Group Title: New Series Bulletin - State of Florida, Department of Agriculture ; no. 25
Title: Florida naval stores
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00015008/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida naval stores
Series Title: Bulletin . New series
Physical Description: 42 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wyman, Lenthall, b. 1888
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
University of Florida -- College of Agriculture
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee <Fla.>
Publication Date: <1929>
Subject: Naval stores -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Forest products industry -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by Lenthall Wyman.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "May 1929".
General Note: "Prepared and published in co-operation with the College of Agriculture, University of Florida, Gainesville."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00015008
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001962761
oclc - 28610249
notis - AKD9438

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Full Text
Bulletin No. 25 New Series May, 1929

SFlorida Naval

2 Stores

United States Forest Service


Prepared and Published in Co-operation with the College of +

NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner

SAgriculture, University ofL Florida, Gainesville.



Nathan Mayo, Commissioner of Agriculture........ Tallahassee
T. J. Brooks, Director, Bureau of Immigration...... Tallahassee
Phil. S. Taylor, Supervising Inspector............. Tallahassee
John M. Scott, Agricultural Editor............... Gainesville


The State Department of Agriculture receives many requests
for information on the naval stores industry of Florida. This
bulletin has therefore been prepared in a popular form to give
some of the salient points regarding the industry.
Mr. Wyman, the author of this bulletin, is in charge of the
Branch Southern Forest Experiment Station located at Starke,
Florida. He is thoroughly familiar with the subject, as he has
spent the past seven years in Florida studying the naval stores
problems of the state. The investigational work conducted by
Mr. Wyman has given him a vast amount of information regard-
ing the problems connected with this industry, and qualifies him
to speak with authority on the subject.

Florida Naval Stores
Prepared and Published in Co-operation with the College of
Agriculture, University of Florida, Gainesville
The naval stores industry deals with the extraction of crude
gum from southern pine trees by means of repeated scarring or
chipping, and with the subsequent distilling of the gum, result-
ing in the production of rosin and turpentine. (A) About
four-fifths of all the naval stores products manufactured in the
United States are obtained in this way. Of less importance is
the steam distillation of pine stumps, knots, lightwood and mill
refuse. The terms "wood turpentine" and "wood rosin" are
applied to products so obtained. Although this difference is ob-
served in the names of the products, the qualities and uses of
gum turpentine and wood turpentine are very similar.
(B) The term "naval stores" dates back to the early days of
the seventeenth century when wooden vessels used large quanti-
ties of tar and pitch obtained from the evergreen forests of
Sweden and other northern European countries. Tar and pitch,
although manufactured from crude gum at the present time, are
of minor importance; the use of these products as well as tur-
pentine and rosin in the maritime trade having dwindled to
small proportions, yet the name naval stores has persisted in the
Florida's position in the naval stores production is an impor-
tant one. In this State 36% of all the naval stores manufac-
tured in America and 25% of the world production is made.
Although other pines are sometimes turpentined, the two
species which are of paramount importance are longleaf pine,
(Pinus palustris, Miller) and slash pine (Pinus caribaea, Mor-
let). Both of these trees grow throughout Northern Florida and
as far south as the Everglades. Locally longleaf grows on the
sand ridges and drier places, whereas slash pine prefers the
ponds and wetter situations.
(C) Longleaf pine may be recognized by its very long needles,
which vary from 8 to 15 inches in length, occurring always three
in a bundle. The twigs are stout. Buds are thick and silvery
white, being locally called candles on this account when they
start growth in the spring. The cones or burs are of medium
size, 8 to 12 inches long. The crude gum has the faculty of
oxidizing rapidly on exposure to the air so that turpentine scars
or faces are covered with a thick crust of white hardened gum
called "scrape."
(D) Slash pine, on the contrary, has shorter leaves, 8 to 12
inches long, growing in bundles of 2's or 3's. The twigs are
more slender than longleaf twigs and the buds are reddish brown
in color and less stout than the buds of the longleaf pine. Cones
(A) Grosvenor Dawe, "Florida, an Advancing State," 1928.
(B) "Naval Stores," Trade Information Bulletin No. 454.
(C) Farmers Bulletin 1486, Longleaf Pine Primer.
(D) Farmers Bulletin 1256, Slash Pine.


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Fig. 2. 40-year-old Slash Pine stand, Bradford County, Fla.



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are egg-shaped, 3 to 5 inches long with prickles on the shiny
brown end of the cone scale.
A representative turpentining camp consists of a still, commis-
sary, blacksmith and cooperage shed, gluing shed, cup cleaning
vat and negro cabins called "quarters." A typical small tur-
pentining place will handle 10 to 15 crops of faces. A "crop" is
10,000 faces or about 9,000 trees of working size, whereas the
scarred or chipped surface of the tree is called the ''face.'
In starting up a new turpentine location the first step is the
location of an adequate supply of timber to last for at least
8 to 10 years. The best turpentine timber is rather open grown.
It should be located near a railroad in 'a locality where labor is
plentiful and easily kept.
The timber is usually leased from the timber owner for periods
ranging from 3 to 5 years. Prices of leases vary with the
size and quality of timber, cost of labor, prices received for
turpentine and rosin and a number of other factors. Around
twelve cents a face for a four-year lease was a fair average in
1928. This amounts to three cents a face annually or $3,000
for ten crops each year. In 1926 seven cents a face per year
was not an exceptional price. Occasionally timber is worked
on a percentage basis. In such cases the lessee pays from
15% to 30%o of the gross value of the turpentine and rosin pro-
duced according to the quality of the timber and the various
other factors which influence lease values as mentioned above.
Leases or contracts ordinarily specify how the work shall be
done and protect the timber owner's rights. Such a sample
lease is given below, being modified from the one in effect in
leasing government timber for turpentining on the National
I, John Doe, of Good Pine, State of Florida, hereby agree
to work for naval stores certain timber on the lands owned
by Richard Roe, Tall Timber, Florida. Said timber is all
the long-leaf and slash pine timber not excepted under the
terms of this agreement located on an area of about.......
acres to be definitely designated by Richard Roe before
cupping begins in Section....... Township...... North,
Range...... East, Tallahassee Meridian and Base Line,
upon which it is estimated that......cups, more or less,
may be placed. In consideration of the granting of this
privilege to me for a term of three years I do hereby prom-
ise to pay to Richard Roe the sum of........, more or less,
as may be determined by actual count at the rate of......
per thousand cups, payable on or before.................


And I further promise and agree to work said timber
in strict accordance with the following conditions:
1. No tree will be cupped, chipped, raked, or worked in
any manner until payment has been made in accordance
with the terms of this agreement.
2. Title to the product of the timber included in this
agreement will remain in Richard Roe until it has been paid
for as herein prescribed and removed from the tree.
3. No timber will be cupped except that on the area
designated by Richard Roe; and all timber on that area
will be cupped except as herein specified.
4. No marked tree and no tree 10 inches or less in
diameter at a point 2 feet above the ground will be cupped;
not more than one cup' will be placed on trees from 10 to 14
inches, inclusive, in diameter; not more than two cups will
be placed on trees from 14 inches to 22 inches, inclusive,
in diameter, and not more than three cups will be placed
on any tree.
5. The greatest depth of streaks will not exceed 1% inch,
excluding the bark. The width of the streaks will be so
regulated that not more than 1 inch of new wood will be
taken off at each chipping. The faces chipped or pulled
the first season will not exceed 15 inches in height from the
shoulder of the first streak of the season to the shoulder of
the last streak of the season, including both. The faces
chipped or pulled in subsequent seasons will not exceed 15
inches in height, measured in the same way. A No. 1 or
smaller hack or puller will be used for chipping or pull-
ing. Bars or strips of bark not less than 4 inches wide in
the narrowest place will be left between the faces, and this
width shall not be lessened as the faces progress up the
tree. Where more than one face is placed on a tree, one
bar between them will not exceed 8 inches in width. The
first streak at the base of the face will be made at the
time the apron or gutter is placed. Faces not chipped in
accordance with these specifications may be marked out
and cups removed by Richard Roe.
6. A cupping system satisfactory to Richard Roe will
be used, and the cups and aprons or gutters will be so
placed that the shoulders of the first streak will be not
more than six inches distant from the top of the cup, and
the cups first placed will be as near the ground as possible.
No wood will be exposed on any tree by removing the bark
below the gutter or aprons.
7. No unnecessary damage will be done to cupped trees,
marked trees, or to trees below the diameter limit. Trees
that are badly damaged during the life of this agreement,
when such damage is due to carelessness or negligence,


shall be paid for at the rate of......per thousand feet
board measure, full scale. Trees split or windthrown be-
cause of deep incisions for raised tins will be considered
as being damaged unnecessarily.
8. No cups will be placed later than ................
without written permission from Richard Roe, and all tim-
ber embraced in this agreement will be cupped before
said date. The cupping will proceed with all reasonable
9. Unless extension of time is granted, all timber will
be chipped, dipped, and scraped, the product and all cups,
aprons, gutters, and nails removed, and each cupped tree
thoroughly raked to the satisfaction of Richard Roe not
later than............... Tins will be pulled out, not
chopped out.
10. No fires will be set to the timber, underbrush, or
grass on the area covered by this agreement without the
written permission of Richard Roe, and during the time
that this agreement remains in force I will, independently,
do all in my power to prevent and suppress unauthorized
forest fires on the said area and in its vicinity, and will
require my employees and contractors to do likewise.
11. All cupped trees will be raked in a workmanlike
manner for the space of 21/2 feet around each tree during
December of each year of the life of this agreement; and,
if required by Richard Roe, a fire line not less than 3 feet
wide in the narrowest place shall be hoed or plowed around
the area covered by this agreement in such a manner as to
completely isolate it from adjoining lands. Natural fire-
breaks, such as creeks, swamps, roads, etc., may be utilized
with the consent of Richard Roe. These fire lines must be
made and receive the approval of Richard Roe before any
cups are placed the first year or new streaks made at the
beginning of each subsequent year.
12. Richard Roe reserves the right to sell or otherwise
dispose of and remove or have removed all dead timber and
uncupped living timber from the area covered by, and
during the life of, this agreement; Provided, -That the
removal of such material will not interfere with the oper-
ations of the purchaser.
This agreement will not be assigned in whole or in part
without the written approval of Richard Roe.
The conditions of the sale are completely set forth in
this agreement, and none of its terms can be varied or modi-
fied except in writing with the approval of both parties.
And as a further guarantee of a faithful performance of
the conditions of this agreement, I deliver herewith a bond
in the sum of.........., and do further agree that all


moneys paid under this agreement will, upon failure on
my part to fulfill all and singular the .conditions and re-
quirements herein set forth, or made a part hereof, be re-
tained by Richard Roe to be applied as far as may be to
the satisfaction of my obligations assumed hereunder.
Signed in duplicate this........ day of.........., 19....
Witnesses (Corporal seal, if corporation).
............ .... .... Signature of purchaser.

There is a tendency on the part of up-to-date operators to
acquire title to their timber lands rather than to lease them.
This policy is commendable, leading as it does toward a better
class of work since the operators are personally interested in the
highest ultimate product from the land on which they are


Fig. 4. Deep chipping causes dry face.

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Fig. 5. Making cuts for inserting "aprons."

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Fig. 6. Aprons in place and first streak being put on.




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Fig. 7. Hanging cups and driving supporting nails.


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Fig. 8. The Ball System of installing tins.


On a new location the operator first must cup his trees. He
gives his woods foreman instructions about the size of tree to
place cups on. Practice varies widely, and in second growth
small timber very often trees are worked for turpentine which
can never repay the operator for the labor and money spent on
them. Progressive operators cup no trees under 9 or 10 inches in
diameter two feet above the ground. Below this size the trees
are unprofitable except in seasons of high prices. Ordinarily
two cups are placed on trees above twelve inches in diameter
but here again when timber is leased on a crop basis it is better
business to work only one face at a time since yields are higher
under this sort of practice.
The first step in facing a tree consists of slabbing off the bark
and a thin layer of wood at the base of the trees. This is done by
means of a broadax, one left-handed and one right-handed
chopper to a tree. Next a slanting cut is made on each side to
a depth of 1/2 or 4 of an inch into the slabbed' surface, the
lower end of the cuts being about twelve inches above the ground.
A tin setter follows and inserts strips of galvanized iron or so-
called "gutters" into the ax cuts. These strips are 21/2 inches
wide, long enough to go the full length of the cut with a slight
overhang at the lower end and are bent lengthwise along the
center. With this style of gutters a clay Herty cup holding one
quart to three pints of gum is commonly used. Conical gal-
vanized iron cups are also on the market suitable for this cup-
ping system. One man drives an eight-penny nail into the tree
on which to hang the cup. This preliminary work is done in
December and January whenever possible, as it is commonly be-
lieved that early facing stimulates heavy early season gum over-
flow. The cost of tin setting is about 2 cents a face. Laborers
are paid by the day or sometimes by the thousand faces.
A slightly different system of cupping is also used very widely.
This consists of making horizontal cuts for tins, using so-called
"Pringle axes" or similar chisel shaped cutting tools which are
driven in with mauls. One-piece or two-piece horizontal tin
strips called "aprons" are used in this system, there being sev-
eral modifications such as single piece concave aprons, tapered
aprons, saw-tooth aprons, and others. A long shallow cup is used
with aprons and here again several different styles are on the
market. The most widely used cup is an oblong cup of gal-
vanized iron, zinc or aluminum. A clay cup is also designed for
use with aprons. Oblong galvanized cups cost about $375 to
$400 per crop; oblong aluminum cups cost around $600 per crop
and Herty clay cups cost about $250 per crop.



The first "streak" or cut is put on the trees at the time when
the cups are. hung. This consists of a slanting groove about 3/4
of an inch deep, 1 an inch wide and as long as the diameter of
the tree permits. Ordinarily the tree is cut a little over one-
third of the way around in making a streak. Streaks are made
with "hacks" which come in several sizes. The most widely used
hacks are number ones and number noughts. These are mounted
on 15 to 24-inch wooden stocks or handles with six-pound
weights on the end. Considerable skill is needed to use a hack
properly but with practice a "chipper" (the man who uses the
hack) can chip 1500 to 1800 faces per day or 7000 to 9000 faces
per week. The chipper goes over his "drift," as his chipping
unit is called, every week, placing a new streak on each tree
regularly from about the first of March until November. Many
operators also have a streak put on every 3 or 4 weeks during the
winter. Chippers are paid $1.00 to $1.50 for chipping a thou-
sand faces.

Cups fill up on three to five streaks, depending on the weather,
and when most of the cups are full they are "dipped." The dip-
per empties the gum from each cup into a large wooden or gal-
vanized metal bucket holding from 35 to 50 pounds of "dip" as
the crude gum is called when gathered from the cups. The gum
is next put into 50-gallon barrels which are later hauled to the
still. From seven to ten dippings are made during a turpentine
season. Experienced dippers can dip from two to four barrels
a day, being paid from 85 cents to $1.20 per barrel for this
work. It takes 275 to 300 cups of gum to fill a barrel.
During the course of the season gum oxydizes and hardens on
the face, forming what is known as "scrape." This constitutes
5% to 10% of the total yield of slash trees and 20% to 30% of
longleaf yields. At the end of the season scrape is gathered in
boxes and packed down in loose stave rosin barrels to be carried
to the still. Scraping costs $1.25 to $1.50 per 300-pound barrel.



Fig. 9. Tools used in boxing trees.
1. Broad ax; 2. Pringle ax; 3. Maul; 4. Hogal; 5. Hack; 6. Puller; 7. Push down scraper;
8. Pull down scraper; 9. Gutter puller; 10. Dip-paddle.

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Fig. 10. Dipping and loading gum to be hauled to still.





When the last of the scraping is done along in December, and
as soon as the leaf fall is over, raking or weeding must be done.
Raking consists of hoeing and raking grass, straw, chips and
bushes away from turpentined trees for a distance of 2 to 21/2
feet. The cost of this work varies with the character of the
ground cover, ranging from $4.00 to $7.00 per thousand trees
and even going higher occasionally where there is heavy grass
and underbrush. It is still necessary to do this as a protective
measure to prevent fires from catching onto the face, thereby
ruining the tree for gum production as well as destroying the
tins and cup. A few operators are co-operating with the State
Forester in fire elimination through a system of fire lines, look-
out towers, guards, and organized fire fighting crews and where
this is being done the cost of protection is less than with raking
of individual trees. It is probable that there will be a further
expansion of fire elimination.
As soon as the trees are raked the whole tract is burned at a
time when the ground is damp and when fires may be expected
to do a minimum amount of damage. This practice of burning,
of course, prevents open land from restocking to young trees
and it is to the best interests of the operator to do away with fire
altogether as soon as he feels that the risk of accidental fires is
cut to a reasonable minimum.

Every year or two, tins are pulled and raised up close to the
top of the face in order to avoid gum wastage and the high
evaporation of spirits and low rosin grades which accompany
long faces. This is done by means of cuts in the face made by
broad axes or gutter chisels. An alternate method is to make a
shallow streak with a hack in the old face, nailing the tins into the
shelf formed by the cut. Unless saw tooth aprons are used it is
customary to use one or two nails under any style of raising.
Seven-eights inch galvanized roofing nails are satisfactory for
this purpose.
Whether or not tins are raised depends upon prices of the
higher rosin grades. It is more important to raise tins when
prices are high than when they are low. Then again longleaf
trees which build up scrape rapidly will repay the cost of rais-
ing better than the slash trees which build scrape slowly.
All of this woods work is supervised by a "woods rider" whose
duty it is to see that the various jobs are done carefully and
thoroughly. He sees that dip barrels and scrape barrels are dis-
tributed when needed, keeps count of piece work and directs
such jobs as facing, raking, etc. He lays out the boundary
limits of the various working units which are called drifts and


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acts as field manager. In small operations the still owner does
the woods riding himself.
When the gum and scrape have been put in the barrels in the
woods it is hauled into the still and placed on the still "deck"
or platform. Here it is taken over by the deck hands who empty
the barrels into the still proper. Ten barrels of gum is the ordi-
nary charge that can be cooked in a 25-barrel capacity still.
The still is a copper kettle setting in a brick foundation over a
fire box. The top is covered by a removable cap which is taken
off when the still is charged and replaced when the cooking com-
mences. The outlet pipe of the cap leads into a long spiral cop-
per worm in a water tank; the worm in turn emptying into a
separator barrel which collects the condensed spirits of turpen-
tine and water.
The stilling is a cooking process in the course of which gum
and water are heated to a temperature of 290' and held at
that point for about two hours. Turpentine vapor and steam
are conducted through the cap to the worm where they are
cooled and condensed. As they come out of the tail pipe
the separator barrel the water goes to the bottom of the barrel
and the turpentine, being lighter, stays on top and is drawn
off by an outlet pipe into a second barrel. The water level may
be controlled by means of an outlet plug in the bottom of the
separator barrel.
As water is boiled off in the course of the cooking more is con-
stantly added to the charge to replace it. During the early
stages of running the charge; about 40% water and 60% tur-
pentine come off at the tail pipe. As the cooking progresses, less
and less turpentine comes over. Finally when there is 95%
water and 5% turpentine coming over, the charge is considered
to be cooked. The water is cut off from the still and what re-
mains in the charge is cooked off. The still is uncapped and
as soon as the charge stops frothing up and "goes flat," as
the saying is, the tail-gate of the still is opened and the hot
rosin is drawn off through strainers. It is necessary to have
the temperature of the charge between 290 and 315 at the
time it is drawn so that it will not cool off before it has time
to strain nor be so hot that there is danger of the rosin igniting
on contact with the air.
At some stills the practice is to uncap the still after the gum
is well heated in order to skim off chips and trash before cook-
ing. At other stills the skimming is postponed until the charge
is cooked and ready to be drawn off into the strainers.
The strainers are three in number. The top strainer is



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Fig. 14. Unloading gum at still deck

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designed to catch chips, pine cones, leaves and large trash.
The second strainer is made of fine copper screening in order
to catch fine particles of bark and some sand and dirt. The
lower strainer is lined with cotton batting which filters out all
of the remaining small particles.
After passing through the batting the rosin goes to a rosin
vat from which it is dipped or run by gravity into rosin barrels
where it is allowed to cool for 48 hours, when it becomes hard
enough for the barrels to be handled and put in a storage yard
ready for shipment. Rosin barrels hold 420 pounds of rosin
on the average. The barrel itself weighs close to 100 pounds,
being manufactured from pine blocks. The staves and heading
material are made up as needed into barrels in a cooperage
shed at the still. A few operators are shipping rosin in iron
casks, but this not yet common practice. Coopers and deck
hands at the still receive from $1.50 to $2.50 per day, stillers
being paid $50.00 to $100.00 per month.
The turpentine is usually stored in 50-gallon oak casks which
are glued on the inside to make them tight. Number 1 barrels
sell for $3.40 and Number 2 barrels for $2.90. Metal barrels
are occasionally used for shipping turpentine, especially for ex-
port trade.

Before being shipped from the State every barrel or rosin
must be graded by a State inspector. The recognized grades of
rosin based upon color starting with the palest grades at the
top with the per cent of the total crop by grades in 1927-28 is
given below:

Rosin Grade*
X and WW ................
W G ......................
N ..........................
M ............... ..........
K ........... .............
I .........................
H ..........................
G ........... ...... ........
F . .. .. .. . . . .. .. ... .
D .. ... ..... .. .... ..........
E .............. ..........
B ..........................

% of total receipts,
Savannah and Jacksonville
... 3.61
... 4.9 \ Pale grades
... 6.6]
... 8.81
... 13.0 Medium grades
... 15.7j
... 19.11
... 12.91
... 7.8 Lower grades
... 4.31
... 2.11
... 1.2J

* Gamble's Naval Stores Yearbook for 1928-29.


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Fig. 16. Cooper shop; here rosin barrels are made up as needed.



Savannah, Ga., 1927-1928.
Date WW WG N M K I H G F E D B
Apr. 2....$13.75 $11.25 $10.25 $ 9.65 $ 9.50 $9.45 $9.40 $9.40 $9.15 $9.10 $8.25 $7.75
Jun 4 .... 11.00 9.85 8.65 .8.60-65 8.60-65 8.60 8.60 8.60 8.60 8.50-60 8.40-60 8.40-60
Aug. 6.... 9.85 9.25 9.00 9.00 9.00 9.00 9.00 9.00 9.00 9.00 9.00 9.00
Oct. 1.... 11.25 9.40-55 8.15 7.90 7.80-90 7.80-90 7.80-90 7.80-85 7.80-85 7.C5 7.65 7.65
Dec. 3.... 10.50 9.25 7.65 6.85 6.60-75 6.60-70 6.60-70 6.60-65 6.60-65 6.60-65 6.60-65 6.50
Feb. 4.... 10.30 9.55 8.85 8.25 8.20 8.00 8.00 7.95 7.85 7.80 7.80 7.80
Mar. 31.. 10.00 9.35 9.15 8.60 8.60 8.50 8.50 8.30 8.15 7.90 7.25 7.20
NOTE: Rosin is packed and shipped in "round" barrels of 500 pounds gross or 420 net weight, but quotations are
always given in barrels of 280 pounds.
(F) Gamble's Naval Stores Yearbook for 1928-29.

Fig. 17. Rosin barrels ready for export.





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There is about 5 cents a barrel difference in the price of
rosin grades successively from B grade to M. Above that grade
the increase in price is much greater. From M to N the jump
is 50 to 55 cents. From N to WG the increase is 90 cents to
$1.00 and between WG and WW the difference is $1.25 per
barrel. These differences held for the year 1927-28 but
vary from year to year.
First class operators using aluminum cups, doing careful
work, excluding all avoidable trash from the gum and stilling
carefully may get 90% of their rosin in the pale grades. Poor
-work, on the contrary, will often result in 95% being of medium
and low grades. On a ten-crop place making 35 barrels of
spirits per crop the rosin yield would be about 1,150 round bar-
rels. The difference in returns per round barrel between pale
grades and medium grades might very well be around $2.00,
making the aggregate difference in returns amount to over
$2,000 annually. This is the premium for good woods and still-
ing practices.
Marketing is done through a "factorage house" or firm which
provides the operator with the needed financial support. For
this selling service a charge of 21/2% of the net returns is made.
The yields to be expected vary tremendously with such fac-
tors as soil type, weather, quality of timber, size of trees and
working practice. In general we may say that the highest gum
yields may be expected under the following conditions:
1. From flatwoods land free from hardpan. While not a great
deal is known of the yields to be expected from different
soils, we do have some knowledge of this subject, and au-
thentic instances are known in which sand hill pine has pro-
duced much less gum than has been obtained from flatwoods
timber. Hardpan land, which frequently results in slow
timber growth and short trees, usually makes poor turpen-
tine timber.
2. From timber in the south central part of the turpentine pine
belt. Timber in North Carolina, South Carolina and south-
ern Florida yields less than timber in the region between
these localities.
3. When the season is hot and rather dry. Warm, dry weather
makes possible long, continuous working. Also preliminary
results conducted at the Southern Forest Experiment Sta-
tion have shown a very close relationship between tempera-
ture and gum yield.
4. From long, wide and full crowned trees growing in the open.
Trees which have big tops and plenty of room to grow have


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Fig. 18. Repeated fires prevent restocking and sometimes burn down large trees as shown above.
In this case the roots were burned out.




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Fig. 19. Chipping a two-face tree with Pringle clay cups in use.



sufficient plant food available to make the maximum amount
of naval stores.
5. Very large timber. The amount of gum derived from a tree
varies directly with the size of the tree, and any tree under
9 inches in diameter 4/2 feet above the ground is of doubtful
value as a money maker.
6. From unscorched trees on unburned land. Severe scorching
resulting in heavy defoliation has been known to deplete
yields by 50% for a year following the fire. Consistently
burned lands are apt to be deficient in plant food and trees
growing on it probably yield less than trees on unburned soil.
7. From chipping 1/4-inch to 1/-inch high. The narrower the
chipping the greater the number of working years and there-
fore the greater the ultimate yield from the tree.
8. From moderately deep chipping 1/-inch to 3/4-inch, depend-
ing on tree vitality.
9. From moderately narrow faces. Faces measuring about one-
third of the bark circumference are conservative.
10. From working one face per tree at a time. If two faces are
placed on a tree and worked at the same time the yield from
the two faces is not over 70% of the yield which could have
been obtained from those two faces worked one at a time.
11. From the practice of nailing rather than driving tins. Driv-
ing tins results in blow-down, insect attack, and dry face,
all conducive to less yield.
12. From varying frequency of chipping with the season. It is
frequently possible to chip twice a week during the summer
when the weather is warm, but in the winter the streaks
should be allowed to run for three or four weeks at least. It
is usually impossible to modify the chipping frequency due
to the inability to utilize labor in the winter during the
slack season or to import extra help'-for extra work in the

In Florida the average yield per crop is 31 barrels of turpen-
tine. For the whole south 35 barrels is an average, the figure
being brought up by the yield from large timber in Louisiana
and Mississippi. For every barrel of turpentine which is manu-
factured there are made 3 1/3 round barrels of rosin. The com-
bination of 1 barrel of turpentine and 3 1/3 barrels of rosin is
called a unit. The Southern Forest Experiment Station at
Starke is operating some slash pine timber 40 years old, averag-
ing 250 cups to the acre. The trees have yielded 43.6 barrels of
spirits per crop each year for 5 years of working, which is the
equivalent of 1.09 units per acre per year or 5.45 units in 5
years' time.
The yield per tree for a season varies with diameter and the


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Fig. 20. Chipping small trees is unprofitable except in seasons of high prices.


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various factors mentioned on page 33. Carefully selected open
grown slash trees worked 1 face per tree for 3 years at Starke
gave the following average yields per crop.
Annual Slash Pine Yields per Crop (G)
Diameter of Trees Yield per Crop for
41/2 ft. above ground 32 streaks
(Inches) (Bbls. spirits)
5 ..................... .............. 11
6 .................. ................ 18
7 .................... ............. 24
8 .................. ................ 30
9 .................. ............... 37
10 ..................... ............. 44
11 ..................... ............. 50
12 .................................... 56
13 .............. .................... 62
14 .................................... 68
15 .................................... 74
16 ..................................... 80
Longleaf Pine Yields per Crop (H)
Diameter of Trees Yield per crop
41/2 ft. above ground for 32 streaks
(Inches) (Bbls Spirits)
6 ............... ..................... 8
7 ...................... ............ 14
8 .................... ............. 21
9 ............. ........ .............. 27
10 .................................... 34
11 ..................................... 40
12 .................................. 46
13 ................................... .53
14 ................. ................ 59
15 ..................... ............. 65
16 ..................................... 71
The above figures represent something approaching average
yields for timber of the sizes given. Crowded stands of slow
growing timber on poor situations will fall below the table
figures whereas very vigorous heavy topped trees will overrun.
The financial returns from turpentining work fluctuate very
widely and this is the most discouraging feature of the industry.
The best figures on returns are those computed by J. A. G.
(G) Yields from Slash Pine, Sampson Lake, first 3 years.
(H) Yields from Second year Longleaf, Starke, Florida. 1925.


Carson of Savannah based on daily sales of large quantities of
naval stores on the open market. The figures in Table III given
below represent the value of the naval stores products at the still
ready for shipment. Manufacturing and timber operating costs,
leases, depreciation, taxes, etc., must be deducted of course in
determining profits.
Value of Naval Stores Products at Still Ready for Shipment,
S1918 to 1928.

Season U W a

1927-28 ...... $24.51 $13.29 $ 68.81
1926-27 ...... 39.32 19.97 105.89
1925-26 ...... 45.33 17.75 104.50
1924-25 ...... 44.57 15.82 97.30
1923-24 ...... 39.37 7.85 65.54
1922-23 ...... 47.93 7.47 72.83
1921-22 ...... 52.26 7.75 78.09
1920-21 ...... 27.26 6.56 49.13
1919-20 ...... 70.25 23.12 147.31
1918-19 ...... 56.40 25.68 140.17
(I) Gamble's Naval Stores Yearbook for 1928-29.

The 1929-29 figures are not complete but will underrun
1927-28 returns by about $2.00 per unit. Leaving out the 1918
to 1920 figures which are phenomenally high and including
1929-29 at $66.00 the average for nine years is about $79.00.
Operating costs depend upon current wages and yield of gum.
On a 10-crop place yielding 35 barrels per crop the cost per unit
would be about $60.00 for the manufactured product.

Depreciation on still, worm, tank, pump.............$ 35.00
Depreciation, buildings ........................... 120.00
Depreciation, wagons, trucks, etc. .................. 50.00
Raking ........................................ 75.00
Cupping prorated over 2 years .................... 100.00
Chipping 32 streaks at $1.25 per thousand .......... 400.00


Dipping 125 barrels gum at $1.00 ................... 125.00
Scraping 40 barrels at $1.25 ...................... 50.00
Stilling ........................................ 75.00
Salary wood rider and manager .................... 175.00
R recruiting .................... .................. 30.00
Taxes and still license .......................... 10.00
Hauling-dip and scrape ......................... 75.00
Batting, etc. ................. ..... ....... ......... 10.00
Depreciation on cups and tins ..................... 86.00
Interest on $25,000 invested at 8% ................. 200.00
Depreciation dip barrels, tools, etc. ................ 40.00
Lease ..................... ....... ............. 400.00
Barrels and cooperage .... .................... .. 225.00
M maintenance .................................. .. 100.00

If 40 barrels per crop are produced the unit cost is brought
down to about $55.00. On the other hand, a 25-barrel per crop
production brings the cost per unit up to $64.00.
A 10-crop place making 350 units would have shown an aver-
age annual profit of $6,650.00 during the past nine years. For
the past two years the profits have been very small but during
the preceding two years operators made plenty of money and
laid up handsome profits.
To finance a small 10-crop place an operator needs, roughly,
$25,000. Of this amount he must usually count on furnishing
one-half, the rest to be obtained from his factorage house. The
factorage house takes the place of the banker in turpentine
circles. The reason for this is that banks do not make a prac-
tice of lending on intangible assets. The factors, however, may
protect their own interests at times by taking a part in the
handling of an operation which is suffering from poor man-
agement. The factor is more than a financial agent, however.
He not only furnishes money for starting the work in turpen-
tining, paying for leases, and so forth, but also he is a wholesale
dealer in naval stores supplies, tools, groceries, dry goods and.
other articles needed in a commissary for the help in the woods
and around the still. Besides these functions, he acts as a com-
mission merchant, handling the sale of all turpentine and rosin
made on the operation and frequently acts as a financial or
business adviser to the turpentine man. It is customary for the
factorage house that finances an operator to handle all of his
products, charging 21/2% handling commission.



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Fig. 21. Face chipped with French tools.



Turpentine is used primarily for paint and varnish thinners.
(J) More than 80% of the total output is used for this pur-
pose; 11% is used for shoe polish and leather dressing; 4%
goes into the manufacture of automobiles and wagons, and 3%
is used in making oils and greases. Other' less important uses
include pharmaceutical and chemical supplies, sealing wax and
Thirty-one per cent of the rosin produced is used in paper
and paper size manufacturing; 28% is used by the soap in-
dustry; 23% in paint and varnish making; 7% goes into manu-
facturing rosin oil, greases and printing ink; 4% is used for
sealing wax and insulation, and nearly the same amount for
making linoleum, oil cloth and roofing. Other purposes for
which rosin is used are the making of steel and iron, chemicals
and matches.


Practically all of the rosin and turpentine not used in the
State or shipped to interior points goes to Jacksonville and
Pensacola. For several years Jacksonville was the largest re-
ceiving point for naval stores in the country, but Savannah has
lately taken the lead. From April 1, 1927, to March 31, 1928,
Jacksonville received 138.052 barrels of turpentine and 525,832
barrels of rosin. Pensacola handled 54,775 and 160,280 barrels,
respectively. (K).
Florida, with its millions of acres of young timber, offers great
possibilities in the development of the naval stores industry. As
a result of research work in turpentining, it has been found
possible as well as practical to put into effect working methods
which enable the operator to work his timber for several years
longer than he thought possible in the past. By careful work
damage from naval stores practice may be reduced to a very
low figure and high yields obtained over a considerable period
of years. The prospects are good for a naval stores industry
in this State which will be even greater in the future than it
has been in the past.

(J) Gamble's Naval Stores Yearbook for 1928-29.
(K) Gamble's Naval Stores Yearbook for 1928-29.

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