Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 The traitors of Hebrew history
 Palestine after the Messiah's...
 Royal assassins
 Traitors and assassins after Christ's...
 Back Cover

Title: Half hours in Bible lands, or, Stories and sketches from the Scriptures and the East
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00015688/00001
 Material Information
Title: Half hours in Bible lands, or, Stories and sketches from the Scriptures and the East spies, traitors, and assassins
Alternate Title: Stories and sketches from the Scriptures and the East
Physical Description: 128 p., <8> leaves of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Headley, P. C ( Phineas Camp ), 1819-1903
John E. Potter & Co ( Publisher )
Publisher: John E. Potter & Co.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Publication Date: 1867
Copyright Date: 1867
Subject: Bible stories, English -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Gold stamped cloth (Binding) -- 1867   ( local )
Bldn -- 1867
Genre: Gold stamped cloth (Binding)   ( local )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia
Statement of Responsibility: by Rev. P.C. Headley ; with numerous illustrations.
General Note: Each page printed within red ruled border.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00015688
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA8208
notis - ALH1762
oclc - 39994602
alephbibnum - 002231386

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
        Front Matter 5
        Frontispiece 1
        Frontispiece 2
        Frontispiece 3
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    The traitors of Hebrew history
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 32a
        Page 32b
        Page 32c
        Page 32d
    Palestine after the Messiah's advent
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 64a
        Page 64b
        Page 64c
        Page 64d
    Royal assassins
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 95a
        Page 96
        Page 96a
        Page 96b
        Page 96c
    Traitors and assassins after Christ's advent
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
    Back Cover
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
Full Text

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Entered according to Act of Cougress, in the year 186I by
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A sPY is a watcher of others; one who goes into an
enemy's country, or in time of war, into his camp, to learn
his plans and movements. This knowledge he uses himself
or reports to a superior, who takes all the advantage of it in
his power.
The first spy mentioned in the Bible, was not of this world;
he was a fallen archangel, called Satan, the Devil, and by
other names of reproach. When or certainly why he rebelled
in glory we are not told; it is supposed because Christ was
declared the King of Angels. But he entered a beautiful
and holy Paradise to tempt the two perfect beings living
there. The enemy of God and his newly created offspring,
saw and envied the bliss of Eden's inhabitants, and plotted
their ruin; a successful conspiracy formed in hell, from
which has come all the wicked devices and deeds of men.
After the overthrow of man, the unholy dispositions and


ambition which ruled the race made him rebellious, suspi-
cious, treacherous, and revengeful.
A glimpse of Hebrew life in the wilderness shows, most
strikingly, the elements of human society in an unsettled
state of it, which make rebels, spies, traitors, and assassins.
How clearly in contrast with Jehovah's patience, justice, and
purity are seen the conflicting passions of men-the chafing
against restraints-jealousy of each other-and the resort to
crime to secure selfish ends, and often to bloodshed to gain a
just and noble aim.
In the story of rebellion which will follow, we have the
appointment, by Moses, of twelve spies to visit the hostile
country of Palestine, and report to the camp of Israel; and
afterward of two by Joshua, who went to Jericho.
In the journey from Sinai to Canaan, several scenes showed
the rebellious character of the people, and their unfitness for
the inheritance promised to their fathers. The fatigues and
privations of travel through the desert soon raised their
murmurs, which became so outrageous, their King manifested
his displeasure by kindling a fire in the outskirts of the camp,
which was only stayed at the intercession of Moses, when the
people recognized the hand of God. The place was called
Teberah [the burning].
The next rebellion commenced among the mixed multitude


which accompanied the Hebrew host, but involved many of
the Israelites. Whatever fortitude they had soon gave way
before the privations of the desert. There was plenty of
manna; but they had grown dainty, and "their souls loathed
the light food." They lamented that they had left Egypt, and
remembered, with regret, the cooling melons, the leeks, the
onions, the garlic, and the other fruits and vegetables which
they had enjoyed in abundance; as well as the fish and the
meat, which in that rich land they had eaten to the full."
Moses was grieved and depressed, and his address to God on
that occasion marks his deep despondency. To comfort him
and enable him to sustain his heavy charge, he was directed to
choose seventy competent men from the elders of Israel, who
should act as a council, and assist him in the government of
the people. These being nominated by Moses, were to be
brought to the door of the tabernacle, where the divine King
gave signs of their acceptance.
At IIazeroth, the spirit of opposition to Moses broke out
in his own family, in consequence of his having married the
foreign woman Zipporah, who had lately been brought among
them. Miriam, the sister of Moses, who had previously held
the chief place among the women in Israel, and who was now
probably jealous of the respect paid to the wife of Moses, was
the leader in this affair, and was soon joined by Aaron, who

i "I . I i l- II I I I -- 1 I . . . . . .. . .


feared the influence of the newly arrived family on the pros-
pects of his own sons, on whom the priesthood had been con-
ferred. At all events, their feeling was bad, and as the
expression of it tended to undermine the authority of Moses,
the Lord testified his displeasure by smiting Miriam with
leprosy, and as a leper she was excluded from the camp. But
in seven days she was restored, at the intercession of Moses,
after Aaron had humbled himself, and acknowledged their
joint offence.
At Kadesh Barnea, on the southern border of the Prom-
ised Land, when Moses encouraged them to go forward
boldly, and take possession of their heritage, they were timid
and resolved first to send twelve spies, one from each tribe,
to traverse the country, and to bring them an account of'the
land and its inhabitants. After an absence of forty days, the
spies came back with a large cluster of grapes, and other
fruits of the country-many of which were new to men from
Egypt. Of the country itself, and of its productions, they
gave a very glowing account; but the inhat nts they de-
scribed as warlike, and,-in some places, gigantic, auvelling in
high-walled and seemingly impregnable cities; and they
declared it as their opinion, that however desirable the
country, the Israelites were by no means equal to the conr
quest of it from the present inhabitants. This statement


'U U--" -II-- II




filled the timorous multitude with dismay; and they threat-
ened to stone two of the spies, Joshua and Caleb, who pro-
claimed their conviction that, with the divine aid, which was
promised to them, they were fully equal to the enterprise.
Breaking out into open mutiny, they even talked of appoint-
ing a leader to conduct them back to their bondage in
For this last display of their insensibility to the great
things which had been done for them, and gross blindness to
his great design, the Lord's anger was kindled against them.
The mysterious "glory" suddenly appeared. in the cloud
which rested upon the tabernacle; and that manifestation of
the present God struck dumb every clamorous tongue, and
filled all hearts with fear. The divine voice now threatened
instant extinction to the revolters, and promised to make of
Moses and his family a nation greater and mightier than
they. This offer had been made on a former occasion, and
was then, as now, reverently declined by the disinterested
prophet; and he and his brother lay prostrate before the
cloud, with their faces to the ground, interceding for the
people. Their prayer had power with God, and the doom of
instant death and disinheritance was averted. But it was
pronounced that not one of the tainted generation-composed
of those who were of full age on leaving Egypt-should


enter the Promised Land. From this doom only the two
faithful spies, Joshua and Caleb, were exempted; the ten
others were smitten with that instant death which their con-
duct deserved.
This awful denunciation had the remarkable, but not un-
natural effect of driving the Israelites from their childish
timidity to the very opposite extreme of unauthorized and
presumptuous rashness. The Canaanites and Amalekites had
already taken alarm, and possessed themselves of the passes
in the mountains which lay before the Hebrcw host. Not-
withstanding this advantage on the side of the enemy, ayd in
spite of the earnest remonstrances of Moses, a large body of
the Israelites determined to march forward and take posses-
sion of the country. They were driven back with great
slaughter; and immediately after, in obedience to the divine
mandate, the camp at Kades Barnea was broken up, and
the people conducted back into the desert toward the Red
Here, in the deserts between Palestine and Sinai, they
wandered their appointed time, the generation which re-
ceived the law in Horeb becoming gradually extinct. During
all this time they continued to lead the same pastoral or
Bedouin life as they had done before, living on manna and
the produce of their flocks and herds; and removing from one




station to another, as directed by the pillar-cloud which rested
upon the tabernacle.
During this period, there was a revolt against the govern-
ment, by persons of high rank and consequence in some of
the tribes. The rebels were heads of families and clans, who
would have possessed high civil powers, and would have ex-
ercised priestly functions under the patriarchal government:
and their attempt must be taken as a struggle of the old insti-
tutions against the new. In some shape or other, such a
conflict almost always takes place between new forms of
government and the ancient institutions which are altered or
superseded. Among the Hebrews, the supreme authority
under which the new institutions had been framed, kept the
great body of the heads of tribes and families quiet, whatever
may have been their secret discontent; but there were some
audacious spirits whom nothing could restrain.
Korah, although himself a Levite, was chief instigator of
this revolt. His birth and station would have entitled him to
a leading place in the tribe; and it is more than probable
that another family being appointed to the priesthood, was
the chief cause of his discontent. This, however, was not a
ground on which he could expect much support from the
chiefs of other tribes; and it was therefore pretended, that
the liberties of the people had been infringed by Moses and


Aaron; and that the heads of families had been unjustly de-
prived of power which belonged to them. The manner in
which the high priesthood had been made a political office
a theocracy, exposed the priesthood to the ambition
which it might have escaped had its duties been only sacer-
The people were disposed to listen to those who told them
that they had cause to be discontented; that their liberties
had been taken from them; and that the yoke of a central
government was too heavy to be borne. The leaders, there-
fore, supported by a large body of the "congregation," at
length openly charged Moses and Aaron with the usurpation
of power, which they were required to lay down. It was not
denied that the appointments of Jehovah were absolute, but
they were chosen by him. This they could only dispute by
indirectly doubting the testimony of Moses, who brought this
institution with him on his return from the Mount; and it
was clear that, if his legislative agency in this matter could
be set aside, an opening was made for overturning the whole
system, which rested on the same foundation. This was
secretly understood on all sides. Moses at once saw that a
special manifestation had become necessary, and, in the confi-
dence that God would vindicate his own appointments, re-
ferred the matter to him. After strong words of reproof, he



-_ I -_



therefore invited the leading conspirators to exercise on the
morrow, by offering incense, the duties to which they laid
claim, and then the Lord would doubtless make known his
will. Awful was that decision! As they stood with their
censers to offer incense, they were suddenly consumed by
fire from His presence; and the Reubenites, Dathen, and
Abiram, who had refused to attend, did not escape; for the
earth opened and engulfed them where they stood, with
their tents and all that belonged to them.
The discontent which these men had encouraged among the
people, was too widely spread, and too deeply rooted for even
this awful judgment to subdue. The turbulent mob were
struck with horror and alarm at the destruction of their
leaders; but the next day they rallied, and assembled in great
numbers, clamoring against Moses and Aaron, as if they were
the authors of that judgment which the wrath of God had
inflicted. Now, again, was the divine wrath kindled, and a
consuming plague went forth among the people. They
fell, like corn before the reaper, until Aaron, at the desire of
Moses, took a censer, with burning incense, and rushing forth
among the people, stood between the living and the dead,
when the plague was stayed. On this occasion fourteen
hundred people perished.
The destruction of those who thus claimed priestly honors,


and the staying of the plague at Aaron's intercession, settled
all doubt regarding his appointment. But to place it beyond
controversy, the divine King was pleased to grant a special
and abiding miracle. Moses was directed to take a rod from
each of the tribes, and to engrave upon it the name of the
tribe to which it belonged, but upon the rod of Levi to write
Aaron's name. All these rods were lain up in the tabernacle
before the ark, God having said that he would cause to
blossom the rod of the man chosen and appointed by him.
The next day the rods were brought forth, and the rod of
Aaron had budded, blossomed, and borne ripe almonds. It
was laid up among the monuments of the tabernacle.
At length the forty years, during which the Israelites had
been doomed to wander in the wilderness, were nearly ex-
pired, and the generation which, by their disobedience, had
forfeited their title to the Promised Land, had perished. The
new generation, although far from faultless, was,,upon the
whole, much superior to that which had passed away, and
better fitted for the promised inheritance. As the time drew
nigh, the host returned to the borders of Canaan, and en-
camped at Kadesh, from which it had formerly been sent
back into the desert. Miriam, the sister of Moses and Aaron,
died here; and here the brothers themselves forfeited their
claims to enter the Promised Land. The want of water was


experienced at Kadesh with so much severity, that the people
became clamorous and reproachful. By this Moses and
Aaron were so much disturbed that, when instructed to smite
a certain rock, from which water should then flow, they ex-
hibited such impatience and distrust as, if left unpunished,
might have had an injurious effect on the minds of the people.
They were, therefore, forbidden to enter Canaan; but, at his
entreaty, Moses was promised a distant view of that "goodly
land" which the Lord hath promised to his people.
The hosts of Israel on reaching Kadesh had fully expected
that they were immediately to enter the Promised Land.
They were, therefore, much discouraged at having to take
another troublesome journey through so unpleasant a wilder-
ness as that which bordered the land of Edom; and, by the
time they reached the vicinity of the Red Sea, they broke
forth into loud complaints for bread and water, and expressed
their distaste at the manner in which they had been fed for
nearly forty years, saying, Our soul loatheth this light food."
For this impatience, and for the contempt of God's merciful
provision, without which they must long ago have perished,
the serpents, which infested, and do still infest that region,
were sent among them in unwonted numbers, and whoever
was bitten by them died. On this the people confessed their
sins, and sought the intercession of Moses, who was directed
2 17


to make a serpent of brass, and elevate it upon a pole in the
midst of the camp; and those who looked upon it might live.
The brazen serpent was preserved as a memorial of this mira-
cle for about nine hundred years, when, because the people
were disposed to render to it idolatrous honors, it was de-
stroyed by King Hezekiah.
Upon the borders of Canaan, Joshua sent two spies into
Jericho, to ascertain the strength and feelings of the enemy.
Here they were secreted from the authorities of the city by
a woman named Rahab, on the promise that her life should
be spared when the city was taken. She did her part well,
as did also the spies. They reported that the citizens of
Jericho were trembling with alarm, which was an assurance
of easy conquest; for Jehovah had sent this fear upon the
people. Then followed the passage of the Jordan, the march
around the city seven times, and the falling of the walls. Only
Rahab escaped the slaughter of the inhabitants.
The grand revolt of the Hebrews against God's sovereignty
after they were established Palestine, was just before
Samuel died, when, as we have seen, they asked the venerable
judge and prophet for a king, like the Pagan nations around
Their monarch, Saul, became a royal spy, and high-
handed rebel against God, which proved his inglorious fall.


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David the son of Jesse, who was a favorite for a while, after
he was taken into the king's family, by his gifts, graces, and
valor won admiring love from the people, and just in propor-
portion to this, the hatred of Saul. For the monarch saw in
David a rival. His son, Jonathan, on the contrary, formed
an ardent attachment to the shepherd-minstrel.
Jonathan gave his friend notice of danger. When David
was one day playing on his harp, he narrowly escaped death
from a javelin which Saul threw with the intention of
pinning him to the wall. He then withdrew to his own
house, where he was followed by men whom the king sent
to despatch him. But they were amused and deceived by
David's wife, Michal, Saul's own daughter, while her husband
was let down from the window in a basket and made his
escape to Samuel at Ramah. Repeated attempts to take
him thence, or slay him there, the last of which was made
by the king in person, were defeated by the special interposi-
tion of Providence. But Saul, brooding gloomily over his
doom, still cherished his cruel purpose against him; and on
one occasion he even threw his javelin at Jonathan for speak-
ing in favor of his absent friend. David resolved to with-
draw to a foreign land, Gath, one of the five Philistine states.
The tabernacle had by this time been removed from Shiloh
to Nob. in the tribe of Benjamin; and David, with his few


followers, called there on his way, and procured from the
high-priest, Ahimelech, a supply of provisions and the only
weapon in his possession-the sword which David had taken
from Goliah, and which had been laid up in the tabernacle as
a trophy of that victory.
David left the country of the Philistines and repaired to
the wild district of Adullam, in the tribe of Judah. Here
there was a large cave, which formed shelter for himself, and
the men of broken fortunes.
Soon after this some malicious spies of the neighborhood
went to Gibeah and acquainted Saul with the place of David's
retreat. The king immediately marched with a sufficient
force; but David, warned of his approach, retreated southward
into the wilderness of Maon. Saul followed him, but was
called off to repel an unexpected incursion of the Philistines.
Here, being one day weary, the king withdrew into a cave to
take some rest. In the providence of God, it happened that
this was the very cave in whose interior recesses David and
his men lay concealed; and while Saul slept, David advanced
softly and cut off the skirt of his robe. When the king
went out of the cave, David followed him at some distance,
and at length called to him, and displayed the skirt in
evidence of his innocence. Saul could but feel that he who
had taken the fragment of his garment could have taken his


life; and struck by this magnanimity, his stern heart was
subdued. "Is that thy voice, my son David ?" he cried; and
then he wept. He acknowledged that he had been foolish
and wicked; that the son of Jesse was worthy of the destinies
which awaited him; and he exacted from him a promise, that
when he became king he would not root out the family of
his predecessor, as eastern kings were wont do. Saul then
David again retreated into the wilderness of Ziph, which
came to the knowledge of Saul, and notwithstanding his
recent convictions, he went in search of him -with three
thousand men. While the king of Israel lay encamped and
surrounded by his troops, during the darkness and stillness
of the night, and when all were fast asleep, David, accompa-
nied by Abishai, penetrated, undiscovered, to the place where
the monarch lay, and took away the spear which was stuck
in the ground near his head, and the cruse of water which
stood by his side. In the morning, he called to the king
from the hill-side, and displayed these manifest tokens that
the king's life had been completely in his power. His re-
monstrance was attended with the same result as on the
former occasion. Saul, grieved and ashamed, confessed that
he had acted "foolishly," and returned to Gibeah.
David lived to see his kingly foe a suicide, while he took


the throne to taste the bitter cup of sorrow in the hand of
an unfilial rebellious son.
Absalom was a young man of genius and great personal
beauty; and he might have been an eminently noble and
useful prince in Israel. But his passions were not subdued
early life, and they ruined him. Having slain his
brother because of his shameful conduct toward their sister
Tamar, he fled to another country, and was an exile three
years, when his return and reconciliation to his father,
was followed by promotion to a place of honor. He had
escort of fifty horsemen, and chariots set apart for his
personal service. This prosperity was too much for his way-
ward spirit; his ambition took the form of unnatural and
horrible treason.
The deliberate manner in which he plotted the overthrow
of his father's throne, and brought the rebellion to a head,
exposes not only the depravity, and ambition, but the energy
and firm character of the man. Every morning early, found
him at the gate of the city, accosting each stranger as he
entered with that bland and persuasive manner so few could
resist. From what part of the country do you come ?" he
inquired; "and what is your business here?" To be thus
noticed by a prince was sufficient condescension; but when
he went farther, and asked of his troubles and grievances, and
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sympathised with him, exclaiming, Oh that I were a judge
in Israel; how soon would I interest myself in your suit, and
redress your wrongs!" the unsuspecting countryman was
completely won over, and returned to his home filled with
the praises of Absalom. And when any of the lower classes
paused to render him that homage which was his due as a
prince of the blood, he checked him, and taking him aside,
kissed him, and whispered flatteries and promises in his ear.
Thus, he stole away the hearts of the people."
Year after year, he prosecuted this cunning but nefarious
plan, till all over the land there was a secret wish that he
could sit in Fing _).avid's place. When he discovered this.
he organized his conspiracy; and under pretence of going to
Hebron, to pay a vow to the Lord, he set up there his stand-
ard, and blew his trumpet of defiance. That bugle blast
shook the throne of his father to its foundations, and he fled
in affright and grief from his palace and capital. Still, a host
of brave hearts clung to him, ready to fight and die in his
The two armies met in a thick forest, and the battle at
once became fierce and sanguinary. Amid the braying of
trumpets, the neighing of steeds and clash of weapons, the
shout of Israel and Absalom was heard ringing over the din,
as brothers and friends closed in the mortal struggle. They


fought long and bravely, but the rebel forces at length gave
way, for God was on the father's side. Absalom saw with
despair the rout of his best troops, and strove with almost
superhuman efforts to stay the reverse tide of bVttle. Vain
valor-broken and dispersed, they fled on every side, and
twenty thousand corpses strewed the forest. Enraged and
desperate, Absalom, bareheaded, his long tresses streaming
in the wind, spurred all alone on the king's guard, doubtless
in the hope of finding his father, and by one bold blow re-
storing his fortunes. But as he was galloping under an oak,
his hair caught on a knotty branch, and stripping him from
his mule, left him dangling in mid-heaven. IIe strove des-
perately to reach the limb and extricate himself, but in vain.
While thus struggling, he heard the clatter of a horse's hoofs
and wrenching half around, he saw Joab, the fiercest general
of the royal army, approaching. He knew too well the hate
that fiery warrior bore him, to expect or ask mercy; and
with a countenance pale as marble, and a brow knit in stern
defiance, he awaited his doom. Joab reined up before him,
and gazing a moment on the helpless prince, drew forth a
javelin and hurled it in his body. Another and another
followed, and Absalom swung a corpse in the forest.
Solomon had a peaceful reign; but Rehoboam, his son,
was a tyrant: selfish and ambitious. When the people


offered him their homage if he would lighten their bur-
dens, for the expensive luxuries of Solomon had increased
the taxes, he told them roughly he would put upon them a
heavier yoke; and if his father chastised them with whips,
he would with scorpions. Then went up the shout: What
portion have we in David? neither have we inheritance in
the son of Jesse; to your tents, 0 Israel! now see to thine
own house, David."
Rehoboam gathered all his fighting men of the two tribes
which he had left, Judah, and little Benjamin, to subdue the
rebels; but God commanded him not to go, because he deter-
mined to rend the kingdom on account of its crimes under
Solomon's reign.
Jeroboam, the son of Nebat, was anointed king of Israel,
whose wickedness prepared the way for lawless successors,
and farther rebellion. God's curse was upon Israel for treason
against him.
Jezebel was a Sidonian princess of commanding figure,
vigorous intellect, and depraved heart. Like Delilah, she
was a voluptuary and an idolater. Ahab was now king of
Israel, a man of weak mind and utterly destitute of moral
principle. From mere policy, or influenced by her personal
attractions, he made her his queen.
The prophets were the first victims of her malignant


cruelty, and were slaughtered till only a hundred were left,
who were concealed by the good Obadiah, governor of the
royal household. From the fact that no more mention is
made of them, it is evident they were at length dragged
forth by the executioners of her hostility to the worship of
Jehovah, although its celestial glory was already gone, and
its hallowed rites had given place to the forms of prevailing
Elijah, gifted and fearless, was especially the object of
Jezebel's hatred. The monarch, goaded on by the unwasting
zeal of the queen, went forth to slay his enemy. Then fol-
lowed the scene on Mount Carmel, when fire came down
from heaven to Elijah's altar.
Ahab was fatally wounded not long afterward in a battle
with the Assyrians, and died. Elisha anointed Jehu, a cap-
tain in the army of the king, to execute the hastening ven-
geance of God. The host rallied around his standard, and
blew their trumpets in joyful acclamation, while he led them
on toward the walls of the capital. Meeting Joram, son of
Jezebel, the reigning sovereign, and Ahaziah, her grandson,
king of Judah, who came forth in their alarm at the sight of
that war-cloud, sweeping as on the wings of a hurricane
along the hills, he pierced the former with an arrow, and
throwing the body into the vineyard of Naboth, slew the


other in his chariot, and dashed on to the open gate of
Jezreel. The shouts of the populace, and the rushing of
chariot-wheels, reached the chamber of the queen.
Painting her face, and splendidly attired, "she looked out
at the window," and calling to Jehu, reminded him of the
fate of Zimri, the conspirator against Elah, who perished in
the flames of the palace his own hand kindled. Jehu looked
up and cried to the eunuchs, Who is on my side ?" The
quick reply was the descending form of Jezebel, mangled on
the projecting wall, and sprinkling the horses with blood.
He then drove over this dying daughter of a king and queen
of Israel, stern, sullen and daring to the last, till the hoofs
of his steeds were red with trampled dead.
Entering now the desolate palace-hall, he told the throng
to go and see this cursed woman, and bury her, for she was
a king's daughter." But in accordance with prophesy, they
found only the fragments of Jezebel's body left by the dogs.
Jehu continued his work of slaughter till the idolatrous race
was extinct, and the dishonor cast on the name of Jehovah
was wiped out with the blood of a whole generation.
Athaliah, the daughter of Jezebel, followed the example
of her mother. Naboth's history had furnished a precedent
this wicked queen was not unwilling to follow, and the trage-
dies in both branches of an impious line, remind us of the
r i Ii I I -- a


Borgia family of modern history, who have written their
names blood, on the ecclesiastical and civil records of
Italy. She finally died an ignominious death, and her body
lay in the highway to the palace, trodden in the soil by
horsemen, who but a few hours before quailed before her
eye of flame. Mother and daughter, alike in unblushing im-
piety which vaulted to the stars, perished equally wretched
in their hurried and hopeless departure from a world they
made more desolate, to an abode where Justice completes his
During the captivity of the Hebrews in Babylon, what
splendid examples of loyalty to their faith and country, in
contrast with base espionage and betrayal, were furnished by
the youthful Daniel, praying to his God although he knew
that spies were listening, and the decree of death if he were
found communing with Jehovah, had gone forth-by the
three men in the fiery furnace-and not the least among
devout patriots, Mordecai and Esther. And how sadly dark
is the evidence of human depravity, when it meets us, watch-
ing with evil eye the good, and glorying in the betrayal and
earthly ruin of innocence !

F.ri~- :>

LII 1. li F, 7 r J

I I I ~I

~q~ ~


I \
L nir -r






THE reign of Herod and his sons in Judea, which connected
the Old and the New Testament annals, was justly unpopular,
because of its oppressive cruelty. Herod, the royal murderer
of the "innocents," was an Idumean; a native of Idumea,
also called Edom, and Mount Seir, lying between the Dead
Sea and the Red Sea.
The original inhabitants here were the Horim, having
caves for their habitations; and were driven out by the
children of Esau. Antipater, Herod's father, was an Idu-
mean millionaire, and an imperious, restless man. After
obtaining the control of his own mountain land, he turned
his attention to other provinces. The first object before his
mind, was friendship and alliance with powerful Rome.
Soon Antipater secured his aim; gettir. -is son Phasaelus
appointed over Jerusalem, and Herod, then fifteen years old,
governor of Galilee. This boy-commander of a province was
3 33
- m --


brave and energetic; and by his successes in ridding the
country of roving bands of robbers, acquired for a time
popularity with the people. But leading men in Jeruvalem
united in rebellion against him. He was tried before the :"
hedrim, the Jewish council of seventy members, and acquitted.
When, soon after, Antigonus marched against Jerusalem,
Herod fled and hastened to Rome to plead his cause before
the Emperor. The ambitious, cunning prince, was pro-
claimed King of the Jews, and invested with all the rights
and insignia of royalty. He killed his wife Marianna, with
his two sons Alexander and Aristobulus. Not long after the
Messiah's birth, he died a horrible death, suffering great
agony, eaten, while yet alive, by worms. The kingdom was
divided among his three sons, Herod Antipas having for
his portion Galilee and Peraea. Of this governor we shall
learn more when we come to the story of Assassins.
The appearance of the promised Messiah at this period,
created new excitement, espionage, and civil strife. As soon
as the Hebrews discovered that he was not a temporal king,
who would break the Roman yoke, and establish a throne of
regal splendor, they rejected his claims and plotted his death.
Spies were constantly on his track, to "catch him in his talk;"
as either saying what was contrary to their law, or treason-
able to the Roman authority.


Here was a new form of open rebellion against God in
Palestine; a wilfully blind hostility which spared no act of
enmity, until the conspiracy was a success in its designs on
the human life of the King of kings;" a crime and tragedy,
whose narrative will reappear in the course of his personal
Not only did the Hebrews waylay and kill the founder of
the gospel kingdom, but they followed his apostles and all
the early disciples with the same watchful hate. Stephen,
the first Christian martyr, was arrested and then stoned until
he fell asleep." Peter, who once betrayed his master, was
falsely accused and cast into prison, from which an angel
delivered him at night, to be watched again, until life itself
was taken. A similar experience had the rest of the leading
citizens of the new kingdom of the world.
Soon the rebellious and persecuting Hebrews entered upon
the work of self-destruction. Beneath the sceptre of Rome,
the Jews who believed it to be "unlawful," for the chosen
people of God to pay tribute to heathen rulers, were called
" Zealots;" and under this name were prominent during the
later years of the Hebrew nation. They improved every
occasion that offered, to raise insurrections against the
Roman governors who succeeded each other for about half
a century. Regarding those of their Jewish brethren who


did pay tribute, as traitors to their divine origin and rights,
the Zealots treated them as enemies also; and robbery and
death became common. The condition of things in Israel
now was bad enough; worse than when in Egypt in some
respects, dependant slaves, and more wretched than while
Wandering, a rebellious host, in the wilderness. Numbers
of the better class sought refuge in foreign lands.
We shall glance at the strange and sanguinary record of Pal-
estine, especially its capital, for the centuries which follow;
taking our sad and condensed narrative. from Kitto's annals.
The land was distracted by tumult, and overrun by robbers,
who, professing zeal for liberty and religion, plundered, with-
out mercy, the defenceless towns and villages which refused
to give in their adhesion to what was called the patriot cause.
Meanwhile justice was sold by the Roman governor, and
even the sacred office of the high-priesthood was offered to
the highest bidder. Consequently those who got that dig-
nity were often profligate wretches, who used it for their own
Purposes, and maintained themselves in it by the darkest
iniquities. Being of different sects and parties, of which
there was now a great number, they and the leading men of
the nation acted with all the animosity of sectarianism
Against each other. With such examples in their superiors,
the ordinary priests and the scribes became, in the highest
j l 36



-I I.-


degree, dissolute and unprincipled; while the mass of the
people abandoned themselves to all evil; and seditions,
extortions, and robberies, were matters of every day occur-
rence. The bands of society were loosened; and it became
clear that the nation was fast ripening for destruction.
In Cesarea, came the actual outbreak. That place, the
seat of the Roman governor, was built by Herod, and had a
mixed population of Syrians and Jews, both of whom claimed
the right to rule the city. The dispute had been referred to
the Emperor, and about this time the decree was announced
in favor of the Syrians, whose boundless exultation exaspe-
rated all the Jews, who had felt a deep interest in the ques-
tion. This, with insults on their religion which the governor
refused to notice, fanned into a flame the smouldering embers
of revolt. Acting upon the impulse thus given, a party of
hot-brained young men surprised a Roman garrison at Mas-
sada, near the Dead Sea, and put all the soldiers to the sword.
This act was recognized at Jerusalem, where the leaders of
the nation openly threw off their allegiance, by the refusal
of the priests any longer to offer up the usual sacrifices for
the prosperity of the Roman empire. There also the popular
party rose and slew the Roman garrison; and the palace and
the public offices were destroyed by fire. Indescribable bar-
barities were also committed by the "patriot" party upon the


quietly-disposed citizens. This example produced a general
insurrection, in which the Jews on the one side, and the
Romans and Syrians on the other, attacked each other
with the greatest fury; and in every city there was war,
massacre, and spoliation.
On the first news of this revolt, the President of Syria,
Cestius Gallus, marched a powerful army into Judea, and
advanced against Jerusalem. Strange to say, he was defeated
by the insurgents with great slaughter; and the military
engines which fell into the hands of the victors, were of great
use to them in the subsequent defence of the city. The
honor of Rome was now engaged to avenge this disgrace,
and no thinking man for a moment doubted the result.
Nero sent the able and experienced Vespasian into Syria
(who was accompanied by his son Titus), with the quality of
president, to take the conduct of the war.
Vespasian commenced his invasion in the spring of A. D.
67, with an army of sixty thousand men. Instead of going
at once to Jerusalem, he employed himself in reducing Gali-
lee, and in recovering the fortresses which had been taken
by the insurgents. At Jotapata he was opposed by Josephus,
the historian of the war, to whom the provisional Jewish
government had confided the defence of Galilee. The fortress
fell, and Josephus was taken alive. Hie was at first treated


rather roughly, but afterward with consideration and re-
spect. Though the war was steadily prosecuted, Vespasian
was in no haste to march against Jerusalem; and when urged
by his impatient officers, he told them that it was better to
let the Jews destroy one another. In fact, he knew well how
destructively the factions were raging against each other in
Jerusalem. There were three of these factions, afterward re-
duced to two, holding possession of different parts of the city,
They wasted their strength in cruel conflicts with each other;
in which they even destroyed the storehouses of corn and
provisions which formed the only resource against famine in
the threatened siege. In one thing, however, they all agreed,
-in harassing, plundering, and destroying the citizens and
nobles who did not enter into their views. In the meantime
Vespasian was declared emperor, and departed for Rome,
leaving the conduct of the war to his son Titus.
At the feast of the Passover, in the ensuing year, when the
city of Jerusalem was, as usual at that time, crowded with
people from all quarters, the Roman army appeared before
the walls.
The city was very strong, being surrounded by three walls,
one within another; and then there was the temple, which
itself was an exceedingly strong fortress. All these defences
were successively carried by the Romans, although every


step was desperately contested by the besieged, who for fifteen
weeks prevented their enemies from reaching the temple.
During that time, the most horrible famine was experienced
within the city.
The lower city was taken by the Romans early in the
month of May; but the temple did not fall until the beginning
of August. Titus was most anxious to save this glorious
fabric, as one of the noblest ornaments of the Roman empire.
But the Jewish historian observes, that the "holy and beauti-
ful house" was doomed to destruction; and he attributes to
" a divine impulse" the act of the soldier who seized a burn-
ing brand, and cast it in at the golden window, whereby the
whole fabric was soon in flames. Titus hastened to the spot,
and finding all attempt to save the building hopeless, he,
with some of his officers, entered the sanctuary, and directed
the removal of the sacred utensils of gold, some of which
afterward graced his triumphal procession, and were sculp-
tured upon the arch which commemorated his victory.
The upper city, into which the besieged had retreated,
soon after fell; and this completed the conquest of Jerusalem.
In all these operations the carnage was horrible, for with the
Romans the time for mercy was past; and, in their exaspera-
tion at the useless obstinacy of the defence, they burnt and
destroyed without remorse, and massacred the people without



u- I



distinction of age or sex. Streams of blood ran through all
the streets, and the alleys were filled with bodies weltering in
gore. The number that perished during the four months of
the siege, is computed at one million one hundred thousand,
a number which would seem incredible if we did not recol-
lect that a nation was, as it were, shut up in that city, having
assembled to celebrate the Passover; so that, as Josephus
observes, this exceeded all the destruction that had hitherto
been brought upon the world. Besides, more than an equal
number perished elsewhere in the six years of war; and
ninety-seven thousand were made prisoners and sold into
slavery. Of these, thousands were sent to toil in the Egyptian
mines, and thousands more were sent into different provinces
as presents, to be consumed by the sword, and by wild beasts
in the amphitheatres. They were offered for sale till no man
would buy them," and then they were slain, or given away.
Thus did Israel cease to be a nation, and become outcast
and desolate; thus were their famous city and its glorious
temple utterly cast down; and the doom was inflicted which
was impiously invoked, when the inhabitants of Jerusalem
cried out, His blood be on us and on our children."
Christianity, which spread over the Roman and Greek
countries, became with the lapse of time less spiritual, and
more devoted to attractive ceremonies, and increase of tem-


poral power. One branch of the Church was called Greek,
and the other Latin or Roman Catholic. They were similar
in spirit and worship. Their names will often occur in the
annals which follow.
A little more than three centuries after the gospel era
dawned, when the Persian army invaded Syria, and then
Palestine, there was civil war between the Christian popula-
tion and the Jews, whose mutual dislike had become intense.
Twenty-four thousand Hebrews joined the Persians, and
within the walls of Jerusalem, the massacre of these people
was awful. At length the city (which had been under Chris-
tian rule since Constantine the Great, who had embraced
Christianity, conquered Palestine), was stormed; and the Jews
had an unlimited opportunity for revenge. The Christians
neither sought nor found mercy; and ninety thousand of
them perished. Many were sold into slavery, and others
were bought on purpose to be murdered.
It is wonderful and sad to see what a prize for rival
kings, and what an arena of treachery, revolt, and tragedies,
Jerusalem became after their rejection and execution of their
appointed King.
The followers of Mohammed, extending their doctrines and
their dominion by fire and sword, rapidly subdued Arabia,
Syria, and Egypt, when, about the year 637, the victorious


Omar turned his arms against Jerusalem. After a siege of
four months, during which the Arabs suffered extremely
from the inclemency of the winter, a capitulation was pro-
posed and agreed to, when the conqueror entered the city,
seated on a red camel, which carried a bag of corn and dates,
and without guards, or any other precaution. Omar was
assassinated in Jerusalem in the year 643, after which the
East was for two hundred years distracted by the bloody
wars that ensued among the Ommiades, the Abbassides, and
the Fatimite caliphs; and Palestine having become an object
of contest between them, was, for a like period, a scene of
devastation and trouble. In the year 868, the capital was
conquered by Achmet, a Turk; but was again recovered by
the caliphs of Bagdad, in the year 906. It was reduced by
Mohammed Ikschid, of the Turkish race. Toward the end
of the tenth century, the holy city was taken possession of
by Ortok; and in 1076, by Meleschah a Turk. It was re-
taken by the Ortokides, and finally by the Fatimites, who
held possession of it when the Crusaders made their first
appearance in the holy land.,
Jerusalem, though it was in possession of infidel chiefs,
was still revered as a holy city by both Christian and Jew,
and was visited by pilgrims from every quarter; among
others by Peter the hermit, a native of Amiens. The pa-
-. .. I l lT . .I "i --'


thetic tale which he brought to Europe, of the injuries and
insults which the Christian pilgrims suffered from the infidels,
who possessed and profaned the holy city, excited the deepest
sympathy among the people and princes of Christendom.
Councils were summoned, and were attended by bishops, a
numerous train of priests and citizens.
The mixed multitude were harangued by the zealous advo-
cates of this sacred cause; their pity and indignation were
alternately roused by the sufferings of their brethren in the
Holy Land; the flame of enthusiasm was spread by sympathy
and example; and the eager champions of the cross, the flower
of the European chivalry, assembled in martial array, to
march against the enemies of their common faith. To defray
the necessary expenses of the expedition, princes gave up
their provinces, nobles their lands and castles, peasants their
cattle and instruments of husbandry; and vast armies were
transported to Palestine, in order to accomplish the deliver-
ance of the holy sepulchre. These rude and undisciplined
bands died in great numbers on reaching the shore of Asia,
from disease, famine, and fatigue; and, of the first Crusaders,
it is estimated, that three hundred thousand had perished
before a single city was rescued from the infidels. Having
taken the towns of Nice and Antioch in the year 1098, they
about a year after, laid siege to Jerusalem, and carried it by



-- Ip


assault, with a prodigious slaughter of the garrison and
inhabitants, which was continued for three days, without
respect either to age or sex.
Eight days after the capture of Jerusalem, the Latin chiefs
proceeded to the election of a king, who should preside over
their conquest in Palestine, and Godfrey of Bouillon was
unanimously raised to this high office. But if it was an
honorable office, it was also one of danger; he was not chosen
to sway a peaceful sceptre, and he was summoned to the field
in the first fortnight of his reign, to defend his capital against
the sultan of Egypt, who approached with a powerful army.
The signal overthrow of the latter in the battle of Ascalon
confirmed the stability of the Latin throne, and enabled God-
frey to extend on every side his infant kingdom, which con-
sisted only of Jerusalem and Jaffa, with about twenty villages
and towns of the adjacent districts.
The military force of the first Crusaders, wasted by fatigue
and by losses in the field, was no longer able to oppose the
hosts of Turks and Saracens by which it was surrounded.
The first victories of the Crusaders, and their rapid success,
spread abroad the terror of their arms. But the alarm soon
subsided, and the chiefs of the Mohammedan faith rallied
their forces, and attacked the European posts scattered over
the country, and made conquests.


The crusaders were finally defeated, and the infidels, as the
Mohammedans were termed, became bolder and more threaten-
ing. The ruling family in Jerusalem and the nobility were
however its worst enemies. Through their rivalries, and the
treachery of Count Raymond, correspondence was opened with
Sultan Saladin, a splendid chieftain, who invaded Palestine
with an army of eighty thousand men. The king of Jerusa-
lem went out to battle and was beaten, losing thirty thou-
sand of his troops.
The city was in no condition to sustain a protracted siege.
It was crowded with fugitives from every quarter, who here
sought an asylum from the destroying sword: a disorderly
throng of one hundred thousand persons was confined within
the walls, but there were few soldiers. The queen was
alarmed for the fate of her captive husband, and her govern-
ment was feeble and indecisive. A defence was maintained
for fourteen days, during which the besiegers had effected a
breach in the wall, and only waited the sultan's orders for the
assault. This last extremity was averted by a capitulation.
The sultan made his triumphant entry into the city with
waving banners and martial music; the Christian church was
converted into a mosque, and the glittering cross was taken
down and dragged through the streets, amid the shouts of the
Moslems. The whole country now submitted to the sultan,


whose victorious progress was first arrested by the resistance
of Tyre, which was gallantly defended by Conrad. The sul-
tan, being foiled in all his attempts to take this place, was
finally compelled to raise the siege, and to retreat to Damas-
The capture of Jerusalem by the infidels, and the decline
of the Christian cause in Palestine, excited the deepest sorrow;
the decaying zeal of the European powers was awakened, and
new expeditions were fitted out for the recovery of the holy
city. Philip, king of France, the emperor, Frederic Barba-
rossa, of Germany, and Richard I. of England, surnamed
Coeur-de-Lion, assembled a large force, and, with the aid of
Flanders, Frise, and Denmark, filled about two hundred
vessels with their troops. The first armaments landed at
Tyre, the only remaining inlet of the Christians into the Holy
Land, and no time was lost in commencing the celebrated
siege of Acre, which was maintained with an enthusiasm that
mocked at danger, and by feats of valor that were the theme
of wonder, even in that romantic age. This memorable
siege lasted for nearly two years, and was attended with a
prodigious loss of men on both sides. At length, in the spring
of the second year, the royal fleets of France and England
cast anchor in the bay, with powerful reinforcements, and
the brave defenders of Acre were reduced to capitulate.
- . . . . ..CIl . . . . .


The capture of Acre was the prelude to further operations
against the enemy. Richard determined to commence the
siege of Ascalon, about a hundred miles distant, and his
march to this place was a continual battle of eleven days.
He was opposed by Saladin with an army of three hundred
thousand combatants; and on this occasion was fought one
of the most memorable battles of this or any other age.
Saladin was defeated with the loss of forty thousand men,
and the victorious Richard obtained possession of Ascalon,
and the other towns of Judea. A severe winter interrupted
the operations of the field. But Richard, issuing from his
winter quarters with the first gleam of spring, advanced with
his army within sight of Jerusalem, the great object of his
enterprise. Saladin had chosen Jerusalem for his head-quar-
ters, where the sudden appearance of the Christian conqueror
spread universal consternation. The holy city was relieved
by the hasty retreat of the English king, discouraged by the
difficulties of the enterprise and the murmurs of his troops.
In the meantime, the town of Jaffa was assaulted by Saladin
with a formidable force, and was on the point of surrendering,
when Richard, hastening to its relief, encountered the be-
sieging army of Saracens and Turks, amounting to sixty
thousand men, who yielded to the force of his attack. The
miseries of a protracted war began to be felt, and the ambition


- Y-

- U


of Richard was checked by the discontent of his troops.
At last both Saladin and Richard were equally desirous of
ending an unpopular and ruinous contest. The first demands
of Richard, were, the restoration of Jerusalem, Palestine,
and the true cross. These terms were rejected by the sultan,
who would not part with the sovereignty of Palestine, or
listen to any proposition for dismembering his dominions.
The fourth Crusade was encouraged by the zeal of Pope
Celestine III., and was directed against the Greek empire,
which was too feeble to resist so formidable an attack. The
result was its conquest by the Latins, who ruled over it fifty-
seven years.
The sovereign of the Latin kingdom at this time was Mary,
the daughter of Isabella by Conrad of Tyre. To strengthen
the government of Jerusalem, it was resolved to request the
king of France, a gallant warrior, to provide a husband for
Mary. John de Brienne was chosen; and the Christian
chiefs were so elated, they broke the truce between them and
the sultan, and appealed to the arbitration of the sword. The
king of Jerusalem displayed all the great qualities of a
statesman and a soldier; but he foresaw its gradual decline
and final ruin approaching, reduced as it was, to two or
three towns, and would have been entirely destroyed had it
not been for the civil wars among its enemies.


A new Crusade was commenced, and a large force, chiefly
Hungarians and Germans, landed at Acre. The sons of
Saladin, who now ruled in Syria, collected their armies
to oppose this formidable attack. But the Crusaders, rashly
conducted, and weakened by divisions, advanced into the
country, without concert or prudence; provisions failed them;
they were wasted, as usual, by famine and disease; and at
length their leader, the sovereign of Hungary, resolved to
quit a country where he had been exposed to hardship and
danger, without glory. The crusading armies, thus weakened
and discouraged, had laid aside all further idea of war, when,
in the spring of the following year, a fleet of three hundred
vessels, from the Rhine, appeared on the coast, and brought
powerful reinforcements, which recruited their strength and
restored their ascendancy in the field. For reasons which do
not clearly appear, they now retired from Palestine, and car-
ried the war into Egypt, and spread such consternation among
the infidels, that the most favorable terms of peace were
offered, and rejected by the Crusaders. Soon after, they were
reduced to the necessity of bargaining for permission to retire
to Palestine, by the cession of all their conquests in Egypt.
The next Crusade was undertaken by Frederic II., the
grandson of Barbarossa, according to a vow which had been
long made, and the performance of which had been so long


delayed that he was excommunicated by Gregory IX. He
set sail with a fleet of two hundred ships and an army of
forty thousand men, and arrived at Acre. This was the most
successful and the most bloodless expedition that had yet been
undertaken. Without a battle Frederic entered Jerusalem in
triumph. The Saracen power was at this time weakened by'
divisions, and, owing to suspected treachery among his kin-
dred, Kamel, the son of Saladin, held precarious possession of
the throne. It was his policy, therefore, rather to disarm the
hostility of these powerful armies by treating with them, than
to encounter them in the field; and, accordingly, a treaty was
concluded, by which Jerusalem, Jaffa, Bethlehem, Nazareth,
and their dependencies, were restored to the Christians; reli-
gious toleration was established, and the contending parties
of Christians and Mohammedans were allowed each to offer
up their devotions, the first in the mosque El-Aksa, and the
last in the mosque of Omar. Both these mosques stand on
Mount Moriah; the Christians believed that the mosque of
El-Aksa (which was originally a Christian Church), and the
Moslems that the mosque of Omar, occupied the precise site
of Solomon's Temple.
Each new disaster of the Christian arms served to rekindle
the languishing zeal of the Europeans; and Louis IX., of
France, fitted out an immense armament for the Holy Land,


consisting of eighteen hundred sail, in which he embarked
an army of fifty thousand men. He landed in Egypt, and,
after storming the town of Damietta, advanced along the
sea-coast toward Cairo, when his troops were so wasted by
sickness and famine, that they fell an easy prey to the enemy.
The king, the most of his nobles, and the remnant of his
army, were made prisoners; and it was owing to the clemency
of the sultan Moadhdham, who accepted a ransom for their
lives, that Louis, with his few surviving followers, was per-
itted to embark for Palestine.
The power of the Christians in Palestine, weakened, among
other causes, by internal dissensions, was now vigorously
assailed by the sultan Bibars, the Mamlouk sovereign of
Egypt. He invaded Palestine with a formidable army, ad-
vanced to the gates of Acre, and, reducing the towns of Sep-
phoris and Azotus, massacred or carried into captivity num-
bers of Christians. Antioch yielded to his powerful assault,
when forty thousand of the inhabitants were put to the
sword, and one hundred thousand carried into captivity. The
report of these cruelties in Europe gave rise to the ninth and
last Crusade against the infidels, which was undertaken by
Louis, the French king, sixteen years after his return from
captivity. In place of directing his arms immediately against
Palestine, he landed in Africa, and laid siege to Carthage,
Go *1


which he reduced. But he perished miserably on the burn-
ing sands of Africa, of a pestilential disease, which proved
fatal also to many of his troops; and thus ingloriously ter-
minated this expedition, which was the last undertaken by
the Europeans for the recovery of the Holy Land.
The Europeans in Palestine were now confined within the
walls of Acre, their last stronghold, which was besieged by a
Mamlouk host of two hundred thousand troops, that issued
from Egypt, and encamped on the adjacent plain. In this
their last conflict with the infidels of the Holy Land, the
Europeans fully maintained the glory of their high name.
They displayed all the devotion of martyrs in a holy cause,
and performed prodigies of valor. But, equalled as they
were in discipline, and fearfully overmatched in numbers,
by their enemies, they were overborne by the weight and
violence of their attacks, and in the storm and sack of the
city, all either perished or were carried into captivity. Thus
vanished forever all those visions of glory and conquest by
which so many adventurers were seduced from Europe to the
Holy Land, there to perish under the complicated perils of
disease and the sword.
In this condition Palestine remained without any remarka-
ble event in its history, except that for nearly three centuries
it was the scene of domestic broils, insurrections and massa-


cres, until the memorable invasion of Egypt by the French
army. Bonaparte marched across the desert which di-
vides Egypt from Palestine, and invaded the country at
the head of ten thousand troops. El Arish surrendered,
and the lives of the garrison were spared on condition
that they should not serve against him during the war.
Gaza also yielded without opposition: and Jaffa, stormed
after a brave resistance, was given up to pillage. The
French army then proceeded to form the siege of Acre;
and this fortress, the last scene of conflict between the Chris-
tians and infidels of former days, became a modern field of
battle, in which were exhibited prodigies of valor that
rivalled the most renowned deeds of those chivalric times.
The trenches were opened on the tenth of March; in ten days
a breach was effected, and a desperate assault took place. At
first the defenders were forced to give way; but Djezzar
Pasha, who had shut himself within the walls, and who was
aided by Sir Sidney Smith with a body of British sailors,
rushed forward among the thickest of the combatants, and,
animating the troops by his example, drove back the enemy
with heavy loss. Bonaparte still persevered in a series of
furious assaults against the fortress, which were all most
gallantly repelled; and after a protracted siege of sixty days,
a last assault was ordered, which being equally unsuccessful


with all former attempts, and attended with the loss of some
of his bravest warriors, dictated the necessity of an immedi-
ate retreat.
Of late years a new power has arisen in the East, namely,
that of Mehemet Ali, pasha of Egypt, who, having collected
large treasures and a well-disciplined army, openly renounced
his allegiance to the Grand Signior. A war took place, in
which the hasty levies of Turkey were broken and put to
flight by the veteran troops of Egypt; and a series of brilliant
successes added Syria, with Palestine, to the pasha's dominion.
The conscription, or forcible impressment of young men for
the army, and the disarming of the population, created general
discontent, and led to revolts, which encouraged the Porte in
the design which it had always entertained, of reducing the
pasha and recovering the ceded provinces. The Turks were
completely routed by the Egyptians in the battle of Nezib;
and the great powers of Europe then deemed it right to inter-
fere, to prevent Ibraham from pursuing his victory, and to
crush the ambitious designs of his father. This was accom-
plished chiefly through the brilliant operations of an English
fleet, under Admiral Stopford and Commodore Napier, by
which Acre and other strongholds on the coast were taken
for the sultan; and the pasha was at length compelled to
evacuate Syria and restore it to the dominion of the Porte.


The Empress Helena, mother of Constantine the Great,
built the church of the sepulchre on Mount Calvary, with its
walls of stone and roof of cedar, in which four costly lamps
are kept burning. The offerings of the many pilgrims who
visit it, defray the expense of repairing the sacred place,
whenever this work is needed.
The mosque, you will recollect, was once a Jewish Temple.
The Emperor Julian, who apostatized from Christianity-
the royal traitor to the cause dear to his best subjects-
attempted an act of high treason against God rarely equalled.
IIe determined to prove the Messiah's prediction that the
Temple should not be again rebuilt, by commencing the
work upon a new edifice. But the workmen and the rising
structure were destroyed by an earthquake. When in the
year 1824, report came to this country that another earth-
quake had occurred in Jerusalem, shaking down the mosque
of Omar, and rending the Holy Sepulchre, the American
poet, Brainard, wrote a beautiful poem upon rebellious,
treacherous, bloody, and fallen Jerusalem; an impressive
requiem over the wonderful City of the Great King."

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BY royal assassins, we mean those whose treachery and
deadly blows were aimed at princes, and other leading men
in the affairs of State, or who were themselves of princely
The history of Treason, Conspiracy, and Assassination,
would be a record of awful interests,-a revelation of singu-
lar contrasts in motive, while the tragical end sought was
the same. The desperate determination to secure, at least
avenge trampled rights; religious fanaticism; and revengeful
passion; these have been the most frequent causes of a resort
to treasonable plots and regicide, with its kindred homicides
and attempted murder of representative men in a State.
When the crimes suggested by the title above, are men-
tioned, the mind naturally goes back to the "first mur-
derer," who combined in his character the darkest traits of
an assassin. Cain betrayed a brother's confidence, was false
5 65


to God, and slew the unsuspecting worshipper by his side.
Beginning at that scene of bloodshed, in addition to the
general history of revolt, and the characters and scenes of
civil and religious hostility, we will sketch the career, so far
as known, of some of the leading traitors, conspirators and
assassins of the past. The earliest instance of regicide in the
sacred annals, is that of Ehud the left-handed Benjaminite.
To avenge the tyranny of Eglon the king of Moab, the inva-
der of his country, he made a two-edged dagger, over a foot
and a half in length, and, hiding it under his robe, took in
his hand a present to the king. Feigning important intelli-
gence, the ruler ordered the attendants to retire from his
" summer parlor" where he was sitting. Eglon rose to re-
ceive the messenger, when Ehud, with his left hand, drew
the dagger from his right side, and thrust it into the king's
body over the hilt. The assassin was unable to draw out
the weapon of death. The results of the daring deed, and
the story of another assassination which occurred soon after
Ehud's career closed, are clearly and finely narrated by the
inspired historian: Then Ehud went forth through the
porch, and shut the doors of the parlor upon him, and locked
them. When he was gone out, his servants came; and when
they saw that, behold, the doors of the parlor were locked,
they said, surely he covereth his feet in his summer chamber.


And they tarried till they were ashamed; and, behold, he
opened not the doors of the parlor; therefore they took a
key, and opened them: and, behold, their lord was fallen
down dead on the earth. And Ehud escaped while they
tarried, and passed beyond the quarries, and escaped unto
Seirath. And it came to pass, when he was come, that he
blew a trumpet in the mountain of Ephraim, and the children
of Israel went down with him from the mount, and he before
them. And he said unto them, Follow after me: for the
Lord hath delivered your enemies the Moabites into your
hand. And they went down after him, and took the fords of
Jordan toward Moab, and suffered not a man to pass over.
And they slew of Moab at that time about ten thousand men,
all lusty, and all men of valor; and there escaped not a man.
So Moab was subdued that day under the hand of Israel.
And the children of Israel again did evil in the sight of the
Lord, when Ehud was dead. And the Lord sold them into
the hand of Jabin king of Canaan, that reigned in Hazor;
the captain of whose host was Sisera who dwelt in Harosh-
eth of the Gentiles. And the children of Israel cried unto
the Lord: for he had nine hundred chariots of iron; and
twenty years he mightily oppressed the children of Israel.
And Deborah, a prophetess, the wife of Lapidoth, she judged
Israel at that time. And she dwelt under the palm tree of


Deborah between Ramah and Bethel in mount Ephraim:
and the children of Israel came up to her for judgment.
And she sent and called Barak the son Abinoanm out of Kc-
desh-naphtali, and said unto him, IIath not the Lord God
of Israel commanded, saying, go, and draw toward mount
Tabor, and take with thee ten thousand men of the children
of Naphtali, and of the children of Zebulun? And I will
draw unto thee, to the river Kishon, Sisera, the captain of
Jabin's army, with his chariots and his multitude; and I will
deliver him into thine hand. And Barak said unto her, If
thou wilt go with me, then I will go: but. if thou wilt not go
with me, then I will not go. And she said, I will surely go
with thee: notwithstanding the journey that thou takest shall
not be for thine honor; for the Lord shall sell Sisera into the
hand of a woman. And Deborah arose, and went with
Barak to Kedesh.
And Sisera gathered together all his chariots, even nine
hundred chariots of iron, and all the people that were with
him, from Harosheth of the Gentiles unto the river of Kishon.
And Deborah said unto Barak, Up; for this is the day in
which the Lord hath delivered Sisera into thine hand: is not
the Lord gone out before thee? So Barak went down from
mount Tabor, and ten thousand men after him. And the
Lord discomfited Sisera, and all his chariots, and all his host,





with the edge of the sword before Barak; so that Sisera
lighted down off his chariot, and fled away on his feet. But
Barak pursued after the chariots, and after the host, unto
Harosheth of the Gentiles: and all the host of Sisera fell
upon the edge of the sword; and there was not a man left.
Howbeit, Sisera fled away on his feet to the tent of Jael the
wife of Heber the Kenite; for there was peace between Jabin
the king of Hazor and the house of Heber the Kenite. And
Jael went out to meet Sisera, and said unto him, Turn in, my
lord, turn in to me; fear not. And when he had turned
in unto her into the tent, she covered him with a mantle.
And he said unto her, Stand in the door of the tent, and it
shall be, when any man doth come and inquire of thee,
and say, Is there any man here ? that thou shalt say, No.
Then Jael, Heber's wife, took a nail of the tent, and took
a hammer in her hand, and went softly unto him, and smote
the nail into his temples, and fastened it into the ground, for
he was fast asleep and weary. So he died. And behold, as
Barak pursued Sisera, Jael came out to meet him, and said
unto him, Come, and I will show thee the man whom thou
seekest. And when he came into her tent, behold, Sisera
lay dead, and the nail was in his temples.
Then sang Deborah and Barak, the son of Abinoam, on
that day, saying: Praise ye the Lord for the avenging of


Israel, when the people willingly offered themselves. Hear,
0 ye kings; give ear, O ye princes; I, even I, will sing unto
the Lord; I will sing praise to the Lord God of Israel. Lord,
when thou wentest out of Seir, when thou marchedst out of
the field of Edom, the earth trembled, and the heavens
dropped, the clouds also dropped water. The mountains
melted before the Lord, even that Sinai from before the Lord
God of Israel. The stars in their courses fought against Sisera.
The river of Kishon swept them away, that ancient river, the
river Kishon. O my soul, thou hast trodden down strength.
Then were the horse-hoofs broken by the means of the
prancings, the prancings of their mighty ones. Curse ye
Meroz, said the angel of the Lord, curse ye bitterly the in-
habitants thereof; because they came not to the help of the
Lord, to the help of the Lord against the mighty. Blessed
above women shall Jael the wife of IIeber the Kenite be;
blessed shall she be above women in the teht.
The mother of Sisera looked out at a window, and cried,
through the lattice, Why is his chariot so long in coming ?
Why tarry the wheels of his chariot? So let all thine
enemies perish, O Lord: but let them that love him be as
the sun when he goeth forth in his might.
Not long after, when Gideon, who had delivered his people
from the Midianites, died, his son Abimelech craftily and by


bribery induced the people to proclaim him king. This
ambitious usurper was the first kingly assassin on record who
resorted to the murder of his own father's family to estab-
lish his reign. Seventy of his brethren were slain "on one
stone," at Ophrah, the native city of the family. Whether
they were dashed from an eminence upon a rock, or sacri-
ficed on an altar of stone we do not know. The youngest
brother, Jotham, alone escaped, and afterward raised a revolt
against Abimelech, that resulted in his death. A woman
fatally wounded him by dropping a stone upon his head from
a citadel, when, in accordance with his command, his armor-
bearer stabbed him ; because he proudly disdained to have it
said, a woman killed him. The fratricidal deed of Abime-
lech has been no very uncommon thing in Asia, and even in
Europe, since his day. Some families, like that of the
Borgias, have become famous for their assassinations-leav-
ing a sanguinary record of lawless ambition and extraor-
dinary refinements in the work of mysterious murder.
The next royal assassin was Jehu, the tenth king of Israel,
and the founder of its fourth dynasty. Before he took the
throne, he was an officer in the army at Ramoth Gilead.
The troops were there to hold in check the Assyrian forces
that were advancing toward the river Jordan, and had taken
much of the territory east of the river.


Ahaziah, king of Judah, had aided Joram, the ruler of
Israel, in waging this war. Joram, having been wounded,
repaired to Jezreel to be healed, and his friend Ahaziah went
there to sympathize with him, and discuss the crisis in the
contest. A council was held by the commanders, during
which, there suddenly appeared before the tent door one of
the disciples of the prophets, who was known by his dress,
and called for Jehu. He had been sent by Elisha to deliver
a message which had been sent to Elijah many years before.
The young man took a horn of oil, and pouring the contents
upon his head anointed him king, declaring this to be the
will of God. Jehu was not a man to lose any advantage
through remissness. He immediately entered his chariot, in
order that his presence at Jezreel should be the first an-
nouncement which Joram would receive of this revolution.
As soon as the advance of Jehu and his party was seen in
the distance by the watchmen upon the palace tower in
Jezreel, two messengers were successively sent forth to meet
him, and were commanded by Jehu to follow in his rear.
But when the watchman reported that he could now recog-
nize the furious driving of Jehu, Joram went forth himself to
meet him, and was accompanied by the king of Judah. They
met in the field of Naboth, so fatal to the house of Ahab.
The king saluted him with "Is it peace, -Jehu ?" and re-


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ceived the answer, What peace, so long as the idolatrie;
of thy mother Jezcbel, and her witchcrafts are so many
This completely opened the eyes of Joram, who exclaimed to
the king of Judah, There is treachery, O Ahaziah !" and
turned to flee. But Jehu felt no infirmity of purpose, d
knew that the slightest wavering might be fatal to him. IIc,
therefore, drew a bow with his full strength, and sent forth
an arrow which passed through the king's heart. Jehu caused
the body to be thrown back into the field of Naboth, out of
which he had passed in his attempt at flight, and grimly re-
marked to Bidkar, his captain, Remember, how that, when
I and thou rode together after Ahab his father, the Lord laid
this burden upon him. The king of Judah contrived t,
escape, but not without a wound, of which he afterward died
at Megiddo.
There were several cases of assassination in Israel, under
the kings; among which, were the death of Abner by Joab,
both gallant military officers, Ish-bosheth, Jonathan's son,
and Amnon, David's son. But we shall pass on to the
murder of a king recorded in the Bible, although he was not
an Israelite.
Benhadad, the king of Syria, was dangerously sick. Some
told him "about Elisha, who was then a famous prophet,
and travelling toward his royal city. The invalid immedi-


ately commissioned IIazael, whose name means vision of God,
one of his officers, to meet the Seer at Damascus. He was
followed by forty camels, bearing presents from the king.
When Hazael appeared before the prophet, he said, Thy son
Benhadad, king of Syria, hath sent me to thee, saying, Shall
I recover of this disease? The answer was that he might
certainly recover. Howbeit," added the prophe- the Lord
hath showed me that he shall surely die." He then gazed
earnestly at Hazael until he was ashamed. Elisha then
wept, when Iazael inquired the cause of this deep emotion.
Because thou wilt do great evil to the children of Israel.
IIazael exclaimed, Is thy servant a dog that he should do
this thing ? The prophet then revealed the events at hand,
when IIazael returned, and repeated to the king only a part
of the message he had received from the man of God. The
next day, according to the prediction, this cool and calcula-
ting assassin took a thick cloth, and, having dipped it in
water, spread it over the face of the king, who, in his feeble-
ness, and probably in his sleep, was smothered by its weight,
and died, what seemed to his people, a natural death.
The cunning and deliberate regicide had brooded over the
plot; and betrayed his treachery, when he blushed and
became restless under the searching glance of Elisha. For
all criminals are more troubled and sensitive before they


have committed the contemplated deed; the first guilty act
hardens the heart, blunts the edge of conscience, and em-
boldens the transgressor in sin.
After the death of Jehu, there was a succession of con-
spiracies and assassinations in Israel and Judah-a series of
tragedies which make a dark and strange chapter in sacred
Joash, the son of Ahaziah, who was hidden for six years
from Athaliah, when she attempted to slay all the rightful
heirs to the throne, was the eighth king of Judah. While
Jehoiada the high priest lived, whose wife had saved the life
of the prince, he was an excellent sovereign. But after the
good man was gone, he yielded to the influence of undevout
counsellors, and Pagan idolatries were allowed to take the
place of Jehovah's worship.
The prophets sounded over his throne the messages of
warning from an insulted God; but he heeded not the voice
of alarm. He put to death Zachariah, son and successor to
Jehoiada, because he reproved him, and seemed determined
to fulfil the heathen proverb: "Whom the gods would
destroy, they first make mad." He became desperate in
wickedness; and Hazael was permitted to ravage his domin-
ions. Not only so, but like the more modern Herod, his ex-
istence was made a burden by a fearful disease. He gave up


the sacred treasures of the temple to prevent the invasion of
Jerusalem by Assyrians.
The servants of Joash conspired against him, according to
tradition, to avenge the death of Zachariah, and slew him in
his bed of suffering. Whether they cut short his wretched
life by the dagger, or more by cruel blows, w-do not know.
He was not buried in the sepulchre of the kings, in the
"city of David." His place of interment is not recorded; it
is only stated that he was buried in Jerusalem.
Amaziah, a word which, in the Hebrew, means the strength
of Jehovah, was twenty-five years old when he ascended the
throne of Judah.
The first act of his reign, was a wholesale murder of those
who had conspired against his father. Then he invaded
Edom, to reduce it again to the sovereignty of Judah, from
which, under Jehoram, it had revolted. To succeed against the
formidable sons of Ishmael, for the first time in the history
of the Hebrews, he hired an army to help him. He gave one
hundred thousand talents of silver, which were equal to more
than a billion of dollars, for a hundred thousand men from the
army of Israel. But God revealed his displeasure against
such a resort to a degenerate people, and Amaziah was com-
pelled to send them back, and lose his talents.
The king gained a great victory over the Edomites, which
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6 81
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