Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 The Russians
 The Norwegians
 The Dutch
 The Belgians
 The Hungarians
 The Danes
 The Italians
 The Swiss
 Back Cover

Group Title: people of Europe
Title: The people of Europe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00015226/00001
 Material Information
Title: The people of Europe
Alternate Title: Costumes of Europe
Physical Description: 40 p., 12 leaves of plates : col. ill. ; 16 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (Great Britain) -- Committee of General Literature and Education
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (Great Britain) ( Publisher )
William Clowes and Sons
Publisher: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge
Place of Publication: London (77 Great Queen Street 4 Royal Exchange 16 Hanover Street)
Manufacturer: W. Clowes and Sons
Publication Date: 1856
Copyright Date: 1856
Subject: National characteristics -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Civilization -- Juvenile literature -- Europe   ( lcsh )
Publishers' paper bindings (Binding) -- 1856   ( rbbin )
Bldn -- 1856
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Publishers' paper bindings (Binding)   ( rbbin )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Statement of Responsibility: published under the direction of the Committee of General Literature and Education, appointed by the Society for Promoting Christain Knowledge.
General Note: Approximate dates based on publisher's address (16 Hanover Street), established from Brown, P. London publishers and printers c. 1800-1870.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00015226
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA7843
notis - ALJ4693
oclc - 50685578
alephbibnum - 002243726

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    The Russians
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    The Norwegians
        Page 10
        Page 10a
        Page 10b
        Page 11
        Page 11a
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 13a
        Page 13b
    The Dutch
        Page 14
        Page 14a
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 18a
        Page 18b
    The Belgians
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    The Hungarians
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 27a
    The Danes
        Page 28
        Page 28a
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 30a
        Page 30b
    The Italians
        Page 31
        Page 31a
        Page 32
        Page 32a
        Page 33
        Page 33a
        Page 34
        Page 34a
    The Swiss
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 36a
        Page 36b
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Back Cover
        Page 41
        Page 42
Full Text
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THr BWIss .

TH~E whole country between the Baltic and
the Pacific, and between the Ftrozen Ocean and
the Blalck Sea, a country much larger than all'
the rest of Europe, is inhabited by one people,
all speaking th~e same language. This great
nation was in a very barbarous state until about
two hundred years ago, when their famous em-
peror, Peter the Great, came over to England to
learn many useful arts, in order that he might
teach them to his own subjects. Even now in
some respects the Russians are very much


behind us. It is only within the last few
years thnat their emperor has commanded
that all the serfs or slaves should be set free,
though you must not suppose that the serfs
are slaves like the negroes in America. It is
true they have been bought and sold, but
generally with~ th~e estate to which they be-
longed. They have been kindly treated by
their masters, and excellent laws have been
made to protect them.
The Russian peasant has good manners, and
is very good tempered; though very indolent
and fond of ease, none bear hardships more
patiently than he does. He learns readily
anything he is taught, but does not at all like
any change or improvement in matters con-
nected with himself and his house. He always
says, What did for my father will do for me."
NJo doubt when they are all free, and have to

F i 4 1
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estate during one year, for fear of famine,
which is by no means uncommon. This and
other advantages, such as being provided for
in sickness and in old a~ge, the serfs will lose
on gaining their freedom. The cottages of the
serfs are built of whole trees piled upon each
other, and aire heated by stoves; though dirty,
they are comfortable and well suited to the
climate. The extreme cold of the winter is
not unhealthy, for the air is pure and bracing,
a~nd the people well understand how to guard
:Iga~llt the cold by warm clothing. The every-
day dress of the peasant is a blouse and
canvlas trousers, and over all a coarse, brown,
long-skirted coat or kanftan. The coverings of
hlis feet is curious: under his stockings he
rolls several yards of linen, just as a surgeon
would bind up a broken limb; this is a pre-
caution against the mosquitoes, or large gnats,

which infest the country, and which insert
themselves easily into the stocking, blut cannot
get through the bandage. In winter he wcears
boots of felt or leather, and in summer slippers
made of bass, the bark of the lime-tree, tied on
with sandals round his legs. The costume of
the woomen is composed of a crimson cotton
or silk skirt, called a seraphan." This is
fastened to a low bodice which has broad
straps over thse shoulders. The head-dress is
like the tail of a peacock when spread; it is
covered with gold or silver cloth, and has
colourecd rilbbons fastened to it which hang
down behindl. Thecir shoes are made of cloth
of gold or embroideredl silk: to save these a
Russian gir~l will often walk bazref~oot for miles.
This beautiful dress is all spun, woven, and
I1.17 4 at home, as well as thant of thle men. The
women have besides to help in the field-work,

and to fetch the water, often from a dlistalnce of
many m~iles. The Russians are very fond of
water; they drinki it before and after every:
meal. B3ut tea is the drinks th~ey most enjoy;
it is sold hot in the streets during the wint~er.
TPhe peasanLts thlinkl themselves well off if they
can get ryc-brread and sour cabbage soup. On
holidays they have a stow of salt meat, rye
flour and onions and salted cucumber, which
is their favourite dish. all the year round.


THEr tWvO principal features of Norwray are its
my~I~~ n:4 mountains, which cover a greaLt part of
the country, and its Fljordls, or deep bayLs and
arms of the sea, which. run into the land for
many miles. On thle sea shore, and on the

Nu'O HWVA r,

islandls all round the coast, the people depend
for their livelihood almost entirely on the,
fisheries. Those who dwell on the Fjelds,"
as the mountalins are called, possess tracts of
land, and small but not uxncomnfortabule houses:
th~ey live by the produce of their cattle, by
th~e sale of game, and by felling timber.
Bu1t between the coast and the foot of the
hlills, and up all thre vallleys as far as corn will
grow-, the inrhab~itants are farmers, and if there
be sanywhere a happy class of people, here it is
to be found.
They are not common farmers; the land is
their own; they have: no rich nobles above
them as in Rtussia;L there is more quality in
their houses and comforts, and at the same
time a greater variety in their labour, food,
an.Id enjoyments, than in those of any other

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A Gaard," or X..r n <-gin nl farm-house, is
built of log~s, and with all its out-buildings
forms t sqyuare, the court or yard within being'
protected from the winter winds. There is a,
distinct house for I-nrting?-1; I--wrivants, kitchen,
stable, smithly, and carpenter's shop. T'he
advantage of this is, that should a fire break
out, they are not all under one roof.
In this country, where the roads are so bad,
and the farms often many miles fr~om a town,
the store-room--also a separate house--is of
great importance, and the wif~e has to use con-
sidlerable foresight in laying in her stores. A
stock of frozen reindeer flesh is bought at the
great fairs in March and December, and the
" Fkell-briid," a sort of oat-cake, is baked in
sufficient qluantities to last several months.
So they are not badly off during the long
winter, w-ith salted salmon and h~errings from

the Fjordl, game from the mountains, and
plenty of brandy, which is here made from
potatoes and corn.
Everyl?ibingb that is required for the house is
made at home: the linen and woollen clothes
are spun and woven by the women; and the
farmers make their own tables and chairs, and
carts and harness, as well as all the iron work
for the farm.
Besides the fields, the farmer possesses a
tract of grass land on the mountains, called
the "L Saeter;" and there he sends his cows for
the summer months, under th~e care of two or
three servants, who lead much the same soli-
tary life as the Senn does in the Swiss
The Norweg~ians are an honest and intelli-
g~ent people: indolence and a want of cleanli-
ness are their great faults. They are a fine

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race, not tall, but strong and vigorous : their
features are large, and their comzplexions fair,
often redldened by exposure to the w~eather.
The dress of a country girl is veryT pretty:
her hair is drawn back off her face, and plaited
with red braid in two long tails; her bodice is
of red cloth, and her full white shift is fastened
at the throat and wrists by large silver buttons.
Hrer petticoat is short and very full; her stock-
ings are black, and her shoes, also home made,
tit remarkably well.

TH-ERE is no country in th~e world which pos-
sesses so few natural advantages as Hollatnd,
and none which shows us more what may be
dione by industry and perseverance. When

first peopled, the country wvas little better than
a swamp. It was only by great labour that
dykes, to prevent the sea from overflowing tbo
land, were built, and constant attention is still
required to keep them in repair. The soil
being unsuited for cultivation, the Dutch were
obliged, when they first settled in Holland, to
seek their subsistence in the neighboring seas,
which abounded in herrings and other fish.
These they exchanged for corn, and iron, and
wood. And they built ships, and sailed to
distant countries, and brought back goods to
sell at home, and to England and France.
Holland thus became the: market of the world,
and the Dutch grew very rich; and though
now, from various causes, they have lost a
great part of their trade, they keep their old
habits of carefulness and industry, and are still
one of the richest people in Europe

When a tract of land is to be reclaimed
from the sea, large ditches are dug to drain it,
and windmills are erected, as in the fens of
L~incolnshire, which. pump the water up into
~the canals; for, strange to say, a great portion
of the land lies several feet below the level of
the sea. The land is then converted into
pasture, and produces large quantities of cheese
and butter.
The Dutch are very like the English in
appearance; they are all stout, the women
comparatively taller than the men, and de-
cidedlyy handcsome. The ancient national cos-
tume of the men, the wide breeches, silver
buttons, and broatd-brimmed hats, is now worn
only by the peasants and fishermen. The
women. wears linsey-woolsey dresses, very large
hats, and wooden shoes.
Nothing can exceed the cleanliness of the

women witht regard to their houses. They are
continually washing and rubbing then, both
inside and -out, not only in the country but also
in the towns. It is the daLmp of the climate
which obliges thecm to be so particular. TChe
rooms inl general are plainly furnished, but; are
often adornedl with collections of china and
other curiosities; the fireplaces and l~oors are
ornam~entedt withr coloured tiles, which add to
the cleanliness of the r~oomls.
The cottages are built of bricks, andl are
gaily paintedl: on the thatched roofs the storkis
chatter to their young in their oldl-esta~blishedi
nests~, anld aire regarded wvith llove and respect
by mlan, wvoman, and child; they are of great
use inl devouring the frogs, toads, and lizards
whichr swarm in this dlampl country.
Every Dutchmasn has a little summer-house
inl his gardenr, where h~e smlokes in his spazre time ;

or if he can afford it, he has what hie calls a
" pleasure-house in the neig~hbourhood of the
town where he lives, to which he repairs from
Saturday evening till Mondlay morning, with
his family andl his pipe. From the windows
hie can overlook the canal, and watchl the
pleasure-boats passing swiftly boy, and the
barges gliding sleepily up and down; and
dluringr the three months of the year thast the
canal is frozen over, he can see the sledges
containing ladies and children drawn by horses
with jingling; bells, and the country people
skating to market with b~askrets of' provisions.
And here he has his little garden, where he
grows tulips, and which he keeps the very
picture of neatness.

.Y ;1


P,ELbG)U M1.


THE north and west part of Belgiuml mayS be
considered as a continuation of Holla~nd, though
none of the land lies below the level of the sea.
Here it is so thickly peopled that it seems
like one continuous village, wvhereas towards
the south and east the country is hilly, and is
covered with forests; there are fewer towns
and villages, and the land is much less cul-
tivated .
As, however, the country is fertile, and has
an abundance of iron, and coal, and wood
within itself, the Belgians ha-ve not the same
necessity for trading; as the Dutch. Like the
English, they are a manufacturing people:
they make woollen cloths, carpets, and linen

of their own wool and flax, quite as good as
ours; they also make beautiful lace.
In the picture you see a milk-woman with
her brass milk-pails, which she keeps so bright
aznd clean, and which are carried about the
_Zown bjfr donkeys in panniers. The Belgians
are very fond of ornamenting the harness of
their donkeys and horses with brass usils, and
red tassels and bells. Their horses are fine,
lar~dge creatures, possessing great strength ; they
~are brought over in great numbers every year
.to England, where they are used as cart and
dray horses.
The Belgians do not pay so much attention
40 their cattle as the Dutch. Though stall-fed,
by the spring the cows look' half starved, from
-the want of a suflicient quantity of roots and
.clover during the winter.
::The farms are very neat; the fields, which

In the villages thle Belgians keep to their
old habits, andZ disike! any improvement, but
the townspeople aire remarkably enterprising,
and ready to take advantage of every newcp
As a nation, their chief delight is music. It
is so generally learnt, that it is not uncommon
to hear the peasants singing together as they
work in the fields. They show their taste for
music too in their fondness for chimes of bells,
which are moost beautiful, and in some towns
so numerous, that there is scarcely a moment
of silence day or nigh~t.
The churches are open all day, and then, as
early as six or seven in the morning, both men
and women mnay be seen at their prayers before
they begin their dyll's work at the markets and
shops. It is the towns which are the great
beauty of Belgrium; their splendid churches,

town-halls, and curious houses with lofty sloping
roofs and gables, and projecting windows, show
us how rich and magnificent those old burg~hers
must have been who erected them.


THE l0Hg fierce wars between Huxngatry and
Turkey, and the wide unprotected plains of
their country, obliged the H-ungarians in
former times to leav-e the fields, and live in
towns for the sakre of mutual defence. In
these towns they still live, sometimes as many
as t~wenty thousand together. The towns,
however, are very different to ours. Em-hll
house or hut is quite separate from the next
house; it has its own trees and yard sur-
rounded by a sligh~t willow fence, and is guarded


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very ill off indeed, for water throughout the
plains is bad and very difficult to get; more
wine is drunk in this country than water, and
yet a drunken man is scarcely ever to be seen.
We who have not seen the vast plains of
Hungary can form very little idea of what
they are like. The fields of waving corn and
green pasture reach as far as the eye can see,
without a tree or hamlet or house, and even
without a hedge--for the fields are divided
from each other by deep ditches. Scattered
over the pastures are herds of white cattle, and
buffaloes, or wild cows, large, strong, stupid-
looking animals of a grey colour. They are
used to draw the carts and ploughs, and are
much valued for. the rich milk they give. The
herdsman, with his two or three fierce white;
shepherd's dogs, lives alone with his herds
the greater part of the year, and is never seen,

without his Bunda," or long woollen cloak,
which is his house and his bed, for even in the
hottest weather the mornings and evenings are
The H-ungaria~ns are great riders. They
never move when they can sit still, and never
walk when they can ride. The boys are on
horseback almost as soon as they can walk
They are an intelligent people, possessing a
courtesy and hospitality which thze old patri-
archs would havec shown in their day. Their
step is slow and their manner stately; pride,
which is their strongest feeling, leads them to
look down on every other nation. Their
manly bearing is increased by their fine figures,
long black hair and moustache, an~d dlark com-
plexion. Every man looks like a soldier, and
all are tall and well made. B3oth noble and


peasant are very proud of their national dress,
which is like our hussar cavalry uniform. A
neat jacket braided and lined with fur hangs
over the left shoulder, leaving th~e right arm
free; they wear also white pantaloons, high
boots, and very large hats or caps made of fur,
ornamented with a heron's plume.
The women wear a short sheep-skin jacket,
fastened in front with a silver chain, and red
or yellow or black boots reaching to the knee,
and most useful in a country where the roads
and streets are often more than a foot deep in




A mTousanD years ago we thoughrrlt 1uch1 m1or'e
about the Da~nes than we do nowr; their very
name then was enough to frighten us Eng:lish
people, and with good reason, for Danish sea-
kings and pirates sailed fromn Denmark andi
landed on our coasts, atnd set Ttre to peaceful
farm-hlouses, and carried off women and chil-
dren, and cattle. One of their chiefs, Canute,
made himself' kings of Enghno1l:I1. The E;!gli-hl
fought against them, but were beaten over
an~d over again. Then thley bribedi them to
go away withl large sums of money; but it
wa~s of no use; the Danes always came back,
aind finding this country much warmer and
p~leasanter than their own, thecy brought their

wives and families, and endled by malny of
them settling here altogether.
You w~ouldl hardly suppose that the quiet,
industrious Dalnes of the present time wvere
thie childroncl of these fierce rovers. Like the
Dutch, thley occupy themselves chiefly with
tradtingr andl ship-buildingbr (for they resemble
their ancestors in being excellent seamen), and
in reatringr cattle, which, when fat, are sent to
the H-amburgh market, and in timne find their
way over to Elshen3II~ in the form of H-amburgh
beef. Pigs are fatted too inz Denmarki to a
great extent, anld poultry is so abundanmt that
feathers arei an article of trade.
D~enmatrk~ is a flat country; and as every
part of it is very near the sea, rain and fogs
are too common for the climate to be pleasant.
T'he rain, however, makes the meadows rich
and productive.

The Datnes are great eaters: in summer they
have five meals a day; in winter as they get
up later, they have four only. On the sea-
shore the poor live mostly on fish, and they eat
dried herrings instead of bread.
~When a Dlane has earned a little money,
the first thing hie does w-iithz it is to buy a clock,
then a cow or horse, which he hires out, anid
which pays a good interest. And then when
he can manage to buy a small farm he is per-
fectly happy. Great pains are taken in IDen-
mark about the education of children. The
law obliges all parents to send their children
to school, and if th~ey cannot afford to paty the
school fees, thle children are taught free of ex-
pen~se; there are therefore very few people
who can neither read nor write.



Ilu this picture a woman is seen filling her
pitcher at one of those fountains which are the
favourite resort of th~e people in Italy. Here
they come at all hours of the day, to talkr with
their neigh~bours, and to hear the news. In.
every; town and village there are several of
these fountains, which aire always well supplied
wvith water, so n~ecessaryr in a hot climazte; and
with plenty of good water always at hand, the
people have no temptation to drink spirits, and
are therefore always sober. The food of the:
Italians is of the most simple kiind : the bread
of the poor is madle of ground beans and Indian
corn, and a meal of macaroni may be bought
for a penny. 31,01.t is rarely tasted; oranges


andc grapes are so plentiful that the poorest
muay enjoy them.
TIhe Italians, parpticular~ly in the south, hav~e
but few wants, and c as thley lead an out-of-d~oor
life, they do not require the same comforts that
wie do in Ew_1z.nd~l. Their land is so fertile that
hard labour is almost unnoessary, and this and
the hleat of th~e climate mak~e theml disinclined
to wor~k, so that they are the idlest people in
El~urope. In the north of Italy they are much.
more industrious; but there they live with
a frugrality which would surprise us. TChe
Italians are a hot-tempered race, and when
excited are passionate and revengof~ul; but
still they are naturally of a happy dispositio-n,
and are kiind and hospitable. If they had bunt
a good government, which would punish the
thieves and handitti, and make the idle workB,
and teach all to help themselves, they would be

much~ happier. They are contented to live in
idleness, ignor~ane, and dirt; and unhappily,
instead of savings anly small earnings, they riski
their few pence, or pawna their clothes, for thle
sakte of a lottery tickret. The lotteries are
managed by the government, which makies a2
goodl profit out of them, to the ruin of hunl-
dreds of families, who are thus taught to trust
to chance for the future instead of to honest
In the north, where th~ey have a better
government, they are, as we hcave seen, more
industrious. The peasants there have small
farms, for which, instead of paying rent, they
divide th~e produce with! their landlords, even
down to the vegetables and poultry. The
households aire generally large, for as the sons
grow up and marry, they br1ing home their
wives to their father's house. In thle summer

evenings, when the Ilabour of the day is over,
they all dance together to the music of the
:Iagp~ipel and tamblJourine.
The dress of the Italian women seems in-
tended to suit the bright colouring of their
country and the dark complexions of the
w-earers. It varies very much in the different
parts of Italy. Ai Romasn woman's holiday
dress consists of a red or blue stuff petticoat; a
velvet bodice, either scarlet or black, laced up
inl front and embroidered with gold, yellowv or
green sleeves, and a sqluare of linen folded
many times over the crown of the head, with
the end hangig~f down over the shoulders; and
her attire would not be complete without a
necklace and earrings, often of great value.
The Italian girls take a pride in collecting a
large stock of homespun linen, against setting
up housekeeping. Their dresses and jewels

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are heirlooms, and rather than part with them
the~y would suffer the greatest privations.

IF you look at the maap of Europe you will see
to th~e north of Italy a small inland country,
called Switzerland. Here, among the mountains,
live the same people who, hundreds of years
ago, fought so bravely for their country and
their freedom, as you may have: read in the'
history of William Tell. They are still ats
brave and free as they were then, and as de-
voted to their country. They are a strong,
hardy race, and their country is so balrren that
they have to work very hard to get a livelihood.
Almost all the peasants have land of their
own, wPhich they farm themselves. It is this,

partly, which makes them so fond of their
homes, and gives them so much. greater an
interest in keeping them tidy and in good
repair than if they merely rented them.
The Swiss farmer takes great pride in his
cows, which. are handsome, valuable creatures;
during the winter he keeps them at the farm,
and often uses thema in thze plough, but from
June to October he can send them. up to the
Alp or mountain~ pasture, which. belongs to his
canton or county, and which. is divided among
the different parishes. F'ew farmers, however,
would fiind their labour repaid by leaving their
farms to look after their five or six cows at the!
summer pasture. TChe custom is therefore for
the parish to hire herdsmen and dairymaids to
take care of the cows on the Alp, and to make
the cheese. The profits and expenses are
aIfterwards~~ll divided among the owners of the

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r' ~ '

cows, according to the amount of milk given
by each cow. W;Ihile they are on the Alp, the
senn or herdsman lives in a ch:^>1et or hut,
built of firs roughly hewn and notched, and
dovetailed into each oth~er. T'he roof, which is
very flat, is made of wood kept down by heavyr
stones; but in spite of this precaution the hut
is often blown down by the hurricanes in
Living thus for weeks together almost alone,
the senn. becomes very fond of his cattle, which
know hima so well, that when they hear the
sound of his horn over the hills, they all
come home, led by the cow which wears the
The collecting of the hay for the fodder of
the cattle during the winter is of the greatest
importance. It often grows wild in places
w here it is quite impossible for the goats and

sheep to get at it, but it is reached by womon
and children, who fasten themselves to th~e
rocks by iron hooks, and at the risk of their
lives cut the hay, and then make it into large
bundles, and toss it into the valley.Al c
hay and corn must be stacked under cover, for
fear of the storms and avalanches," or masses
of frozen snow, which fall down from the
mountains, and often do much damage to the
As a great part of the mountains is covered
with forests, the Swriss in building their houses
are not sparing of wcood. The gables and
overhanging eaves, outside staircases and gal-
leries, so conv-enient; for drying clothes in wet
weather, give them a most comfortable appear-
ance; the lower rooms are generally occupied
with looms, in wh~ich the women weav~e the
cloth and linen for the family. Everything

aboout the: house is made of wood, and the
consequence is that almost every man is a
carpenter or a cooper. In summer the women
help in the fields; they makie the hay, and
bind and prune the vine. The women's dress,
which is different in each. canton, consists in
the canton of Berne of a black velvet bodice,
with a full chemisette of plaited muslin, and
sleeves of the same; round the neck they wear
a little square black velvet collar; silver chains
are fastened to each corner of the collar behind,
and hang loosely under the arms, and then meet
at silver clasp at the corner of the collar in
front, as you see in the picture. In the other
picture a man is carryiing goods on a wooden
frame on his back: this is the way that a great
part of their food and wares of all kinds are
carried up the mountains, for the paths are so
steep and rough that carts and horses cannot

be used at all, and even the mule loses his
There is no race so healthy as the inha-
bitants of the mountains; but in the narrow
close valleys much sickness is caused by the
want of air and the had food. The chief food
of the poor is milk and cheese in summer, and
porridge in winter.



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