The beef breeds
 Greater profit as a result of improving...
 Essentials of animal breeding
 Management of herd
 Beef production on the farm
 Beef cattle barns
 Factors affecting successful beef...
 Evaluating feeds
 Native pastures
 Poisoning of livestock by plants...
 Growing root crops for livesto...
 The making and feeding of...
 Judging beef cattle
 Country hides and skins
 Common diseases of cattle
 Cuts of veal, cuts of beef, and...
 Beef production
 Addresses of breeders' associa...

Group Title: New Series Bulletin - State of Florida, Department of Agriculture ; no. 28
Title: Beef cattle in Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00015004/00001
 Material Information
Title: Beef cattle in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin. New Series
Physical Description: 167 p. : ill. ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Lewis, L. H ( Lester H )
Shonaker, A. G
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee <Fla.>
Publication Date: <1936>
Subject: Beef cattle -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Cattle -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by L.H. Lewis and A.G. Shonaker.
General Note: "Sept. 1936."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00015004
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002452728
oclc - 41434887
notis - AMF8033

Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    The beef breeds
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Greater profit as a result of improving cattle
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Essentials of animal breeding
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Management of herd
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Beef production on the farm
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Beef cattle barns
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Factors affecting successful beef cattle production on general farms in West Florida
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Evaluating feeds
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
    Native pastures
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
    Poisoning of livestock by plants that produce hydrocyanic acid
        Page 109
        Page 110
    Growing root crops for livestock
        Page 111
        Page 112
    The making and feeding of silage
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
    Judging beef cattle
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
    Country hides and skins
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
    Common diseases of cattle
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
    Cuts of veal, cuts of beef, and cooking beef
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
    Beef production
        Page 160
        Page 161
    Addresses of breeders' associations
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
Full Text

Bulletin No. 28 New Series Sept. 1936






Bulletin No. 28

New Series

Sept. 1936

w The production of beef cattle in the United States has
undergone a great many changes since the days when cattle
took the place of the roving buffalo herds on the western plains.
^ Every state in the Union raises some beef cattle and it seems
safe to predict that the future will see vast herds of beef cattle
C- being raised in sections that heretofore have not been noted for
cattle raising.
4S For the most part all kinds of farming is being conducted
on a more intensive scale. Former large ranges have been
divided into smaller areas which contain farms that are reach-
ing their maximum production through the application of
scientific methods. This includes the various branches of stock
In the State of Florida there have been cattle for three
hundred years, or since the early days of Spanish settlement.
These early importations by the Spaniards were not given any
attention in the way of herd management, the cattle being left
to rustle for themselves. Fortunately the ranges in Florida
provided forage for this early stock, and as a result of this
compulsory self-feeding the offspring of these early cattle are
today noted for their ruggedness and rustling ability.
Florida is naturally adapted to beef cattle production. The
climate permits grazing for about ten months of the year and
on the soils found in hammock and flatwood ranges, a full
twelve months grazing is possible. To produce the best quality
of beef it is advisable, however, to supplement the forage crops
with properly balanced food rations as suggested herein.
There are approximately one million head of range cattle in
Florida having a value of about $15,000,000.00.
Production of good beef cattle in Florida fundamentally is
the same as in other states. There must be carefully selected
breeding stock, and proper facilities provided for the care of
the calves, the cows and the bulls.
The right kind of feed, water, and minerals in the right
balance are most necessary in the production of good beef.
Florida enjoys a very good market position, the outlets be-
ing almost unlimited. With an under-production the market
demands in the Southeast are perhaps the highest of any sec-
tion in the United States.
There is a heavy demand for veal calves which will undoubt-
edly stimulate their production in Florida. There are about
25 meat packing plants in the states of Florida, Georgia and
Alabama, which assures a market for all the marketable cattle
Florida beef should be advertised as such and when the con-
suming public becomes acquainted with its quality the demand
should exceed the present demand for "western beef."



The ancestors of our modern beef cattle roamed the earth
when wild animals first inhabited its forests. It is difficult to
state definitely the original sections where these genera began
life and it seems most reasonable to believe that almost every
section of the globe contributed to their general welfare. Their
origin antedates history.
In tracing the progenitors of our domesticated herds much
must be left to conjecture although there is abundant sub-
stantiative evidence in support of the conclusions reached.
In tracing the parentage of "Bossy" it is very interesting
to read the opinions of those who have devoted years to
research and investigation. According to Frederick B. Mum-
ford (Bailey) "At least three distinct pre-historic species, Bos
primigenius; Bos longifrons; and Bos frontosus are the fore-
bears of domesticated cattle. The first species, primigenius,
known also as Urus, was domesticated by the Swiss Lake-
dwellers. Considerable numbers of Urus existed down to his-
toric times in the forests of Europe. Casar mentions this
animal as having been seen in large numbers in the Ilercynian
Forest, and describes it as being 'little smaller than the ele-
phant, but with form and characteristics of a bull'.
"The Friesland cattle of Continental Europe and the Pem-
broke cattle of Wales are supposed to have descended from
Urus. At the present time degenerate examples of this species
may be seen in the parks of Great Britain,-Cadzow Forest
and Chillingham Park having the purest specimens of these
animals. They are white with reddish ears, and become fierce
and dangerous when angered.
"The Bos longifrons or Celtic Ox, formerly wild in Sweden,
was also bred by the ancient Lake-dwellers. It is smaller than
our modern breeds. Owens regards this species as the original
of the Welsh and Highland breeds of cattle and later of the
Shorthorn. Bos frontosus was larger than Bos longifrons and
existed in Scandinavia. The mountain cattle of Norway are
also supposed to have been derived from this species.
"The domesticated cattle of the world are now classed in
two species: the Bos laurus, or common cattle of Europe and
America and the Bos Indicus, the humped cattle of India, also
called Zebus. The humped Zebu was domesticated in Egypt
over 2,000 years before the Christian era.
"The prevailing type of cattle common to Europe and
America belongs to the species, Bos laurus. From this animal


all the various races and breeds have descended. This species
early reached a high degree of development in Europe and has
been widely dispersed to every civilized country on the globe.
The first attempts toward development were very crude and
little progress was made.
"Systematic improvement which resulted in specialized
breeds began about the close of the 18th century. The greatest
progress was made in Great Britain, and to Robert Bakewell,
(1725-1795) of Leicestershire, England, must be given the
credit of producing such markedly superior animals; types
which justly have entitled him to the distinction of being called
the father of the science and art of modern cattle breeding.
"A general classification divides the existing breeds into
beef and dairy cattle."
Careful selection and breeding originated by Robert Bake-
well was carried on in Scotland and England by Colling Broth-
ers, Amos Cruickshank, Richard Tompkins, and Hugh Watson.
This work was continued in America and is still receiving the
best thought of our outstanding cattle breeders. While we
have very fine breeds for the production of beef it is reason-
able to expect that further improvements will result from the
research that will continue to be conducted by breeders.

Among the old English writers we find the word "cattle" or
"catel" used collectively to designate all kinds of live animals
held as property or those raised for food or beasts of burden.
This classification included horses, sheep, swine, and some
writers even applied the word to cover bees and poultry. Our
present dictionaries give the meaning of the word "cattle" to
be: "domesticated bovine animals such as oxen, cows, bulls,
and calves; also (though seldom now) any live stock kept for
use or profit such as horses, camels, sheep, goats, swine, etc."
In the olden days such writers as Chaucer and Wiclif used
the word "cattle" as referring to wealth or substance gen-
erally. The word "cattle" is used now to express property in
living animals, the form of chattel being applied to inanimate
personal property.
Bovine animals were those known as "horned cattle" and
at later periods as "black cattle" and "neat cattle." The black
breeds of Scotland and Wales probably explain the use of the
designation "black cattle." "Neat cattle" were so called be-
cause of their usefulness, "neat" having its origin in the Anglo-
Saxon word "neaten," meaning "to make use of."


In the old English the equivalent for cattle is kinee" or
"kyan," derived from "cy," the plural of "cu," which is the
Anglo-Saxon for "cow."
The term "ox" often used for cattle in general, signifies
more correctly mature, castrated males that are used for draft
purposes. In Continental Europe a broader meaning is given
to the word as it is used to include all male cattle.
Animals which may be comprised as cattle in its more
restricted meaning are oxen or neat cattle, which have been
placed in six groups, Buffaloes (India and Africa) Bison
(Europe and North America); the Yak (Thibet); the Gaur
Gayal and Bantin (India and Further India); Eastern and
African domesticated cattle or Zebu, and Western or European
domesticated cattle. The India Buffalo, Yak, Gayal and Ban-
tin have also been domesticated.
All of the species named are rather closely related except
the Buffalo.

Native cows vary in color, showing evidence of such breeds
as the Jersey, Ayrshire and Devon. Cows averaging about 700
pounds are obtainable. In many respects the native Florida
cows are the most desirable for establishing a herd in this
state. By proper selection of cows from these survivalss of
the fittest" and the mating of them with suitable bulls, beef
cattle improvement should be rapid.
As an indication of the development of the beef cattle in-
dustry in the state the increase in Hillsborough County is
cited. According to the statistics prepared by the U. S. De-
partment of Commerce, cattle on farms in Hillsborough Coun-
ty on April 1st, 1930, amounted to 12,603 head and on January
1st, 1935, there were 21,599, or an increase of 71%. The num-
ber of cows and heifers two years old and over increased 77%
in the same period.

Number of Head and Approximate Value of Florida
Beef Cattle
1910- 845,188 head cattle valued at......---.............................. $
1920-638,981 head cattle valued at..-.....................
1921-766,000 head cattle valued at......------------..--.................. 21.70
1922- 774,000 head cattle valued at............... ........................ 16.10
1924-740,000 head cattle valued at.. ------......... ....................... 19.80
1925-710,000 head.cattle valued at----------...................................... 18.50



1926-575,000 head cattle valued at.......................---------------- 21.10
1927- 592,000 head cattle valued at-....................... ... ----------- 17.00
1928- 533,000 head cattle valued at -.~...... ----- -................. 17.60
1929-480,000 head cattle valued at --...-....---....-.... ---........ 23.40
1930-432,000 head cattle valued at..........-..---.................. 29.10
1931-432,000 head cattle valued at --................-......------..... 23.70
1932-458,000 head cattle valued at -....-...........-------. 17.90
1933-480,000 head cattle valued, at -................ ... 14.00
1934-600,000 head cattle valued at-----.... ---- ---...............--... 14.80
1935-890,000 head cattle valued at ......---.......--..-..-... -... *15.50
The State Fair held in Tampa, Florida, during February,
1936, resulted in the purchase by stock breeders of over 600
high grade bulls. With this widespread interest in cattle pro-
duction throughout the state it is reasonable to expect that
Florida will within a reasonable period of time be able to sup-
ply all local demands for beef. At present 75% of the beef
consumed within the state is shipped here by various large
beef packers.
"Florida dollars spent in Florida help to build Florida
industry," and it is expected that the beef cattle industry in
Florida will before many years grow to such size that every
local demand for beef may be supplied by good Florida cattle.

Per Capita Consumption of Meat
For a period of 30 years, from 1900 to 1929, inclusive, the
per capital consumption of all meats, including lard, was 139.9
pounds. The largest per capital consumption occurred in 1924,
with 149.7 pounds. The smallest per capital consumption was
in 1917, with 120.1 pounds. 1929 shows the per capital consump-
tion of meat as follows: Beef, 51.4 pounds; Veal, 6.8 pounds;
Lamb and mutton, 5.8 pounds; Pork, 72.8 pounds; Lard, 14.3
pounds, or a total of 151.1 pounds including lard, or a total of
136.8 pounds of meat.
There is no best breed of beef cattle. The various breeds
for the production of desirable beef are practically on a parity,
although breed characteristics may be different. For the same
specific purposes, certain peculiarities may appear as advant-
ages in one breed over another.
Select the breed that is preferred, especially if the same
breed is to be found on farms or ranches in the community
where the experiences of other breeders may be learned and
studied. An inexperienced stock breeder should visit well bred
herds of all the various breeds if possible in order to become
conversant with the different breeds.




The breeds of beef cattle in the United States are the
Shorthorn (both horned and polled), Hereford and Polled
Hereford, Aberdeen, Angus, Galloway, and Brahman (Zebu).
These breeds, (excepting the Brahman), have been carefully
bred for many generations. The dairy breeds do not yield the
largest quantity or the best quality of beef. The beef breeds
are bred for maximum beef production.


Shorthorn beef cattle are more extensively raised than the
other breeds. They were brought to the United States in 1783
by Miller and Gough, of Virginia and Maryland, respectively,
from the Tees River Valley, in Northeastern England,where they
were known as Yorkshire, Holderness, Teeswater, or Durham,
cattle. Col. Lewis Sanders, of Kentucky; Samuel Thorne, of


*f^:. .


Shorthorn cow

Polled-Shorthorn bull


New York; Abram Renick, and R. A. Alexander, of Kentucky,
may be considered founders of the Shorthorn breed in America.
The Shorthorn attain the largest size of any of the beef
breeds. These cattle have great adaptability. They may vary
in color from red or white to any combination of red and white
or a blending of red and white (roan).
The Shorthorn breeds well with native and grade cows. The
bulls are very prepotent and are used to grade up scrub cattle.
The Shorthorn cow excels in milk production and is pre-
ferred on small farms to supply milk and butter for the family
in addition to raising a calf for beef. The steers produce very
high class beef.
This breed is a good beef type, being wide, deep, lengthy
and thickly fleshed. The horns of the cow are small and curve
forward, and should be of a waxy, yellowish color. The head
should have great width between the eyes, short from the eyes
to the large and flesh-colored muzzle, having large, open nos-
trils. The neck should be short and full, smooth and well
covered with flesh; the crops full, the heart girth large, and
foreflank low. The chest wide and deep, with the brisket thick
and well to the front. The ribs well sprung and the barrel
well developed. In good individuals the back is broad and the
loin is wide, deep, and thickly fleshed. The hips are wide and
well covered with flesh; the rump is long, wide, and level, car-
rying an abundance of flesh. The hind quarter is almost
straight from the root of the tail to the hocks; it is wide and
thick, carrying the flesh well down. The flank is low; the
udder, having teats of medium size, is usually well developed.
extending well forward, with prominent milk veins.
The bull should possess the same desirable features as the
female, but show masculinity, a larger and thicker neck,
heavier bone throughout, greater depth, thickness, and scale.
His horns are heavier and less curved than the cow's.

Polled Shorthorn, formerly known as Polled Durham, is
similar to the Shorthorn in every way except it is hornless.

These cattle are very popular and rank next to Shorthorn
in numbers in this country. They were imported by Henry
Clay and Lewis Sanders in 1817.


Hereford bull

Hereford cow

::~ ;, - nt.


Hereford cattle, because of their "rustling" ability, found
favor. On scant pastures and on the range where water holes
are far apart, the Hereford has shown its merit. Not only do
these cattle thrive under adverse conditions, but they also
respond readily to a favorable environment. The bulls are
active, vigorous, prepotent, and very sure breeders. They
mature early and fatten readily in the feed lot.
The Hereford color may be described as a medium to deep
rich red, with white head, breast, belly, crest, switch, and legs
below the knee and hock. A pure white face is preferred. The
hair is usually medium or long, soft and silky, with a curly

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~Y;Cr~K~:iC. ~-I~I~i~
r 'V
~t~ *

Polled-Hereford bull

The horns of the bull are somewhat coarser, straighter, and
heavier. The neck is short, thick, and blends well with the
shoulders. Great width, depth, length of chest, and a fullness
of the crops account for their constitution and endurance.
The loin is broad and deep. The rump and hind quarters are
usually well developed.

The Polled Hereford is a new breed developed in America
by mating Hereford cattle that are naturally polled.



Aberdeen-Angus bull

Aberdeen-Angus cow

r-~~ms ~,i~/;Fi~t~- .t7MMW~ii'



The first known importation of Aberdeen-Angus cattle was
made in 1873 by George Grant, of Victoria, Kansas. They are
black in color and have no horns. Aberdeen-Angus cattle are
good rustlers, and are valuable for grading up native cattle.
The cattle give more milk than the Hereford, but not so much
as the Shorthorn.
Cattle of this breed mature very early and have a tendency
to fatten well at any age. The body is more cylindrical,
smoother throughout, and smaller than either Shorthorn or
Hereford. Their readiness to fatten, early maturity, excep-
tional vigor, high quality, general smoothness and uniformity,
and the high percentage of valuable meat produced have made
them popular among cattle feeders. They usually dress out a
higher percentage of marketable meat than any other breed.
The head of the Angus shows a sharp, tapered poll, great
breadth between the eyes, prominent forehead and eyes, nose
of medium length, large mouth and muzzle, and large nostrils.
The neck is short and full. The bull has a well-developed
crest, but the neck does not always blend smoothly with the
shoulders, which are sometimes prominent. The chest shows
great depth, width and length. The body is compact, the ribs

Galloway bull


'' t'-sS


are curved, long and well sprung. The deep covering of flesh,
the smallness of bone, and the deep rounding, bulging hind
quarters give a maximum quantity of meat.
The high quality is shown by the soft, pliable, mellow skin
and fine hair. The meat has large fibers and is of good quality.
The constitution and vigor of this breed is indicated by a well-
developed chest and good heart girth. For grading up native
stock and for crossing, they hold an enviable record.

It is not known when Galloway cattle first made their ap-
pearance in the United States. They do not respond so readily
to careful feeding and management as the other breeds, being
slow in maturing and are smaller than any of the other beef
breeds. The Galloway is low-set and deep, the head being
covered with long, wavy hair, and the ears are set far back
from the forehead. The body is long and of medium depth;
the rump long and well filled, although the tail head is usually
set rather high. The bone is fine, the skin mellow, the hair
soft and silky, and the meat fine and of high quality. The
Galloways have commanded special attention because of their
prepotency, as shown by the uniformity of the offspring when
the bulls are used for grading up or for crossing.

Galloway heifer

#?r.-" ,

J4 1

44il+~~';i%; l


The term Brahman (Zebu) has been designated by the
United States Department of Agriculture as the name for all
breeds of "Indian cattle" in the United States. These Indian
cattle are commonly known as "Brahmas" and as "Zebus." In
India in the early days these cattle were used primarily for
milk and work, and were rarely killed for meat. Certain ani-
mals have been called the "sacred cattle" of India. There are
about 31 breeds of Indian cattle in India. The Nellore or
Ongole, Guzerat, Gir, and Krishna Valley are the breeds rep-
resented in the United States.

All the Indian cattle breeds belong to the 1I-i i.., Bos
indicus and are characterized by the prominent hump above
the shoulders, abundance of loose, pendulous skin under the
throat, on the dewlap, navel, and sheath. Good specimens
have great depth of body, showing considerable depth of
muscling in the loins and hind quarters. The rump is droop-
ing, although in the best individuals it is rather full and
rounding. The ears are usually long and drl,,niii ,. and the
voice is more of a grunt than a low.
The Nellore breed is one of the largest in size and varies in
color from steel gray to almost pure white, has a moderately
long face, fine muzzle, and broad forehead. The horns are
inclined outward and slightly backward; the small ears
pointed and drooping. The hump is well developed in both
sexes. The body is of moderate length and the legs fine, with
an abundance of clean bone.

The Guzcrat is somewhat large than the Nellore. The
head, neck and shoulders are usually darker than other por-
tions of the body. The head is long and slightly bulged above
the eyes. The ears are longer and more pendulous. The horns
rise vertically. The neck blends smoothly into the shoulder.
The body is deep and wide, with a less drooping rump.

The hair is short and fine and the skin is generally pig-
mented. Brahman cattle have a very beneficial characteristic
in that they sweat. This enables them to stand intense heat,
although they likewise can adapt themselves to cold. These
animals do not open their mouths and pant.

The Gir breed is of medium size and the color is often a
combination of a medium shade of brown with a dull red. The
neck, ears and legs are frequently darker than other portions.
The forehead is prominent. The horns are usually thick at



the base, curve backward abruptly, and then upward. The
ears are long and pendulous, often extending below the nose
in calves. A nick near the point of the ear on the inside is
characteristic of the breed. The body is fairly broad, the rump
decidedly drooping and the dewlap is large and pendulous.
The Krishna Valley breed is similar to the Nellore. The
head is wide and massive. The horns are short, thick at the
base, slightly flattened, and extend outward horizontally. The
body is wide and deep, and possesses straighter top and bot-
tom lines than are found in most of the other breeds. The
legs are straight, well fleshed, with large flat bones.
The Indian cattle were introduced into the United States
about 1850. The Brahman or Indian bulls are valuable in the
Gulf Coast region in crossing with the native southern cattle
and the domestic beef breeds. The Indian cattle transmit
hardiness, grazing ability, and prolificacy to their offspring.
The crossbred calves develop very rapidly. Breeders who use
Brahman bulls have had more success in selling the crossbred
offspring as calves or yearlings off of grass in the fall of the
year than as older cattle. Cattle possessing Brahman blood
usually show a high dressing percentage.
Brahman calves, when born, are small as compared with
calves of other breeds, but they take on weight rapidly. They
will weigh from 15% to 20% more at ages from 3 to 5 months,
and at the time they are weaned they generally weigh from 50
to 75 pounds more than calves of the same age from other
The Advantages of Good Brahman Blood
Louisiana states that the rate of gain of calves for 3 months
was 1.81 pounds per day for Brahman half-breeds, and 1.34
pounds per day for Hereford grade calves. In 1930 their tests
showed that the Brahmas gained 1.59 pounds per day from
birth and the Herefords 1.42 pounds per day. In 1931 the
average growth of eleven Brahman half-blood was 2.12 pounds
per day and for 24 beef type calves 1.72 pounds per day from
birth. In 1932, Brahman cross bred calves gained 1.94 pounds
per day and the beef type calves gained 1.69 pounds per day,
a difference of 14.9% in favor of the Brahmas.

The principal dual-purpose breeds of cattle in the United
States are certain types and families of the Shorthorn, to-
gether with the Red Polled and Devon.


Milking-Shorthorn bull

Milking-Shorthorn cow


The type of animal necessary for the production of large
yields of milk is entirely different from that of beef animals,
and it has been impossible to produce a breed of superior
merit for both purposes. The dual-purpose animal, however,
may be a desirable milker and also produce calves which
develop into good beef animals.

This breed are fair grazers and have long been celebrated
for early maturity, easy fleshing qualities, and fair to good
milk flow. The bulls are very prepotent and give uniformity
in offspring when bred to native cows. The color ranges from
light to dark red. The head is lean, medium in length, with
well-defined poll covered with a tuft of hair of medium length.
The neck is longer and thinner than in the beef breeds. The
chest is usually well developed and the ribs well sprung, but
lack a thick covering of flesh. The barrel is developed to a
greater extent than with the beef breeds and the loin and hind
quarters are more lightly fleshed. The bone is of medium
size, the skin is thin, soft and pliable and the hair short and

Red-Polled bull



rip' -!'~'-.



Red-Polled cow

fine. The udder is well developed in the back, and the teats
Devon cows are good milkers and the steers are used as
work oxen or for beef. Endurance, intelligence, and gameness
have made them unexcelled as work oxen. They are solid red
in color, white being permitted on the udder, or near the scro-
tum, and on the switch when properly graded. The shade of
red varies. The Devons incline more to the beef than to the
dual-purpose type. They are close-coupled, very compact,
smooth, and rank high in quality.
Although the Devon makes a somewhat slower growth and
fattens less rapidly than the beef breeds, they produce meat
fine in texture and of good quality.
Dcvon bulls are very prepotent and have been used very sat-
isfactorily in grading up the native range cattle in sections of


- s 4-.


Devon bull

Devon cow

:'1 NMUI


The bull, when correct in form and fatness, presents a
massy, blocky appearance from every angle of view. Two
dimensions of the beef bull should be great width and depth;
the third dimension, length, should not be extensive. As
viewed from the side, the body is rectangular, very deep and
short from shoulder to hip; the body is very wide, the legs are
short and placed squarely under the body. The back is uni-
formly broad, the more width the better. Viewed from the
side, the top line and underline are straight and parallel. An
animal showing too much length of middle is referred to as
being "rangy," while an animal standing high off the ground
is usually termed "leggy."
The head should be of medium size, short and broad, with
a broad muzzle indicating capacity for grazing and feeding.
The head below the eye is short, the eyes being wide apart,
large, prominent, bright, clear and placid, indicative of a quiet
disposition. The forehead is very wide, the jaws broad and
well muscled, the ears of medium size, of fine texture and
neatly attached to the head. The entire head should be clean
cut, giving a well bred appearance, sometimes referred to as
character. The nostrils large, indicating capacity for breath-
ing and hence a good constitution.
The neck should be short, thick and muscular, and show
depth and fullness at the shoulder; the throat neat and trim.
A long neck is indicative of poor quality and is usually asso-
ciated with a rangy type of body.
The shoulders should be very smooth, blending perfectly
with the rest of the body; the shoulder blades should lie snug-
ly against the ribs beneath and be covered over with a uni-
formly thick layer of flesh; the top of the shoulders wide and
nicely rounded over with flesh, not rough or angular or un-
evenly covered. Prominent shoulders cause the development
behind them to appear insufficient.
The brisket and chest are highly important. The brisket
should carry forward prominently and wide, be well fleshed,
neat, presenting a full, well developed and trim appearance.
A deep, full chest with a large heart-girth indicates a rugged
sort of animal possessed of much constitutional vigor. The
floor of the chest should be wide as indicated by the distance
between the two fore legs; with the fore rib, lying just behind the
shoulder, arching boldly so that no flatness or depression exists
behind the shoulder. The flesh should carry down deep and full
at the front flanks just behind the elbows. Every intelligent
feeder places emphasis on the depth and width of the chest.
The fore quarters must, therefore, be smoothly laid, and thick-


ly fleshed, and very wide and deep, showing no lack of consti-
tution anywhere, not rough or too prominent.
The front legs should be short and placed squarely under
the animal; come straight down, and the toes point straight
ahead. The arms should be wide and muscular at its attach-
ment to the shoulder. "Fineness of bone and smoothness of
joints are evidences of quality whereas rough, coarse animals
have heavy joints and a big shank bone."
The back carries great weight. It should be wide, straight
and strong. The back furnishes one of the high priced cuts
of beef and always receives critical attention in judging. Width
of back is secured when the ribs are arched boldly from the
spinal column; if the ribs are not arched the back must neces-
sarily be narrow. When touched with the fingers, great depth
and mellowness should be found.
The ribs should be well sprung and carry down with much
depth to help make a roomy or capacious body. Cattle have
13 pairs of ribs, the last pair should come close to the hips. A
wide, deep middle is essential to digestive capacity. The ribs
should be fairly close together.
At all points the animal should fill out plump and smooth
to form a straight line from front to rear; with the fleshing
over the ribs thick, smooth and even; the hind flank well filled
with flesh. If the front and hind flanks carry down properly,
the underline will be straight.
The loin is that portion of the top lying between the rear
edge of the back and the hips. It has no ribs below it but con-
sists of large muscles affording the very choicest cuts of the
entire beef carcass-the porterhouse and sirloin. The loin
should be very wide and thick and thickly covered with flesh
that is smooth and firm, padded and plumped with muscles
having the proper degree of fatness.
The hips should be laid in snugly. While it is generally
said that animals should have wide hips, the width should not
be beyond what can be covered over with flesh.
The rump is that portion between the hips and the tailhead.
It should be level and carry out the top straight line and
square up the end of the body, and as wide as the rest of the
animal's back near the hips, and taper generally but slightly
toward the tailhead. The tailhead should be on a level with
the back, otherwise it presents the appearance of being rounded
off. The rump should be smooth and evenly coated with flesh.
The thigh is that portion of the body between the rump and
the lower leg. It should be wide and plump and come down
with some bulge practically to the hock. "Plumpness and thick-
ness to the hock" is a common saying among judges. Viewed


at from the side or from the rear, the thigh should be wide and
near the thickness of the body to give the animal a uniform
The hock and hind legs of a beef animal are very important.
These should indicate capacity for fl.lin-., be straight and
properly placed and set squarely under the animal. The shank
carry straight down. The bone or joints clean cut and show
The twist is that portion between the hind legs. It should
be very deep and full and carry well down towards the hock.
The proportion of muscle in an animal is evident at its
birth. If an animal is not born with the kind of frame work
it should have, it is not likely that it will ever have it. Quality
is shown by the head, the spring of rib, the hair, skin, and
bone. The amount of flesh which a beef animal will carry is
of the highest importance.
A good animal is considered ""'py" type, not "'r.1iiy." The
demand is for animals which will finish at most any age, par-
ticularly for "baby beef." The compact, pony type animals or
the heavy bodied compact animal is of the type which feeders
seek for; and the type which breeders need most.
Prominent, placid eyes set in a broad, short face are im-
portant characteristics.

Irn iw erve


. I .p



Front view

Rear view


Those desirable characteristics of the pure-bred bull should
likewise appear in a good pure bred cow, except that the ap-
pearance of the head and neck will display femininity. A good
cow likewise has a quiet temperament.
See How Rapidly the Proportion of Native Blood (Black Por-
tion) Diminishes When a Purebred Sire Is Used


Progress in Five Generations Using Progress in Five Generations Using
Purebred Bulls and Native Cows Grade Bulls and Native Cows

Replace Scrub and Grade Sires with Good Purebreds
Join the "Better Sires-Better Stock" Campaign
For full information
Consult your County Agent, your Agricultural College or
the United States Department of Agriculture



Florida cattlemen may increase their profits from cattle.
1st, by culling the herd-the elimination of non-breeders, shy-
breeders, and cows of inferior conformation, type and quality,
and elimination of the scrubbier animals in the herd. 2nd,
producing more calves per year or by increasing materially
the percent of calf drop. 3rd, disease control methods. 4th,
planting and using more and better grazing crops the year
round. 5th, better feed methods. 6th, control of parasites,
screw worms, lice; and diseases, such as contagious abortion,
tuberculosis, hemorrhagic septicemia, etc. While very few
diseases exist in Florida, preventive measures should be exer-
cised to protect the cattle industry. 7th, through timely mar-
keting. Bean fed cattle should be marketed prior to lot fed
cattle, etc. 8th, taking better care of the cows during the win-
ter and during the nursing period. 9th, by earlier castration
of bull calves and by dehorning, particularly that group to be
sold as feeders. 10th, providing plenty of shade in hot weather.
11th, greater protection of the cattle during the winter season.
12th, providing at all times a plentiful supply of good, clean
drinking water. There are sections in Florida where it would
pay producers to have windmills to provide good water when
normally there might be a scarcity. 13th, keeping proper min-
eral mixtures before the cattle at all times. 14th, the use of
good, pure bred, beef type bulls. 15th, the control and sys-
tematic breeding of the breeding herd. 16th, the protection
of heifers until they are about two years old before allowing
them to be bred. 17th, keeping in separate pastures the vari-
ous classes of cattle. The control of bulls for timely Ihr.--.dliiL.
calving and marketing. 18th, the elimination of the scrub bull.




1. Weight and size, according
to age ................... 10

2. Form, deep, broad through-
out, low-set; straight top
and underline ............ 25

3. Constitution, go o d depth
and width of chest........ 15

4. Quality,smooth throughout;
good handler as indicated
by soft, loose, pliable skin
covered with fine mossy
hair; bone fine, yet of suf- I
ficient substance andl
strength to carry body.... 15

5. Condition, carrying enough
natural flesh to indicate
vigor; free from patchiness 10

6. Breed, type,and color,clean
cutheadandneck with good
form; color markings typi-
cal for breed.............. 10

7. Sex character, strong mas-
culine head and neck in bull
more refinement through-
out in cow than in bull.... 10

8. Disposition, docilewithquiet
temperament ............. 5

Animal No..------..

0 Points Deficient

Student's Corrected
Score Score

Animal No.

Points Deficient

Student's Corrected
Score Score


I _____

_____ I

I ___ I _________



Disqualifications automatically eliminate the animal from competition in
the class.
(Taken from U. S. Dept. of Agri., Bureau of Animal Industry).


From earliest beginnings of rational mental processes
human beings have asked the question "Why?" Failing to
receive an answer concerning things which they could not
understand, they have theorized and developed explanations
as a result of such theories which have not had any basis in
fact. From the time when the simple shepherds of Asia
watched their flocks beneath the stars and wondered at the
mysteries of nature around them, man has marveled at the
mysteries of heredity. In some form or other many of these
meditations have persisted as beliefs until modern times and
for which no definite proof has ever been presented.
A famous ancient classic is the bargain which Jacob made
with his father-in-law, Laban. Some breeders of cattle have
believed that objects of striking color appearing in the vision
of the female at the time of conception had an influence on
the characteristics of the progeny. So far as the Biblical case
is concerned, it appears that Laban was not so skilled in ani-
mal husbandry of his day as his crafty son-in-law, and judging
by what we know of the livestock of Palestine, it would have
been far more remarkable if a large proportion of the calves
had not been speckled and spotted.
The pregnant mother, whether of the human or of the ani-
mal family, should be an object of the utmost solicitude and
should receive the most thoughtful, tender care. The develop-
ment of the young creature in her body taxes both bodily
strength and nervous organization. We must not forget, how-
ever, that there is no direct connection of circulation or
nervous system between the mother and the fetus. Therefore,
the fetus can not be affected by what the mother sees or hears.
Accidents to the mother, however, such as sudden strains,
falls, etc., may have effects resulting in the serious injury or
death of the young. These results are not due to heredity, no
matter what the effect on the young may be.
Females usually accept service only during the period of
heat. As a rule, not more than one service is necessary during
the period of heat to insure conception. After conception
takes place, the female does not generally come in heat again
during pregnancy.
The life which results when two animals are mated has its


controlling elements in the nuclei of germ cells. It needs only
nourishment to become, in time, a full-fledged baby member of
its race. Food will have a profound influence on this mite of
life, but, so far as we know, the character of the resulting
animal, its sex, its identity, and its individuality, whether it
is to be white or black, long-haired or short-haired, ring-
streaked or spotted, are now settled by the laws of life.

Keeping in mind the principles laid down in the foregoing,
it is clear that in order to make the best out of the hereditary
material represented in a herd, and to use the laws of nature
to the best advantage, the standard set must be kept clearly
in mind. This standard must be definite and should be as
practical and simple as possible. The exercise of selection,
wisely and judiciously pursued, offers the breeder one of the
two most effective means of benefitting from the operations
of chance, which otherwise might result in confusion. Con-
stant selection of a good type will increasingly intensify the
properties of a given set of characteristics, but this selection
must be pursued constantly. There is a continual pull, back-
ward and downward against which the breeder must work by
wise and skillful matings. If this intelligent direction by
human skill should be removed, our animal stock would rapid-
ly degenerate to the level of the type of centuries ago.
The male is usually depended upon to correct faults in the
parents. The breeding animals should have: Good bone; deep,
broad chests; strong, broad backs; and fully developed bodies.
Especial attention should be paid to the head, for that part of
the body discloses many characteristics which otherwise would
be overlooked. Width between the eyes, full, prominent nos-
trils indicate points of value both to the breeder and the
feeder. In males, masculinity is important. The evidence of
the masterful impressiveness of the masculine sex is often ap-
parent in very young animals. Avoid cows with heads like
those of steers. These points make up in total what breeders
call "character" and are among the most important considera-
tions which a breeder must bear in mind in building up a herd.
Good feed, care, and attention are valuable adjuncts to
selection. Starved animals which never have had an oppor-
tunity to demonstrate their capacity to produce meat, furnish
poor material from which to make selection of animals capable
of maximum and economical production.
While faults undoubtedly can be corrected by the use of
males of superior individuality, it may be unwise to use some


females for breeding even market stock. To sell them and
substitute better individuals, either high grades or pure-breds,
is often the most profitable in the end.
Selection alone is not always certain to result in steady
progress. Different combinations of hereditary elements may
develop the same characteristics. The introduction of the
blood of a line which merely looks like that of the old stock,
may at any time breed differently. The result will be the
undoing of past progress, the next generation showing the
variability characteristics of the second generation of a cross.
Only by breeding within relatively narrow limits can there be
reasonable assurance that mating animals which look alike
have the same heredity.

Next in importance to selection is the judicious mating of
related animals. This is known as inbreeding, and various
terms, such as line-breeding, close breeding, and incestuous-
breeding, have been used to define varying degrees of intensity
of inbreeding.
This is one of the most discussed, subjects in the whole field
of genetics. All sorts of bad results are attributed to it. Lack
of vigor, non-resistance to disease, decline in size and fecun-
dity, and even sterility are the fate of inbred animals, in the
minds of many people.
We have, however, the accepted fact that progress in ani-
mal breeding began only when breeders began to inbreed. The
work of Bakewell, and the method that has been most far-
reaching in its results was that he mated his animals with
first regard to their individual suitability for the mating, and
with secondary importance placed on their relationship. Since
the time of Bakewell every breeder who has made an impress
of permanent importance, has used inbreeding as the most use-
ful means at his command.
When related animals are mated there is brought together
more uniform hereditary material than when those that are
not related are mated. The probability that the offspring will
be like the parents is increased, but there may be hidden in
the hereditary material the factors of an undesirable charac-
ter. It is possible to inbreed some animals much more in-
tensely than others, and certain strains of breeds in the same
species exhibit similar traits.
Inbreeding should be practiced only by the most skillful
breeders, and only when they have definite knowledge of the


The successful use of inbreeding is one of the best tests of
a breeder's skill, and it is absolutely necessary to possess the
requisite skill to make such a step successful.

Cross-breeding is the mating of pure-bred animals of dif-
ferent breeds of the same species. Except to produce market
animals, cross-breeding should be used only by the highly
skilled breeder, and it is not then practicable unless there has
been an opportunity to place the progeny on the market for
breeding purposes.
The art of breeding reaches its zenith in the breeding of
pure-breds-the most fascinating, inspiring, and remunerative
branch of animal breeding when successfully followed, but the
most difficult and disappointing when not successful. This
type of breeder is far more than a business man or a farmer.
He is an artist, and the artistic appeal is first in importance
to him.
A breeder's success largely depends on the ability to judge
animals, knowledge of the pedigrees, and acquaintance with
the characteristics of the ancestors of those animals. The
breeder's ability as a judge must be based on an instinctive
gift to recognize animal types and carry them clearly in mind.
Early maturity is very important in economical beef pro-
duction, and pure bred calves will often weigh over 100 pounds
more at six months of age than calves sired by native bulls.
Grade calves will carry more fat and will be heavier muscled,
with a higher quality of meat in the carcasses than that ob-
tainable from natives.
There is likewise greater uniformity in the grade ill-pring.
Only an experienced breeder who is a good judge of beef
cattle should raise pure-breds. The breeder must know how
to manage the herd in every particular, what to feed, how
much to feed and when to feed. Winter feed must be pro-
vided in abundance and summer grazing crops must be ample.
In presenting this excerpt from Farmers' Bulletin 1167,
we suggest that every interested cattle breeder obtain a copy
of the bulletin and study it.


To summarize very briefly, let us bear in mind the follow-
ing fundamental facts:
1. All animal forms on the earth have developed gradually
from lower forms by very slow changes. This is the process
known as evolution.
2. The young animal starts on its career when two bits of
hereditary material (germ plasm) unite, one from the female
(the egg) and the other from the male (the sperm). When the
union is complete, the sex, identity, and individuality of the
animal are settled. Chance plays a most important part in
determining these factors.
3. From now on the fate of the animal depends on its nour-
ishment and environment.
4. The breeder can do much to bend the operations of the
laws of chance to his own ends by careful selection of breeding
stock. "Breed the best to do the best."
5. Next to selection, the best means at the command of the
breeder to fix type in his animals, is inbreeding. It is a power-
ful tool, but a dangerous one in unskillful hands. Inbred sires
are more impressive as a rule than sires which are not inbred.
6. Nature does not work lawlessly. Occurrences attributed
to super-natural means can be more rationally explained as a
manifestation of some operation of a law of heredity.
If a breeder has a clear conception of these facts, he can
usually explain by one or the other, nearly every occurrence
which he may observe. The more clearly he thinks on these
subjects the more successful he will be as a breeder.


A breeder who understands herd management will regulate
the breeding in the herd. The bull is allowed with the cows
only during the breeding season and in this manner the birth
of calves will be controlled, and the size of the calves will be
uniform, which is very important if the male calves are to be
grown out as "feeder" steers.
Herd income is largely dependent upon the number of good
calves produced. To obtain a good crop of calves it is essen-
tial to have carefully selected bulls and cows that are healthy,
ample feed during the different seasons, and proper minerals.
Undernourished cows frequently die at calving time. These
are some of the things a successful stockman learns from
study, observation and experience.
Healthy, vigorous, and well fed bulls are just as important
to economy in beef production as well nourished cows.

All old, weak cows, non-breeders, and those animals with
poor conformation should be culled from the herd in the early
fall and sent to the butcher to save on the feed cost.

Separate the heifer calves from the breeding herd when
they are about 6 months old. Keep them separate until they
are 20 to 24 months old when they may be bred. Unless the
young heifers are separated they cannot be properly fed for
the next season's calf crop. Good herd management in this
respect assures better cows for the foundation of the herd.
Growing heifers during the winter months should have
roughage in the form of silage and some concentrate feed.
Velvet beans and corn make good winter feed.

If a new-born calf does not immediately begin breathing
when it is born, any mucus in its mouth or nostrils should be
wiped out. Natural breathing may be induced by forcing air
into the lungs with a bellows or by alternate compression and
relaxation of the walls of the chest.
Soon after the calf is born the cow should be given all the


luke-warm water she desires. Do not give the cow cold water.
It is well also, to feed a small amount of bran mash. If the
cow produces more milk than the calf takes during the first
day or two, that remaining in the udder should be milked out.

Two calves of about the same age may be suckled by one
cow; if not, the calves are taken from the cows about the fifth
day and taught to drink milk. The calf is given the feeder's
fingers to suck and immediately the fingers are immersed in
the milk. After each feeding thoroughly clean and scald the
buckets and other utensils and place them in the sunshine for
several hours.
The calf's feed for the first day or two will consist of three
or four pounds of whole milk. Do not force it to drink as the
calf will take the milk 12 hours later at its next feeding time.
Slowly increase the quantity about a pound each day until the
calf is getting 8 to 10 pounds daily.
After feeding whole milk for about two weeks, gradually
replace it with skim milk. The quantity of skim milk may be
gradually increased every week until 15 to 20 pounds are being
fed, although 12 to 14 pounds will be sufficient, provided there
is fed an adequate amount of suitable grain mixture, a protein
supplement, and hay.
Good quality beef calves gain about 2 pounds a head daily,
when creep-fed a ration of 4 pounds grain mixture, over a
period of about six months. A mixture of 2 parts of shelled
corn and 1 part of whole oats, by weight, makes a good feed
for the first three months, thereafter, increase the mixture to
5 parts of shelled corn, 2 parts of whole oats, and 1 part of
linseed meal.
During the first 30 days, one-fourth of a pound should be
fed to each calf in the creep the first two or three days and
then gradually increase the amount to average about 1 pound
a head daily. The grain may be increased gradually until by
the end of the fifth month of creep-feeding when the calves will
take about 8 pounds a head daily. The amount of grain may
be reduced to about one-half provided the calf has had a liberal
supply of milk throughout the suckling period, and the pas-
ture is in best condition.
Calves that are to be fattened in the dry lot should not be
creep-fed on grass during the entire suckling period.
Breeding or young, growing beef cattle may not -ir-d a
mineral supplement in addition to salt if they are afforded a
variety of feeds.


Pregnant cows, nursing cows, or cows of the dual-purpose
breeds if fairly heavy milkers may need a heavier allowance of
minerals than contained in their regular feeds.
A good mineral mixture is made of 5 parts (by weight) of
finely ground limestone, 5 parts of sterilized bone meal, and
1 part of salt (to make the mixture more palatable).

Under range conditions, pasture mating is obtained and
for that reason fewer cows should be allowed per bull. The
number of cows allowed per bull will depend on the age of the
bull; young bulls being allowed fewer than older ones.
The following general rule may apply to pasture mating:
For yearling bulls, 8 to 10 cows per season.
For two-year old bulls, 15 to 20 cows per season.
For three-year-old and older bulls, 20 to 35'cows per season.
Where selected mating is practiced, 25 to 50 percent more
cows may be bred annually per bull than where pasture mat-
ing is followed.

It is necessary to change bulls at least every two years.

Service on date given in first column should bring calf on date given in second column

Mar. Dec. I Apr. Jan.

Jan. Oct.

1 10
2 11
3 12
4 13
5 14
6 15
7 16
8 17
9 18
10 19
11 20
12 21
13 22
14 23
15 24
16 25
17 26
18 27
19 28
20 29
21 30
22 31


Jun. Mar.

1 10
2 11
3 12
1 1.

Feb. Nov.

1 10
2 11
3 12
4 13
5 14
6 15
7 16
8 17
9 18
10 19
11 20
12 21
13 22
14 23
15 24
16 25
17 26
18 27
19 28
20 29
21 30


22 1
23 2
24 3
25 4
26 5
27 6
28 7

1 8
2 9
3 10
4 11
5 12
6 13
7 14
8 15
9 16
10 17
11 18
12 19
13 20
14 21
15 22
16 23
17 24
18 25
19 26
20 27
21 28
22 29
23 30
24 31


25 1
26 2
27 3
28 4
29 5
30 6

May Feb.

1 7
2 8
3 9
4 10
5 11
6 12
7 13
8 14
9 15
10 16
11 17
12 18
13 19
14 20
15 21
16 22
17 23
18 24
19 25
20 26
21 27
22 28


23 1
24 2
25 3
26 4
27 5
28 6
29 7
30 8
31 9

July Apr.

1 9
2 10
3 11
4 12
5 13
6 14
7 15
8 16
9 17
10 18
11 19
12 20
13 21
14 22
15 23
16 24
17 25
18 26
19 27
20 28
21 29
22 30


23 1
24 2
25 3
26 4
27 5
28 6
29 7
30 8
31 9

Aug. May

1 10
2 11
3 12
4 13
5 14
6 15
7 16
8 17
9 18
10 19
11 20
12 21
13 22
14 23
15 24
16 25
17 26
18 27
19 28
20 29
21 30
22 31


23 1
24 2
25 3
26 4
27 5
28 6
29 7
30 8
31 9

Sept. Jun.

1 10
2 11
3 12
4 13
5 14
6 15
7 16
8 17
9 18
10 19
11 20
12 21
13 22
14 23
15 24
16 25
17 26
18 27
19 28
20 29
21 30


22 1
23 2
24 3
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26 5
27 6
28 7
29 8
30 9

Oct. July

1 10
2 11
3 12
4 13
5 14
6 15
7 16
8 17
9 18
10 19
11 20
12 21
13 22
14 23
15 24
16 25
17 26
18 27
19 28
20 29
21 30
22 31


23 1
24 2
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26 4
27 5
28 6
29 7
30 8
31 9

Nov. Aug.

1 10
2 11
3 12
4 13
5 14
6 15
7 16
8 17
9 18
10 19
11 20
12 21
13 22
14 23
15 24
16 25
17 26
18 27
19 28
20 29
21 30
22 31


23 1
24 2
25 3
26 4
27 5
28 6
29 7
30 8


Dec. Sept.

1 9
2 10
3 11
4 12
5 13
6 14
7 15
8 16 i
9 17
10 18
11 19
12 20
13 21
14 22
15 23
16 24
17 25
18 26
19 27 -
20 28 C
21 29 d
22 30 t*


23 1
24 2
25 3
26 4
27 5
28 6
29 7
30 8
31 9


1 8
2 9


In past years of beef cattle production it was the custom
to market them at the age of 5 or 6 years, whereas, hundreds
of thousands are now marketed when 2 or 3 years old and baby
beef is obtained from cattle less than a year old.
In addition to raising beef cattle, many stock raisers have
found it profitable to buy young animals and fatten them.
A beef cattle raiser should produce sufficient cows to per-
mit the marketing of at least one carload of cattle each year
and also enough heifers to replace the cows taken from the
The size of the herd for successful operation is controlled
by the available pasture and the quantity of feed crops that
can be produced. Pasture is the cheapest feed.
During the seasons when the grass is exceedingly succulent,
hay or other dry roughage should be fed as a supplement,
although strictly beef cows do not, as a rule, require supple-
mental feed if the pasture is good.
The feeding of legume hay or protein concentrate is recom-
mended when the grass is maturing.
Silage or root crops will provide breeding cows not on pas-
ture the needed supplement. Legume hay, straw or stover
with some protein concentrate should be included in the
Rations for the bull are similar to those for the heifer, but
in sufficient quantities to promote strength and vigor. A good
bull is at least fifty percent of the herd.
A properly managed bull may be used in a limited way for
breeding purposes when 18 months old.
The bull calf, when a year old, should be taught to lead and
stand tied. Impress upon him the fact that you are his mas-
ter, and he will learn to depend upon you for proper treatment.
Do not leave the bull with the cows the entire year. Pro-
vide separate pasture for him or turn him with the steers
after the breeding season is over. They will keep him com-
pany and make him more contented. During the breeding
season and if his service is heavy, he will probably need a lit-
tle extra feed. When feed is required and/or during the win-
ter season, feed grain with a little protein supplement. Bulls
may be fed on the same feed as pure bred cows but will gen-
erally need more feed because of additional weight. They
should generally be kept in as good or better condition than
the cows. During the heavy breeding season if extra feed is


required feed about two parts of corn and one part of bran or
oats. It generally requires 1/ pound to 1 pound of grain to each
100 pounds live weight, enough to keep the bull in good breed-
ing condition. During the winter he may be given 30 pounds of
silage, 10 pounds of cowpea hay, 6 to 10 pounds of grain (corn
or oats), and about 11 to 2 pounds of cottonseed meal. Good
legume hay may be substituted for silage, feeding about all he
will consume, and 1 pound to 11/2 pounds of cottonseed meal
will be ample. This is about all that would be fed ordinarily
in dry lot with no pasture. With pasture available feed only
enough to keep the bull in good thrifty condition. Ordinarily,
good pasture will meet the requirements of the summer. When
feeding, remember the gentler the bull the closer he should be
watched-you can never trust a bull whether horned or
Select a calf when it is a few months of age, while it is
with its mother, or before it is weaned. The calf's mother
should have a deep body of good width.
It is best to select a pure-bred calf of the breed you prefer,
provided your nearby stock raisers have not already adopted
some other breed. The registration certificate will be fur-
nished by the breeder and signed by the National Breeders'
Good livestock books, journals, and bulletins issued by the
Florida Department of Agriculture or by the U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture will acquaint you with details covering
the breed you intend to raise.
Size up the calf by looking at it from a distance of about
15 feet. Its weight or growth, age, conformation, quality, con-
dition, body, breed type, and general disposition may be
learned by close scrutiny. Examine the head, neck, forequar-
ters, body, and hindquarters, in the order named. Don't for-
get that the calf selected will either be a herd bull or a founda-
tion breeding cow.
These are indications of quality: A thick coat of silky,
glossy hair, loose, smooth, pliable skin, strong legs with good
bones that are not too long.
Buildings for cattle should be cool in summer and dry and
comfortable in winter.
When feeding grain, separate the calf from the herd,
putting it in a dry, clean pen. A bull calf should not be per-
mitted to run with the heifers after 3 or 4 months of age. Use
plenty of straw, leaves, shavings, or other litter for bedding.


Calves do not thrive if compelled to sleep on foul-smelling,
damp bedding. Keep the water trough or stream clean. Do
not allow mud to accumulate near the drinking place. Foot
diseases may be contracted from dirty watering places.
A bin that will hold several weeks supply of mixed and
weighed grain should be provided. Protect the contents against
rats and other animals.
All male calves not selected for breeding purposes should
be castrated when calves are from one to six months old, the
younger age being preferable. Young calves bleed very little
and recover sooner after the operation than older ones.
If the calf is not to be shown, the lower portion of the
scrotum may be removed. The calf should be thrown down,
and the scrotum washed well with an antiseptic solution. The
lower one-third or one-fourth of the scrotum should be cut off
with a clean knife, thereby exposing the lower portion of each
testicle. Then cut through the glistening membranes which
enclose the testicles, and pull the testicles outward, stretching
the cord considerably, but not jerking it loose from its attach-
ment in the abdominal cavity. Scrape the stretched cord with
the ;sharp edge of the knife until the cord severs. Bleeding is
less if the cord is severed by scraping rather than by cutting
it off direct or jerking it loose from its proper attachment.
Good drainage is provided when the end of the scrotum is
cut off.
To leave the scrotum in its entirety, this is done by cutting
through the wall of the scrotum on one side, removing the
testicle through the incision, then making another incision on
the opposite side, to remove the other testicle. The incision
should be long and made directly over the testicles on each
side. They should extend well down to the lower end of the
scrotum to provide good drainage.
Removing Horns with Caustic: Horns may be removed on
young calves before they are 10 days old by the use of caustics
which prevents the growth and development of the horn. Caus-
tic potash or caustic soda are prepared in stick form and can
be employed easily. When the calf is from three to nine days
old a "button" or thickened area may be felt at the point where
the horn will develop. Clip the hair from over each "button,"
leaving each spot about the size of a nickel. Put a heavy
layer of vaseline around the edges of the clipped area. Take
a stick of caustic soda or potash; wrap one end securely with
paper to protect the hands; moisten the other end; rub very


briskly over each "button" three or four times until the caustic
becomes dry. Repeat this operation two or three times. Be
careful that the caustic is not applied too wet. The calves
should be kept out of rain for 12 hours after this treatment.
Use of Saw: In dehorning cattle, three to five years old
and older, it is best to use a saw, since the dehorning clippers
are apt to sliver or crack the bone which forms the horn core.
Treatment Following Dehorning: After dehorning, it is
advisable to apply a thin layer of pine tar over the wound and
adjoining areas to repel flies and prevent infection. Cattle
should be dehorned in cool weather when there is less danger
from flies.
Should the cavity (frontal sinus) become infected, as indi-
cated by pus being discharged where the horns were removed,
it should be irrigated with boric acid solution or a hypochlo-
rite solution forced into the cavity with a syringe, turning the
head sidewise to allow the solution to flow out of the cavity.
Should maggots collect in the wound, saturate a piece of
clean cloth with chloroform or gasoline and insert same into the
cavity, or syringe out with a weak carbolic acid solution, using
three tablespoonfuls of carbolic acid to one quart of water.


&/f.E-',A,,3.,,e Ol -- .

Common earmarks of cattle.
When cattle are branded the branding iron should not be
too hot, and the brand should not be burned too deep. If pos-


sible confine the brand marks to the regions of the neck and
shoulders, thereby protecting the hide. The use of a wire
brand in place of the heavy iron will prevent serious injury
to the hide.
Cattle are marked by identifying cuts in the ears as shown
by the illustration and this system is becoming more general,
in place of splitting the dewlap.

The United States Department of Agriculture, in Farmers'
Bulletin 1066, states, "The age of cattle can be approximated
closely by the appearance (development, and subsequent wear)
of their permanent incisor teeth. Cattle have eight incisor
teeth, all in the lower jaw. In the calf at birth two or more
of the temporary or first set of incisor teeth are present. With
the first month the entire eight incisors have appeared.
"As the animal approaches 2 years of age the center pair
of temporary incisor teeth or pinchers is replaced by the per-
manent pinchers, which at 2 years attain full development.
"At from 2 to 3 years the permanent first intermediates
are cut and are usually full developed at 3 years.
"At 3% years the second intermediates or laterals are cut.
They are on a level with the first intermediates and begin to
wear at 4 years.
"At 41/2 to 5 years the corner teeth are replaced, the animal
at 5 years having the full complement of incisors with the
corners fully developed.
"At 5 to 6 years there is a leveling of the permanent pinch-
ers, the pinchers usually being leveled at No. 6 and both pairs
of intermediates partially leveled and the corner incisors show-
ing wear.
"From 7 to 8 the pinchers are noticeably worn; from 8 to 9
the middle pairs, and by 10 years the corner teeth.
"After 6 years the arch gradually loses its rounded contour
and becomes nearly straight by the 12th year. In the mean-
time the teeth have gradually become triangular in shape, dis-
tinctly separated, and show the progressive wearing to stubs."


The economical production of beef cattle depends largely
upon proper equipment and convenient, practical buildings,
together with care, feeding and management of the herd.
Barns suitable for the purpose need not be elaborate.
Well proportioned and well designed barns may be con-
structed at very little additional expense, and they add
materially to the value of farm property.

Climatic conditions, number and kind of cattle kept,
method of handling the herd, availability of material and
labor, together with individual preference will govern the type
of barn built.
The location of the barn is important. The movement of
stock, convenience, and nearness to other buildings are factors
for careful consideration. Land sloping to the south with soil
that assures good drainage are essential. On level, low, or
damp land drainage must be provided. The location should
get the benefit of the prevailing winds to carry the barnyard
odors away from the house. Allow for expansion. Space for
feed storage, provision for removal of manure, and convenient
water supply must be carefully planned.
The stock should be fed without crowding. Allow a 30 inch
space for each animal at the feed trough for fattening steers,
also sufficient room to lie down comfortably after eating.

Proper ventilation in beef cattle barns is of vital import-
ance. Three elements are necessary to animal life-feed,
water, and air. The quantity and quality of all three govern
the physical condition of livestock.
Condensation of moisture on the walls combined with barn
odors, will make the air in the stables impure and oppressive
and unless the moisture be removed by proper ventilation, the
timbers of the barn will mold and decay.
It is a serious mistake to use hay chutes as foul-air shafts.
Nutrition and palatability are destroyed and such an arrange-
ment will cause the sheathing and roof timbers to rot.
In Florida abundant ventilation of barns is comparatively


simple. Protection from the north winds in the winter is
Probably the most important details in barn construction
are the locations of the silo, water tanks, feed room or bins,




hay chutes, driveways, feed alleys, stalls, doors, and windows.


Silos have been used in Florida for over 35 years. Silage
has numerous advantages as a feed. (1) more feed can be
stored in less space as silage than as dry roughage; (2) silage


is palatable and nutritious; (3) the entire plant is harvested
as feed; (4) crops may be ensiled when the weather conditions
are not favorable for hay production; (5) during the winter
months, silage furnishes a succulent feed more nearly like
grass than any other roughage.
Types of Silos: These factors should be considered in
building a silo: (1) cost of construction; (2) materials avail-
able on the farm; (3) permanency; (4) efficiency of structure
in producing silage as measured by spoilage. Four types of
silos are used in Florida: (1) monolithic concrete; (2) metal;
(3) wooden stave; and (4) trench.

S.", ".

Trench silo under construction. Wall on left is finished smooth as entire silo will be
when complete
The Trench Silo-The trench silo is best adapted to the
regions having clay soils which will permit construction of a
trench with smooth sides without caving, on a hillside, and is
dug with a plow and a slip scraper. The size depends upon
the number of cattle to be fed; amount of silage crops grown
and length of feeding period.
Make the walls of the trench smooth and about two to three
feet wider at the top than at the bottom. Make a small ditch
leading out at the sloping end for drainage.
Cover the filled pit with 3 feet of hay or straw on top of
which about 3 feet of dirt is piled to exclude air.



/"'* :~ -'I
?i|-i. :1

^^fl^^^2 ^^ -
-. '. 2. .. I -
T.' y pe'"-. ;. . -' .:'- . f. co; crt s"ilo
' T. oc.cr. s il
^.**^-'*-. r -i '-? ^

^,. ~ ~ i -.;^_* -_; ;';:^ '_; -'

Type of concrete silo

::i: ;


The following applies to cylindrical silos:


Depth of IInside Diameter of Silo in Feet
Silage in
Feet 10 ft. 12 ft. 14 ft. 16 ft. 18 ft. 20 ft. 22 ft.

.. .I


... ...~. I


...| .~.



- - - - -

| - - -
-- -- |---
- - - -
- - - |
- - - |- -
- - - -
- - - -
-- - -- -
- -- - -








"Capacity of Silos and Weights of Silage."-Missouri Expt. Station Bul. No. 164.


The feed lot location and its relation to the barn, fields,
and lanes has a decided bearing on the ease with which the
stock may be handled. Lots should be well drained. A con-
crete pavement with rough surface, overlaid with a good layer
of broken stone or gravel and covered with a reasonable
amount of bedding, is the most desirable feed lot. Cattle fed
in a dry or paved lot have a better appearance.

The paving should be sloped to gutters that will carry the
liquid manure to a water-tight tank, or pit. Surface water


may be kept out of the lot by ditching. Roof water should be
carried to a point outside the lot.
Two by six material five to seven inches wide, 16 feet long,
nailed to strong posts set 8 feet apart, and built 5 or 6 feet
high makes a satisfactory fence.

Desirable type for dry roughage
In the handling of beef herds primarily for the production
of feeder cattle, or fattening of cattle for market, shelter
should be provided that will give protection during severe and


stormy weather. Cattle frequently show a preference for bed-
ding that is under cover.

Most cattle are hand fed. The use of self-feeders is increas-
ing in the fattening of cattle for market. Such equipment
should be used with care, since the early part of the feeding
period is perhaps the most critical time in the fattening pro-


A well-constructed, portable feed trough

cess. Fattening feeds should be given gradually. It is better
to feed 2 or 3 times a day than to supply an unlimited amount
of feed in a self-feeder. After the cattle are on full feed little
difficulty should be experienced with the self-feeder.
The illustrated feed trough has no sharp corners, and will
prevent cattle from throwing feed through the trough. Feed
troughs mounted on skids may be easily moved. Many cattle
feeders use troughs in the dry lot during the winter and on
pasture during the grazing season. Provide good drainage for
stationary troughs. They should be on pavement that extends
several feet on each side of the trough, and which will provide
ample space for the cattle to stand on while eating.
Hay or other dry roughage is generally fed under cover.


When sheds are used only for shelter, hayracks in the open are

Concrete storage water tanks are best for feed lot use.
Windmills or gas engines generally pump the water from wells
to the tanks and troughs. Round tanks for a large quantity
of water take less material for construction and may be rein-
forced more satisfactorily than other types.
An abundant supply of fresh water must be available at all
times. Fattening cattle, especially 2-year-old steers, will con-
sume up to 10 gallons of water a day.
In dry lot feeding, during the winter and spring months,
put the troughs or bunks on a hard surface, preferably pave-

4"pulrey wht ~xI2"bolts 8"xB~
Sbolts : i Notch
4x 4"lon olts

Movable side nd stanchion end of cattle "squeeze"

meant, and the cattle will be kept cleaner; the feeding will be
8i-i 8"

from c attle feeding is thpe lt of hgs f in cnntin wit
----- --------------------. -.----- psN s

for hogs following the cattle.
It is very profitable when a heavy grain ration is fed, to
have hogs follow the cattle. Very often any profit resulting
from cattle feeding is the result of hogs fed in connection with
Scales are properly a part of feed lot equipment. Cattle
feeders should know the weights of their cattle. The most suc-
cessful cattle feeders weigh their cattle every month.


Install scales near the feed lot and construct them so that
they may be used for weighing other stock and farm products.

A cattle holding chute is important equipment. It is used
for dehorning, castrating, branding, inoculation, etc.
A movable side will hold the animal snugly under pres-
sure, and without injury, against the side of the chute. This
type being known as a cattle "squeeze."
In the dehorning of cattle the head of the animal should
be held absolutely firm.

A convenient system of well constructed corrals are as
necessary as any equipment in handling stock.
Corrals should be conveniently located to avoid long drives,
if possible, with watering places nearby. Round pens reduce
accidents to livestock and make roping easier.
An arrangement of corrals consisting of two or more pens
will permit the separation of the cattle when desired. With
large herds, a cutting alley is convenient. Cutting cattle is
at least a two-man job; with a cutting alley they can handle
cattle easily and effectively. All public stockyards use this
Loading docks, chutes and dipping vats may be built into
the corral system and will be found satisfactory if not com-
Trucks will advantageously transport calves and young
The construction of loading docks is simple, the dimensions
being determined by the height and width of the truck body.
The approach to the loading dock should have cleats nailed
securely on it.
The type of vat illustrated on page 144 is necessary in dip-
ping large numbers of cattle. A cage or elevator type of vat is
satisfactory for small herds and the cost is considerably less.
The cage type has distinct advantages where cattle have to be
held in the dip for several minutes.

Farmers often say, "I would like to paint the inside of my
dairy barn or some of the adjoining sheds. How can I make
them look neat and light?"


And that should remind us of whitewash. It may not wear
as long as good paint, but it has some advantages: It is inex-
pensive. There is no danger of animal poisoning during the
painting process. It is easy to apply. It has desirable disin-
fectant properties.
Whitewash is quite satisfactory for dairies, milk houses,
stables, poultry houses, and the like, and it has peculiar value
for dark storage rooms, where it is desirable to lighten up dark
interiors such as cellars and alleys. It can be used for the
painting of sheds, trees, fences and stones along the lawn.
A good formula for the higher grade of work is made up
about as follows: Slake lime with water and add sufficient
skim milk to bring it to the consistency of thin cream. To
each gallon add one ounce of salt and two ounces of brown
sugar dissolved in water. To increase disinfectant properties,
add one pound of chloride of lime to every thirty gallons of
whitewash. Stir well and apply with spray pump, using Bor-
deaux nozzle commonly used for Bordeaux spray, or brush.
The brown sugar renders the lime more soluble and gives it
greater penetrating power. The skim milk gives a better wear-
ing whitewash, gives it more body and greater adhesiveness.
One gallon of whitewash will cover approximately 275
square feet of plaster, 200 square feet of brick, or 225 square
feet of wood. -J. H. FRANDSEN.
(Mr. Frandsen is head of the dairy department, Massachusetts State College).



The following should be considered in the beef cattle pro-
gram for West Florida, where crops are grown:
(1) The size of the farm; (2) the proportion of feed crops
that are concentrates and roughages and the proportion of
these feeds high in protein; (3) the amount and quality in
pastures. Can the cattle be grazed on open range or are they
confined to fenced pastures; (4) the regular labor supply avail-
able for tending livestock; (5) the amount of capital available
for fattening livestock; (6) the amount of capital invested in
equipment; (7) and the adaptability of the operator to various
kinds of cattle production, etc.
Where farm herds are kept and the cattle are more or less
confined to the farm, and suitable feeds are raised to ade-
quately feed the herd, and where the steers are fed out on the
farm, it is best to raise a pound of concentrates for each pound
of roughage produced. If one specializes in purchasing feeder
cattle, the feed raised should be about in the proportion of 2
to 21/ pounds of grain to each pound of roughage raised.
The importance of well bred animals is illustrated by (1)
well bred animals have a higher value at marketing time than
poorly bred; (2) the bull should be of high merit; (3) the
bulls should be of the same breed each year so as to properly
color the calves. Better bred cattle of the same breed bring
better prices than mixed breeds if of equal quality. They are
more attractive.
The price paid for a pure-bred bull depends upon the kind
and number of cows to be bred, and the attention given the
bull after he is bought. The bull may be used near his capacity
for service. Under present conditions and prices of cattle, cat-
tlemen can afford to pay for good 2-year old bulls in a produc-
ing herd from $75 to $150 per head. It probably would be best
to pay for quality bulls from $125 to $150 per head.
To maintain a good herd from 10 to 20% of it should be
replaced annually with good heifers. These heifers may be
raised on the farm or on the range. To build up rapidly a
herd of half-breed cattle, from 50 to 75% of the best heifers
may be retained. With a replacement of 15 to 20% each year
effective and efficient culling is accomplished with excellent


Beef cattle production furnishes one of the best ways for
the economical use of grain and roughages raised on the farm.
Seventy-five percent of the fertilizing constituents of feeds
consumed by livestock is returned in the manure, and for this
reason feeding operations can be made to assist materially in
restoring fertility to the soil.
There are two methods of finishing cattle for beef,-fatten-
ing in the dry lot and fattening on grass.
Where grade herds are maintained for beef, the calf crop
is usually fed out by the producer on farms combining live-
stock and grain farming. The calves are fattened and mar-
keted as yearlings, either by allowing the calves to run with
their dams on pasture, with the addition of a grain ration,
creep-fed, or pasturing calves separately, giving them access
to grain in a creep-feeder in addition to nursing two or three
times a day. Spring calves handled in this way are weaned
in the fall and then put in the feed lot where liberal rations
are fed for a period of six to eight months.

The price, according to age, weight, grade, quality, uni-
formity, and condition, should govern the selection of stock
for feeders. There is greater economy in feeding high quality
stock. High-grade steers make better use of feed and will
produce a larger percentage of the high priced cuts.
The kind of feeds available and the length of feeding period
should govern the age of cattle to feed. Younger animals
require a longer feeding period. The feed of young cattle is
used either for maintenance, growth, or fat. More of the feed
above that required for maintenance goes toward fat formation
as growth ceases, and older cattle will fatten in less time.
An abundance of feed permits the profitable feeding of
younger cattle, although older cattle make better use of
A difference of three or four months in age shows in the
size of young cattle, but is not seen in the older cattle which
have a more uniform finish.

It is best to buy early in the fall if low grades of cattle are
purchased for immediate dry lot fattening. This will permit


the marketing of them late in winter or early in spring. The
lower grades usually reach their best prices before June. Best
quality steers may bring a good price later in the season.
Purchase feeders in the fall if they are to be finished on
grass with sufficient roughage to carry them through the win-
ter. Only fairly mature feeders should be bought in the spring
if they are to be finished on grass the following summer.

Highly finished beef is produced by feeding considerable
quantities of grain with roughages, and is the result of scien-
tific handling of the herd in the dry lot.

(U. S. Dept. of Agr. Bulletin No. 1592).
Fattening or carbohydrate feeds should be fed in conjunc-
tion with roughages and supplemented with feeds rich in pro-
Protein concentrates, such as cottonseed meal or cake, are
used generally in rations in which straw, stovers, or silage
makes up the roughage. Purchase the feed that will supply
protein most cheaply. Cottonseed meal having a protein con-
tent of 45 percent and priced at $25 a ton will supply protein
more cheaply than 36 percent meal at $20 a ton.
Carbohydrates with roughages should be supplemented
with feeds rich in protein.
The roughages used in dry lot feeding determine largely the
most desirable type of ration to feed. Where legume hays are
plentiful a dry ration is in more general use, whereas with
grass hays, stovers, and straws as the principal source of dry
droughage, silage usually makes up a very important part of
the ration. Dry rations are used during short feeding periods
and for feeder cattle weighing over 800 pounds. Silage rations
are recommended for the lighter weight feeders being fed a
longer period.
The quantity of corn necessary for the development of a
2-year-old feeder into a finished or fat animal is estimated at
approximately 50 bushels to produce 100 pounds gain. Young
cattle make greater gains than mature ones on the same quan-
tity of feed.
With a corn-and-alfalfa or clover-hay ration the average
cattle feeder obtains a gain of 100 pounds on 3-year-old steers


with approximately 950 pounds of corn and 435 pounds of hay.
Two-year-olds require from 93 to 95 percent as much feed as
3-year-olds, yearlings 85 to 90 percent, and calves 70 to 75
No definite rules exist for starting beef cattle on a fatten-
ing ration. The first fed weeks in the feed lot is a very critical
period for the feeder steer, which should be started on limited
quantities of concentrates and with very gradual increases
during the first 30 days. Roughages of good quality may be
fed in any quantity.

Block (or barrel) salt should be kept where the cattle can
get it at all times. When cattle are supplied a variety of feeds,
including legumes, there appears less need of supplying min-
erals other than salt. Fattening steers consume from three-
fourths to'11/2 ounces of salt per head per day.

When the grasses and other feeds that cattle eat are defici-
ent in iron and copper, there will be irregularity in breeding
with a resultant small number of calves. Calcium (lime) and
phosphorus are necessary for good bone development; grow-
ing calves need these elements. The different compartments
of the mineral boxes should be regularly replenished and the
minerals placed so that the herd may have access to them
wherever they are feeding. Steamed bone meal, common salt,
and salt lick which is composed of common salt, 100 pounds;
red oxide of iron, 25 pounds; and powdered copper sulphate,
1 pound, well mixed together, should be put in one of the com-
partments of the mineral box.

Feeds which the calf should have are divided into two
groups: "concentrates," and "roughages." The concentrates
include either whole or ground grains and their by-products,
such as corn, oats. velvet beans, rye, bran, cottonseed cake,
peanut meal, and linseed-oil meal. Roughages are of two kinds,
dry roughages, such as hay, stover, and straw, and succulent
roughages, which include silage and root crops. Pasture
grasses or plants such as Bermuda, Lespedza, Johnson, Car-
pet. Dallis, Bahia and Para are classed as succulent rough-
ages, also winter pasture, which may be obtained by grazing


oats, rye, soy beans, cowpeas, velvet beans, or other crops sown
to mature at the time pasture is desired.
Most feeds contain protein, carbohydrates, and fats, but
many are deficient in some one of these important compounds.


Texas used 577 calves on test to show the benefits of creep
feeding. ".."' head were not creep fed while 322 were. The
creep fed calves made an average of 60 pounds per head more
gain than non-creep fed. They were more uniform in grade,
easier to handle, and were more desirable for feeders. They
sold from 97c per hundred to $1.00 higher at market time.

The mothers of creep fed calves made an average gain of
40 pounds a head greater than non-creep fed; they came into
heat earlier, and gave a larger calf crop the following season.
The creep fed calves made it profitable to feed them.


Concentrates-Grains, cottonseed meal and tankage, which
are rich, concentrated, and supply a large amount of feed per
unit weight.

Roughages-Hay, straw, roots and silage, which are coarse
and bulky in nature.

Legumes-Lespedeza, clovers, alfalfa, cowpeas, soy beans,
and peanuts. These plants have nodules on their roots con-
taining bacteria which can take nitrogen from the air. Legumes
are richer in protein and minerals than grasses.

Nutrients-Substances in feeds which nourish animals.

Proteins-The only nutrient which can produce growth and
make repairs in the animal's body. Proteins include such
feeds as lean meat, skim milk, wheat bran, cottonseed meal,
tankage, fishmeal, peanut meal, etc. These are some of the
feeds which contain relatively large amount of protein.

Carbohydrates and Fats-These are the nutrients which
produce fat, heat and power to do work in the animal's body.
Fat is about 21/% times as valuable for these purposes as car-
bohydrates. Feeds containing large amounts of starch and
sugar are rich in carbohydrates, while those containing large
amounts of fat are contained in oily feeds.


Mineral Matter-Nutrients used principally to build the
skeleton, hair, hoof, horn, etc. Legume hays, bran, linseed
meal, peanut meal, skim milk, have relatively large amounts
of mineral matter.

Vitamins-Substances found in feeds in very small quan-
tities which are necessary for growth, reproduction and pro-
tection against diseases.

Crude Fiber-The coarse, woody part of plants, one of the
carbohydrates much less digestible than sugars or starches.
Tankage-Waste matter from tanks; especially the dried
nitrogenous residue from tanks in which fat has been rendered,
used as a feeding stuff.

Ration-The quantity of feed given an animal during one
day. There are several kinds of rations, namely starvation
ration, maintenance ration, productive ration.
Balanced Ration-A ration which contains the right pro-
portion of nutrients to nourish properly the animal to which
it is fed.
Nutritive Ratio-Is the relationship which exists between
carbohydrate and fat equivalent to that of protein. Invari-
ably steers require 1 pound of digestible protein to 7 or 8
pounds of digestible carbohydrates or carbohydrate equiva-
lent. (Henry & Morrison).

Feeders should provide themselves with an authorized book
on feeding as a means to scientifically prepare balanced foods
for cattle.

It is a mistake to feed the cow heavily on grain soon after
she has dropped the calf. The calf needs plenty of milk but
an over supply should not be given.
When four to six weeks old bring the calf in to suck early
in the morning, afterwards feed it some grain. It should be
allowed to suckle at night before given any grain, then
returned to the grass lot or fed a little hay.
A calf may be taught to eat grain at the age of 4 to 6 weeks,
by feeding it in a creep. Wheat bran is an excellent feed for
this purpose. A good ration for the first few weeks consists
of the same number of pounds of coarsely ground corn, oats,
and wheat bran, to which a small quantity of oil meal is added


every few days. Start the calf on one-fourth of a pound of
grain a day, feeding one-half of the amount night and morn-
ing. After a few weeks weigh out and feed a ration of whole
oats 4 parts, shelled corn 2 parts, and oil meal 1 part to be
substituted for the ground feeds. For every 100 pounds of
live weight, the calf should eat 2 or 3 pounds of grain each
Calves may be weaned gradually when 8 to 12 months old,
and within 12 to 15 days.

Spring calves are fed differently from fall calves. The
amount of feed given to a weaned calf may be increased more.
Within 4 to 6 weeks after a calf is weaned it will probably
consume from 4 to 6 pounds of grain with 10 pounds of solids,
and 2 or 3 pounds of clover hay, with a small amount of
other roughages (like stover or straw), unless sufficient pas-
ture is available.
Grain rations for the calf may be composed of equal pounds
of corn, oats, and bran, or corn 5 parts and oats or bran 3
parts, by weight, with 1 part of linseed-oil meal added to both
unless the ration proves to be too laxative.


Protein is that part of the feed which builds lean meat,
hair, and hide. Carbohydrates and fats form animal fat, and
are classed together as carbohydrates. Those concentrates
which are high in carbohydrates and fats usually contain little
protein. Mineral matter, which builds bones, lean meat, and
blood, is a very necessary part of feeds.
Legume hay is used to supply a large part of the protein
needed in the ration. Hays and roughages, both dry and suc-
culent, should be used in the ration for they aid digestion.
A calf's ration (feeds for one day) should include at least
one feed containing a large amount of protein and two or more
carbohydrates, such as corn, oats, or barley. This makes "a
balanced ration" and should be fed if possible.
Concentrates: Roughages:
Cottonseed meal Alfalfa hay
Linseed-oil meal Lespedeza
Velvet beans Peanut hay
Peanut meal Legume forage
Soy beans
Concentrates: Roughages:
Grass hays (Bermuda, John-
Corn son grass, etc.)
Straws (oat, etc.)
Oats Corn or sorghum stover
Corn or sorghum silage
Rye Roots. Pasture grasses
Feed: Substitutes:
Corn .................. Oats, or other feeds high in carbohy-
drates and fats.
Oals....................Bran, ground oats, coarse middlings.
Bran ................. Ground oats, coarse middlings.
Cottonseed meal......... Cottonseed cake, linseed-oil meal,
peanut meal, velvet bean feed, soy
bean meal, or other feeds high in
Corn stover..............Oat straw, other straws or stovers.
Feed just the quantity the calf will eat. Provide a variety
of hays. Calves can use cheap roughages to advantage, but
good legume hays give better results. Well-cured, bright, corn


stover or oat straw will supply a part of the needed rough-
age, and aid the calf's appetite and digestion. Do not over-
feed the calf.
Provide good pasture. Exercise good judgment when pas-
turing legumes or winter pasture crops, permitting short
periods of pasturing when the calf is first allowed to graze.

Two to three pounds of the grain ration is sufficient to keep
calves in a growing condition.
The following grain mixtures are recommended:
Corn ................ ......................... 100 pounds
Ground oats.................................. 100 pounds
Corn ........................................... 100 pounds
Ground oats................................... 100 pounds
Bran ......................................... 100 pounds
Corn ................ ......................... 100 pounds
Ground oats.................................. 100 pounds
Wheat bran ................................ 50 pounds
Linseed meal ................................... 50 pounds
Corn ................ ......................... 200 pounds
Ground oats.................................. 100 pounds
Wheat bran ................................... 50 pounds
Cottonseed meal ................................ 50 pounds

Grain mixtures for larger calves:
Ground snapped corn............................ 200 pounds
Oats ...................................... . 100 pounds
Bran ......................................... 100 pounds
Cottonseed meal................................... 50 pounds
Ground snapped corn........................... 200 pounds
Velvet bean feed meal ......................... 100 pounds
Oats ......................................... 100 pounds
Ground snapped corn............................ 200 pounds
Oats ......................................... 200 pounds
Cottonseed meal ................................ 50 pounds


Ration 1 Lbs.
Corn or sorgo silage............ 12
Clover, soybean, or cowpea hay. 5
Ration 2 Lbs.
Corn or sorgo silage............ 15
Oat, rye, or wheat straw........ 15
Cottonseed meal or linseed meal.. 1
Ration 3 Lbs.
Corn and soybean silage......... 15
Corn stover or straw............ 6
Cottonseed meal or linseed meal. %

Ration 4 Lbs.
Corn or sorgo silage............ 15
Mixed hay or stover............. 6
Cottonseed meal or linseed meal.. 1/%
Ration 5 Lbs.
Corn or sorgo silage............ 15
Lespedeza or pea vine hay....... 10
Velvet beans in pod............ 4
Ration 6 Lbs.
Lespedeza or pea vine hay....... 7
Grass hay, straw, or stover...... 2
Cottonseed meal, linseed meal or
peanut meal ................. 1


1. Provide a variety of feeds at all times, if possible.
2. Do not make sudden changes in the feeds used or in the
amounts given.
3. Do not overfeed the calf. Feed as much grain as it will
clean up in 30 minutes.
4. Do not underfeed the calf. It should make a continuous
5. Do not annoy or disturb the calf unnecessarily.
6. Do not feed moldy, musty, or spoiled feeds.
7. To waste time in feeding or preparing feeds needlessly in-
creases the cost of grains. Grain should be fed whole
except when teaching the calf to eat and possibly also
near the end of the fitting or finishing period.
As the breeding heifer gets older, cheaper and more bulky
feeds are used, but fed liberally. Daily rations consisting of
15 to 20 pounds of silage, 4 or 5 pounds of legume hay, with a
small amount of other roughage. Stover straw or cheap hays
will prove to be economical. Good silage is very good feed
for the heifer. As a substitute, sufficient grain as recom-
mended for older calves may be fed with the addition of rough-
ages to assure satisfactory growth.
Keep the heifer on pasture.
When 20 months old the heifer may be bred. Increase the
ration during the gestation period so as to promote the heifer's
growth and for the development of the fetus or young calf.
Minerals and common salt should be included in the ration,
especially lime and phosphorus.
Reduce the bulking part of the ration previous to calving
time, and substitute some laxative feeds such as bran, oats,
and linseed-oil meal. Animals on pasture need no change in
the ration. Legume hays should be fed during the winter.
Corn, cottonseed meal, or similar feeds should be fed previous
to calving time.
Be sure the heifer is not disturbed by other animals. Keep
her away from ponds, streams, or rough, steep hillsides.
Let the cow care for the calf after it has been dropped. It
is important that the calf get the cow's first milk, and both
cow and calf should be carefully watched.
The following summary covers four experiments, averaging
132 days with 2-year-old steers, in which a nitrogenous supple-
ment was added to a ration of corn and a carbonaceous rough-



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i, '- '. ..

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A-patoagod ngusher kneeeep s in F.l
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,. ; ,..,i_ -.,
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A ato odAgu edke epingasi lrd


The addition of the protein supplement increased the aver-
age daily gain 0.6 pound a (lay and reduced the total concen-
trates required to produce 100 pounds gain from 1.082 pounds
to 862 pounds and the roughage from 622 pounds to 402
The addition of cottonseed as a supplement to the grass
increased the daily gain. The use of the protein supplement
increased the selling prices of the cattle, so that they made a
much greater profit than the cattle receiving grass alone.


Feed per 100 pounds gain

Number Average
Ration of daily Concentrates
steers gain Carbo-
Protein roughage
Corn supple-

Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds
Corn and carbonaceous roughage 44 1.60 1,082 ...... 522
Corn, protein supplement, and car-
bonaceous roughage --......--------------- 54 2.20 766 .96 402

Bulletin references: Illinois Experiment Station Bulletin 83; Indiana Experi-
ment Station Bulletin 115; Nebraska Experiment Station Bulletins 90 and 93.

Cost of 1 pound of protein when percentage of protein is-
Price of feed
per ton
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents
$5.00 ... 1.67 1.25 1.00 0.83 0.72 0.63 0.56 0.50
$7.50 ........ .. 2.50 1.87 1.50 1.25 1.07 .94 .83 1 .75
$10.00 3.33 2.50 2.00 1.66 1.43 1.25 1.11 1 1.00
$12.50 ..-... ..... 4.17 3.13 2.50 2.08 1.79 1.56 1.39 | 1.25
$15.00 -......... 5.00 3.75 3.00 2.50 2.15 1.88 1.67 1.50
$17.50 ---- 5.83 4.37 3.50 2.91 2.50 2.19 1.94 1.75
$20.00 -----.. 6.67 5.00 4.00 3.33 2.86 2.50 2.22 2.00
$22.50 ---- 7.50 5.63 4.50 3.75 3.21 2.81 2.50 2.25
$25.00 ---------__ 1 8.33 6.25 5.00 4.16 3.57 3.12 2.78 2.50
$27.50 9.17 I 6.87 5.50 4.58 3.93 3.43 3.05 2.75
$30.00 ---I_ | 10.00 7.50 6.00 5.00 4.29 3.76 3.33 3.00
$32.50 --_ I 10.83 8.12 6.50 5.41 4.64 4.06 3.61 3.25
$35.00 11.67 8.75 7.00 5.83 5.00 4.38 3.89 3.50
$37.50 -......._. ... 12.50 9.37 7.50 6.25 5.36 4.69 4.17 3.75
$40.00 --- 13.33 10.00 8.00 6.66 5.72 5.00 4.44 4.00
$42.50 ---_ | 14.17 10.62 8.50 7.08 6.07 5.31 4.72 4.25
$45.00 -- 15.00 11.25 9.00 7.50 6.43 5.62 5.00 4.50
$47.50 ---- | 15.83 11.87 9.50 7.91 6.79 5.93 5.28 4.75
$50.00 ---- 16.67 12.50 10.00 8.33 7.14 6.25 5.56 5.00
$52.50 ..-- -I 17.50 13.12 10.50 8.74 7.50 6.56 5.83 5.25
$55.00 _---- 18.33 13.75 11.00 9.16 7.86 6.88 6.11 5.50
$57.50 -.......- . 19.17 14.37 11.50 9.58 8.21 7.19 6.39 5.75
$60.00 .----- 20.00 15.00 12.00 10.00 8.57 7.50 6.67 6.00
$62.50 -. .. 20.83 15.62 12.50 10.41 8.93 7.81 6.95 6.25
$65.00 ..-- .. 21.67 16.25 13.00 10.83 9.29 8.13 7.23 1 6.50
________ ___________________I


Cowpea or peanut hay ..................... 10 to 12 pounds
Ground snapped corn....................... 4 pounds
Cottonseed meal .......................... 2 pounds
Cowpea or peanut hay ..................... 10 to 12 pounds
Ground snapped corn ..................... 2 to 3 pounds
Velvet beans in pod ........................ 2 to 3 pounds
Corn, sorghum or sugarcane silage........... 15 pounds
Cowpea or peanut hay...................... 5 pounds
Ground snapped corn....................... 2 to 3 pounds
Cottonseed meal ........................... 1 to 2 pounds
Ration 1 Lbs. Ration 4 Lbs.
Corn or sorgo silage........... 30 Lespedeza hay ................. 5
Lespedeza hay ................. 5 Mixed or grass hay............. 15
Straw ....... ..... Unlimited Barley ......................... 2
Ration 2 Lbs. Ration 5 Lbs.
Corn or sorgo silage............ 35 Corn or sorgo silage............ 30
Corn stover .................... 10 Oat hay .................... .. 10
Cottonseed meal or linseed meal. 1 Barley ........................ 2
Ration 3 Lbs. Ration 6 Lbs.
Corn silage .................... 35 Sorgo silage ................... 40
Cottonseed hulls or grain straw.. 10 Lespedeza or pea vine hay....... 5
Cottonseed meal ................ 11 Velvet beans in pod............. 2

Cows. (1) Very thin cows should be fed enough to gain
from 100 to 125 pounds to offset calving losses. (2) Cows in
fair condition need to be fed only enough to maintain body
weight--a maintenance ration. (3) Fleshy cows may lose con-
siderable weight during the winter without harm, provided
their condition does not go below fair. (4) Thin cows pro-
duce as large calves at birth as fat cows; they produce as
large calves at weaning time as fat cows provided feeder grass
is plentiful enough during the spring and summer to insure
sufficient milk for the calves. (5) Cows fat or in good condi-
tion in the fall, winter much more easily than thin cows.
Special efforts should be made to keep cows in good flesh as
far into the winter as possible to save feed. (6) When calves
have good size in the fall it is advisable to wean them to save
feed on the cow. (7) Calving time is the hardest time for the cow.
If winter hangs on and the cows are in poor condition, the
cow and calf may both die at calving time. Young cows or
heifers expecting to calf in the winter or early spring should
be separated from the herd and fed liberally.
Steers and Young Stock-Steers can be wintered easier


than cows or calves. They may be fed more sparingly even on
the same feeds. Calves may be brought through the winter
in good thrifty condition by giving them 5 pounds of hay per
day plus oat straw-all they will eat. Young yearlings can
be brought through the winter on even less. Cattle do not
need much shelter in some southern sections other than
brush or timber for wintering but they need water and salt.
Roughage is the principal feed used in wintering dry cattle.
The cost of the roughage per ton and the amount necessary to
get the cows through the winter is important. Oat hay makes
an excellent feed for cows in winter.
Bulls-Bulls may be fed on the same feed as breeding cows
but in larger proportions.
Daily Allowance for Cows Weighing 600 to 800 Pounds
Cottonseed cake ..........................2.5 pounds
The cake should be fed in feed hunks in
the pasture, the cow receiving some
roughage from the pasture.
Cowpea, peanut or beggarweed hay.......... 10 pounds
Cottonseed meal............................ 1 to 2 pounds
Corn, sorghum or sugarcane silage.......... 15 to 20 pounds
Peanut or cowpea hay..................... 3 to 5 pounds
Cottonseed meal ........................... 1 to 2 pounds
Corn, sorghum or sugarcane silage.......... 20 to 30 pounds
Cottonseed meal ........................... 1 to 2 pounds
Corn, sorghum or sugarcane silage........... 20 to 80 pounds
Cottonseed meal ........................... 1 pound
Velvet beans ............................. 2 to 8 pounds
Velvet beans grazed in the field. Beans grown
with corn and larger ears of corn harvested,
leaving smaller ears to be grazed with beans.
Ration 1 Lbs. Ration 3 Lbs.
Corn silage ...............25 to 30 Grass hay or stover.........18 to 20
Cereal straw or stover.... Unlimited Cottonseed meal or cake.... 1%/ to 2
Cottonseed meal ........... 1to 1l

Ration 2 Lbs. Ration 4 Lbs.
Corn (or sorgo) silage......25 to 30 Sorghum silage ............30 to 35
Cottonseed meal ........... 1 to 1l1/ Stover or cereal straw.... Unlimited
Winter pasture Cottonseed meal or cake........1%
In experiments conducted in the Southeast by the Bureau
of Animal Industry in which the cake was fed in troughs in
the pasture, it was found after several years' work that the
feeding of cottonseed cake to cattle on pasture caused the cat-
tle to fatten more rapidly, to develop greater finish, and to
make greater profits in most cases than with similar cattle
which received pasture alone.


Daily rations suitable for fattening cattle on grass follow:
Ration 1 Ration 1
10 pounds cracked shelled corn (135 Grain mixture fed in self-feeder with-
10 pounds racked shelled corn (1 in creep-ground shelled corn 5
Gdasss). parts by weight, oats 2 parts, lin-
Grass pasture (15 daysseed meal 1 part.
Ration 2 Grass pasture (with dams).
(A calf will consume from 21/, to 8
8 pounds corn-and-cob meal (120 pounds of grain).
days). Grain and grass (150 days).

2 pounds cottonseed caKe last 9u



Ration 2

ass pasture (120 days). Grain mixture fed in self-feeder-
Ration 3 ground, shelled corn 4 parts by
measure, oats 2 parts, wheat bran
pounds cracked shelled corn (last 1 part.
)0 days). Grass pasture-separate from dams.
ass pasture (150 days). Calves allowed to nurse twice daily.
Grain and grass (150 days).


Daily feed per head for first day and at beginning of stated periods

Ration and weight of steers C1 o 8 0 0

5 I 0 ounX a se .s

Corn and legume-hay ration:
400-pound steers- Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. Lbs Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. Lbs.
Corn --........----- 3 5 7 8 10 12 15 16 16 15 -.....
Hay ---------------------5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 .--.-

Hay ....--------------- 6 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 6 ...........
800-pound steers--
Corn .------------. 5 7 10 13 18 20 22 20
Hay ----....-----. --- 8 10 10 10 10 9 8 8 ...-........---.
1,000-pound steers-
Corn.--------...-...--- 6 8 12 16 20 24 24... ... -.......--,-
Hay-.....----------.- 10 12 12 10 10 10 8 .... ------ ---
Silage ration:
400-pound steers--
Corn-.......-...... 3 4 4 5 7 9 10 11 12 13 14
Protein meal.--...------------.... 1 13 1 12 2 2 2M 2%
Hlay .-------------------- 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Silage..-........-..... ---6 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 6 5
600-pound steers--
Con--d Steer- 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 14 14 14 --..
Protein meal-............. i- 1 1% 1 1 2 2% 3 2 4.-
Hay....-------. 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 -....
Silage...-...-............- 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 9 8 6 .-
800-pound steers-
Corn --------.-------. 4 6 8 10 12 16 16 16 16 ........
Protein meal...-------.... 1 13 1 1Y 2 2 3 3 .....
Hay ..........------------------ 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 -... --
Silage......-------.......--------- 10 15 16 16 16 16 14 12 10 ---- -----
1,000-pound steers-
Corn ...... ----- 5 7 8 12 18 18 18 18 --- --.------
Protein meal ...-........--- I 2^ 3 2% 24 2 ......-
Hay .......---------. --------- 4 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 ------
Silage.....---. ---........ 10 20 20 20 20 18 15 12 ----..

ILegume hay, such as alfalfa, clover, soy bean, or cowpea.
sThe bay in silage ration may be a mixed hay or any of the grass hays.


[Quantities of feeds are for each 100 pounds of live weight]

Average daily quantity of feed for-

Feeds in ration Steers or spayed Breeding heifers

Ration 1 Ration 2 Ration 3 Ration 4

Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds
Corn silage ................. ----..... 35 35 35 30
Wheat straw ------... ..-.... ................-- -- 8 6 -85-
Protein concentrate ......--__-.....- 1.5 ----... 2.5 -- -
Mixed or legume hay..----- --- --..____ 5 .... 8


Daily feed per head for first day and at beginning of stated periods

Feed Sev.
First Third Fourth Sec- Third Fourth Fifth Sixth e Eighth
week nd week week mnd month month month month month
week week week month month

Lb. Lb. Lb. Lb. Lb. Lb. Lb. Lb. Lb. Lb. Lb.
Corn -........---- 3 4 4 5 7 9 10 11 12 13 14
Protein concentrate- % H 1 3 1 1Wt 2 2 2% 2M
Hay ....----...---. 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Silage.. ------ 6 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 6 5

I Preferably legume hay, such as alfalfa, clover, soybean, cowpea, or lespedeza.


According to Henry's "Feeds and Feeding," 2-year-old steers
to be fattened and on full feed per day, for 1000 pounds live
weight, require from 1.7 to 2.1 pounds of digestible crude pro-
tein daily; or they require a total of digestible nutrients from
151/2 to 181/2 pounds; or a nutritive ratio 1:7- 1:8.
Some additional rations for fattening 2-year-old steers,
basis 1000 pounds live weight:
No. 1

Corn silage ............................... 40 pounds
Oat straw, all animal will eat
Velvet beans in pod ...................... 12 to 14 p
No. 2

Corn silage ................................
Legum e hay ...............................
Velvet beans in pod .......................
No. 3
Corn silage ................................
Cowpea hay ...............................
Shelled corn ...............................
Cottonseed meal ...........................
and follow steers with hogs


40 pounds
3 to 4 pounds
12 pounds

40 pounds
2 pounds
15 to 18 pounds
2 to 3 pounds


No. 4
Corn silage ............................ .
Oat straw, all animal will eat
Shelled corn ...............................
Cottonseed meal .........................
Follow steers with hogs
No. 5
Corn and velvet beans in the field
Cottonseed meal ............... ............
No. 6
Corn silage ................................
Corn ................................. ..
V elvet beans ...............................
No. 7
Corn ...................................
V elvet beans ..............................
and all the grass or peanut hay the animal
will eat
No. 8
Peanut or peavine hay or mixed grasses with
peanut or peavine hay, all animal will eat,
Corn ..................................
Velvet beans ............................ .
Cottonseed meal ..........................

40 pounds

15 to 18 pounds
3 to 4 pounds

2 to 4 pounds

40 pounds
7 pounds
7 pounds

10 pounds
5 to 7 pounds

7 to 8 pounds
4 pounds
2 to 3 pounds

In getting steers on feed requires careful management.
Gradually increase the quantity of feed in the ration, studying
and observing carefully the steers to see that they are not over
fed. If many steers are fed it is advisable to have a hospital
feed pen. The time required to finish animals in the feed lot
depends upon the age of the animal, the breeding of the ani-
mal, the feeds given to the animal and the length of the feeding
period. Well bred steers 2 years old may be fed from 5 to 6
months at a profit. The kind of markets to which the animal
is sold, the number of steers generally on feed, etc., will deter-
mine largely how long to feed them. Too many steers are
being sold unfinished. Older cattle usually fatten faster than
younger ones, or younger cattle usually require a longer fat-
tening period. In general, concentrates should be increased
as the feeding period advances.


Many feeds are produced in north Florida suitable for fat-
tening steers for market. Those selected for such purpose
should be considered on account of cheapness and their rela-
tive feeding value for fattening. Steers may be fattened in
the beginning by grazing such field crops as corn and velvet
beans. The following are some rations for fattening steers in


feed lots as recommended by the Agricultural Experiment
Station, University of Florida, in their Bulletin 260:
No. 1
Silage ................................... 30 to 40 pounds
Sottonseed meal ........................... 8 to 6 pounds
No. 2

Silage .....................................
Cowpea, peanut or grass hay................
Cottonseed meal ..........................
No. 3
Silage ...................................
Cowpea, peanut or grass hay...............
Cottonseed meal ...........................
Ground snap corn..........................
No. 4
Silage ... .................................
Legum e hay ...............................
Cottonseed meal ..........................
Velvet beans in the pod....................
No. 5
Silage ..... ..............................
Velvet beans in the pod...................
Ground corn or broken ear corn...........
No. 6
Silage ...................................
Legum e hay ...............................
Cottonseed meal ...........................
Shelled corn ...............................
No. 7
Legume hay .......................... ..
Shelled corn ...........................
Velvet beans, in pod......................
No. 8
Legume hay ...............................
Ground snap corn... .....................
Cottonseed meal ...........................
Velvet beans in the pod....................
No. 9
Native grass hay ..........................
Cottonseed meal ................... .......
Shelled corn ............................
No. 10
Cottonseed meal ........................
Cottonseed hulls ...........................

80 to 40 pounds
2 to 4 pounds
8 to 6 pounds


25 to 30 pounds
2 to 4 pounds
2 to 4 pounds
6 to 8 pounds

25 to 80 pounds
6 to 8 pounds
6 to 10 pounds

to 40 pounds
to 4 pounds
to 7 pounds
to 10 pounds

5 to 8 pounds
6 to 8 pounds
6 pounds

6 to 8 pounds
6 to 8 pounds
2 to 4 pounds
2 to 4 pounds

6 to 8 pounds
3 to 5 pounds
6 to 8 pounds

4 to 6 pounds
15 to 20 pounds

The amount of each feed listed in the rations suggested
above is given as the average amount which should be fed
daily during the entire time on feed. More roughage is con-
sumed at first. Give smaller amounts in the beginning and
gradually increase as the feeding period progresses. It is
necessary to feed even the best steers for periods of 100 to 160
days in order to finish them.

-. ,- .-,* ,>: ^j ., , ,'.* *. ." ,. ,

Yearling heifers, the foundation for a good Angus herd. An oak tree, such as the one in the background, makes a wonderful shade for livestock

n ...


500 TO 600 POUNDS
No. 1

Sorghum silage ............................
Ground snapped corn ......................
Velvet beans in pod.............. ...........
Cottonseed m eal ...........................
No. 2
Sorghum silage .............................
Ground snapped corn.......................
Velvet beans in pod........................
Peanut meal (45 percent protein) ............
No. 3
Peanut or cowpea hay.......................
Ground snapped corn (or broken ear corn)..
Velvet beans in pod .........................
Cottonseed m eal ...........................
No. 4
Peanut or cowpea hay .....................
Ground snapped corn (or broken ear corn)..
Velvet beans in pod.........................
Peanut meal (45 percent protein)...........
No. 5

Corn or sorghum silage..................... 20
Ground snapped corn....................... 7
Cottonseed meal ........................... 2
Velvet beans feed meal..................... 2
No. 6

20 pounds
7 to 9 pounds
2 to 3 pounds
2 to 3 pounds

to 9.pounds
to 3 pounds
to 3 pounds

to 8 pounds
to 9 pounds
to 3 pounds
to 3 pounds

to 8 pounds
to 9 pounds
to 3 pounds
to 3 pounds

to 25 pounds
to 9 pounds
to 3 pounds
to 3 pounds

Corn, sorghum or sugarcane silage........... 20 to 25 pounds
Ground snapped corn...................... 7 to 9 pounds
Cottonseed meal .......................... 4 to 5 pounds
The amounts of feed given in the above mentioned rations
are for steers on full feed. In getting the steers on feed not
more than two to four pounds of the complete grain mixture
should be given daily per steer for the first three days, then
the amount of grain should be increased one-quarter to one-
half pound daily per steer until the steers are on full feed.
Suggested rations for fattening steers in feed lot:
Corn, sorghum, or sugarcane silage.......... 30 to 40 pounds
Cottonseed meal .......................... 3 to 6 pounds
Corn, sorghum, or sugarcane silage.......... 30 to 40 pounds
Cowpeas, peanut, or native grass hay......... 2 to 4 pounds
Cottonseed meal .......................... 3 to 6 pounds
Silage ..................................... 30 to 40 pounds
Cowpeas, peanut, or native grass hay......... 2 to 4 pounds
Cottonseed meal........................... 3 to 5 pounds
Ground snap corn......................... 10 to 12 pounds*
Silage ................... ................ 25 to 30 pounds
Cowpeas, peanuts, or native grass hay........ 2 to 4 pounds
Cottonseed meal........................... 2 to 4 pounds
Velvet beans in pod........................ 6 to 8 pounds
Silage ..................................... 25 to 30 pounds
Velvet beans in pod......................... 6 to 8 pounds
Ground snap corn or broken ear corn........ 6 to 10 pounds
*The cost of grinding is often prohibitive.


Silage ................................. 80 to 40 pounds
Cowpeas, peanuts, or native grass hay........ 2 to 4 pounds
Cottonseed meal ............................ 4 to 7 pounds
Shelled corn ............................. 6 to 10 pounds**
Cowpea or peanut hay...................... 5 to 8 pounds
Shelled corn .......... .. .. ... .. 6 to 8 pounds
Velvet beans in pod ....................... 6 pounds
Cowpea or peanut hay..................... 6 to 8 pounds
Ground snap corn.......................... 6 to 8 pounds
Cottonseed meal........ ................ ...... 2 to 4 pounds
Velvet beans in pod....................... 2 to 4 pounds
Native grass hay...................... 6 to 8 pounds
Cottonseed meal............................ 8 to 5 pounds
Shelled corn ............................... 6 to 8 pounds
Cottonseed meal............................ 4 to 6 pounds
Cottonseed hulls ....................... .... 15 to 20 pounds
**Shelled corn is a practical feed for fattening steers only in those
sections where corn can be raised economically. Pigs are used to salv-
age whole corn voided in the manure.
Suggested rations for wintering cows in dry lot are given
Daily allowance for cows weighing 600 to 800 pounds.
Corn, sorghum, or sugarcane silage..................... 30 pounds
Cottonseed meal ............. ........................ 1 to 1.5 pounds
Corn, sorghum, or sugarcane silage .................... 20 to 30 pounds
Peanut or cowpea hay................................. 2 pounds
Cottonseed meal ...................... ............... 2 pounds*
Velvet bean feed meal..................... ............... 4 pounds
Cowpea, peanut, or beggarweed hay.................... 10 to 14 pounds
Cottonseed meal ........... ..................... ...... 2 pounds
Velvet bean feed meal............................... 4 pounds
Cowpea, peanut, or beggarweed hay...................... 10 to 14 pounds
Ground snap corn........ ........ .............. 2 pounds
Cottonseed meal .............................. .. .... 1 to 2 pounds
Cowpea or peanut hay ................. ............. 10 to 12 pounds
Shelled corn ......................................... .. 2 pounds
Oats .................................................. 1 pound
Cottonseed meal ........ ...... ....................... 1 pound
Cowpea, peanut, or beggarweed hay..................... 10 to 14 pounds
Shelled corn ................. ...................... 1 pound
Bran .................................................. 1 pound
Oats .................................................. 1 pound
Cowpea, peanut, or beggarweed hay .................... 10 to 14 pounds
Ground snap corn.................................. 2 pounds
Velvet bean meal ................................... 4 pounds
Cottonseed hulls .................................. **12 to 15 pounds
Cottonseed meal ..................................... 3 to 4 pounds

Give half pound first week and increase by half pound weekly until desired
amount is given.
** Due to low feed value and comparatively high price, it is seldom considered
advisable to feed cottonseed hulls in this state.



The quantities listed represent the total daily feed per head,
averaged for the entire feeding period. The amount allowed
the last half of the feeding period would be in excess of the
average as given, while that for the first half would be less.

Dry Rations Lbs.
Corn ........................ 18
Legume hay .................. 6

Corn ........................ 10
Protein meal ................. 2
M ixed hay ................... 5

Sorghum, or barley (ground.. 12
Protein meal ................ 1%
Sorgo fodder ................ 8

Succulent Rations
Corn ........................
Protein meal ...............
M ixed hay ...................
Silage .......................
Corn ........................
Protein meal .................
Straw or stover...............
Silage .......................

Sorghum, or barley (ground)..
Protein meal .............. ..
Grass hay....................
Silage .......................


Dry Rations


Corn ........................ 16
Legume hay ................. 7

Corn ........................ 14
Protein meal ................ 1%/
M ixed hay ................... 6

Sorghum (ground) ........... 12
Protein meal ................. 21.2
Cottonseed hulls ............. 10

Dry Rations

Lbs. I

Corn .......................... 18
Legume hay.................... 9

Corn .......................... 15
Protein meal ................... 2
M ixed hay ..................... 8

Sorghum (ground) ............. 15
Protein meal ...................
Cottonseed hulls ............... 15

Succulent Rations Lbs.
Corn ...................... 12
Protein meal ................. 2
M ixed hay ................... 4
Silage ....................... 9

Corn ........................ 12
Protein meal ................ 11/
Legume hay ................. 5
Silage ....................... 20

Sorghum (ground) ........... 12
Prtein meal ............... 21/
Legume hay ................. 4
Silage ....................... 15

Succulent Rations Lbs.
Corn ...................... 14
Protein meal ................. 21/
M ixed hay ................... 4
Silage ....................... 14

Corn ........................ 12
Protein meal ................. 2%
Straw or stover ...............
Silage ....................... 20

Sorghum heads (ground)...... 15
Protein meal .................. 2
Grass hay ................... 8
Silage ....................... 15


Lbss. Lbs.
Corn ..................... 15 to 18 Good peavine hay.......... 4to 6
Cottonseed meal ..........11/ to 2 Silage .................... 20 to 30
1000 TO 1200-POUND COWS
Lbs. Lbs.
Good peavine hay.......... 10 to 12 Corn ..................... 2
Silage .................... 25 to 35 Ground oats .............. 2
Professors Henry and Morrison, in their "Feeds and Feed-
ing," state:
"Corn is the great energizing, heat giving, fat-furnishing
food for the animals of the farm. No other cereal yields, on a
given space and with a given expenditure of labor, so much
animal food in both grain and forage. On millions of farms
successful animal husbandry rests upon this imperial grain
and forage plant. A possible explanation of the great fond-
ness of farm animals for corn lies in the considerable amount
of oil it carries. Again on mastication the kernels break into
nutty particles which are more palatable, for example, than
meal from the wheat grain, which on crushing and mingling
with the saliva turns to a sticky dough in the mouth."

Corn Chop, Ground Corn or Cracked Corn is the entire
product made by grinding, cutting or chopping the grain of
sound Indian corn and may be fine, medium or coarse.
Screened Corn Chop, Screened Ground Corn, or Screened
Cracked Corn is the coarse portion of corn chops, ground corn
or cracked corn, from which most of the fine particles have
been removed.
Ear Corn Chops is corn and cob, without the husk, ground
or chopped with not a greater proportion of cob than occurs
in the ear corn in its natural state.
Corn Meal (feeding) finely ground unbolted corn.
Corn Bran is the outer coating of the corn kernel, with
little or no starchy part or germ.
Corn Feed Meal is the fine siftings obtained in the manu-
facture of screened corn chop, screened ground corn or
screened cracked corn, with or without its aspiration products
Corn Grits or Hominy Grits are the fine or medium-sized
hard, flinty portions of Indian corn containing little or no
bran or germ.


Corn Screenings are the small, light grains of corn, parts
of grains of corn and/or other cereals, and other materials
having feeding value, obtained by screening shelled corn, ex-
cluding sand, dirt, and other similar inert materials.
Corn Gluten Meal is that part of commercial shelled corn
that remains after the separation of the larger part of the
starch, the germ and the bran, by the processes employed in
the manufacture of cornstarch and glucose.
Corn Gluten Feed is that portion of commercial shelled
corn that remains after the separation of the larger part of the
starch, and the germs by the processes employed in the manu-
facture of cornstarch and glucose.
Maltose. Process Corn Gluten Feed is the dried residue
from degermed corn, after removal of starch in the manufac-
ture of malt syrup.
Hominy Feed, Hominy Meal or Hominy Chop is the kiln-
dried mixture of the mill-run bran coating, the mill-run germ,
with or without a partial extraction of the oil, and a part of
the starchy portion of the white corn kernel obtained in the
manufacture of hominy, hominy grits, and corn meal by the
degerming process.
Yellow H,,Ii'nb, Feed, Yellow Hominy Meal or Yellow Hom-
iny Chop is a kiln-dried mixture of the mill-run bran coating,
the mill-run germ, with or without a partial extraction of the oil,
and a part of the starchy portion of the yellow corn kernel
obtained in the manufacture of yellow hominy grits and yel-
low corn meal by the degerming process.
Corn Oil Cake consists of the corn germ from which part
of the oil has been pressed and is the product obtained in the
wet milling process of manufacture of cornstarch, corn syrup,
and other corn products.
Corn Oil Meal is ground corn oil cake.
Corn Germ Cake consists of corn germ with other parts
of the corn kernel from which part of the oil has been pressed.




"Feeds group themselves into two major classes: (1)
roughages, and (2) concentrates. Roughages serve chiefly as
sources of bulk and heat. To a much less extent they may
serve as sources of energy and fat. Legume hays also furnish
appreciable amounts of protein. Concentrates, on the other
hand, serve as sources of two distinct groups of feed essen-
tials: (1) heat, energy and fat, and (2) protein. Evaluating
concentrates is more complicated than the problem of evalu-
ating roughages.
"The first step in evaluating either concentrates or rough-
ages is to acquire a knowledge of the functions of their basic
constituents water, protein, carbohydrates, fats, minerals,
and vitamins.
"1. Water. It is present in all feeds, varying from six to
ten percent in some hays to ninety percent or more in turnips,
wet beet pulp, etc. The water content of feeds is not impor-
tant from a nutritive standpoint, but its replacement of other
constituents is a matter that must be given consideration.
"2. Protein. This is a very important constituent. It is
absolutely essential in an animal's ration. Some other con-
stituent cannot be substituted for protein, and the animal
body cannot make protein out of other constituents. It is
also the most expensive constituent in livestock rations. It
is used in building and repairing many body tissues, including
nerves, glands and muscles. It stimulates both appetite and
digestion. Its great, ultimate, practical value lies in the fact
that it increases gains and at the same time decreases the
cost of gains.
"3. Carbohydrates. They make up the greater portion of most
feeds, are the cheapest of all constituents and produce heat,
energy, and fat. It is highly important to remember that
carbohydrates are made up of two components: (a) fiber,
and (b) nitrogen-free extract. The term carbohydrate is of
little value in attempting to evaluate feeds because of the fact
that two feeds may have almost identical carbohydrate con-
tents, yet one will be a valuable fattening feed because its
carbohydrates are made up of a high percentage of nitrogen-
By Dr. C. W. McCampbell, Head Animal Husbandry Dept., Kansas State


free extract and a low percentage of fiber, while the other will
have considerably less value because its carbohydrates are
made up of a high percentage of fiber and a low percentage of
nitrogen-free extract. Since the fattening value of a feed de-
pends to such a large extent upon its nitrogen-free extract
content, it should be emphasized that the higher the nitrogen-
free extract and the lower the fiber content of a feed the bet-
ter fattening feed it is. It might be well to replace the term
carbohydrate with the terms fiber and nitrogen-free extract.
"4. Fat. It produces heat, energy and fat and also helps
to maintain the normal function of the digestive tract. Com-
paratively small amounts are needed and most rations con-
tain an abundance of fat.
"5. Minerals. This group of constituents is important in
building up several different tissues of the body and in main-
taining the normal function of the nerves, blood, etc. The
mineral problem varies with different ages and different
classes of animals. It is more acute in young than in older
animals, and in hogs than in cattle. Some feeds are rich in
certain minerals and deficient in others. The same is true in
the case of rations. Perhaps the most important mineral prob-
lem where no legume hays are fed is a proper supply of cal-
cium or lime. Lime deficiencies can be made up by the use
of calcium carbonate in the form of ground limestone or bone
meal at comparatively little cost.
"6. Vitamines. These substances are necessary for normal
health, growth and reproduction. The vitamin requirements
of different ages and classes of animals vary considerably.
Green feed and sunlight furnish an abundant supply of the
vitamins needed by farm animals. The vitamin problem is
not a difficult one during the summer months, and green-
colored hay or green feeds such as rye or wheat pasture plus
sunshine usually take care of the vitamin problem during the
winter months.
"The Nutrients in a Feed. Chemical analyses give us
definite information as to the nutrients present in feeds.
"1. The Availability of the Nutrients. The importance of
this factor can be emphasized by comparing corn and bran.
Chemical analyses of these two feeds show that 100 pounds
of corn contains 88 pounds of nutrients, whereas 100 pounds
of bran contains 83.6 pounds. Digestion trials reveal the fact
that 100 pounds of corn contains 85.7 pounds of digestible or
available nutrients compared to 60.9 pounds of digestible or
available nutrients in 100 pounds of bran. In other words,


97.5 percent of the total nutrients in corn are digestible or
available while only 67.5 percent of the nutrients are avail-
able in the case of bran.
"2. The Quality of the Nutrients. This must be considered
carefully and especially with commercial feeds. A large
amount of a certain commercial feed was sold because it con-
tained almost as much carbohydrate as corn and cost 10 per-
cent less. Corn contains approximately 72 percent carbohy-
drate-2 percent fiber and 70 percent nitrogen-free extract.
The commercial feed contained 71 percent carbohydrate 28
percent fiber and 43 percent nitrogen-free extract. Forget-
ting the disadvantage of its greater bulk, this commercial
feed was worth around 40 percent less than corn. The quality
of the nutrients is particularly important in the case of pro-
tein supplemental feeds. Experience as well as experimenta-
tion has demonstrated that one pound of linseed oil meal is
worth more than a pound of choice cottonseel meal as a pro-
tein supplemental feed. Yet, one pound of choice cottonseed
meal contains approximately 25 percent more digestible pro-
tein than one pound of linseed oil meal. The explanation of
this apparent inconsistency lies in the difference in quality
of the proteins of these two feeds.
"3. Palatability. This is an important factor for the rea-
son that it makes little difference how nutritious a feed may
be if it lacks palatability. Its value is lessened to the extent
to which animals refuse to eat it. Wheat is a good illustra-
tion of the effect of palatability upon the value of a feed. Its
chemical analysis shows it to be just as good, pound for pound,
as corn from a nutritive standpoint, and since it is quite pal-
atable to hogs, a pound of wheat is worth just as much as a
pound of corn in the production of pork. Since it is not so
palatable to cattle, it is worth less, pound for pound, in the
production of beef, not because the nutrients are not present
and available, but because cattle will not eat as much wheat
as they will corn.
"4. The Quality or Grade of the Feed Itself. There is con-
siderable difference in the feeding value of corn of different
grades. The same is true of other feeds. It is highly impor-
tant that the quality or grade of feeds compared be known.
Otherwise comparisons or evaluations may be misleading. This
has often been the case in comparing corn with barley.
Usually corn grades fairly high, whereas barley grades low.
"5. Bulk. The less bulk a given feed has the more satis-
factory it is as a fattening feed. We recognize the value of
a small amount of shorts in a hog ration, but we also know



that shorts is not so satisfactory as corn as the entire concen-
trate in hog-fattening rations. This is partly due to less diges-
tible nutrients per pound of feed in shorts, but more par-
ticularly to the difference in the bulk of corn and shorts.
While one pound of shorts contains 80 percent as much
digestible nutrients as one pound of shelled corn, yet one quart
of shorts contains only 38 percent as much digestible nutrients
as one quart of shelled corn-less than half. The excessive
bulk of shorts compared to corn makes it impossible for a hog
to consume as much nutrients in the form of shorts as in the
form of corn, and naturally a hog will not fatten as fast on
shorts as it will on corn.
"6. Form in Which Feed is Fed. The value of a given feed
may vary greatly for different classes of livestock, depending
upon the form in which it is fed. Ground shelled corn may
be worth as much as 25 percent more than unground shelled
corn for three year-old steers. In the case of cattle the value
of some feeds vary considerably, depending upon the age of
the animal. For instance, unground shelled corn is worth
approximately as much pound for pound as ground shelled
corn for calves, but not for older cattle. The stage of the
feeding period is also an important factor in determining the
form in which a feed should be fed. This is particularly true
in the case of cattle. The form in which any feed is fed must
be given thoughtful consideration in evaluating feeds.
"7. Differences in Value According to How Feed is Fed.
There may be as much as 50 percent or more difference be-
tween the values of a feed, fed in a well-balanced ration, and
in a ration that is not well balanced."
Different feeds have different physical as well as chemi-
cal characteristics that may affect digestion under some con-
ditions. The feeder must know how to feed a given feed in
order that these characteristics may not do any harm.
With so much information printed in books, bulletins, cir-
culars and the agricultural press, the livestock feeders can
learn a great deal about feed values if he will study carefully
the material available.




Digestible Nutrients in
S 100 Lbs. Feed

Feeding Stuff
S. 5 .2
0 $

Alfalfa (green) .......................... 25.3 3.3 10.4 0.4 1: 3.4
Alfalfa hay........--......-................... 91.4 10.6 39.0 0.9 1: 3.9
Beggarweed hay ..........-............... 91.0 11.6 36.2 0.7 1: 3.3
Beggarweed (green) .................. 27.1 3.1 11.6 0.2 1: 3.9
Bermuda grass............................. 33.2 1.4 17.0 0.5 1:12.9
Bermuda hay --- ..............------- 90.3 3.7 37.9 0.8 1:10.7
Corn (d.ent) ..........--.......-............. 89.5 7.5 67.8 4.6 1:10.4
Corn (flint) ....----- ........------... 87.8 7.7 66.1 4.6 1: 9.9
Corn and cob meal--.................-.. 89.6 6.1 63.7 3.7 1:11.8
Corn fodder .--..--.... .......-...-- ...... ---81.7 3.0 47.3 1.5 1:16.9
Corn silage ..... -- ---.......................... 26.3 1.1 15.0 0.7 1:15.1
Corn stover........................----......- 90.6 2.2 47.8 1.0 1:22.7
Cottonseed meal ......................... -92.5 37.0 21.8 8.6 1: 1.1
Cottonseed hulls--........................ -90.3 47.6 23.7 8.0 1: 0.9
Cowpeas (grain) ---................--..... 88.4 19.4 54.5 1.1 1: 2.9
Cowpea hay .....--...................--- .... 90.3 13.1 33.7 1.0 1: 2.7
Cowpeas (green) .................---..... 16.3 2.3 8.0 0.3 1: 3.8
Cowpeas and corn (green) -.....--. 20.0 1.3 11.4 0.3 1: 9.3
Cowpeas and sorghum (green).... 18.7 0.7 10.0 0.3 1:15.3
Cowpeas and sorghum silage--....... 32.3 0.9 16.6 0.6 1:20
Cowpea silage-- ..--...--...... .......----- 22.0 1.8 10.1 0.6 1: 6.4
Crab grass ......----------.. ---.----.- 30.9 1.3 14.2 0.5 1:11.8
Crab grass hay.......----------.------ 90.5 3.5 40.0 1.0 1:12
Japanese cane silage-........... .. -- 22.4 0.6 11.2 0.3 1:19.8
Japanese cane fodder..-..----... ---- 93.2 0.5 55.0 1.2 1:11.5
Johnson grass ..------..-- .. -------- 29.1 1.2 14.7 0.5 1:13.2
Johnson grass hay--..~.......-------- 89.9 2.9 45.0 1.0 1:16.3
Kaffir fodder.....--....------------ 91.0 4.1 45.0 1.7 1:11.9
Kudzu vine (green)--....---.......... --- 30.6 4.2 13.9 0.5 1: 3.6
Lespedeza (green) -........--.......-- 36.6 4.5 17.1 0.6 1: 4.1
Lespedeza hay ..-...-.-.. ... 88.2 8.6 41.1 1.1 1: 5.1
Linseed meal -..---......----.---. 90.4 31.7 37.9 2.8 1:4
Millet hay ....-..-...-.......------------ 86.5 5.1 40.5 0.8 1: 8.3
Milo fodder (dry)-....----......-- -- 88.9 1.9 36.3 2.8 1:22.4
Milo fodder (green)..-.----..----- 22.7 0.8 12.7 0.3 1:16.8
Molasses (blackstrap) ......-.. 74.2 1.0 58.2 .... 1:58.2
Natal grass hay.....--.------.---..-- 90.2 3.7 37.9 0.8 1:10.7
Natal and cowpea hay----.... --..... 90.2 8.4 35.8 0.9 1: 4.5
Oats (grain) ....-------..-------..-. 90.8 9.7 52.1 3.8 1: 6.3
Oats (hay) .......--...----------.....- 88.0 4.5 38.1 1.7 1: 9.3
Para grass ...--...---------........... 27.2 0.8 14.0 0.3 1:18.4
Para hay-............-------.. ------. 90.2 2.3 38.7 0.4 1:17.2
Peanut with hull-----...................... 93.5 18.4 15.3 32.6 1: 4.8
Peanut meal with hull.....---....--... 93.5 28.4 27.0 5.0 1:1.48



Digestible Nutrients in
100 Lbs. Feed

Feeding Stuff

Peanut meal without hull............ 89.3 47.6 23.7 8.0 I1: 0.9
Peanut hay without nuts.............. 78.5 6.6 37.0 3.0 1: 6.6
Peanut hay with nuts.. -----.................. 92.2 9.6 39.6 8.3 1: 6.1
Rape (green)....................--- --........... 16.7 2.6- 10.0 0.3 1: 4.1
Rhodes grass hay -------.......................89.0 6.1 42.5 2.3 1:13
Rye (grain) .----.............--...............-- 90.6 9.9 68.4 1.2 1: 7.2
Rye (green) ..................................-----------21.3 2.1 12.2 0.5 1: 6.3
Sorghum (green) .. ...------- 87.3 7.5 66.2 2.6 1: 9.6
Sorghum fodder .... ...---------.... 90.3 2.8 44.8 2.0 1:17.6
Sorghum silage ---------- 33.8 0.6 11.6 0.5 1:21.2
Soudan hay ------------------ ...90.0 2.7 45.4 0.7 1:17.4
Soy bean (grain) ...-..---...... .... 90.1 30.7 22.8 14.4 1: 1.8
Soy bean meal ~.~..........--------- 88.2 38.1 33.9 5.0 1:2
Soy bean hay-----.~~.- ..--------.. 91.4 11.7 39.2 1.2 1: 3.6
Soy bean (green) ---------. 23.6 3.2 10.2 0.5 1: 3.5
Soy bean silage ........------...... 27.1 2.6 11.0 0.7 1: 4.8
Soy bean and corn silage----.............. 24.7 1.6 13.8 0.8 1: 9.8
Teosinte (green) ...........-------- 21.3 1.0 11.9 0.3 11:12.6
Teosinte hay ..----. ...---------- .. 89.4 5.6 40.2 0.9 1: 7.5
Velvet beans (green) ..........---- 88.3 18.1 50.8 5.3 1: 3.5
Velvet beans and pod--------. 87.7 14.9 51.7 3.8 1:4
Velvet bean hay...--------- 92.8 12.0 40.3 1.4 1: 3.6
Vetch, hairy (green)....-----..... 18.1 -3.5 8.1 0.4 1: 2.6
Vetch, hairy, hay.........--------. 87.7 15.7 37.1 1.9 1: 2.6
Wheat grain..............---------.. 89.8 9.2 67.5 1.5 1: 7.7
Wheat bran ......--------......---........ 89.9 12.5 41.6 3.0 1: 3.9
Wheat middlings ......--------............... 89.3 15.7 52.8 4.3 1:4

Aberdeen Angus steers and bulls raised in Central Florida



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A good Angus herd





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Soy beans and sorghum


Sorghum is a good crop in all sections of Florida

Cottonseed meal has a high protein content and possesses
the characteristic of stimulating the appetite of fattening ani-
mals, resulting in an increased consumption of feed and
thereby producing greater gains. It makes a good supple-
mental feed for fattening beef cattle on pasture. One pound
of good cottonseed meal supplies as much digestible protein
as 3 pounds of wheat bran. It also has a good percentage of
phosphorus and potash but is low in calcium.

Cottonseed products used as feeds are cottonseed, cotton-
seed meal and cake, and cottonseed hulls.
Untreated cottonseed contains a substance called gossypol,
which is poisonous to animals, but becomes inactive by cook-
ing the seed in water.
Calcium is necessary to milking or nursing animals and
to young stock, and may be supplied by legume hays or as a
mineral supplement. A ration using cottonseed meal as the
concentrate should also contain the nutritive elements found
in roughages such as good quality hay or by pasturage.


(Pounds of nutrients in 100 pounds)
Product Water Ash Crude (ether
protein Nitrogen extract)
Fiber free

Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent
Cottonseed ......__ a 9.1 4.0 19.6 18.9 28.3 20.1
Cottonseed meal and cake:
41 per cent protein .-.. 7.1 5.7 41.7 10.0 28.4 7.1
38.6 per cent protein -. 6.9 5.9 38.8 12.2 29.4 6.8
36 per cent protein --- 7.3 5.8 36.8 13.5 30.0 6.6
Cold-pressed cottonseed --- 6.9 4.2 27.5 24.2 30.2 7.0
Cottonseed hulls .......----- 8.7 2.6 3.5 46.2 38.0 1.0
Furnished by the Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, United States Department
of Agriculture.

One pound of good-quality cottonseed meal is equal to
nearly 2 pounds of cottonseed as a feed for fattening steers.
(Rations over 5 or 6 pounds of cottonseed produce scours.)
Cottonseed contains about 20 percent each of fat or oil
and crude protein. Compared with a good grade of cotton-
seed meal it contains about half as much protein and about
three times the content of oil.
A ton of cottonseed yields approximately the following in
addition to the cotton fiber: hulls, 514 pounds; cake or meal,
954 pounds; crude oil, 303 pounds; dirt and loss in manufac-
ture, 119 pounds.
Cottonseed cake is made from the residue after the oil has
been extracted from the seed. Cottonseed cake and cotton-
seed meal are the same thing; the meal is the cake in ground
The grades as classified and described by the Association
of Feed Control Officials of the United States are as follows:
Cottonseed meal is a product of the cottonseed only, com-
posed principally of the kernel with such portion of the hull
as is necessary in the manufacture of oil, provided that noth-
ing shall be recognized as cottonseed meal that does not con-
form to the foregoing definition. Cottonseed meal shall be
graded and classed as follows:
"1. Cottonseed meal, prime quality, must be finely ground,
not necessarily bolted, of sweet odor, reasonably bright in color,
yellowish, not brown or reddish, free from excessive lint, and
shall contain not less than 36 percent of protein. It shall be
designated and sold according to its protein content. Cotton-
seed meal with 36 percent of protein shall be termed '36 per-
cent protein cottonseed meal, prime quality,' and higher


grades similarly designated (as '43 percent protein cotton-
seed meal, prime quality'), etc.
"2. Cottonseed meal not fulfilling the above requirements
as to color, odor, and texture shall be graded '36 percent pro-
tein cottonseed meal, off quality,' and higher grades similarly
Cottonseed feed is a mixture of cottonseed meal and cot-
tonseed hulls, containing less than 36 percent of protein.
Cold-pressed cottonseed is the product obtained from the
subjection of the whole undecorticated cottonseed to the cold-
pressure process for the extraction of oil and includes the en-
tire cottonseed less the oil extracted.
Ground, cold-pressed cottonseed is the product obtained by
grinding cold-pressed cottonseed.
Cottonseed hulls are the roughage product of cottonseed-
oil manufacture. The hulls are removed from the cottonseed
before the oil is extracted. They have a very low-protein con-
tent and should be fed only in connection with protein-rich
feeds. As a roughage the hulls have a lower feeding value
than oat straw or corn stover, but are valuable where no other
roughage is available. This product is used extensively in the
South, especially for steer feeding.


One pound of cottonseed meal will balance as much corn
as three pounds of bran.
To determine the protein content of cottonseed meal sold
on basis of nitrogen or ammonia content, multiply the nitro-
gen by 6.25. For example, if the analysis is given as 6 per-
cent nitrogen, then the pounds of protein in 100 pounds of the
meal will be 6X6.25, which is 37.50. If the analysis is given
in terms of ammonia, multiply the percent of ammonia by
5.15. For example, if the analysis is given as 7.5 percent am-
monia, the protein in 100 pounds of the meal will be 7.5X5.15,
which is 38.62.
Value of cottonseed products as a supplement to pasture in steer feeding *

Average Daily Selling
Lot Ration daily ration of price of Profit
gain concen- cattle per steer

Pounds Pounds
Lot A ---__ -- Pasture alone -------- 1.52 --... $3.66 $2.86
Lot B .. ..- Pasture plus cot. seed cake 2.32 3.31 4.53 10.42
From Bureau of Animal Industry Bulletin 131.


The addition of 3.31 pounds of cottonseed cake a day as
a supplement to the grass increased the daily gain 0.80 pound,
or from 1.52 to 2.32 pounds.

Results of feeding experiments showing relative value of cottonseed meal
and other concentrates

Station Feed with which Result

Florida ._..---- --- Velvetbeans in pod Cottonseed meal worth from 1.5 to 2.5
times as much.
Maine .......------- Gluten meal _-.---- _. Cottonseed meal superior.
Massachusetts ...- do _- Do.
Do ....--------.- ---- Ground soybeans ..___ Practically the same.
Mississippi --- ---. Cottonseed --___ ..... Cottonseed meal superior.
Do .._------- .------.do ------- 1 pound cottonseed meal is equal to
1.71 pounds cottonseed.
Do ...-..------ ---- Velvetbeans in pod ----- 3 pounds velvetbeans superior to 2
pounds cottonseed meal.
New Jersey -- .. Equal parts wheat bran
& dried brewers' grains 4.5 lbs. cottonseed meal are practical-
ly equal to 10 lbs. of the other feeds.
Do ----- Ground soybeans ------ Practically the same.
Pennsylvania ._...-. Wheat bran ------..--.-.. Cottonseed meal increased yield about
20 per cent.
South Carolina _-- Velvetbean meal --.... Cottonseed meal slightly superior.
Do ___ -- Wheat bran .._........ 1.5 pounds cottonseed meal slightly
superior to 3 pounds wheat bran.
Tennessee ..----_-- Ground soybeans --.----. Practically the same.
U. S. Dept. of Agri- Fish meal -___-__ 1 pound fish meal is equal to 1.24
culture. pounds cottonseed meal.
Do _.-- _. Peanut feed.._-....--.. _-. 1 pound cottonseed meal is equal to
1.36 pounds peanut feed.
Do _--_ Velvetbean meal -.-..... 1 pound, cottonseed meal is equal to
1.54 pounds velvetbean meal.


A good supplement for cattle on grass is 8 parts by weight
of corn or other grain and 2 parts of cottonseed meal or cake.
Cattle fattened on grass with a supplement are allowed all
the feed they will eat once a day in addition to grass. These
cattle will not eat more than one-half the feed that would be
fed in the dry lot.


Cottonseed meal is usually fed in the winter period to stock
cattle in sufficient amounts to supply the necessary protein.
Stock cattle weighing from 500 to 750 pounds, are fed 1 to 2
pounds of the meal. If legume hays constitute half or more
of the roughage ration, it is not necessary to use cottonseed

A ration of corn silage and cottonseed meal is one of the
most economical combinations for wintering stock cattle. One


to two pounds of cottonseed meal combined with the amount
of silage they will eat will produce satisfactory gains. Straw
and other roughages may be fed with the silage and cotton-
seed meal.
From 1 to 11/2 pounds of cottonseed meal may be fed daily
with other feeds, such as corn silage and good hay. A good
ration for breeding cows is 25 to 30 pounds corn silage, 1 to
11/2 pounds cottonseed meal or cake, and other roughage, such
as stalks in the field, corn stover, hay or straw.
Cows with nursing calves need more protein supplements.
Beef cows raising calves are fed, during the winter period
only, not more than 2 pounds each daily.



"Next in importance to the divine profusion of water, light
and air, those three great physical facts which render exist-
ence possible, may be reckoned the universal beneficence of
grass. Exaggerated by tropical heats and vapors to the gigan-
tic cane congested with its saccharine secretion, or dwarfed by
polar rigors to the fibrous hair of northern solitudes, embrac-
ing between these extremes the maize with its resolute pen-
nons, the rice plant of southern swamps, the wheat, rye, bar-
ley, oats, and other cereals, no less than the humbler verdure
of hillside, pasture and prairie in the temperate zone, grass
is the most widely distributed of all vegetable beings, and is
at once the type of our life and the emblem of our mortality.
Lying in the sunshine among the buttercups and the dande-
lions of May, scarcely higher in intelligence than the minute
tenants of the mimic wilderness, our earliest recollections are
of grass; and when the fitful fever is ended, and the foolish
wrangle of the market and the forum is closed, grass heals
over the scar which our descent into the bosom of the earth
has made, and the carpet of the infant becomes the blanket
of the dead.
"As he reflected upon the brevity of human life, grass has
been the favorite symbol of the moralist, the chosen theme of
the philosopher. 'All flesh is grass,' said the prophet; 'My
days are as the grass,' sighed the troubled patriarch; and the
pensive -Nebuchadnezzar, in his penitential mood, exceeded
even these, and, as the sacred historian informs us, did eat
grass like an ox.

"Grass is the forgiveness of nature-her constant benedic-
tion. Fields trampled with battle, saturated with blood, torn
with the ruts of cannon, grow green again with grass, and
carnage is forgotten. Streets abandoned by traffic become
grass-grown like rural lanes, and are obliterated. Forests de-
cay, harvests perish, flowers vanish, but grass is immortal.
Beleaguered by the sullen hosts of winter, it withdraws into
the impregnable fortress of its subterranean vitality, and
emerges upon the first solicitation of spring. Sown by the
winds, by wandering birds, propagated by the subtle horticul-
ture of the elements which are its ministers and servants, it
softens the rude outline of the world. Its tenacious fibers
hold the earth in its place and prevent its soluble components


from washing into the wasting sea. It invades the solitude
of deserts, climbs the inaccessible slopes and forbidding pin-
nacles of mountains, modifies climates, and determines the
history, character and destiny of nations. Unobtrusive and
patient, it has immortal vigor and aggression. Banished from
the thoroughfare and field, it bides its time to return, and
when vigilance is relaxed, or the dynasty has perished, it
silently resumes the throne from which it has been expelled,
but which it never abdicates. It bears no blazonry of bloom
to charm the senses with fragrance or splendor, but its homely
hue is more enchanting than the lily or the rose. It yields
no fruit in earth or air, and yet should its harvest fail for a
single year, famine would depopulate the world."


Good native pastures are found in many sections of Flor-
ida and where the soil is good there is sufficient feed for one
steer to every 1 to 5 acres. On flatwood ranges there should
be an allowance of 10 acres for each animal and those sec-
tions having poor soil not over one steer to every 20 acres.
Improved pastures have been developed in Florida, one or more
of the various kinds of grasses grown being adapted to prac-
tically every kind of soil found in the state.
A pasture is the most valuable asset a cattleman can have.
It takes more than a fenced area to make a pasture. A pas-
ture should be composed of nutritious grasses and legume
plants. Grasseous plants generally have less calcium per
pound than legumunous, therefore a pasture should have a
combination of grasses and legumes if possible. This will make
for better balanced feed for the cattle on pasture.
It takes a wide variety of nutrients to supply all the re-
quirements for the animal's body. Legume plants carry more
protein while grasses carry a higher proportion of sugars and
starches than legumes. Legumes generally have more calcium,
used in bone building, and more protein used in muscle build-
ing. Proteins, starches, sugars, fats and minerals are vitally
necessary to animal life. Vitamins are necessary to provide
normal functions of life, health and growth. A pasture, there-

Pasture scene in North Florida

Pasture scene in North Florida


fore, should contain grasses (either Carpet, Dallis, Bermuda,
Bahia, Centipede, Para, Vasey, or any other palatable,
nutritious grass or combination of grasses), and legume crops
(such as Lespedeza, White clover, Alice clover, or any other
legume which will mix with grasses to give a better balanced
feed for pasture). Where lime cannot be had for legumes or
where legumes do not grow well in a pasture mixture, bone
meal or finely pulverized oyster shell or ground limestone may
be necessary and may be provided for the cattle in mineral
boxes, or a portion of the pasture may be limed and fertilized
so as to grow legumes. Phosphorus and calcium are two vitally
necessary elements in bone building and in milk production.
Mineral deficiency in calcium and phosphorus affect the yield
of milk rather than its composition, therefore if ample milk for
the calf is provided these elements must be supplied.
Acid soils indicate lack of calcium and possible lack of
phosphorus with a strong indication of the lack of calcium
(lime) therefore legume crops are less apt to grow on acid
soils than on alkaline soils. The use of lime in acid pastures
will do much to help correct bone deficiency.

.. ,-
; ,.*..- -..* * '. ^,


Carpet grass pasture in Central Florida

Carpet Grass. This grass gets its name from its carpet-
like sod. Cattle relish it. It grows in all sections of the state
on compact, moist soil where there is comparatively little
shade. It will grow from stem or root cuttings, but more
readily by sowing the seed.


Seed may be sown from February to July. Early spring
seeding is advised, when there is sufficient moisture to insure
germination. It continues to give good grazing until stopped
by a heavy frost. Carpet grass will not stand fire.

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.- --


A pasture that carried one animal per acre from April to November

Dallis Grass. Perennial-grows well in Florida when seed-
ed on low, moist soil, and produces an abundant growth under
favorable conditions. Will withstand considerable frost.
Bermuda Grass. One of the well-known Florida grasses.
When grown on the right type of soil, it produces an abund-
ance of grazing during a large part of the year. On the light,
sandy soils it supplies a fair amount of grazing. Bermuda
will stand all kinds of hard grazing during the entire year.

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Cowpea hay in stacks in South Florida


This grass may be propagated from either seed or root and
stem cuttings.
Para Grass. From Fort Pierce on the East Coast and
Bradenton on the West Coast southward, this is a valuable
pasture grass. It grows best on rather moist soil and pro-
duces a heavy growth of nutritious grazing material.
Para grass will not stand a heavy frost or light freeze. It
is propagated by root and stem cuttings.
Lespedeza. This is also known as Japanese clover, and used
in pasture mixtures in most parts of the state.



Mixed grasses--Carpet,
Bahia, Bermuda, Dallis

Bahia --.................- ........

Bermuda ...................

Average Gain
Per Steer Dur-
ing Grazing

197 pounds

189 pounds

171 pounds

Carpet .......- ............. | 165 pounds

Average Pounds of Beef
Daily Gain Produced
in Pounds Per Acre

0.77 pounds 280 pounds

0.74 pounds

270 pounds

0.67 pounds 243 pounds

0.65 pounds 236 pounds

The grazing season is lengthened and the pounds of beef pro-
duced per acre will run from three to ten times as much as on
wire grasses. Good grass will invariably carry on the same
acreage from three to six times as many cattle.

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Pasture on rolling land


Bahia grass among the pines

Soudan grass in South Florida. Grows well in all parts of the state

Napier grass, a native of tropical Africa, is known in its
native country as Elephant grass.
Colonel Napier, of South Africa, was responsible for the
introduction of this crop to other sections and is given the
credit for its development agriculturally.


It is a cane-like perennial that has been grown successfully
in practically every section of Florida, attaining a height of
6 to 14 feet. The best crops are produced on fertile soil. The
leafy stalks mature during the latter part of October, the
spikes, which resemble millet, produce seed in the early part
of November.
Napier grass makes a good soiling crop and it has a palat-
ability and nutritive value that is not exceeded by any similar
non-leguminous feed.

Napier grass



O C OW 5C C '?C 0
O 0 0 0QJ r 0 r 0

Water ..........-............. .. 78.1 75.1 I 70.40 72.8 61.81 65.84
Ash ....--....--..--- ....... 1.2 1.4 .60 2.4 2.92 2.68
Protein .........----............. 1.9 1.5 .45 1.7 2.92 3.58
Carbohydrates ..........-. 13.0 14.0 21.40 13.4 17.29 14.13
Fat ............................ .6 1.0 .60 .5 .29 .53
Fiber .............................. 5.2 7.0 6.55 9.2 14.77 13.24


Nutrients c m d

W ater .......................... 11.6 8.6 9.5 9.8 9.9 9.35
Ash ......-- ......-..- .............. 4.9 8.6 8.5 5.0 7.6 9.92
Protein .--...-.................. 6.2 14.9 8.0 7.4 7.3 11.32
Carbohydrates ..--....--... 45.0 37.3 42.9 39.2 44.6 41.06
Fat .....-......-................... 2.5 2.3 2.4 1.8 1.4 2.15
Fiber ......... .............-. 29.9 28.3 28.7 36.8 29.2 26.20
(Note: The data in the above tables was obtained from Henry & Morrison's
"Feeds & Feeding"; and bulletins published by the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station and the Agriculture Gazette of New South Wales).

Complete data on Napier Grass will be found in the Bul-
letin, "Forage and Pasture Crops in Florida," issued by the
Florida State Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee, Fla.

Wild Grasses. There are a number of wild grasses, native
to Florida, which supply good pasture during the different
seasons. Further information on pasture or feed crops pro-
duced in Florida will be found in Bulletin No. 30 entitled,
"Non-legume Feed Crops," issued by the State Department of
Agriculture, Tallahassee, Florida.


This crop is equal in food value to good alfalfa.

Profitable crops of Crotalaria can be produced on soil that
is not suitable for growing such crops as corn, potatoes, sorg-
bum and cane.

The protein content is equivalent to that of alfalfa, the
amount of nitrogen being about equal.

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