that time, by his eldest son, who was called
the Black Prince, because he wore black
armour.

He made great conquests in the south of
France, and, at the celebrated battle of Poictiers,
took the French king prisoner, and brought
him to England, where he remained a captive
for the rest of his life, but was treated with so
much kindness and respect, that he had little
to complain of but the loss of his hberty. The
Black Prince was not only a brave warrior, but
was a good and clever man; therefore, his death,
which happened a few months before that of his
father, was a great grief to the inglish people.

Edward the Third died in 1877, after a long
reign of fifty years. He had been a pretty good
king, had made the people obey the laws, and,
in general, observed them himself. When he
wanted money for the French wars, he had
allowed the villeins and serfs, on his manors,
or crown lands, to buy their freedom, so that
there were now, comparatively, but few of
the lower orders remaining in bondage; and
the agricultural labourers were paid for their
labour, as well as the artisans and mechanics.’
Their wages were, in general, from twopence to
threepence a day, but you must remember that
twopence, at that time, was equal, in purchasing
the necessaries of life, to about one shilling and
eightpence of our money, and would buy much
more than sufficient food for a whole family

HS
32 EVERY CHILD’S

They lived chiefly on meat, brown bread, and
ale; for there were no vegetables for the table,
cultivated by the people in England, till the
time of Henry the Eighth; nor any potatoes,
till that of Queen Elizabeth; and then they
were considered a dainty dish, and only seen at
the tables of very rich people. However, there
were gardens, orchards, and vineyards, belong-
ing to the monasteries, and to persons of high
rank and fortune.

QUESTIONS.

Who succeeded king John ?

How was much distress occasioned ?

What were the consequences of the king’s misconduct ?

What great change was made in parliament, and how?

Who first brought a carpet into England :

How long did Henry the Third reign? and by whom
was he succeeded ?

What was the character of Edwars the First?

Mention some of his first acts ?

How did he regulate the parliament?

How was Wales united to England ?

What gave rise to the Scottish wars?

Who was the great Scottish chicf and patriot; and what

_ was his fate? |

‘Who was made king of Scotland?

When did Edward die? and who succecded him?

What was the battle of Bannockburn ?

What became of Edward the Second ?

Woo was the next king ?

Whom did he marry ?

How did the queen promote the welfare of the country?
HISTORY OF ENGLAND, 83

Who was the first great English poet?

Why did Edward the Third invade France?

Who conducted the wars ?

When did the deaths of Edward and his son happen?
How did Edward the Third raise money for the wars?
What was the value of two pence at this time?

FROM THE

ACCESSION or RICHARD THE SECOND,
TO THE

WARS OF THE ROSES.

Ricuarp the Second, the son of Edward, the
Black Prince, was but eleven years old when, by
the death of his grandfather, he became king of
England. His uncles governed the country till
he was old enough to act for himself; but they
did not teach him to be a wise, nor a just man,
and this injustice was the cause of all his mis-
fortunes.

One of the first things he did on his own
account, was to break a promise he made to the
people; and this was how it happened. A new
tax had caused great discontent among the
labouring classes, and their unwillingness to
pay if was increased by the insolence of the
collectors, who, one day, in the house of a man
called Walter, or Wat Tiler, behaved so ill to
his daughter, that ne gave one of them a blow
on the head with Ins hammer, which unluckily
R4. EVERY CHILD’S

killed him. Now the neighbours knew that if
Walter should be taken, he would be put to
death for the offence, and as they all had cause
to complain of the tax-gatherers, they assem-
bled in front of his cottage, and declared they
would protect him.

This was at Deptford, and they all proceeded
to London, being jomed by thousands of men
from different towns, and a dreadful riot there
was; so that it was thought necessary for the
king to take some means of pacifying the
rebels. Accordingly he went, with the lord
mayor and some nobles and gentlemen, to meet
them in Smithfield, and whilst Tiler, their
leader, was talking with the king, the mayor
came behind him, and struck him on the head
with his mace, and stunned him, and he
was killed by Richard’s party; and then the
king, fearing the rioters would kill him in
return, asked them what they wanted, saying,
he was ready to do any thing that was right and
just. They said they desired that the poll tax
should be taken off; slavery and villeimage
abolished by law; so that all who were still in
bondage should be made free; and that the old
feudal custom of paying duties on goods, at all
the markets and fairs, should be done away
with. All this Richard promised to do; but no
sconer had the men dispersed and gone back to
thei homes, than he sent out a military force
to seize all who had been concerned in the
rebellion; and I grieve to say that, although he
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 85

had given his word that they should all be par-
doned, he ordered the judges to have every one
of them executed.

After such conduct as this, you will not
expect to hear much good of Richard the Se-
cond, whose selfish extravagance led him to do
all kinds of unjust things, for the purpose of
raising money to spend on his own pleasures ; so
that it might truly be said that he was con-
stantly robbing his subjects; as, for instance, he
once wanted to borrow a large sum of the citi-
zens of London, which they would not lend
him, because they knew very well he would
never return it; so he took away their charter,
that is, the grant which gives them a right to
elect a lord mayor, and to manage the affairs of
the city independently of the king; and they
were obliged to give him ten times as much to
get it back again, as they had refused to lend.

The citizens of London were very rich at this
period, many of them being great merchants,
and it was in this reign that the famous
Whittington was Lord Mayor. He had made
a large fortune in the coal trade, which was then
a new branch of commerce, for coals were very
little used for firing till the time of Edward the
Third.

King Richard had unjustly banished his
cousin Henry, [Marl of Hereford, and on the
death of Henry’s father, the Duke of Lancaster,
had taken possession of his estates. This noble-
man was a grandson of Edward the Third, an
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was much hiked by the Enghsh, who would rather
have had him for their king than the unworthy
sovereign they had got, although he would have
had no right to the throne, even if Richard had
been dead. However, he came back to Eng-
land, and finding most of the nobles as well as
the people willing to make him king, Richard
was obliged to resign the crown, and was im-
prisoned in Pomfret castle, where it is supposed
he died by unfair means; but as this is not quite
certain, we will hope it was not so. He had
reigned twenty-two years, when he was deposed,
in 1399.

This usurpation of Henry the Fourth was the
cause of the long civil wars in England, called
the Wars of the Roses, which began in the time
of Henry the Sixth, whose right to the throne
was disputed, although his father and grand-
father had been suffered to reign without opposi-
tion. Henry the Fourth was, on the whole, a
popular monarch, and under his government
things went on pretty well with the generality
of the people.

There was an insurrection in Wales, headed
by a gentleman, named Owen Glendovwer, who
wished to restore the Welsh to their former in-
dependence, and to be their prince, as he was of
the ancient royal family; and he was joined by
the powerful Karl of Northumberland, and his
son Henry Percy, better known by the name of
Tiotspur, who was one of the bravest knights of
the age. These noblemen had a quarrel with
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 87

the king, and wanted to depose him; but he
gained a victory over them in a battle fought
near Shrewsbury, where Hotspur was killed.
These events are not of much importance, but I
tell them because when you hear any celebrated.
characters spoken of, you ought to know who
they were, and when they lived.

The prince of Wales, afterwards Henry the
Fifth; was also celebrated for his valour, but not
for his good behaviour in his youth; for his con-
duct was sometimes so disgraceful that his father
was quite ashamed of him, and nobody would
have supposed he was the son of aking. One
thing he used to do was to go out at night, with
some idle companions, and rob people on the
highway, for amusement; yet he had not a bad
disposition, for once one of the judges sent him
to prison for trying to rescue one of his wicked
companions; and he not only submitted to the
punishment, but when he came to be king, he
treated that judge with great respect and atten-
tion, because he knew he was a just man, and
would punish the rich as well as the poor, if
they did wrong. King Henry the Fourth died
in 1413, in the fourteenth year of his reign.

Henry the Fifth is famed as the conqueror of
France. He went to war with that country, on
the same pretext that Edward the Third did
before ; and with better success, for the French
king was at last glad to make peace by agreeing
that Henry should be king of France after his
death. The greatest victory gained by the
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English, was at the battle of Agincourt. King
Henry married the French king’s daughter, but
he died soon afterwards, in 1422, having reigned
nine years; and leaving an infant son; andina
little while the king of France died too, and he
also left a son. Then there was a dispute which
of these princes should be king of France, and
a new war was begun which lasted many years,
during which the English lost all that the
armies of Henry the Fifth had won.

In the mean time the young king, Henry the
Sixth, grew up so weak in mind and sickly in
aody, that he was not able to govern the coun-
try; therefore, his ministers and the queen, a
French princess, named Margaret of Anjou,
had to manage every thing for him. But many
people did not like the queen, and began to say
that her husband had no right to the throne as
his grandfather was a usurper; but that Richard,
Duke of York, ought to be king of England;
while others said that, as the Parliament had
consented to let the family of the Duke of Lan-
caster reign, it was lawful for them to keep the
crown; and that although king Henry was not
fit for a ruler, the rights of his son, prince Ed-
ward, ought to be protected. The Duke of
York was then governor of Ireland, but when
he heard of these disputes, he came: back, and
was placed at tne head of the government here,
instead of the queen.

I thmk you will now quite understand why
there was a civil war in England. Every noble-
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 89

man in the country took one side or the other,
and the friends of the Duke of York wore a
white rose or ribbon rosette; while those who
supported the king, or House of Lancaster, wore
a crimson one; as people now wear different
coloured ribbons at an election, to show which
party they belong to; and this is why these
wars are called the Wars of the Roses.

QUESTIONS.
Who succeeded Edward the Third?
Who was Wat Tiler, and how was his rebellion occasioned ?
How did the rebels proceed ?
What means were taken to quell the insurrection ?
What were the demands of the rebels?
What was the conduct of Richard on this occasion?
Why were the people in general discontented with the
sing?
Who was the earl of Hereford?
How was Richard dethroned, and what became of him?
What battle was fought in this reign, and why ?
Who was killed in this battle ?
Who succeeded Henry the Fourth ?
How did Henry the Fifth distinguish himself?
On what terms was peace made?
How did this agreement occasion more wars ?
What was the result?
What was the character of Henry the Sixth?
What gave rise to the Wars of the Roses?

THE WARS OF THE ROSES.

Tue civil wars may be said to have lasted
I
90 EVERY CHILD’S

thirty years, from the first battle at St. Alban’s,
in 1455, to the battle of Bosworth, m 1485; for
although there were intervals of peace, the quar-
rel between the houses of York and Lancaster
was not finally settled till the two families were
united by the marriage of Henry the Seventh,
who was heir of the House of Lancaster, with
Elizabeth, the grand-daughter of Richard, Duke
of York, and heiress of that family.

During that thirty years, the country was, as
you may suppose, in a very unhappy condition.
Every Baron wanted to collect as many men
around him as he could, to defend his castle in
case of siege; so the countrymen left their
rural labours and went to enlist in the service
of this or that nobleman, because they were
sure of getting plenty to eat and drink. Thus
the castle halls were crowded, but the fields
were left without sufficient labourers to plough
and sow them, consequently the crops were
generally bad, and bread was, at times, so dear,
that many poor families could get none at all,
but were obliged to eat herbs and berries that
they found in the woods, which did not nourish
them, so that numbers died of want.

Many battles were fought in different parts of
England, and the queen was present at some of
them, for it was she who conducted the war, as
the king was incapable of so much exertion, and
Margaret could not bear to see her young son
Edward deprived of his birthright. Three vic-
tories had been gained by the Duke of York,
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 91

when he was killed at the battle of Wakefield ;
but this event did not put an end to the contest,
ior his son Edward, who succeeded to his title,
continued the war and, in the end, became king
of England, while poor king Henry was kept a
prisoner in the Tower, where he died in 1471.

Edward owed his success chiefly to the Earl
of Warwick, the richést and most powerful no-
bleman in England, and considered as the last
of the great feudal Barons, for it is said that he
maintained no less than thirty thousand people
at his own expense, who were all ready to devote
their lives to his service. He had a great many
castles in different parts of England, and a
noble mansion in Warwick lane, London, which
still bears that name, although it presents a very
different appearance from what it did when this
mighty Earl lived there like a sovereign prince,
and the place was crowded with his armed re-
tainers.

Edward had been very well received by the
citizens of London, and crowned, with their con-
sent, long before the death of king Henry. Two
dattles were fought soon after his accession to
the throne, one at Towton, the other at Hexham;
and it was after the latter, that a story is told
uow queen Margaret wandered about in a forest
with her little boy, till they were both half dead
with hunger and fatigue, when she met with a
vobber, and, instead of trying to avoid him, told
iim who she was, and begged he would protect
her child. The man took them to a cave, and
G2 EVERY CHILD’S

gave them food and shelter, until he found an
opportunity of getting them on board a vessel
that was going to Scotland.

People were now in hopes there would be
peace; but the new sovereign was so unwise as
to quarrel with the Earl of Warwick, who be-
eame his enemy, and resolved to deprive him of
the crown he had helped him to win. Then the
war was begun again, and went on for several
years longer, till Warwick was killed at the
battle of Barnet, on Easter Sunday, 1471, just
ten years after the battle of Towton.

On the day of this battle, queen Margaret,
and her son, prince Edward, then a youth of
eighteen, landed in England, for they had lived
in France some years, and were sadly grieved
at the news of Warwick’s defeat and death;
but as they had a great many friends, the queen
determined upon trying another battle, which
was a great pity, for both herself and her son
were made prisoners, and the young prince was
killed in king Edward’s tent, for making a
spirited answer to some insulting question put
to him by the haughty monarch. The miser-
able mother was sent to the Tower, where her
husband had just died; but she was afterwards
released, and ransomed by her father; and she
returned to live with him in France, her native
country.

And now, that we have done with the wars,

we may begin to think of something more plea-
sant. Have you ever heard it was in the reign
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 93

of Edward the Fourth that books were first
printed in England ?

The art of printing, which enables us to have
so many nice books to instruct and amuse us,
had lately been invented in Germany, and was
brought here by an English merchant, named
William Caxton, who went to Cologne, on pur-
pose to learn how to print, and when he came
back, he set up a printing-press in Westminster
Abbey, which, at that time, was a monastery.
We ought to be very much obliged to the clever
person that invented printing; for only think
how very ignorant we should be, and how much
pleasure we should lose, if there were no books
to tell us any thing. There were books, certainly,
before that time; but they were all written, and
it took so long to copy them, that they were very
expensive, so that none but very rich people
could have even a few volumes. Printed books
were also, for a long time, much too dear to be
in general use, but people of rank soon began to
be much better educated than in former times,
and their habits and manners became much
improved im consequence.

Then a great many of the old Norman cas<
tles had been destroyed in the wars, which put
an end, after a time, to the customs of chivalry;
and the nobles, instead of sending their sons to
be brought up for warlike knights, sent them to
Oxford, or Cambridge, to become scholars; or to
Eton College, which had been founded by Henry
the Sixth.

oO

Io
94, EVERY CHILD’S

King Edward died in 14838, when his eldest
son, who is called Ekdward the Fifth, although he
never was really king, was only thirteen years
old; and he, and his younger brother, the Duke
of York, were under the guardianship of their
uncle Richard, Duke of Gloucester, who was a
very bad man. Instead of protecting the father-
less children entrusted to his care, he only
thought how he might take advantage of their
youth to obtain the crown himself; so he sent
them both to the Tower, but not as prisoners,
for it was then used occasionally as a royal resi-
dence, especially in times of public disturbances;
so Richard told the people the boys would be
safe there; but in a little while it was reported
that they were dead, and it was thought he had
caused them to be murdered, which was most
likely the truth, although some people think
they were not put to death, but were kept there
as prisoners for some years.

Richard the Third was not a very bad king,
for he made some laws that were very useful to
the merchants who traded with foreign countries,
and he was the first who thought of having post-
men, or couriers, to carry letters, so that, wicked
as he was, we cannot say he did no good as a
sovereign. ‘The post was, at first, only for go-
vernment letters, and it was a long time before
any arrangements were made for private persons
to correspond by the same means; but this was
done by degrees, and in the time of Oliver
Cromwell, the General Post Office was esta-
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 95

blished, when every body had the benefit of this
excellent institution, which adds so much to peo-
ple’s happiness ; for who could possibly be happy
now, if they could not hear from their absent
friends ?

Richard the Third reigned only two years, for
he was disliked by the nobility, and a conspira-
cy was formed against him by the friends of the
House of Lancaster, who were desirous of plac-
ing on the throne the heir of that family, Henry
Tudor, Earl of Richmond. This young noble-
man was living in exile at the time, in France.
But he was soon informed of what was going on,
and told the French king, who lent him forty
ships, and about five thousand soldiers, with
which he sailed directly for England, where he
found friends ready to join him with more
troops. The battle of Bosworth was fought on
the 22nd of August 1485, when Richard was
killed, and the conqueror proclaimed king on
the field; and thus ended the Wars of the
Roses.

QUESTIONS.

What was the duration of the civil wars?

Describe the general state of the country

Who conducted the war for the king?

How did the Duke of York lose his life ?

Why did the war proceed after his death ?

What was the event of the war?

To whom did Edward owe his success ?

Name the battles that were fought after Edward becama
king ?
96 EVERY CHILD’S

What happened to the queen ?

Why was the contest renewed?

Where was the Karl of Warwick killed, and when ?

What happened after this battle ?

When were books first printed in England ?

Where was the art of printing invented ?

How was it brought into this country ?

Who founded Eton College ?

Who obtained the crown on the death of Edward the
Fourth ?

Relate the circumstances.

What was the origin and progress of the Post Office?

How was the reign of Richard soon terminated ?

Name the date of the battle of Bosworth,

FROM THE BATTLE OF BOSWORTH,

TO

QUEEN ELIZABETH.

Henry the Seventh was not an amiable man,
but he had many qualities that were good and
useful in a sovereign, and the country prospered
greatly under his government. One of the con-
ditions on which he succeeded to the throne, was
that he should marry the princess Elizabeth,
daughter of Edward the Fourth, and thus secure
peace by uniting the families of York and Lan-
caster:—the princess Elizabeth was a lady much
beloved by every body, and her many acts of
benevolence were long remembered in England,
so that she was generally called the good queen
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 97

Bess. The king wished to increase the wealth
and prosperity of the nation, and he took the
best means of doing so by promoting commerce.
He made commercial treaties, that 1s, agree-
ments about trade, with foreign princes, by
which he obtained many advantages for the
English merchants, just as our government has
lately made a treaty with the emperor of China,
about our trade in his country.

No English ship had ever been to China then,
nor even to India; and America had not yet
been discovered ; but in the time of Henry the
Seventh, the Spaniards and Portuguese made
longer voyages than had ever been made before,
and the celebrated Christopher Columbus, whom
T dare say you have often heard of, found out by
study, that there was an unknown land on the
other side of the Atlantic Ocean, and although
people laughed at him, he at last persuaded the
king and queen of Spain to let him have ships,
and sailors, and money, to go in search of it, so
he was the first that found out the way to
America, which, for a long time, was called the
New World. Soon after this, the Portuguese
found out the way to India by sea; and then
the Einglish began to make voyages of discovery
also, and to find that the world had more coun-
tries in it than they had ever dreamed of before.
Maps and charts, which had been known to the
Greeks and Romans, now began to be much im-
proved, though they were still incorrect, as you
may suppose. However, all these new disco-
98 EVERY CHILD’S

veries, together with the invention of printing,
made people think more about learning, and less
about fighting than they used to do; especially
as the nobility were beginning to live more in
the way they dc now, and to have handsome
houses in London, instead of living always. in
their gloomy old castles.

Their domestics were no longer slaves, but
hired servants; their tenants were not villeins,
but free farmers, who paid rent for their land ;
and the poor peasantry, no longer in bondage,
were at liberty to go where they pleased, and
were paid for their daily labour. You remember
that in the feudal times all the land in the
country belonged to the king, the nobles,
the knights, and the bishops and abbots. But
Edward the First made a law in favour of
the sale and purchase of all lands except those
held immediately of the king; and Edward. the
Third gave his own vassals leave to sell their
estates. Other laws were afterwards made, by
which landed property was made lable to
seizure for debt, and might be given by will, or
sold at the pleasure of the owner. And Henry
the Seventh, by another law, further encouraged
the sale of land, and the consequent division of
large estates. Then many of the nobles, who
had more land than they wanted, sold some of
it to wealthy merchants and others, who built
large mansions, to which they often gave their
own family name, as for instance, if the name
of the proprietor happened to be Burton, he
would probably call his residence Burton Hall.
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 99

These country gentlemen formed quite a new
class of people in England, and they have ever
since that time continued to increase in wealth,
rank, and importance.

_
Henry the Seventh, which has made some peo-
ple think the sons of Edward the Fourth were
not put to death in the Tower, as is generally
believed, but you shall hear the story. A young
man called Perkin Warbeck came to Ireland
from Flanders, and declared he was the younger
of those two princes, and the lawful heir to the
throne, as his brother was dead. He told a
wenderful tale, how he had escaped from the
Tower, and related many adventures which he
said had befallen him; so the Irish people said
they would fight for him; and try to take the
crown from king Henry; but as they could not
raise a sufficient force by themselves, Warbeck
applied to the king of France, who also promised
to help him, and then he went to the Duchess
of Burgundy, who was Edward the Fourth’s
sister, and, strange to say, that lady declared
she believed the young man was her brother’s
son, and persuaded the Flemings to lend him
their aid. But the king of France changed his
mind; and made a treaty of peace with king
Henry, who ordered the English merchants not
to carry on any trade with Flanders while the
Flemings continued to favour the cause of
Perkin Warbeck, so they deserted him too. I
have not the rovm w teil you the rest of his
100 EVERY CHILD'S

adventures, but they ended in his being taken
prisoner by the king, who had him put ta death
as a traitor. Henry the Seventh reigned twenty
four years, and was succeeded in 1509 by his
son, Henry the Eighth.

The young king was married to Catharine of
Arragon, the daughter of the king of Spain, a
beautiful and talented woman, who deserved a
better husband, for Henry was a sad tyrant in
his family, as well as over the nation. The
greatest man in the kingdom next to the king,
was his minister, Cardinal Wolsey, who governed
the country for many years, snd was so rich,
that he not only lived in as much splendour as
the king, but he built the palaces of Hampton-
court and Whitehall, and founded the College
of Christ Church at Oxford. A Cardinal is a
priest of high dignity in the Catholic Church,
being next in rank to the Pope. Wolsey was
clever and learned; but lie was very proud, so
he had many enemies, and at last fell into dis-
grace with the king, and died of grief. Soon
after this Henry chose to be separated from his
good wife, Catherine, because he had seen a
young lady named Anna Boleyn, whom he
thought he should hke to marry; so he sent
the queen and his daughter Mary, away from
court, and made Anna Boleyn queen; but he
soon began to dislike her, and said she had done
some very wicked things, as an excuse for
sending her to the Tower, where he had her head
cut off; and then he married another young
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 10Â¥

lady, named Jane Seymour, who soon died.
She left a little baby, who was king Edward
the Sixth; and Anna Boleyn also had a baby,.
who was queen Elizabeth.

I must now tell you of a great change made
by Henry the Eighth, with regard to religion,
and called the Reformation. The church of
England had, till this period, been the same as.
that of Rome, and the people were Roman Ca-
tholics; but there were a good many people in
Germany, and in England also, who thought.
that some of the forms of the Catholic religion
were not right, and ought to be altered, and
these persons were called reformers, and all who:
adopted their opinions took the name of Pro-
testants, because they protested against certain
things. Now Henry the Eighth had a disagree-.
ment with the Pope, about his second marriage;,
so he determined to abolish the Catholic religion,
to seize on and destroy the monasteries and
nunneries, and to have Protestant clergymen to.
preach and read prayers in the churches.

It would be too long a story to tell you how
he accomplished all this; but it was done, and
nothing could be more violent and unjust than.
the manner in which it was brought about..
There were nearly a thousand religious houses,.
that is, convents, abbeys, and priories, in Eng-
land, inhabited by monks and nuns, clerks and
friars, of different orders, who had no other
homes, nor any means of living, but on the
property of the establishments to which they

=
102 EVERY CHILD’S

belonged; and these were all suppressed, toge-
ther with many colleges and hospitais, which
also supported a great many poor people. You
may, perhaps, wish to know how he did this, so
I will tell you.

King Henry appointed a number of commis-
sioners, and sent them with soldiers to different
parts of the kingdom, to take possession of all
the abbeys, and to seize, im his name, all they
found in them. The unhappy inmates were com-
pelled to surrender the dwelling, with every thing
it contained; and then the money and plate,
jewels, and all valuables, were taken for the
king; and the furniture, with every thing else
that could be removed, was sold, and the money
sent to a government office. ‘Then all the lands
were given away, or sold, and the country gen-
tlemen, or squires, as they are generally called by
the country people, began to form a large class
oi the English population. Some of the monks
and nuns had pensions allowed them by goverz-
ment; but a great number were left to beg or
starve. The poor were very sorry the convents
were broken up, for they had been accustomed
to go there when they were in distress, for food,
clothing, or medicine; and now they did not
know where to get relief, as there were no work-
houses; the hospitals, and all other charitable
imstitutions, except some alms-houses, having
been destroyed; nor was it till almost the middle
of the reign of queen Elizabeth that any provi-
sion was made by law for the destitute poor.
HISTGRY OF ENGLAND. 1038

The manufactures of England were now fast
increasing. Manchester, Birmingham, and Shef-
field, were beginning to be known as manufac-
turing towns; the first, for woollens and cottons;
the others, for cutlery and hardware. Pewter
plates and dishes were made in large quantities,
for they were now used in the most respectable
families instead of wood; hats were also made in
England in this reign; and a clock, the first ever
manufactured in this country. But nothing was
more useful than the improvements made in
gardening, for which we are indebted to the
Flemings and Dutch, who were the best gar-
deners in Europe, and who brought here many
kinds of vegetables for the table, such as cab-
bages, lettuces, &c., and many fruits that had
not been cultivated in England since the time
of the Romans, particularly cherries and cur-
rants. Potatoes were not known until the reign
of queen Elizabeth, when Sir Walter Raleigh
brought some from America, and planted them,
first in Ireland, little thinking, perhaps, that this
root would, at a future time, be almost the only
food of the Irish people.

Henry the Eighth had three more wives,
Anne of Cleves, whom he divorced; Catherme
Howard, whom he had beheaded, lke poor
Anna Boleyn; and Catherine Parr, who outlived
him. He reigned thirty-eight years, and was
succeeded by his son, Edward the Sixth, who
was only nine years old, and died before he was
sixteen; so that he can scarcely be reckoned
among the kings of England.
304 EVERY CHILD’S

He was a pious and amiable prince, fond of
dearning, and extremely charitable. He founded
St. Thomas’s hospital, for the sick poor; and
Christ’s hospital and school, for the education of
boys who had lost their fathers. He had a
cousin, Lady Jane Grey, whom he was very fond
of, for she was about his own age, gentle and
beautiful, and being fond of study, was edu-
cated with him; so that it was no wonder he
liked her. They were both Protestants; but
Edward’s eldest sister, Mary, was a Catholic;
and as some of the great noblemen were Pro-
testants, they did not like to have a Catholic
queen; so when the young king was dying, they
persuaded him to make a will, leaving the crown
to lady Jane Grey, which was not right, because
his father had ordered, and the parliament con-
firmed his will, that, if he died, Mary was to be
queen. Edward the Sixth died in the seventh
year of his reign.

Lady Jane was married to young lord Guild-
ford Dudley, and knew nothing about king
Edward’s will till after he was dead, when her
husband’s father told her she was to be queen.
At first she refused, but was, at length, per-
suaded or compelled to allow herself to be pro-
‘claimed; and very unhappy it made her, so
that she was very glad, at the end of ten days,
to give up the title of queen to her who had a
better right to it. Now Mary was a woman of
a morose temper; and, unfortunately, at that
‘time, and long afterwards, people who differed
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 105

in religious opinions were very cruel to each
other; so she would not forgive poor lady Jane
Grey, but sent her and her husband to the
Tower, where they were both beheaded. The
reign of queen Mary lasted only five years, and
there is little to tell about it, except that she
did all she could to restore the Roman Catholic
religion, and re-established some of the monas-
teries; but they were suppressed again, after
her death, by her sister Elizabeth, who had been.
brought up im the Protestant faith.

QUESTIONS.

How did Henry the Seventh secure peace?

How was the prosperity of the country increased?
What great discoveries were made in this reign?
What changes may be noticed in the mode of living?
How was a new class of people formed ?

Who was Perkin Warbeck ?

What became of him?

Who succeeded Henry the Seventh?

To whom was he married ?

Who was Cardinal Wolsey ?

What was his character and fate ?

Why did the king put away his first queen?

What was the fate of Anna Boleyn?

Who was Henry’s third wife ?

What was the Reformation?

How was this change accomplished ?

What became of the religious orders /

Which towns had become famous for their manufactures?

KO
106 EVERY CHILD’S

What improvements were made in gardening at this
period ?

How many wives had Henry the Eighth ?

How long did he reign, and who succeeded him ?

‘Who was Lady Jane Grey ?

What is chiefly remarkable of Queen Mary ?

By whom was she succeeded ?

QUEEN ELIZABETH.

ELIZABETH is one of the most celebrated of our
sovereigns, for she was a remarkably clever
woman, although, like her father, she was harsh
and tyrannical. It was a merry day im England
when she was crowned, for great numbers of the
people had not liked queen Mary. The citizens
of London testified their joy by decorating the
outsides of their houses with draperies of silk
and satin; and by having shows and pageants
in the streets, as was customary, at that time, on
all joyful occasions. In one place, a fountain
yan with wine; in another a boy, dressed to re-
present an angel with wings, descended from
the top of an arch, as the queen’s chariot was
passing under, and presented her with a bible;
then was drawn up again by a cord, to look as
if he flew away; and there were many other
things of the same kind, which I have not room
to tell of. The ladies and gentlemen who at-
tended the queen rode on horseback, for coaches
‘were not used in England till some years after-
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 107

wards, when a gentleman, from Holland, brought
a carriage over here, and then the English soon
began to build coaches, and ladies of rank left
off riding on horses, as they used to do, seated
on a pillion, behind their husbands.

Elizabeth was a good queen in many respects,
for she was a friend to learning, commerce, and
ail useful arts; and she chose able ministers,
who ruled the country with wisdom and pru-
dence; but she behaved very cruelly about reli-
gion, for although numbers of the people were
still Catholics, she made a law that every body
should go to Protestant churches; and those
who did not were put in prison, or made to pay
such large sums of money, that they were quite
ruined.

In other countries, particularly the Nether-
lands, the Protestants were as ill-treated as the
Catholics were here, so that a great many of
them came to England, and were very useful in
teaching the English several arts and manufac-
tures they did not know before. Pins, needles,
and paper, were now first made in England,
and the cotton and other factories were greatly
improved, so that there was more employment
for the working classes. Then workhouses were
established for the destitute, and all house-
holders, for the first time, were obliged to pay a
tax, called the poor rate, to support, and find
the poor in food and clothes, so that they might
not be driven, by want, to beg or steal.
L108 EVERY CHILD’s

The middle classes became more wealthy, and
lived in better style than at any former period,
especially the citizens of London, many of
whom were rich merchants, living lke noble-
men, and among these was Sir Thomas Gresham,
who built the first Royal Exchange, at his own
expense, and gave a grand dinner there to the
queen, in the year 1570.

English merchants now began to think of
trading to the Kast Indies; but as it required a
great deal of money to fit. out ships, to make
so long a voyage, for it took about four times as
long then as it does now, a number of rich
merchants joined together, and for a sum of
money, obtamed a charter from the queen,
which made it unlawful for any other persons
to carry on any trade with that part of the
world.

It is very interesting to read how this East
India Company first were only permitted just to
land in India, and buy and sell a few goods;
then, how they obtained permission of the em-
peror, for there was an emperor of India then,
to build some warehouses on the sea coast, and
form a little settlement, called a factory; then,
how they gradually established more factories,
and took soldiers to protect them, and gamed
possession of lands, where they built towns, so
that many English families went to live there.

Such was the beginning of the British empire
in India; and, I dare say, that if the emperor
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 109

could have foreseen the consequences, he would
not have consented to have an English factory
built on his coast.

In the reign of Elizabeth, Captain Francis
Drake made a voyage all round the world,
though he was not the first navigator who did
so, but he was the first English one. This was
a grand exploit, as few people had believed, till
then, that it was possible, or that the world was
really a round body; so you see how these
voyages tended to increase knowledge, as well
as to Improve commerce.

When Drake returned, the queen went to
dine with him on board his ship, and made him
a knight, after which he was called Sir Francis
Drake, and he soon became an admiral.

In the mean time, several voyages had been
made to America, and Sir Walter Raleigh, who
was one of the great men of the time, had
taken possession of a tract of land for the
queen of England, which he called Virginia,
and it still bears that name. The Europeans
behaved very unjustly about America, for
although the natives were savages, they had no
right to take away their lands. But they did
so in every place they went to; and if they
were Spaniards, they set up the Spanish flag,
and the commander of the ship said, “I take
this country for the king of Spain;” and then
they would fight with the poor natives, and kill
them, or drive them away; and, I am sorry to
say, the English used to act much in the same
110. EVERY CHILD’S

manner. But there was another thing done
that was worse than this, which I must tell you.
The Spaniards, who had taken some of the
West India Islands, and settled colonies in
South America, wanted slaves to work in the
gold mines, and their sugar plantations; so an
English captain took out some ships to Africa,
and carried off a great many poor negroes,
whom he sold in the West Indies, for a large
price; and from that time this wicked trade was
carried on to a great extent, and was permitted,
by government, until the beginning of the pre-
sent century.

But we must now think of what was going
on in England. Elizabeth had a cousin, named
Mary, who was queen of Scotland, and was
next heir to the inglish crown. She was young
and beautiful, and had been married to the king
of France, who was now dead; so she had re-
turned to Scotland, and, after a time, married
lord Darnley, and had a son, who was our king
James the First. Lord Darnley was murdered,
and Mary married another lord, who was dis-
liked by the Scots, so that there was a civil war,
and she was obliged to resign the crown, and
after much ill-treatment, escaped to England,
and begged the protection of queen Elizabeth.
Now the queen had always been jealous of her,
and she was now cruel enough to shut her up
in a castle, and, after keeping her a prisoner for
eighteen years, in different places, gave orders
for her execution, and the unfortunate queen of
Scots was beheaded in Fotheringay castle.
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. iil

Soon after this event, news arrived that a
large fleet was coming to invade England. The
king of Spain, Philip the Second, had been
married to our queen Mary; and he had offered
his hand to queen Ehzabeth, but she had
resolved not to marry at all, and, at any rate,
she would not have had Philip, for she did not
like him. He was, therefore, offended; and
was also angry because the queen had been
kind to the Protestants who had fled to England
from the Netherlands, for he was king of those
countries as well as of Spain; and her admirals
having attacked some of his settlements in Ame-
rica, he determined to invade England, and make
himself king there too, if he could.

He got ready the largest fleet that was ever
known, and called it the Invincible Armada;
but it did not prove to be invincible, although
the English had but a very small navy at that
time, not more than fifteen ships of war; but the
merchants lent their ships, and manned them
at their own expense; and people of all classes
gave money to pay soldiers, to defend the
country, in case the Spaniards should effect
a landing. But they never did land; for the
English vessels, though so much smaller than
Spanish ships, were lighter, and more manage-
able, and kept them from coming near the shore;
and when they anchored off Calais, the English
admiral sent fire ships among them, and burnt
some of them, which created such terror, that
thev sailed away as fast as they could, some one
112 EVERY CHILD’S

way and some another, and the English ships
chased them, and disabled a great many; while
others were wrecked by a violent storm; and
thus the Armada was nearly destroyed. Smail
handbills were printed and sent about the coun-
try, to let the people know that the danger was.
over.

Many more books were now published, and
there were many clever authors in this reign,
especially Shakespeare, who wrote a number of
beautiful plays. The queen was a great admirer
of Shakspeare’s plays, and used to go to see
them acted; but the theatres were then not
much better than the shows at a country fair,
and the performance was in the day time. Peo-
ple of fashion, in those days, dined at eleven
o’clock; the merchants and tradespeople, at
twelve; and labourers, at one; and all publie
amusements were between dinner and smpper,
which was taken about six.

These amusements did not show very good
taste, for gentlemen and ladies of rank used to
go and see cock fighting, and bull and bear
baiting, which are cruel disgusting exhibitions,
and I only menticn them to show you the dif-
ference between the manners of that time and:
this.

I will now give you an idea what kind of
dress people used to wear in the time of queen
Elizabeth. The gowns were open before, with
a stiff boddice, just like a pair of stays, laced
in front, and a large ruff round the neck. In
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 118

the street, most ladies used to wear a little black
velvet mask, and shoes with such high heels
they could scarcely walk in them. Gentlemen
wore short jackets, reaching a little below the
waist, with a belt and sword, a cloak, and a
high-crowned hat. One great improvement
was made in dress in this reign, by the inven-
tion of stockings, which, for a long time, were
all knitted; but they were found much more
convenient than the cloth hose, that every body
used to wear, till then. Queen Elizabeth died,
after a long, prosperous, and peaceful reign, of
forty-five years, in 1603, having named for her
successor, her cousin, James Stuart, king of
Scotland: and thus the two kingdoms of Eng-
land and Scotland came to be united, and took
the name of Great Britain.

QUESTIONS.

What was the character of queen Elizabeth?
What was the fashion of riding at this period?

Mention the good and bad features of Elizabeth’s govern
ment.

How were new manufactures brought into England, and
what were they?

What provision was made for the poor?

When was the Royal Exchange built, and by whom?

What was the origin of the East India Company?

Who was the first English captain that sailed round the
world ?

What honours were bestowed on him, on his return?

How was the slave trade begun ?

What sovereign was put to death by Elizabeth ?

Tell me what you know cf hey history.
114 EVERY CHILD’S

What was the Spanish Armada?

Why did king Philip invade England?

How did the English prepare for the invasion?
How did the affair terminate ?

What celebrated author lived in this reign ?
When did Elizabeth die ?

Whom did she appoint to succeed her?

THE STUARTS.

FROM

THE UNION TO THE REVOLUTION.

Tue people of Scotland did not like the union
of the two kingdoms, at first, because the king
and many of the nobility went away to live n
London, which, as there was little trade, left
Scotland in a very poor condition; and it was a
fong time, indeed, not before the people had ex-
perienced the great benefits of British trade and
commerce, that they began to feel as a part of
the English nation; but now that the English
and Scots have become like one people, it is cer-
tainly much happier and better for both.

James had not been king two years, when a
conspiracy was formed against the government,
called the Gunpowder Plot. I cannot tell you
for certain by whom it was contrived, but it was
a wicked scheme to blow up the houses of parlia-
ment, when the king, and most of the lords and
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 115

commons were there assembled; but, happily, it
was discovered a short time before the meeting
of parliament, and all the greatest men in the
country were saved from a dreadful death.

James the First was not a good king, for he
had a mistaken notion that a king ought to do
whatever he liked; and that, if he wanted money,
ne had a right to make new taxes, without the
consent of parliament, and, in fact, he thought
it unnecessary to have any parliament at all, and
he taught his son Charles to be of the same
opinion, which was the cause of that monarch’s
untimely fate, and the civil wars that you will
presently read about.

In the reign of James the First, there were
such severe laws against those who did not con-
form to the Church of England, that hundreds
of people emigrated to America, and settled
themselves in colonies in a wild country, where
at first they suffered many hardships and priva-
tions; but these colonies, and others, afterwards
formed, gradually improved, till they became
large flourishing states, now called the United
States of America.

James the First reigned twenty-two years,
and was succeeded, in the year 1625, by his son
Charles, whose bad education led to all the
miseries of a long civil war, and to misfortunes
that fell upon his own head. The quarrels
between Charles and the parliament, arose from
his taking upon himself the power of raising
money by taxes, without the consent of the
116 EVERY CHILD’S

House of Commons; and in other things he
chose to act by his own will, although it might
be quite contrary to the laws of the country.
Many people were put in prison because they
would not lend him money when he desired it;
and, at last, he dissolved the parlament alto-
gether, and said he would govern without one,
and then the people had no protection from his
tyranny.

Those who were treated the worst were the
Puritans, a religious sect, whose form of worship
was very similar to that of the present Scottish
Church, which is different from the English, as
they have no bishops, do not use our prayer
books, and have particular rules about choosing
their own clergymen. The Scots who hold.
these opinions are called Presbyterians. ‘The
Puritans dressed very plainly, like quakers, and
had their hair cut close, and on that account.
they obtained the name of Roundheads; and
those who took part against the king in the
civil war, generally adopted that fashion, and
were distinguished by that name. After a time,
the king began to find that, if he continued to
govern by himself, there would certainly be a
serious rebellion; so he consented to have a new
parliament, and there was an election directly,
and as many of the new members were Puritans,
they perhaps wanted the king to yield too much,
and thus provoked him not to give up so much
as he ought. I cannot tell how this might be;
but a great many people at length began to
HISTORY OF £NGLAND. 117

think it would be better to have a Republic, that
is, 2 government without a king, and many of
the Puritans were of that opinion.

Charles had undoubtedly brought all his trou-
bles upon himself, but it was now evident he
must either give up his authority as a sovereign,
or fight to maintain it; so he chose the latter
alternative, and a war was commenced between
the king and the parliament. Hach party raised
alarge army. ‘The queen, who was sister to the
French king, went to France, to raise money to
pay soldiers to fight for her husband, and to bring
arms for them. He was supported by most of
the English nobility, while the principal com-
moners sided with the parliament. The first
genoral for the parliament was the earl of Essex,
who resigned in favor of general Fairfax, but the
greatest general of the parliamentary army was
a country gentleman named Oliver Cromwell,
who was very clever, both as a military officer
and a statesman; and, after the death of Charles,
he became the ruler of England.

The war caused a great deal of unhappiness
in private families; for, although it was princi-
pally the soldiers who fought, every body was
interested in the question whether there should
be a king, or not; and such violent quarrels
arose, that the nearest relatives, even fathers and
sons, and brothers, often became enemies, and
many young men went tc join one armv, or the
other; so that sometimes two brothers might be
on different sides; and then think how dreadful

Lo
118 EVERY CHILD’S

it was, when a battle took place, that they should
be fighting against each other.

The Royalists, who were called Cavaliers, were
known from the Roundheads by their handsome
style of dress, for they wore coloured doublets
made of silk or satin, with lace collars falling
over them, and a short cloak over one shoulder.
Their hair was curled in long ringlets, and their
broad hats adorned with long feathers. There
was as much difference in dress between the
ladies as the gentlemen, for the female Round-
heads were very plain and prim in their attire,
while the Royalists were dressed in the gayest
fashion.

I shall not enter into the particulars of the
war. It is enough to say that after it had gone
on three years, the king was totally defeated, at
the battle of Naseby, in Northamptonshire, and
soon afterwards was made prisoner. The Re-
publicans then had it all their own way. The
king was brought to trial on a charge of having
broken the laws of the country; was condemned
to death, and beheaded at Whitehall, January
30th, 1649.

But the civil war did not end with the death
of Charles the First, for his son, prince Charles,
who was in Holland at the time, went to Scot-
land, where the generality of the people were
not disposed to have a republican government,
so they made the prince promise not to interfere
with their religion, but to join the Presbyterians,
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 119

and then they proclaimed him king, and soon
raising an army, he marched into England.

A battle was fought at Worcester, where
Cromwell gained a great victory, and the young:
king had to make his escape, in disguise, with a
few friends, who were anxious to get him safely
out of the country; and many curious adven-
tures they met with, for parties of the repub-.
lican soldiers were sent off in all directions in.
pursuit of the fugitive prince, who was several:
times very nearly caught.

His escape was chiefly owing to the fidelity of
five brothers, named Penderel, farmers and.
woodmen, who were tenants of a gentleman
that was warmly attached to the Royal family.
They lent him a woodman’s dress, called him
Will Jones; and rode about with him, to shew
him what houses he might safely go to for shel-
ter and entertainment. On the third day after
the battle, he was obliged to hide in a wood, at
Boscobel, on the borders of Staffordshire, where
he met with a friend, Major Carlis, who was
hiding himself. They heard soldiers about the
wood, so they both got up into an oak tree, with
some bread and cheese and beer, that one of the
Penderels had brought to Charles, and while
they were there, they heard the soldiers talking’
close under the tree, and saying how glad they
should be to find the king, and that they were
sure he must be somewhere thereabouts. The
tree was afterwards called the Royal Oak; and.
there is atree now on the same spot, raised from.
120 EVERY CHILD'S

an acorn of the original one, which is still dis-
tinguished by that name.

One time he travelled with a lady, as her
groom, and when they stopped at an inn, he
went into the kitchen, where the cook told him
to wind up the jack, which he did so awkwardly
that she scolded him. He made an excuse,
sayliuog that where he came from, they did not
have roast meat very often, and never used a
jack; but, I dare say, he laughed heartily after-
wards, for he was always merry in the midst of
his troubles. At last, after being at hide and
seek for nearly two months, he embarked at
Shoreham, and reached the continent im safety.

Great Britain was now not a kingdom, for
there was no king, but it was a Republic, or
Commonwealth, which is a goverhment managed
by the people, or their representatives in parlia-
ment. But Oliver Cromwell was an ambitious
man, and wanted to have all the power in his
own hands; so he got the soldiers on his side,
and then told the members of parliament that it
was time for them to go out of office, that there
might be a new election; and on their refusal, he
went to the House of Commons with a regiment
of soldiers, turned out the members, locked the
doors, and took away the keys.

He soon formed a new Parliament of men who
were devoted to his interest, and he was made
chief ruler of the state, under the name cf Pro-
tector of the Commonwealth; but he might as
well have been called king, for he was almost as
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 121

absolute a sovereign as any that had yet reigned.
However, he made a good use of his power by
promoting trade, and foreign commerce, besides
which, he had an excellent army, and a good
navy, so that England was considered of more
importance, by other nations, than it had ever
been before. The English Admiral, Blake.
gained some great victories over the Dutch at
sea; and some conquests were made both in the
Hast and West Indies, particularly that of Ja-
maica, which was taken from the Spaniards.

The English people obeyed Cromwell more
from fear than love, yet he had so many great
qualities that he was respected, as well as feared.
Milton, the poet, was one of his secretaries, and
was much attached to him, as I believe most
people were, who belonged to his domestic circle,
for Cromwell was kind and mild in his family,
although severe and determined in his public
character. There was not much merriment in
England, while he was its ruler, for the Puritans.
thought it sinful to dance, or feast, or sing, or
play at any games; so all the theatres and other
places of public amusement were ordered to be
shut up, even at Christmas, which had previously
been a very gay time, when every body, rich or
poor, used to make holiday for twelve days; and
in every country mansion, there was a good
Christmas dinner, and plenty of fun afterwards,
old and young playing at forfeits, blindman’s
buff, and other Christmas gambols, in the great
hall. But these frolics were forbidden in Crom-
well’s time, and if any merry-hearted folks m-.
£22 EVERY CHILD’S

duiged in such doings, it was by stealth, and
they kept it secret. The prim dress, and hats
with high crowns, were worn by both sexes; for
if any persons had dressed in a gayer fashion,
they would have. been taken for Royalists.
Cromwell died six years after he was made Pro-
tector, and ten from the death of Charles the
First.

A great many improvements were made during
the Commonwealth; for stance, coffee, sugar,
and India muslins, were first brought to this
country; the General Post Office was so much
better regulated, that private mdividuals could
send and receive letters by it; and banking
houses were first established.

When Oliver Cromwell was dead, his son
Richard was made Protector; but he liked a
quiet life, and soon gave up the troublesome
task of ruling the country; and as most people
were now of opinion it was better to have a
king than not, the parliament resolved to recall
Charles, who was residing in Holiand, and mes-
sengers were sent to tell him that he would be
restored to the throne, on condition that all
persons should have liberty to follow their reli-
gious belief, and that no one should be punished
for having taken part against bim, or his father,
before.

He returned to England, and entered London
m great*state, on the 29th of May, 1660, on
which day, every year, you may always hear the
bells rmging, to commemorate the restoration of
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 128

Charles the Second. But the rejoicing is be-
cause the old form of government was restored;
for Charles was not, by any means, a good
sovereign, nor had he one quality to be admired,
except that he was good natured to those about
him, and hked to make fun of every thing.
However, I must not forget to say that he re-
warded the Penderels, who had been so kind to
him in his misfortunes.

England was now quite a different place from
what it had been. Every body might be as
merry as they chose; the theatres were re-
opened; holidays kept; the villagers danced
round their may-poles as they used to do, and
were not afraid to laugh and sng; while the
towns-people had their pleasant social meetings,
and the London citizens their grand feasts, and
fine shows, as in the days of Elizabeth.

During the Commonwealth, there were no
bishops, nor any music allowed in the churches;
but now, the bishops were restored to their
former dignity, and our beautiful church music
was again heard. But, I am sorry to say, the
king did not keep his promise to let all persons
enjoy their own religion, which caused a great
deal of unhappiness, for numbers of families, to
escape being put im prison, or having their pro-
perty taken from them, left their comfortable
homes, and went to settle in the new American
colonies, where they had to endure many hard-
ships, for it is a long time before the people in
new settlements can obtain the means of living
jn aby degree of comfort,
124 EVERY CHILD’S

About five years after the return of king
Charles, the plague broke out in London, and
continued to rage for many months with fearful
violence. The streets were, at that time, narrow
and dirty; the houses mostly of wood, and not
airy; nor was the city so well paved or cleansed,
nor so well supplied with water, as at present,
consequently it was not so healthy; and then,
the doctors were not so clever as they are now,
so that many died, who perhaps might have
been saved. It was a melancholy time. The
houses were all shut up; no business was trans-
acted, and scarcely any body was to be seen in
the streets, which were sad and silent, for death
was in almost every house.

The king and queen, and most of the great
people, went out of town, but some of the clergy-
men, and other benevolent persons, stayed to do
what good they could, and some of them caught
the infection, and died.

At last, when the heat of the summer was
over, the plague began to abate, and those who
had survived it, returned to their usual occupa-
tions; but with sorrowful hearts, for most of
them had to mourn the loss of their dearest
friends. The plague had often raged in London
before, but had never been so bad; and perhaps
the great fire that followed it, tended greatly to
remove the cause of this dreadful distemper.

The memorable fire of London happened in
September, 1666. It began at a baker’s shop,
near London-bridge, and spread rapidly from
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 125
street to street, till almost all the town was in
flames. It continued to burn for three days,
and destroyed nearly the whole city, with most
of the churches and public buildings; but there
were very few lives lost, as the people fled from
their houses when they saw the fire approaching
the street in which they lived. Many, however,
were ruined by the loss of their property, and
all were left houseless, so that they had to set
up tents in the fields, to shelter themselves til]
they could find some place to go to; and sub-
scriptions were made for the relief of those who
were most in need, for generally the respectable
citizens had saved their plate, jewels, and money.

The fire put an end to the pestilence, and
so far proved a benefit, in the end; for the city
was rebuilt with wider streets; the open drains
were made into sewers; the houses were built of
brick or stone, and altogether it was handsomer
and more healthy; one proof of which is, that
the plague has not been known in London since.
The visitation of the cholera, in 1829-30, al-
though partaking somewhat of the character of
a plague, was a different disease, and yielded to
cleanliness and medical treatment.

It was about this time, that tea was first
brought to England, from China, by the East
India Company; but it was so very dear, that a
pound of tea was thought a handsome present,
and it was a very long while before people drank
it, as they do now. Except in London, Liver-
pool, and some of the principal towns, nobody

M
126 EVERY CHILD’S

had ever heard of such a thing as tea; for there
was but little mtercourse between London and
the country towns at that time, as the roads
were still bad, and there were no stage coaches
till a few years after the death of Charles the
Second, and then only on three or four of the
principal roads; so that if a country gentleman
brought his family to London, an event that
seldom took place, they were obliged to travel
in their own clumsy coach, and were many days
performing a journey that may be made now
i afew hours. The rich country gentlefolks
lived in a plain homely way, and their daugh-
ters were brought up to assist in domestic duties,
such as washing, ironing, cooking, knitting,
and many other useful things; but they seldom
had any other accomplishments, and very few
could read or write.

Charles the Second died in 1685, twenty-five
years after his restoration, and was succeeded
by his brother James, who was a Catholic, and
tried to restore the Catholic religion, although
he had promised not to do so. The people soon
began to feel that he did not mind breaking the
laws to accomplish this object; so a great many
Protestant noblemen and gentlemen agreed that
it would be better to take the crown from him,
and to place on the throne a prince of another
family, for they said, the laws would never be
rightly cbserved so long as the Stuarts, or a Ca-
tholic king, reigned; so they sent to William,
prince of Orange, who was married to the king’s
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 127

daughter, Mary, and asked him to become king
of England, and he consented. He came, with
a large army, to Torbay, in Devonshire; but
there was no fighting, for kmg James, with his
wife and infant son, fled to France, where he
was kindly received by the French king, Louis
the Fourteenth, who promised to try and replace
him on the throne; but the attempt was unsuc-
cessful, as you will presently see.

James the Second had only reigned in Eng-
land three years, and during that time the
‘Protestants were so cruelly treated in France,
that thousands of industrious artisans came over
here, chiefly silk weavers, but also watchmakers,
cutlers, and manufacturers of glass, writing
paper, and many other things; from whom the
English learned to make all these things as well
as the French. The middle classes were much
better off than at any former time, on account
of the increase of trade; but the lower orders
were not so well off, for wages were less, in pro-
portion to the prices of bread and meat, than
they were at earlier periods of our history.

QUESTIONS.

What was the gunpowder plot?

What was the opinion of the new king with regard to
sovereignty?

How were the American States first colonized ?

Who succeeded James the first ?

What gave rise to quarrels betweer the king and parlia-
ment ‘
128 EVERY CHILD’S

Who were the Roundheads?

What sort of government was desired by the people?
Who was Oliver Cromwell?

What were the Cavaliers ?

How were they distinguished from the Roundheads?
What was the ultimate fate of king Charles?

Name the date of his death.

Did this event put an end to the war?

What was the battle of Worcester ?

What is a Republic?

How did Cromwell obtain sovereign power ?

What was his title?

How did he use his power?

What conquests were made in his time?

Who was Cromwell's secretary?

What change took place in the manners of the people?
How long did Cromwell rule ?

What improvements were made in his time?

What followed the death of Cromwell?

Name the date of the restoration.

What was the conduct of Charles with regard to religion?
What calamities befel London in this reign?

In what year was the fire of London?

Why did it eventually prove a benefit?

When was tea first brought to England?

When were stage coaches first established?

How long did Charles the Second reign?

Who succeeded him?

Why was James disliked by many of the people?
What was the consequence?

How were the useful arts improved in England, about
this time?
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 129

THE REVOLUTION.

Tue change made in the government by taking
the crown from James the Second, and giving it
to William the Third, was called the Revolutiox,
and was a good thing for England, as it was
then settled that no sovereign, in future, should
follow his own will, or act contrary to the laws
of the country; that all new laws should be
proposed by the parliament, and not by the
king; who was only to have the power of giving
or refusing his consent to them; which is very
different from bemg able to make laws without
asking any one, as the kings and queens of
England had hitherto often done. ‘The way,
now, is this:—when a gentleman of the House
of Commons, or a nobleman of the House of
Lords, thinks of any thing that will be good for
the nation, he mentions it to the rest, and they
all consult about it, every one giving his opinion
whether he thinks 1t good or not; and if the
greater number think it will be good, it is settled
shat it shall be done, if both Houses of Parlia-
ment and the sovereign agree to it; for which-
ever House of Parliament begins and agrees to
a measure, it is sent to the other House for ap-
proval:—this is called passing the bill. When
both Houses have done what they consider good
and necessary, it is submitted to the queen or
kitg, who generally approves of it also; and
then it becomes a law.
130 EVERY CHILD’S

Another rule made at the Revolution was,
that the parliament should meet every year, and
that there should be a new election at least once
in three years, to give the people an opportunity
of choosing other members, if they had not ap-
proved the votes of the old ones; but, in the
reign of George the First, this arrangement
was altered to seven years, and so it has con-
tinued ever since.

It was also agreed that none but a Protestant
should ever be king or queen of England; and
all these, with many other regulations, were
written down, and signed by king William, and
this is called the Bill of Rights. No one was to
be persecuted on account of his or her religion;
but the Catholics were still unjustly treated, for
they were not allowed to hold landed property,
or to be members of parliament; and it was not
till the reign of George the Fourth that people
of the Catholic faith were restored to their an-
cient rights and privileges.

Soon after William was made king, he had to
go to Ireland, to fight against James the Second,
who had landed there with a French army,
thinking the Irish would assist him to recover
the throne. But he was defeated in a battle
fought on the banks of the river Boyne, and
obliged to go back to France, where he lived
in retirement for the rest of his life.

His daughter, Mary, the wife of king William,
was avery amiable woman, and much beloved
by the English. It was she who induced the
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 131

government to convert the palace at Greenwich
into an asylum for poor old sailors; and the
king gave money for the purpose.

The East Indian trade was very much in-
creased during this reign, so that all things that
come from China and India, such as tea, silk,
cotton, spices, porcelain or china ware, and
many other beautiful and useful things, became
more easy to be procured in this country. I
must also tell you that the Bank of England
was now first established, for the purpose of
raising money for the government to carry on
war against Louis the Fourteenth, of France;
and this was the beginning of what you will
sometimes hear called, the National Debt; for
when people put money in the bank, it is the
same as lending it to the king, or the govern-
ment; and as long as they choose to lend it,
they are paid so much a year for doing so, and
this is called their dividend, which they go to
the Bank twice a year to receive.

The war in which king William was engaged,
had nothing whatever to do with the English,
but was only for the sake of helpmg the Arch-
duke of Austria, to fight out his quarrels
with the king of France; yet, after William’s
death, these wars were carried on during the
whole reign of queen Anne, who succeeded.
William the Third, in the year 1702, after he
had reigned thirteen years. These wars caused.
great distress in England, where the taxes were.
increased, to pay the expences of the soldiers ;
132 EVERY CHILD’S

and trade was much injured, as we were at war
both with France and Spain.

There was a duty, for the first time, laid upon
many things that people have to use every day,
such as soap, candles, starch, and paper, so that
all these articles became much dearer. ‘The
meaning of a duty is this:— The parliament
says, no person may make any paper, unless he
give to the government so much money for every
ream he makes; so the paper-makers pay the
money, and charge more for their paper to the
shopkeepers, who buy it of them; then you and
I, and every body who uses paper, must pay
more for it than if there was no duty; and the
same with all things on which there are duties.
So you see the expenses of war fall upon every
one, In some way or other.

Queen Anne was a daughter of James the
Second, but as she was a Protestant, no objec-
tion was made to her accession, although her
brother was excluded from the throne, as bemg
a Catholic. The most important event that took
place in the reign of queen Anne, was the com:
plete union of England and Scotland, for al-
though they had been governed by one king,
since the time of James the First, they had
separate parliaments, and different laws; but it
was now settled that a certain number of the
Scottish lords and commons should sit in the
English houses of parliament, and that all the
laws about trade, and everything that did not
interfere with the habits or religion of Scotland,
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 133

should be the same. This union of the parlia-
ments took place in 1707, from which time
England and Scotland have been one country,
called Great Britain.

There was a celebrated General, the Duke of
Marlborough, who won some famous battles in
Germany in the reign of queen Anne; and
there was a brave Admiral, Sir George Rooke,
who took the fortress of Gibraltar, which was a
conquest of some importance to England, be-
cause it stands at the entrance of the Mediter-
ranean sea, and may be said to command the
passage taken by ships trading to the Grecian
islands, Egypt, Turkey, &e. Queen Anne died
in the year 1714, having reigned twelve years.

QUESTIONS.

What was meant by the Revolution ?

What were the changes made in the government ?

How was the duration of parliaments settled ?

What is the Bill of Rights?

What was the battle of the Boyne?

Who was the wife of William the Third?

When was the Bank of England established, and why?

What was the object of the wars, and how long (id they
last?

When did William die, and who succeeded him ®
What union was effected at this time?

When did it take place ?

What conquest was made in this reign ?

Why is this place of importance?

When did Queen Anne die?
134 EVERY CHILD’S

HOUSE OF HANOVER.

WHEN Queen Anne died, the crown of England
went to a German prince, named George, the
elector or sovereign of Hanover, whose mother
was grand-daughter of James the First. He was
rather advanced in age, and being a stranger to
the manners of the people, and to the language
and laws of this country, was not likely to be-
come a popular monarch; yet it was thought
better that he should succeed to the throne,
than to let the son of James II, who was now
about six-and-twenty, be king of Great Brita.
But there were a great many people in Scot-
land, who wished to see the family of their an-
cient kings restored, and some of the great men,
there, raised an army, and invited prince James
Stuart, who is usually called the Pretender, to
place himself at the head of it, and go to war
with George the First. The Pretender went to
Scotland, and two battles were fought, one near
Dumblane, and the other near Preston, in Lan-
cashire; but the English troops gained the vic-
tory at both places, and the prince was glad to
get back to France again.

A great many English had joined in this re-
bellion, for, as I said before, the new king was
not very generally liked; and it was mostly the
English party that fought for the Pretender at
Preston, and, I am sorry to say, all who were
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 135

made prisoners were very cruelly treated. The
leaders were put to death, and those who had
fought under their command, were mostly sent
to America, and sold for slaves.

You remember how the American colonies
were first settled. Well, they had now become
large populous places, and cities had been built
there; but the people were cultivators, and had
no manufactures of any kind, for they were
obliged to have all they wanted of manufactured
goods, either for clothing, or any other purpose,
from England, which was a great advantage to
this country, by furnishing employment for Eng-
lish manufacturers. Perhaps you will say, why
could they not have things from other countries,
as well as from England?—but you must bear in
mind that the American states were then under
the British government, and remained so till
the reign of George the Third, when the Ame-
ricans established a government of their own
and went to war with Great Britain, as you will
presently read, and with the assistance of France,
made themselves independent of this country.
George the First died m 1727, having reigned
nearly thirteen years, and he was succeeded by
his son, George the Second.

There had been a great change in the mode
of dress since the time of the Stuarts, for queen
Anne had introduced a fashion of setting out.
the gowns with hoops; and gentlemen wore
coats with broad square-cut tails, waistcoats
with long flaps, coloured stockings drawn ve
136 EVERY CHILD’S

over the knee, lace ruffles, large shoe buckles,
wigs with rows of stiff curls, three-cornered hats
bound with gold-lace, and swords.

Towards the close of the eighteenth century
this formal inconvenient style of dress was
altered gradually; swords were left off; the hair
which, in the early part of the reign of George
the Third, was frizzed out, pomatumed and pow-
dered, was dressed in a more natural manner;
round hats came into fashion, and people began
to look something like what they do now.

The reign of George the Second, which lasted
thirty-three years, was on the whole rather a
prosperous one, the greater part of it bemg spent
in peace. There was no war for about twelve
years, and during that time improvements were
going on all over the country. Most of the
great towns were made larger, and new manu-
factories built, for the trade of England was in-
creasing every year, and great quantities of ma-
nufactured goods were sent out to foreign coun-
tries; besides which, new roads were opened,
waste lands cultivated, canals formed, and new
harbours made for shipping, so that there was
plenty of employment for the labouring people.

We had a good navy at this time, and the
first war that broke out was carried on entirely
at sea. It was with the Spaniards, who had
taken possession of a great part of South Ame-
rica, and, as they chose to keep all the trade to
themselves, they had ships constantly sailing
about, to prevent the ships of other nations
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 137

coming there, which was all very fair; but not
eontent with guarding their own possessions,
they interfered with British merchants, who
were going to or from other places, plundered
some of their vessels, and behaved so ill, that
the British government was obliged to declare
war, and sent out a great many ships to fight
the Spaniards.

I dare say you have heard stories about press-
gangs taking away poor men against their will,
to make sailors of them. This cruei expedient
for getting plenty of sailors, was resorted to in
all the wars during the reigns of George the
Second, and George the Third, when many a
poor fellow, In going to or returning from his
daily labour, was met by a party of armed men,
called a press-gang, and carried off, by force, to
a ship, without being allowed to go home, or
take leave of his family. Such things ought
not to be done in a free country, and I hope
they never will be done again, even if we should
have the misfortune to be at war.

At this time, the French had large possessions
in India, as well as the English, and it seemed
doubtiul which of the two nations would, in the
end, be masters of the country; but this ques-
tion was decided in the reign of George the
Second, for, while the war with Spain was going
on, a war broke out between France and Eng-
land, about the affairs of Germany, where our
xing himself commanded the army, and fought
at the battle of Dettingen; but the fighting

N
138 EVERY CHILD’S

between the French and English in India, was
of more consequence, as several great victories
were gained by a brave commander, named
Clive, by which the superiority of the English
in India was quite established, and ever since
that time, we have gained one place after ano-
ther, in that extensive and rich country, until
a large portion of India has become a province
of the British empire.

While these wars were going on abroad, there
was another great rebellion in Scotland; for
prince Charles Edward Stuart, the son of the
old Pretender, being now a man, had come
there to make another attempt to recover the
throne for his father; ano being joined by some
of the Highland chiefs, and numbers of Scotch
people, as well as by many English who were
discontented with the government, he went to
Holyrood house, the old palace of his ancestors,
at Edinburgh, where he held a court, and be-
haved as if he had been the sovereign of the
country. Of course, an army was sent from
England, to put down this rebellion, which
caused a great deal of misery; for, besides the
numbers of brave men that were killed in the
several battles which took place, many were
afterwards executed as traitors, which must have
been more dreadful for their famities than if
they had fallen in battle. If Charles Edward
had any good feelmg, I thmk he must have
been very sorry for the mischief he caused. He
was finally defeated at the battle of Culloden,
aiid obliged to escape, like Charles the Second,
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 139

after the battle of Worcester, and his adven-
tures are very similar, but more full of suffering,
than those of the merry monarch. This is usu-
ally called the Rebellion of ’45, because it was
in the year 1745.

There is only one thing more of importance
to mention in the reign of George the Second,
and that is the conquest of the large country of
Canada, in North America, which had belonged
to the French, who had settled there as the
English had in the United States, and built
several good towns, one of which was Quebec.
There had frequently been quarrels between the
French and English in America, respecting their
possessions, which, at length, occasioned a war
there, and soldiers were sent out both from
France and England, the French wanting to
conquer the British states, the English to gain
possession of Canada.

This war had lasted about five years, when
the renowned General Wolfe gained a great vic-
tory at the battle of Quebec; after which, the
French gave up Canada, which has belonged to
England ever since, and is a very useful posses-
sion, supplying abundance of fine corn, and
timber for building. General Wolfe was killed
on the field of battle, just as the victory was
won, and his death was much lamented in Eng-
land, where the news of the conquest arrived a
few days before the death of the king, which
happened in October, 1760, after he had reigned
thirty-three years.
140 EVERY CHILD’S

The eldest son of George the Second was dead,
but he had left a son, named George, who suc-
ceeded his grandfather, and was about twenty-
two years old. He was a very good man and
was highly respected, although many people say
he was more fitted for a country gentleman than
aking. He married a German princess, whose
name was Charlotte, and they had many chil-
dren, some of whom are yet living. Our queen
is the grand-daughter of George the Third.

About two years after the new king came to
the throne, peace was made with France and
Spain, and there were no more wars for thirtcen
years, when the Americans became dissatisfied
with the English government, and resolved to
have a government of their own. But let us see
what useful things were done in England durmg
that thirteen years of peace. Jirst of all, the
manufacture of China ware was begun in Staf-
fordshire, by a gentleman, named Wedgewood,
who built large factories, and employed a great
number of people in this new branch of art.
Then a machme was invented for spinning
cotton, by which we were enabled to manufac-
ture cotton gcods in much larger quantities
than before, and as they could be sold abroad,
this was a great benefit. It was also disco-
vered how very useful steam engines might be
made; but {1 fancy nobody then imagined that
we should ever travel by steam, or print by
steam, or do many other wonderful things, that
are now done }y that means. Turnpike roads

vo
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 141

were established all over the kingdom, and tra-
velling thus rendered safer and more expeditious.
People were in general much better educated
than in the preceding century, and all arts and
sciences were greatly improved.

And now I will tell you something about the
American war. The quarrel began about some
taxes which the British government imposed on
the Americans, to help to pay the expenses of
the wars with France and Spain, which the
Americans thought they had nothing to do with;
and considered it unjust that they should have
to find money towards paying for them. Bri-
tish troops were sent out, to force them to obey
the orders of the government; but imstead of
complying, all the colonies agreed to joi toge-
ther and fight for their hberty; and a very brave
and good man, named General Washington, took
the command of the American army. This war
lasted many years, and the French and Spani.
ards, and also the Dutch, assisted the Ameri-
cans with troops, ships, and money. There were
many gentlemen in the English parliament who
wanted to put an end to the war, by giving up
all control over the Americans; but others
would not consent, and the king was unwilling
to do so, till, at last, finding there was little
chance of success, the English government gave
up the contest, and the American colonies be-
came independent of England, and took the
name of the United States.

This event took place in 1783, after which,

- 2
NO
142 EVERY CHILD'S

there were a few more years of peace, and then
the long wars with France were begun, which
lasted above twenty years, and were ended by
the famous battle of Waterloo. ‘The cause of
the war was this. There had been a great
revolution in France. The people rose up
against king Louis the Sixteenth, who was made
prisoner, and beheaded; just as Charles the
First was treated here, and for much the same
cause. Then a number of persons took the
government into their own hands, and governed
without a king, and declared war against the
king of Great Britain, and also against the
stadtholder of Holland, and the king of Spain,
for disapproving of what ths French “people had
done. The Spaniards anc Dutch were after-
wards obliged to Jon the rench, and many
battles were fougut both on land and at sea, and
some naval victories were gained by the British
Admirals Dnnean, Howe, and Nelson, and other
officers.

The greatest man in France ai tris time was
Napoieon Bonaparte, an artillery officer, who
raised himself to the head of the state, just as
Cromwell did here, by getting the soldiers to
side with him. He was called consul, at first,
but afterwards he was made emperor, and he

conquered a great part of Europe, and he made
the sovernments of those countries which he
did not conquer do just as he pleased, except
England, for he had the largest armies of any
sovereign in the world.
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 143

The most celebrated of our generals in the
war against Bonaparte, were Abercrombie, Sir
John Moore, and the Duke of Wellington, the
last of whom won a great many battles in Spain,
and at last, with the assistance of the Prussians,
gained the great victory at Waterloo, near Brus-
sels, on the 18th of June, 1815, after which,
Bonaparte surrendered to the English, and was
banished to a small island, called St. Helena, in
the South Atlantic Ocean, where he died in a
few years. The fall of Bonaparte, was followed
by a general peace.

Our venerable monarch was still living, but
he had been out of his mind, and blind, for some
time, so that his son George, prince of Wales,
had been made regent in the year 1810, and
conducted the government, with that title, till
his father’s death, which happened in the year
1820, he having reigned above fifty-nine years,
when George the Fourth became king, instead
of regent.

But I must now go back some years to tell
vou of something that was done at the begin-
ning of this century. You have been told that
Ireland had been subject to England, ever
since the time of Henry the Second; but there
had constantly been quarrels and warfare be-
tween the native Irish, and the new Irish, who
were the descendants of the English, who had
settled there, after the conquest. Then the new
Irish were just as ready to quarrel with new
English settlers, as the old Irish were with
144 EVERY CHILD’S

them; and, till the last fifty years, little had
been done to make the people of Ireland a bet-
ter or a happier race. They had a parliament
of their own, but it did not encourage the people
to be industrious, so they were, of. course, very
poor; and they often committed unlawful acts,
either from poverty and misery, or for want
of knowing better.

A few years after the war with France began,
there was a great rebellion in Ireland, and sol-
diers were sent from England, to put a stop to
it, which I am afraid was not done without a
great deal of cruelty; but it was in consequence
of this rebellion that the English government
resolved that the parliament and country of
Ireland should be united to that of England;
as the parliament and country of Scotland had
been, and this union took place on the first of
January, 1801, which you will easily remember,
because it was the first day of the nineteenth
century. Many good laws have been made
since then, for the benefit of Ireland, and much
been done to improve the country; but num-
bers of the Irish people still remain in a very
distressed condition, and some of them wanted
to have a separate Parliament again; and this is
what 1s meant by Repeal of the Union; but this
feeling is now fast dying away.

In the reign of George the Third, there were
National and Sunday schools established in
almost every part of England, so that the poor
people might be able to have their children
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 145

taught to read and write, which was a great
blessing to them; for although there had long
been charity schools in London, there were few
in the country, and many of the shopkeepers in
country towns, who had become quite respecta-
ble people by their industry, were so ignorant
that they could not even make out their bills,
or keep their own accounts.

There were two more great improvements
before the death of George the Third; the one
was the invention of gas lights, which make the
streets much lighter at night than the dim oil
lamps that were formerly used; and the other
was the introduction of steam boats, which had
lately been mvented m America.

QUESTIONS.

Who succeeded queen Anne?

Who was the Pretender?

What was the Rebellion?

How did it end?

What was the state of the American colonies at this
period ?

Who succeeded George the First ?

How was the country improved in this reign?

With whom did the English go to war, and why?

How were sailors forcibly obtained ?

Were there any other wars in this reign ?

What was the Rebellion of ’45?

Where was the final battle fought?

What great conquest was made in this reign ?

‘What gave rise to the war ?
146 EVERY CHILD'S

What battle decided the contest ?

Which of our Generals was killed in the moment of
victory ?

When did this event happen?

Who succeeded George the Second?

What improvements were made in the early part of his
reign ¢

What was the cause of the American war?

Who was the leader of the Americans?

How did the war terminate, and when ?

What gave rise to the last war with France ?

What British Admirals distinguished themselves ?

Who was Bonaparte ?

Name some of our great Generals.

What victory put an end to the war?

What became of Bonaparte ?

Who ruled in England at this time ?

When did the Union with Ireland take place ?

FROM THE

DEATH OF GEORGE THE THIRD,

TO THE PRESENT TIME.

Grorcer the Fourth, who had been regent ten
years, reigned as king from 1820, to 1830.
During that time, every improvement that had
been begun was carried to a greater extent.
The education of all classes of people was con-
ducted on a better system, and greater numbers
of cheap books were published for the instruc-
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 147

tion of the working classes. London was greatly
improved by the building, in some parts, of wide
handsome streets, in the place of narrow, dirty,
crowded ones, and the manners of the English
were improved also, by their intercourse with
foreign nations; for after the peace, people be-
gan to visit France, Italy, and other parts of
Europe, while a great number of foreigners
came here, anc we adopted such of their cus-
toms as were superior to our own; for people
may always improve from each other. The
French, German, and Itahan languages began
to be more generally studied in England; and
the arts and sciences, especially painting and
music, were more highly cultivated.

But I am sorry to say that, amid ail these
benefits, there was a great deal of distress
among the labouring people, for the expenses
of the war had been so heavy that it was some
years before the blessings of peace could be
felt; and thus all the necessaries of life con-
tinued to be very dear, and wages, in propor-
tion, very low, which occasioned riots in many
parts of the kingdom; for the poor people had
expected that, as soon as there was peace, most
of the taxes pressing on them would be taken
off. But the government thought it right first
to take off the property tax, and then found
they could not do without the money the other
taxes produced. Then the people, not getting
relief from the taxation, thought some alterations
in the laws might remeciy their distress, and
148 EVERY CHILD’S

sent petitions to parliament praying that these
alterations might be made. The principal thing
they wanted was, what you have perhaps heard
called the Reform Bill. This was a law to give
the right of voting for members of parliament
to a greater number of people, and also to make
alterations with regard to the places that were
allowed to send members to parliament; for there
were many old boroughs that were formerly
important places, but now had scarcely a house
left standing, yet still were represented by two
members in parliament; which was ridiculous,
because the object of sending a member to par-
liament is, that he may do all the good he can
for the people of the place he represents, as well
as for the nation; then there were many large
towns, such as Manchester, Birmingham, Glas-
gow, &c., that had grown into importance since
the time when it was settled what places should
have representatives, and these had none at all.
Another thing desired by the people, was an
alteration in the Corn Laws, so that bread might
be cheaper; and this alteration was to be made
by letting corn be brought from abroad without
paymg duty. Neither of these points were
gained while George the Fourth was king; but
the Reform Bill was passed during the reign of
his successor, William the Fourth; and, in the
year 1846, some important alterations were made
in the corn and provision laws.

William the Fourth was the brother of
George the Fourth, and on the death of that
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 149

monarch, in 1830, succeeded to the throne.
That same year is memorable for the opening
of the first Railway for travelling, which waa
that between Manchester and Liverpool; a cir-
cumstance that may be mentioned as the com.
mencement of one of the greatest changes of
modern times; and when we consider the num-
ber and extent of the Railways now in use, we
cannot but admire the immense works of the
kind that have been performed in so short a
space of time. The speed with which we can
now travel, both by sea and land, would astonish
our good old ancestors, who used to think ita
great and dangerous undertaking to set out on
a journey of twenty or thirty miles.

In the time of Charles the Second, the poet
Cowley, who had a country house at Chertsey,
which is only twenty-two miles from London,
invited a friend in town to pay him a visit, say-
ing in his letter, that as he could not perform
the whole journey in one day, he might sleep
at Hampton. I think he would have been glad
of a railway, which would have taken him all
the way before breakfast. In 1706, the stage
coach from York was four days coming to Lon-
don; and so late as 1763, there was only a coach
once a month from Edinburgh to London; and
it was a whole fortnight on the road; so I think
you will see the advantages of our present mode
of travelling.

The very best thing done im the reign of Wil-
liam the Fourth, was the emancipation of the
n
150 EVERY CHILD’S

slaves in the West Indies. The wicked custom
of buying and selling negroes had been abolished
by parliament, in the time of George the Third,
but there were many thousands of slaves in the
West India Islands, belonging to the British
planters there, and these poor creatures, and all
their children after them, would have continued
to be slaves, if it had not been for the kindness
of the British government, which gave twenty
millions of money to buy all the slaves of their
masters, and then set them free. The happy
day when the poor negroes became free people,
was the lst of August, 1828.

I told you that the Reform Bill was passed in
this reign. One consequence of this measure
was, the lessening of the duties, or taxes, on
many articles of necessity, thereby reducing
their prices, so that the poor people could live
much better than they had formerly. The
harvests were also plentiful for several years, so
that bread was very cheap, and the prices of
all kinds of clothing were less than in previous
years. Upon the whole, there had never been
a better time in England than the seven years
that William the Fourth occupied the throne,
He died in 1837, and was succeeded by her
present Majesty, queen Victoria, who was the
daughter of his deceased brother, the Duke of
Kent. In 1840, she married her cousin, Prince
Albert, of Saxe Coburg and Gotha. Their fa-
mily now consists of eight children, — four
princes, and four princesses,
HISTORY OF ENGLAND, 151]

The most remarkable events that have yet
happened in the reign of queen Victoria, are
the wars in China and India: but I ought to
have mentioned an alteration made in the last
reign, with regard to the East India trade,
which you, perhaps, remember was carried on
solely by the East India Company, according to
a charter granted by queen Ehzabeth, and re-
newed, from time to time, by other sovereigns.
In 18138, however, it was made lawful for private
merchants to trade to India; but this right was
not extended to the trade with China, which was
still confined to the Company till 1833, when
a new law was made with regard to that also,
and any person then was at hberty to go to
China for tea, silk, and other commodities, which
have since been much cheaper in consequence.
Tea is little more than half the price it used to
be, which is a great benefit and comfort to the
poor.

But this had nothing to do with the war in
China, which arose from a dispute about the
British merchants selling opium to the Chinese,
who were forbidden by their emperor to buy it,
because it injures the health of those who take
it, like drinking spirits. Still the merchants
continued to carry opium to China, and the
people to buy it; so the governor at Canton,
the only Chinese town in which foreigners were
allowed to trade, seized and burnt some ship-
loads of opium, for which he would not pay the
owners; and this was the cause of the war.
152 EVERY CHILD’S

There were several battles fought, in which the
Chinese were always defeated, for they were not
much acquainted with the present art of war;
but, at last, after three years of warfare, peace
was made with the British; and the Chinese
emperor agreed to pay a sum of money, and to
cede, or give up, to the British government, the
Island of Hong Kong;, besides agreeing that
English ships might lafid goods for sale, at five
ports, instead of one only, and that British
merchants might have warehouses, and reside
at all those places. A treaty to this effect was
signed in August, 1842.

The war in India, was much more serious,
and lasted a great deal longer. It was begun
for the purpose of restoring to his throne an
Indian prince, the king of Caboul, who had
been deprived of his kingdom by another prince.
The wars occasioned by this usurpation being
likely to endanger the safety of the British pos-
sessions, the Governor-general thought it ne-
cessary to interfere; and from the year 1839 to
that of 1846, the British armies in India were
engaged in terrible and destructive wars with
the Affghans, and other nations in the north
and west of India. These calamitous strifes were
happily ended by two great victories gained on
the banks of the Sutlej, at the beginning c*
1846, the one by General Sir Harry Smith, the
other, by General Sir Hugh Gough. By the con-
quests made during these wars, the British em-
pire is extended over the greater part of India.
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 158

Among the important inventions of this reign,
may be mentioned that of the Electric Tele-
graph, by means of which communications can
be made between places a hundred miles apart
in one moment, or mdeed to any imaginable
distances. Of the most essential laws passed by
the parliament, several are for improving the
modes of building and draining, for better sup-
plies of water, and a more healthful ventilation
of dwelling-houses in towns and cities, and for
making streets wider, and keeping them clean.

I have already mentioned the distressed con-
dition of great numbers of the Irish people; and
am sorry to have now to say that their misery
has been greatly increased in the last three
years, by the failure of the potato crops, on
which the lower orders in Ireland depend for
their subsistence. This food they can, with two
or three months labour in the year, grow for
themselves; and as they are, unfortunately,
contented with such poor living, it is a very sad
thing for them when a bad season occurs, and
the potatoes are spoiled; which happens gene-
rally once in six or seven years. But there
have now been three bad seasons following each
other; and this calamity has caused so much
distress, that thousands have died of fevers and
other diseases, occasioned by want of wholesome
and sufficient food.

The Parliament expended several millions of
money in relieving their distresses, and provid-
ing them employment. Large sums of money

03
154 EVERY CHILD’S

were also subscribed by individuals nm England,
Scotland, and America, for the relief of the
people in Ireland; and charitable committees
were formed in many parts of that country to
receive the money, and distribute the food and
clothing purchased with it.

New poor laws have also been made by the
government, to afford greater relief to the desti-
tute; and every thing has been done, that hu-
manity could suggest, to better their condition
and relieve their wants; but, unfortunately,
many of the Irish people do not rightly ap-
preciate the efforts made in their behalf; and a
mistaken notion has been raised in the minds
of numbers of them, both here and in their
own country, that they would be better off if
the parliament of Ireland were separated from
that of Great Britain; and there are many per-
eons of a higher class who, for their own selfish
purposes, endeavour to strengthen this false idea
among the lower orders.

Therefore, instead of helping themselves by
mdustry and prudent care, numbers of these
mistaken people have employed their time in
secretly practising the use of arms; and sub-
scribed their money, that should be expended
in procuring comfortable food, clothing, and
shelter, for their families, to purchase guns, and
pikes, and gunpowder; and to support associa-
tions that are formed purposely to excite in the
people a spirit of rebellion. In some paris of
the country the peasants have been so misguided
that they have gone about, in armed bodies, to
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 155

prevent the farmers from sowing their seed,
ignorantly supposing that if the land produces
nothing for their support, the government must
support them.

There are always soldiers in Ireland, as there
are in England, but many more have been sent
there lately, to preserve peace and life. In those
counties where there have been the most disturb-
ances, the peasantry have been obliged to give
up their arms; and the leaders in some of those
evil associations, who were most active in hold-
ing meetings and making speeches to induce
the people of Ireland to rebellion, have been
brought to justice.

But so long as such associations are permitted
to excite the great body of the people to disorder
and crime, instead of the exercise of industry
and economy, which alone can produce and se-
cure to them comfort and happiness, I fear all
that has been, or can be done by the hberality
or laws of the United Parliament, to better the
condition of the Irish people, must be in vain.
However, numerous schools have been estab-
lished, on so good a principle, that the children
of parents of every religious belief can consci-
entiously be sent to them for education, which
will assuredly produce improvement of mind
and habits, and create more peaceful feelings,
in the rising generation.

The year 1848 will ever be memorable for
the dreadful revolutions that have taken place
in France and other parts of the continent.
156 EVERY CHILD’S

Lo zis Philippe, the French king, was dethroned
on the 24th of February, and fied, with his
family, to England; so that France became
a Republic; but this change produced a great
amount of misery and bloodshed, especially at
Paris, where the people have suffered all the
horrors of a civil war, brought on, indeed, by
the violence of the working classes, but height-
ened, if not caused, by a foolish, though well
meant, attempt of the new government, to give
employment to all who desired it.

At Berlin, the capital of Prussia, there was
also an insurrection in March 1848, when a
frightful battle was fought in the streets, between
the soldiers and the people. Great numbers of
persons were killed on both sides, and many’
houses were destroyed; and although peace was
restored by the king granting the demands of
his subjects, yet that could not bring back hap-
piness to those who had lost their fathers, hus-
bands, ot brothers, in the fatal conflict.

Besides those already named, revolutions, at-
tended with great loss of life and destruction of
property, have taken place at Vienna, the capital
of Austria, and other parts of Germany. Italy,
too, has shared in the spread of revolution;
Naples, Milan, and Venice, having been scenes
of fearful tumult and destruction of life. In
most of the places I have mentioned, the people
have been fighting for a constitutional form of
government, similar to that of our own happy
united kingdom; conveying the strongest proof
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 157

that we ought not to wish for achange. Yet
there have been some attempts made to disturb
the peace of this country, by ill-informed or
worthless persons.

Perhaps the desire for some increase in the
number of the electors, and in the places re-
presented in parliament, by uniting the adjacent
towns to the small boroughs, is not unreason-
able. But when we think of the dreadful state
of things in France, Italy, and Germany, where
so many thousands of people have lost their
lives, where trade is ruined, where the middle
classes are reduced to poverty, and the working
people, in consequence, starving, for want of
employment, we cannot be too thankful for the
peace, the liberty, and prosperity, we enjoy in
this more favoured and happier country.

In the spring of 1848, gold was discovered in
California, Two men, who were digging for the
foundation of a rude sawing mill, happened to
throw up a spadeful of red dirt, in which were
a few yellow bits of shining dust. This, then,
was the famous gold ore, that caused such great
excitement in almost every part of the world;
for in a very short time, such rich veins were
found, that, in the summer of that year, im-
mense numbers of persons flocked to the scene
of attraction, hoping to make themselves rich
with the precious metal. To these mines, and
others in Australia, many still go, every year,
from this country; but of the poor Irish, thou-
sands have emigrated there; however, the rage
for gold digging has somewhat abated.
158 EVERY CHILD'S

In 1848 and 1849, the people of England
and Ireland, especially the poor, suffered terri-
bly from that dreadful disease, called the cholera.
Multitudes died every day, and though many
good and humane persons did much to soften
the misery of those who were ill, and those left
destitute by the death of their friends, yet
many suffered sadly from this severe visitation.
Livery year since, up to the present time, the
cholera has appeared, more or less, in England,
during each summer and autumn; but never in
like degree to the years 1848 and 1849. The
improvement is probably owing, under God’s
blessing, to the strong efforts the government
has made to cause the towns and villages to be
kept clean and wholesome, and it is to be hoped
that we shall continue to improve in this respect.

During the year 1849, the wars in India,
and with the Kaffirs, again became sources of
regret, and peace was not finally established
until July, 1853.

But now we must speak of a plan which
Prince Albert made about this time, to divert
the minds of the people to some useful purpose,
and to try to lead them to improve themselves
in the arts and sciences. A kind of World’s
Tair was held in Hyde Park, in a large glass
building 2,100 feet long by 400 broad. This
wonderful place, which was called the Crystal
Palace, was finished in 1851, and opened by her
Majesty on the Ist of May, It was beautifully
designed by Sir Joseph Paxton, who contrived
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 159

it so cleverly, that there was room to receive
specimens of every kind of art and manufac-
ture from every nation. There are so many
books written, giving full descriptions of this
great fair, that we need not say much on the
subject here. Part of the building, and many
of its wonders, were afterwards conveyed to
Sydenham, where in a similar building, called
after its predecessor, the Crystal Palace, they,
as well as many other most beautiful and curious
things, may still be seen.

A short time ago, you were told in this little
book, of the wonderful invention of the Electric
Telegraph, but in 1851 this wonder increased
in effect, for a cable of wires was laid under the
sea, between Dover and Calais. The wires were
covered with gutta percha, (to keep them from
the effects of the water,) bound with spun yarn,
and laid round with galvanized iron. Since
then, more cables of wires have been laid down
across different parts of the sea. By means of
this clever invention, which we call “the Sub-
marine Telegraph,” (submarine meaning under
the sea,) messages can pass between England
and the Continent, and many distant countries,
with wonderful swiftness.

At the close of this year there was another
revolution in France, and the people, no longer
wishing for a Republic, at last chose Louis Na-
poleon, who had been their President, for their
Emperor. Thus France once more became an
Empire, and thus it ~emains.
160 EVERY CHILD’S

All this time England, though happy and pros-
perous at home, was still on the eve of a terrible
war. There was a quarrel between Russia and
Turkey about the Greek Church, for which the
Czar, Nicholas, pretended that he wanted to get
more privileges, when in reality he only wished
to gain more power for himself. Turkey would
not consent to his interference, and as the
French and English were her friends, they
agreed to join their forces, and help her in her
fight against Russia. Thus began the dreadful
war that destroyed many of England’s gallant
sons. Early in the year 1854, the first battle
with Russia was fought, and a series of hard
contests followed, too many to be spoken of at
length in this small volume. The brave English
and French soldiers and sailors suffered great
hardships, and many thousands lost their lives ;
many of them died from cholera and fever;
many from colds caught in the night-watches
in the trenches, and many on the fields of battle.

At last the cause of Turkey was victorious,
and a treaty of peace was signed at Paris, March
380th, 1856. Too much praise cannot be given
to the French, for their share in these struggles ;
they reaped their reward in the glory they so
deservedly gained. There was great joy through-
out all England when this bloody war was at an
end, and fétes and festivals were held all over
the country. But there was mourning as well
as rejoicing after these great battles had been
fought and won; so many bereaved families
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 161

missed from their hearths, some dear friend or
relation, who had left them to return no more.

France too lost many of her soldiers, but the
losses of the Russians were far the greatest.
At the taking of Sebastopol on the 8th of
September, 1855,—multitudes were left dead
on that blood-stained ground. On the 2nd of
March, 1855, Czar Nicholas, died, partly from
disease, but more from the anxiety which he
suffered, when time after time his army was de-
feated. He was succeeded by his son, Alexander
the II., who is the present Emperor of Russia.

Meanwhile the friendship between England
and Trance had been growing stronger and
stronger. Visits had been exchanged by their
sovereigns, and many tokens of affection and
amity passed between them. Both nations are
now at peace: long may they continue so, and
may prosperity and happiness be found in our
dear land for many a long and joyous year.

QUESTIONS.

Who succeeded George the Third ?

What was the Reform Bill?

Who succeeded George the Fourth, and in what year?
When was the first Railway opened ?

When was slavery abolished in the West Indies ?

How was this good act accomplished ?

When did her present majesty ascend the throne?

Name the principal events of her reign.

What alterations have been made in the West India trade?
162 EVERY CHILD’s HISTORY OF ENGLAND,

What gave rise to the war in China?

How did it end?

Why was the war in India commenced ?

What has been the result ?

What has caused great misery in Ireland ?

What has been done for the relief of the Irish people?

How do the people increase their own distress ?

What has taken place in France?

When was the king dethroned ?

Where have other revolutions taken place?

When was gold discovered in California ?

When did the cholera make the worst ravages in the United
Kingdom ?

When did the Kaffir and Indian wars end?

Who proposed the Great Exhibition of the World’s Industry?

When did the Great Exhibition commence ?

When did it close ?

When was the electric telegraph cables laid down between
England and the continent ?

When was Louis Napoleon chosen Emperor of France ?
When did the war between England and Russia commence ?
What were the reasons assigned for this war ?

When did this war end?

When did the alliance of England and France take place ?

THE END.

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two Historical Engravings, by John
Gilbert.

. | CORNER'S” HISTORY OF

\
Ze)
GERMANY & THE GERMAN |
_ EMPIRE; a New: Edition, with
_ additions, bringing the History
down to the present time, a Chro-
nological Table and Index; 3s. 6d.
cloth, lettered. With a Map, and
three Historical Plates.

CORNER’S UNITED KING-
DOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND
s IRELAND; price 10s. 6d., demy
Qy.svo, handsomely bound, with -#
Wy gilt edges, fit for a Present;
Gee Plates of Dlus-
ig

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SCRIPTURAL HISTORY.
. “In the great requisites of
; simplicity of arrangement
and comprehensiveness we
know of none better adapted
for general use, we therefore
heartily commendit.”—Jiorn-
ing Herald.












In alarge clear type, feap 8vo, price 38.62.

SCRIPTURAL HISTORY
SIMPLIFIED; by Miss Corner,
and Dr. Krrro, LL.D., for the Use
of Schools and Families,in Ques-
tions and Answers.

All parents and teachers must be
conscious of the importance of mak-
ing Sacred History a part of the daily
studies of their children and pupils:
so certain itis that nothing can tend
to good that is not based on the prin-
ciples of true religion. The best‘and
surest foundation for a Christian ae
cation is en. early: quaintance with
the Scriptures, which, as regaris
children, is not to be gained by read-
ing the Sacred Volume alone; there-
fore, a good summary of Bible History
cannot fail to be useful as a prepara-
tion for such reading; and with that
view the present volume was designed
by the Authoress, whose ability asa
historidn for the school-room has long
been felt and acknowledged—to take
the place of Dr. Watts’s book on the
game subject, which, from recent
researches, and light thrown on
“ this subject, was found to
Sy be incorrect.
Biblical literature
has «tached Lf




























$e

*A8 a powerful auxili

to Teachers and Parents in
their efforts to instruct the
young in the knowledge of the
Scriptures werecommend this
History with great pleasure

y 2nd muchconfidence.”—TZasé’s
Edinburgh Magazine,

high standard in these enlightened
times; and it is desirable that our
school books should keep pace with
the increasing knowledge of the age.
Miss Corner’s and Dr. J. Kirro’s
ScrRipruRaL History contains a
condensed narrative of the events
recorded in the Bible; elucidated by
much useful information on various
subjects connected with the history
of God’s chosen people; their pecu-
liar customs and industrial pursuits; |
descriptive notices of the chief places
mentioned in Holy Writ; natural |
productions, arts, commerce, sources
of wealth, and many other interesting
particulars, tending to make the read-
ing of the Bible a delightful instead
of a leborious task to young people.

Ghucational, Amusing, & Inetruc- | |
tibe Yubenile Books.

THE PLAY GRAMMAR; New
Edition, enlarged and improved.
In which the Elements of Grammar
are explained in easy Games for
Children. By Mies Corner. Is.

sewed, with tinted frontis-
piece, and numerous en-
gravings; or 1s, 6d.
po at with colrd.
x ontispiece.
S . 2

a

Ay
AS = _

6S
Ludgate Hill, London,


Is

~ TO THE ASTRONOMICAL.

The six large Maps of the }
Stars on the Gnomonic pro- .
jection, by Sir J. Lursucx
ublished by the Society of \\
seful Knowledge, have \

assed into the hands of

BAN & Son, who have re- |! XK
Wy | duced them from 15s.to7s.6d. | \\
the set plain, or lds. coloured. 4 Sy

yet

EVERY CHILD’S HISTORY
OF ENGLAND; with a Map, and
Questions to each Chapter. Par-
ticularly suited for Young Children
and for Home and Infant School
Reading. 1s. sewed; or with the
Mee en and bound in cloth;

8. 6 © ‘ ‘

PAPA AND MAMMA'S EASY
LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY; or
Elements of Geography in a new
and Attractive Form. By Anna
eae po a ae oe Bible

eography.” mbellished with.
many Ilustrations; a nd...a~ Com. —
panion to Miss Corner’s “ Play
Grammar.” —

DEAN’S SCHOOL & FAMILY
ELEMENTARY ATLAS AND
GEOGRAPHY, containing Eight
Large Maps, and Four Diagrams
distinctly engraven, and Geogra-
phical Information about the five
Continents. 1s, plain, or Qs. if
coloured. By the Author of the
“COLLEGE ATLAS.”

EASY GUIDE TO GEOGRA-
PHY. By Cuarirs Butrer. A
XX Rew and concise description
y ofthe five great divisions
Sof the Glohe; the 7
empires, ae if

ae
Sao!

Sow, ll,



a nL Ae


[Je Ses

CHAS. BUTLER’S \
EASY GUIDE TO
- GEOGRAPHY.

**For young people
this is one of the best A AT
elementary geographical ie
works we have ever met A
With.’ — Critic. ef

doms, and states into which they
ave divided; the commerce and
principal productions of the several
countries, and the number and
characteristics of their inhabitants.
is. 6d. bound im cloth. Or with
Seven Glyphographic Maps, and the
aoe of the Globes, 2s. bound in
cloth. es

EASY GUIDE TO USEFUL
KNOWLEDGE. By Cuarurs
BuTLeR. Containing, in the form
of an easy and familiar Catechism,
the newest and most useful infor.
mation connected with the Arts,
Sciences, and the various Pheno-
mena of Nature. For the use of
Schoolsand Pamilies, New Edition,
corrected ; 1s. 6d. bound in cloth.

THE CHURCH CATECHISM
EXPLAINED, WITH SCRIP.
TURE PROOFS. By the Rev. R.
MONTGOMERY, M.A., author of

“Christian Poetry,’ ‘“ Omnipre-

sence of the Deity.’

Price 3d., 18mo Demy, 78 pp.

SS A larger Edition, with Sup-

plement on the Articles,

Prayers, &c,, 1s.,

und in



































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A good progressive book for
the young is .

MISS SARGEANT’S EASY
READING & STORY BOOK,

with many pictures, and 28
pretty alg price 1s. post
ree.



DEAN’S ILLUSTRATED
FOURPENNY SCHOOL BOOKS.
Convinced that one of the most mate.
rial aids to popular improvement may
emanate from the production of a
really excellent series of Elementary
Books, at the lowest possible price,
Messrs. Dean & Son have addressed
themselves to this object, and the
“TLLUSTRATED. FOURPENNY SCHOOL
Booxs"â„¢ are theresult. These Books
are designed equally for use in Nur-
series and in Schools; are neatly
printed, and See with numer-
ous engravings, and a showy attractive
: cover THE fi st three Tc—
First Book oF SPELLING & READING
27 illustrations.
Seconp Do. Do., 41 illustrations.
GRADUATED GRAMMAR, 12 ditto,
Each Book in stiff binding, and
eoverin colours. 4d. each.

EVER-DURABLE TEXTILE
BOOKS. Printed on Cloth. Six
Progressive Steps to Learning.
6d. each,

1. The First Book forInfants. 2. The Child’s

Easy Spelling Book. 3. The Child’s Easy
Lesson Kook. 4, The Child’s Easy

Sx Reading Book. 6. The Child’s

Sy. Instructive Reading Book. J

6. The Child’s Amusing «/
SS . and Useful Lesson 4

. Book.















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£3





TASS


SESE SY ay

rpetene

> pia ele

%

_ Companion. Books to Miss
CORNER’S

Same size, 18mo, demy, and
good bold type; with Map fi 3
and Exercises at the end of
each chapter.

"EVERY GHILD’S HISTORY |

OF ROME; price Is., or 1s. 6d.
cloth, with map. By A. Farr, Esq.,
Author of “Poetry for Schools,
and various other ' Knowledge
School Books.

EVERY CHILD’S SCRIPTURE ||
HISTORY; price 1s. Reduced | |
from Dr. Kirro’s and Miss Cor-
NER’s “Scriptural History Sim- |
plified.” :

EVERY CHILD’S HISTORY | |

OF FRANCE, from the earliest |
period to the present time. By
A. Farr, Esq. 1s., with map.
To render these Histories useful as
School Books for the Junior Classes,
a series of Questions have been ar-
ranged at the end of every Chapter.

PAPA AND MAMMA'S EASY

LESSONS FOR THEIR LITTLE
ONES; commencing at the Al. j jf
phabet and gradually progressing | |
in reading and spelling; and that
the eye of the child may be
pleased while its mind is being
tasked, an illustration is ap-
pended to every page. In
ees. 1d. parts, or bound
S in one volume Is.
SS in boards.

Ludgate Hill, Londo






HOWARD'S SPELLING AND
_ READING BOOK.
Third edition. 1s., bound
in leather.






























PRETTY PRIMER.

A First Book for Children.
Many engravings.
3d., sewed. ‘

THE FIRST HISTORY OF
ENGLAND THAT SHOULD BE

. PLACED IN THE HANDS OF A
CHILD. Third Edition. By Miss

CoRNER; Author of the “ Play
Grammar,” “ Every Child's History
of England,” &c. in Eight Divisions,
each embellished with four pages
of plates, price 6d. each, and printed
in a large type, as follows :—

1. An interesting description of the
Ancient Britons, and their Civiliza-
tion by the Romans.

2. The Conquest of the Romans and

3. The Life and Times of Alfred the
Great.

4. The Norman Conquest.

5. The Feudal Times.

6. The Manners and Condition of the
People of England in the Middl
Ages :

7. Ditto, inthe 16th and 17th; and

8. Ditto,in the 18th and 19th centu-
ries, to the present time. :
Handsomely bound in cloth, gilt

edges, for a Present, 3s. 6d.;
or without the twenty-

five pages of Plates,
2s; Gd. * 3H


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