Citation
Half hours in Bible lands, or, Stories and sketches from the Scriptures and the East

Material Information

Title:
Half hours in Bible lands, or, Stories and sketches from the Scriptures and the East spies, traitors, and assassins
Portion of title:
Stories and sketches from the Scriptures and the East
Creator:
Headley, P. C ( Phineas Camp ), 1819-1903
John E. Potter & Co ( Publisher )
Place of Publication:
Philadelphia
Publisher:
John E. Potter & Co.
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1867
Language:
English
Physical Description:
128 p., <8> leaves of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 18 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Bible stories, English -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Gold stamped cloth (Binding) -- 1867 ( local )
Bldn -- 1867
Genre:
Gold stamped cloth (Binding) ( local )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia

Notes

General Note:
Each page printed within red ruled border.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Rev. P.C. Headley ; with numerous illustrations.

Record Information

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University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
AAA8208 ( LTQF )
ALH1762 ( NOTIS )
39994602 ( OCLC )
026808025 ( AlephBibNum )

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| HALF HOURS IN BIBLE LANDS,

STORIES AND SKETCHES FROM THE SCRIPTURES —
AND THE EAST.

SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

BY REV.cP. C“HEADEEY.
AUTHOR OF “THE WOMEN OF THE BIBLE,” “HARVEST WORK OF THE TWOLY
SPIRIT,” “TITE EMPRESS JOSEPHINE,” “MASSACHUSETTS
IN THE REBELLION,” ETC., ETC., ETC.

WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS.

; PHILADELPHIA:
PUBLISHED BY JOHN E. POTTER & CO.,
No. 617 SANSOM STREET.







Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1867, by

JOHN E. POTTER & CO.

In the Clerk’s Office of the United States District Court in and for the Eastern District of

Pennsylvania.







THE BIBLE AND THE HOLY LAND.

eee

SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

THE TRAITORS OF HEBREW HISTORY.

A spy is a watcher of others; one who goes into an
enemy’s country, or in time of war, into his camp, to learn
his plans and movements. This knowledge he uses himself
or reports to a superior, who takes all the advantage of it in
his power.

The first spy mentioned in the Bible, was not of this world;
he was a fallen archangel, called Satan, the Devil, and by
other names of reproach. When or certainly why he rebelled
in glory we are not told; it is supposed because Christ was
declared the King of Angels. But he entered a beautiful
and holy Paradise to tempt the two perfect beings living
there. The enemy of God and his newly created offspring,
saw and envied the bliss of Eden’s inhabitants, and plotted
their ruin; a successful conspiracy formed in hell, from
which has come all the wicked devices and deeds of men.

After the overthrow of man, the unholy dispositions and
3





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

ambition which ruled the race made him rebellious, suspi-

cious, treacherous, and revengeful.
A glimpse of Hebrew life in the wilderness shows, most
strikingly, the elements of human society in an unsettled

state of it, which make rebels, spies, traitors, and assassins.
Ilow clearly in contrast with Jehovah’s patience, justice, and
purity are seen the conflicting passions of men—the chafing
against restraints—jealousy of each other—and the resort to
crime to secure selfish ends, and often to bloodshed to gain a
just and noble aim.

In the story of rebellion which will follow, we have the
appointment, by Moses, of twelve spies to visit the hostile
country of Palestine, and report to the camp of Israel; and
afterward of two by Joshua, who went to Jericho.

In the journey from Sinai to Canaan, several scenes showed
the rebellious character of the people, and their unfitness for
the inheritance promised to their fathers. The fatigues and
privations of travel through the desert soon raised their
murmurs, which became so outrageous, their King manifested
his displeasure by kindling a fire in the outskirts of the camp,
which was only stayed at the intercession of Moses, when the
people recognized the hand of God. The place was called
Teberah [the burning].

The next rebellion commenced among the mixed multitude
4





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

AE AE REPS POE AEE IE ET a TI
which accompanied the Hebrew host, but involved many of

the Israelites. Whatever fortitude they had soon gave way
before the privations of the desert. There was plenty of
manna; but they had grown dainty, and “their souls loathed
the light food.” They lamented that they had left Egypt, and
remembered, with regret, the cooling melons, the lecks, the
onions, the garlick, and the other fruits and vegetables which
they had enjoyed in abundance; as well as the fish and the
meat, which in that rich land they had “eaten to the full.”
Moses was grieved and depressed, and his address to God on
that occasion marks his deep despondency. To comfort him
and enable him to sustain his heavy charge, he was directed to
choose seventy competent men from the elders of Isracl, who
should act as a council, and assist him in the government of
the people. These being nominated by Moses, were to be
brought to the door of the tabernacle, where the divine King
gave signs of their acceptance.

At Ilazecroth, the spirit of opposition to Moses broke out
in his own family, in consequence of his having married the
forcign woman Zipporah, who had lately been brought among
them. Miriam, the sister of Moses, who had previously held
the chief place among the women in Israel, and who was now
probably jealous of the respect paid to the wife of Moses, was

the leader in this affair, and was soon joined by Aaron, who





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SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.



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feared the influence of the newly arrived family on the pros-
pects of his own sons, on whom the priesthood had been con-
ferred. At all events, their feeling was bad, and as the
expression of it tended to undermine the authority of Moses,
the Lord testified his displeasure by smiting Miriam with
leprosy, and as a leper she was excluded from the camp. But
in seven days she was restored, at the intercession of Moses,
after Aaron had humbled himself, and acknowledged their
joint offence.

At Kadesh Barnea, on the southern border of the Prom-
ised Land, when Moses encouraged them to go forward
boldly, and take possession of their heritage, they were timid
and resolved first to send twelve spies, one from each tribe,
to traverse tlie country, and to bring them an account ofthe
land and its inhabitants. After an absence of forty days, the
sples came back with ig? large cluster of grapes, and other
fruits of the country—many of which were new to men from
Egypt. Of the country itself, and of its productions, they
gave avery glowing account; but the inha: ents they de-
scribed as warlike, and,-in some places, gigantic, ‘Gwelling i in
high-walled and seemingly impregnable cities; and they
declared it as their opinion, that however desirable the
country, the Israelites were by no means equal to the con-
quest of it from the present inhabitants. This statement

6

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SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.











































































































































































































































































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THE VISIT TO THE PROMISED LAND.

I~






SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

LL TL a a a I I ET TT EE
filled the timorous multitude with dismay; and they threat-

ened to stone two of the spies, Joshua and Caleb, who pro-
claimed their conviction that, with the divine aid, which was
promised to them, they were fully equal to the enterprise.
Breaking out into open mutiny, they even talked of appoint-
ing a leader to conduct them back to their bondage in
Egypt.

For this last display of their insensibility to the great
things which had been done for them, and gross blindness to
his great design, the Lord’s anger was kindled against them.
The mysterious “glory” suddenly appeared. in the cloud
which rested upon the tabernacle; and that manifestation of
the present God struck dumb every clamorous tongue, and
filled all hearts with fear. The divine voice now threatened
instant extinction to the revolters, and promised to make of
Moses and his family a nation greater and mightier than
they. This offer had been made on a former occasion, and
was then, as now, reverently declined by the disinterested
prophet; and he and his brother lay prostrate before the
cloud, with their faces to the ground, interceding for the
people. Their prayer had power with God, and the doom of
instant death and disinheritance was averted. But it was

pronounced that not one of the tainted generation—composed

of those who were of full age on leaving Egypt—should
9







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SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
Se BB SA MEA ADR Ga TREE ER Se oT Ih AE YS
enter the Promised Land. From this doom only the two

faithful spies, Joshua and Caleb, were exempted; the ten



others were smitten with that instant death which their con-
duct deserved.

This awful denunciation had the remarkable, but not un-
natural effect of driving the Israelites from their childish
timidity to the very opposite extreme of unauthorized and
presumptuous rashness. The Canaanites and Amalekites had
already taken alarm, and possessed themselves of the passes
in the mountains which lay before the Hebrew host. Not-
withstanding this advantage on the side of the enemy, ayd in
spite of the earnest remonstrances of Moses, a large body of
the Israelites determined to march forward and take posses-
sion of the country. They were driven back with great
slaughter; and immediately aftcr, in obedience to the divine
mandate, the camp at Kades Barnea was broken up, and
the people conducted beck into the desert toward the Red
Sea.

Here, in the deserts between Palestine and Sinai, they
wandered their appointed time, the generation which re-
ceived the law in Horeb becoming gradually extinct. During
all this time they continued to lead the same pastoral or
Bedouin life as they had done before, living on manna and
the produce of their flocks and herds; and removing from one

10





























pee TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS:



station to 5 another, as directed i the viller, alsil wiih rested

upon the tabernacle.

During this period, there was a revolt against the govern-
ment, by persons of high rank and consequence in some of
the tribes. The rebels were heads of families and clans, who
would have possessed high civil powers, and would have ex-!
ercised priestly functions under the patriarchal government :
and their attempt must be taken as a struggle of the old insti-
tutions against the new. In some shape or other, such a
conflict almost always takes place between new forms of
government and the ancient institutions which are altered or
superseded. Among the Hebrews, the supreme authority
under which the new institutions had been framed, kept the
great body of the heads of tribes and families quiet, whatever
may have been their secret discontent; but there were some
audacious spirits whom nothing could restrain.

Korah, although himself a Levite, was chief instigator of
this revolt. His birth and station would have entitled him to
a leading place in the tribe; and it is more than probable
that another family being appointed to the priesthood, was
the chief cause of his discontent. This, however, was not a
ground on which he could expect much support from the
chiefs of other tribes; and it was therefore pretended, that

the liberties of the people had been infringed by Moses and
ll



SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

Aaron; and that the heads of families had been unjustly de-

prived of power which belonged to them. The manner in
which the high priesthood had been made a political office

a theocracy, exposed the priesthood to the ambition
which it might have escaped had its duties been only sacer-
dotal.

The people were disposed to listen to those who told them
that they had cause to be discontented; that their liberties
had been taken from them; and that the yoke of a central
government was too heavy to be borne. The leaders, there-
fore, supported by a large body of the “ congregation,” at
length openly charged Moses and Aaron with the usurpation
of power, which they were required to lay down. It was not
denied that the appointments of Jehovah were absolute, but
they were chosen by him. This they could only dispute by
indirectly doubting the testimony of Moses, who brought this
institution with him on his return from the Mount; and it
was clear that, if his legislative agency in this matter could
be set aside, an opening was made for overturning the whole
system, which rested on the same foundation. This was
secretly understood on all sides. Moses at once saw that a
special manifestation had become necessary, and, in the confi-
dence that God would vindicate his own appointments, re-

ferred the matter to him. After strong words of reproof, he
12























































THE BLIND LEADING THE BLIND.























‘'SNISSVSSV CNV ‘SUOLIVUL ‘SAIds








SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
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therefore invited the leading conspirators to exercise on the

morrow, by offering incense, the duties to which they laid
claim, and then the Lord would doubtless make known his
will. Awful was that decision! As they stood with their
censers to offer incense, they were suddenly consumed by
fire from His presence; and the Reubenites, Dathen, and
Abiram, who had refused to attend, did not escape; for the
earth opened and engulfed them where they stood, with
their tents and all that belonged to them.

The discontent which these men had encouraged among the
people, was too widely spread, and too deeply rooted for even
this awful judgment to subdue. The turbulent mob were
struck with horror and alarm at the destruction of their
leaders; but the next day they rallied, and assembled in great
numbers, clamoring against Moses and Aaron, as if they were
the authors of that judgment which the wrath of God had
inflicted. Now, again, was the divine wrath kindled, and a
consuming plague went forth among the people. They
fell, like corn before the reaper, until Aaron, at the desire of
Moses, took a censer, with burning incense, and rushing forth
among the people, stood between the living and the dead,
when the plague was stayed. On this occasion fourteen
hundred people perished.

The destruction of those who thus claimed priestly honors,
15





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.



the staying of the plague at Aaron’s intercession, settled
all doubt regarding his appointment. But to place it beyond
controversy, the divine King was pleased to grant a special
and abiding miracle. Moses was directed to take a rod from
each of the tribes, and to engrave upon it the name of the
tribe to which it belonged, but upon the rod of Levi to write
Aaron’s name. All these rods were lain up in the tabernacle
before the ark, God having said that he would cause to
blossom the rod of the man chosen and appointed by him.
The next day the rods were brought forth, and the rod of
Aaron had budded, blossomed, and borne ripe almonds. It
was laid up among the monuments of the tabernacle.

At length the forty years, during which the Israelites had
been doomed to wander in the wilderness, were nearly ex-
pired, and the generation which, by their disobedience, had
forfeited their title to the Promised Land, had perished. The
new generation, although far from faultless, was,,upon the
whole, much superior to that which had passed away, and
better fitted for the promised inheritance. As the time drew
nigh, the host returned to the borders of Canaan, and en-
camped at Kadesh, from which it had formerly been sent
back into the desert. Miriam, the sister of Moses and Aaron,
died here; and here the brothers themselves forfeited their
claims to enter the Promised Land. The want of water was

16

t :





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
a aS
experienced at Kadesh with so much severity, that the people

became clamorous and reproachful. By this Moses and
Aaron were so much disturbed that, when instructed to smite
a certain rock, from which water should then flow, they ex-
hibited such impatience and distrust as, if left unpunished,
might have had an injurious effect on the minds of the people.

They were, therefore, forbidden to enter Canaan; but, at his

entreaty, Moses was promised a distant view of that “ goodly
land” which the Lord hath promised to his people.

The hosts of Israel on reaching Kadesh had fully expected
that they were immediately to enter the Promised Land.
They were, therefore, much discouraged at having to take
another troublesome journey through so unpleasant a wilder-
ness as that which bordered the land of Edom; and, by the
time they reached the vicinity of the Red Sea, they broke
forth into loud complaints for bread and water, and expressed
their distaste at the manner in which they had been fed for
nearly forty years, saying, ‘“ Our soul loatheth this light food.”
For this impatience, and for the contempt of God’s merciful
provision, without which they must long ago have perished,
the serpents, which infested, and do still infest that region,
were sent among them in unwonted numbers, and whoever
was bitten by them died. On this the people confessed their

sins, and sought the intercession of Moses, who was directed
2 17





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
a a a ae,
to make a serpent of brass, and elevate it upon a pole in the

midst of the camp ; and those who looked upon it might live.
The brazen serpent was preserved as a memorial of this mira-
cle for about nine hundred years, when, because the people
were disposed to render to it idolatrous honors, it was de-
stroyed by King Hezekiah.

Upon the borders of Canaan, Joshua sent two spies into
Jericho, to ascertain the strength and feelings of the enemy.
Here they were secreted from the authorities of the city by
a woman named Rahab, on the promise that her life should
be spared when the city was taken. She did her part well,
as did also the spies. They reported that the citizens of
Jericho were trembling with alarm, which was an assurance
of easy conquest; for Jehovah had sent this fear upon the
people. Then followed the passage of the J ordan, the march
around the city seven times, and the falling of the walls. Only
Rahab escaped the slaughter of the inhabitants.

The grand revolt of the Hebrews against God’s sovereignty

after they were established Palestine, was just before
Samuel died, when, as we have seen, they asked the venerable
judge and prophet for a king, like the Pagan nations around
them.
Their monarch, Saul, became a royal spy, and high.
handed rebel against God, which proved his inglorious fall.
18





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.





19






SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

— a SS PO aE ST aa EE EEE,
David the son of Jesse, who was a favorite for a while, after

he was taken into the king’s family, by his gifts, graces, and
valor won admiring love from the people, and just in propor-
portion to this, the hatred of Saul. For the monarch saw in
David a rival. His son, Jonathan, on the contrary, formed
an ardent attachment to the shepherd-minstrel.

Jonathan gave his friend notice of danger. When David
was one day playing on his harp, he narrowly escaped death
from a javelin which Saul threw with the intention of
pinning him to the wall. He then withdrew to his own
house, where he was followed by men whom the king sent
to despatch him. But they were amused and deceived by
David's wife, Michal, Saul’s own daughter, while her husband
was let down from the window in a basket and made his
escape to Samuel at Ramah. Repeated attempts to take
him thence, or slay him there, the last of which was made
by the king in person, were defeated by the special interposi-
tion of Providence. But Saul, brooding gloomily over his
doom, still cherished his cruel purpose against him; and on
one occasion he even threw his javelin at Jonathan for speak-
ing in favor of his absent friend. David resolved to with-
draw to a foreign land, Gath, one of the five Philistine states.

The tabernacle had by this time been removed from Shiloh
to Nob, in the tribe of Benjamin; and David, with his few

21





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

i ae i ce cesta
followers, called there on his way, and procured from the
high-priest, Ahimelech, a supply of provisions and the only
weapon in his possession—the sword which David had taken
from Goliah, and which had been laid up in the tabernacle as
a trophy of that victory.

David left the country of the Philistines and repaired to
the wild district of Adullam, in the tribe of Judah. Here
there was a large cave, which formed shelter for himself, and
the men of broken fortunes.

Soon after this some malicious spies of the neighborhood
went to Gibeah and acquainted Saul with the place of David’s
retreat. The king immediately marched with a sufficient

force ; but David, warned of his approach, retreated southward

into the wilderness of Maon. Saul followed him, but was
called off to repel an unexpected incursion of the Philistines.
Here, being one day weary, the king withdrew into a cave to
take some rest. In the providence of God, it happened that
this was the very cave in whose interior recesses David and
his men lay concealed ; and while Saul slept, David advanced
softly and cut off the skirt of his robe. When the king
went out of the cave, David followed him at some distance,
and at length called to him, and displayed the skirt in
evidence of his innocence. Saul could but feel that he who

had taken the fragment of his garment could have taken his
22





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.



life; and struck by this magnanimity, his stern heart was
subdued. ‘Is that thy voice, my son David?” he cried; and
then he wept. He acknowledged that he had been foolish

and wicked ; that the son of Jesse was worthy of the destinies

which awaited him; and he exacted from him a promise, that.
when he became king he would not root out the family of |.
his predecessor, as eastern kings were wont do. Saul then

withdrew.

David again retreated into the wilderness of Ziph, which
came to the knowledge of Saul, and notwithstanding his
recent convictions, he went in search of him with three
thousand men. While the king of Israel lay encamped and
surrounded by his troops, during the darkness and stillness
of the night, and when all were fast asleep, David, accompa-
nied by Abishai, penetrated, undiscovered, to the place where
the monarch lay, and took away the spear which was stuck
in the ground near his head, and the cruse of water which
stood by his side. In the morning, he called to the king
from the hill-side, and displayed these manifest tokens that
the king’s life had been completely in his power. His re-
monstrance was attended with the same result as on the
former occasion. Saul, grieved and ashamed, confessed that
he had acted “foolishly,” and returned to Gibeah.

David lived to see his kingly foe a suicide, while he took

23



SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

the throne to taste the bitter cup of sorrow in the hand of
an unfilial rebellious son.

Absalom was a young man of genius and great personal
beauty; and he might have been an eminently noble and
useful prince in Israel. But his passions were not subdued

early life, and they ruined him. Having slain his
brother because of his shameful conduct toward their sister
Tamar, he fled to another country, and was an exile three
years, when his return and reconciliation to his father,
was followed by promotion to a place of honor. He had

escort of fifty horsemen, and chariots set apart for his

petsonal service. This prosperity was too much for his way-
ward spirit; his ambition took the form of unnatural and
horrible treason.

The deliberate manner in which he plotted the overthrow
of his father’s throne, and brought the rebellion to a head,
exposes not only the depravity. and ambition, but the energy
and firm character of the man. Every morning early, found
him at the gate of the city, accosting each stranger as he
entered with that bland and persuasive manner so few could
resist. “From what part of the country do you come?” he
inquired; “and what is your business here?” To be thus
noticed by a prince was sufficient condescension; but when
he went farther, and asked of his troubles and grievances, and

24





ASSASSINS.

AND

TRAITORS,

SPIES,





































































































































































































































































































































































































































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THACHING THE TEMPTING PHARISEES.







SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

sympathised with him, exclaiming, ‘Oh that I were a judge
in Israel; how soon would I interest myself in your suit, and
redress your wrongs!” the unsuspecting countryman was
completely won over, and returned to his home filled with
the praises of Absalom. And when any of the lower classes
paused to render him that homage which was his due as a
prince of the blood, he checked him, and taking him aside,
kissed him, and whispered flatteries and promises in his ear.
Thus, “he stole away the hearts of the people.”

Year after year, he prosecuted this cunnine but nefarious
plan, till all over the land there was a secret wish that he
could sit in king David's place. When he discovered this,
he organized his conspiracy; and under pretence of going to
Hebron, to pay a vow to the Lord, he set up there his stand-
ard, and blew his trumpet of defiance. That bugle blast
shook the throne of his father to its foundations, and he fled

in affright and grief from his palace and capital. Still, a host
of brave hearts clung to him, ready to fight and die in his

defence.

The two armies met in a thick forest, and the battle at
once became fierce and sanguinary. Amid the braying of
trumpets, the neighing of steeds and clash of weapons, the
shout of Israel and Absalom was heard ringing over the din,

as brothers and friends closed in the mortal struggle. They
27





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS

fought long and bravely, but the rebel forces at length gave
way, for God was on the father’s side. Absalom saw with
despair the rout of his best troops, and strove with almost
superhuman efforts to stay the reverse tide of battle. Vain
valor—broken and dispersed, they fled on every side, and

twenty thousand corpses strewed the forest. Enraged and .].

desperate, Absalom, bareheaded, his long tresses streaming
in the wind, spurred all alone on the king’s guard, doubtless
in the hope of finding his father, and by one bold blow re-
storing his fortunes. But as he was galloping under an oak,
his hair caught on a knotty branch, and stripping him from
his mule, left him dangling in mid-heaven. Te strove des-
perately to reach the limb and extricate himself, but in vain.
While thus struggling, he heard the clatter of a horse’s hoofs
and wrenching half around, he saw Joab, the fiercest general
of the royal army, approaching. He knew too well the hate
that fiery warrior bore him, to expect or ask mercy; and
with a countenance pale as marble, and a brow knit in stern
defiance, he awaited his doom. Joab reined up before him,
and gazing a moment on the helpless prince, drew forth a
javelin and hurled it in his body. Another and another
followed, and Absalom swung a corpse in the forest.
Solomon had a peaceful reign; but Rehoboam, his son,
was a tyrant: selfish and ambitious. When the people
28



SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
EE TE a a ae

offered him their homage if he would lighten their bur-
dens, for the expensive luxuries of Solomon had increased
the taxes, he told them roughly he would put upon them a
heavier yoke; and if his father chastised them with whips,
he would with scorpions. Then went up the shout: “ What
portion have we in David? neither have we inheritance in
the son of Jesse; to your tents, O Israel! now see to thine
own house, David.”

Rehoboam gathered all his fighting men of the two tribes
which he had left, Judah, and little Benjamin, to subdue the
rebels ; but God commanded him not to go, because he deter-
mined to rend the kingdom on account of its crimes under
Solomon’s reign.

Jeroboam, the son of Nebat, was anointed king of Israel,
whose wickedness prepared the way for lawless successors,
and farther rebellion. God’s curse was upon Israel for treason
against him.

Jezebel was a Sidonian princess of commanding figure,
vigorous intellect, and depraved heart. Like Delilah, she
was a voluptuary and an idolater. Ahab was now king of
Israel, a man of weak mind and utterly destitute of moral
principle. From mere policy, or influenced by her personal
attractions, he made her his queen.

The prophets were the first victims of her malignant
29





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.



cruelty, and were slaughtered till only a hundred were lett,
who were concealed by the good Obadiah, governor of the
royal household. From the fact that no more mention is
made of them, it is evident they were at length dragged
forth by the executioners of her hostility to the worship of
Jehovah, although its celestial glory was already gone, and
its hallowed rites had given place to the forms of prevailing
superstition.

Elijah, gifted and fearless, was especially the object of
Jezebel’s hatred. The monarch, goaded on by the unwasting
zeal of the queen, went forth to slay his enemy. Then fol-
lowed the scene on Mount Carmel, when fire came down
from heaven to Elijah’s altar.

Ahab was fatally wounded not long afterward in a battle
with the Assyrians, and died. Elisha anointed Jehu, a cap-
tain in the army of the king, to execute the hastening ven-
geance of God. The host rallied around his standard, and
blew their trumpets in joyful acclamation, while he led them
on toward the walls of the capital. Meeting Joram, son of
Jezebel, the reigning sovereign, and Ahaziah, her grandson,
king of Judah, who came forth in their alarm at the sight of
that war-cloud, sweeping as on the wings of a hurricane
along the hills, he pierced the former with an arrow, and
throwing the body into the vineyard of Naboth, slew the
30










SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
other in his chariot, and ‘dashed on to the open gate of
Jezreel. The shouts of the populace, and the rushing of
chariot-wheels, reached the chamber of the queen.

Painting her face, and splendidly attired, “she looked out
at the window,” and calling to Jehu, reminded him of the
fate of Zimri, the conspirator against Elah, who perished in
the flames of the palace his own hand kindled. Jehu looked
up and cried to the eunuchs, “ Who is on my side?” The
quick reply was the descending form of Jezebel, mangled on
the projecting wall, and sprinkling the horses with blood.
He then drove over this dying daughter of a king and queen
of Israel, stern, sullen and daring to the last, till the hoofs
of his steeds were red with trampled dead.

Entering now the desolate palace-hall, he told the throng
to go and “see this cursed woman, and bury her, for she was
a king’s daughter.” But in accordance with prophesy, they
found only the fragments of Jezebel’s body left by the dogs.
Jehu continued his work of slaughter till the idolatrous race
was extinct, and the dishonor cast on the name of Jehovah
was wiped out with the blood of a whole generation.

Athaliah, the daughter of Jezebel, followed the example
of her mother. Naboth’s history had furnished a precedent
this wicked queen was not unwilling to follow, and the trage-
dies in both branches of an impious line, remind us of the
31



SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.



Borgia family of modern history, who have written their
names blood, on the ecclesiastical and civil records of
Italy. She finally died an ignominious death, and her body
lay in the highway to the palace, trodden in the soil by
horsemen, who but a few hours before quailed before her
eye of flame. Mother and daughter, alike in unblushing im-
piety which vaulted to the stars, perished equally wretched
in their hurried and hopeless departure from a world they
made more desolate, to an abode where Justice completes his
work.

During the captivity of the Hebrews in Babylon, what
splendid examples of loyalty to their faith and country, in
contrast with base espionage and betrayal, were furnished by
the youthful Daniel, praying to his God although he knew
that spies were listening, and the decree of death if he were
found communing with Jehovah, had gone forth—by the
three men in the fiery furnace—and not the least among
devout patriots, Mordecai and Esther. And how sadly dark
is the evidence of human depravity, when it meets us, watch-
ing with evil eye the good, and glorying in the betrayal and
earthly ruin of innocence !

32







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DESTRUCTION CF JERUSALEM FORETOLD BY
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THE BIBLE AND THE HOLY LAND.

Sak RELA ht TEE EE TEE, EN: I IE LET ELE SE EEE LEO LL OEE OESAET ENTE AS LEI TECLT:

SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

PALESTINE AFTER THE MESSIAH’S ADVENT.

Tuk reign of Herod and his sons in Judea, which connected
the Old and the New Testament annals, was justly unpopular,
because of its oppressive cruelty. Herod, the royal murderer
of the “innocents,” was an Idumean; a native of Idumea,
also called Edom, and Mount Seir, lying between the Dead
Sea and the Red Sea.

The original inhabitants here were the Horim, having
caves for their habitations; and were driven out by the
children of Esau. Antipater, Herod’s father, was an Idu-
mean millionaire, and an imperious, restless man. After
obtaining the control of his own mountain land, he turned
his attention to other provinces. The first object before his
mind, was friendship and alliance with powerful Rome.
Soon Antipater secured his aim; gettir :is son Phasaelus
appointed over Jerusalem, and Herod, then fifteen years old,
governor of Galilee. This boy-commander of a province was

3 33





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

brave and energetic; and by his successes in ridding the
country of roving bands of robbers, acquired for a time
popularity with the people. But leading men in Jerusalem,
united in rebellion against him. He was tried before the 2
hedrim, the Jewish council of seventy members, and acquitted.
When, soon after, Antigonus marched against Jerusalem,
Herod fled and hastened to Rome to plead his cause before
the Emperor. The ambitious, cunning prince, was pro-

claimed King of ‘the Jews, and invested with all the rights

and insignia of royalty. He killed his wife Marianna, with
his two sons Alexander and Aristobulus. Not long after the
Messiah’s birth, he died a horrible death, suffering great
agony, eaten, while yet alive, by worms. The kingdom was
divided among his three sons, Herod Antipas having for
his portion Galilee and Peraea. Of this governor we shall
learn more when we come to the story of Assassins.

The appearance of the promised Messiah at this period,
created new excitement, espionage, and civil strife. As soon
as the Hebrews discovered that he was not a temporal king,
who would break the Roman yoke, and establish a throne of
regal splendor, they rejected his claims and plotted his death.
Spies were constantly on his track, to “catch him in his talk;”
as either saying what was contrary to their law, or treason-

able to the Roman authority.
34





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

Here was a new form of open rebellion against God in
Palestine; a wilfully blind hostility which spared no act of
enmity, until the conspiracy was a success in its designs on
the human life of the “ King of kings ;” a crime and tragedy,
whose narrative will reappear in the course of his personal
history.

Not only did the Hebrews waylay and kill the founder of
the gospel kingdom, but they followed his apostles and all
the early disciples with the same watchful hate. Stephen,
the first Christian martyr, was arrested and then stoned until
he “fell asleep.” Peter, who once betrayed his master, was
falsely accused and cast into prison, from which an angel
delivered him at night, to be watched again, until life itself
was taken. A similar experience had the rest of the leading
citizens of the new kingdom of the world.

Soon the rebellious and persecuting Hebrews entered upon

the work of self-destruction. Beneath the sceptre of Rome,
the Jews who believed it to be “unlawful,” for the chosen
people of God to pay tribute to heathen rulers, were called
“ Zealots ;” and under this name were prominent during the
later years of the Hebrew nation. They improved every
oceasion that offered, to raise insurrections against the
Roman governors who succeeded each other for about half

a century. Regarding those of their Jewish brethren who
35





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

SEE SS AREA ENTE
did pay tribute, as traitors to their divine origin and rights,
the Zealots treated them as enemies also; and robbery and
death became common. ‘The condition of things in Israel
now was bad enough; worse than when in Egypt in some
respects, dependant slaves, and more wretched than while
wandering, a rebellious host, in the wilderness. Numbers
of the better class sought refuge in foreign lands.

We shall glance at the strange and sanguinary record of Pal-
estine, especially its capital, for the centuries which follow ;
taking our sad and condensed narrative. from Kitto’s annals.
The land was distracted by tumult, and overrun by robbers,
who, professing zeal for liberty and religion, plundered, with-
out mercy, the defenceless towns and villages which refused

to give in their adhesion to what was called the patriot cause.

Meanwhile justice was sold by the Roman governor, and
even the sacred office of the high-priesthood was offered to
the highest bidder. Consequently those who got that dig-
nity were often profligate wretches, who used it for their own
purposes, and maintained themselves in it by the darkest
iniquities. Being of different sects and parties, of which
there was now a great number, they and the leading men of
the nation acted with all the animosity of sectarianism
against each other. With such examples in their superiors,
the ordinary priests and the scribes became, in the highest
36





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.



LED

CHRIST AND THE WICKED PHARISEES.

37







SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
degree, dissolute and unprincipled; while the mass of the
people abandoned themselves to all evil; and _ seditions,
extortions, and robberies, were matters of every day occur-
rence. The bands of society were loosened; and it became
clear that the nation was fast ripening for destruction.

In Cesarea, came the actual outbreak. That place, the
seat of the Roman governor, was built by Herod, and had a
mixed population of Syrians and Jews, both of whom claimed
the right to rule the city. The dispute had been referred to
the Emperor, and about this time the decree was announced
in favor of the Syrians, whose boundless exultation exaspe-
rated all the Jews, who had felt a deep interest in the ques-
tion. This, with insults on their religion which the governor
refused to notice, fanned into a flame the smouldering embers
of revolt. Acting upon the impulse thus given, a party of
hot-brained young men surprised a Roman garrison at Mas-
sada, near the Dead Sea, and put all the soldiers to the sword.
This act was recognized at Jerusalem, where the leaders of
the nation openly threw off their allegiance, by the refusal
of the priests any longer to offer up the usual sacrifices for
the prosperity of the Roman empire. There also the popular

party rose and slew the Roman garrison; and the palace and

the public offices were destroyed by fire. Indescribable bar-

barities were also committed by the “ patriot” party upon the
39





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

Sn eee ee ee ee eee a ee ee eee eee eee aE,
quietly-disposed citizens. This example produced a general

insurrection, in which the Jews on the one side, and the
Romans and Syrians on the other, attacked each other
with the greatest fury; and in every city there was war,
massacre, and spoliation.

On the first news of this revolt, the President of Syria,
Cestius Gallus, marched a powerful army into Judea, and
advanced against Jerusalem. Strange to say, he was defeated
by the insurgents with great slaughter; and the military
engines which fell into the hands of the victors, were of great
use to them in the subsequent defence of the city. The
honor of Rome was now engaged to avenge this disgrace,
and no thinking man for a moment doubted the result.
Nero sent the able and experienced Vespasian into Syria
(who was accompanied by his son Titus), with the quality of
president, to take the conduct of the war.

Vespasian commenced his invasion in the spring of A. D.
67, with an army of sixty thousand men. Instead of going
at once to Jerusalem, he employed himself in reducing Gali-
lee, and in recovering the fortresses which had been takeny
by the insurgents. At Jotapata he was opposed by Josephus,
the historian of the war, to whom the provisional Jewish
government had confided the defence of Galilee. The fortress
fell, and Josephus was taken alive. Ile was at first treated

40





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

rather roughly, but afterward with consideration and re-
spect. Though the war was steadily prosecuted, Vespasian

was in no haste to march against Jerusalem; and when urged

by his impatient officers, he told them that it was better to
let the Jews destroy one another. In fact, he knew well how
destructively the factions were raging against each other in
Jerusalem. There were three of these factions, afterward re-
duced to two, holding possession of different parts of the city,
They wasted their strength in cruel conflicts with each other ;
in which they even destroyed the storehouses of corn and
provisions which formed the only resource against famine in
the threatened siege. In one thing, however, they all agreed,
—in harassing, plundering, and destroying the citizens and
nobles who did not enter into their views. In the meantime
Vespasian was declared emperor, and departed for Rome,
leaving the conduct of the war to his son Titus.

At the feast of the Passover, in the ensuing year, when the
city of Jerusalem was, as usual at that time, crowded. with
people from all quarters, the Roman army appeared before
the walls.

The city was very strong, being surrounded by three walls,
one within another; and then there was the temple, which
itself was an exceedingly strong fortress. All these defences
were successively carried by the Romans, although every

4)





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS

step was desperately contested by the besieged, who for fifteen

weeks prevented their enemies from reaching the temple.
During that time, the most horrible famine was experienced
within the city.

The lower city was taken by the Romans early in the
month of May; but the temple did not fall until the beginning
of August. Titus was most anxious to save this glorious
fabric, as one of the noblest ornaments of the Roman empire.
But the Jewish historian observes, that the “ holy and beauti-
ful house” was doomed to destruction; and he attributes to
‘a, divine impulse” the act of the soldier who seized a burn-
ing brand, and cast itin at the golden window, whercby the
whole fabric was soon in flames. Titus hastened to the spot,
and finding all attempt to save the building hopeless, he,
with some of his officers, entered the sanctuary, and directed
the removal of the sacred utensils of gold, some of which
afterward graced his triumphal procession, and were sculp-
tured upon the arch which commemorated his victory.

The upper city, into which the besieged had retreated,
soon after fell; and this completed the conquest of Jerusalem.
In all these operations the carnage was horrible, for with the
Romans the time for mercy was past; and, in their exaspera-
tion at the useless obstinacy of the defence, they burnt and

destroyed without remorse, and massacred the people without
42





TRAITORS, AND

SPIES,













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DESTRUCTION OF THE TEMPLE FORETOLD.





































43







SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

distinction of age or sex. Streams of blood ran through all
the streets, and the alleys were filled with bodies weltering in
gore. The number that perished during the four months of
the siege, is computed at one million one hundred thousand,
a number which would seem ineredible if we did not recol-
lect that a nation was, as it were, shut up in that city, having
assembled to celebrate the Passover; so that, as Josephus
observes, this exceeded all the destructions that had hitherto
been brought upon the world. Besides, more than an equal
number perished elsewhere in the six years of war; and
ninety-seven thousand were made prisoners and sold into
slavery. Of these, thousands were sent to toil in the Egyptian
mines, and thousands more were sent into different provinces
as presents, to be consumed by the sword, and by wild beasts
in the amphitheatres. They were offered for sale “ till no man
would buy them,” and then they were slain, or given away.
Thus did Israel cease to be a nation, and become outcast
and desolate; thus were their famous city and its glorious
temple utterly cast down; and the doom was inflicted which

was impiously invoked, when the inhabitants of Jerusalem

cried out, ‘“ His blood be on us and on our children.”
Christianity, which spread over the Roman and Greek

countries, became with the lapse of time less spiritual, and

more devoted to attractive ceremonies, and increase of tem-
45





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

a ee EIT I NLT
poral power. One branch of the Church was called Greek,
and the other Latin or Roman Catholic. They were similar

in spirit and worship. Their names will often occur in the

annals which follow.

A little more than three centuries after the gospel era
dawned, when the Persian army invaded Syria, and then
Palestine, there was civil war between the Christian popula-
tion and the Jews, whose mutual dislike had become intense.
Twenty-four thousand Hebrews joined the Persians, and
within the walls of Jerusalem, the massacre of these people
was awful. At length the city (which had been under Chris-
tian rule since Constantine the Great, who had embraced
Christianity, conquered Palestine), was stormed; and the Jews
had an unlimited opportunity for revenge. The Christians
neither sought nor found merey; and ninety thousand of
them perished. Many were sold into slavery, aud others
were bought on purpose to be murdered.

It is wonderful and sad to see what a prize for rival
kings, and what an arena of treachery, revolt, and tragedies,
Jerusalem became after their rejection and execution of their
appointed King.

The followers of Mohammed, extending their doctrines and
their dominion by fire and sword, rapidly subdued Arabia,
Syria, and Egypt, when, about the year 637, the victorious

46





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
a a a ES TS
Omar turned his arms against Jerusalem. After a siege of

four months, during which the Arabs suffered extremely
from the inclemency of the winter, a capitulation was pro-

posed and agreed to, when the conqueror entered the city,

seated on a red camel, which carried a bag of corn and dates,
and without guards, or any other precaution. Omar was
assassinated in Jerusalem in the year 643, after which the
East was for two hundred years distracted by the bloody
wars that ensued among the Ommiades, the Abbassides, and
the Fatimite caliphs; and Palestine having become an object
of contest between them, was, for a like period, a scene of
devastation and trouble. In the year 868, the capital was
conquered by Achmet, a Turk; but was again recovered by.
the caliphs of Bagdad, in the year 906. It was reduced by
Mohammed Ikschid, of the Turkish race. Toward the end
of the tenth century, the holy city was taken possession of
by Ortok; and in 1076, by Meleschah a Turk. It was re-
taken by the Ortokides, and finally by the Fatimites, who
held possession of it when the Crusaders made their first
appearance in the holy land. ,

Jerusalem, though it was in possession of infidel chiefs,
was still revered as a holy city by both Christian and Jew,
and was visited by pilgrims from every quarter; among
others by Peter the hermit, a native of Amiens. The pa-

47





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
LL I I TEE IT

thetic tale which he brought to Europe, of the injuries and
insults which the Christian pilgrims suffered from the infidels,
who possessed and profaned the holy city, excited the deepest
sympathy among the people and princes of Christendom.
Councils were summoned, and were attended by bishops, a
numerous train of priests and citizens.

The mixed multitude were harangued by the zealous advo-
cates of this sacred cause; their pity and indignation were
alternately roused by the sufferings of their brethren in the
Holy Land ; the flame of enthusiasm was spread by sympathy
and example; and the eager champions of the cross, the flower
of the European chivalry, assembled in martial array, to
march against the enemies of their common faith. To defray
the necessary expenses of the expedition, princes gave up
their provinces, nobles their lands and castles, peasants their
cattle and instruments of husbandry; and vast armies were
transported to Palestine, in order to accomplish the deliver-
ance of the holy sepulchre. These rude and undisciplined
bands died in great numbers on reaching the shore of Asia,
from disease, famine, and fatigue; and, of the first Crusaders,
it is estimated, that three hundred thousand had perished
before a single city was rescued from the infidels. Having
taken the towns of Nice and Antioch in the year 1098, they

about a year after, laid siege to Jerusalem, and carried it by





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS. |





HIS BLOOD BE ON AND ON OUR CHILDREN.

4 49






SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

SS Ee ea TR ET

assault, with a prodigious slaughter of the garrison and
inhabitants, which was continued for three days, without
respect either to age or sex.

Eight days after the capture of Jerusalem, the Latin chiefs
proceeded to the clection of a king, who should preside over
their conquest in Palestine, and Godfrey of Bouillon was
unanimously raised to this high office. But if it was an
honorable office, it was also one of danger; he was not chosen
to sway a peaceful sceptre, and he was summoned to the field
in the first fortnight of his reign, to defend his capital against
the sultan of Egypt, who approached with a powerful army.
The signal overthrow of the latter in the battle of Ascalon
confirmed the stability of the Latin throne, and enabled God-
frey to extend on every side his infant kingdom, which con-
sisted only of Jerusalem and Jaffa, with about twenty villages
and towns of the adjacent districts.

The military force of the first Crusaders, wasted by fatigue
and by losses in the field, was no longer able to oppose the
hosts of Turks and Saracens by which it was surrounded.
The first victories of the Crusaders, and their rapid success,
spread abroad the terror of their arms. But the alarm soon
subsided, and the chiefs of the Mohammedan faith rallied

their forces, and attacked the European posts scattered over
the country, and made conquests.
51





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
a
The crusaders were finally defeated, and the infidels, as the

Mohammedans were termed, became bolder and more threaten-
ing. The ruling family in Jerusalem and the nobility were
however its worst cnemies. Through their rivalrics, and the
treachery of Count Raymond, correspondence was opened with
Sultan Saladin, a splendid chieftain, who invaded Palestine
with an army of cighty thousand men. The king of Jerusa-
lem went out to battle and was beaten, losing thirty thou-
sand of his troops.

The city was in no condition to sustain a protracted siege.
It was crowded with fugitives from every quarter, who here
sought an asylum from the destroying sword: a disorderly
throng of one hundred thousand persons was confined within
the walls, but there were few soldiers. The queen was
alarmed for the fate of her captive husband, and her govern-
ment was feeble and indecisive. A defence was maintained
for fourteen days, during which the besiegers had effected a
breach in the wall, and only waited the sultan’s orders for the
assault. This last extremity was averted by a capitulation.

The sultan made his triumphant entry into the city with

waving banners and martial music; the Christian church was
converted into a mosque, and the glittering cross was taken
down and dragged through the streets, amid the shouts of the
Moslems. The whole country now submitted to the sultan,

52





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
a a i a ES NEI ET aE AOE,
whose victorious progress was first arrested by the resistance

of Tyre, which was gallantly defended by Conrad. The sul-
tan, being foiled in all his attempts to take this place, was
finally compelled to raise the siege, and to retreat to Damas-
cus.

The capture of Jerusalem by the infidels, and the decline
of the Christian cause in Palestine, excited the deepest sorrow ;
the decaying zeal of the Huropean powers was awakencd, and
new expeditions were fitted out for the recovery of the holy
city. Philip, king of France, the emperor, Frederic Barba-
rossa, of Germany, and Richard I. of England, surnamed
Coeur-de-Lion, assembled a large force, and, with the aid of
Flanders, Frise, and Denmark, filled about two hundred
vessels with their troops. The first armaments landed at
Tyre, the only remaining inlet of the Christians into the Holy
Land, and no time was lost in commencing the celebrated
siege of Acre, which was maintained with an enthusiasm that
mocked at danger, and by feats of valor that were the theme
of wonder, even in that romantic age. This memorable

siege lasted for nearly two years, and was attended with a
prodigious loss of men on both sides. At length, in the spring
of the second year, the royal fleets of France and England
cast, anchor in the bay, with powerful reinforcements, and

the brave defenders of Acre were reduced to capitulate.
53





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

The capture of Acre was the prelude to further operations
against the enemy. Richard determined to commence the
siege of Ascalon, about a hundred miles distant, and his
march to this place was a continual battle of eleven days.
He was opposed by Saladin with an army of three hundred
thousand combatants; and on this occasion was fought one
of the most memorable battles of this or any other age.
Saladin was defeated with the loss of forty thousand men,
and the victorious Richard obtained possession of Ascalon,
and the other towns of Judea. A severe winter interrupted
the operations of the field. But Richard, issuing from his
winter quarters with the first gleam of spring, advanced with
his army within sight of Jerusalem, the great object of his
enterprise. Saladin had chosen Jerusalem for his head-quar-
ters, where the sudden appearance of the Christian conqueror

spread universal consternation. The holy city was relieved

by the hasty retreat of the English king, discouraged by the
difficulties of the enterprise and the murmurs of his troops.
In the meantime, the town of Jaffa was assaulted by Saladin
with a formidable force, and was on the point of surrendering,
when Richard, hastening to its relief, encountered the be-
sieging army of Saracens and Turks, amounting to sixty
thousand men, who yielded to the force of his attack. The
miseries of a protracted war began to be felt, and the ambition
54





AND ASSASSINS.

TRAITORS,

SPIES,











































































































































































































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HR APREN i Coc eS
THE POOL OF SILOAM.

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Nijuu
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55






SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
a a a a a a TD)

of Richard was checked by the discontent of his troops.
At last both Saladin and Richard were equally desirous of
ending an unpopular and ruinous contest. The first demands
of Richard, were, the restoration of Jerusalem, Palestine,
and the true cross. These terms were rejected by the sultan,
who would not part with the sovereignty of Palestine, or
listen to any proposition for dismembering his dominions.

The fourth Crusade was encouraged by the zeal of Pope
Celestine III, and was directed against the Greek empire,
which was too feeble to resist so formidable an attack. The
result was its conquest by the Latins, who ruled over it fifty-
seven years.

The sovereign of the Latin kingdom at this time was Mary,
the daughter of Isabella by Conrad of Tyre. To strengthen
the government of Jerusalem, it was resolved to request the
king of France, a gallant warrior, to provide a husband for
Mary. John de Brienne was chosen; and the Christian
chiefs were so elated, they broke the truce between them and

the sultan, and appealed to the arbitration of the sword. The

king of Jerusalem displayed all the great qualities of a
statesman anda soldier; but he foresaw its gradual decline
and final ruin approaching, reduced as it was, to two or
three towns, and would have been entirely destroyed had it
not been for the civil wars among its enemies.

57





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

A new Crusade was commenced, and a large force, chiefly

Hungarians and Germans, landed at Acre. The sons of
Saladin, who now ruled in Syria, collected their armies
to oppose this formidable attack. But the Crusaders, rashly
conducted, and weakened by divisions, advanced into the
country, without concert or prudence; provisions failed them ;
they were wasted, as usual, by famine and disease; and at
length their leader, the sovereign of Hungary, resolved to
quit a country where he had been exposed to hardship and
danger, without glory. The crusading armies, thus weakened
and discouraged, had laid aside all further idea of war, when,
in the spring of the following year, a fleet of three hundred
vessels, from the Rhine, appeared on the coast, and brought
powerful reinforcements, which recruited their strength and
restored their ascendancy in the field. For reasons which do
not clearly appear, they now retired from Palestine, and car-
ried the war into Egypt, and spread such consternation among
the infidels, that the most favorable terms of peace were
offered, and rejected by the Crusaders. Soon after, they were
reduced to the necessity of bargaining for permission to retire
to Palestine, by the cession of all their conquests in Egypt.
The next Crusade was undertaken by Frederic II, the
grandson of Barbarossa, according to a vow which had been

long made, and the performance of which had been so long
38





é
SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

delayed that he was excommunicated by Gregory IX. He

set sail with a fleet of two hundred ships and an army of
forty thousand men, and arrived at Acre. This was the most
successful and the most bloodless expedition that had yet been
undertaken. Without a battle Frederic entered Jerusalem in
triumph. The Saracen power was at this time weakened by'
divisions, and, owing to suspected treachery among his kin-

dred, Kamel, the son of Saladin, held precarious possession of

the throne. It was his policy, therefore, rather to disarm the

hostility of these powerful armies by treating with them, than

to encounter them in the field; and, accordingly, a treaty was

concluded, by which Jerusalem, Jaffa, Bethlehem, Nazareth,

and their dependencies, were restored to the Christians; reli-

gious toleration was established, and the contending parties
of Christians and Mohammedans were allowed each to offer
up their devotions, the first in the mosque El-Aksa, and the
last in the mosque of Omar. Both these mosques stand on
Mount Moriah; the Christians believed that the mosque of

El-Aksa (which was originally a Christian Church), and the
Moslems that the mosque of Omar, occupied the precise site
of Solomon’s Temple.

Each new disaster of the Christian arms served to rekindle
the languishing zeal of the Europeans; and Louis IX., of
France, fitted out an immense armament for the Holy Land,

59





-”

SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

consisting of eighteen hundred sail, in which he embarked
an army of fifty thousand men. He landed in Egypt, and,
after storming the town of Damietta, advanced along the
sea-coast toward Cairo, when his troops were so wasted by
sickness and famine, that they fell an easy prey to the enemy.
The king, the most of his nobles, and the remnant of his
army, were made prisoners ; and it was owing to the clemency
of the sultan Moadhdham, who accepted a ransom for their
lives, that Louis, with his few surviving followers, was per-

itted to embark for Palestine.

The power of the Christians in Palestine, weakened, among
other causes, by internal dissensions, was now vigorously
assailed by the sultan Bibars, the Mamlouk sovereign of

Egypt. He invaded Palestine with a formidable army, ad-

vanced to the gates of Acre, and, reducing the towns of Sep-
phoris and Azotus, massacred or carried into captivity num-
bers of Christians. Antioch yielded to his powerful assault,
when forty thousand of the inhabitants were put to the
sword, and one hundred thousand carried into captivity. The
report of these cruelties in Europe gave rise to the ninth and
last Crusade against the infidels, which was undertaken by
Louis, the French king, sixteen years after his return from
captivity. In place of directing his arms immediately against
Palestine, he landed in Africa, and laid siege to Carthage,
69 7





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

which he reduced. But he perished miserably on the burn-
ing sands of Africa, of a pestilential disease, which proved
fatal also to many of his troops; and thus ingloriously ter-
minated this expedition, which was the last undertaken by

the Huropeans for the recayery of the Holy Land.

The Europeans in Palestine were now confined within the
walls of Acre, their last stronghold, which was besieged by a
Mamlouk host of two hundred thousand troops, that issued
from Egypt, and encamped on the adjacent plain. In this
their last conflict with the infidels of the Holy Land, the
Europeans fully maintained the glory of their high name.
They displayed all the devotion of martyrs in a holy cause,
and performed prodigies of valor. But, equalled as they
were in discipline, and fearfully overmatched in numbers,
by their enemies, they were overborne by the weight and
violence of their attacks, and in the storm and sack of the
city, all either perished or were carried into captivity. Thus
vanished forever all those visions of glory and conquest by
which so many adventurers were seduced from Europe to the
Holy Land, there to perish under the complicated perils of
disease and the sword.

In this condition Palestine remained without any remarka-
ble event in its history, except that for nearly three centuries

it was the scene of domestic broils, insurrections and massa-
61





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
De
cres, until the memorable invasion of Egypt by the French

army. Bonaparte marched across the desert which di-
vides Egypt from Palestine, and invaded the country at
the head of ten thousand troops. El Arish surrendered,
and the lives of the garrison were spared on condition
that they should not serve against him during the war.
Gaza also yielded without opposition: and Jaffa, stormed
after a brave resistance, was given up to pillage. The
French army then proceeded to form the siege of Acre;
and this fortress, the last scene of conflict between the Chris-
tians and infidels of former days, became a modern field of
battle, in which were exhibited prodigies of valor that
rivalled the most renowned deeds of those chivalric times.
The trenches were opened on the tenth of March; in ten days
a breach was effected, and a desperate assault took place. At
first the defenders were forced to give way; but Djezzar
Pasha, who had shut himself within the walls, and who was
aided by Sir Sidney Smith with a body of British sailors,
rushed forward among the thickest of the combatants, and,
animating the troops by his example, drove back the enemy
with heavy loss. Bonaparte still persevered in a series of
furious assaults against the fortress, which were all most

gallantly repelled; and after a protracted siege of sixty days,

a last assault was ordered, which being equally unsuccessful
62





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

with all former attempts, and attended with the loss of some
of his bravest warriors, dictated the necessity of an immedi-
ate retreat.

Of late years a new power has arisen in the Hast, namely,
that of Mehemet Ali, pasha of Egypt, who, having collected
large treasures and a well-disciplined army, openly renounced
his allegiance to the Grand Signior. A war took place, in
which the hasty levies of Turkey were broken and put to
flight by the veteran troops of Egypt; and a series of brilliant
successes added Syria, with Palestine, to the pasha’s dominion.
The conscription, or forcible impressment of young men for
the army, and the disarming of the population, created gencral
discontent, and led to revolts, which encouraged the Porte in
the design which it had always entertained, of reducing the
pasha and recovering the ceded provinces. The Turks were
completely routed by the Egyptians in the battle of Nezib;
and the great powers af Europe then deemed it right to inter-
fere, to prevent Ibraham from pursuing his victory, and to
crush the ambitious designs of his father. This was accom-
plished chiefly through the brilliant operations of an English
flect, under Admiral Stopford and Commodore Napier, by
which Acre and other strongholds on the coast were taken
for the sultan; and the pasha was at length compelled to

evacuate Syria and restore it to the dominion of the Porte.
63





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
Rs ee css r ee eee renee ene

The Empress Helena, mother of Constantine the Great,
built the church of the sepulchre on Mount Calvary, with its
walls of stone and roof of cedar, in which four costly lamps
are kept burning. The offerings of the many pilgrims who
visit it, defray the expense of repairing the sacred place,
whenever this work is needed.

The mosque, you will recollect, was once a Jewish Temple.
The Emperor Julian, who apostatized from Christianity—
the royal traitor to the cause dear to his best subjects—
attempted an act of high treason against God rarely equalled.
Ife determined to prove the Messiah's prediction that the
Temple should not be again rebuilt, by commencing the

work upon a new edifice. But the workmen and the rising
structure were destroyed by an earthquake. When in the

year 1824, report came to this country that another earth-
quake had occurred in Jerusalem, shaking down the mosque
of Omar, and rending the Iloly Sepulchre, the American
poet, Brainard, wrote a beautiful poem upon rebellious,
treacherous, bloody, and fallen Jerusalem; an impressive
requiem over the wonderful “ City of the Great King.”

64












1, KILLING SISERA,









SEFULCHRE OF THE SONS OF PAVID:






THE BIBLE AND THE HOLY LAND.
A IE

SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.



ROYAL ASSASSINS.

By royal assassins, we mean those whose treachery and
deadly blows were aimed at princes, and other leading men
in the affairs of State, or who were themselves of princely
position.

The history of Treason, Conspiracy, and Assassination,
would be a record of awful interests,—a revelation of singu-
lar contrasts in motive, while the tragical end sought was
the same. The desperate determination to secure, at least
avenge trampled rights; religious fanaticism; and revengeful
passion ; these have been the most frequent causes of a, resort
to treasonable plots and regicide, with its kindred homicides
and attempted murder of representative men in a State.

When the crimes suggested by the title above, are men-
tioned, the mind naturally goes back to the “first mur-
derer,” who combined in his character the darkest traits of
an assassin. Cain betrayed a brother’s confidence, was false

3 69












SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS. :
to God, and slew the unsuspecting worshipper by his side.
Beginning at that scene of bloodshed, in addition to the
general history of revolt, and the characters and scenes of
civil and religious hostility, we will sketch the career, so far
as known, of some of the leading traitors, conspirators and
assassins of the past. The earliest instance of regicide in the
sacred annals, is that of Ehud the left-handed Benjaminite.
To avenge the tyranny of Eglon the king of Moab, the inva-
der of his country, he made a two-edged dagger, over a foot
and a half in length, and, hiding it under his robe, took in
his hand a present to the king. Feigning important intelli-
gence, the ruler ordered the attendants to retire from his
“summer parlor” where he was sitting. Eglon rose to re-
ceive the messenger, when Ehud, with his left hand, drew
the dagger from his right side, and thrust it into the king’s
body over the hilt. The assassin was unable to draw out
the weapon of death. The results of the daring deed, and
the story of another assassination which occurred soon after
Ehud’s career closed, are clearly and finely narrated by the
inspired historian: Then Ehud went forth through the
porch, and shut the doors of the parlor upon him, and locked
them. When he was gone out, his servants came; and when
they saw that, behold, the doors of the parlor were locked,
they said, surely he covereth his feet in his summer chamber.






SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

a SE a
And they tarried till they were ashamed; and, behold, he
opened not the doors of the parlor; therefore they took a

key, and opened them: and, behold, their lord was fallen
down dead on the earth. And Ehud escaped while they
tarried, and passed beyond the quarries, and escaped unto

Seirath. And it came to pass, when he was come, that he
blew a trumpet in the mountain of Ephraim, and the children
of Israel went down with him from the mount, and he before
them. And he said unto them, Follow after me: for the
Lord hath delivered your enemies the Moabites into your
hand. And they went down after him, and took the fords of
Jordan toward Moab, and suffered not a man to pass over.
And they slew of Moab at that time about ten thousand men,
all lusty, and all men of valor; and there escaped not a man.
So Moab was subdued that day under the hand of Israel.
And the children of Israel again did evil in the sight of the
Lord, when Ehud was dead. And the Lord sold them into
the hand of Jabin king of Canaan, that reigned in Hazor;
the captain of whose host was Sisera who dwelt in Harosh-
eth of the Gentiles. And the children of Israel cried unto
the Lord: for he had nine hundred chariots of iron; and
twenty years he mightily oppressed the children of Israel.
And Deborah, a prophetess, the wife of Lapidoth, she judged
Israel at that time. And she dwelt under the palm tree of
67





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

Deborah between Ramah and Bethel in mount Ephraim:
and the children of Israel came up to her for judgment.
And she sent and called Barak the son Abinoam out of Ke-
desh-naphtali, and said unto him, Hath not the Lord God
of Israel commanded, saying, go, and draw toward mount
Tabor, and take with thee ten thousand men of the children
of Naphtali, and of the children of Zebulun? And I will
draw unto thee, to the river Kishon, Sisera, the captain of
Jabin’s army, with his chariots and his multitude; and I will
deliver him into thine hand. And Barak said unto her, If
thou wilt go with me, then I will go: but.if thou wilt not go
with me, then I will not go. And she said, I will surely go
with thee: notwithstanding the journey that thou takest shall
not be for thine honor; for the Lord shall sell Sisera into the
hand of a woman. And Deborah arose, and went with
Barak to Kedesh.

And Sisera gathered together all his chariots, even nine
hundred chariots of iron, and all the people that were with
him, from Harosheth of the Gentiles unto the river of Kishon.
And Deborah said unto Barak, Up; for this is the day in
which the Lord hath delivered Sisera into thine hand: is not
the Lord gone out before thee? So Barak went down from
mount Tabor, and ten thousand men after him. And the

Lord discomfited Sisera, and all his chariots, and all his host,
68





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AND ASSASSIN

TRAITORS,

SPIKS,





























































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69






SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
eee eee Ee ee TT TE
with the edge of the sword before Barak; so that Sisera

lighted down off his chariot, and fled away on his feet. But
Barak: pursued after the chariots, and after the host, unto
Harosheth of the Gentiles: and all the host of Sisera fell
upon the edge of the sword; and there was not a man left.
Howbeit, Sisera fled away on his feet to the tent of Jael the
wife of Heber the Kenite; for there was peace between Jabin
the king of Hazor and the house of Heber the Kenite. And
Jael went out to meet Sisera, and said unto him, Turn in, my
lord, turn in to me; fear not. And when he had turned
in unto her into the tent, she covered him with a mantle.
And he said unto her, Stand in the door of the tent, and it
shall be, when any man doth come and inquire of thee,
and say, Is there any man here? that thou shalt say, No.
Then Jael, Heber’s wife, took a nail of the tent, and took
a hammer in her hand, and went softly unto him, and smote
the nail into his temples, and fastened it into the ground, for
he was fast asleep and weary. So he died. And behold, as
Barak pursued Sisera, Jael came out to mect him, and said
unto him, Come, and I will show thee the man whom thou
seekest. And when he came into her tent, behold, Sisera

lay dead, and the nail was in his temples.

Then sang Deborah and Barak, the son of Abinoam, on
that day, saying: Praise ye the Lord for the avenging of
“1





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
a ea ST a RT eT
Israel, when the people willingly offered themselves. Tear,

O ye kings; give ear, O ye princes; I, even J, will sing unto
the Lord; I will sing praise to the Lord God of Israel. Lord,
when thou wentest out of Seir, when thou marchedst out of
the field of Mdom, the earth trembled, and the heavens
dropped, the clouds also dropped water. The mountains
melted before the Lord, even that Sinai from before the Lord
God of Israel. The stars in their courses fought against Sisera.
The river of Kishon swept them away, that ancient river, the
river Kishon. O my soul, thou hast trodden down strength.
Then were the horse-hoofs broken by the means of the
prancings, the prancings of their mighty ones. Curse ye
Meroz, said the angel of the Lord, curse ye bitterly the in-
habitants thereof; because they came not to the help of the
Lord, to the help of the Lord against the mighty. Blessed
above women shall Jael the wife of Heber the Kenite be;
blessed shall she be above women in the tcht.

The mother of Sisera looked out at a window, and cried,
through the lattice, Why is his chariot so long in coming?
Why tarry the wheels of his chariot? So let all thine
enemies perish, O Lord: but let them that love him be as
the sun when he goeth forth in his might.

Not long after, when Gideon, who had delivered his people

from the Midianites, died, his son Abimelech craftily and by
72





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
a TS

bribery induced the people to proclaim him king. This
ambitious usurper was the first kingly assassin on record who
resorted to the murder of his own father’s family to estab-
lish his reign. Seventy of his brethren were slain “on one
stone,” at Ophrah, the native city of the family. Whether
they were dashed from an eminence upon a rock, or sacri-
ficed on an altar of stone we do not know. The youngest
brother, Jotham, alone escaped, and afterward raised a revolt
against Abimelech, that resulted in his death. A woman
fatally wounded him by dropping a stone upon his head from
a citadel, when, in accordance with his command, his armor-
bearer stabbed him ; because he proudly disdained to have it
said, a woman killed him. The fratricidal deed of Abime-
lech has been no very uncommon thing in Asia, and even in
Kurope, since his day. Some families, like that of the
Borgias, have become famous for their assassinations—leav-
ing a sanguinary record of lawless ambition and extraor-

dinary refinements in the work of mysterious murder.

The next royal assassin was Jehu, the tenth king of Israel,
and the founder of its fourth dynasty. Before he took the
throne, he was an officer in the army at Ramoth Gilead.
The troops were there to hold in check the Assyrian forces
that were advancing toward the river Jordan, and had taken
much of the territory east of the river.

73





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
aan a TE TE IEE,

Ahaziah, king of Judah, had aided Joram, the ruler of |
Israel, in waging this war. Joram, having been wounded,
repaired to Jezreel to be healed, and his friend Ahaziah went
there to sympathize with him, and discuss the crisis in the
contest. A council was held by the commanders, during
which, there suddenly appeared before the tent door one of
the disciples of the prophets, who was known by his dress,
and called for Jehu. He had been sent by Elisha to deliver
a message which had been sent to Elijah many years before.
The young man took a horn of oil, and pouring the contents
upon his head anointed him king, declaring this to be the
will of God. Jehu was not a man to lose any advantage
through remissness. Je immediately entered his chariot, in
order that his presence at Jezreel should be the first an-
nouncement which Joram would receive of this revolution.

As soon as the advance of Jehu and his party was seen in
the distance by the watchmen upon the palace tower in
Jezreel, two messengers were successively sent forth to meet
him, and were commanded by Jehu to follow in his rear.
But when the watchman reported that he could now recog-

nize the furious driving of Jehu, Joram went forth himsclf to

meet him, and was accompanied by the king of Judah. They
met in the field of Naboth, so fatal to the house of Ahab.

The king saluted him with “Ts it peace, Jehu?” and re-
74











‘SNISSVSSV GNV ‘SHOLIVUL ‘Salas



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SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
TT EE AAT a OT LAA IES IE
ceived the answer, “ What peace, so long as the idolatric:

of thy mother Jezebel, and her witchcrafts are so many

This completely opencd the eyes of Joram, who exelaimed to
the king of Judah, “ There is treachery, O Ahaziah!” and
turned to flee. But Jehu felt no infirmity of purpose,
knew that the slightest wavering might be fatal to him. Il.,
therefore, drew a bow with his full strength, and sent forth
an arrow which passed through the king’s heart. Jehu caused
the body to be thrown back into the field of Naboth, out of
which he had passed in his attempt at flight, and grimly re-
marked to Bidkar, his captain, “ Remember, how that, when
I and thou rode together after Ahab his father, the Lord laid
this burden upon him. The king of Judah contrived t:
escape, but not without a wound, of which he afterward died
at Megiddo.

There were several cases of assassination in Israel, under
the kings; among which, were the death of Abner by Joab,
both gallant military officers, Ish-bosheth, Jonathan's son,
and Amnon, David’s son. But we shall pass on to the
murder of a king recorded in the Bible, although he was not
an. Israelite.

Benhadad, the king of Syria, was dangerously sick. Some
told him ‘about Elisha, who was then a famous prophet,

and travelling toward his royal city. The invalid immedi-

me
ae





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

ee TT IP ee TTT EE POT ETT
ately commissioned Iazael, whose name means vision of God,

one of his officers, to meet the Seer at Damascus. He was
followed by forty camels, bearing presents from the king.
When Iazael appeared before the prophet, he said, Thy son
Benhadad, king of Syria, hath sent me to thee, saying, Shall
T recover of this disease? The answer was that he might
certainly recover. “ Howbeit,” added the prophef“ the Lord
hath showed me that he shall surely die.” He then gazed
earnestly at Hazael until he was ashamed. Elisha then
wept, when Ilazael inquired the cause of this deep emotion.
Because thou wilt do great evil to the children of Israel.
IIazael exclaimed, Is thy servant a dog that he should do
this thing? The prophet then revealed the events at hand,
when Ilazael returned, and repeated to the king only a part
of the message he had received from the man of God. The
next day, according to the prediction, this cool and calcula-
ting assassin took a thick cloth, and, having dipped it in
water, spread it over the face of the king, who, in his feeble-
ness, and probably in his sleep, was smothered by its weight,
and died, what seemed to his people, a natural death.

The cunning and deliberate regicide had brooded over the
plot; and betrayed his treachery, when he blushed and
became restless under the searching glance of Elisha. For
all criminals are more troubled and sensitive before they

78





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

have committed the contemplated deed; the first guilty act
hardens the heart, blunts the edge of conscience, and em-
boldens the transgressor in sin.

After the death of Jehu, there was a succession of con-

spiracies and assassinations in Israel and Judah—a series of
|

tragedies which make a dark and strange chapter in sacred
history.

Joash, the son of Ahaziah, who was hidden for six years
from Athaliah, when she attempted to slay all the rightful
heirs to the throne, was the eighth king of Judah. While
Jehoiada the high priest lived, whose wife had saved the life
of the prince, he was an excellent sovereign. But after the
good man was gone, he yielded to the influence of undevout
counsellors, and Pagan idolatries were allowed to take the
place of Jehovah’s worship.

The prophets sounded over his throne the messages of
warning from an insulted God; but he heeded not the voice
of alarm. He put to death Zachariah, son and successor to
Jehoiada, because he reproved him, and seemed determined
to fulfil the heathen proverb: “ Whom the gods would
destroy, they first make mad.” He became desperate in
wickedness; and Hazael was permitted to ravage his domin-
ions. Not only so, but like the more modern Herod, his ex-

istence was made a burden by a fearful disease. He gave up
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SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS

the sacred treasures of the temple to prevent the invasion of
Jerusalem by Assyrians.

The servants of Joash conspired against him, according to
tradition, to avenge the death of Zachariah, and slew him in
his bed of suffering. Whether they cut short his wretched
life by the dagger, or more by cruel blows, we-do not know.
He was not buried in the sepulchre of the kings, in the
“city of David.” His place of interment is not recorded ; it
is only stated that he was buried in Jerusalem.

Amaziah, a word which, in the Hebrew, means the strength
of Jehovah, was twenty-five years old when he ascended the
throne of Judah.

The first act of his reign, was a wholesale murder of thosc
who had conspired against his father. Then he invaded
Edom, to reduce it again to the sovereignty of Judah, from
which, under Jehoram, it had revolted. To succeed against the
formidable sons of Ishmael, for the first time in the history
of the Hebrews, he hired an army to help him. He gave one
hundred thousand talents of silver, which were equal to more
than a billion of dollars, for a hundred thousand men from the

army of Israel. But God revealed his displeasure against

such a resort to a degenerate people, and Amaziah was com-
pelled to send them back, and lose his talents.
The king gained a great victory over the Edomites, which
80





SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.







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| HALF HOURS IN BIBLE LANDS,

STORIES AND SKETCHES FROM THE SCRIPTURES —
AND THE EAST.

SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

BY REV.cP. C“HEADEEY.
AUTHOR OF “THE WOMEN OF THE BIBLE,” “HARVEST WORK OF THE TWOLY
SPIRIT,” “TITE EMPRESS JOSEPHINE,” “MASSACHUSETTS
IN THE REBELLION,” ETC., ETC., ETC.

WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS.

; PHILADELPHIA:
PUBLISHED BY JOHN E. POTTER & CO.,
No. 617 SANSOM STREET.




Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1867, by

JOHN E. POTTER & CO.

In the Clerk’s Office of the United States District Court in and for the Eastern District of

Pennsylvania.




THE BIBLE AND THE HOLY LAND.

eee

SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

THE TRAITORS OF HEBREW HISTORY.

A spy is a watcher of others; one who goes into an
enemy’s country, or in time of war, into his camp, to learn
his plans and movements. This knowledge he uses himself
or reports to a superior, who takes all the advantage of it in
his power.

The first spy mentioned in the Bible, was not of this world;
he was a fallen archangel, called Satan, the Devil, and by
other names of reproach. When or certainly why he rebelled
in glory we are not told; it is supposed because Christ was
declared the King of Angels. But he entered a beautiful
and holy Paradise to tempt the two perfect beings living
there. The enemy of God and his newly created offspring,
saw and envied the bliss of Eden’s inhabitants, and plotted
their ruin; a successful conspiracy formed in hell, from
which has come all the wicked devices and deeds of men.

After the overthrow of man, the unholy dispositions and
3


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

ambition which ruled the race made him rebellious, suspi-

cious, treacherous, and revengeful.
A glimpse of Hebrew life in the wilderness shows, most
strikingly, the elements of human society in an unsettled

state of it, which make rebels, spies, traitors, and assassins.
Ilow clearly in contrast with Jehovah’s patience, justice, and
purity are seen the conflicting passions of men—the chafing
against restraints—jealousy of each other—and the resort to
crime to secure selfish ends, and often to bloodshed to gain a
just and noble aim.

In the story of rebellion which will follow, we have the
appointment, by Moses, of twelve spies to visit the hostile
country of Palestine, and report to the camp of Israel; and
afterward of two by Joshua, who went to Jericho.

In the journey from Sinai to Canaan, several scenes showed
the rebellious character of the people, and their unfitness for
the inheritance promised to their fathers. The fatigues and
privations of travel through the desert soon raised their
murmurs, which became so outrageous, their King manifested
his displeasure by kindling a fire in the outskirts of the camp,
which was only stayed at the intercession of Moses, when the
people recognized the hand of God. The place was called
Teberah [the burning].

The next rebellion commenced among the mixed multitude
4


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

AE AE REPS POE AEE IE ET a TI
which accompanied the Hebrew host, but involved many of

the Israelites. Whatever fortitude they had soon gave way
before the privations of the desert. There was plenty of
manna; but they had grown dainty, and “their souls loathed
the light food.” They lamented that they had left Egypt, and
remembered, with regret, the cooling melons, the lecks, the
onions, the garlick, and the other fruits and vegetables which
they had enjoyed in abundance; as well as the fish and the
meat, which in that rich land they had “eaten to the full.”
Moses was grieved and depressed, and his address to God on
that occasion marks his deep despondency. To comfort him
and enable him to sustain his heavy charge, he was directed to
choose seventy competent men from the elders of Isracl, who
should act as a council, and assist him in the government of
the people. These being nominated by Moses, were to be
brought to the door of the tabernacle, where the divine King
gave signs of their acceptance.

At Ilazecroth, the spirit of opposition to Moses broke out
in his own family, in consequence of his having married the
forcign woman Zipporah, who had lately been brought among
them. Miriam, the sister of Moses, who had previously held
the chief place among the women in Israel, and who was now
probably jealous of the respect paid to the wife of Moses, was

the leader in this affair, and was soon joined by Aaron, who


immenescuTeas" 239 DNR REET SRR AITO mcm ~

SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.



Wes «TREACY ALANS SRN VOR



Pertpwrer naan; nnatrsormaec nas

feared the influence of the newly arrived family on the pros-
pects of his own sons, on whom the priesthood had been con-
ferred. At all events, their feeling was bad, and as the
expression of it tended to undermine the authority of Moses,
the Lord testified his displeasure by smiting Miriam with
leprosy, and as a leper she was excluded from the camp. But
in seven days she was restored, at the intercession of Moses,
after Aaron had humbled himself, and acknowledged their
joint offence.

At Kadesh Barnea, on the southern border of the Prom-
ised Land, when Moses encouraged them to go forward
boldly, and take possession of their heritage, they were timid
and resolved first to send twelve spies, one from each tribe,
to traverse tlie country, and to bring them an account ofthe
land and its inhabitants. After an absence of forty days, the
sples came back with ig? large cluster of grapes, and other
fruits of the country—many of which were new to men from
Egypt. Of the country itself, and of its productions, they
gave avery glowing account; but the inha: ents they de-
scribed as warlike, and,-in some places, gigantic, ‘Gwelling i in
high-walled and seemingly impregnable cities; and they
declared it as their opinion, that however desirable the
country, the Israelites were by no means equal to the con-
quest of it from the present inhabitants. This statement

6

Satie eee Anaia ARR Cre SS CER LOD SRE: eens MarEiuintcon OO, ay


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.











































































































































































































































































Wir
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THE VISIT TO THE PROMISED LAND.

I~
SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

LL TL a a a I I ET TT EE
filled the timorous multitude with dismay; and they threat-

ened to stone two of the spies, Joshua and Caleb, who pro-
claimed their conviction that, with the divine aid, which was
promised to them, they were fully equal to the enterprise.
Breaking out into open mutiny, they even talked of appoint-
ing a leader to conduct them back to their bondage in
Egypt.

For this last display of their insensibility to the great
things which had been done for them, and gross blindness to
his great design, the Lord’s anger was kindled against them.
The mysterious “glory” suddenly appeared. in the cloud
which rested upon the tabernacle; and that manifestation of
the present God struck dumb every clamorous tongue, and
filled all hearts with fear. The divine voice now threatened
instant extinction to the revolters, and promised to make of
Moses and his family a nation greater and mightier than
they. This offer had been made on a former occasion, and
was then, as now, reverently declined by the disinterested
prophet; and he and his brother lay prostrate before the
cloud, with their faces to the ground, interceding for the
people. Their prayer had power with God, and the doom of
instant death and disinheritance was averted. But it was

pronounced that not one of the tainted generation—composed

of those who were of full age on leaving Egypt—should
9




|

Pause RI erie ARON SE RON



ee ate si DECI Reiser maeKS







SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
Se BB SA MEA ADR Ga TREE ER Se oT Ih AE YS
enter the Promised Land. From this doom only the two

faithful spies, Joshua and Caleb, were exempted; the ten



others were smitten with that instant death which their con-
duct deserved.

This awful denunciation had the remarkable, but not un-
natural effect of driving the Israelites from their childish
timidity to the very opposite extreme of unauthorized and
presumptuous rashness. The Canaanites and Amalekites had
already taken alarm, and possessed themselves of the passes
in the mountains which lay before the Hebrew host. Not-
withstanding this advantage on the side of the enemy, ayd in
spite of the earnest remonstrances of Moses, a large body of
the Israelites determined to march forward and take posses-
sion of the country. They were driven back with great
slaughter; and immediately aftcr, in obedience to the divine
mandate, the camp at Kades Barnea was broken up, and
the people conducted beck into the desert toward the Red
Sea.

Here, in the deserts between Palestine and Sinai, they
wandered their appointed time, the generation which re-
ceived the law in Horeb becoming gradually extinct. During
all this time they continued to lead the same pastoral or
Bedouin life as they had done before, living on manna and
the produce of their flocks and herds; and removing from one

10


























pee TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS:



station to 5 another, as directed i the viller, alsil wiih rested

upon the tabernacle.

During this period, there was a revolt against the govern-
ment, by persons of high rank and consequence in some of
the tribes. The rebels were heads of families and clans, who
would have possessed high civil powers, and would have ex-!
ercised priestly functions under the patriarchal government :
and their attempt must be taken as a struggle of the old insti-
tutions against the new. In some shape or other, such a
conflict almost always takes place between new forms of
government and the ancient institutions which are altered or
superseded. Among the Hebrews, the supreme authority
under which the new institutions had been framed, kept the
great body of the heads of tribes and families quiet, whatever
may have been their secret discontent; but there were some
audacious spirits whom nothing could restrain.

Korah, although himself a Levite, was chief instigator of
this revolt. His birth and station would have entitled him to
a leading place in the tribe; and it is more than probable
that another family being appointed to the priesthood, was
the chief cause of his discontent. This, however, was not a
ground on which he could expect much support from the
chiefs of other tribes; and it was therefore pretended, that

the liberties of the people had been infringed by Moses and
ll
SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

Aaron; and that the heads of families had been unjustly de-

prived of power which belonged to them. The manner in
which the high priesthood had been made a political office

a theocracy, exposed the priesthood to the ambition
which it might have escaped had its duties been only sacer-
dotal.

The people were disposed to listen to those who told them
that they had cause to be discontented; that their liberties
had been taken from them; and that the yoke of a central
government was too heavy to be borne. The leaders, there-
fore, supported by a large body of the “ congregation,” at
length openly charged Moses and Aaron with the usurpation
of power, which they were required to lay down. It was not
denied that the appointments of Jehovah were absolute, but
they were chosen by him. This they could only dispute by
indirectly doubting the testimony of Moses, who brought this
institution with him on his return from the Mount; and it
was clear that, if his legislative agency in this matter could
be set aside, an opening was made for overturning the whole
system, which rested on the same foundation. This was
secretly understood on all sides. Moses at once saw that a
special manifestation had become necessary, and, in the confi-
dence that God would vindicate his own appointments, re-

ferred the matter to him. After strong words of reproof, he
12




















































THE BLIND LEADING THE BLIND.























‘'SNISSVSSV CNV ‘SUOLIVUL ‘SAIds


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
Haaeeeee errr eeeeee esse eres ceca eee enone ae ee eee eee i, 7 ETS
therefore invited the leading conspirators to exercise on the

morrow, by offering incense, the duties to which they laid
claim, and then the Lord would doubtless make known his
will. Awful was that decision! As they stood with their
censers to offer incense, they were suddenly consumed by
fire from His presence; and the Reubenites, Dathen, and
Abiram, who had refused to attend, did not escape; for the
earth opened and engulfed them where they stood, with
their tents and all that belonged to them.

The discontent which these men had encouraged among the
people, was too widely spread, and too deeply rooted for even
this awful judgment to subdue. The turbulent mob were
struck with horror and alarm at the destruction of their
leaders; but the next day they rallied, and assembled in great
numbers, clamoring against Moses and Aaron, as if they were
the authors of that judgment which the wrath of God had
inflicted. Now, again, was the divine wrath kindled, and a
consuming plague went forth among the people. They
fell, like corn before the reaper, until Aaron, at the desire of
Moses, took a censer, with burning incense, and rushing forth
among the people, stood between the living and the dead,
when the plague was stayed. On this occasion fourteen
hundred people perished.

The destruction of those who thus claimed priestly honors,
15


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.



the staying of the plague at Aaron’s intercession, settled
all doubt regarding his appointment. But to place it beyond
controversy, the divine King was pleased to grant a special
and abiding miracle. Moses was directed to take a rod from
each of the tribes, and to engrave upon it the name of the
tribe to which it belonged, but upon the rod of Levi to write
Aaron’s name. All these rods were lain up in the tabernacle
before the ark, God having said that he would cause to
blossom the rod of the man chosen and appointed by him.
The next day the rods were brought forth, and the rod of
Aaron had budded, blossomed, and borne ripe almonds. It
was laid up among the monuments of the tabernacle.

At length the forty years, during which the Israelites had
been doomed to wander in the wilderness, were nearly ex-
pired, and the generation which, by their disobedience, had
forfeited their title to the Promised Land, had perished. The
new generation, although far from faultless, was,,upon the
whole, much superior to that which had passed away, and
better fitted for the promised inheritance. As the time drew
nigh, the host returned to the borders of Canaan, and en-
camped at Kadesh, from which it had formerly been sent
back into the desert. Miriam, the sister of Moses and Aaron,
died here; and here the brothers themselves forfeited their
claims to enter the Promised Land. The want of water was

16

t :


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
a aS
experienced at Kadesh with so much severity, that the people

became clamorous and reproachful. By this Moses and
Aaron were so much disturbed that, when instructed to smite
a certain rock, from which water should then flow, they ex-
hibited such impatience and distrust as, if left unpunished,
might have had an injurious effect on the minds of the people.

They were, therefore, forbidden to enter Canaan; but, at his

entreaty, Moses was promised a distant view of that “ goodly
land” which the Lord hath promised to his people.

The hosts of Israel on reaching Kadesh had fully expected
that they were immediately to enter the Promised Land.
They were, therefore, much discouraged at having to take
another troublesome journey through so unpleasant a wilder-
ness as that which bordered the land of Edom; and, by the
time they reached the vicinity of the Red Sea, they broke
forth into loud complaints for bread and water, and expressed
their distaste at the manner in which they had been fed for
nearly forty years, saying, ‘“ Our soul loatheth this light food.”
For this impatience, and for the contempt of God’s merciful
provision, without which they must long ago have perished,
the serpents, which infested, and do still infest that region,
were sent among them in unwonted numbers, and whoever
was bitten by them died. On this the people confessed their

sins, and sought the intercession of Moses, who was directed
2 17


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
a a a ae,
to make a serpent of brass, and elevate it upon a pole in the

midst of the camp ; and those who looked upon it might live.
The brazen serpent was preserved as a memorial of this mira-
cle for about nine hundred years, when, because the people
were disposed to render to it idolatrous honors, it was de-
stroyed by King Hezekiah.

Upon the borders of Canaan, Joshua sent two spies into
Jericho, to ascertain the strength and feelings of the enemy.
Here they were secreted from the authorities of the city by
a woman named Rahab, on the promise that her life should
be spared when the city was taken. She did her part well,
as did also the spies. They reported that the citizens of
Jericho were trembling with alarm, which was an assurance
of easy conquest; for Jehovah had sent this fear upon the
people. Then followed the passage of the J ordan, the march
around the city seven times, and the falling of the walls. Only
Rahab escaped the slaughter of the inhabitants.

The grand revolt of the Hebrews against God’s sovereignty

after they were established Palestine, was just before
Samuel died, when, as we have seen, they asked the venerable
judge and prophet for a king, like the Pagan nations around
them.
Their monarch, Saul, became a royal spy, and high.
handed rebel against God, which proved his inglorious fall.
18


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.





19
SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

— a SS PO aE ST aa EE EEE,
David the son of Jesse, who was a favorite for a while, after

he was taken into the king’s family, by his gifts, graces, and
valor won admiring love from the people, and just in propor-
portion to this, the hatred of Saul. For the monarch saw in
David a rival. His son, Jonathan, on the contrary, formed
an ardent attachment to the shepherd-minstrel.

Jonathan gave his friend notice of danger. When David
was one day playing on his harp, he narrowly escaped death
from a javelin which Saul threw with the intention of
pinning him to the wall. He then withdrew to his own
house, where he was followed by men whom the king sent
to despatch him. But they were amused and deceived by
David's wife, Michal, Saul’s own daughter, while her husband
was let down from the window in a basket and made his
escape to Samuel at Ramah. Repeated attempts to take
him thence, or slay him there, the last of which was made
by the king in person, were defeated by the special interposi-
tion of Providence. But Saul, brooding gloomily over his
doom, still cherished his cruel purpose against him; and on
one occasion he even threw his javelin at Jonathan for speak-
ing in favor of his absent friend. David resolved to with-
draw to a foreign land, Gath, one of the five Philistine states.

The tabernacle had by this time been removed from Shiloh
to Nob, in the tribe of Benjamin; and David, with his few

21


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

i ae i ce cesta
followers, called there on his way, and procured from the
high-priest, Ahimelech, a supply of provisions and the only
weapon in his possession—the sword which David had taken
from Goliah, and which had been laid up in the tabernacle as
a trophy of that victory.

David left the country of the Philistines and repaired to
the wild district of Adullam, in the tribe of Judah. Here
there was a large cave, which formed shelter for himself, and
the men of broken fortunes.

Soon after this some malicious spies of the neighborhood
went to Gibeah and acquainted Saul with the place of David’s
retreat. The king immediately marched with a sufficient

force ; but David, warned of his approach, retreated southward

into the wilderness of Maon. Saul followed him, but was
called off to repel an unexpected incursion of the Philistines.
Here, being one day weary, the king withdrew into a cave to
take some rest. In the providence of God, it happened that
this was the very cave in whose interior recesses David and
his men lay concealed ; and while Saul slept, David advanced
softly and cut off the skirt of his robe. When the king
went out of the cave, David followed him at some distance,
and at length called to him, and displayed the skirt in
evidence of his innocence. Saul could but feel that he who

had taken the fragment of his garment could have taken his
22


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.



life; and struck by this magnanimity, his stern heart was
subdued. ‘Is that thy voice, my son David?” he cried; and
then he wept. He acknowledged that he had been foolish

and wicked ; that the son of Jesse was worthy of the destinies

which awaited him; and he exacted from him a promise, that.
when he became king he would not root out the family of |.
his predecessor, as eastern kings were wont do. Saul then

withdrew.

David again retreated into the wilderness of Ziph, which
came to the knowledge of Saul, and notwithstanding his
recent convictions, he went in search of him with three
thousand men. While the king of Israel lay encamped and
surrounded by his troops, during the darkness and stillness
of the night, and when all were fast asleep, David, accompa-
nied by Abishai, penetrated, undiscovered, to the place where
the monarch lay, and took away the spear which was stuck
in the ground near his head, and the cruse of water which
stood by his side. In the morning, he called to the king
from the hill-side, and displayed these manifest tokens that
the king’s life had been completely in his power. His re-
monstrance was attended with the same result as on the
former occasion. Saul, grieved and ashamed, confessed that
he had acted “foolishly,” and returned to Gibeah.

David lived to see his kingly foe a suicide, while he took

23
SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

the throne to taste the bitter cup of sorrow in the hand of
an unfilial rebellious son.

Absalom was a young man of genius and great personal
beauty; and he might have been an eminently noble and
useful prince in Israel. But his passions were not subdued

early life, and they ruined him. Having slain his
brother because of his shameful conduct toward their sister
Tamar, he fled to another country, and was an exile three
years, when his return and reconciliation to his father,
was followed by promotion to a place of honor. He had

escort of fifty horsemen, and chariots set apart for his

petsonal service. This prosperity was too much for his way-
ward spirit; his ambition took the form of unnatural and
horrible treason.

The deliberate manner in which he plotted the overthrow
of his father’s throne, and brought the rebellion to a head,
exposes not only the depravity. and ambition, but the energy
and firm character of the man. Every morning early, found
him at the gate of the city, accosting each stranger as he
entered with that bland and persuasive manner so few could
resist. “From what part of the country do you come?” he
inquired; “and what is your business here?” To be thus
noticed by a prince was sufficient condescension; but when
he went farther, and asked of his troubles and grievances, and

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ASSASSINS.

AND

TRAITORS,

SPIES,





































































































































































































































































































































































































































oats



‘ =



“wwitteaets

THACHING THE TEMPTING PHARISEES.

SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

sympathised with him, exclaiming, ‘Oh that I were a judge
in Israel; how soon would I interest myself in your suit, and
redress your wrongs!” the unsuspecting countryman was
completely won over, and returned to his home filled with
the praises of Absalom. And when any of the lower classes
paused to render him that homage which was his due as a
prince of the blood, he checked him, and taking him aside,
kissed him, and whispered flatteries and promises in his ear.
Thus, “he stole away the hearts of the people.”

Year after year, he prosecuted this cunnine but nefarious
plan, till all over the land there was a secret wish that he
could sit in king David's place. When he discovered this,
he organized his conspiracy; and under pretence of going to
Hebron, to pay a vow to the Lord, he set up there his stand-
ard, and blew his trumpet of defiance. That bugle blast
shook the throne of his father to its foundations, and he fled

in affright and grief from his palace and capital. Still, a host
of brave hearts clung to him, ready to fight and die in his

defence.

The two armies met in a thick forest, and the battle at
once became fierce and sanguinary. Amid the braying of
trumpets, the neighing of steeds and clash of weapons, the
shout of Israel and Absalom was heard ringing over the din,

as brothers and friends closed in the mortal struggle. They
27


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS

fought long and bravely, but the rebel forces at length gave
way, for God was on the father’s side. Absalom saw with
despair the rout of his best troops, and strove with almost
superhuman efforts to stay the reverse tide of battle. Vain
valor—broken and dispersed, they fled on every side, and

twenty thousand corpses strewed the forest. Enraged and .].

desperate, Absalom, bareheaded, his long tresses streaming
in the wind, spurred all alone on the king’s guard, doubtless
in the hope of finding his father, and by one bold blow re-
storing his fortunes. But as he was galloping under an oak,
his hair caught on a knotty branch, and stripping him from
his mule, left him dangling in mid-heaven. Te strove des-
perately to reach the limb and extricate himself, but in vain.
While thus struggling, he heard the clatter of a horse’s hoofs
and wrenching half around, he saw Joab, the fiercest general
of the royal army, approaching. He knew too well the hate
that fiery warrior bore him, to expect or ask mercy; and
with a countenance pale as marble, and a brow knit in stern
defiance, he awaited his doom. Joab reined up before him,
and gazing a moment on the helpless prince, drew forth a
javelin and hurled it in his body. Another and another
followed, and Absalom swung a corpse in the forest.
Solomon had a peaceful reign; but Rehoboam, his son,
was a tyrant: selfish and ambitious. When the people
28
SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
EE TE a a ae

offered him their homage if he would lighten their bur-
dens, for the expensive luxuries of Solomon had increased
the taxes, he told them roughly he would put upon them a
heavier yoke; and if his father chastised them with whips,
he would with scorpions. Then went up the shout: “ What
portion have we in David? neither have we inheritance in
the son of Jesse; to your tents, O Israel! now see to thine
own house, David.”

Rehoboam gathered all his fighting men of the two tribes
which he had left, Judah, and little Benjamin, to subdue the
rebels ; but God commanded him not to go, because he deter-
mined to rend the kingdom on account of its crimes under
Solomon’s reign.

Jeroboam, the son of Nebat, was anointed king of Israel,
whose wickedness prepared the way for lawless successors,
and farther rebellion. God’s curse was upon Israel for treason
against him.

Jezebel was a Sidonian princess of commanding figure,
vigorous intellect, and depraved heart. Like Delilah, she
was a voluptuary and an idolater. Ahab was now king of
Israel, a man of weak mind and utterly destitute of moral
principle. From mere policy, or influenced by her personal
attractions, he made her his queen.

The prophets were the first victims of her malignant
29


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.



cruelty, and were slaughtered till only a hundred were lett,
who were concealed by the good Obadiah, governor of the
royal household. From the fact that no more mention is
made of them, it is evident they were at length dragged
forth by the executioners of her hostility to the worship of
Jehovah, although its celestial glory was already gone, and
its hallowed rites had given place to the forms of prevailing
superstition.

Elijah, gifted and fearless, was especially the object of
Jezebel’s hatred. The monarch, goaded on by the unwasting
zeal of the queen, went forth to slay his enemy. Then fol-
lowed the scene on Mount Carmel, when fire came down
from heaven to Elijah’s altar.

Ahab was fatally wounded not long afterward in a battle
with the Assyrians, and died. Elisha anointed Jehu, a cap-
tain in the army of the king, to execute the hastening ven-
geance of God. The host rallied around his standard, and
blew their trumpets in joyful acclamation, while he led them
on toward the walls of the capital. Meeting Joram, son of
Jezebel, the reigning sovereign, and Ahaziah, her grandson,
king of Judah, who came forth in their alarm at the sight of
that war-cloud, sweeping as on the wings of a hurricane
along the hills, he pierced the former with an arrow, and
throwing the body into the vineyard of Naboth, slew the
30







SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
other in his chariot, and ‘dashed on to the open gate of
Jezreel. The shouts of the populace, and the rushing of
chariot-wheels, reached the chamber of the queen.

Painting her face, and splendidly attired, “she looked out
at the window,” and calling to Jehu, reminded him of the
fate of Zimri, the conspirator against Elah, who perished in
the flames of the palace his own hand kindled. Jehu looked
up and cried to the eunuchs, “ Who is on my side?” The
quick reply was the descending form of Jezebel, mangled on
the projecting wall, and sprinkling the horses with blood.
He then drove over this dying daughter of a king and queen
of Israel, stern, sullen and daring to the last, till the hoofs
of his steeds were red with trampled dead.

Entering now the desolate palace-hall, he told the throng
to go and “see this cursed woman, and bury her, for she was
a king’s daughter.” But in accordance with prophesy, they
found only the fragments of Jezebel’s body left by the dogs.
Jehu continued his work of slaughter till the idolatrous race
was extinct, and the dishonor cast on the name of Jehovah
was wiped out with the blood of a whole generation.

Athaliah, the daughter of Jezebel, followed the example
of her mother. Naboth’s history had furnished a precedent
this wicked queen was not unwilling to follow, and the trage-
dies in both branches of an impious line, remind us of the
31
SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.



Borgia family of modern history, who have written their
names blood, on the ecclesiastical and civil records of
Italy. She finally died an ignominious death, and her body
lay in the highway to the palace, trodden in the soil by
horsemen, who but a few hours before quailed before her
eye of flame. Mother and daughter, alike in unblushing im-
piety which vaulted to the stars, perished equally wretched
in their hurried and hopeless departure from a world they
made more desolate, to an abode where Justice completes his
work.

During the captivity of the Hebrews in Babylon, what
splendid examples of loyalty to their faith and country, in
contrast with base espionage and betrayal, were furnished by
the youthful Daniel, praying to his God although he knew
that spies were listening, and the decree of death if he were
found communing with Jehovah, had gone forth—by the
three men in the fiery furnace—and not the least among
devout patriots, Mordecai and Esther. And how sadly dark
is the evidence of human depravity, when it meets us, watch-
ing with evil eye the good, and glorying in the betrayal and
earthly ruin of innocence !

32

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DESTRUCTION CF JERUSALEM FORETOLD BY
JE REMEARL


A
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oo
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S OF PALME

RUIN
THE BIBLE AND THE HOLY LAND.

Sak RELA ht TEE EE TEE, EN: I IE LET ELE SE EEE LEO LL OEE OESAET ENTE AS LEI TECLT:

SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

PALESTINE AFTER THE MESSIAH’S ADVENT.

Tuk reign of Herod and his sons in Judea, which connected
the Old and the New Testament annals, was justly unpopular,
because of its oppressive cruelty. Herod, the royal murderer
of the “innocents,” was an Idumean; a native of Idumea,
also called Edom, and Mount Seir, lying between the Dead
Sea and the Red Sea.

The original inhabitants here were the Horim, having
caves for their habitations; and were driven out by the
children of Esau. Antipater, Herod’s father, was an Idu-
mean millionaire, and an imperious, restless man. After
obtaining the control of his own mountain land, he turned
his attention to other provinces. The first object before his
mind, was friendship and alliance with powerful Rome.
Soon Antipater secured his aim; gettir :is son Phasaelus
appointed over Jerusalem, and Herod, then fifteen years old,
governor of Galilee. This boy-commander of a province was

3 33


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

brave and energetic; and by his successes in ridding the
country of roving bands of robbers, acquired for a time
popularity with the people. But leading men in Jerusalem,
united in rebellion against him. He was tried before the 2
hedrim, the Jewish council of seventy members, and acquitted.
When, soon after, Antigonus marched against Jerusalem,
Herod fled and hastened to Rome to plead his cause before
the Emperor. The ambitious, cunning prince, was pro-

claimed King of ‘the Jews, and invested with all the rights

and insignia of royalty. He killed his wife Marianna, with
his two sons Alexander and Aristobulus. Not long after the
Messiah’s birth, he died a horrible death, suffering great
agony, eaten, while yet alive, by worms. The kingdom was
divided among his three sons, Herod Antipas having for
his portion Galilee and Peraea. Of this governor we shall
learn more when we come to the story of Assassins.

The appearance of the promised Messiah at this period,
created new excitement, espionage, and civil strife. As soon
as the Hebrews discovered that he was not a temporal king,
who would break the Roman yoke, and establish a throne of
regal splendor, they rejected his claims and plotted his death.
Spies were constantly on his track, to “catch him in his talk;”
as either saying what was contrary to their law, or treason-

able to the Roman authority.
34


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

Here was a new form of open rebellion against God in
Palestine; a wilfully blind hostility which spared no act of
enmity, until the conspiracy was a success in its designs on
the human life of the “ King of kings ;” a crime and tragedy,
whose narrative will reappear in the course of his personal
history.

Not only did the Hebrews waylay and kill the founder of
the gospel kingdom, but they followed his apostles and all
the early disciples with the same watchful hate. Stephen,
the first Christian martyr, was arrested and then stoned until
he “fell asleep.” Peter, who once betrayed his master, was
falsely accused and cast into prison, from which an angel
delivered him at night, to be watched again, until life itself
was taken. A similar experience had the rest of the leading
citizens of the new kingdom of the world.

Soon the rebellious and persecuting Hebrews entered upon

the work of self-destruction. Beneath the sceptre of Rome,
the Jews who believed it to be “unlawful,” for the chosen
people of God to pay tribute to heathen rulers, were called
“ Zealots ;” and under this name were prominent during the
later years of the Hebrew nation. They improved every
oceasion that offered, to raise insurrections against the
Roman governors who succeeded each other for about half

a century. Regarding those of their Jewish brethren who
35


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

SEE SS AREA ENTE
did pay tribute, as traitors to their divine origin and rights,
the Zealots treated them as enemies also; and robbery and
death became common. ‘The condition of things in Israel
now was bad enough; worse than when in Egypt in some
respects, dependant slaves, and more wretched than while
wandering, a rebellious host, in the wilderness. Numbers
of the better class sought refuge in foreign lands.

We shall glance at the strange and sanguinary record of Pal-
estine, especially its capital, for the centuries which follow ;
taking our sad and condensed narrative. from Kitto’s annals.
The land was distracted by tumult, and overrun by robbers,
who, professing zeal for liberty and religion, plundered, with-
out mercy, the defenceless towns and villages which refused

to give in their adhesion to what was called the patriot cause.

Meanwhile justice was sold by the Roman governor, and
even the sacred office of the high-priesthood was offered to
the highest bidder. Consequently those who got that dig-
nity were often profligate wretches, who used it for their own
purposes, and maintained themselves in it by the darkest
iniquities. Being of different sects and parties, of which
there was now a great number, they and the leading men of
the nation acted with all the animosity of sectarianism
against each other. With such examples in their superiors,
the ordinary priests and the scribes became, in the highest
36


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.



LED

CHRIST AND THE WICKED PHARISEES.

37

SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
degree, dissolute and unprincipled; while the mass of the
people abandoned themselves to all evil; and _ seditions,
extortions, and robberies, were matters of every day occur-
rence. The bands of society were loosened; and it became
clear that the nation was fast ripening for destruction.

In Cesarea, came the actual outbreak. That place, the
seat of the Roman governor, was built by Herod, and had a
mixed population of Syrians and Jews, both of whom claimed
the right to rule the city. The dispute had been referred to
the Emperor, and about this time the decree was announced
in favor of the Syrians, whose boundless exultation exaspe-
rated all the Jews, who had felt a deep interest in the ques-
tion. This, with insults on their religion which the governor
refused to notice, fanned into a flame the smouldering embers
of revolt. Acting upon the impulse thus given, a party of
hot-brained young men surprised a Roman garrison at Mas-
sada, near the Dead Sea, and put all the soldiers to the sword.
This act was recognized at Jerusalem, where the leaders of
the nation openly threw off their allegiance, by the refusal
of the priests any longer to offer up the usual sacrifices for
the prosperity of the Roman empire. There also the popular

party rose and slew the Roman garrison; and the palace and

the public offices were destroyed by fire. Indescribable bar-

barities were also committed by the “ patriot” party upon the
39


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

Sn eee ee ee ee eee a ee ee eee eee eee aE,
quietly-disposed citizens. This example produced a general

insurrection, in which the Jews on the one side, and the
Romans and Syrians on the other, attacked each other
with the greatest fury; and in every city there was war,
massacre, and spoliation.

On the first news of this revolt, the President of Syria,
Cestius Gallus, marched a powerful army into Judea, and
advanced against Jerusalem. Strange to say, he was defeated
by the insurgents with great slaughter; and the military
engines which fell into the hands of the victors, were of great
use to them in the subsequent defence of the city. The
honor of Rome was now engaged to avenge this disgrace,
and no thinking man for a moment doubted the result.
Nero sent the able and experienced Vespasian into Syria
(who was accompanied by his son Titus), with the quality of
president, to take the conduct of the war.

Vespasian commenced his invasion in the spring of A. D.
67, with an army of sixty thousand men. Instead of going
at once to Jerusalem, he employed himself in reducing Gali-
lee, and in recovering the fortresses which had been takeny
by the insurgents. At Jotapata he was opposed by Josephus,
the historian of the war, to whom the provisional Jewish
government had confided the defence of Galilee. The fortress
fell, and Josephus was taken alive. Ile was at first treated

40


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

rather roughly, but afterward with consideration and re-
spect. Though the war was steadily prosecuted, Vespasian

was in no haste to march against Jerusalem; and when urged

by his impatient officers, he told them that it was better to
let the Jews destroy one another. In fact, he knew well how
destructively the factions were raging against each other in
Jerusalem. There were three of these factions, afterward re-
duced to two, holding possession of different parts of the city,
They wasted their strength in cruel conflicts with each other ;
in which they even destroyed the storehouses of corn and
provisions which formed the only resource against famine in
the threatened siege. In one thing, however, they all agreed,
—in harassing, plundering, and destroying the citizens and
nobles who did not enter into their views. In the meantime
Vespasian was declared emperor, and departed for Rome,
leaving the conduct of the war to his son Titus.

At the feast of the Passover, in the ensuing year, when the
city of Jerusalem was, as usual at that time, crowded. with
people from all quarters, the Roman army appeared before
the walls.

The city was very strong, being surrounded by three walls,
one within another; and then there was the temple, which
itself was an exceedingly strong fortress. All these defences
were successively carried by the Romans, although every

4)


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS

step was desperately contested by the besieged, who for fifteen

weeks prevented their enemies from reaching the temple.
During that time, the most horrible famine was experienced
within the city.

The lower city was taken by the Romans early in the
month of May; but the temple did not fall until the beginning
of August. Titus was most anxious to save this glorious
fabric, as one of the noblest ornaments of the Roman empire.
But the Jewish historian observes, that the “ holy and beauti-
ful house” was doomed to destruction; and he attributes to
‘a, divine impulse” the act of the soldier who seized a burn-
ing brand, and cast itin at the golden window, whercby the
whole fabric was soon in flames. Titus hastened to the spot,
and finding all attempt to save the building hopeless, he,
with some of his officers, entered the sanctuary, and directed
the removal of the sacred utensils of gold, some of which
afterward graced his triumphal procession, and were sculp-
tured upon the arch which commemorated his victory.

The upper city, into which the besieged had retreated,
soon after fell; and this completed the conquest of Jerusalem.
In all these operations the carnage was horrible, for with the
Romans the time for mercy was past; and, in their exaspera-
tion at the useless obstinacy of the defence, they burnt and

destroyed without remorse, and massacred the people without
42


TRAITORS, AND

SPIES,













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43

SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

distinction of age or sex. Streams of blood ran through all
the streets, and the alleys were filled with bodies weltering in
gore. The number that perished during the four months of
the siege, is computed at one million one hundred thousand,
a number which would seem ineredible if we did not recol-
lect that a nation was, as it were, shut up in that city, having
assembled to celebrate the Passover; so that, as Josephus
observes, this exceeded all the destructions that had hitherto
been brought upon the world. Besides, more than an equal
number perished elsewhere in the six years of war; and
ninety-seven thousand were made prisoners and sold into
slavery. Of these, thousands were sent to toil in the Egyptian
mines, and thousands more were sent into different provinces
as presents, to be consumed by the sword, and by wild beasts
in the amphitheatres. They were offered for sale “ till no man
would buy them,” and then they were slain, or given away.
Thus did Israel cease to be a nation, and become outcast
and desolate; thus were their famous city and its glorious
temple utterly cast down; and the doom was inflicted which

was impiously invoked, when the inhabitants of Jerusalem

cried out, ‘“ His blood be on us and on our children.”
Christianity, which spread over the Roman and Greek

countries, became with the lapse of time less spiritual, and

more devoted to attractive ceremonies, and increase of tem-
45


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

a ee EIT I NLT
poral power. One branch of the Church was called Greek,
and the other Latin or Roman Catholic. They were similar

in spirit and worship. Their names will often occur in the

annals which follow.

A little more than three centuries after the gospel era
dawned, when the Persian army invaded Syria, and then
Palestine, there was civil war between the Christian popula-
tion and the Jews, whose mutual dislike had become intense.
Twenty-four thousand Hebrews joined the Persians, and
within the walls of Jerusalem, the massacre of these people
was awful. At length the city (which had been under Chris-
tian rule since Constantine the Great, who had embraced
Christianity, conquered Palestine), was stormed; and the Jews
had an unlimited opportunity for revenge. The Christians
neither sought nor found merey; and ninety thousand of
them perished. Many were sold into slavery, aud others
were bought on purpose to be murdered.

It is wonderful and sad to see what a prize for rival
kings, and what an arena of treachery, revolt, and tragedies,
Jerusalem became after their rejection and execution of their
appointed King.

The followers of Mohammed, extending their doctrines and
their dominion by fire and sword, rapidly subdued Arabia,
Syria, and Egypt, when, about the year 637, the victorious

46


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
a a a ES TS
Omar turned his arms against Jerusalem. After a siege of

four months, during which the Arabs suffered extremely
from the inclemency of the winter, a capitulation was pro-

posed and agreed to, when the conqueror entered the city,

seated on a red camel, which carried a bag of corn and dates,
and without guards, or any other precaution. Omar was
assassinated in Jerusalem in the year 643, after which the
East was for two hundred years distracted by the bloody
wars that ensued among the Ommiades, the Abbassides, and
the Fatimite caliphs; and Palestine having become an object
of contest between them, was, for a like period, a scene of
devastation and trouble. In the year 868, the capital was
conquered by Achmet, a Turk; but was again recovered by.
the caliphs of Bagdad, in the year 906. It was reduced by
Mohammed Ikschid, of the Turkish race. Toward the end
of the tenth century, the holy city was taken possession of
by Ortok; and in 1076, by Meleschah a Turk. It was re-
taken by the Ortokides, and finally by the Fatimites, who
held possession of it when the Crusaders made their first
appearance in the holy land. ,

Jerusalem, though it was in possession of infidel chiefs,
was still revered as a holy city by both Christian and Jew,
and was visited by pilgrims from every quarter; among
others by Peter the hermit, a native of Amiens. The pa-

47


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
LL I I TEE IT

thetic tale which he brought to Europe, of the injuries and
insults which the Christian pilgrims suffered from the infidels,
who possessed and profaned the holy city, excited the deepest
sympathy among the people and princes of Christendom.
Councils were summoned, and were attended by bishops, a
numerous train of priests and citizens.

The mixed multitude were harangued by the zealous advo-
cates of this sacred cause; their pity and indignation were
alternately roused by the sufferings of their brethren in the
Holy Land ; the flame of enthusiasm was spread by sympathy
and example; and the eager champions of the cross, the flower
of the European chivalry, assembled in martial array, to
march against the enemies of their common faith. To defray
the necessary expenses of the expedition, princes gave up
their provinces, nobles their lands and castles, peasants their
cattle and instruments of husbandry; and vast armies were
transported to Palestine, in order to accomplish the deliver-
ance of the holy sepulchre. These rude and undisciplined
bands died in great numbers on reaching the shore of Asia,
from disease, famine, and fatigue; and, of the first Crusaders,
it is estimated, that three hundred thousand had perished
before a single city was rescued from the infidels. Having
taken the towns of Nice and Antioch in the year 1098, they

about a year after, laid siege to Jerusalem, and carried it by


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS. |





HIS BLOOD BE ON AND ON OUR CHILDREN.

4 49
SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

SS Ee ea TR ET

assault, with a prodigious slaughter of the garrison and
inhabitants, which was continued for three days, without
respect either to age or sex.

Eight days after the capture of Jerusalem, the Latin chiefs
proceeded to the clection of a king, who should preside over
their conquest in Palestine, and Godfrey of Bouillon was
unanimously raised to this high office. But if it was an
honorable office, it was also one of danger; he was not chosen
to sway a peaceful sceptre, and he was summoned to the field
in the first fortnight of his reign, to defend his capital against
the sultan of Egypt, who approached with a powerful army.
The signal overthrow of the latter in the battle of Ascalon
confirmed the stability of the Latin throne, and enabled God-
frey to extend on every side his infant kingdom, which con-
sisted only of Jerusalem and Jaffa, with about twenty villages
and towns of the adjacent districts.

The military force of the first Crusaders, wasted by fatigue
and by losses in the field, was no longer able to oppose the
hosts of Turks and Saracens by which it was surrounded.
The first victories of the Crusaders, and their rapid success,
spread abroad the terror of their arms. But the alarm soon
subsided, and the chiefs of the Mohammedan faith rallied

their forces, and attacked the European posts scattered over
the country, and made conquests.
51


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
a
The crusaders were finally defeated, and the infidels, as the

Mohammedans were termed, became bolder and more threaten-
ing. The ruling family in Jerusalem and the nobility were
however its worst cnemies. Through their rivalrics, and the
treachery of Count Raymond, correspondence was opened with
Sultan Saladin, a splendid chieftain, who invaded Palestine
with an army of cighty thousand men. The king of Jerusa-
lem went out to battle and was beaten, losing thirty thou-
sand of his troops.

The city was in no condition to sustain a protracted siege.
It was crowded with fugitives from every quarter, who here
sought an asylum from the destroying sword: a disorderly
throng of one hundred thousand persons was confined within
the walls, but there were few soldiers. The queen was
alarmed for the fate of her captive husband, and her govern-
ment was feeble and indecisive. A defence was maintained
for fourteen days, during which the besiegers had effected a
breach in the wall, and only waited the sultan’s orders for the
assault. This last extremity was averted by a capitulation.

The sultan made his triumphant entry into the city with

waving banners and martial music; the Christian church was
converted into a mosque, and the glittering cross was taken
down and dragged through the streets, amid the shouts of the
Moslems. The whole country now submitted to the sultan,

52


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
a a i a ES NEI ET aE AOE,
whose victorious progress was first arrested by the resistance

of Tyre, which was gallantly defended by Conrad. The sul-
tan, being foiled in all his attempts to take this place, was
finally compelled to raise the siege, and to retreat to Damas-
cus.

The capture of Jerusalem by the infidels, and the decline
of the Christian cause in Palestine, excited the deepest sorrow ;
the decaying zeal of the Huropean powers was awakencd, and
new expeditions were fitted out for the recovery of the holy
city. Philip, king of France, the emperor, Frederic Barba-
rossa, of Germany, and Richard I. of England, surnamed
Coeur-de-Lion, assembled a large force, and, with the aid of
Flanders, Frise, and Denmark, filled about two hundred
vessels with their troops. The first armaments landed at
Tyre, the only remaining inlet of the Christians into the Holy
Land, and no time was lost in commencing the celebrated
siege of Acre, which was maintained with an enthusiasm that
mocked at danger, and by feats of valor that were the theme
of wonder, even in that romantic age. This memorable

siege lasted for nearly two years, and was attended with a
prodigious loss of men on both sides. At length, in the spring
of the second year, the royal fleets of France and England
cast, anchor in the bay, with powerful reinforcements, and

the brave defenders of Acre were reduced to capitulate.
53


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

The capture of Acre was the prelude to further operations
against the enemy. Richard determined to commence the
siege of Ascalon, about a hundred miles distant, and his
march to this place was a continual battle of eleven days.
He was opposed by Saladin with an army of three hundred
thousand combatants; and on this occasion was fought one
of the most memorable battles of this or any other age.
Saladin was defeated with the loss of forty thousand men,
and the victorious Richard obtained possession of Ascalon,
and the other towns of Judea. A severe winter interrupted
the operations of the field. But Richard, issuing from his
winter quarters with the first gleam of spring, advanced with
his army within sight of Jerusalem, the great object of his
enterprise. Saladin had chosen Jerusalem for his head-quar-
ters, where the sudden appearance of the Christian conqueror

spread universal consternation. The holy city was relieved

by the hasty retreat of the English king, discouraged by the
difficulties of the enterprise and the murmurs of his troops.
In the meantime, the town of Jaffa was assaulted by Saladin
with a formidable force, and was on the point of surrendering,
when Richard, hastening to its relief, encountered the be-
sieging army of Saracens and Turks, amounting to sixty
thousand men, who yielded to the force of his attack. The
miseries of a protracted war began to be felt, and the ambition
54


AND ASSASSINS.

TRAITORS,

SPIES,











































































































































































































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HR APREN i Coc eS
THE POOL OF SILOAM.

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Nijuu
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AN



55
SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
a a a a a a TD)

of Richard was checked by the discontent of his troops.
At last both Saladin and Richard were equally desirous of
ending an unpopular and ruinous contest. The first demands
of Richard, were, the restoration of Jerusalem, Palestine,
and the true cross. These terms were rejected by the sultan,
who would not part with the sovereignty of Palestine, or
listen to any proposition for dismembering his dominions.

The fourth Crusade was encouraged by the zeal of Pope
Celestine III, and was directed against the Greek empire,
which was too feeble to resist so formidable an attack. The
result was its conquest by the Latins, who ruled over it fifty-
seven years.

The sovereign of the Latin kingdom at this time was Mary,
the daughter of Isabella by Conrad of Tyre. To strengthen
the government of Jerusalem, it was resolved to request the
king of France, a gallant warrior, to provide a husband for
Mary. John de Brienne was chosen; and the Christian
chiefs were so elated, they broke the truce between them and

the sultan, and appealed to the arbitration of the sword. The

king of Jerusalem displayed all the great qualities of a
statesman anda soldier; but he foresaw its gradual decline
and final ruin approaching, reduced as it was, to two or
three towns, and would have been entirely destroyed had it
not been for the civil wars among its enemies.

57


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

A new Crusade was commenced, and a large force, chiefly

Hungarians and Germans, landed at Acre. The sons of
Saladin, who now ruled in Syria, collected their armies
to oppose this formidable attack. But the Crusaders, rashly
conducted, and weakened by divisions, advanced into the
country, without concert or prudence; provisions failed them ;
they were wasted, as usual, by famine and disease; and at
length their leader, the sovereign of Hungary, resolved to
quit a country where he had been exposed to hardship and
danger, without glory. The crusading armies, thus weakened
and discouraged, had laid aside all further idea of war, when,
in the spring of the following year, a fleet of three hundred
vessels, from the Rhine, appeared on the coast, and brought
powerful reinforcements, which recruited their strength and
restored their ascendancy in the field. For reasons which do
not clearly appear, they now retired from Palestine, and car-
ried the war into Egypt, and spread such consternation among
the infidels, that the most favorable terms of peace were
offered, and rejected by the Crusaders. Soon after, they were
reduced to the necessity of bargaining for permission to retire
to Palestine, by the cession of all their conquests in Egypt.
The next Crusade was undertaken by Frederic II, the
grandson of Barbarossa, according to a vow which had been

long made, and the performance of which had been so long
38


é
SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

delayed that he was excommunicated by Gregory IX. He

set sail with a fleet of two hundred ships and an army of
forty thousand men, and arrived at Acre. This was the most
successful and the most bloodless expedition that had yet been
undertaken. Without a battle Frederic entered Jerusalem in
triumph. The Saracen power was at this time weakened by'
divisions, and, owing to suspected treachery among his kin-

dred, Kamel, the son of Saladin, held precarious possession of

the throne. It was his policy, therefore, rather to disarm the

hostility of these powerful armies by treating with them, than

to encounter them in the field; and, accordingly, a treaty was

concluded, by which Jerusalem, Jaffa, Bethlehem, Nazareth,

and their dependencies, were restored to the Christians; reli-

gious toleration was established, and the contending parties
of Christians and Mohammedans were allowed each to offer
up their devotions, the first in the mosque El-Aksa, and the
last in the mosque of Omar. Both these mosques stand on
Mount Moriah; the Christians believed that the mosque of

El-Aksa (which was originally a Christian Church), and the
Moslems that the mosque of Omar, occupied the precise site
of Solomon’s Temple.

Each new disaster of the Christian arms served to rekindle
the languishing zeal of the Europeans; and Louis IX., of
France, fitted out an immense armament for the Holy Land,

59


-”

SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

consisting of eighteen hundred sail, in which he embarked
an army of fifty thousand men. He landed in Egypt, and,
after storming the town of Damietta, advanced along the
sea-coast toward Cairo, when his troops were so wasted by
sickness and famine, that they fell an easy prey to the enemy.
The king, the most of his nobles, and the remnant of his
army, were made prisoners ; and it was owing to the clemency
of the sultan Moadhdham, who accepted a ransom for their
lives, that Louis, with his few surviving followers, was per-

itted to embark for Palestine.

The power of the Christians in Palestine, weakened, among
other causes, by internal dissensions, was now vigorously
assailed by the sultan Bibars, the Mamlouk sovereign of

Egypt. He invaded Palestine with a formidable army, ad-

vanced to the gates of Acre, and, reducing the towns of Sep-
phoris and Azotus, massacred or carried into captivity num-
bers of Christians. Antioch yielded to his powerful assault,
when forty thousand of the inhabitants were put to the
sword, and one hundred thousand carried into captivity. The
report of these cruelties in Europe gave rise to the ninth and
last Crusade against the infidels, which was undertaken by
Louis, the French king, sixteen years after his return from
captivity. In place of directing his arms immediately against
Palestine, he landed in Africa, and laid siege to Carthage,
69 7


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

which he reduced. But he perished miserably on the burn-
ing sands of Africa, of a pestilential disease, which proved
fatal also to many of his troops; and thus ingloriously ter-
minated this expedition, which was the last undertaken by

the Huropeans for the recayery of the Holy Land.

The Europeans in Palestine were now confined within the
walls of Acre, their last stronghold, which was besieged by a
Mamlouk host of two hundred thousand troops, that issued
from Egypt, and encamped on the adjacent plain. In this
their last conflict with the infidels of the Holy Land, the
Europeans fully maintained the glory of their high name.
They displayed all the devotion of martyrs in a holy cause,
and performed prodigies of valor. But, equalled as they
were in discipline, and fearfully overmatched in numbers,
by their enemies, they were overborne by the weight and
violence of their attacks, and in the storm and sack of the
city, all either perished or were carried into captivity. Thus
vanished forever all those visions of glory and conquest by
which so many adventurers were seduced from Europe to the
Holy Land, there to perish under the complicated perils of
disease and the sword.

In this condition Palestine remained without any remarka-
ble event in its history, except that for nearly three centuries

it was the scene of domestic broils, insurrections and massa-
61


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
De
cres, until the memorable invasion of Egypt by the French

army. Bonaparte marched across the desert which di-
vides Egypt from Palestine, and invaded the country at
the head of ten thousand troops. El Arish surrendered,
and the lives of the garrison were spared on condition
that they should not serve against him during the war.
Gaza also yielded without opposition: and Jaffa, stormed
after a brave resistance, was given up to pillage. The
French army then proceeded to form the siege of Acre;
and this fortress, the last scene of conflict between the Chris-
tians and infidels of former days, became a modern field of
battle, in which were exhibited prodigies of valor that
rivalled the most renowned deeds of those chivalric times.
The trenches were opened on the tenth of March; in ten days
a breach was effected, and a desperate assault took place. At
first the defenders were forced to give way; but Djezzar
Pasha, who had shut himself within the walls, and who was
aided by Sir Sidney Smith with a body of British sailors,
rushed forward among the thickest of the combatants, and,
animating the troops by his example, drove back the enemy
with heavy loss. Bonaparte still persevered in a series of
furious assaults against the fortress, which were all most

gallantly repelled; and after a protracted siege of sixty days,

a last assault was ordered, which being equally unsuccessful
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SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

with all former attempts, and attended with the loss of some
of his bravest warriors, dictated the necessity of an immedi-
ate retreat.

Of late years a new power has arisen in the Hast, namely,
that of Mehemet Ali, pasha of Egypt, who, having collected
large treasures and a well-disciplined army, openly renounced
his allegiance to the Grand Signior. A war took place, in
which the hasty levies of Turkey were broken and put to
flight by the veteran troops of Egypt; and a series of brilliant
successes added Syria, with Palestine, to the pasha’s dominion.
The conscription, or forcible impressment of young men for
the army, and the disarming of the population, created gencral
discontent, and led to revolts, which encouraged the Porte in
the design which it had always entertained, of reducing the
pasha and recovering the ceded provinces. The Turks were
completely routed by the Egyptians in the battle of Nezib;
and the great powers af Europe then deemed it right to inter-
fere, to prevent Ibraham from pursuing his victory, and to
crush the ambitious designs of his father. This was accom-
plished chiefly through the brilliant operations of an English
flect, under Admiral Stopford and Commodore Napier, by
which Acre and other strongholds on the coast were taken
for the sultan; and the pasha was at length compelled to

evacuate Syria and restore it to the dominion of the Porte.
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SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
Rs ee css r ee eee renee ene

The Empress Helena, mother of Constantine the Great,
built the church of the sepulchre on Mount Calvary, with its
walls of stone and roof of cedar, in which four costly lamps
are kept burning. The offerings of the many pilgrims who
visit it, defray the expense of repairing the sacred place,
whenever this work is needed.

The mosque, you will recollect, was once a Jewish Temple.
The Emperor Julian, who apostatized from Christianity—
the royal traitor to the cause dear to his best subjects—
attempted an act of high treason against God rarely equalled.
Ife determined to prove the Messiah's prediction that the
Temple should not be again rebuilt, by commencing the

work upon a new edifice. But the workmen and the rising
structure were destroyed by an earthquake. When in the

year 1824, report came to this country that another earth-
quake had occurred in Jerusalem, shaking down the mosque
of Omar, and rending the Iloly Sepulchre, the American
poet, Brainard, wrote a beautiful poem upon rebellious,
treacherous, bloody, and fallen Jerusalem; an impressive
requiem over the wonderful “ City of the Great King.”

64






1, KILLING SISERA,






SEFULCHRE OF THE SONS OF PAVID:
THE BIBLE AND THE HOLY LAND.
A IE

SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.



ROYAL ASSASSINS.

By royal assassins, we mean those whose treachery and
deadly blows were aimed at princes, and other leading men
in the affairs of State, or who were themselves of princely
position.

The history of Treason, Conspiracy, and Assassination,
would be a record of awful interests,—a revelation of singu-
lar contrasts in motive, while the tragical end sought was
the same. The desperate determination to secure, at least
avenge trampled rights; religious fanaticism; and revengeful
passion ; these have been the most frequent causes of a, resort
to treasonable plots and regicide, with its kindred homicides
and attempted murder of representative men in a State.

When the crimes suggested by the title above, are men-
tioned, the mind naturally goes back to the “first mur-
derer,” who combined in his character the darkest traits of
an assassin. Cain betrayed a brother’s confidence, was false

3 69









SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS. :
to God, and slew the unsuspecting worshipper by his side.
Beginning at that scene of bloodshed, in addition to the
general history of revolt, and the characters and scenes of
civil and religious hostility, we will sketch the career, so far
as known, of some of the leading traitors, conspirators and
assassins of the past. The earliest instance of regicide in the
sacred annals, is that of Ehud the left-handed Benjaminite.
To avenge the tyranny of Eglon the king of Moab, the inva-
der of his country, he made a two-edged dagger, over a foot
and a half in length, and, hiding it under his robe, took in
his hand a present to the king. Feigning important intelli-
gence, the ruler ordered the attendants to retire from his
“summer parlor” where he was sitting. Eglon rose to re-
ceive the messenger, when Ehud, with his left hand, drew
the dagger from his right side, and thrust it into the king’s
body over the hilt. The assassin was unable to draw out
the weapon of death. The results of the daring deed, and
the story of another assassination which occurred soon after
Ehud’s career closed, are clearly and finely narrated by the
inspired historian: Then Ehud went forth through the
porch, and shut the doors of the parlor upon him, and locked
them. When he was gone out, his servants came; and when
they saw that, behold, the doors of the parlor were locked,
they said, surely he covereth his feet in his summer chamber.



SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

a SE a
And they tarried till they were ashamed; and, behold, he
opened not the doors of the parlor; therefore they took a

key, and opened them: and, behold, their lord was fallen
down dead on the earth. And Ehud escaped while they
tarried, and passed beyond the quarries, and escaped unto

Seirath. And it came to pass, when he was come, that he
blew a trumpet in the mountain of Ephraim, and the children
of Israel went down with him from the mount, and he before
them. And he said unto them, Follow after me: for the
Lord hath delivered your enemies the Moabites into your
hand. And they went down after him, and took the fords of
Jordan toward Moab, and suffered not a man to pass over.
And they slew of Moab at that time about ten thousand men,
all lusty, and all men of valor; and there escaped not a man.
So Moab was subdued that day under the hand of Israel.
And the children of Israel again did evil in the sight of the
Lord, when Ehud was dead. And the Lord sold them into
the hand of Jabin king of Canaan, that reigned in Hazor;
the captain of whose host was Sisera who dwelt in Harosh-
eth of the Gentiles. And the children of Israel cried unto
the Lord: for he had nine hundred chariots of iron; and
twenty years he mightily oppressed the children of Israel.
And Deborah, a prophetess, the wife of Lapidoth, she judged
Israel at that time. And she dwelt under the palm tree of
67


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

Deborah between Ramah and Bethel in mount Ephraim:
and the children of Israel came up to her for judgment.
And she sent and called Barak the son Abinoam out of Ke-
desh-naphtali, and said unto him, Hath not the Lord God
of Israel commanded, saying, go, and draw toward mount
Tabor, and take with thee ten thousand men of the children
of Naphtali, and of the children of Zebulun? And I will
draw unto thee, to the river Kishon, Sisera, the captain of
Jabin’s army, with his chariots and his multitude; and I will
deliver him into thine hand. And Barak said unto her, If
thou wilt go with me, then I will go: but.if thou wilt not go
with me, then I will not go. And she said, I will surely go
with thee: notwithstanding the journey that thou takest shall
not be for thine honor; for the Lord shall sell Sisera into the
hand of a woman. And Deborah arose, and went with
Barak to Kedesh.

And Sisera gathered together all his chariots, even nine
hundred chariots of iron, and all the people that were with
him, from Harosheth of the Gentiles unto the river of Kishon.
And Deborah said unto Barak, Up; for this is the day in
which the Lord hath delivered Sisera into thine hand: is not
the Lord gone out before thee? So Barak went down from
mount Tabor, and ten thousand men after him. And the

Lord discomfited Sisera, and all his chariots, and all his host,
68


a
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AND ASSASSIN

TRAITORS,

SPIKS,





























































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69
SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
eee eee Ee ee TT TE
with the edge of the sword before Barak; so that Sisera

lighted down off his chariot, and fled away on his feet. But
Barak: pursued after the chariots, and after the host, unto
Harosheth of the Gentiles: and all the host of Sisera fell
upon the edge of the sword; and there was not a man left.
Howbeit, Sisera fled away on his feet to the tent of Jael the
wife of Heber the Kenite; for there was peace between Jabin
the king of Hazor and the house of Heber the Kenite. And
Jael went out to meet Sisera, and said unto him, Turn in, my
lord, turn in to me; fear not. And when he had turned
in unto her into the tent, she covered him with a mantle.
And he said unto her, Stand in the door of the tent, and it
shall be, when any man doth come and inquire of thee,
and say, Is there any man here? that thou shalt say, No.
Then Jael, Heber’s wife, took a nail of the tent, and took
a hammer in her hand, and went softly unto him, and smote
the nail into his temples, and fastened it into the ground, for
he was fast asleep and weary. So he died. And behold, as
Barak pursued Sisera, Jael came out to mect him, and said
unto him, Come, and I will show thee the man whom thou
seekest. And when he came into her tent, behold, Sisera

lay dead, and the nail was in his temples.

Then sang Deborah and Barak, the son of Abinoam, on
that day, saying: Praise ye the Lord for the avenging of
“1


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
a ea ST a RT eT
Israel, when the people willingly offered themselves. Tear,

O ye kings; give ear, O ye princes; I, even J, will sing unto
the Lord; I will sing praise to the Lord God of Israel. Lord,
when thou wentest out of Seir, when thou marchedst out of
the field of Mdom, the earth trembled, and the heavens
dropped, the clouds also dropped water. The mountains
melted before the Lord, even that Sinai from before the Lord
God of Israel. The stars in their courses fought against Sisera.
The river of Kishon swept them away, that ancient river, the
river Kishon. O my soul, thou hast trodden down strength.
Then were the horse-hoofs broken by the means of the
prancings, the prancings of their mighty ones. Curse ye
Meroz, said the angel of the Lord, curse ye bitterly the in-
habitants thereof; because they came not to the help of the
Lord, to the help of the Lord against the mighty. Blessed
above women shall Jael the wife of Heber the Kenite be;
blessed shall she be above women in the tcht.

The mother of Sisera looked out at a window, and cried,
through the lattice, Why is his chariot so long in coming?
Why tarry the wheels of his chariot? So let all thine
enemies perish, O Lord: but let them that love him be as
the sun when he goeth forth in his might.

Not long after, when Gideon, who had delivered his people

from the Midianites, died, his son Abimelech craftily and by
72


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
a TS

bribery induced the people to proclaim him king. This
ambitious usurper was the first kingly assassin on record who
resorted to the murder of his own father’s family to estab-
lish his reign. Seventy of his brethren were slain “on one
stone,” at Ophrah, the native city of the family. Whether
they were dashed from an eminence upon a rock, or sacri-
ficed on an altar of stone we do not know. The youngest
brother, Jotham, alone escaped, and afterward raised a revolt
against Abimelech, that resulted in his death. A woman
fatally wounded him by dropping a stone upon his head from
a citadel, when, in accordance with his command, his armor-
bearer stabbed him ; because he proudly disdained to have it
said, a woman killed him. The fratricidal deed of Abime-
lech has been no very uncommon thing in Asia, and even in
Kurope, since his day. Some families, like that of the
Borgias, have become famous for their assassinations—leav-
ing a sanguinary record of lawless ambition and extraor-

dinary refinements in the work of mysterious murder.

The next royal assassin was Jehu, the tenth king of Israel,
and the founder of its fourth dynasty. Before he took the
throne, he was an officer in the army at Ramoth Gilead.
The troops were there to hold in check the Assyrian forces
that were advancing toward the river Jordan, and had taken
much of the territory east of the river.

73


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
aan a TE TE IEE,

Ahaziah, king of Judah, had aided Joram, the ruler of |
Israel, in waging this war. Joram, having been wounded,
repaired to Jezreel to be healed, and his friend Ahaziah went
there to sympathize with him, and discuss the crisis in the
contest. A council was held by the commanders, during
which, there suddenly appeared before the tent door one of
the disciples of the prophets, who was known by his dress,
and called for Jehu. He had been sent by Elisha to deliver
a message which had been sent to Elijah many years before.
The young man took a horn of oil, and pouring the contents
upon his head anointed him king, declaring this to be the
will of God. Jehu was not a man to lose any advantage
through remissness. Je immediately entered his chariot, in
order that his presence at Jezreel should be the first an-
nouncement which Joram would receive of this revolution.

As soon as the advance of Jehu and his party was seen in
the distance by the watchmen upon the palace tower in
Jezreel, two messengers were successively sent forth to meet
him, and were commanded by Jehu to follow in his rear.
But when the watchman reported that he could now recog-

nize the furious driving of Jehu, Joram went forth himsclf to

meet him, and was accompanied by the king of Judah. They
met in the field of Naboth, so fatal to the house of Ahab.

The king saluted him with “Ts it peace, Jehu?” and re-
74








‘SNISSVSSV GNV ‘SHOLIVUL ‘Salas



F BLOOD.

EO

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SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
TT EE AAT a OT LAA IES IE
ceived the answer, “ What peace, so long as the idolatric:

of thy mother Jezebel, and her witchcrafts are so many

This completely opencd the eyes of Joram, who exelaimed to
the king of Judah, “ There is treachery, O Ahaziah!” and
turned to flee. But Jehu felt no infirmity of purpose,
knew that the slightest wavering might be fatal to him. Il.,
therefore, drew a bow with his full strength, and sent forth
an arrow which passed through the king’s heart. Jehu caused
the body to be thrown back into the field of Naboth, out of
which he had passed in his attempt at flight, and grimly re-
marked to Bidkar, his captain, “ Remember, how that, when
I and thou rode together after Ahab his father, the Lord laid
this burden upon him. The king of Judah contrived t:
escape, but not without a wound, of which he afterward died
at Megiddo.

There were several cases of assassination in Israel, under
the kings; among which, were the death of Abner by Joab,
both gallant military officers, Ish-bosheth, Jonathan's son,
and Amnon, David’s son. But we shall pass on to the
murder of a king recorded in the Bible, although he was not
an. Israelite.

Benhadad, the king of Syria, was dangerously sick. Some
told him ‘about Elisha, who was then a famous prophet,

and travelling toward his royal city. The invalid immedi-

me
ae


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

ee TT IP ee TTT EE POT ETT
ately commissioned Iazael, whose name means vision of God,

one of his officers, to meet the Seer at Damascus. He was
followed by forty camels, bearing presents from the king.
When Iazael appeared before the prophet, he said, Thy son
Benhadad, king of Syria, hath sent me to thee, saying, Shall
T recover of this disease? The answer was that he might
certainly recover. “ Howbeit,” added the prophef“ the Lord
hath showed me that he shall surely die.” He then gazed
earnestly at Hazael until he was ashamed. Elisha then
wept, when Ilazael inquired the cause of this deep emotion.
Because thou wilt do great evil to the children of Israel.
IIazael exclaimed, Is thy servant a dog that he should do
this thing? The prophet then revealed the events at hand,
when Ilazael returned, and repeated to the king only a part
of the message he had received from the man of God. The
next day, according to the prediction, this cool and calcula-
ting assassin took a thick cloth, and, having dipped it in
water, spread it over the face of the king, who, in his feeble-
ness, and probably in his sleep, was smothered by its weight,
and died, what seemed to his people, a natural death.

The cunning and deliberate regicide had brooded over the
plot; and betrayed his treachery, when he blushed and
became restless under the searching glance of Elisha. For
all criminals are more troubled and sensitive before they

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SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

have committed the contemplated deed; the first guilty act
hardens the heart, blunts the edge of conscience, and em-
boldens the transgressor in sin.

After the death of Jehu, there was a succession of con-

spiracies and assassinations in Israel and Judah—a series of
|

tragedies which make a dark and strange chapter in sacred
history.

Joash, the son of Ahaziah, who was hidden for six years
from Athaliah, when she attempted to slay all the rightful
heirs to the throne, was the eighth king of Judah. While
Jehoiada the high priest lived, whose wife had saved the life
of the prince, he was an excellent sovereign. But after the
good man was gone, he yielded to the influence of undevout
counsellors, and Pagan idolatries were allowed to take the
place of Jehovah’s worship.

The prophets sounded over his throne the messages of
warning from an insulted God; but he heeded not the voice
of alarm. He put to death Zachariah, son and successor to
Jehoiada, because he reproved him, and seemed determined
to fulfil the heathen proverb: “ Whom the gods would
destroy, they first make mad.” He became desperate in
wickedness; and Hazael was permitted to ravage his domin-
ions. Not only so, but like the more modern Herod, his ex-

istence was made a burden by a fearful disease. He gave up
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SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS

the sacred treasures of the temple to prevent the invasion of
Jerusalem by Assyrians.

The servants of Joash conspired against him, according to
tradition, to avenge the death of Zachariah, and slew him in
his bed of suffering. Whether they cut short his wretched
life by the dagger, or more by cruel blows, we-do not know.
He was not buried in the sepulchre of the kings, in the
“city of David.” His place of interment is not recorded ; it
is only stated that he was buried in Jerusalem.

Amaziah, a word which, in the Hebrew, means the strength
of Jehovah, was twenty-five years old when he ascended the
throne of Judah.

The first act of his reign, was a wholesale murder of thosc
who had conspired against his father. Then he invaded
Edom, to reduce it again to the sovereignty of Judah, from
which, under Jehoram, it had revolted. To succeed against the
formidable sons of Ishmael, for the first time in the history
of the Hebrews, he hired an army to help him. He gave one
hundred thousand talents of silver, which were equal to more
than a billion of dollars, for a hundred thousand men from the

army of Israel. But God revealed his displeasure against

such a resort to a degenerate people, and Amaziah was com-
pelled to send them back, and lose his talents.
The king gained a great victory over the Edomites, which
80


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.







{
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f



THE WIDOW OF NAIN,

6 81

| a ne re 8 AEN SR AE SESS

SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
a a eer AS SVR OS EL TEE
after all, proved his ruin; for having taken some of their

idols among the spoil, he tried the experiment of worshiping

them, Elated by his successes, and faithless to Jehovah, he
attempted the invasion of Israel. Joash, the king, defeated
him, and after carrying him prisoner to Jerusalem, gave him
his throne again.

The disaster Amaziah had brought upon Judah, created a
conspiracy against him. When he heard of it, he fled to the
strong fortress of Lachish. The conspirators pursued the
fugitive, and somehow took him; and having assassinated
him, they laid his dead body upon a horse’s back, and by this
mode of conveyance bore it to Jerusalem for burial; when
his son Azariah succeeded him to the throne.

Zachariah, the fourteenth king of Israel, took the sceptre
seven hundred and seventy-two years before Christ, which
he held only six months. He was a wicked ruler; and a
conspiracy to assassinate him was formed by “Shallum the
son of Jabesh.” This regicide was a resolute and fearless
assassin; he fell upon the king before the people, and killed
him. Shallum became monarch of Israel for the brief
period of a month. Another conspirator entered the arena
of royal ambition. Menahem, one of the generals of the
army, heard of Shallum’s usurpation at Tirzah, and hastened
to Samaria. This chieftain had decided to play the same

83


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
a a

game of princely honors, and made quick work with
Shallum’s sovereignty. Without any hesitation or delay,
he slew Shallum, and reigned two years. Tiphsah refused
to acknowledge; after a siege he took the place, and cruelly
slaughtered the inhabitants.

Pekahiah, the son of Menahem, succeeded him; a wicked
and unpopular ruler. Pekah, whose father’s name was Rema-
liah, a captain of horse, conspired against him. The assassin
went down to Samaria, where was the royal residence; and
gaining admission to the palace, he rushed upon him, and
slew him with his sword. Tle then put the crown upon
his own brow, and wore it for twenty years. The reign
of Pekah, an irreligious and wicked sovereign, was distin-
guished by a successful invasion of the Assyrian monarch,
and against him Iloshea raised a conspiracy. When he
thought the moment to strike down the monarch had come,

he boldly drew his weapon and slew him. The people ap-

proved the deed by permitting him to take the throne and
sway the sceptre over them nine years.

Then Hoshea entered into a conspiracy with So, king of
Egypt, to assist him throwing off the Assyrian rule.
Shalmaneser. the king of Assyria, heard of the plot, and
was enraged. Marching army against Samaria, he be-
sieged. it.

B+


SPIES, TRATVORS, AND ASSASSINS.
————————— SS SSS a ET
The weeks, months and ycars wore away, and still that

vast.army lay around the stronghold of the royal conspirator,
the last king of Israel. Iis subjects had to endure all the
horrors attending such a confinement within the anaconda

coil of the Assyrian host. The king must have brooded

sadly over his expensive conspiracy, while beholding the

misery around him. The food disappeared, and there was
no gate open for access to the fruitful country beyond the
walls,

“ Lankjawed, meagre famine lapped at every
Door the oozing blood !”

At length, the resistance was so far weakened, that the
Assyrian conqueror determined to make an onset upon his
enemy—force his way into his capital. In this he was
successful; defeating his treacherous foe, and taking the
Israelites captive.

The monarchy of the Hebrews began in conspiracies and
attempted assassinations, and ended in a similar condition of
affairs ; leaving only the tribe of Judah, which had absorbed
Benjamin, to represent their nationality under Ilezekiah, who
reigned in Jerusalem. This sovereign’s life was spared, in
answer to his earnest prayer, after God had sent Isaiah to
tell him he must die; and the sign of the blessing was the
turning backward of the shadow on the sun-dial. He was

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SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
EE TY

succeeded by his son Manasseh, when he was only twelve
years old, a ruler whose preéminence was wickedness. The
streets of Jerusalem flowed with the blood of the victims of
this kingly murderer and assassin. Like the modern revolu-
tionary leaders in France, he seemed to enjoy the work of
slaughter; and upon the smallest pretext or charge, doomed
the object of his displeasure, or caprice, to death. The
Assyrians came against him, and defeated his forces.
Manassch fled, and concealed himself in a thorn-brake, where
he was found, laden with chains and carried to a Babylonian
prison. In his dungeon he had time for reflection, and
penitence before God. After his death, Amon, his son,
became the king of Judah; another lawless sovereign who
fell before the assassin’s weapon. The members of his
royal household conspired against him. Whether the
reason was cruclty to them, ora desire to rid the land of
the depraved prince, we are not told. The assassins took
advantage of an unguarded moment, and, in his private
apartments, slew him. The people were exasperated at the
deed, and, in turn, killed the conspirators, placing his son

Josiah upon the vacant throne.

Josiah was an excellent king, and after he was slain by
the Egyptians in battle, Zedekiah took the sceptre, to fall
a victim to the invading Nebucadnezzer. The conqueror


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

THE KEYS



OF THE KINGDOM OF IEAVEN.
SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
Ra a Ee)

commanded the slaughter of Zedekiah’s sons, and the putting

out of the father’s eyes. The captive king soon after died
in prison, the last sovereign of Judah.

When the general of the victorious host, Nebuzaradan, led
the Hebrews into captivity, he left behind the poor and the
deserters, and placed over them Gedaliah, the son of Ahikam,
one of the nobility. We was a just and gentle governor.
Among the fugitives who returned to Mizpeh, after the
Babylonian chieftain departed from Judah, was Ishmael, a
member of the royal family. Ambitious and unscrupulous,
he had entered into a conspiracy with Boalis, king of the
Ammonites, his protector during the siege, to assassinate
Gedaliah, and take the power from his hands.

The governor was told of the plot, but would not believe
it, and refused to let Ishmael be slain. The traitor visited
Gedaliah and ten men with him, apparently as loyal subjects.
They were entertained with great civility and honor, sitting
down to a rich and splendid feast.

The wine cup passed freely around, and when the governor
became stupefied and fell asleep, Ishmael and his associates
fell upon him, and soon his lifeless bloody form was lying on
the floor of the banqueting hall. The assassins did not stop
here; but going by night through the city, slew all the
Jews. And the next day, when eighty men came to Mizpeh

89 ‘


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
from the country, bringing presents for Gedaliah, Ishmael

invited them inte the governor’s apartment, pretending as if
he were there to receive them. Shutting the doors, he turned
upon the visitors, and slaughtered them, then threw their
bodies into a deep pit, to conceal the sanguinary deed.

There was a high-priest named John. Bagoses, a general
in the army of Artaxerxes, polluted the temple, and imposed
tributes upon the people, compelling them to pay, for every
lamb which was offered in the daily sacrifices, fifty shekels
of silver. This ambitious officer aspired to the sacred office
of the priesthood. To obtain this, he had entered into a
couspiracy with Jesus the brother of John. The question

was, how to get rid of the high-priest; for of all the ruling

men in the state, those who were the leaders in the religious
services of the people were the last the conspirators were
willing to touch.

At length Jesus picked a quarrel with John in the temple,
expecting to be supported by Bagoses, and succeed in
making the personal conflict the occasion of a change in the
priesthood. But the wrath of John broke over all restraints
imposed upon him by the sacredness of the place and his
office, and he slew his brother on the spot. We think it is the
first instance of the kind in the history of the Hebrews—or

perhaps of the world—an assassination by a priest of his
90


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

eee TE a
brother, before the altar. What a scene for the painter!

Upon the pavement of that holy sanctuary, and under the
very shadow of the altar, on which was smoking the sacrifice,
lay the high-priest’s brother in his blood. Beside the corpse
stood the :fratricide, like Cain, with that gore crying to God
against him. Josephus relates that the crime was so horrible,'
that the divine judgment, not long afterward, followed.

Bagoses heard of the tragedy, and hastened to the temple
and made it the pretext of bitter accusations against them.
“Have you had the impudence,” he exclaimed, “to perpe-
trate a murder in your temple?” Then he crossed the thres-
hold, the people tried to stop him; but he went forward,
saying to them: “Am not I purer than he that was slain in
the temple?” Seven years of oppression by the Persians
succeeded, and of the desecration of their hallowed temple.

While these scenes were transpiring among the Jews,
Philip, the King of Macedon and father of Alexander the
Great, was the victim of a conspiracy. Greece was, for many
years, one of the world’s grandest empires. Philip was a
splendid sovereign, but, like all of the monarchs of antiquity,
fired with an unholy, selfish ambition.

After making wars upon peaceful neighbors, a deeply-laid
plot was formed against him by a part of his subjects. In
the year three hundred and thirty-eight before Christ, he

91


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

managed artfully to extend his power, until he was about to
get the appointment of commander-in-chief of the army, pre-
paring to march against the Persians. But he knew not that
his enemies had secretly hired a young Macedonian, named
Pausanias, to close his proud career. While dreaming of the
highest honors, suddenly this youth fell upon him and in-
flicted the fatal wound.

Still later, Trypho, in Syria, formerly one of Alexander's
generals, wishing to kill Antiochus, and take possession of his
kingdom, was determined to assassinate Jonathan, then the
Jewish high-priest, because he was a friend of Antiochus,
the governor. Jonathan was a great commander as well as a
priest, having under him forty thousand men. Trypho pre-
tended to be friendly to him, and advised him to dismiss his
forces, excepting a guard of a thousand men, with whom he
might go to Ptolemais, where he should be put in posses-

sion of the city, and various fortresses, for all desired peace. 24

Jonathan believed the cunning prince, and sent away his
troops, excepting two thousand left in Galilee, and the escort
of a thousand troops. The deluded Jonathan went toward
Ptolemais with bright dreams of extending sovereignty.

At length, he entered with Trypho the city gates. No
sooner was he fairly in the streets, before the gates were shut.

And instead of new possessions and fresh honors, the assas-
92


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
aa a a aA TS OTD

sin’s willing servants in the town fell upon the high-priest’s
company, and slew them. When, not long after, Trypho
slew Jonathan, there was great mourning at Jerusalem and
among all the Jews; because a great and noble leader had
fallen—a grief similar to that which lately spread, over this

land on account of a similar event.

We pity the victims of treachery, but how true are the

words of the great poet, Shakespeare :

“Though those that are betrayed
Do feel the treason sharply, yet the traitor
Stands in worse care of woe.”

Simon, Jonathan’s brother, was made high-priest, and
became, by lis devotion to the liberties of the people, a
favorite with them, and ‘as also a brave and successful
general. After eight years of authority over the Jews, he
found a traitor and assassin in his household. Ptolemy, his
son-in-law, conspired against him, and murdered him; he
also imprisoned his own wife and sons.

Iyrcanus, his son, was then made high-priest, and upon
his death was succeeded by Aristobulus, who became a
royal assassin. JIe placed a diadem upon his brow and
imprisoned his brothers. Soon after, he cast his mother
into prison, and starved her to death. For awhile he was

partial to Antigonus, the brother next to himself, and
93


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

el
spared him. But at the feast of tabernacles, while Aris-

tobulus was sick, Antigonus appeared in the temple splen-
didly adorned, attended by his soldiers, and offered prayers
for the recovery of his brother. This gave to some envious
persous an occasion to complain of him as an aspirant for
the royalty, and thus excite that brother’s suspicions.
Aristobulus matured a plot for the assassination of Antigo-
nus, in case it did appear that he had ambitious designs.
He, therefore, ordered his guards to watch at the entrance
to his tower Antonia, and if Antigonus came unarmed, not
to touch him; but, should he be armed, then, in the secret
passageway, fall upon him and slay him.

The queen and others, who were in the plot against his
life, told the messenger to say to Antigonus, that his
brother, wished to see a new and fine suit of armor he had,
and to come in martial array.

The unsuspecting victim, accordingly, went in military
order and display toward the residence of his brother.
When he reached the dark entrance known as Strato’s
Tower, the guards, who were there, sprang from their con-
cealment, and in a moment their, burnished blades were
bathed in his sinking form. The blood-stained body was
hurried away to a secret burial; another, and among the

last victims of royal treachery Jerusalem before the
94


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

a a RY SES So EI OL A ES A NT NII TIRE 5 IN INE ATE ETT,
Messiah walked its streets. In all these bloody scenes we see

the deep depravity of fallen man—his ambition stopping at
no barrier but the power of God; which itself would be
removed were it possible, and the sinner against him, take
possession of the eternal throne. The hardest lesson for the
human heart to learn, is submission to the one Lawgiver,
and Redeemer of mankind. Under the reign of the Herodian
family, which extended to the birth of Christ, treason and as-
sassinations were frequent. True religion, virtue, and even
humanity, were dying out in Israel. Is it not strange that
selfish passions ruled the throne and the altars of the world?

The all-wise author of our being hath so framed our
natures, and placed us in such relations, that there is nothing
vicious but what is injurious; nothing virtuous, but what is
advantageous to our present interest, both with respect to body
and mind. Meekness and humility, patience, and universal
charity and grace, give a joy unknown to transgressors. The
divine virtues of truth and equity are the only bonds of
friendship, the only supports of society. Temperance and
sobriety are the best preservatives of health and strength;
but sin and debauchery impair the body, consume the
substance, reduce to poverty, and form the direct path
to an immediate and untimely death. Now the chief ex-
cellency of all laws, and what will always render their

99



SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
Csr eee a ir aera EES,
burden pleasant and’ delightful, is, that they enjoin nothing

unbecoming or injurious. Besides, to render our duty easy,
we have the example as well as the commands of the
blessed Jesus. The masters of morality among the heathen
gave excellent rules for the regulation of men’s manners;
but they wanted either the honesty or the courage to try
their own arguments upon themselves. It was a strong
presumption that the yoke of the Seribes and Pharisees was

grievous, when they “laid heavy burdens upon men’s

shoulders,”

which they themselves refused to touch with
one of their fingers. Not thus our great lawgiver, Jesus
Christ, the righteous. His behaviour was in all respects
conformable to his dovtrine. Tis devotion toward God, how
sublime and ardent! Benevolence toward men, how great
and diffusive! Je was in his life an exact pattern of inno-
cence, for he “did no sin; neither was guile found in his
mouth.”

In the Son of God incarnate, is exhibited the brightest,
the fairest resemblance of the Father that earth or heaven
ever beheld, an example peculiarly persuasive, ‘alculated
to inspire resolution, and to animate us to use our utmost
endeavors to imitate the divine pattern, the example of
“the author and finisher of our faith, of him who loved us
and gave himself for us.”

96




RUTH AND BOA












































PAUL PREACHING AT PAMASCUS.
SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

TRAITORS AND ASSASSINS AFTER CHRIST'S
ADVENT.

THE first case of assassination recorded in the New Testa-
ment, is the murder of the children by Herod—when the
executioners of his purpose to destroy the infant Saviour,
slew hundreds, perhaps thousands, of those who were “two
years old and under,” in Bethlehem and the adjacent country.
What touching evidence were these victims, called by Dr.
Henry, “The infantry of the noble army of martyrs,” that, “ of
such is the Kingdom of Heaven.”

Herod was an assassin by nature, and his reign was a fear-
ful illustration of that delight in human slaughter. His own
children were not spared when they seemed to be in the way
of success to his ambitious plans. At his death, Herod
Antipas became ruler of Galilee and Petre. This son repre-
sented too well the paternal character. For the sake of the
daughter of Herodias,; his brother's wife, whose dancing pleased

97


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
DS I ET NTN ET a TT

him, he killed John the Baptist. The herald of Christ was
lying in prison, when, on the request of this young lady, at

the suggestion of her mother, he sent an executioner to cut
off the good man’s head and bring it to the palace. We shall
never know the particulars of that prison scene—the calm
resignation of the captive to the blow of the glittering blade,
the celestial light that illumined the dungeon, and the last
words of the courageous, heroic preacher.

Herod Agrippa, the son of Aristobulus, a brother of Anti-
pas, was also a royal assassin. He killed with the sword
‘ James the brother of John.” Tis own awful death was the
seal of God’s avenging justice upon his bloody career.

The great conspiracy, treachery, and murder recorded in
the New Testament, was formed and enacted around, and
upon the “King of kings.” The Hebrews who were antici-
pating a temporal deliverer and monarch, and scorned the
Nazarene, conspired against him soon after he commenced
his ministry.

For three years they followed him in his journeyings, and
to his places of repose, thwarted in their plots by the very
object of their hate. At length, when his time to die had
come, Judas, who was a disciple, and the treasurer of the
Christian community, turned against his Master. The motive
that made him a traitor is a vexed question. The opinion


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
Caeereeereereeeereeereeeeee rere eee eee ene aE a a a EI
of the ablest expositors, is that he was tired of waiting for

the Messiah to establish his kingdom, and thought that by
betraying him, he would compel him to display his power,
and assert his royal claims. Whatever else influenced the
criminal, this is believed to have been the leading design.
Ilis intimacy with the Messiah gave him every advantage in
the plot to deliver him to the Jewish rulers. How strange
that he could choose Gethsemane where the Master went to
pray, for the consummation of the deed of treachery!

The salutation of Judas when the mob followed him to the
garden, and his kiss, made it all the more cruel and wicked.
The high-priest, to whom the captive was first led, and Pilate
the Roman governor in Judea, became conspirators in the
work of death; and on Calvary was that work finished.
This act of high treason against the Lord of all, was designed

by him, in its results, to secure the redemption of a rebellious

world! The progress of Christianity in the world was, fol-
lowed by similar scenes of treachery, and by the slaughter of
the saints in all the great kingdoms of the Eastern continent.

About thirty years after the tragedy on Calvary, opened
the terrible destruction of the good. Nero, the sixth Emperor
of Rome, began the first general murder of Christians.
Setting fire to Rome for his own amusement, he played upon

his harp in the tower of Maecenas, and sang the song of the
99


SPIES, TEATIORS ABD pres:

amine of Troy, declertue ita ie saidhad the ruin sae a

things before his death.” Then, to appease the populace, he
charged the conflagration of the imperial city upon the fol-
lowers of Christ. Humble worshippers of God were slain
with all the refinement of royal torture. Many were clothed
in waxen apparel, to which was applied the torch, and they
were made beacons for the illumination of his gardens at
night. Paul and Peter were among the illustrious victims
of the despot, who rolled his garments in innocent"blood.
Domitian, no less cruel and reckless, raised the second
general persecution against the Church of Christ. A law
was made “That no Christian, once brought beforé the
tribunal, should be exempted from punishment without re-
nouncing his religion.” The lives of thousands were surren-
dered in agony, and yet without a murmur of resentment or
regret. A.D. 103, Trajan opened the third great persecution.
He wrote to Jerusalem, instructing his officers there to exter-
minate the lineage of David. Immediately, all that could be
found of that ancient and hallowed race were put to death.
The venerable and devout Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch,
whom it is believed Jesus held in his arms, and who received
the gospel from John the Evangelist, was compelled to hold
fire in his hands, and after other more fiendish tortures was

thrown to the wild beasts.
100


TOT

———

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‘SNISSVSSV CNV ‘SUOLIVUL ‘SaIds

CHRIST.

JUDAS BETRAYING
SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

Adrian, who succeeded Trajan to the throne, continued
with unsated malignity the havoc of God’s people, making
Mt. Ararata representative of Calvary, by the crucifixion of
a multitude, crowned with thorns and pierced with the
soldier's spear. Marcus Aurelius Antonius Philosophus, a
zealous Pagan, in the middle of the second century com-
menced. the fourth and most sanguinary persecution of the
Christian church. The variety of tortures and death made
the spectators stand aghast and shudder with horror. In the
host of slain witnesses were Germanicus, a noble youth,
whose meek courage in the arena of savage beasts, made con-
verts among the idolaters who beheld the scene; Polycarp,
the noble Bishop of Smyrna; Felicitatis, a splendid Roman

lady and lovely Christian, with her seven sons; and Justin

the Philosopher, who fell before the ruthless persecutor.
Under Severus, who was indebted for his recovery from a
dangerous illness to a Christian, the slaughter was stayed ;
but the progress of Christianity alarming the Pagans, they
revived the slanders against God's people, and compelled the
monarch to kindle the fires of the fifth persecution. Victor,
Bishop of Rome, suffered martyrdom in the year A.D. 201;
Ireneus, Bishop of Lyons, the following year; and for thirty
years after. the carnage raged on, without cessation to the
awful tragedy. In the middle of the third century, after a
103


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

brief pause in the work of death, Maximus sounded tlic

sixth deadly charge upon the suffering church. Numberless
were the slain, and their bodies were buried indiscriminately
in ghastly heaps. The seventh persecution, after an interval
of ten years in the reign of Gordian and Philip, sprang from
the demoniac brain of Decius, who determined to wipe out
the Christian name with blood. Bishops, eminent men, and
beautiful women were mown down like the ripened harvest
before the sickle, leaving lofty words of cheer to ring along
the lines of the sacramental host, till the judgment day. A
few years of comparative quiet were enjoyed, when, in April
257, Belerian, for three years and six months, hunted, with
all the appliances of the most cruel ingenuity, the scattered
yet multiplying disciples of Jesus. The dead were uncounted.
Rufine and Secunda, two beautiful and accomplished ladies,
betrayed by their lovers, sealed their faith with their blood.
Bishops Sextus, Stephan, and Cyprian were of the number
who chose a fearful death, rather than deny Christ. Lauren-
tius, a deacon, having, in view of his anticipated martyrdom,
distributed the treasure of the church to the poor in her com-
munion, was commanded to reckon for the money to the
Emperor, which he promised to do in three days. He ap-
peared before him with a great company of the aged, infirm,
and helpless servants of Jesus, and said to the king very
104


truthfully: “There are the treasures of the church.” The
incensed monarch ordered the noble and courageous man to
be beaten with iron rods, then boiled to death. In Africa,
the persecution spread madly.

In Utica, three hundred Christian men gathered around a
burning lime kiln, when a censer was brought, and they
commanded to offer incense to Jupiter, or be cast, like the
Hebrews of old, into the fiery furnace. With a smile of
heroism, which makes, in the comparison, the valor of the
battle-field mere daring, they leaped into the flames and died.
A few martyrs excepted, from 260 to 274 the church had re-
pose. Aurelian then began again the destruction of the
saints. In the year 286, the Theban legion, composed of
nearly seven thousand Christian soldiers, were ordered by
Maximian to assist in a sacrifice to idols, and take a vow to
aid in the extirpation of Christianity in Gaul. They, of
course, refused. The enraged prince directed the execu-
tioners of his vengeance to decimate or kill one tenth of the
legion. It was done, but the rest faltered not. The ranks
were again decimated, and still the survivors gave no tokens

of fear. The decimation went on, till the last hero fell in his

gore, with the name of Jesus on his lips of prayer.
Diocletian and Galerius, on the 23d of February 303, let
loose the horrors of the tenth general persecution. The
105


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
ener a eee eee ee ee es ee eee eaten ee ee ae SIT,
wanton waste of life had never been equalled. Christian

cities were burned, with their inhabitants; station, age, and
sex, were quite disregarded, in the purpose to annihilate the
Zion of our God.

But we cannot dwell on these scenes, nor repeat the many
expressions of faith, hope, joy, and truth, uttered in the

pangs of dissolution by the martyrs. We may not glance at

Persia, where blood flowed in the wake of the spreading
gospel; nor at Spain, in the fourth century, in whose fair
land Christ’s witnesses were found and slain. The succeed-
ing centuries recorded similar atrocities in France, Italy,
Switzerland, Wales, Scotland, and England. You have all
read of St. Bartholomew’s day, the 22d of August, 1572,
when in Paris the carnage raged till ten thousand were
slain; in Orleans, one thousand; in Rouen, six thousand;
and in other towns similar slaughter was made. We need
not speak of the reign of the bloody Queen Mary, of the
French Revolution, nor of the more recent tragedies
India, followed by the terrors of the Syrian war, threatening
with destruction the City of David, from which Jesus was
led forth to Calvary. Surely, you do not wonder that, in the
vision of God’s slain witnesses, they are presented before us,
at the altar of sacrifice, saying, ‘Tow long, O Lord, holy
and true, dost thou not judge and avenge our blood ?”
106


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.



JESUS LED TO CALVARY.



SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

In closing the annals of treason, we will tale a few illus-
trations of the successful and attempted assassination of men
at the head of national government.

In old Roman history, the mind turns instinctively to the
successful conspiracy of which Brutus was the leader, and
Julius Cesar the victim, forty-four years B.C. Brutus was
undoubtedly governed by patriotic motives. He sought to
restore the government to the hands of the senate and the
people. This friend of Cesar very reluctantly consented to
become a traitor; and did not, until the persistent and crafty
appeals of Cassius and his fellow conspirators made him feel
that he must strike the blow for the people.

Plutarch’s description of the assassination is graphic.
“When Cesar entered the house the senate rose to do him
honor. Some of Brutus’s accomplices came up behind his
chair, and others before it, pretending to intercede, along
with Metilius Cimber, for the recall of his brother from
exile. They continued their solicitation till he came to his
seat. When he was seated, he gave them a positive denial;
and as they continued their importunities with an air of com-
pulsion, he grew angry. Cimber, then, with both hands,
pulled his gown off his neck, which was the signal for the
attack. Casca gave him the first blow. It was a stroke
upon the neck with his sword, but the wound was not

109 .


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

ST a a I EE TEE TEE TOIT
dangerous; for in the beginning of so tremendous an enter-

prise he was probably in some disorder. Cesar, therefore,
turned upon him, and laid hold of his sword. At the same
time, they both cried out, the one in Latin—‘ Villain ! Casca!
what dost thou mean?’ and the other in Greek, to his
brother—‘ Brother, help!’

“After such a beginning, those who knew nothing of the
conspiracy were seized with consternation and horror, inso-
much that they durst neither fly, nor assist, nor even utter
a word. All the conspirators now drew their swords, and
surrounded him in such a manner, that whatever way he
turned he saw nothing but steel gleaming in his face, and
met nothing but wounds. Like some savage beast attacked
by the hunters, he found every hand lifted against him, for
they all agreed to have a share in the sacrifice and a taste
of his blood. Therefore Brutus himself gave him a stroke
in the groin. Some say, he opposed the rest, and continued
struggling and crying out till he perceived the sword of
Brutus; then he drew his robe over his face, and yielded to
his fate. Either by accident or pushed thither by the con-
spirators, he expired on the pedestal of Pompey’s statue, and

dyed it with his blood: so that Pompey seemed to preside

over the work of vengeance, to tread his enemy under his
feet. and to enjoy his agonies. Those agonies were great,
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SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

A ELIE LPT ET LL LT EE LE AD LILLE EE!

for he received no less than three and twenty wounds; and
many of the conspirators wounded each other as they were
aiming their blows at him.

“Cesar thus despatched, Brutus advanced to speak to the
senate, and to assign his reasons for what he had done; but.
they would not bear to hear him; they fled out of the house,
and filled the people with inexpressible horror and dismay.
Some shut up their houses; others left their shops and
counters; all were in motion; one was running to see the
spectacle; another running back. Antony and Lepidus,
Cesar's principal friends, withdrew, and hid themselves in
other people’s houses. Meantime, Brutus and his confed-
erates, yet warm from the slaughter, marched in a body,
with their bloody swords in their hands, from the senate
house to the Capitol, not like men that fled, but with an air
of gaiety and confidence, calling the people to liberty, and
stopping to talk with every man of consequence whom they
met. There were some who even joined them, and mingled
with their train; desirous of appearing to have had a share
in the action, and hoping for one in the glory.”

A no less conspicuous, and still more modern conspiracy,

although a failure, was the gunpowder plot of England,

under James I.—the grandest conspiracy in its scope, and

if successful, in results, on record. Religious fanaticism was
dl


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS,

ELLA ESE 2 EE ET EE SRE eA TE ED OT TC STIR TEL BRET RP ST PS
its inspiration. The king’s growing dislike of the Catholics

and parliamentary enactments ‘unfavorable to their prosperity
awakened a fierce opposition. This enmity was organized
into a conspiracy under Robert Catesby. He was “a gentle-
man of good property in Northampton and Warwickshire,
descended from the minister of Richard JII., and had been
brought up a Catholic; but he deserted that religion, plunged
into all sorts of excesses, and ran through his patrimony.”

This reckless man, in the year 1598, went back to his old
religion, and became a leader in treasonable deeds during the
last part of Queen Hlizabeth’s reign. His grand scheme was
to demolish the ruling power of England, by blowing up the
Parliament house with gunpowder, and killing all the principal
men of the realm who were in it. Guy Fawkes became the
faithful servant of the conspirators, and entered upon his
work in the spring of 1605. Associated with him were
Robert Catesby and John Wright, Thomas Winter and
Thomas Percy, also men of high position.

The progress of the conspiracy, as given by Keightly, was
in the following manner. Having met by appointment in a
house behind Clement’s inn, they took an oath on the Holy
Trinity and the sacrament never to disclose what was then to
be proposed. Percy and Fawkes were then informed of the

plan, of which they both approved, and there in an upper
112


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.



CHRIST'S EXAMPLE. HEALING THE AFFLICTED.

8 113
SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

room of the same house, they heard mass and received the
sacrament from the hands of Father Gerard, a Jesuit, who,
whatever may be our suspicion, was not, as far as we have

evidence, acquainted with their vow and its object.

A house adjoining the parliament house, was now taken in
Percy’s name; and Fawkes, under the assumed name of
Johnson, and as Percy’s servant, was put in charge of it.
Another house was hired at Lambeth, where the powder and
the timber for the construction of the mine which they pro-
posed to run, might be collected, and the care of it was com-
mitted to one Robert Keyes, who was likewise sworn to
secrecy. Parliament being adjourned till the 7th of Febru-
ary following, the conspirators went down to the country,
agreeing to meet again in November. During the summer
and autumn some measures were taken against the Catholics.
The conspirators were therefore the more confirmed in their
resolution.

On the night of the 11th of December Catesby and his
associates entered the house in Westminster, well supplied
with mining tools, and with hard eggs and baked meats for
their support. They began to mine, the wall of three yards
in thickness between theirs and the parliament house.
Fawkes stood sentinel while the others wrought. Finding

the work more severe than they had expected, they sum-
115


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

Sa ae a Sa Ee TC ee ae aD
moned Keyes from Lambeth, and they admitted Wright’s

brother Christopher into their association. They spread the
matter which they extracted in the day over the garden at
night, and not one of them ever went out of the house even
into the upper part of it, lest they might be seen. They
wrought without ceasing till Christmas-eve, when Fawkes
brought them intelligence that parliament was further pro-
rogued till October. They then agreed to separate till after
the holidays, when they would resume their labors.

During the month of January (1665), Catesby admitted
into the conspiracy Robert, the elder brother of Thomas
Winter, and John Hart of Norbrook, near Warwick, and an
old servant of his own named Thomas/Bates. In February
they renewed their labors in the mine, and they had pierced
half way through the wall, when they suddenly, as we are
assured, heard the tolling of a bell within the wall under the
parliament house; they stopped and listened; Fawkes was
called down and he also heard it. On sprinkling the place,
however, with holy water, the mysterious sound ceased; it
was frequently renewed, but the same remedy always proved
efficacious, and it at length ceased altogether. One day they
heard a rushing noise over their heads; they thought they
were discovered, but Fawkes, on inquiry, found that it was
maa by a man of the name of Bright, who was selling off

116


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
Fa ee ee a I EET at TT ISTE
his wares, from a cellar under the house of lords, in order to

remove. They resolved at once to take the cellar, for, ex-
clusive of the labor, they found the water new coming in on
them. The cellar was taken in Percy’s name also; twenty
barrels of powder were conveyed to it from the house in
Lambeth, then iron tools and large stones were put into the
barrels with it, in order to give more efficacy to the explo-
sion, and the whole was covered with billets and faggots;
and lumber and empty bottles were scattered through the
cellar. They then closed it up, placing marks withinside of
the door, that they might be able to ascertain if any one
should enter it during their absence. Tlaving sent Fawkes to
Flanders to inform Sir William Stanley and other English

officers of the project, and try to obtain foreign aid, they

separated for the summer.

Parliament being finally appointed to meet on the 5th of
November, the conspirators made their final arrangements.
Fawkes was to fire the mine by means of a slow match,
which would take a quarter of an hour to reach the powder,
and as soon as he had lighted it, he was to hasten and get
aboard a small vessel which was ready in the river, and
carry the news over to Flanders. Digby was on that day to
assemble a number of the Catholic gentry under pretext of a

hunting party at Dunchurch in Warwickshire; and as soon
117


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

er a ee
as they heard of the blow being struck, they were to send a

party to seize the princess Elizabeth, who was at lord Har-
rington’s, that neighborhood, and she was to be pro-
claimed in case Winter should fail in the part assigned him
of securing one of her brothers.

Tlow little England’s legislators, dreamed of the im-
pending destruction! If, a little longer, the secret could
be kept; beneath crumbling walls, a descending roof, and
flying timbers, flame and smoke, they would have a living
burial. But God had determined to avert the threatened
doom. Just before the assassins were ready to light the
powder, suspicion was awakened by certain communications
giving hints of the ruin at hand. Fawkes was found in the

cellar—the Gunpowder Plot discovered and the principal

conspirators hung.

During the revolutionary movements of the last century,
no figure attracts more sympathy and interest among the
actors in sanguinary scenes of unjustifiable violence, than
that of Charlotte Corday, of Normandy, herself descended
from the Norman nobility. She yas masculine in the vigor
of her intellect, and acquaintance with political economy, but
virtuous and modest in character. At first an advocate of
the French revolution, because she hailed it as the dawn of
national liberty, the unprincipled and bloody aspect it soon

118


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‘SNISSVSSV GNV ‘SUOLIVUL ‘SHIdS
SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

assumed, disheartened and alarmed her, until her single
absorbing thought was the protection of whatever of free-

dom remained to France.
Marat, records Madam Junot, was at this period the osten-

sible chief of the Mountain party, and the most sanguinary
of its members. He was a most hideous deformity both in
mind and person. His lank and distorted features covered
with leprosy, and his vulgar and ferocious leer, were a true
index of the passions which worked in his odious mind. A
series of unparalleled atrocities had raised him to the highest
power with his party; and though he professed to be merely
passive in the revolutionary government, his word was law
with the convention, and his fiat irrevocable. In every thing
relating to the acquisition of: wealth, he was incorruptible,
and even gloried in his poverty. But the immense influence
he had acquired turned his brain, and he gave full range to
the evil .propensities of his nature, now unchecked by any
authority. He had formed principles of political faith, in
which perhaps he sincerely believed, but which were founded
in his inherent love of blood, and his hatred of every human
being who evinced talents or virtue above his fellow men.
The guillotine was not only the altar of the distorted thing
he worshipped, under the name of Liberty, but it was also
the instrument of his pleasures—for his highest gratification
121


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
a ea a TS

was the writhings of the victim who fell under his axe.
Kiven Robespierre attempted to check this unquenchable
thirst of human blood, but in vain; opposition only excited
Marat to greater atrocities. With rage depicted in his livid
features, and with the howl of a demoniac, he would loudly
declare that rivers of blood could alone purify the land, and

must therefore flow. In his paper, entitled “L’Ami cu

Peuple,” he denounced all those whom he had doomed to
death, and the guillotine spared none whom he designated.

Charlotte Corday having read his assertion in this journal,
that three hundred thousand heads were requisite to consoli-
date the liberties of the French people, could not contain her
feelings. Her cheeks flushed with indignation.

“What!” she exclaimed, “is there not in the whole
country a man bold enough to kill this monster

Imagining that, if she could succeed in destroying Marat,
the fall of his party must necessarily ensue, she determined
to offer up her own life for the good of her country.

She went to the Palais Royal and bought a sharp-pointed
carving knife, with a black sheath. On her return to the
hotel in which she lodged—Hotel de la Providence, Rue des
Augustins—she made her preparation for the deed she in-
tended to commit the next day. Having put her papers in
order, she placed a certificate of her baptism in a red pocket-

122


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

book, in order to take it with her, and thus establish her
identity. This she did because she had resolved to make no
attempt to escape, and was therefore certain she should leave
Marat’s house for the conciergerie, preparatory to her appear-
ing before the revolutionary tribunal.

Next morning, the 16th, taking with her the knife she fad!
purchased, and her red pocket-book, she proceeded to Marat’s
residence. The representative was ill, and would not be
seen, and Charlotte’s entreaties for admittance on the most
urgent business were unavailing. She therefore withdrew,
and wrote the following note, which she herself delivered to
Marat’s servant:

“T am just arrived from Caen. Your well-known pa-
triotism leads me to presume that you will be glad to be
made acquainted with what is passing in that part of the
Republic. I will call on you again in the course of the
day; have the goodness to give orders that I may be ad-
mitted, and grant me a few minutes’ conversation. I have
important secrets to reveal to you.”

At seven o'clock in the evening she returned, and reached
Marat’s ante-chamber, but the woman who waited on him
refused to admit her to the monster’s presence. Marat, how

ever, who was in a bath in the next room, hearing the voice
123


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

of a young girl, and little thinking she had come to deprive
him of life, ordered that she should be shown in. Charlotte
seated herself by the side of the bath. The conversation
ran upon the disturbances in the department of Calvados;
and Charlotte, fixing her eyes upon Marat’s countenance, as
if to scrutinize his most secret thoughts, pronounced the
names of several of the Girondist deputies.

“They shall soon be arrested,” he cried, with a howl of
rage, “and executed the same day.”

He had scarcely uttered these words, when Charlotte’s
knife was buried in his bosom.

“Help!” he cried, “help! I am murdered!” He died
immediately.

The very latest attempt at assassination, was the fruitless
aim of the weapon of death at the life of Alexander of
Russia, whose details are still fresh in the minds of the
civilized world—a madly rash endeavor to slay a monarch
unrivalled in regard for popular rights, and in the admiration
of his own subjects, no less than of other nations. It re-
vealed the slumbering hate of the aristocratic class, and the
certainty that if a ruler’s policy infringe upon time-honored
exclusiveness, and proud but unrighteous distinctions, his

life is in peril, along with that of the tyrant who exasperates,
with better reason on their part, the outraged masses.
124


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

These conspiracies abroad, naturally bring us to the
assassination of Abraham Lincoln, the purest patriot, and
wisest, most paternal ruler of any age.

We shall not discuss the political questions, and revolution,
whose issue was the election to the Presidential chair of
Abraham Lincoln, in the autumn of 1860. But, to follow
the conspiracy against his life, from the beginning to the
fearful end, let us go back to the thwarted plot which fol-
lowed that popular choice.

There was a very extraordinary indifference in the mind
of Mr. Lincoln in regard to threats of assassination, some of
which were communicated to him. Whenever allusion
was made to the intimations of cherished designs upon
his life, he almost playfully listened, and apparently was
unable to believe depravity could go so far as to destroy a
friend of all the people, such as he felt himself to be. His
safe arrival in the capital, the public receptions, and the joy-
ful anticipations of the loyal people, succeeded the hours of
unappreciated danger, because generally unknown. The ser-
vices of this remarkable man during the war, have become
familiar history to the humblest citizen.

April 11th, 1865, the national capital and the country

were again jubilant over the closing victories of the conflict.
The recently re-inaugurated President was serenaded, and
125


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.
TO SLE Ea IT ATS

made congratulatory speeches amid the splendors of the
evening illumination. Then came the 14th, with the com-
memorative flag-raising at Fort Sumter; and the 17th was
set apart for a general expression of grateful joy. But it
was a day of darkness and woe, which has no parallel in our
national annals. The events which shrouded the land in
this tearful gloom—the fatal pistol shot by Booth—the death
of the assassin, and his fellow-conspirators—are known the

world over. We think no traitor, since Judas, will have a

name of more dismal, startling sound, and gather around a
more burning indignation, than this latest murderer of a
righteous ruler.

The President had accepted an invitation to visit Ford’s
theatre at Washington, and was quietly seated in his private
box. The report of a pistol first announced the presence of
the assassin, who advanced suddenly toward the front, leaped
down some twelve feet upon the open stage below, and es-
caped through the rear of the house. The hour was about
half-past ten.

The screams of Mrs. Lincoln first disclosed the fact to the
audience that the President had been shot; then all present
rose to their feet, rushing toward the stage, many exclaiming,
“Hang him! hang him |”

The excitement was one of the wildest possible description,
126


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

aud of course there was an abrupt termination of the thea-
trical performance.

There was a rush toward the presidential box, when cries
were heard, “Stand back!” “Give him air!” “Has any
one stimulants?” Ona hasty examination it was found that
the President had been shot through the head above and
back of the temporal bone, and that some of the brain was
oozing out.

He was removed to a private house opposite to the theatre,
and the surgeon general of the army and other surgeons
were sent for to attend to his condition.

On an examination of the private box, blood was dis-
covered on the back of the cushioned rocking chair
which the President had been sitting, also on the partition

and on the floor. A common single-barrelled pocket pistol
was found on the carpet.

A military guard was placed in front of the private resi-
dence to which the President had been conveyed. An im-
mense crowd gathered in front of it, all deeply anxious to
learn his condition. It had been previously announced that
the wound was mortal, but all hoped otherwise. The shock
to the community was terrible.

This was on the night of Friday, April 14, 1865. The

next morning, at twenty minutes past seven o’clock, the

12%


SPIES, TRAITORS, AND ASSASSINS.

President breathed his last, closing his eyes as if falling

asleep, and his countenance assumed an expression of per-~
fect serenity. There were no indications of pain, and it was
not known he was dead until the gradually decreasing respi-
ration ceased altogether.

But the Republic, founded by Christian men, still lives;
and with the signal deliverances which God has wrought for
us to encourage faith, we may believe that he will guide it
onward in glory and blessing among the nations, until civil
and religious freedom spread over the world.

But more than this, the Church of Christ which was first
planted here, is extending its triumphs in all lands, and is
yet to control commerce, literature, and politics everywhere.
It is difficult to believe it while such iniquity, ignorance,
and tyranny prevail; but God has decreed and declared it.
lappy, and blessed above, will all those be, who love and
aid in extending its triumphs.

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