Citation
Floridan keys

Material Information

Title:
Floridan keys with special reference to soil productivity
Series Title:
Bulletin New Series
Creator:
Gifford, John C ( John Clayton ), 1870-1949
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee Fla
Publisher:
Department of Agriculture
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
55 p. : ill., maps ; 23 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Soils -- Florida -- Florida Keys ( lcsh )
Soil productivity -- Florida -- Florida Keys ( lcsh )
House construction -- Florida -- Florida Keys ( lcsh )
Florida Keys (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"June, 1940."
Funding:
“Funded by Project Ceres, a collaboration between the United States Agricultural Information Network (USAIN), the Agriculture Network Information Collaborative (AgNIC) and the Center for Research Libraries (CRL).”
Statement of Responsibility:
by John C. Gifford.

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University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services (UFDC@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
AAA7081 ( LTQF )
AKD9622 ( LTUF )
27972553 ( OCLC )
001962945 ( ALEPHBIBNUM )

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Full Text






New Series


Floridan Keys

WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO


Soil Productivity


BY


JOHN C. GIFFORD, D. (Ec.

PROFESSOR OF TROPICAL FORESTRY IN THE
UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI


HUM8RL'URARY

JUN 2 0 1968
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DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TALLAHASSEE, FLRmD-A

NATHAN MNAYO, Comnussioner

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No. 77


JUNE, 1940
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Aerial view of Key West, showing the Naval Station and radio towers, La Concha Hotel,, and County Court House.









FLORIDAN EVS


CHAPTER
THE GEOGRAPHY OF THE KEYS
LOCATION.-The Florida Keys are the southernmost part of the State, extending in a curved line southwestward from Miami Beach to, and including, the Dry Tortugas, which are two hundred and ninety miles from Miami, seventy miles west of Key West, one hundred miles north of Cuba and three hundred miles northeast of Yucatan.
These keys may be divided into two groups, the UPPER and LOWER Keys. The keys north of Bahia Honda consist of coralreef limestone. The lower keys, that is, the archipelago around Key West,* consist of polite limestone, the same as the mainland. One is sometimes called the Key Largo Limestone, the other Miami Oolite or Limestone. The polite or eggstone is white and soft, consisting of many little round balls of lime cemented together. The coral-reef limestone is hard, darker in color, varied in grain, consisting of coral masses filled in between with other kinds of lime deposits. The polite was blown or washed in. The Key Largo Coral Limestone was no doubt a reef, upheaved bodily.
AREA.-It is difficult to determine the area of so, many little islands, some very low and irregular in shape. The largest is Key Largo, thirty miles long, averaging hardly more than a mile in width. About thirty keys are inhabitable. The sum total of what might be called land probably does not exceed fifty square miles.
ELEVATION.-The bulk of these islands is hardly more than six feet above the level of the sea. There are one or two places which may reach the height of twenty-five feet.
RAINFALL.-Rainfall is usually adequate at all times of the year. There are about fifty inches in the Biscayne Bay Region. It decreases as you move westward. Dry Tortugas is probably the driest spot in the State of Florida. Both drought and coolness serve as checks in vegetative growth. If either comes at the proper time it produces plentiful bloom, followed by an-abundance
















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CLIMATES- (After Kiippen and Thornwaite)


PRECIPITATION EFFECTIVENESS

A-128 � Wet. B-64 to 127 Humid. C-32 to 63 Subhumid. D-16 to 31 Semi-arid. E-0 to 15 Arid. r-Rainfall Adequate at all Seasons. d-Rainfall Deficient in all Seasons. S-Rainfall Deficient in Summer. W-Rainfall Deficient in Winter.
TEMPERATE EFFICIENCY

A'--128 + Tropical. B'-64 to 127 Mesothermal. C'-- 32 to 63 Microthermal. D'-16 to 31 Taiga. E'-1 to 15 Tundra. F'-0 Perpetual Frost.

The shaded sections, marked BA'r, are the climatic patches to which South Florida-belongs, being humid (B), tropical (A), with rainfall adequate at all seasons (r), the same as like pictures in the West Indies, Central and South America.









of fruit. Some trees bloom and fruit continuously, others may have two crops a year.
DEW.-There is plenty of dew which is a small but constant and important source of moisture in tropical countries.
HURRICANES.-Once in about ten years there is a hurricane. If houses are properly built, and shelter trees preserved, the damage is never as great as represented.
TEMPERATURE.-There have been no killing frosts on the keys. It is never excessively hot. It is acknowledged by all who know the facts that there is probably no better climate in this country.
WATER SUPPLY.-Water from the ground is brackish. If the well is very shallow the surface water will serve to water plants. On some keys, such as Big Pine, the well water is fairly fresh. Many old wells have been abandoned because of the danger of contamination from cesspools.
MARKETS.-The markets for key products are good, both in Miami and Key West. There is a constant demand for limes, the premier key product, throughout the whole United States at all seasons of the year. The local market is good, especially in winter.
TRANSPORTATION.-A highway runs down the islands from Largo to Key West. It is built on the road bed of the old East Coast Railroad. Since the islands are narrow there are few acres not in close communication by truck with the rest of the world. There are also an inner and outer channel for boats.
HAMMOCKS.-This is the local name for the jungle consisting of several tropical hardwoods.
PINEWOODS.-On the Lower Keys, there are pine tr ' ees of the same kind as on the mainland, also hammock growth.
SWAMPS.-The swamps are salt water species such as the Red Mangrove, Black Mangrove, and Buttonwood. They form an excellent shore protection in times of storm.
INDUSTRIES.-The main occupation of the people in addition to an occasional wreck, has always been fishing, including, sponging, cropping, fruit growing. On Windly's Island the coral























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Mlap showing the Keys and the proposed Everglades National Park. This includes Old Rhodes, Largo. Plantation and other keys. This park includes a large percentage of the best key land.









limestone is quarried and shipped away for construction purposes. It is a very beautiful building stone and has been in great demand for the more expensive buildings.
SETTLEMENTS.-There are several little settlements and several famous fishing camps and clubs. Key West was at one time the center of this whole region. With the construction of the highway and railroad the center of activity shifted to Miami. The government is now engaged in converting it into a tourist resort. Many people think that the tourist business is not in itself sufficient to support a very large population, since it is confined to a short season, varies from year to year, and is not very profitable in places which do not raise their own foodstuffs at least sufficient for local consumption throughout the year. The bulk of food products except seafoods are shipped in at all seasons of the year, and there should be a strong effort to raise on the nearby keys as much as possible for home consumption, especially tropical fruits and winter vegetables, and a strong effort to protect valuable native vegetation, and plant hardy trees for shelter in times of storm. There is opportunity for a lot of landscaping with native trees along the overseas highway. Quaries yielding rock for road construction should be dug by the sea to form fine swimming pools and not left as holes without outlets by the wayside to breed mosquitoes.
The Marquesas Keys on the reef west of Key West consist of several little low islands surrounding a lagoon. It resembles an atoll. A large number of these tropical limestone islands are hollow in the middle, sometimes with salt ponds. Salt was once manufactured on the Lower Keys.
The Dry Tortugas is the end, with the famous old Fort Jefferson, a well-made structure constructed of millions of hand-made brick.
Another island is called Bird Key, where thousands of sooty and noddy terns come many miles to nest. This is now a monument under the control of the National Park Service.
Biscayne Key contains thirty-five thousand bearing cocopalms, the largest privately owned cocal that I know of. It is owned by the Matheson family.
Cocoloba Club, located on Adams Key, consists of notable




























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From "Florida Bird Life," by A. H. Howell, Showing the Tropical Zone and
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The shaded area is that part of the Antillean Region of the Tropical
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people from many parts of this country. This region, because of its fine fishing, has often been referred to as the playground of presidents. There are several other famous clubs on these keys and colonies of campers are on the increase. Many people go to the Matecumbes in the summer time for the bathing, fishing and seashore recreation. The Matecumbe sheep-wool sponge has long been famous and every effort should be made to encourage its growth as well as the growth of many other sea products, such as crawfish, clams and conchs. By the large number of oyster shells of large size scattered over the land there must have been plenty of oysters not very far away in times past.
SEA GARDENS.-Sea gardens are plentiful on these coral reefs and are a great attraction because of their beauty, clearness of the water and brilliance of coloring.
PLANTING TIME.-There is no special planting time on the keys for trees. The chances of success are of course much better during the rainy season and during cool weather. At other times shade and watering are necessary. Winter vegetables are planted in the fall as soon as the danger of heavy winds and rains is over. Tomatoes and other fresh vegetables are in great demand around the holidays. Tomatoes are often followed by banana-melons which sell readily in local markets, at ten cents per pound. There seems to be no special season for okra, sweet-potatoes, pumpkins and other truck for home use.
FUEL.-On the main highway bisecting these keys, there are many service stations furnishing gasoline and kerosene. The. fuel best liked by the natives for cooking is charcoal or button. wood. There is a plentiful supply of fuel-wood of various kinds, but button-wood is one of the world's best fuels. It burns with a hot fire like charcoal with little smoke. It has been used on fishing and sponging boats for many years.
SAND-FLIES AND MOSQUITOES.-In addition to good nets.spray-guns and fly-dopes are necessary. The smoke of the black-mangrove wood is often used. While constructing the Florida East Coast Railroad in the summer time the workm en labored in the smoke of black-mangrove wood. Much pyrethrum powder is used in the summer and it is quite likely that the bark of the Jamaica dogwood or the seeds of the soap-berry might be







10


valuable for the same purpose, since both are used to stupefy fishes.
DRIFTWOOD AND OTHER FLOTSAM AND JETSAM.
Owing to their location along the edge of the Gulf Stream much drift material lands on these keys from the prevailing east and south winds.
BEACHES.-Much of the shore is very rocky or swampy. Here and there are small sandy beaches.
TIDES.-On the east side the tide is only about eighteen inches or two feet; on the Gulf it is more in some places twice as much. The water is deep on the south edge of this great barrier reef, containing live coral, and shallow on the Gulf side so that the water rushes back and forth through these cuts with great speed. In times of storm the whole region is churned into foam, but owing to many reefs and shoals it never does the damage one might expect if the water has plenty of room to spread and is not piled up in pockets or narrow bays by the wind. The storm damage is not noticeably greater than on the mainland.
SOILS.-Besides the rock-land, kitchen-midden and leaf-mold land there are some patches of marl or salina land, some patches of sand along the shore and some patches of black muck, but the richest land is reddish in color in pot-holes in the rock here and there. These are seldom over a hundred square feet in area but are very fertile and excellent for small nurseries.
HOT HOUSE CONDITIONS.-If the rocky soil is covered with a thin layer of dirt, and if it is covered with a strong, properly constructed lattice one could have hothouse conditions throughout the year and produce high grade fruits and vegetables regardless of the weather. Lack of an abundance of fresh water at all times for watering plants has always been a drawback.
WRECKING.-The early settlers depended upon wrecking, which because of a lack of good lighthouses was at one time profitable. With sponging, fishing and cropping, especially of tomatoes, banana-melons, limes and sapodillas they had a very comfortable living. If agriculture and aquaculture are properly revived and fostered the profits from a growing tourist trade may more than compensate for a lack of wrecking.







11


CONCHS AND CRACKERS.-There were the old time Conchs who loved the sea and what the sea brought. They were boatmen. The Crackers were inland forest people with their cattle and carts. They were of the same old English stock and met by different roads in south Florida. One came over-land southward; the other came by boat via t - he Bahamas. The Conch had tropical ideas of plant culture; the Cracker was filled with northern notions. The Cracker liked his cow-peas and collards, mustard greens and white bacon; the Conch liked his sea-food and pigeon-peas, also his "sours and dillies," the common name for limes and sapodillas.

CHAPTERII
CULTIVATION OF LIMESTONE SOILS
Probably five per cent of the earth's crust consists of limestone in some form or other. Some of the richest soils in the world are disintegrated limestones. Land is constantly forming, through the activities of coral, seaweeds and the shells of many mollusks. The fruits of limestone soils produce big-boned people with good teeth. Some of the greatest civilizations of the world have developed in rocky limestone regions.
It is difficult to say just what constitutes soil, but from the forester's standpoint it is any kind of a substance which will support trees or into which the roots of trees can penetrate. The fertility of a lime soil, no matter how rocky, is measured by the amount of leaf mold which covers it. Shells, coral and seaweed are ground into powder on the shore by the great ocean mill. On some shores you can bear the rattle of the shells with every incoming wave. When the tide falls and the beach dries this limestone sand is blown inland in the form of spin-drift. Dunes are formed along the shore, the height depending upon the force of the wind. When exposed to the air the dunes soon harden into rock. Vegetation starts and the limestone is dissolved by the acids resulting from disintegrating leaves, and in solution the lime washes back into the sea. Sometimes the water heavily charged with lime evaporates so that the carbonate of lime is deposited in a thin layer which is hard and glassy, causing the surface to remain bare for a considerable time until vegetation forms again to dissolve it.





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Sometimes in depressions in lime rock the decomposing debris accumulates. This gradually eats away the rock so that potholes or rockholes are formed. Sometimes it is all dissolved except some harder portions which may stick up like sabres which in many places are called dog-tooth rocks., In time these potholes become lime-sinks. In time they may reach the level of the water-table. These are called banana-holes because of the rich moist soil at the bottom in which bananas flourish. In the Bahamas a banana root is lowered in a basket of dirt. It soon sprouts and shoots upward to the light. In some places flowing water underground containing carbonic acid gas dissolves this rock to form great holes or caves. In short, there are holes, caves, underground rivers and sinkholes of various kinds in limestone countries. In digging canals we should be very careful not to interfere with these underground water supplies. We may not only cut off the flow of fresh water but let in salt water from the sea. When the flow of fresh water stops the sea water backs in to take its place.
The carbonate of lime is being constantly formed by the forces of nature and is being constantly dissolved by organic acids. The potholes containing some soil, decayed vegetation and the castings of various creatures are rich in plant food. The soil is often colored red with iron which is deposited from the sea by the activities of various organisms.
A deep red soil resulting from the disintegration of coral rock is one of our richest soils and unless exhausted by years of cropping in tobacco or sugar cane, produces the very best quality of fruits, such as limes, sapodillas, pineapples, avocados, breadfruit, coconuts and many other valuable tropical tree products.
Marl is a finely divided compound of lime which is deposited in flooded regions when the water through evaporation or by losing its carbonic-acid- gas is no longer able to hold so much carbonate- of-lime in solution. This is deposited on every leaf and twig when Everglade water evaporates in the dry season of the year. A fine white marl is also deposited from ocean water. It is almost snow white and hardens into rock when exposed to the air. It resembles putty, in fact might be used for putty if mixed with oil. It can be pressed into blocks and will solidify without the use of cement. There are constant chemical activities in a limestone country.







14


In -case the lime-rock is covered with leaf-mold and other vegetation, and fire occurs, the lime-rock is converted into quicklime. It becomes a white powder and slakes as soon as it rains. The rain and dew dissolve it, but it is soon deposited again in the form of carbonate- o f- lime, which becomes hard and glassy and barren on the surface. There is nothing more destructive to limerick soils than fire. It not only burns the humus on the surface and kills all living creatures of value to growth but it destroys the rock itself, causing it to become hard and glassy on the surface. When the bush is cut the slash should be spread evenly over the land and flashed when the soil is wet. A f ine quality of pineapples can be produced on land thus lightly flashed. Hot fires in dry times are fatally destructive to the soil and what covers it.
The rock is usually soft underneath but because of the hard surface there are pockets that hold water and breed mosquitoes. This apparently barren glassy surface can be softened and dissolved again by the application of humus such as rotten seaweed or leafmold. Sweet potatoes planted in this seaweed grow and yield potatoes on top of the rock.
There are a lot of trees which cannot endure too much alkalinity. If there is sufficient leafmold they will grow because of the acidity in rotting vegetation. It is not so much that the trees require acidity as it is that certain fungi favorable to the growth of certain trees live only under slightly acid conditions. When you meet with hard, bare limestone rock the first impulse is to grind it into soil with heavy machines. This is not only expensive but of doubtful value. The land is packed by heavy machines and the finer particles of the surface are soon washed down into the crevices of the rock. A course gravel is left upon the surface. Growing things secrete acids on their smallest rootlets so that they can eat their own way into limestone in case it is porous. One often finds root-cores. They are out of holes produced by tree roots. After the roots decay the hole fills again with lime. The roots of native rubbers force and dissolve their way through the crevices of rock. Without the softening, dissolving effects of decomposing vegetation the rock becomes bard and solid.
The blasting of holes to have trees in rows is also unnecessary and expensive. Unless the holes are very big they are like flower-pots. The sides are indurated by the expanding dynamite.







15


It pulverizes the rock which soon again solidifies. The whole area should be blasted or not at all. The tree may grow circular roots and if the hole is small commit suicide by choking itself to death. There is really nothing gained by having trees in exact rows in a lime-rock country. This orchard form is a northern development. The solitary tree is exposed to the hot sun and strong winds sweep down the rows. This is done to increase the surface exposed to the sunshine in the north and to expedite cultivation, but there is no reason for cultivation of a rocky lime soil which may be already too porous and too rough for any kind of cultivation except weed-cutting. A.good way to plant these rocky soils is to set the little trees in the natural pot-holes in patches. In the case of lime trees only space enough is needed in between to permit of picking. Shelter trees which may be on rock-land between the pot-holes should be left to yield humus and afford shelter against sun and wind, and to furnish a home for birds and other useful creatures. If the native trees need to be removed, saw or cut them off even with the ground. The stump will in time rot and a good hole will be ready-formed for a new root. If trees are planted in patches their shade and the, litter they drop will soon spread and they will be healthier, although it is always best to cut out the creepers and weeds. The whole area in time, irrespective of rocks, will become covered with vegetation. The wild limestone rock soils of the keys cannot be treated as other soils. A place which on the surface may resemble a pile of cinders may prove to be very fruitful if properly handled. The land must be kept covered with the help of native forerunners. Persons accustomed to plowing mellow soils are completely abashed at the rough rocky appearance of many of these lands. Some of the rockiest of these have supported dense forests of mahogany, tamarind and Jamaica-dogwood and are fertile only when properly handled. Trees gain a foothold and find plenty of nourishment in the crevices of the rock. Many little lime trees have been set in holes in the porous rock dug with a crowbar.
If covered with a light coating of soil even the rockiest of it responds with fruits of superlative quality. If soil is available it is profitable to spread it over the rocks. The natives of the South Seas have done this for ages. Here and there are kitchenmiddens of the Indians, consisting of dirt which they hauled from




























The Home of an Old Settler on Matecumbe Key


The "Seven Mile Bridge"-a part of the engineering wonder of
the Overseas Highway stretching from the Mainland
over keys and ocean to Key West.







17


the bay bottom mixed with broken pots, bones and other refuse. On these middens tomatoes and banana-melons are grown. Trees grow close to the sea-shore in the tropics. The Indians planted cotton and cacti of various kinds.
The cash value of these lands is a question. They sold for more a quarter a century ago than at the present ' time. The area is limited and if the Everglades National Park consumes the bulk of it there will be little good land left for settlement. The narrow islands are bisected by a highway which renders almost ,every acre easily accessible. The land which has not been robbed of its trees and fertility is worth several times the bare rocky areas. Some of it is hardly worth more than ten dollars an acre. Other areas are worth fifty dollars an acre although land with water frontage is worth much more. The first price of the land is not so important as the knowledge and industry of the cultivator. Land fronting on the sea, easily accessible, in a mild, healthful climate, capable of producing choice fruits and vegetables in midwinter is valuable even if it is rocky, infested at times with mosquitoes and shy at times of fresh water. They are stepping stones to the sea and what the sea brings.
Foodbearing trees can be ornamental and protective at the same time, and it must not be forgotten that the tropics is a tree country rather than a country -of annuals. We must not forget that limestone lands demand a covering of vegetation, yielding
-a constant supply of rich litter. Once in about every ten years in hurricane season the low places are flooded with salt water and banked high with seaweed. This rots and adds to the fertility. Years ago there was dense forest in which many sea birds roosted. In many places the land was covered with guano.
The bare rock gets hot in the summer sun and the tender roots of fruit trees are cooked. This can often be avoided by piling
-rocks around the roots of the tree to a height of three or four feet. It helps to hold the tree in place in times of storm.
Horticulture on the keys is different from elsewhere, although there are many thousands of acres of such lands unused through-out the West Indies. Some limestone islands are among the
-densest inhabited places on earth, while other lie dormant and wild. Life is comfortable throughout the year in the trade-wind areas. Many valuable trees such as the cocopalm prefer an alkaline soil. One must forget his northern notions and adapt







18


himself to conditions such as exist nowhere else in our country.
There is an old time system of culture which has its virtues and which might still be practiced with profit with modifications in regions where jungle land is still plentiful. Cut the bush on areas of about five acres, in extent. Utilize the logs if the wood is of good quality, or convert it into charcoal which is the favorite fuel of many tropical peoples. Spread the slash evenly over the land. When the ground is moist flash it with fire. Plant therein such crops as corn, pumpkins, melons, tobacco, yucca, pigeon peas or any other desirable crop. In the course of time abandon this patch and -let it come back to desirable jungle trees. See to it that it is seeded to the proper kind of trees. The seeds of good kinds can be dibbled in at slight expense. Then select a fresh patch of five acres in some other section and repeat the performance throughout the jungle. In this way forestry and agriculture can be easily and profitably combined. This is a timehonored custom in some sections and if the population is not too dense and the system is worked with care a crop year after year is usually assured. This is separate of course from the home tree garden where food trees of several kinds are usually densely huddled around the house. Closely planted back yard trees are usually the most prolific in all tropical countries. Some trees,, like the chocolate, seem to enjoy the social life of the home.







19


CHAPTER III
HOME CONSTRUCTION ON THE KEYS
These remarks have nothing to do with a city or suburban home, nothing to do with the trend of fashion in architecture, nothing to do with anything about the house except those things necessary to fit it to the needs of a tropical environment, nothing to do with its shape or division into rooms.or the kind of finish. I shall refer only to those things necessary for comfort in a tropical country home and-fhe-__- "use-- - of m*at trials" near at hand which the man of small means can use to advantage. Every man is interested in a house that will have as much room as possible, also safety, comfort and durability with the very least outlay of money for construction and -upkeep.
The proportions should be right and the, materials of construction should be good. The house should be tied to the ground, and the place planted in such a way that it becomes an inseparable and natural part of the picture.
As Professor Pitkin says, "You alone can make your home. Not with sticks and stones. Not with shower-baths and spiral staircases. Oh, no! If ever you have a home you make it out of yourself. You are at home only when you are yourself. You are your own building material. And your house is your castle, but your home is yourself in architecture. Some people have one-room personalities. Others have parlor-bedroom and bath souls. Some are ground-floor characters, and others have penthouse personalities. Some are by nature homeless; they merely reside somewhere or else they keep moving. A home is more than a residence. Home is wherever you can comfortably be yourself." You cannot comfortably be yourself if you are invaded by insects, by cold in winter, by heat in summer, and at times in danger of a flood of water or of flying debris in times of storm.
Cellars to keep things cool, garrets to keep things warm and dry, and steep roofs to shed ice and snow are out of place in the tropics. The farther you dig down in the earth the hotter it gets. There is, in consequence, absolutely no advantage in cellars. Four or five feet below the surface you encounter dampness in many places. Comfort is mainly due to shade and ventilation. After living in all kinds of houses in half a dozen





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21


tropical countries I am positively convinced that the living quarters should be on stone pillars elevated eight or nine feet above the ground. In a country which is perfectly flat a small elevation is a great relief. It adds to your feeling of privacy and security. There are several reasons for this, such as better ventilation, better view, and far less danger from insects of various kinds. When the place is surrounded by shrubbery there is less dampness and better air just a few feet above the moist surface of a tropical soil. The wood in the floor above the ground is in less danger of wbite-ant invasion, is open for easy inspection at all times, and can be kept coated with preservatives with less trouble. A wood floor is preferable. It gives a little when you walk and is easier on the feet. Wood is also apt to be drier, warm to the touch-in fact', closer to man and probably healthier than stone or metal, but it does increase the fire-hazard. The space underneath the living quarters is valuable for a garage, a cistern, workshop or washroom of any kind.
A house should be firmly set on the rock and tied to it if possible. Many thousands of miles of land are the product of wind and wave, and much that the winds and waves build, winds and waves can move away. There should be a fireplace in the center of the house, even in the tropics, to afford ventilation and to anchor the whole structure in case of storm. It is weight that holds it down. If flimsily constructed it blows to pieces, but if too light, even though well constructed the whole thing may blow away. Very tight structures are often completely lifted off their foundations.
The next most important thing is the shape and character of the roof. Many people forget that although the weather may be ideal for eleven months of the year it is necessary to prepare for those extraordinary factors which may skip ten years at a time, but which may come unexpectedly in the fall of the year. There is always the possibility of a wind of hurricane fury, and a torrential downpour of rain in almost all tropical countries close to the sea-shore. It is therefore these extraordinary factors which must be considered to produce comfort and safety, regardless of fire or windstorm insurance. The great destruction of tropical hurricanes is usually due to the disregard of this fact. The main point, therefore, is to build as strong and safe as possible within reasonable limits, rather than to build as cheap as possible







22


with appearances mainly in mind. In my opinion there is nothing more important than the shape and kind of roof. There seems to be something especially penetrating and destructive in tropical storm waters. In many countries, for lack of better materials, roofs are constructed of palm-thatch. Although picturesque these are not only scattered by a tropical storm but form an ideal home for rats, scorpions, birds and even snakes. The roof should be firmly fastened to the rest of the house. It should have a low pitch, and should slope in four directions from the chimney in the center. There should be very narrow eaves, and when the wind hits it, should be deflected upward and slide over without meeting with more obstructions than are absolutely necessary. Automobiles have stream-lines to deflect the wind. The same applies to snow-sbeds and shelterbelts, and should apply as well to the place in which you and your family are to seek shelter. The natives of southern Italy build conical houses out of limestone rock. So far, I have found a good quality of corrugated iron, extra heavy, painted green and firmly nailed to solid board sheathing to be the best in many ways, although it is disliked by many Americans because of its association with sheds and warehouses. Throughout the tropics of the world it is far preferable to many common kinds of patent roofs or shingles. It is inexpensive, durable, reliable and tight if properly laid and painted. It yields a clean water supply for the cistern and offers the least resistance to the wind. Boards underneath will keep down the noise when it rains.
In short, the essentials are to build the living quarters well above the ground, to have the roof four-sided with a slight slope and a good chimney in the center to stabilize and ventilate the whole structure. The house should be so built as to be open and airy in hot weather and tight, but not air-tight, in times of storm. Many old-time buildings in the tropics, although completely screened with fine mesh wire are not fitted with glass-sash but with solid shutters. In almost all tropical countries a fire is welcome in wet weather, and if exposed to northers a necessity.
As to materials of construction, much depends upon locality. On the keys the natives depended upon wreckage. In many old time tropical houses I have seen mahogany floors, the planks cut out by band, and worn smooth by much scrubbing, and the tread of bare feet. Some of the limestone rock is soft and can







23


be cut easily with an axe or sawn. This hardens on exposure to the air. Some of it is like marble. Sand for mortar is usually plentiful by the seashore. Lime may be secured by burning the surface rock. The best lime I have ever seen was produced by burning conch shells. Wood and shells, or wood and surface rock are mixed in a pile and burnt. A goodly quality of lime results which can be slaked; then allowed to season for a few weeks. It produces a fine mortar. There is nothing gained in using a binder stronger than the rocks you are binding together. All the bulky materials of construction can sometimes be found on the same piece of land. Beach-combing in the early days was a profitable and exciting pastime. Much that was needed was washed ashore. Millions of feet of excellent lumber have wasted on our shores. Passing schooners often lost their deck-loads.
In places on limestone islands close to the sea, well water is often brackish and hard so that cisterns are necessary. These should be covered, should be above ground and should be, if Possible, in the shade of the house. A covered galvanized iron tank is the cheapest and best. On the keys some leave the cement cistern open to the air and allow a small plant to float therein so that racoons and birds can drink.
Solar heaters are now common so that in a country with plenty of sunshine it is possible to have hot water at all times of the day. A coil of pipe painted black and exposed to the sun may be easily arranged. A tank properly insulated will retain the heat throughout the night. Perhaps there is special health in sun-kissed water. A solar condenser is also possible-. Alexander Graham Bell devised a simple solar condenser that produced pure distilled water from the water in brackish pools.
If the house is fitted to its environment it will be inexpensive and lasting. A house constructed according to northern methods is not fitted to the conditions of a tropical climate, There is no clay in south Florida, so both brick and tile are imported. Tile roofs -are beautiful but they are expensive and far from perfect. They are dependent on a good roof underneath, and even so need to be mended and repaired in a very few years. It is often difficult to locate a leak in a tile roof. The tile roofs and miradors of the tropics are beautiful and pleasant, but in my experience most of them leak when it rains the way it can rain in the Antillean area.





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25


The use of native rock avoids paint, and old stone walls if well built, improve with age. A real house should grow out of the land, out of materials yielded by the surrounding land, and should fit the personality of the owner. If the lines are right, regardless of the materials of construction if will look right, especially if surrounded by the proper kind of foliage. Size and cost have little to do with it. It should fit its environment, and fifty dollars worth of shrubbery properly planted may add a thousand dollars to it value.
An old rocky piece of land in the wild has little value. If, by his skill and efforts, the homemaker converts these useless things into something productive he has added not only to his own but to the wealth of the nation. Land plus intelligent work is the main source of wealth. Resources are useless unless intelligently developed and used. These resources may be nothing but a location and rough piles of rock till intelligent work converts them into value. Land is worth what you put into it in the way of brains and brawn. Architecture is one of the greatest of all professions of man because it combines art and practicality. An artist can paint a picture with rock and tree as well as with brush and paint. The better he builds it, with crude local materials, the greater his genius and the greater his conquest. I know 6 f no worthier effort than the building out of local materials, lying useless on the land, a comfortable and durable home surrounded by trees artistically arranged, selected- not only for their beauty but for the products they yield as well. He is the creator of productive values. On these little places the architect's fees may be small, but there is no place where there is better opportunity to show his genius, or better opportunity to serve the bulk of the people. Thrift should be used in its construction, without desire to furnish labor or produce a market for all kinds of patented devices and materials. A home should be so constructed as to render life simpler, easier, and above all, add to your comfort and piece of mind. If it adds to your troubles it fails in one of its most important functions.
Those who are eager to share the wealth of the world are usually those who have nothing. A man who owns a suitable and comfortable home, free from excessive taxation., owns more than the average citizen of any country. There is no easier place to build it than here, and no better time than now.







26


Every place ought to have its own distinctive type of architecture, adapted to its own special environment. Many places consist of samples of all kinds, irregularly mixed and jumbled together, too expensive or big for the personality of the owner, and often burdened with mortgages and useless clap-trap. A high standard of living is desirable, but there must be a limit. It is irksome to be too closely budgeted and to pay installments on things long after they are ready for the junk pile.


CHAPTER IV
LIST OF FRUITS AND OTHER TREES THAT HAVE
BEEN OR CAN BE GROWN ON THE KEYS
IN SHELTER-BELT AREAS
From a tropical standpoint the premier fruits are coconut, banana, breadfruit, avocado, mango, lime, pineapple, soursop, guava, papaw, tomato, and melons. The premier root crop throughout the tropical world is probably the sweet potato, although its extensive use over broad areas is not generally recognized.

Lists of Fruits
Achras sapota-Sapota zapotilla
Akee-Blighia sapida
Anacardium occidentale-Cashew
Ananas ananas-Pineapple
Annona reticulata-Custard apple
Annona glabra-Pond apple Annona Muricata-Sour sop
Annona squamosa-Sugar apple
Artocarpus communis-Breadfruit
Avocado-Persea gratissima Banana-Musa paradisiaca
Blighia sapida-Akee
Breadfruit-Artocarpus communis
Cantaloupe-Cucumis melo
Carob-Ceratonia siliqua
Carica papaya-Papaw







27


Carissa grandiflora-Natal plum Casimiroa edulis-White sapota Cashew-Anacardium occidentale Ceratonia siliqua-Carob Cherry surinam-Eugenia uniflora Cherry-Laurocerasus sphaerocarpa Chrysobalanus icaco-Cocoplum Citrullus citrullus-Watermelon Citron-Citrus medica Citrus aurantium-Sweet orange Citrus decumanna-Pomelo or grapefruit Citrus limetta-Lime Citrus limonium-Lemon Citrus medica-Citron Citrus nobilis-Tangerine Citrus vulgaris-Bitter orange Coconut or Cocopalm-Cocos nucifera Cocoplum-Chrysobalanus icaco Cocos nucifera-Coconut or Cocopalm Cucumis melo Cantaloupe Custard apple-Annona reticulata Date palm-Phoenix dactylifera Egg-fruit-Lucuma rivicoa var. angustifolia Eugenia jambos-Rose apple Eugenia pitanga-Surinam cherry Ficus carica-Fig Fig-Ficus carica Grape, Key-Vitis sp. Grapefruit-Citrus decumanna Guava-Psidium guajava Hibicus sabdariffa-Roselle or Jamaica sorrel Laurocerasus sphaerocarpa-West India cherry Lemon-Citrus limonium Lime-Citrus limetta Lucuma rivicoa var. angustifolia-Ti-es or Egg-fruit Lycopersicum esculentum-Tomato Mangifera indica-Mango Mango-Mangifera indica Melicocus bijugatus-Spanish Lime Mulberry-Morus nigra and rubra







28


Morus nigra-Black mulberry
Morus rubra-Red Mulberry
Musa paradiciaca-Banana
Muscadinia munsoniana-Wild shore-grape
Natal-plum-Carissa grandiflora
Orange-Citrus vulgaris and Citrus aurantium
Opuntia ficus-indica-Tuna
Papaw-Carica papaya
Persea gratissima-Avocado
Phoenix dactylifera-Date-palm
Pineapple--Ananas ananas Pomelo-Citrus decumana
Pomegranate-Punica granatum
Pond apple-Annona glabra
Punica granatum-Pomegranate
Psidium guajava-Common guava
Rose apple-Eugenia jambos Roselle-Hibiscus sabdariffa
Sapota zapotilla-Sapodilla
Sapodilla-Sapota (or Achras) zapotilla
Shaddock-Citrus decumanna
Sour-sop-Annona muricata
Spanish lime-Melicocus bijugatus
Sugar apple-Annona squamosa
Surinam cherry-Eugenia uniflora
Tamarind-Tamarindus indica Tamarindus indica-Tamarind
Tangerine-Citrus nobilis,
Ti-es-Lucuma rivicoa var. angustifolia
Tomato-Lycopersicum esculentum
Vitis sp.-Key grape
Watermelon-Citrullus citrullus
When a wind strikes a forest of hardy trees it is not only diverted upward but it is checked and divided by every twig and branch. These shelter-belts are not just any kind of plantings. They are carefully constructed to do the work for which they are meant to meet the conditions of each locality. The area protected in its lea is twenty times the height of the trees. With a shelter-belt two hundred feet wide, containing in its center trees







29


fifty feet high, the, zone protected before the wind again reaches normal velocity is one thousand feet. If a series of such belts are constructed, vast areas would be safe especially along the shores of almost all tropical seas.
Big climates really consist of many little climates. Disturbances of many kinds in the atmosphere cling to the surface of the earth. All geographers are agreed that at least one-third of all the land in the country should be in hardy storm-fast trees. If properly placed in shelter-belts, where most needed, it would be far more effective that scattered by chance here and there over the face of the earth.
Patches of mangrove, although in swamp or perfectly level land, often look like hills completely covered with vegetation. This is due to the fact that they are usually rounded and sloping. This effect is produced by the spreading of the trees in every direction, the oldest and biggest being in the center, and the smallest and youngest on the outer edges. These trees fight not only the wind but the waves as well. They crawl on their scraggly legs out into the sea, consolidating muddy shores, protecting the land in the lea from the breaking of the waves which in times of hurricane are loaded with booms and other refuse.
Groups of trees could be properly fitted to their environment
-natural trees where they belong, swamp trees where they belong, hammock trees in hammocks, sand-lovers in sand land, together with all the smaller shrubbery and herbage that naturally belong there. In other words, plant forests in forest formationnot just trees. Trees are for service to and for man, and not the object of constant protection from *man. If planted how, when and where they should be they will do their part in protecting us against the destructive forces of nature.
Dew never falls. It congeals on objects of all kinds. In a flat treeless country there is no chance for it to form. Where the wind has full sweep it seldom forms. But wherever there are twigs, branches and leaves it forms freely, and in the tropics is a source of much moisture. In many tropical countries it means the difference between desert and jungle.
South Florida is in the lea of the north wind. It sweeps on southward over the water, causing plenty of discomfort to the north shores of many tropical countries. Florida is geographically so situated that shelter belts could be rendered very effective








DIAGRAM SHOWING EFFECTS OF SHELTER BELTS ON WIND VELOCITY



NORMAL. . l ] , :" I NORMAL

R DLOCI REA ED IN_ PROTECTED ZONE L WIND
WN115RieTArot 'li, SHELTENORMALIVELOCITY
U-50" Proteti aoni SHELTE RBELT ID istance-ZO times height of windbreak I
I~istance O 1 (COMPOSITION ONLY APPROXIMATELY I time& heght I
ofwir we ,oK _ . .


DIAGRAM SHOWING CROSS SECTION OF TYPICAL SHELTER BELT ON TEN ROD STRIP




P.E.V1UN.VG WINOD,



fFENlft FENCE


d'- /o-d
IT-

Iarmb .- I S, F I"'

Diagram by U.-S. Forest Service







31


if properly constructed. It might be better to render them wedgfeshape across the state so that the winds would be shunted into the Gulf or Ocean. Above all we should avoid broad open spaces over which the wind has full sweep, and plant such trees on the keys that will check the wind and afford protection. Native and naturalized trees are best because they have stood the test of time and many gales, otherwise they would not be here.
The following is a list of about fifty trees and other plants yielding fine woods, oils, fibers, foods and medicines. There are many more which I have not mentioned which are growing on the keys and many more which have never yet been tried, but of all the trees of the world it would be difficult to find a more useful or hardier time-tried group:

Pinus caribaea-Cuban Pine
The common timber pine of South Florida. Grows also in West Indies and Central America. Also called Slashpine. It is a hardy tropical pine, common on lower keys.

Sabal palmetto-Cabbage Palmetto
Our fine native palm, yielding palm-cabbage and medicinal berries.

Cocos nucifera-Cocopaim
One of the most beautiful and useful members of the plant world, yielding food, drink and shelter to many primitive peoples of the world. This tree grows in sandy soil along th e seashores of tropical Florida, and although most of the nuts were planted by the hand of man, undo ubtedly some have sprung from seeds which have washed ashore and been buried in seaweed and sand on the beach.

Phoenix dactylifera-Date Palm
The date palm grows and fruits on the keys, but it requires a desert sun to produce sweet fruit.

Casuarina equisetifolia and eunniughamiana-Australian Pine, Beefwood
A tree of the East Indies and Australia, but now common throughout the tropics. Grows close to the sea, and has been used







32


in the fixation of moving dunes along the seashore. It is usually called the Australian Pine, but a patch of them on Biscayne Bay is know as the "Cedars." This tree has become naturalized in south Florida and young trees of this species are growing here and there on the shore, the seeds of which have no doubt been washed ashore. It is a valuable addition to the silva of the State of Florida. Should be extensively planted for timber. It withstands the gales and yields a wood like oak. C. cunninghamiana is unexcelled as a windbreak.
Morus rubra-Red mulberry
Common throughout the State.
Morus nigra-Black Mulberry
Commonly planted for its large, black, juicy fruit. Probably originally came from Persia. Always good anywhere.
Ficus aurea-Golden Fig
South Florida and the West Indies. Grows first on limbs and trunks of other trees, throws down aerial roots to the ground and finally chokes and kills the tree upon which it started. Very vigorous and hardy on the keys. Fine for windbreak.
Artocarpus communis-Breadfruit
Grows in Key West and the Bahamas and would grow on all the keys if properly protected. Cocolobis uvifera-Sea Grape
Common on the seashore of southern Florida, also West Indies.
Annona muricata-Sour Sop
Fine fruit for ice cream and other purposes. May prove valuable when properly handled. Moringa moringa-Horseradish Tree
The root of this tree, finely scraped, is eaten as horseradish. The Oil of Ben, used by perfumers, is extracted from the seeds of this tree. Oil used to lubricate watches. Chrysobalanus icaco-Cocoplum
Excellent for jam. Very hardy. Fruit contains rich, oily seed.







33


Laurocerasus sphaerocarpa-West Indian Cherry
Good tree.
Pithecolobium gaudaloupense Goatbush, Black-bead
This is a native bush, but sometimes reaches tree proportions. It is valuable because it is the first hardwood leguminous shrub to appear in the pine woods, and on some islands. It enriches the soil by its litter and paves the way for other hardwoods. It marks the beginning of the transition from pinewoods to hammock conditions.
Albizzia lebbek-Siris or Lebbek Tree
Called Woman's Tongue in Nassau.
Lysiloma latisiliqua-Wild Tamarind
Common in places on the keys. Wood heavy, hard, tough, close-grained, rich brown, tinged with red. Very vigorous. Excellent soil rejuvenator. Wonderful shelter tree with rich litter. Fine cabinet wood.
Leucaena glauca-Jumbai or Lead Tree
Hardy forerunner.
Tamarindus indica--Tamarind
Heavy bearer on the keys.
Ceratonia siliqua-St. John's Bread or Carob Ichthyomethia piscipula-Jamaica Dogwood
A common and very valuable tree for south Florida. Might be used to advantage as a shade and ornamental. Grows quickly, has an abundance of pea-like flowers in clusters which honey bees are fond of. As the name indicates, it is a fish poison. The bark and twigs are bruised and lowered in a basket into the water. A poison is dissolved which stupefies fish that come near it. They float to the surface and are easily captured. This tree grows well from seeds and it propagation should be encouraged. Hardy soil rejuvenator.
Cajan cajan-Pigeon Pea
Makes a small but useful tree. Poultry are fond of its seeds and its leaves enrich the soil. Peas used for the famous pigeonpea soup.







34


Guaiacum sanctum-Lignum Vitae
Native to the keys. Beautiful blue flowers, highly ornamental, yielding one of the world's toughest woods.

Amyris elemifera-Torchwood
Wood heavy, hard, strong, close-grained; very resinous, very durable; light orange in color. Burns like a torch. Torch Key was probably named for this wood.

Citrus limetta-Lime
The lime is the premier fruit on the keys. The fine roots penetrate the alkaline rock better than other citrus fruits. It can be used as stock for other species but not very successfully. The little trees produce small but juicy fruit when budded to tangerines. The famous Perrine Lemon will probably do well on lime roots since it is half lime and half lemon. The seed of the lime is sown thick in a sheltered rich hole with sufficient soil. When only a few inches high, during a moist time they are planted wherever it is possible to find a hole in the rock. They should be sheltered by the wild-tamarind, or similar hardy trees, and should be kept free of weeds and vines. They are full of spines and hard to pick if mosquitoes are bad. There should be space enough for a person to pass between the trees. Before prohibition the profit was good, easily one hundred dollars per acre net a year. Hurricanes injured the groves and the industry was neglected, but of late some have netted two hundred dollars or more an acre. There is no finer product of sun and soil than the fragrant half wild key lime. Whether for limeade at a Sunday school picnic or a gin-ricky at your club the wild Mexican lime has never yet been excelled by any variety produced by man. The aroma is pleasantly fragrant, and the juice deliciously acid and abundant. Unfortunately practically all recipes call for lemons. There is nothing more refreshing and healthful on a hot day than a limeade. Years ago we pickled limes in the salt sea-water and shipped them to Boston where the sour salt flavor appealed to the children at recess. These limes were in demand in the early days to prevent scurvy on shipboard. Old square riggers were called "lime juicers," and old pirates and buccaneers of that day and region depended on the lime.







35


Bursera simaruba-Gumba Limbo
South Florida and the West Indies. Grows easily from a cutting or large limb stuck in the ground; frequently used in this way for live fence posts. Grows very quickly and has a very striking, bronzy red trunk, with papery bark. The term gumbo-limbo is probably a negro corruption of the term gumelemi. Called "gamolimie" in the Bahamas, which is also probably a corruption of gum-elemi. Gum good for musilage. Also used as a medicine.
Swietenia mahagoni--Mahogany
Called also madeira, the latter word being simply the Spanish for "wood." Common on the keys and parts of the southern mainland. The king of all woods. Something ought to be done to encourage the perpetuation of this, our choicest native hardwood, in the only part of the mainland of the United States where it can possibly grow. It is very hardy, and although a heavy wood, grows with surprising rapidity. When I first visited the keys in 1892 I saw a pig-pen made of mahogany poles. The crooked parts of the trees had been used for boat timbers.
Drypetes diversifolia-Whitewood
South Florida and West Indies. A very beautiful native tree.
Gymnanthes lucida-Crabwood
Southern Florida and West Indies. Some say this wood is poisonous. It is, however, a very pretty wood and is often used in the manufacture of canes, paper-knives and similar articles.
Ricinus communis-Castor Oil Tree
Attains the size of a small tree in south Florida. Valuable Plant. Oil is very useful, seed pumice is a valuable fertilizer, and the plant is not exhaustive to the soil. In medicine is a great detoxifier.
Aleurites moluccana-Lumbang or Candelnut Tree
Yields a fine oil similiar to Tung.
Hippomane mancinella-Manchineel
Southern Florida and the West Indies. A tree to be shy of. Fortunately not common on the mainland. Poisonous to the







36


touch of many people, producing a distressing dermatitis worse than poison ivy. I have tried washing with pure soap and rain water and followed with tannic acid, with fairly good results. Metopium-Poison Wood
Very common weed tree in south Florida. Poisonous and when bruised exudes a gum which blackens the trunk of the tree. One of the first trees to come up after hammock land has been cut and burnt.
Mangifera indica-Mango
Extensively planted in the southern countries, producing an abundance of choice fruits, some of the imported and improved varieties ranking with the choicest of all fruits. At the same time a valuable shade and ornamental tree. I like the Chinese or Siagon mango the best. The Chinese mango comes true to seed.
Anacardium occidentale-Cashew Nut
Splendid nut. Will grow if sheltered. Sapindus saponaria-Soap Berry
The hull of the seed contains soap. Fine for cleaning porcelain. The seeds are used to stupefy fishes. Blighia sapida-Vegetable Calf Brains
The Akee of Africa and Jamaica. The white covering of the seeds is a wholesome vegetable. Grows well if sheltered. Melicoccus bijugatus-Spanish Lime or Genip; Mamon
Pulp edible. Nuts in Venezuela are roasted and eaten like chestnuts. Common in Key West. Fruits are eaten raw or converted into jam. Called Spanish Lime because its fruit resembles a green lime. Ground seeds used for cattle feed. Pleasant shade tree and storm-fast.
Rhamnidium ferreum-Black Ironwood
The heaviest wood in the United States of America. Ceiba pentandra-Silk Cotton Tree
Yields kapok. Mexican species yield pochote. Carica papaya-Papaw
Contains vegetable pepsin. Fine fruit.







37


Bixa orellana-Annatta
A small tree yielding an orange colored dye, used for butter color, and for coloring other foods.
Persea gratissima, aquacate, avocado, avocato, alligator
pear, butter pear, midshipman's butter, palta, etc.
A salad fruit. Practically naturalized in south Florida. Extensively cultivated for home consumption and shipment north. Several improved varieties propagated by budding. Must be protected on the keys from salt wind. Of the different kinds I like the Lula and Linda.
Punica granatum-Pomegranate
Grows well on keys.
Conocarpus erecta-Buttonwood
Southern Florida. Chiefly along salt shores. Highly prized for fuel. The best fuel I know of since it makes great heat and almost no smoke. Fine for building shelter-belts along the seashore. Good wind break.
Bucida buceras-Black Olive Tree
A fine shade tree, found wild only on Elliott's Key.
Laguncularia racemosa-White Mangrove
South Florida and West Indies. Muddy shores, common.
Eugenia jambos-Roseapple
A common introduced species; although a native of India it is naturalized in the West Indies. Eugenia pitanga is the much prized Surinam Cherry, grows in yards which are sheltered. The rose-apple has a strong rose flavor.
Psidium guajava-Common Guava
Probably the greatest of all jelly-producing fruits. Common throughout Florida.
Melaleuca leucodendron-The Cajeput Tree
Grows well in Florida and yields Cajeput oil. Grows in salt and fresh swamp.
Rhizophora mangle-Red Mangrove
South Florida and the West Indies. A wonderful tree, grows

































Mahogany Trees in South Florida







39


in salt water and of great value in consolidating muddy shores; it has been called the "land former." Deserves to be protected because of the protection it affords to exposed shores in times of storm. Planations on the keys in the shelter of mangroves suffered little damage in the great storm in the fall of 1906, while those exposed to the fury of the waves bearing floating wreckage were ruined.

Sapota zapotillo-Sapodilla
Naturalized on the keys, where it is a common fruit. Planted also on the mainland. A tree hard to start, but hardy when started. Yields an everlasting wood and a gum called chicle, the basis of chewing gum.

Sideroxylum mastichodendron-Mastic
Valuable forest tree of southern Florida. Grows to be large and is quite common, shedding an abundance of yellow fruits which are edible in case one likes the flavor. Mastic would probably make a satisfactory shade tree. Storm-fast and fine wood.

Lucuma rivicoa var. angustifolia-Ti-es, or Egg-fruit
A promising fruit.

Olea euporea-Olive
Grows but does not fruit. There was the same difficulty with it in southern California. With proper treatment it might yield a valuable crop for this region.

Avicenna nitida-Black Mangrove
Very valuable tree, like the red mangrove, for consolidating muddy shores.

Exostema caribaeum-Princewood
Bark a tonic. Would probably make a useful bitters like quinine.
Capriola dactylon-Bermuda Grass
Is a common pasture grass on the keys. It was apparently introduced from Europe years ago.







40


Trieholaena rosea-Natal Grass
This beautiful grass forming pink pastures on the sands of south Florida is spreading by the wayside on the keys, being sucked along by passing autos. It fed the big strong Red Afrikander cattle, the best breed for hot, dry countries.
The Key Grape often grown by the key natives in their back yards should not be confounded with the little wild grape that is native everywhere in the bush. This little grape is used in wine manufacture, but the real so-called Key Grape is of large sized berries, fair sized bunches, and was, I have been told, brought from the Island of Eleutheria. To Eleutheria I have been told it came from a hot-house in England. They are hard to find at the present time. At one time these keys were cultivated to pineapples which were shipped by schooner to Baltimore to the canneries. The Cuban competition was too strong. In the same way these rocky keys could never compete with the cheap labor of Yucatan and Cuba in the production of sisal plants. Dr. Perrine introduced sisal on Lignum Vitae Key a hundred years ago. Progeny from these plants have spread and some sli-ps were shipped to the Bahamas. It is still common on the keys but it is never used.
The banana melon is usually planted after the first crop of tomatoes. It is a large melon and very delicious, selling readily at ten cents per pound. Many people rate the key tomato more as a fruit than vegetable, since many who go to the keys carry a little salt and eat them freely out of hand. They are solid and sweet.
Carissa grandiflora (Gifford variety) should be extensively planted on the keys for hedges. It grows well there, yields a fruit similar in flavor to the cranberry. Has a milky juice and does not burn easily. Very spiny. Highly ornamental. The best hedge plant for highways.
Years ago I planted a very small Hungarian watermelon on the keys after a crop of tomatoes. The melon was very sweet, about the size of a grapefruit, and could be served half a melon to a person, to be eaten with a spoon. It was a novelty while it lasted, but apparently our people prefer big melons and big pumpkins. Large watermelons have good flavor on the keys but are often misshapen from growing among the rocks.







41


The Key pumpkin is a small green pumpkin, but of extra good quality. It is the same pumpkin so common in the Bahamas and the pumpkin raised by the Seminoles. The Indian word "Chassahowitska" mean "hanging pumpkins." The Indians girdled the live-oaks and let the pumpkin vines climb their trunks so that they looked like strange trees bearing large green fruits. There were patches of the Prickly Pear and Prickly Apple, especially near Indian campsites. These desert plants grow well in rocky salina land, at times flooded with salt water. The same applies to the sisal which grows also in salt lowlands. These plants no doubt, like the Red Mangrove although growing in wet places, are physiologically dry.
Dr. John K. Small in a note on page 9 in a pamphlet on Reminiscences of A. W. Chapman, Journal of the New York Botanical Garden, in referring to compete says, "This plant was very likely native on Key West before its pinelands were devasted." On a military map of Florida prepared by order of the Honorable Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War, in 1856, the archipelago west of Bahia Honda was marked Pine Islands. The compete referred to belongs to the cycas or sago family. It is a wild root crop, yielding a very nutritious starch which was the mainstay of the early settlers and Indians that preceded them. It should be cultivated because it produces a valuable food on exceedingly poor, dry, rocky land. Palmetto Cabbage or the terminal bud of our cabbage palmetto was also used for food and is still used but no tree should ever be sacrificed for a pot of cabbage.
There is one thing done on the keys which I have never seen done elsewhere. The worker cuts off the side branches of a small sapling. He sticks his grubhoe tight down over the sapling just as you would thread a needle. The sapling is allowed to grow for a few weeks until the eye is tightly and completely filled with wood. Then he saws the sapling off below the grubhoe. In that way he has a handle which does not- come off. He has actually grown a handle on his grubhoe.
All of these crops demand shelter from the destructive forces of nature. Shelter belts, or wind breaks are a necessity. Any wind over fifteen miles an hour is more or less destructive to tender vegetation.







42


CHAPTER V
HISTORICAL ITEMS
EARLY INDIAN INHABITANTS OF THE KEYS
Leading like stepping stones in a curved line southwestward from Miami to Key West and beyond is an archipelago of islands, or keys and barrier reefs. These islands front on a sea, sometimes called the Gulf of Florida, which is bordered by many more islands of a similar nature in the Bahamas and on the coast of Cuba. Through this unnamed sea flows the greatest of all rivers, called by Benjamin Franklin, the Gulf Stream, with many islands and shoals forming a sort of delta known as the Bahamas. Because of the warm waters in this great unnamed sea to the south of us, our nights are seldom cold like in northern Africa, so that the cocopalm and other tropical trees flourish. This, together with a watertable close to the surface, gives to these little limestone islands many treasures from the hand of nature and many undeveloped possibilities. Along the Florida Keys is the Hawk Channel, separated from the deep Gulf Stream by a jagged barrier reef of coral, which for years has been a cemetery for ships. Many creeks and bays formed safe biding places for small craft engaged in wrecking and plunder even before the Spaniards landed. Even within the memory of men now living, when a ship hit the reef the conch horns blew, and by a sort of grapevine telegraphy the news spread and she soon fell an easy victim. What the Indian did was no different from what the white man did and still does when opportunity offers. It was a fine rendezvous for pirates of all kinds. Lieutenant Porter was a famous pirate fighter. He was the first to use old ferry-boats for the purpose on the Florida keys. They drew little water, they moved both ways with equal ease, and with guns at both ends they finally drove away the worst and the most of them. It was the first time ferry-boats were ever used in warfare. With the products of plunder from passing ships in one of the world's greatest sea-lanes with sea and back lands teeming with game it was a Heaven-on-earth for adventurous rascals of all kinds, including the Indian who could safely bide in a back-land of mud and unabridged rivers.
The Arawaks over in Cuba were lazy, peaceful Indians. So







43


were the Lucayans over in the Bahamas, but the Calusas who inhabited south Florida were like the Caribs, fierce and active. The last chief of these Calusas was a tough actor by the name of Chakika. There was turmoil for a long time throughout Florida. We had about one hundred and fifty forts and almost as many broken treaties. We paid Spain fifteen millions for Florida. Then we drove the Indians into the swamps of the south in order to sell the land to get back the purchase price. According to our treaty with Spain we agreed to uphold the rights of the natives. The great masterpiece of these treaties was promulgated by General Macomb in 1839. We agreed that if the Indians would move into the swamp-lands they would not be deported and would be allowed to develop their own destiny unhindered. It is related that Tiger Tail, rather than leave his native land, killed himself by drinking powdered glass in water. Indians suffered from home-sickness the same or even worse than other people, not so much for the fragile shacks in which they lived, but for the general environment, the place where the spirits of their ancestors were supposed to linger. Anyway, the famous Chakika, with two hundred and fifty followers, was living on the Caloosahatchee, the river of the Calusas leading from their home on Lake Okeechobee to their settlements on the Gulf. Colonel Harney with nineteen soldiers went to this section to establish a trading post under this Macomb treaty. They were murdered by the Indians except Colonel Harney and a few others who retreated with haste. This, so far as I have been able to determine, is our first introduction to the famous bloodthirsty Chakika. He was reputed to be large, powerful and savage. After the scrap with Colonel Harney nothing happened for some time. Mixed with these Indians were maroons, mostly free negroes. Probably some were runaway slaves. Nothing happened until one morning in August in 1840. Seventeen canoes, loaded with Indians under the direction of this same Chakika, landed on Indian Key and commenced to loot, kill and burn. They killed Dr. Perrine but spared Dr. Howe, while Mr. Goodyear of rubber fame and the vice-president of Dr. Perrine's company, it is reported, safely hid in the thick foliage of a native rubber tree. Anyway, they killed six people. Others escaped to Matecumbe. There was a revenue vessel belonging to the Florida squadron in the harbor. In the excitement they








44


lost some of their guns overboard. Anyway, after the Indians had finished they quietly paddled with their loot into. the Everglades. Chakika hid his stuff on some little islands about thirty miles west of Miami, which was then known as Fort Dallas. The
-river was called the Miami River, Miami being a Calusa word for "big lake," the same as Okeechobee in Seminole. Now thousands of tourists speed by Chakika's Islands on the Tamiami Trail at the rate of a mile a minute. It is easy to imagine old Chakika and his dusky followers under the live-oaks, surrounded by piles of loot, shielded by the dense fringe of Cocoplum on these little islands in the glades. It is hard to imagine what may not be found buried in the mud on these patches of land, stolen long ago from passing ships. The white men probably stole it also-so these Indians were our aboriginal highjackers.
To the eastward the trail led to the Miami River, to the west to Shark and Harney's Rivers, a trail for canoes through the mud and sawgrass. To the south and east lay the Indian Hunting Grounds, in the heart of which the well-known Perrine Grant was located. Chakika was known as a Spanish Indian, but they were probably not too friendly for the Spaniards built their missions northward by St. Augustine and neglected the south end because of -the fierceness of the natives. He was also called a Muspa Indian; the word "muspa" is one of the few Calusa words that have survived.
In December, 1840, four or five months after the massacre on Indian Key, some of the loot was discovered in Chakika's camp, west of Miami River. Colonel Harney was sent with one hundred men from Fort Dallas to wreak vengeance on the Indians. The camp was surrounded and f ive of the warriors were killed, including Chakika. They hung them to trees, and the slayer of Chakika took his scalp. Thus ended the last of the chiefs of the Calusas. Word reached Sam Jones, who lived to the northward on the west edge of the glades in a place still known as Sam Jones' Town, still an Indian center, still a lone spot on the map. His real name was something like Ar-pe-i-ka, although variously spelled. He came to bury his Indian comrades according to Indian custom. Old Sam Jones was not a Calusa. He was chief of the Mikasuki tribe. He was a great medicine man, knew roots, barks, etc., but was an old man when the Seminole War began. When the war was over he had about seventeen warriors







45


-and a large number of women in his clan. The Mikasukis had a bad reputation, even among the Indians. They were a roving, gypsy-like people, not very honest, and not highly respected by other Indians, although they constitute a considerable portion ,of the Indians we call Seminoles. The question is often asked, "'Who were the Calusas?" The following is a resume of the descriptions furnished by the American Bureau of Ethnology. The Calusa:.was an important tribe that inhabited the southwest ,coast of Florida from Tampa to Cape Sable, and Cape Florida on inland to Lake. Okeechobee. Their influence extended also over part of the East Coast. They cultivated the ground to a limited extent. They were expert fishermen, seamen and fierce fighters. They were the last to come under Spanish influence. They were accused of cannibalism, and in spite of flies wore no clothes. They attacked Ponce de Leon in 1513 with eighty canoes and drove him away after an all-day fight. They accumulated wealth from passing ships. In 1600 they carried fish, skins and other things in trade to Havana by canoe. They were gradually forced southward by other Indians from the north. When Florida was ceded to England eighty families moved to Havana. A few were left behind and maintained a distinct existence till the close of the second Seminole War. Nothing is known of their linguistic relationships. Nobody knows where they came from or the stock of which they were a part or to which they might be related. Some Indian boys of this tribe attended a mission school in Havana in the sixteenth century. A Jesuit by the name of Rogel and an assistant studied their language but no records have been found. Fontaneda, and a Quaker by the name of Dickinson,, were caught in their clutches and both have written books describing their experiences. They also held captive two hundred Arawaks from Cuba. These Arawaks were hunting for the fountain of youth, and were held in a sort of bondage by the Calusa over by Turner's Creek on the West Coast. * Except for these meager records, a few place names, and a few camp sites, there is nothing left of them. It is more than likely that the Seminoles who pushed them off the map of Florida captured their wives and children. The Seminole is therefore, no doubt, a mixture of several tribes, including the Calusa and the negro, all of whom had in common a well founded hatred for the white man.



































Ficus aurea-The Golden or Strangler Fig
One of the Commonest .Wild Trees on the Keys







47


They may have introduced the cotton and various cacti yielding fruits. Cacti and wild cotton are common on old Indian camp sites on the keys. When water was scarce it is said the Indians squeezed the juice out of the cactus fruits for drink. They would push a stick through the fruit and hold it for a. short time over a fire to 'singe off the spines.


EARLY ENGLISH SETTLERS ON THE KEYS
In 1892 while instructor in Swathmore Collegel- was sent to the Bahamas to arrange for an expedition from Swathmore and the University of Pennsylvania. I went first * to the Island of Eleuthera, an island settled long ago by the Eleutherian Adventurers. When my job was finished I shipped- on an old steamer called the Lizzie Henderson, bound for Tampa with a load of rock for the construction of the Tampa Bay Hotel. We stopped on the way at Key West for fuel and water. At that time there were many people living on the keys, but the mainland was sparsely settled. The ship had brought sisal slips to Nassau from Lignum Vitae Key. When we passed Biscayne Bay the captain said there were two small settlements near the Miami River. He said the bay was shallow and the land very wild and rocky, but that some day they had hopes of building a city that would be bigger and better than Key West. He explained that they had plenty of fresh water in the Biscayne Bay region fit for household use. Little did I realize that the mysterious shore in the offing would be my home for thirty-five years. Tampa was little more than a village, with sandy, grassy streets through which cattle freely roamed. They showed me a fine grapefruit tree full of fruit which they said had little value, and being bitter was eaten only by the negroes.
A few years later while professor in the New York State College of Forestry, in company with a friend, I left Ithaca for Miami. It was necessary to spend the night in Jacksonville. Early in the morning the bright yellow-colored train, with a chair-car for the well-to-do left for Miami. The train stopped one hundred and eighty-seven times on its journey south. The. cars were full of dust and smoke. We finally arrived after midnight. It was moonlight and the upper porch of our hotel looked







48


down on many yards full of tropical trees and fragrant flowers. We asked Colonel Waddell if there was anything of special interest in the neighborhood. He recommended a trip to Coconut Grove,, so we hired an old negro with a pony and coach and followed a narrow white road through a dense tropical jungle. It -%N7-as like a white ribbon through a tunnel of'green. We went to the Peacock Inn, and liked it so well that we sen't back for our baggage. The bay was filled with picturesque sail boats. Some were bringing in turtle, conchs and fish; others were loaded with truck and fruit from the keys. Others had brought passengers and groceries from Key West. One man on the porch said that be thought they might be able to grow vegetables on the mainland as well as on the keys if they could find the right kind of fertilizer. Seminoles were loafing on the lawn. The names of such men as Agassiz were on the register. South Florida was practically an island, separated from the rest of the state by miles of mud and unabridged rivers. Key West was the main city. All this country depended on boat trade to and from Key West. It was the metropolis and the mainland was the back country. With the construction of highways and railroads this has all been reversed. The center has shifted to Miami. Formerly this region was West Indian or Antillean in character. It -%%Tas soon overwhelmed by northern notions, and soon lost its intimate connection with Cuba and the Bahamas. The construction of highways and railroads marked a very decided epoch in the history of south Florida. The perfection of light-houses and fast boats stopped the wrecking on the shores. In short, at that time the keys lost their West Indian crops, West Indian natives, West Indian customs and West Indian glamor. There is perhaps little of the Florida of old which can be saved. The old time atmosphere is gone because the things which produced it no longer exist. The very landscape has changed. Northern customs have prevailed, and I doubt if we are any better, certainly not happier than in those good old days when nobody locked their doors, when everybody had plenty to eat and nobody was ever in a hurry. Wrecking was a legitimate business, and Key West was its center. Captains of old time schooners had their homes there. This extended back to about 1858. - Previous to this date, for many years the whole country., except the Lower Keys, was in constant turmoil. The natives fled in fear







49


of the Indians, and there is little to record except the establishment of forts and skirmishes here and there in a kind of guerilla warfare. Back of 1858 were Spanish and Indian days, about which very little is really known. Perrine tried to settle it in 1840, but long before then the Indians were on the warpath. During Spanish times I am sure this country bad many interesting events not recorded in any history.
Many of the English settlers of the Keys came from the Bahamas,, especially the Island of Eleuthera, and with them came many useful things. I can trace more to Eleuthera than to any other island. Sitting on a bank of coral sand on this Island of Eleuthera overlooking the broad Atlantic your mind harks back to the seventeenth century when the Eleutherian Adventurers first settled this island. Worn and worried by the pressure of people and policies these Adventurers sought a place where they could do as they pleased, so they named the island Eleuthera to replace the Cigatoo or Segatoo of Columbus. This has been the dream of all peoples from the beginning of time. New settlements throughout the world have been built on migrations founded on discontent. So Eleuthera was selected and named as the place where "every man might enjoy his own opinion or religion without control or question." No colony was ever founded on broader ideas of freedom. This company of Eleutberian Adventurers was formed in London in 1649. Florida was ceded to the English by Spain in 1763 in exchange for Cuba, but was returned to Spain in 1783. During these twenty years there was probably considerable English settlement. They probably cultivated the soil in cotton and indigo, or cut timber and then when opportunity afforded, as in British Honduras, preyed on passing ships. The leading Independents of the Island of Bermuda moved to Eleuthera, and for some years it was a sort of place of exile for the religious malcontents of Bermuda, the mother colony. This was one of the earliest Anglo Saxon settlements in America, only forty-two years after the settlement of Jamestown. I visited this island once in 1892, and several times since, in search of signs of its past glory. In the domestic animals and cultivated plants I saw evidences of introductions of various exotics from the farflung realm of the British Empire and the foot prints of men of superior minds who at one time lived there. In another section I visited a lone village







50


of blacks among the rocks. Many of these natives were runaways who had sought refuge in this remote section of the island. It was here too where the English dumped the slaves from captured slave traders. In the tropics where there is an abundance of warmth, sunlight, moisture and food materials, plants and probably people also developed their own personalities without outside restrictions. In each tropical forest each member thereof gives and takes just enough to supply his personal wants from day to day. In time a lasting equilibrium is established and the forest and its inhabitants in kind and number stay about the same forever. This is the equanimity of the jungle. Freedom, even on a far distant isle, is difficult for both plant and animal. There must be both mutalism and struggle, and these must be delicately balanced and controlled. All any man can ever do is to try to solve some of the Eleusinian mysteries in his own back yard.
One wonders if the Eleutherian Adventurers ever did find what they were looking for in that little island on the steep edge of the broad Atlantic. They moved from England to Bermuda, Bermuda to Eleuthera, and then from Eleuthera to south Florida and elsewhere.
In some of the old Conchs on the keys there was a scholarly strain,, an unusual politeness, a religious zeal, an excellent use of English, an inheritance perhaps from the Eleutherian Adventurers of the seventeenth century. The descendants of these came to the Floridan Keys along the Gulf Stream for the better pickings along the shore. They developed into the so-called Conchs who have already merged with the rest of the crowd from all quarters of the globe. They are no longer frightened at the sight of a locomotive. A cake of ice is no longer to them a mystery. They no longer communicate from farm to farm with conch horns.
In 1646 Captain William Sayle, on more than one occasion Governor of the Bermudas, obtained or professed to have obtained from the English Parliament a grant of one of the islands in the Bahamas, and led these people to Eleuthera or Abaco. No record of the grant, however, has been found. People in New England, fearing for their welfare, sent them food. In return they loaded the boat with braziletto wood. This wood was sold







51


and the money was donated as an endowment to what is now Harvard University. I am indebted to Sir George Johnson of Nassau, an eminent scholar of West Indian history, for this information.


KEY PLACE-NAMES
The DRY TORTUGAS are islands in the Gulf, named by
Ponce de Leon because he found so many turtles. He loaded his boat with turtles. The name "dry" is probably used in the seaman!Ps sense-dry, and not awash like other shoals and low islands. The old fort on Dry Tortugas was named in honor of President Thomas Jefferson, and was begun in 1846. It was held by Federal forces during the Civil War. It was at times a hospital and a prison. It was temporarily used during the war with Spain. It was transferred from the War to the Navy Department, and was finally made a national monument under the Department of the Interior. Bird Key was in charge of the Department of Agriculture as a breeding place for birds.
KEY WEST is said to come from "hueso," meaning bone,) because of the piles of bones found there. This has been denied by some, but in an early grant from Spain it was described as Cayo Hueso, or Bone Key.
MATEUMBEwas once written "Mattacomba,"' which may mean "bent bushes" in Spanish. Alfredo Zayas in his Lexicogfrafia Antillana (Antillean Lexicography) says Matecumbe consists of "'rocks dangerous to navigation, which in 1662 wrecked a vessel bearing gold and silver to Spain." He also refers to the keys as "Las Martires," the keys of the Martyrs. This hint leads one to reflect that there may be a lot of untold history relating to the keys in Spanish days.
The archipelago around Key West was called Pine Islands because at one time the Carribean Pine covered the land.
KEY LARGO means "Long Key" and not "Large Key."
The word "key" itself is a modification of the Spanish "cayo,"' meaning shoal, or little island, and is probably of Basque origin. In Hayti, Aux Cayes is the name of a city. It is French for "The







52


Keys" and is probably the origin of our word "Okay." It had reference to the quality of the rum from that section.
It is hard to explain the origin of the name MARQUESAS, KEYS-the islands of the Marques. Maybe some Marques were marooned there by pirates. Here again there may be a lot of hidden history. A ship by that name may have been wrecked there. Anyway, it is a neat little atoll on our barrier reef projecting -into the Gulf of Mexico.
CAESAR'S CREEK was named for a black pirate by the name of Caesar. When chased he would seek refuge in this creek, and if pressed too hard would sink his boat in shallow water. In the Lives and Exploits of English Highwaymen, Pirates and Robbers, printed in 1839, and the Pirate's Who's Who, Black Caesar is represented as Blackbeard's right hand man. When pressed he was ordered to blow up their boat, called Queen Anne's Revenge. He failed to accomplish this act, was captured and bung in Virginia in 1718.
There is a key called Palo Alto, meaning high timber. Names offer good hints as to the kinds of trees which once covered this land.
MIAMI is from the Calusa "Mayaimi," meaning "big lake." (On one map, however, it is called Rio Ratones, "the River of Rats.") This is the statement of Fontaneda, who was held captive by those Indians for seventeen years. It is also referred to as Mayaimi by other old timers. Before the natural rock-dam was removed from the Miami River it was one big lake for a long portion of the year.
There was once a pearl oyster bank near SOLDIER'S KEY in Bay Biscayne. Biscayne no doubt means the same as Biscay, an old Basque word, and the Basques probably came here long ago on fishing trips.
MARGATE and FOWEY are old English names. It is now known as the Fowey Rock Light, which replaced the old Cape Florida Light. The latter is still standing and is one of the oldest lighthouses in this country. It was partly burned by the Indians in 1836. The keeper had been warned, so he left for safety with his family, leaving an assistant and a negro in charge to meet the Indians. The Indians filled the bottom of the lighthouse with









wood and fired it. The heat drove the assistant and negro out on the balcony. The negro looked over the railing and was promptly shot. The assistant was rescued by a government cutter. In 1878 it was abandoned for the new Fowey Rock Light.
The word Madeira applied to MADEIRA HAMMOCK and Bay is just another name for mahogany. It came from England by way of the Bahamas and was applied to a mahogany-like wood of the laurel family, once common in the Madeira Islands.
CAPE SABLE means "Sandy Cape." Middle Cape was once called "Palm Cape" because of the big royal palms that grew there.
The town of Perrine was named for Dr. Perrine, who was killed by Calusa Indians on Indian Key. INDIAN KEY was our first port of entry. Indigo and cotton were shipped to England by way of Indian Key.
Many think FLORIDA was so called because it is a land of flowers. It was named because it was discovered during the week of the Festival of Flowers. Old Ponce de Leon had little opportunity or inclination to land to pick flowers.
The Big Bay on the West Coast south of Pavilion Key was called PONCE DE LEON BAY. Such names as LOGGERHEAD KEY, GARDEN KEY, RACCOON KEY, PIGEON KEY, and GARDEN COVE are easily explained, but not MAN KEY, WOMAN KEY, SAMBO SHOAL, SPECULATOR SHOAL, and. so on. NO NAME KEY needs no explanation. CRAWL KEYS were so named because they were used for sponge and turtle pens, called crawls. MAN-O-WAR BUSH was named because the man-of-war or frigate bird roosted there. LIGNUM VITAE KEY was named for the tree of that name. So also TORCH KEYS.





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q6) C)









55


My soul today is far away Sailing the Floridian Bay. My winged boat, a bird afloat, Swims round the coral reefs remote.

Round coral peaks it sails and seeks Blue inlets with their myriad freaks, Where tropics show mid flower' s blow A duplicated golden glow.

Far, vague and dim the Gulf Streams
swim,
While on horizon's misty brim With outstretched hands the gray mist
stands
Overlooking fair Atlantic strands.

Here Largo smiles o'er liquid miles; And yonder, bluest of the isles, Calm Torch Key waits her sapphire gates Beguiling to her bright estates.

I heed not if my rippling skiff Floats swift or slow from shore to cliff; With.dreamful eyes my spirit lies Beside the gates of Paradise.

Beside 411-he gates where Neptune waits The Bay's deep swells at transient rates, At peace I lie blown softly by A cloud upon this liquid sky.


The day, so mild, is heaven's own child With heaven and ocean reconciled. The airs I feel around me steal Are murmuring to the murmuring keel.

With dreadful eyes my spirit lies Where summer sings and never dies. O'er veiled with vines she grows and
shines
Among her tropic oils and wines.

Over' the rail my hand I trail Within the shadow of the sail; A joy intense, the cooling sense Glides down my drowsy indolence.

Yon deep barque goes where traffic
blows
From lands of suns to lands of snowsThis happier one, its course is run From lands of snow to lands of sun.

The Fisher's child, with tresses wild Unto the smooth, bright sand beguiled, With glowing lips she sings and skips, Or gazes at the far-off ships.

No more, no more the worldly shore Upbraids me with its loud uproar! With dreadful eyes my spirit lies Within the vales of Paradise.
T. J. BROOKS


FLORIDA'S CORAL ISLES

(With apologies to Thomas Buchanan Reeds "Drifting.")



























































































































ST. PETERSBURG PRINTING CO., FLORIDA
?ftlHTZ40 IN2
S.
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Full Text

PAGE 1

New Series r 1 _ 1..,. 7 ' , \ .: ) , No. 77 Floridan Keys WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO Soil Productivity BY JOHN C. GIFFORD, D. CEc. PROFESSOR OF TROPICAL FORESTRY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI JUN 2 0 1968 )) f f.F _ .A.S. Univ. of Florida DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE T ALLAH'!\SS-EEFL'ORJDX'= ~ "' " =" ~ ' , -c : t ~ r \" I'. ' r f , r r=( ', f, f: } Q \ ) \ : 1': r . ~., ::._ \ . t; t _ t/ i _ ; : " ! f L:. : _ l \ 1 \ t NATHAN M;AYO; ' Ci>'Jimissioner i: DEC l 1970

PAGE 2

Aerial view of Key West, showing the Naval Station and radio towers, La Concha Hotel, and County Court House.

PAGE 3

FLORIDAN KEYS CHAPTER I THE GEOGRAPHY OF THE KEYS LOCATION.-The Florida Keys are the southernmost part of the State, extending in a curved line southwestward from Miami Beach to, and including, the Dry Tortugas, which are two hundred and ninety miles from Miami, seventy miles west of Key West, one hundred miles north of Cuba and three hundred miles north east of Yucatan. These keys may be divided into two groups, the UPPER and LOWER Keys. The keys north of Bahia Honda consist of coral reef limestone. The lower keys, that is, the archipelago around Key West, consist of oolite limestone, the same as the mainland. One is sometimes called the Key Largo Limestone, the other Miami Oolite or Limestone. The oolite or eggstone is white and soft, consisting of many little round balls of lime cemented together. The coral-reef limestone is hard, darker in color , varied in grain, consisting of coral masses filled in be tween with other kinds of lime deposits. The oolite was blown or washed in. The Key Largo Coral Limestone was no doubt a reef, upheaved bodily. AREA.-It is difficult to determine the area of so . many little islands, some very low and irregular in shape. The largest is Key Largo, thirty miles long, averaging hardly more than a mile in width. About thirty keys are inhabitable. The sum total of what might be called land probably does not exceed fifty square miles. ELEVATION.-The bulk of these islands is hardly more than six feet above the level of the sea. There are one or two places which may reach the height of twenty-five feet. RAINFALL-Rainfall is usually adequate at all times of the year. There are about fifty inches in the Biscayne Bay Region. It decreases as you move westward. Dry Tortugas is probably the driest spot in the State of Florida. Both drought and coolness serve as checks in vegetative growth. If either comes at the prop er time it produces plentiful bloom, followed by an , abundance

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. . ' . cs's I . E e'w ! . -,2, 5 ; o: i ! \ -----CLIMATES-(After Koppen and Thornwaite) PRECIPITATION EFFECTIVENESS A-128 + Wet. B-64 to 127 Humid. C-32 to 63 Subhumid. D-16 to 31 Semi-arid. E--0 to 15 Arid. r-Rainfall Adequate at all Seasons. cl-Rainfall Deficient in all Seasons. S Rainfall Deficient in Summer. W-Rainfall Deficient in Winter. TEMPERATE EFFICIENCY A'--128 + Tropical. B'-64 to 127 Mesothermal. c-..:32 to 63 Microthermal. D'-16 to 31 Taiga. E'-1 to 15 Tundra. F'-0 Perpetual Frost. The shaded sections, marked BA'r, are the climatic patches to which South Florida . belongs, being humid (B), tropical (A), with rainfall adequate at all seasons (r), the same as like pic!ures in the West Indies, Central and South America.

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5 of fruit. Some trees bloom and fruit continuously, others may have two crops a year. DEW.-There is plenty of dew which is a small but constant and important source of moisture in tropical countries. HURRICANES.-Once in about ten years there is a hurricane. If houses are properly built, and shelter trees preserved, the damage is never as great as represented. TEMPERATURE.-There have been no killing frosts on the keys. It is never excessively hot. It is acknowledged by all who know the facts that there is probably no better climate in this country. WATER SUPPLY.-Water from the ground is brackish. If the well is very shallow the surface water will serve to water plants. On some keys, such as Big Pine, the well water is fairly fresh. Many old wells have been abandoned because of the danger of contamination from cesspools. MARKETS.-The markets for key products are good, both in Miami and Key West. There is a constant demand for limes, the premier key product, throughout the whole United States at all seasons of the year. The local market is good, especially in winter. TRANSPORTATION.-A highway runs down the islands from Largo to Key West. It is built on the road bed of the old East Coast Railroad. Since the islands are narrow there are few acres not in close communication by truck with the rest of the world. There are also an inner and outer channel for boats. HAMMOCKS.-This is the local name for the jungle con sisting of several tropical hardwoods. PINEWOODS.-On the Lower Keys, there are pine trees of the same kind as on the mainland, also hammock growth. SW AMPS.-The swamps are salt water species such as the Red Mangrove, Black Mangrove, and Buttonwood. They form an excellent shore protection in times of storm. INDUSTRIES.-The main occupation of the people in ad dition to an occasional wreck, has always been fishing, including, sponging , cropping, fruit growing. On Windly's Island the coral

PAGE 6

o' "' v/ 'c.>/~'r' o;~.,?'!" , i•'~o I~ l\fap showing the Keys and the proposed Everglades National Park. This includes Old Rhodes, Largo, Plantation and other keys. This park includes a large percentage of the best key land.

PAGE 7

7 limestone is quarried and shipped away for construction pur poses. It is a very beautiful building stone and has been in great demand for the more expensive buildings. SETTLEMENTS.-There are several little settlements and several famous fishing camps and clubs. Key West was at one time the center of this whole region. With the construction of the highway and railroad the center of activity shifted to Miami. The government is now engaged in converting it into a tourist resort. Many people think that the tourist business is not in itself sufficient to support a very large population, since it is confined to a short season, varies from year to year, and is not very profitable in places which do not raise their own foodstuffs at least sufficient for local consumption throughout th e year. The bulk of food products except seafoods are shipped in at all seasons of the year, and there should he a strong effort to raise on the nearby keys as much as possible for home consumption, especially tropical fruits and winter vegetables, and a strong ef fort to protect valuable native vegetation, and plant hardy trees for shelter in times of storm. There is opportunity for a lot of landscaping with native trees along the overseas highway. Quaries yielding rock for road construction should be dug by the sea to form fine swimming pools and not left as holes without outlets by the wayside to breed mosquitoes. The Marquesas Keys on the reef west of Key West consist of several little low islands surrounding a lagoon. It resembles an atoll. A large number of these tropical limestone islands are hollow in the middle, sometimes with salt ponds. Salt was once manufactured on the Lower Keys. The Dry Tortugas is the end, with the famous old Fort Jeffer son, a well-made structure constructed of millions of hand-made brick. Another island is called Bird Key, where thousands of sooty and noddy terns come many miles to nest. This is now a mom{ ment under the control of the National Park Service. Biscayne Key contains thirty-five thousand bearing coco palms, the largest privately owned cocal that I know of. It is owned by the Matheson family. Cocoloba Club, located on Adams Key, consists of notable

PAGE 8

Torl<1!as l Rocky L , :N~p\es ' ~ eDtte L•"' ~Caxambas i, 0 <> 1t, _Everglade i, •. ,. :'1-,,_ ~ 81 J:} From "Florida Bird Life," by A. H. Howell, Showing the Tropical Zone and Southern Part of the Lower Austral The shaded area is that part of the Antillean Region of the Tropical Zone in Florida inhabited by tropical birds

PAGE 9

9 people from many parts of this country. This region, because of its fine fishing, has often been referred to as the playground of presidents. There are several other famous clubs on these keys and colonies of campers are on the increase. Many people go to the Matecumbes in the summer time for the bathing, fishing and seashore recreation. The Matecumbe sheep-wool sponge has long been famous and every effort should be made to encour age its growth as well as the growth of many other sea products, such as crawfish, clams and conchs. By the large number of oyster shells of large size scattered over the land there must have been plenty of oysters not very far away in times past. SEA GARDENS.-Sea gardens are plentiful on these coral reefs and are a great attraction because of their beauty, clearness of the water and brilliance of coloring. PLANTING TIME.-There is no special planting time on the keys for trees. The chances of success are of course much better during the rainy season and during cool weather. At other times shade and watering are necessary. Winter vegetables are planted in the fall as soon as the danger of heavy winds and rains is over. Tomatoes and other fresh vegetables are in great demand around the holidays. Tomatoes are often followed by banana-melons which sell readily in local markets, at ten cents per pound. There seems to be no special season for okra, sweet-potatoes, pumpkins and other truck for home use. FUEL.-On the main highway bisecting these keys, there are many service stations furnishing gasoline and kerosene. The fuel best liked by the natives for cooking is charcoal or button wood. There is a plentiful supply of fuel-wood of various kinds, but button-wood is one of the world's best fuels. It burns with a hot fire like charcoal with little smoke. It has been used on fish ing and sponging boats for many years. SAND-FLIES AND MOSQUITOES.-In addition to good nets,spray-guns and fly-dopes are necessary. The smoke of the black-mangrove wood is often used. While constructing the Florida East Coast Railroad in the summer time the workmen labored in the smoke of black-mangrove wood. Much pyrethrum powder is used in the summer and it is quite likely that the bark of the Jamaica dogwood or the seeds of the soap-berry might be

PAGE 10

valuable for the same purpose, since both are used to stupefy fishes. DRIFTWOOD AND OTHER FLOTSAM AND JETSAM. Owing to their location along the edge of the Gulf Stream much drift material lands on these keys from the prevailing east and south winds. BEACHES.-Much of the shore is very rocky or swampy. Here and there are small sandy beaches. TIDES.-On the east side the tide is only about eighteen inches or two feet; on the Gulf it is more--in some places twice as much. The water is deep on the south edge of this great barrier reef, containing live coral, and shallow on the Gulf side so that the water rushes back and forth through these cuts with great speed. In times of storm the whole region is churned into foam, but owing to many reefs and shoals it never does the damage one might expect if the water has plenty of room to spread and is not piled up in pockets or narrow bays by the wind. The storm dam age is not noticeably greater than on the mainland. SOILS.-Besides the rock-land, kitchen-midden and leaf-mold land there are some patches of marl or salina land, some patches of sand along the shore and some patches of black muck, but the richest land is reddish in color in pot-holes in the rock here and there. These are seldom over a hundred square feet in area but are very fertile and excellent for small nurseries. HOT HOUSE CONDITIONS.-! the rocky soil is covered with a thin layer of dirt, and if it is covered with a strong, properly constructed lattice one could have hothouse conditions throughout the year and produce high grade fruits and vegetables regardless of the weather. Lack of an abundance of fresh water at all times for watering plants has always been a drawback. WRECKING.-The early settlers depended upon wrecking, which because of a lack of good lighthouses was at one time profitable. With sponging, fishing and cropping, especially of tomatoes, banana-melons, limes and sapodillas they had a very comfortable living. If agriculture and aquiculture are properly revived and fostered the profits from a growing tourist trade may more than compensate for a lack of wrecking.

PAGE 11

11 CONCHS AND CRACKERS.-There were the old time Conchs who loved the sea and what the sea brought. They were boatmen. The Crackers were inland forest people with their cattle and carts. They were of the same old English stock and met by different roads in south Florida. One came over-land southward; the other came by boat via the Bahamas. The Conch had tropical ideas of plant culture; the Cracker was filled with northern notions. The Cracker liked his cow-peas and collards, mustard greens and white bacon; the Conch liked his sea-food and pigeon-peas, also his "sours and dillies," the common name for limes and sapodillas. CHAPTER II CULTIVATION OF LIMESTONE SOILS Probably five per cent of the earth's crust consists of lime stone in some form or other. Some of the richest soils in the world are disintegrated limestones. Land is constantly forming, through the activities of coral, seaweeds and the shells of many mollusks. The fruits of limestone soils produce big-boned people with good teeth. Some of the greatest civilizations of the world have developed in rocky limestone regions . It is difficult to say just what constitutes soil, but from the forester's standpoint it is any kind of a substance which will support trees or into which the roots of trees can penetrate. The fertility of a lime soil, no matter how rocky, is measured by the amount of leaf mold which covers it. Shells, coral and seaweed are ground into powder on the shore by the great ocean mill. On some shores you can hear the rattle of the shells with every in coming wave. When the tide falls and the beach dries this lime stone sand is blown inland in the form of spin-drift. Dunes are formed along the shore, the height depending upon the force of the wind. When exposed to the air the dunes soon harden into rock. Vegetation starts and the limestone is dissolved by the acids resulting from disintegrating leaves, and in solution the lime washes back into the sea. Sometimes the water heavily charged with lime evaporates so that the carbonate of lime is deposited in a thin layer which is hard and glassy, causing the surface to remain bare for a considerable time until vegetation forms again to dissolve it.

PAGE 12

The Author's Plantation on Elliott's Key

PAGE 13

13 Sometimes in depressions in lime rock the decomposing debris accumulates. This gradually eats away the rock so that potholes or rockholes are formed. Sometimes it is all dissolved except some harder portions which may stick up like sabres which in many places are called dog-tooth rocks. In time these potholes become lime-sinks. In time they may reach the level of the water-table. These are called banana-holes because of the rich moist soil at the bottom in which bananas flourish. In the Bahamas a banana root is lowered in a basket of dirt. It soon sprouts and shoots upward to the light. In some places flowing water underground containing carbonic acid gas dissolves this rock to form great holes or caves. In short, there are holes, caves, underground rivers and sinkholes of various kinds in limestone countries. In digging canals we should be very careful not to interfere with these underground water supplies. We may not only cut off the flow of fresh water but let in salt water from the sea. When the flow of fresh water stops the sea water hacks in to take its place. The carbonate of lime is being constantly formed by the forces of nature and is being constantly dissolved by organic acids. The potholes containing some soil, decayed vegetation and the cast ings of various creatures are rich in plant food. The soil is often colored red with iron which is deposited from the sea by the activities of various organisms. A deep red soil resulting from the disintegration of coral rock is one of our richest soils and unless exhausted by years of cropping in tobacco or sugar cane, produces the very best quality of fruits, such as limes, sapodillas, pineapples, avocadoes, bread fruit, coconuts and many other valuable tropical tree products. Marl is a finely divided compound of lime which is deposited in flooded regions when the water through evaporation or by losing its carbonic-acid-gas is no longer able to hold so much carbonate-of-lime in solution. This is deposited on every leaf and twig when Everglade water evaporates in the dry season of the year. A fine white marl is also deposited from ocean water. It is almost snow white and hardens into rock when exposed to the air. It resembles putty, in fact might be used for putty if mixed with oil. It can he pressed into blocks and will solidify without the use of cement. There are constant chemical activities in a limestone country.

PAGE 14

14 In case the lime-rock is covered with leaf-mold and other vegetation, and fire occurs, the lime-rock is converted into quick lime. It becomes a white powder and slakes as soon as it rains. The rain and dew dissolve it, but it is soon deposited again in the form of carbonate-of-lime, which becomes hard and glassy and barren on the surface. There is nothing more destructive to limerock soils than fire. It not only burns the humus on the sur face and kills all living creatures of value to growth but it destroys the rock itself, ca u s ing it to become hard and glassy on the sur face. When the bush is cut the slash should be spread evenly over the land and flashed when the soil is wet. A fine quality of pineapples can be produced on land thus lightly flashed. Hot fires in dry times are fatally destructive to the soil and what covers it. The rock is usually soft underneath but because of the hard s urface there are pockets that hold water and breed mosquitoes. This apparently barren glassy surface can be softened and dis solved again by the application of humus such as rotten seaweed or leafmold. Sweet potatoes planted in this seaweed grow and yield potatoes on top of the rock. There are a lot of trees which cannot endure too much alkalin ity. If there is sufficient leafmold they will grow because of the acidity in rotting vegetation. It is not so much that th e trees require acidity as it is that certain fungi favorable to the growth of certain trees live only under slightly acid conditions. When you meet with hard, bare limestone rock the first impulse is to grind it into soil with heavy machines. This is not only expensive but of doubtful value. The land is packed by heavy machines and the finer particles of the surface are soon washed down into the crevices of the rock. A course gravel is left upon the surface. Growing things secrete acids on their smallest rootlets so tha , t they can eat their own way into limestone in case it is porous. One often finds root-cores. They are out of holes produced by tree roots. After the roots decay the hole fills again with lime. The roots of native rubbers force and dissolve their way through the crevices of rock. Without the softening, dissolving effects of decomposing vegetation the rock becomes hard and solid. The blasting of holes to have trees in rows is also unnecessary and expensive. Unless the holes are very big they are like flower-pots. The sides are indurated by the expanding dynamite.

PAGE 15

15 It pulverizes the rock which soon again solidifies. The whole area should be blasted or not at all. The tree may grow circular roots and if the hole is small commit suicide by choking itself to death. There is really nothing gained by having trees in exact rows in a limerock country. This orchard form is a northern development. The solitary tree is exposed to the hot sun and strong winds sweep down the rows. This is done to increase the surface exposed to the sunshine in the north and to expedite cultivation, but there is no reason for cultivation of a rocky lime soil which may be already too porous and too rough for any kind of cultivation except weed-cutting. A good way to plant these rocky soils is to set the little trees in the natural pot-holes in patches. In the case of lime trees only space enough is needed in between to permit of picking. Shelter trees which may be on rock-land between the pot-holes should be left to yield humus and afford shelter against sun and wind, and to furnish a home for birds and other useful creatures. If the native trees need to be removed, saw or cut them off even with the ground. The stump will in time rot and a good hole will be ready-formed for a new root. If trees are planted in patches their shade and the litter they drop will soon spread and they will be healthier, al though it is always best to cut out the creepers and weeas. The whole area in time, irrespective of rocks, will become covered with vegetation. The wild limestone rock soils of the keys cannot be treated as other soils. A place which on the surface may resemble a pile of cinders may prove to be very fruitful if proper ly handled. The land must be kept covered with the help of native forerunners. Persons accustomed to plowing mellow soils are completely abashed at the rough rocky appearance of many of these lands. Some of the rockiest of these have supported dense forests of mahogany, tamarind and Jamaica-dogwood and are fertile only when properly handled. Trees gain a foothold and find plenty of nourishment in the crevices of the rock. Many little lime trees have been set in holes in the porous rock dug with a crowbar. If covered with a light coating of soil even the rockiest of it responds with fruits of superlative quality. If soil is available it is profitable to spread it over the rocks. The natives of the South Seas have done this for ages. Here and there are kitchen middens of the Indians, consisting of dirt which they hauled from

PAGE 16

The Home of an Old Settler on Matecumbe Key The "Seven Mile Bridge"-a part of the engineering wonder of the Overseas Highway stretching from the Mainland over keys and ocean to Key West.

PAGE 17

17 the bay bottom mixed with broken pots, bones and other refuse. On these middens tomatoes and banana-melons are grown. Trees grow close to the sea-shore in the tropics. The Indians planted cotton and cacti of various kinds. The cash value of these lands is a question. They sold for more a quarter a century ago than at the present time. The area is limited and if the Everglades National Park consumes the bulk of it there will be little good land left for settlement. The narrow islands are bisected by a highway which renders almost every acre easily accessible. The land which has not been robbed of its trees and fertility is worth several times the bare rocky areas . Some of it is hardly worth more than ten dollars an acre. Other areas are worth fifty dollars an acre although land with water frontage is worth much more. The first price of the land is not so importnat as the knowledge and industry of the cultivator. Land fronting on the sea, easily accessible, in a mild, healthful climate, capable of producing choice fruits and vegetables in midwinter is valuable even if it is rocky, infested at times with mosquitoes and shy at times of fresh water. They are stepping stones to the sea and what the sea brings. Foodbearing trees can be ornamental and protective at the same time, and it must not be forgotten that the tropics is a tree country rather than a country of annuals. We must not forget that limestone lands demand a covering of vegetation, yielding a constant supply of rich litter. Once in about every ten years in hurricane season the low places are flooded with salt water and banked high with seaweed. This rots and adds to the fertility. Years ago there was dense forest in which many sea birds roosted. In many places the land was covered with guano. The bare rock gets hot in the summer sun and the tender roots of fruit trees are cooked . This can often be avoided by piling rncks around the roots of the tree to a height of three or four feet. It helps to hold the tree in place in times of storm. Horticulture on the keys is different from elsewhere, although there are many thousands of acres of such lands unused through out the West Indies. Some limestone islands are among the densest inhabited places on earth, while other lie dormant and wild. Life is comfortable throughout the year in the trade-wind areas. Many valuable trees such as the cocopalm prefer an alkaline soil. One must forget his northern notions and adapt

PAGE 18

18 himself to conditions such as exist nowhere else in our country. There is an old time system of culture which has its virtues and which might still be practiced with profit with modifications in regions where jungle land is still plentiful. Cut the bush on areas of about five acres in extent. Utilize the logs if the wood is of good quality, or convert it into charcoal which is the favorite fuel of many tropical peoples. Spread the slash evenly over the land. When the ground is moist flash it with fire. Plant therein such crops as corn, pumpkins, melons, tobacco, yucca, pigeon peas or any other desirable crop. In the course of time abandon this patch and let it come hack to desirable jungle trees. See to it that it is seeded to the proper kind of trees. The seeds of good kinds can he dibbled in at slight expense. Then select a fresh patch of five acres in some other section and repeat the perfor mance throughout the jungle. In this way forestry and agri culture can he easily and profitably combined. This is a time honored custom in some sections and if the population is not too dense and the system is worked with care a crop year after year is usually assured. This is separate of course from the home tree garden where food trees of several kinds are usually densely huddled around the house. Closely planted hack yard trees are usually the most prolific in all tropical countries. Some trees, like the chocolate, seem to enjoy the social life of the home.

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19 CHAPTER III HOME CONSTRUCTION ON THE KEYS These remarks have nothing to do with a city or suburban home, nothing to do with the trend of fashion in architecture, nothing to do with anything about the house except those things necessary to fit it to the needs of a tropical environment, nothing to do with its shape or division into rooms or the kind of finish. I shall refer only to those things necessary for comfort in a tropical country home arid. ilie use of materials near at hand which the man of small means can use to advantage. Every man is interested in a house that will have as much room as oossible, also safety, comfort and durability with the very least ~utlay of money for construction and upkeep. The proportions should be right and the materials of construc tion should be good. The house should be tied to the ground, and the place planted in such a way that it becomes an insepar able and natural part of the picture. As Professor Pitkin says, "You alone can make your home. Not with sticks and stones. Not with shower-baths and spiral staircases. Oh, no! If ever you have a home you make it out of yourself. You are at home only when you are yourself. You are your own building material. And your house is your castle, but your home is yourself in architecture. Some people have one-room personalities. Others have parlor-bedroom and bath souls. Some are ground-floor characters, and others have pent house personalities. Some are by nature homeless; they merely reside somewhere or else they keep moving. A home is more than a residence. Home is wherever you can comfortably be yourself." You cannot comfortably be yourself if you are in vaded by insects, by cold in winter, by heat in summer, and at times in danger of a flood of water or of flying debris in times of storm. Cellars to keep things cool, garrets to keep things warm and dry, and steep roofs to shed ice and snow are out of place in the tropics. The farther you dig down in the earth the hotter it gets. There is, in consequence, absolutely no advantage in cellars. Four or five feet below the surface you encounter dampness in many places. Comfort is mainly due to shade and ventilation. After living in all kinds of houses in half a dozen

PAGE 20

A Two-Story Rock House Enclosed by a Rock Wall An Old Church on the Keys

PAGE 21

21 tropical countries I am positively convinced that the living quarters should be on stone pillars elevated eight or nine feet above the ground. In a country which is perfectly flat a small elevation is a great relief. It adds to your feeling of privacy and security. There are several reasons for this, such as better ventila tion, better view, and far less danger from insects of various kinds. When the place is surrounded by shubbery there is less dampness and better air just a few feet above the moist surface of a tropical soil. The wood in the floor above the ground is in less danger of white-ant invasion, is open for easy inspection at all times , and can be kept coated with preservatives with less trouble. A wood floor is preferable. It gives a little when you walk and is easier on the feet. Wood is also apt to be drier, warm to the touch-in fact, closer to man and probably healthier than stone or metal , but it does increase the fire-hazard. The space underneath the living quarters is valuable for a garage , a cistern, workshop or washroom of any kind. A house should be firmly set on the rock and tied to it if pos sible. Many thousands of miles of land are the product of wind and wave, and much that the winds and waves build, winds and waves can move away. There should be a fireplace in the center of the house, even in the tropics, to afford ventilation and to anchor the whole structure in case of storm. It is weight that holds it down. If flimsily constructed it blows to pieces, but if too light, even though well constructed the whole thing may blow away. Very tight structures are often completely lifted off their foundations. The next most important thing is the shape and character of the roof. Many people forget that although the weather may be ideal for eleven months of the year it is necessary to prepare for those extraordinary factors which may skip ten years at a time, but which may come unexpectedly in the fall of the year. There is always the possibility of a wind of hurricane fury, and a torren tial downpour of rain in almost all tropical countries close to the sea-shore. It is therefore these extraordinary factors which must be considered to produce comfort and safety, regardless of fire or windstorm insurance. The great destruction of tropical hurricanes is usually due to the disregard of this fact. The main point, therefore, is to build as strong and safe as possible with in reasonable limits, rather than to build as cheap as possible

PAGE 22

22 with appearances mainly in mind. In my opinion there is nothing more important than the shape and kind of roof. There seems to be something especially penetrating and destructive in tropi cal storm waters. In many countries, for lack of better materials, roofs are constructed of palm-thatch. Although picturesque these are not only scattered by a tropical storm but form an ideal home for rats, scorpions, birds and even snakes. The roof should be firmly fastened to the rest of the house. It should have a low pitch, and should slope in four directions from the chimney in the center. There should be very narrow eaves, and when the wind hits it, should be deflected upward and slide over without meeting with more obstructions than are absolutely necessary. Auomobiles have stream-lines to deflect the wind. The same applies to snow-sheds and shelterbelts, and should apply as well to the place in which you and your family are to seek shelter. The natives of southern Italy build conical houses out of limestone rock. So far, I have found a good quality of corrugated iron, extra heavy, painted green and firmly nailed to solid board sheathing to be the best in many ways, although it is disliked by many Americans because of its association with sheds and warehouses. Throughout the tropics of the world it is far preferable to many common kinds of patent roofs or shingles. It is enexpensive, durable, reliable and tight if properly laid and painted. It yields a clean water supply for the cistern and offers the least resistance to the wind. Boards underneath will keep down the noise when it rains. In short, the essentials are to build the living quarters well above the ground, to have the roof four-sided with a slight slope and a good chimney in the center to stabilize and v~ntilate the whole structure. The house should be so built as to be open and airy in hot weather and tight, but not air-tight, in times of storm. Many old-time buildings in the tropics, although completely screened with fine mesh wire are not fitted with glass-sash but with solid shutters. In almost all tropical countries a fire is wel come in wet weather, and if exposed to northers a necessity. As to materials of construction, much depends upon locality. On the keys the natives depended upon wreckage. In many old time tropical houses I have seen mahogany floors, the planks cut out by hand, and worn smooth by much scrubbing, and the tread of bare feet. Some of the limestone rock is soft and can

PAGE 23

23 be cut easily with an axe or sawn. This hardens on exposure to the air. Some of it is like marble. Sand for mortar is usually plentiful by the seashore. Lime may be secured by burning the surface rock. The best lime I have ever seen was produced by burning conch shells. Wood and shells, or wood and surface rock are mixed in a pile and burnt. A goodly quality of lime results which can be slaked; then allowed to season for a few weeks. It produces a fine mortar. There is nothing gained in using a binder stronger than the rocks you are binding together. All the bulky materials of construction can sometimes be found on the same piece of land. Beach-combing in the early days was a profitable and exciting pastime. Much that was needed was washed ashore. Millions of feet of excellent lumber have wasted on our shores. Passing schooners often lost their deck-loads. In places on limestone islands close to the sea, well water is often brackish and hard so that cisterns are necessary. These should be covered, should be above ground and should be, if possible, in the shade of the house. A covered galvanized iron tank is the cheapest and best. On the keys some leave the cement cistern open to the air and allow a small plant to float therein so that racoons and birds can drink. Solar heaters are now common so that in a country with plenty of sunshine it is possible to have hot water at all times of the day. A coil of pipe painted black and exposed to the sun may be easily arranged. A tank properly insulated will retain the heat through out the night. Perhaps there is special health in sun-kissed water. A solar condenser is also possible. Alexander Graham Bell de vised a simple solar condenser that produced pure distilled water from the water in brackish pools. If the house is fitted to its environment it will be inexpensive and lasting. A house constructed according to northern methods is not fitted to the conditions of a tropical climate. There is no clay in south Florida, so both brick and tile are imported. Tile roofs are beautiful but they are expensive and far from per fect. They are dependent on a good roof underneath, and even so need to be mended and repaired in a very few years. It is often difficult to locate a leak in a tile roof. The tile roofs and miradors of the tropics are beautiful and pleasant, but in my experience most of them leak when it rains the way it can rain in the Antillean area.

PAGE 24

A Cavendish Bana.na. on the Keys The Apple Banana is also grown but it is small, acid in flavor, with a thin skin.

PAGE 25

25 The use of native rock avoids paint, and old stone walls if well built, improve with age. A real house should grow out of the land, out of materials yielded by the surrounding land, and should fit the personality of the owner. If the lines are right, regardless of the materials of construction if will look right, especially if surrounded by the proper kind of foliage. Size and cost have little to do with it. It should fit its environment, and fifty dollars worth of shrubbery properly planted may add a thousand dollars to it value. An old rocky piece of land in the wild has little value. If, by his skill and efforts, the homemaker converts these useless things into something productive he has added not only to his own but to the wealth of the nation. Land plus intelligent work is the main source of wealth. Resources are useless unless intelli gently developed and used. These resources may be nothing but a location and rough piles of rock till intelligent work converts them into value. Land is worth what you put into it in the way of brains and brawn. Architecture is one of the greatest of all professions of man because it combines art and practicality. An artist can paint a picture with rock and tree as well as with brush and paint. The better he builds it, with crude local materi als, the greater his genius and the greater his conquest. I know of no worthier effort than the building out of local materials, lying useless on the land, a comfortable and durable home surrounded by trees artistically arranged, selected not only for their beauty but for the products they yield as well. He is the creator of pro ductive values. On these little places the architect's fees may be small, but there is no place where there is better opportunity to show his genius, or better opportunity to serve the bulk of the people. Thrift should be used in its construction, without desire to furnish labor or produce a market for all kinds of patented devices and materials. A home should be so constructed as to render life simpler, easier, and above all, add to your comfort and piece of mind. If it adds to your troubles it fails in one of its most important functions. Those who are eager to share the wealth of the world are usually those who have nothing. A man who owns a suitable and comfortable home, free from excessive taxation, owns more than the average citizen of any country. There is no easier place to build it than here, and no better time than now.

PAGE 26

26 Every place ought to have its own distinctive type of architec ture, adapted to its own special environment. Many places con sist of samples of all kinds, irregularly mixed and jumbled to gether, too expensive or big for the personality of the owner, and often burdened with mortgages and useless clap-trap. A high standard of living is desirable, but there must he a limit. It is irksome to be too closely budgeted and to pay installments on things long after they are ready for the junk pile. CHAPTER IV LIST OF FRUITS AND OTHER TREES THAT HAVE BEEN OR CAN BE GROWN ON THE KEYS IN SHELTER-BELT AREAS From a tropical standpoint the premier fruits are coconut, banana, breadfruit, avocado, mango, lime, pineapple, soursop, guava, papaw , tomato, and melons. The premier root crop throughout the tropical world is probably the sweet potato, al though its extensive use over broad areas is not generally recog nized. Lists of Fruits Achras sapota-Sapota zapotilla Akee-Blighia sapida Anacardium occidentale-Cashew Ananas ananas-Pineapple Annona reticulata-Custard apple Annona glabra-Pond apple Annona Muricata-Sour sop Annona squamosa-Sugar apple Artocarpus communis-Breadfruit Avocado-Persea gratissima Banana-Musa paradisiaca Blighia sapida-Akee Breadfruit-Artocarpus communis Cantaloupe-Cucumis melo Carob-Ceratonia siliqua Carica papaya-Papaw

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27 Carissa grandiflora-Natal plum Casimiroa edulis-White sapota Cashew-Anacardium occidentale Ceratonia siliqua-Carob Cherry surinam-Eugenia uniflora Cherry-La urocerasus sphaerocarpa Chrysobalanus icaco-Cocoplum Citrullus citrullus-W atermelon Citron-Citrus medica Citrus aurantium-Sweet orange Citrus decumanna-Pomelo or grapefruit Citrus limetta-Lime Citrus limonium-Lemon Citrus medica-Citron Citrus nobilis-Tangerine Citrus vulgaris-Bitter orange Coconut or Cocopalm-Cocos nucifera Cocoplum-Chrysobalanus icaco Cocos nucifera-Coconut or Cocopalm Cucumis melo-Cantaloupe Custard apple--Annona reticulata Date palm-Phoenix dactylifera Egg-fruit-Lucuma rivicoa var. angustifolia Eugenia jambos-Rose apple Eugenia pitanga-Surinam cherry Ficus carica-Fig Fig-Ficus carica Grape, Key-Vitis sp. Grapefruit-Citrus decumanna Guava-Psidium guajava Hibicus sahdariffa-Roselle or Jamaica sorrel Laurocerasus sphaerocarpa-West India cherry Lemon-Citrus limonium Lime--Citrus limetta Lucuma rivicoa var. angustifolia-Ti-es or Egg-fruit Lycopersicum esculentum-Tomato Mangifera indica-Mango Mango-Mangifera indica Melicocus bijugatus-Spanish Lime Mulberry-Morns nigra and rubra

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28 Morus nigra-Black mulberry Morus rubra-Red Mulberry Musa paradiciaca-Banana Muscadinia munsoniana-Wild shore-grape Natal-plum-Carissa grandiflora Orange--Citrus vulgaris and Citrus aurantium Opuntia ficus-indica-Tuna Papaw-Carica papaya Persea gratissima-Avocado Phoenix dactylifera-Date-palm Pineapple--Ananas ananas Pomelo-Citrus decumana Pomegranate--Punica granatum Pond apple--Annona glabra Punica granatum-Pomegranate Psidium guajava-Common guava Rose apple--Eugenia jambos Roselle--Hibiscus sabdariffa Sa pota za potilla-Sa podilla Sapodilla-Sapota ( or Achras) zapotilla Shaddock-Citrus decumanna Sour-sop-Annona muricata Spanish lime--Melicocus bijugatus Sugar apple--Annona squamosa Surinam cherry-Eugenia uniflora Tamarind-Tamarindus indica Tamarindus indica-Tamarind Tangerine--Citrus nobilis , Ti-es-Lucuma rivicoa var. angustifolia Tomato-Lycopersicum esculentum Vitis sp.-Key grape W atermelon-Citrullus citrullus When a wind strikes a forest of hardy trees it is not only di verted upward but it is checked and divided by every twig and branch. These shelter-belts are not just any kind of plantings. They are carefully constructed to do the work for which they are meant to meet the conditions of each locality. The area pro tected in its lea is twenty times the height of the trees. With a shelter-belt two hundred feet wide, containing in its center trees

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29 fifty feet high, the zone protected before the wind again reaches normal velocity is one thousand feet. If a series of such belts are constructed, vast areas would be safe especially along the shores of almost all tropical seas. Big climates really consist of many little climates. Disturb ances of many kinds in the atmosphere cling to the surface of the earth. All geographers are agreed that at least one-third of all the land in the country should be in hardy storm-fast trees. If properly placed in shelter-belts, where most needed, it would be far more effective that scattered by chance here and there over the face of the earth. Patchs of mangrove, although in swamp or perfectly level land, often look like hills completely covered with vegetation. This is due to the fact that they are usually rounded and sloping. This effect is produced by the spreading of the trees in every direction, the oldest and biggest being in the center, and the smallest and youngest on the outer edges. These trees fight not only the wind but the waves as well. They crawl on their scraggly legs out into the sea, consolidating muddy shores , protecting the land in the lea from the breaking of the waves which in times of hurricane are loaded with booms and other refuse. Groups of trees could be properly fitted to their environment -natural trees where they belong, swamp trees where they belong, hammock trees in hammocks, sand-lovers in sand land, together with all the smaller shrubbery and herbage that naturally belong there. In other words, plant forests in forest formation not just trees. Trees are for service to and for man, and not the object of constant protection from man. If planted how, when and where they should be they will do their part in protecting us against the destructive forces of nature. Dew never falls. It congeals on objects of all kinds. In a flat treeless country there is no chance for it to form. Where the wind . has full sweep it seldom forms. But wherever there are twigs, branches and leaves it forms freely, and in the tropics is a squrce of much moisture. In many tropical countries it means the difference between desert and jungle. South Florida is in the lea of the north wind. It sweeps on southward over the water, causing plenty of discomfort to the north shores of many tropical countries. Florida is geographical ly so situated that shelter belts could be rendered very effective

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-1 NOIIM WIN VELOCI DIAGRAM SHOWING EFFECTS OF SHELTER BELTS ON WIND VELOCITY _..;..-----~PROTECTED I NORMAL ZONE lv~6~rv D istonce 20 timt~ height of windbr-001< I t I I L _____________ J DIAGRAM SHOWING CROSS SECTION OF TYPICAL SHELTER BELT ON TEN ROD STRIP FENCE Diagram by U.-s. Fore~t Service

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31 if properly constructed. It might he better to render them wedge shape across the state so that the winds would he shunted into the Gulf or Ocean. Above all we should avoid broad open spaces over which the wind has full sweep, and plant such trees on the keys that will check the wind and afford protection. Native and naturalized trees are best because they have stood the test of time and many gales, otherwise they would not he here. The following is a list of about fifty trees and other plants yield ing fine woods, oils, fibers, foods and medicines. There are many more which I have not mentioned which are growing on the keys and many more which have never yet been tried, hut of all the trees of the world it would he difficult to find a more useful or hardier time-tried group: Pinus caribaea-Cuban Pine The common timber pine of South Florida. Grows also in West Indies and Central America. Also called Slash pine. It is a hardy tropical pine, common on lower keys. Sabal palmetto-Cabbage Palmetto Our fine native palm, yielding palm-cabbage and medicinal berries. Cocos nucifera-Cocopalm One of the most beautiful and useful members of the plant world, yielding food, drink and shelter to many primitive peoples of the world. This tree grows in sandy soil along the seashores of tropical Florida, and although most of the nuts were planted by the hand of man, undoubtedly some have sprung from seeds which have washed ashore and been buried in sea weed and sand on the beach. Phoenix dactylifera-Date Palm The date palm grows and fruits on the keys, hut it requires a desert sun to produce sweet fruit. Casuarina equisetifolia and cunninghamiana-Austra lian Pine, Beefwood A tree of the East Indies and Australia, hut now common throughout the tropics. Grows close to the sea, and has been used

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32 in the fixation of moving dunes along the seashore. It is usually called the Australian Pine, but a patch of them on Biscayne Bay is know as the "Cedars." This tree has become naturalized in south Florida and young trees of this species are growing here and there on the shore, the seeds of which have no doubt been washed ashore. It is a valuable addition to the silva of the State of Florida. Should be extensively planted for timber. It with stands the gales and yields a wood like oak. C. cunninghamiana is unexcelled as a windbreak. Morns rubra-Red mulberry Common throughout the State. Morns nigra-Black Mulberry Commonly planted for its large, black, juicy fruit. Probably originally came from Persia. Always good anywhere. Ficus aurea-Golden Fig South Florida and the West Indies. Grows first on limbs and trunks of other trees, throws down aerial roots to the ground and finally chokes and kills the tree upon which it started. Very vigorous and hardy on the keys. Fine for windbreak. Artocarpus communis-Breadfruit Grows in Key West and the Bahamas and would grow on all the keys if properly protected. Cocolohis uvifera-Sea Grape Common on the seashore of southern Florida, also West Indies. Annona muricata-Sour Sop Fine fruit for ice cream and other purposes. May prove valuable when properly handled. Moringa moringa-Horseradish Tree The root of this tree, finely scraped, is eaten as horseradish. The Oil of Ben, used by perfumers, is extracted from the seeds of this tree. Oil used to lubricate watches. Chrysohalanus icaco-Cocoplum Excellent for jam. Very hardy. Fruit contains rich, oily seed.

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33 Laurocerasus sphaerocarpa-W est Indian Cherry Good tree. Pithecolohium gaudaloupense-Goathush, Black-head This is a native hush, hut sometimes reaches tree proportions. It is valuable because it is the first hardwood leguminous shrub to appear in the pine woods , and on some islands. It enriches the soil by its litter and paves the way for other hardwoods. It marks the beginning of the transition from pinewoods to ham mock conditions. Alhizzia lehhek-Siris or Lehhek Tree Called Woman's Tongue in Nassau. Lysiloma latisiliqua-Wild Tamarind Common in places on the keys. Wood heavy, hard, tough, close-grained, rich brown, tinged with red. Very vigorous. Excellent soil rejuvenator. Wonderful shelter tree with rich litter. Fine cabinet wood. Leucaena glauca-Jumhai or Lead Tree Hardy forerunner. Tamarindus indica-Tamarind Heavy hearer on the keys. Ceratonia siliqua-St. John's Bread or Carob Ichthyomethia piscipula-Jamaica Dogwood A common and very valuable tree for south Florida. Might he used to advantage as a shade and ornamental. Grows quickly, has an abundance of pea-like flowers in clusters which honey bees are fond of. As the name indicates, it is a fish poison. The hark and twigs are bruised and lowered in a basket into the water. A poison is dissolved which stupefies fish that come near it. They float to the surface and are easily captured. This tree grows well from seeds and it propagation should he encouraged. Hardy soil rejuvenator. Cajan cajan-Pigeon Pea Makes a small hut useful tree. Poultry are fond of its seeds and its leaves enrich the soil. Peas used for the famous pigeon pea soup.

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34 Guaiacum sanctum-Lignum Vitae Native to the keys. Beautiful blue flowers, highly ornamental, yielding one of the world's toughest woods. Amyris elemifera-Torchwood Wood heavy, hard, strong, close-grained; very resinous, very durable; light orange in color. Burns like a torch. Torch Key was probably named for this wood. Citrus limetta-Lime The lime is the premier fruit on the keys. The fine roots penetrate the alkaline rock better than other citrus fruits. It can be used as stock for other species but not very successfully. The little trees produce small but juicy fruit when budded to tangerines. The famous Perrine Lemon will probably do well on lime roots since it is half lime and half lemon. The seed of the lime is sown thick in a sheltered rich hole with sufficient soil. When only a few inches high, during a moist time they are planted wherever it is possible to find a hole in the rock. They should be sheltered by the wild-tamarind, or similar hardy trees, and should be kept free of weeds and vines. They are full of spines and hard to pick if mosquitoes are bad. There should be space enough for a person to pass between the trees. Before prohibition the profit was good, easily one hundred dollars per acre net a year. Hurricanes injured the groves and the industry was neglected, but of late some have netted two hundred dollars or more an acre. There is no finer product of sun and soil than the fragrant half wild key lime. Whether for limeade at a Sunday school picnic or a gin-ricky at your club the wild Mexican lime has never yet been excelled by any variety pro duced by man. The aroma is pleasantly fragrant, and the juice deliciously acid and abundant. Unfortunately practically all recipes call for lemons. There is nothing more refreshing and healthful on a hot day than a limeade. Years ago we pickled limes in the salt sea-water and shipped them to Boston where the sour salt flavor appealed to the children at recess. These limes were in demand in the early days to prevent scurvy on shipboard. Old square riggers were called "lime juicers," and old pirates and buccaneers of that day and region depended on the lime.

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35 Bursera simaruha-Gumha Limbo South Florida and the West Indies. Grows easily from a -cutting or large limb stuck in the ground; frequently used in this way for live fence posts. Grows very quickly and has a very striking, bronzy red trunk, with papery bark. The term gumbo-limbo is probably a negro corruption of the term gum elemi. Called "gamolimie" in the Bahamas, which is also probably a corruption of gum-elemi. Gum good for musilage. Also used as a medicine. Swietenia mahagoni-Mahogany Called also madeira, the latter word being simply the Spanish for "wood." Common on the keys and parts of the southern mainland. The king of all woods. Something ought to be done to encourage the perpetuation of this, our choicest native hard wood, in the only part of the mainland of the United States where it can possibly grow. It is very hardy, and although a heavy wood, grows with surprising rapidity. When I first visited the keys in 1892 I saw a pig-pen made of mahogany poles. The crooked parts of the trees had been used for boat timbers. Drypetes diversifolia-Whitewood South Florida and West Indies. A very beautiful native tree. Gymnanthes lucida-Crahwood Southern Florida and We s t Indies. Some say this wood is poisonous. It is, however, a very pretty wood and is often used in the manufacture of canes, paper-knives and similar articles. Ricinus communis-Castor Oil Tree Attains the size of a small tree in south Florida. Valuable Plant. Oil is very useful, seed pumice is a valuable fertilizer, and the plant is not exhaustive to the soil. In medicine is a great detoxifier. Aleurites moluccana-Lumhang or Candelnut Tree Yields a fine oil similiar to Tung. Hippomane mancinella-Manchineel Southern Florida and the West Indies. A tree to be shy of. Fortunately not common on the mainland. Poisonous to the

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36 touch of many people, producing a distressing dermatitis worse than poison ivy. I have tried washing with pure soap and rain water and followed with tannic acid, with fairly good results. Metopium-Poison Wood Very common weed tree in south Florida. Poisonous and when bruised exudes a gum which blackens the trunk of the tree. One of the first trees to come up after hammock land has been cut and burnt. Mangifera indica-Mango Extensively planted in the southern countries, producing an abundance of choice fruits, some of the imported and improved varieties ranking with the choicest of all fruits. At the same time a valuable shade and ornamental tree. I like the Chinese or Siagon mango the best. The Chinese mango comes true to seed. Anacardium occidentale-Cashew Nut Splendid nut. Will grow if sheltered. Sapindus saponaria-Soap Berry The hull of the seed contains soap. Fine for cleaning porce lain. The seeds are used to stupefy fishes. Blighia sapida-Vegetahle Calf Brains The Akee of Africa and Jamaica. The white covering of the seeds is a wholesome vegetable. Grows well if sheltered. Melicoccus hijugatus-Spanish Lime or Genip; Mamon Pulp edible. Nuts in Venezuela are roasted and eaten like chestnuts. Common in Key West. Fruits are eaten raw or con verted into jam. Called Spanish Lime because its fruit resembles a green lime. Ground seeds used for cattle feed. Pleasant shade tree and storm-fast. Rhamnidium ferreum-Black Ironwood The heaviest wood in the United States of America. Ceiha pentandra-Silk Cotton Tree Yields kapok. Mexican species yield pochote. Carica papaya-Papaw Contains vegetable pepsin. Fine fruit.

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37 Bixa orellana-Annatta A small tree yielding an orange colored dye, used for butter color, and for coloring other foods. Persea gratissima, aquacate, avocado, avocato, alligator pear, butter pear, midshipman's butter, palta, etc. A salad fruit. Practically naturalized in south Florida. Ex tensively cultivated for home consumption and shipment north. Several improved varieties propagated by budding. Must be protected on the keys from salt wind. Of the different kinds I like the Lula and Linda. Punica granatum-Pomegranate Grows well on keys. Conocarpus erecta-Buttonwood Southern Florida. Chiefly along salt shores. Highly prized for fuel. The best fuel I know of since it makes great heat and almost no smoke. Fine for building shelter-belts along the sea shore. Good wind break. Bucida buceras-Black Olive Tree A fine shade tree, found wild only on Elliott's Key. Laguncularia racemosa-White Mangrove South Florida and West Indies. Muddy shores, common. Eugenia jambos-Roseapple A common introduced species; although a native of India it is naturalized in the West Indies. Eugenia pitanga is the much prized Surinam Cherry, grows in yards which are sheltered. The rose-apple has a strong rose flavor. Psidium guajava-Common Guava Probably the greatest of all jelly-producing fruits. Common throughout Florida. Melaleuca leucodendron-The Cajeput Tree Grows well in Florida and yields Cajeput oil. Grows in salt and fresh swamp. Rhizophora mangle-Red Mangrove South Florida and the West Indies. A wonderful tree, grows

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Mahogany Trees in South Florida

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39 in salt water and of great value in consolidating muddy shores; it has been called the "land former." Deserves to be protected because of the protection it affords to exposed shores in times of storm. Planations on the keys in the shelter of mangroves suffered little damage in the great storm in the fall of 1906, while those exposed to the fury of the waves bearing floating wreckage were ruined. Sapota zapotillo-Sapodilla Naturalized on the keys, where it is a common fruit. Planted also on the mainland. A tree hard to start, but hardy when started. Yields an everlasting wood and a gum called chicle, the basis of chewing gum. Sideroxylum mastichodendron-Mastic Valuable forest tree of southern Florida. Grows to be large and is quite common, shedding an abundance of yellow fruits which are edible in case one likes the flavor. Mastic would probably make a satisfactory shade tree. Storm-fast and fine wood. Lucuma rivicoa var. angustifolia-Ti-es, or Egg-fruit A promising fruit. Olea euporea-Olive Grows but does not fruit. There was the same difficulty with it in southern California. With proper treatment it might yield a valuable crop for this region. Avicenna nitida-Black Mangrove Very valuable tree, like the red mangrove, for consolidating muddy shores. Exostema carihaeum-Princewood Bark a tonic. Would probably make a useful bitters like qumme. Capriola dactylon-Bermuda Grass Is a common pasture grass on the keys. It was apparently introduced from Europe years ago.

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40 Tricholaena rosea-Natal Grass This beautiful grass forming pink pastures on the sands of south Florida is spreading by the wayside on the keys, being sucked along by passing autos. It fed the big strong Red Afri kander cattle, the best breed for hot, dry countries. The Key Grape often grown by the key natives in their back yards should not be confounded with the little wild grape that is native everywhere in the bush. This little grape is used in wine manufacture, but the real so-called Key Grape is of large sized berries , fair sized bunches, and was, I have been told, brought from the Island of Eleutheria . To Eleutheria I have been told it came from a hot-house in England. They are hard to find at the present time. At one time these keys were cultivated to pineapples which were shipped by schooner to Baltimore to the canneries. The Cuban competition was too strong. In the same way these rocky keys could never compete with the cheap labor of Yucatan and Cuba in the production of sisal plants. Dr. Perrine introduced sisal on Lignum Vitae Key a hundred years ago. Progeny from these plants have spread and some slips were shipped to the Bahamas. It is still common on the keys but it is never used. The banana melon is usually planted after the first crop of tomatoes. It is a large melon and very delicious, selling readily at ten cents per pound. Many people rate the key tomato more as a fruit than vegetable, since many who go to the keys carry a little salt and eat them freely out of hand. They are solid and sweet. Carissa grandiflora ( Gifford variety) should be extensively planted on the keys for hedges. It grows well there, yields a fruit similar in flavor to the cranberry. Has a milky juice and does not burn easily. Very spiny. Highly ornamental. The best hedge plant for highways. Years ago I planted a very small Hungarian watermelon on the keys after a crop of tomatoes. The melon was very sweet, about the size of a grapefruit, and could be served half a melon to a person, to be eaten with a spoon. It was a novelty while it lasted, but apparently o-qr people prefer big melons and big pumpkins. Large watermelons have good flavor on the keys but are often misshapen from growing among the rocks.

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41 The Key pumpkin is a small green pumpkin, but of extra good quality. It is the same pumpkin so common in the Bahamas and the pumpkin raised by the Seminoles. The Indian word "Chassahowitska" mean "hanging pumpkins." The Indians girdled the live-oaks and let the pumpkin vines climb their trunks so that they looked like strange trees bearing large green fruits. There were patches of the Prickly Pear and Prickly Apple, especially near Indian campsites. These desert plants grow well in rocky salina land, at times flooded with salt water. The same applies to the sisal which grows also in salt lowlands. These plants no doubt, like the Red Mangrove--although growing in wet places, are physiologically dry. Dr. John K. Small in a note on page 9 in a pamphlet on Reminiscences of A. W. Chapman, Journal of the New York Botanical Garden, in referring to comptie says, "This plant was very likely native on Key West before its pinelands were devasted." On a military map of Florida prepared by order of the Honorable Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War, in 1856, the archipelago west of Bahia Honda was marked Pine Islands. The comptie referred to belongs to the cycas or sago family. It is a wild root crop, yielding a very nutritous starch which was the mainstay of the early settlers and Indians that preceded them. It should be cultivated because it produces a valuable food on exceedingly poor, dry, rocky land. Palmetto Cabbage or the terminal bud of our cabbage palmetto was also used for food and is still used but no tree should ever be sacrificed for a pot of cabbage. There is one thing done on the keys which I have never seen done elsewhere. The worker cuts off the side branches of a small sapling. He sticks his grubhoe tight down over the sapling just as you would thread a needle. The sapling is allowed to grow for a few weeks until the eye is tightly and completely filled with wood. Then he saws the sapling off below the grub hoe. In that way he has a handle which does not come off. He has actually grown a handle on his grubhoe. All of these crops demand shelter from the destructive forces of nature. Shelter belts, or wind breaks are a necessity. Any wind over fifteen miles an hour is more or less destructive to tender vegetation.

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42 CHAPTER V HISTORICAL ITEMS EARLY INDIAN INHABITANTS OF THE KEYS Leading like stepping stones in a curved line southwestward from Miami to Key West and beyond is an archipelago of islands, or keys and harrier reefs. These islands front on a sea, sometimes called the Gulf of Florida, which is bordered by many more islands of a similar nature in the Bahamas and on the coast of Cuba. Through this unnamed sea flows the greatest of all rivers, called by Benjamin Franklin, the Gulf Stream, with many islands and shoals forming a sort of delta known as the Bahamas. Because of the warm waters in this great unnamed sea to the south of us, our nights are seldom cold like in northern Africa, so that the cocopalm and other tropical trees flourish. This, together with a watertahle close to the surface, gives to these little limestone islands many treasures from the hand of nature and many undeveloped possibilities. Along the Florida Keys is the Hawk Channel, separated from the deep Gulf Stream by a jagged harrier reef of coral, which for years has been a cemetery for ships. Many creeks and hays formed safe hiding places for small craft engaged in wrecking and plunder even before the Spaniards landed. Even within the memory of men now living, when a ship hit the reef the conch horns blew, and by a sort of grapevine telegraphy the news spread and she soon fell an easy victim. What the Indian did was no different from what the white man did and still does when opportunity offers. It was a fine rendezvous for pirates of all kinds. Lieutenant Porter was a famous pirate fighter. He was the first to use old ferry-boats for the purpose on the Florida keys. They drew little water, they moved both ways with equal ease, and with guns at both ends they finally drove away the worst and the most of them. It was the first time ferry-boats were ever used in warfare. With the products of plunder from passing ships in one of the world's greatest sea-lanes with sea and hack lands teeming with game it was a Heaven-on-earth for adventurous rascals of all kinds, including the Indian who could safely hide in a hack-land of mud and unbridged rivers. The Arawaks over in Cuba were lazy, peaceful Indians. So

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43 were the Lucayans over in the Bahamas, but the Calusas who inhabited south Florida were like the Caribs, fierce and active. The last chief of these Calusas was a tough actor by the name of Chakika. There was turmoil for a long time throughout Florida. We had about one hundred and fifty forts and almost as many broken treaties. We paid Spain fifteen millions for Florida. Then we drove the Indians into the swamps of the south in order to sell the land to get back the purchase price. According to our treaty with Spain we agreed to uphold the rights of the natives. The great masterpiece of these treaties was promulgated by General Macomb in 1839. We agreed that if the Indians would move into the swamp-lands they would not be deported and would be allowed to develop their own destiny unhindered. It is related that Tiger Tail, rather than leave his native land, killed himself by drinking powdered glass in water. Indians suffered from home-sickness the same or even worse than other people, not so much for the fragile shacks in which they lived, but for the general environment, the place where the spirits of their ancestors were supposed to linger. Anyway, the famous Chakika, with two hundred and fifty followers, was living on the Caloosahatchee, the river of the Calusas leading from their home on Lake Okeechobee to their settlements on the Gulf. Colonel Harney with nineteen soldiers went to this section to establish a trading post under this Macomb treaty. They were murdered by the Indians except Colonel Harney and a few others who retreated with haste. This, so far as I have been able to determine, is our first introduction to the famous blood thirsty Chakika. He was reputed to be large, powerful and savage. After the scrap with Colonel Harney nothing happened for some time. Mixed with these Indians were maroons, mostly free negroes. Probably some were runaway slaves. Nothing happened until one morning in August in 1840. Seventeen canoes, loaded with Indians under the direction of this same Chakika, landed on Indian Key and commenced to loot, kill and burn. They killed Dr. Perrine but spared Dr. Howe, while Mr. Goodyear of rubber fame and the vice-president of Dr. Perrine's company, it is reported, safely hid in the thick foliage of a native rubber tree. Anyway, they killed six people. Others escaped to Matecumbe. There was a revenue vessel belonging to the Florida squadron in the harbor. In the excitement they

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44 lost some of their guns overboard. Anyway, after the Indians had finished they quietly paddled with their loot into the Ever glades. Chakika hid his stuff on some little islands about thirty miles west of Miami, which was then known as Fort Dallas. The river was called the Miami River, Miami being a Calusa word for "big lake," the same as Okeechobee in Seminole. Now thou sands of tourists speed by Chakika's Islands on the Tamiami Trail at the rate of a mile a minute. It is easy to imagine old Chakika and his dusky followers under the live-oaks, surrounded by piles of loot, shielded by the dense fringe of Cocoplum on these little islands in the glades. It is hard to imagine what may not be found buried in the mud on these patches of land, stolen long ago from passing ships. The white men probably stole it also-so these Indians were our aboriginal highjackers. To the eastward the trail led to the Miami River, to the west to Shark and Hamey's Rivers, a trail for canoes through the mud and sawgrass. To the south and east lay the Indian Hunt ing Ground s, in the heart of which the well-known Perrine Grant was located. Chakika was known as_ a Spanish Indian, but they were probably not too friendly for the Spaniards built their missions northward by St. Augustine and neglected the south end because of the fierceness of the natives. He was also called a Muspa Indian; the word "muspa" is one of the few Calusa words that have survived. In December, 1840, four or five months after the massacre on Indian Key, some of the loot was discovered in Chakika's camp, west of Miami River. Colonel Harney was sent with one hundred men from Fort Dallas to wreak vengeance on the Indians. The camp was surrounded and five of the warriors were killed, in cluding Chakika. They hung them to trees, and the slayer of Chakika took his scalp. Thus ended the last of the chiefs of the Calusas. Word reached Sam Jones, who lived to the northward on the west edge of the glades in a place still known as Sam Jones' Town, still an Indian center, still a lone spot on the map. His real name was something like Ar-pe-i-ka, although variously spelled. He came to bury his Indian comrades according to Indian custom. Old Sam Jones was not a Calusa. He was chief of the Mikasuki tribe. He was a great medicine man, knew roots, barks, etc., but was an old man when the Seminole War began. When the war was over he had about seventeen warriors

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45 and a large number of women in his clan. The Mikasukis had a bad reputation, even among the Indians. They were a roving, gypsy-like people, not very honest, and not highly respected by other Indians, although they constitute a considerable portion of the Indians we call Seminoles. The question is often asked, "Who were the Calusas ?" The following is a resume of the descriptions furnished by the American Bureau of Ethnology. The Calusa>was an important tribe that inhabited the southwest coast of Florida from Tampa to Cape Sable, and Cape Florida on inland to Lake Okeechobee. Their influence extended also over part of the East Coast. They cultivated the ground to a limited extent. They were expert fishermen, seamen and fierce fighters. They were the last to come under Spanish influence. They were accused of cannibalism, and in spite of flies wore no dothes. They attacked Ponce de Leon in 1513 with eighty canoes and drove him away after an all-day fight. They accumu lated wealth from passing ships. In 1600 they carried fish, skins and other things in trade to Havana by canoe. They were gradually forced southward by other Indians from the north. When Florida was ceded to England eighty families moved to Havana. A few were left behind and maintained a distinct existence till the close of the second Seminole War. Nothing is known of their linguistic relationships. Nobody knows where they came from or the stock of which they were a part or to which they might be related. Some Indian boys of this tribe attended a mission school in Havana in the sixteenth century. A Jesuit by the name of Rogel and an assistant studied their language but no records have been found. Fontaneda, and a Quaker by the name of Dickinson, were caught in their clutches and both have written books describing their experiences. They also held captive two hundred Arawaks from Cuba. These Arawaks were hunting for the fountain of youth, and were held in a sort of bondage by the Calusa over by Turner's Creek on the West Coast .. Except for these meager records, a few place names, and a few camp sites, there is nothing left of them. It is more than likely that the Seminoles who pushed them off the map of Florida captured their wives and children. The Seminole is therefore, no doubt, a mixture of several tribes, including the Calusa and the negro, all of whom had in common a well founded hatred for the white man.

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Ficus anrea-The Golden or Strangler Fig One of the Commonest .Wild Trees on the Keys

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47 They may have introduced the cotton and various cacti yield ing fruits. Cacti and wild cotton are common on old Indian camp sites on the keys. When water was scarce it is said the Indians squeezed the juice out of the cactus fruits for drink. They would push a stick through the fruit and hold it for a short time over a fire to singe off the spines. EARLY ENGLISH SETTLERS ON THE KEYS In 1892 while instructor in Swathmore College T was sent to the Bahamas to arrange for an expedition from Swathmore and the University of Pennsylvania. I went first to the Island of Eleuthera, an island settled long ago by the Eleutherian Ad venturers. When my job was finished I shipped. on an old steamer called the Lizzie Henderson, bound for Tampa with a load of rock for the construction of the Tampa Bay Hotel. We stopped on the way at Key West for fuel and water. At that time there were many people living on the keys, but the mainland was sparsely settled. The ship had brought sisal slips to Nassau from Lignum Vitae Key. When we passed Biscayne Bay the captain said there were two small settlements near the Miami River. He said the bay was shallow and the land very wild and rocky, but that some day they had hopes of building a city that would be bigger and better than Key West. He explained that they had plenty of fresh water in the Biscayne Bay region fit for household use. Little did I realize that the mysterious shore in the offing would be my home for thirty-five years. Tampa was little more than a village, with sandy , grassy streets through which cattle freely roamed. They showed me a fine grapefruit tree full of fruit which they said had little value, and being bitter was eaten only by the negroes. A few years later while professor in the New York State College of Forestry, in company with a friend, I left Ithaca for Miami. It was necessary to spend the night in Jacksonville. Early in the morning the bright yellow-colored train, with a chair-car for the well-to-do left for Miami. The train stopped one hundred and eighty-seven times on its journey south. The cars were full of dust and smoke. We finally arrived after mid night. It was moonlight and the upper porch of our hotel looked

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48 down on many yards full of tropical trees and fragrant flowers. We asked Colonel Waddell if there was anything of special interest in the neighborhood. He recommended a trip to Coco nut Grove, so we hired an old negro with a pony and coach and followed a narrow white road through a dense tropical jungle. It was like a white ribbon through a tunnel of green. We went to the Peacock Inn, and liked it so well that we sent back for our baggage. The bay was filled with picturesque sail boats. Some were bringing in turtle, conchs and fish; others were loaded with truck and fruit from the keys. Others had brought passengers and groceries from Key West. One man on the porch said that he thought they might be able to grow vegetables on the mainland as well as on the keys if they could find the right kind of fertilizer. Seminoles were loafing on the lawn. The names of such men as Agassiz were on the register. South Florida was practically an island, separated from the rest of the state by miles of mud and unbridged rivers. Key West was the main city. All this country depended on boat trade to and from Key West. It was the metropolis and the mainland was the back country. With the construction of highways and railroads this has all been reversed. The center has shifted to Miami. Formerly this region was West Indian or Antillean in character. It was soon overwhelmed by northern notions, and soon lost its intimate connection with Cuba and the Bahamas. The construc tion of highways and railroads marked a very decided epoch in the history of south Florida. The perfection of light-houses and fast boats stopped the wrecking on the shores. In short, at that time the keys lost their West Indian crops, West Indian natives, West Indian customs and West Indian glamor. There is per haps little of the Florida of old which can be saved. The old time atmosphere is gone because the things which produced it no longer exist. The very landscape has changed. Northern customs have prevailed, and I doubt if we are any better, cer tainly not happier than in those good old days when nobody locked their doors, when everybody had plenty to eat and no body was ever in a hurry. Wrecking was a legitimate business, and Key West was its center. Captains of old time schooners had their homes there. This extended back to about 1858. Pre vious to this date, for many years the whole country, except the Lower Keys, was in constant turmoil. The natives fled in fear

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49 of the Indians, and there is little to record except the establish ment of forts and skirmishes here and there in a kind of guerilla warfare. Back of 1858 were Spanish and Indian days, about which very little is really known. Perrine tried to settle it in 1840, but long before then the Indians were on the warpath. During Spanish times I am sure this country had many interesting events not recorded in any history. Many of the English settlers of the Keys came from the Bahamas, especially the Island of Eleuthera, and with them came many useful things. I can trace more to Eleuthera than to any other island. Sitting on a bank of coral sand on this Island of Eleuthera overlooking the broad Atlantic your mind harks back to the seventeenth century when the Eleutherian Adventurers first settled this island. W om and worried by the pressure of people and policies these Adventurers sought a place where they could do as they pleased, so they named the island Eleuthera to replace the Cigatoo or Segatoo of Columbus. This has been the dream of all peoples from the beginning of time. New settlements throughout the world have been built on migra tions founded on discontent. So Eleuthera was selected and named as the place where "every man might enjoy his own opinion or religion without control or question." No colony was ever founded on broader ideas of freedom. This company of Eleutherian Adventurers was formed in London in 1649. Flor ida was ceded to the English by Spain in 1763 in exchange for Cuba, but was returned to Spain in 1783. During these twenty years there was probably considerable English settlement. They probably cultivated the soil in cotton and indigo, or cut timber and then when opportunity afforded, as in British Honduras, preyed on passing ships. The leading Independents of the Island of Bermuda moved to Eleuthera, and for some years it was a sort of place of exile for the religious malcontents of Bermuda, the mother colony. This was one of the earliest Anglo Saxon settlements in America, only forty-two years after the settlement of Jamestown. I visited this island once in 1892, and several times since, in search of signs of its past glory. In the domestic animals and cultivated plants I saw evidences of intro ductions of various exotics from the farflung realm of the British Empire and the foot prints of men of superior minds who at one time lived there. In another section I visited a lone village

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50 of blacks among the rocks. Many of these natives were run aways who had sought refuge in this remote section of the island. It was here too where the English dumped the slaves from cap tured slave traders. In the tropics where there is an abundance of warmth, sunlight, moisture and food materials, plants and probably people also developed their own personalities with out outside restrictions. In each tropical forest each member thereof gives and takes just enough to supply his personal wants from day to day. In time a lasting equilibrium is established and the forest and its inhabitants in kind and number stay about the same forever. This is the equanimity of the jungle. Freedom, even on a far distant isle, is difficult for both plant and animal. There must be both mutalism and struggle, and these must be delicately balanced and controlled. All any man can ever do is to try to solve some of the Eleusinian mysteries in his own back yard. One wonders if the Eleutherian Adventurers ever did find what they were looking for in that little island on the steep edge of the broad Atlantic. They moved from England to Bermuda, Bermuda to Eleuthera, and then from Eleuthera to south Florida and elsewhere. In some of the old Conchs on the keys there was a scholarly strain, an unusual politeness, a religious zeal, an excellent use of English, an inheritance perhaps from the Eleutherian Ad venturers of the seventeenth century. The descendants of these came to the Floridan Keys along the Gulf Stream for the better pickings along the shore. They developed into the so-called Conchs who have already merged with the rest of the crowd from all quarters of the globe. They are no longer frightened at the sight of a locomotive. A cake of ice is no longer to them a mystery. They no longer communicate from farm to farm with conch horns. In 1646 Captain William Sayle, on more than one occasion Governor of the Bermudas, obtained or professed to have ob tained from the English Parliament a grant of one of the islands in the Bahamas, and led these people to Eleuthera or Abaco. No record of the grant, however, has been found. People in New England, fearing for their welfare, sent them food. In return they loaded the boat with braziletto wood. This wood was sold

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51 and the money was donated as an endowment to what is now Harvard University. I am indebted to Sir George Johnson of Nassau, an eminent scholar of West Indian history, for this in formation. KEY PLACE-NAMES The DRY TORTUGAS are islands in the Gulf, named by Ponce de Leon because he found so many turtles. He loaded his boat with turtles. The name "dry" is probably used in the seaman's sense-dry, and not awash like other shoals and low islands. The old fort on Dry Tortugas was named in honor of President Thomas Jefferson, and was begun in 1846. It was held by Federal forces during the Civil War. It was at times a hospital and a prison. It was temporarily used during the war with Spain. It was transferred from the War to the Navy De partment, and was finally made a national monument under the Department of the Interior. Bird Key was in charge of the Department of Agriculture as a breeding place for birds. KEY WEST is said to come from "hueso," meaning bone, because of the piles of bones found there. This has been denied by some, but in an early grant from Spain it was described as Cayo Hueso, or Bone Key. MATECUMBE was once written "Mattacomba," which may mean "bent bushes" in Spanish. Alfredo Zayas in his Lexicog frafia Antillana (Antillean Lexicography) says Matecumbe consists of " ' rocks dangerous to navigation, which in 1662 wrecked a vessel bearing gold and silver to Spain." He also refers to the keys as "Las Martires," the keys of the Martyrs. This hint leads one to reflect that there may be a lot of untold history relating to the keys in Spanish days. The archipelago around Key West was called Pine Islands because at one time the Carribean Pine covered the land. KEY LARGO means "Long Key" and not "Large Key." The word "key" itself is a modification of the Spanish "cayo," meaning shoal, or little island, and is probably of Basque origin. In Hayti, Aux Cayes is the name of a city. It is French for "The

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52 Keys" and is probably the origin of our word "Okay." It had reference to the quality of the rum from that section. It is hard to explain the origin of the name MARQUESAS KEYS-the islands of the Marques. Maybe some Marques were marooned there by pirates. Here again there may he a lot of hidden history. A ship by that name may have been wrecked there. Anyway, it is a neat little atoll on our harrier reef pro jecting into the Gulf of Mexico. CAESAR'S CREEK was named for a black pirate by the name of Caesar. When chased he would seek refuge in this creek, and if pressed too hard would sink his boat in shallow water. In the Lives and Exploits of English Highwaymen, Pi rates and Robbers, printed in 1839, and the Pirate's Who's Who, Black Caesar is represented as Blackheard's right hand man. When pressed he was ordered to blow up their boat, called Queen Anne's Revenge. He failed to accomplish this act, was captured and hung in Virginia in 1718. There is a key called Palo Alto, meaning high timber. Names offer good hints as to the kinds of trees which once covered this land. MIAMI is from the Calusa "Mayaimi," meaning "big lake." ( On one map, however, it is called Rio Ra tones, "the River of Rats.") This is the statement of Fontaneda, who was held captive by those Indians for seventeen years. It is also referred to as Mayaimi by other old timers. Before the natural rock-dam was removed from the Miami River it was one big lake for a long portion of the year. There was once a pearl oyster hank near SOLDIER'S KEY in Bay Biscayne. Biscayne no doubt means the same as Biscay, an old Basque word, and the Basques probably came here long ago on fishing trips. MARGATE and FOWEY are old English names. It is now known as the Fowey Rock Light, which replaced the old Cape Florida Light. The latter is still standing and is one of the oldest lighthouses in this country. It was partly burned by the Indians in 1836. The keeper had been warned, so he left for safety with his family, leaving an assistant and a negro in charge to meet the Indians. The Indians filled the bottom of the lighthouse with

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53 wood and fired it. The heat drove the assistant and negro out on the balcony. The negro looked over the railing and was promptly shot. The assistant was rescued by a government cutter. In 1878 it was abandoned for the new F owey Rock Light. The word Madeira applied to MADEIRA HAMMOCK and Bay is just another name for mahogany. It came from England by way of the Bahamas and was applied to a mahogany-like wood of the laurel family, once common in the Madeira Islands. CAPE SABLE means "Sandy Cape." Middle Cape was once called "Palm Cape" because of the big royal palms that grew there. The town of Perrine was named for Dr. Perrine, who was killed by Calusa Indians on Indian Key. INDIAN KEY was our first port of entry. Indigo and cotton were shipped to England by way of Indian Key. Many think FLORIDA was so called because it is a land of flowers. It was named because it was discovered during the week of the Festival of Flowers. Old Ponce de Leon had little opportunity or inclination to land to pick flowers. The Big Bay on the West Coast south of Pavilion Key was called PONCE DE LEON BAY. Such names as LOGGERHEAD KEY, GARDEN KEY, RACCOON KEY, PIGEON KEY, and GARDEN COVE are easily explained, but not MAN KEY, WOMAN KEY, SAMBO SHOAL, SPECULATOR SHOAL, and so on. NO NAME KEY needs no explanation. CRAWL KEYS were so named because they were used for sponge and turtle pens, called crawls. MAN-O-WAR BUSH was named because the man-of-war or frigate bird roosted there. LIGNUM VITAE KEY was named for the tree of that name. So also TORCH KEYS.

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A Mangrove Fence Along the Ocean Front

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55 FLORIDA'S CORAL ISLES (With apologies to Thomas Buchanan Reed's "Drifting.") _My soul today is far away Sailing the Floridian Bay. My winged boat, a bird afloat, Swims round the coral reefs r e mote. Round coral peaks it sails and seeks Blue inlets with their myriad freaks, Where tropics show mid flow e r's blow A duplicated golden glow. Far, vague and dim the Gulf Streams swim, While on horizon's misty brim With outstretched hands the gray mist stands O'erlooking fair Atlantic strands. Here Largo smiles o'er liquid miles; And yonder, bluest of the isles, Calm Torch K e y waits h e r sapphire gat e s Beguiling to her bright e states. I he e d not if my rippling skiff Floats swift or slow from shore to cliff; Whh dreamful eyes my spirit lies Beside the gates of Paradise. Beside the gates wher e Neptune waits The Bay's deep swells at transi e nt rates , At p e ace I li e blown softly by A cloud upon this liquid sky. The day, so mild, is h e aven's own child With heaven and ocean recon c iled. The airs I fe e l around me steal Are murmuring to the murmuring keel. With dreamful eyes my spirit lies Wh e r e summ e r sings and never dies. O'er veiled with vines she grows and shines Among her tropic oils and win e s. Over the rail my hand I trail Within the shadow of the sail; A joy in tense, the cooling sense Glid es down my drowsy indolence. Yon deep barque go e s where traffic blows From lands of suns to lands of snows This happier one, its course is run From lands of snow to lands of sun. The Fisher's child, with tress e s wild, Unto the smooth, bright sand beguiled, With glowing lips sh e sings and skips, Or gazes at the far-off ships. No more, no more the worldly s hore Upbraids me with its loud uproar! With dreamful eyes my spirit lies Within the vales of Paradise. T. J. BROOKS

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ST. PETERSBURG PRINTING CO., FLORIDA


xml record header identifier oai:www.uflib.ufl.edu.ufdc:UF0001460600001datestamp 2009-02-13setSpec [UFDC_OAI_SET]metadata oai_dc:dc xmlns:oai_dc http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc xmlns:dc http:purl.orgdcelements1.1 xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc.xsd dc:title Floridan keys Bulletin New Series dc:creator Gifford, John C ( John Clayton ), 1870-1949Florida -- Dept. of Agriculturedc:subject Soils -- Florida -- Florida Keys ( lcsh )Soil productivity -- Florida -- Florida Keys ( lcsh )House construction -- Florida -- Florida Keys ( lcsh )Florida Keys (Fla.) ( lcsh )dc:description b Statement of Responsibility by John C. Gifford.Title from cover."June, 1940."dc:publisher Department of Agriculturedc:date 1940dc:type Bookdc:format 55 p. : ill., maps ; 23 cm.dc:identifier http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/ufdc/?b=UF00014606&v=00001AAA7081 (LTQF)AKD9622 (LTUF)27972553 (OCLC)001962945 (ALEPHBIBNUM)dc:source University of Floridadc:language English