Average flow of major streams in Florida ( FGS: Map series 34, 1975 )

Material Information

Average flow of major streams in Florida ( FGS: Map series 34, 1975 )
Series Title:
( FGS: Map series 34, 1975 )
Kenner, William E
Hampton, E. R
Conover, Clyde Stuart, 1916-
Florida -- Bureau of Geology
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Place of Publication:
The Bureau
Publication Date:
Updated 1975.
Physical Description:
1 map : col. ; 40 x 50 cm.
Scale [ca. 1:2,000,000]


Subjects / Keywords:
Stream measurements -- Maps -- Florida ( lcsh )
Stream-gaging stations -- Maps -- Florida ( lcsh )
Streamflow -- Maps -- Florida ( lcsh )
Maps -- Florida ( lcsh )
Stream measurements -- 1:2,000,000 -- Florida -- 1974 ( local )
Stream-gaging stations -- 1:2,000,000 -- Florida -- 1974 ( local )
Streamflow -- 1:2,000,000 -- Florida -- 1974 ( local )
Stream measurements -- 1:2,000,000 -- Florida -- 1974 ( local )
Stream-gaging stations -- 1:2,000,000 -- Florida -- 1974 ( local )
Streamflow -- 1:2,000,000 -- Florida -- 1974 ( local )
1:2,000,000 -- Florida -- 1974 ( local )
Suwannee River, FL ( local )
City of Apalachicola ( local )
Gulf of Mexico ( local )
City of Okeechobee ( local )
Rivers ( jstor )
Streams ( jstor )
Drains ( jstor )
Tributaries ( jstor )
Canals ( jstor )
Maps ( lcsh )
single map ( marcgt )
31 x -88, 24 x -88, 24 x -80, 31 x -80 ( Map Coverage )


General Note:
Includes text.
General Note:
"Average flow is for the period of record prior to September 30, 1974 ...
Map series (Florida. Bureau of Geology) ;
Statement of Responsibility:
by W.E. Kenner, E.R. Hampton, and C.S. Conover ; prepared by United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Bureau of Geology, Florida Department of Natural Resources ... 1969.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
029430239 ( aleph )
08533177 ( oclc )
AJS7428 ( notis )
82693070 /MAPS ( lccn )

Full Text



published by BUREAU OF GEOLOGY



3 1 --


W. E. Kenner, E. R. Hampton, and C. S. Conover

Prepared by
in cooperation with the
Updated 1975
The flow of streams varies daily, seasonally, and from year to
year, depending upon the weather and climate. Because of these
variations, determination of a fairly reliable average flow requires at
least a 5-year record of flow. The degree of reliability of the average
increases with the length of record used; about 30 years of record is
considered sufficient for most natural streams.
In Florida a major stream (as used in this study) is one that has
an average flow of at least 1,000 cfs (cubic feet per second),
equivalent to 646 mgd (million gallons a day) or 1,983 acre-feet a day.
Defined thusly and based on estimated flows at mouths or outlets,
Florida has 12 major streams.
The average flow of major streams in Florida is shown on the
attached map by the blue overprint. Average flow is for the period of
record prior to September 30, 1974, which is generally 30 or more
years for each stream. The flow of some smaller streams is also
shown in order to better portray the areal range of average flow.
Flows of the larger canals in southern Florida also have been
depicted, though usually the canals are not classed as streams, and
their flow is regulated.
The average flow of a stream depends on size of drainage basin,
topography, climate, geology, and land development. In general, the
drainage basins in northern Florida are large compared with those in
southern Florida; topographic relief is greater, evaporation rate is
lower, lakes are fewer, and the land is developed to a lesser degree.
In general, therefore, average flow of streams in northern Florida is
greater than that for streams in southern Florida. Four of Florida's
five largest streams based on drainage basin are in northern Florida.
They are the Apalachicola, Suwannee, Choctawhatchee, and
Escambia Rivers. The third largest stream, the St. Johns River,
drains both southern and northern Florida. Except for the St. Johns
River, all five of the largest rivers derive flow from beyond the
borders of Florida.
Florida's largest stream, the Apalachicola River, is formed by
the confluence of the Flint and Chattahoochee Rivers at the
Georgia-Florida line. The Apalachicola River drains 19,600 square
miles, of which 17,200 square miles are in Alabama and Georgia and
2,400 square miles in Florida. At the Florida line the average flow of
the Apalachicola River is 22,100 cubic feet per second, or about
14,300 mgd. Jim Woodruff Dam, at the Georgia-Florida line,
impounds the river to form Lake Seminole (about 37,500 acres).
Other large reservoirs upstream include Lake Sidney Lanier and
Lake Harding in Georgia. At the Gulf of Mexico the average flow of
the Apalachicola River is about 16,400 mgd.
The Chipola River is the largest of the Florida tributaries to the
Apalachicola River. The average flow of the Chipola River near
Altha is 950 mgd.
The Suwannee River, which drains about 10,000 square miles, is
the second largest river in Florida. The Suwannee River heads in the
Okefenoke Swamp of southern Georgia and flows southward to the
Gulf of Mexico. At the Georgia-Florida line the flow averages about
1,000 mgd and increases rapidly downstream because of contribu-
tions from the numerous springs. The Suwannee River has two main
tributaries, the Withlacoochee and the Santa Fe Rivers. The With-
lacoochee River drains about 2,300 square miles in Florida and
southern Georgia and adds about 1,100 mgd to the flow of the
Suwannee. The Santa Fe River drains about 1,600 square miles in
northern Florida and adds about 1,500 mgd. The Santa Fe River is
unusual because the river enters the ground near Oleno State Park
and emerges about three miles downstream to continue its course as
a surface stream. The average flow of the Suwannee River, at its
mouth, is about 7,100 mgd.
Large springs that flow into the Suwannee River or its
tributaries include White Springs, Suwannee Springs, Troy Spring,
Ichatucknee Spring, Rock Bluff Spring, Fannin Spring, and Manatee
Spring. Four of these springs-Troy, Ichatucknee, Fannin and
Manatee, are first magnitude springs with flows averaging at least
100 cfs, and together discharge an average of about 500 mgd to the
The St. Johns River, the third largest river in the state, heads in
the marshes west of Vero Beach and meanders northward 275 miles,
roughly paralleling the east coast and flowing into the Atlantic Ocean
east of Jacksonville. Its principal tributary is the Oklawaha River,
which has an average flow of 1,200 mgd and drains nearly 2,900
square miles in the northeastern part of the peninsula. The St. Johns
drains about 9,400 square miles and its average flow exceeds 3,600.
The main stem of the St. Johns River connects several large
lakes, which, in downstream order, are Lakes Washington, Poinsett,
Harney, Monroe, Beresford, Dexter, and Lake George. The major
tributary, the Oklawaha River, also has large tributary and channel
lakes, including Lakes Apopka, Dora, Eustis, Louisa, Minnehaha,
Harris, Griffin, Orange, and Lochloosa.

10,000 0

Width of blue ribbon shows average flow of stream. Width of white
ribbon shows flow during the month of lowest flow of record for the five
largest streams.


- 31-

SLake Sey Lanier


WA .m'i e'., -- WATON J :i m Woodruff Dam Okefenokee '
o --- Swamp "ksen AU ,
OKALOOSA 'GADSDEN j-- ~7-- --- S
WASHINGTONj -1 S Vswannee ( --
-' ca JEFFERSON MDS HAMILO h e DU Ve No net discharge to ocean from St. Johns

S hoctawhatchee te t LEN Spr River for periods of 30 days or more.

--. ,r -L. raY ", T T. Sp rn g un o o

-,LoI E --n f
D rikf ngni
The Choctawhatchee River is the fourth largest stream in the aeg YL. Lochao sa A
state. With headwaters in southeastern Alabama it enters Florida C I Manatee FLAGLER
near Graceville and flows southwestward into Choctawhatchee Bay n .
at the Gulf. It drains about 4,600 square miles, of which about 3,100 in.l e Orangeb V
square miles are in Alabama and 1,500 square miles are in Florida. L. e
At Caryville, 15 miles south of the state line, the average flow of the or
Choctawhatchee River is about 3,400 mgd; at its mouth the average MARION \ ake
flow exceeds 4,400 mgd. ion AOLake 0 xter vOLUSIA
The major tributaries to the Choctawhatchee River in Florida Yankeet wn .. Bere for
include Wrights Creek, Sandy Creek, Holmes Creek, and Pine Log \
Creek. Holmes Creek, the largest, has an average flow of 40 million o i
gallons a day. -L. ustis
The Escambia River in extreme northwestern Florida is the fifth o dL. GrifIfnfQ lDa LAKE 'L.Monroee
largest stream in the state. Escambia Creek and the Conecuh River S Ramus L Dora_ LAHa
join a few miles south of the Alabama-Florida line to form the 7
Escambia River, which flows southward into Pensacola Bay. The S al s r .j \
river forms the boundary between Escambia and Santa Rosa SUMTE i SEMINOLE
counties. The Escambia River and its tributaries drain 3,760 square 'L nL. na L ApopkaJ-
miles in Alabama and 425 square miles in Florida. The average flow HERNANDO .__i. 1n\a L. Apopk
of the Escambia River at the mouth exceeds 4,000 mgd. Pine Barren / LLouisa q ORANGE ,
Creek and Canoe Creek are two of the largest tributaries to the / Pois tt
Escambia in Florida. reen wan _l
In central peninsular Florida the largest stream is the PASCO t
Kissimmee River. With headwaters in southern Orange County, it 4 opekali
flows southward and empties into Lake Okeechobee. It drains r0'- 'I L Ws i t
approximately 3,000 square miles and has an average flow of about 9 L. Washinton
1,400 mgd. Included among the large lakes in the Kissimmee River I a L. Hatchineha Tohopekif
basin are Lakes East Tohopekaliga, Tohopekaliga, Hatchineha, .\\' OSCEOLA 0
Weohyakapka, and Kissimmee, which lie in the upper part, and HILLSBOROUGH
Lakes Jackson, Istokpoga, June-in-Winter, and Placid, which lie in Kissimmee
the lower part. ) I \ [o <' POLK O (l J'
Other large streams in central Florida include the o yakapka
Withlacoochee River, the Hillsborough River, and the Peace River. ,
The Withlacoochee River drains about 2,000 square miles and flows i INDIAN RIVER Ba
northwestward from headwaters in the Green Swamp area into the O ----- --- -- --- -- -'- Vero Beach_
Gulf of Mexico near Yankeetown. The average flow at the mouth of ^ / N f I HIGHLANDS '--'-- -
the Withlacoochee River is about 1,300 mgd. The Hillsborough and MANATEE HARDEE0 LJakson
Peace Rivers also have headwaters in the Green Swamp area. The rI r u '. K' OKEECHOBEE '
Hillsborough River, which flows westward into Tampa Bay, drains OEECHOBEE \
about 690 square miles and has an average discharge at the mouth of '--_ / ...' 1 'l ST. LUCIE \
about 430 mgd. The Peace River flows southward into Charlotte SARASOTA L,'June-in inerF .. \
Harbor. The average flow of the Peace River, which drains about \ L. PlacidlC s ok / __
2,400 square miles, is about 1,400 mgd. /-- AESOTO [ -^ "-
In southern Florida, streams for the most part are poorly \ / ,. 'oI I r ) r
developed and most of the drainage is through a system of canals \ I- I "'-U
that have been expanded and improved to relieve high water L '
conditions as the area has grown in population,. Two of the larger -_ -l L -ke-^-e ... r
streams in the area, the St. Lucie Canal average discharge of about CAOT Okeechobee
700 mgd and the Caloosahatchee River average discharge of about \ Caloosahatchee Ca DES ",
1,100 mgd, drain excess water from Lake Okeechobee, and together aoosaacee ana
with the lake form a navigable cross-state waterway. The discharge C t-earir -^ PAL M -
of the Caloosahatchee River at the mouth is probably twice that of EXPLANATION ee j achC
the Caloosahatchee Canal, which carries only flow from Lake 1 ( 00 \osahac
Okeechobee. Other important canals in southern Florida include the LE E HENDRY I BEACH
West Palm Beach Canal, the Hillsboro Canal, the North New River I
Canal, and the Miami Canal, which discharge, on the average, 500,
200, 300 and 350 mgd, respectively, to the ocean.In southernmost Q I
Florida the Tamiami Trail outlets discharge an average of about 850 Gaging Station --- -
mgd southward and westward toward the Gulf of Mexico. ~ W -
For purposes of comparison, the flow during the month of lowest C3f0 s 200mgd -
flow of record is shown for Florida's five largest streams. The lowest e0.o000 oWARD
monthly flow of the Escambia River is 477 mgd, and that of the
Oklawaha River, a principal tributary of the St. Johns, is 500 20.000- COLLIER
mgd-about the smallest value that can be shown at the scale of this 10.000- -


-- 281

--1 271


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This public document was promulgated at a total
cost of $242.00 or a per copy cost of $.097 for the
purpose of disseminating hydrologic data.

89s 88e 87 860 850 840 83 82

c^ 2

0 10 20 so 40 50 MILESJ G 3931

I ii No. 3
810 00 1974

iFi nrePrr)A rpnif11 C*f f- Sl lRVPY MA~P SERIES

-- 30

map. The abrupt increase in the low during ne montn ho lowest low
of record of the Choctawhatchee and Suwannee Rivers occurs below
points of substantial spring in flow. The break in low flow on the
Santa Fe River, the principal tributary of the Suwannee, occurs in a
three-mile reach below O'leno State Park where the River flows
underground. No low flow to the ocean is shown for the St. Johns
River because for periods of a month or more, the net flow of the
River at Jacksonville is inland.




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