Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Grow your own vegetables
 Planning the garden
 Planting the garden
 Cultivation, harvesting, and preserving...
 What, when, and how to plant
 Planting chart for Florida...
 Disease and insect control
 Disease resistant varieties of...

Group Title: Bulletin Florida Dept. of Agriculture
Title: Grow your own vegetables
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00014586/00001
 Material Information
Title: Grow your own vegetables
Series Title: Bulletin Florida Dept. of Agriculture
Physical Description: 64 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Writers' Program (Fla.)
University of Florida
Publisher: Florida Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1943
Subject: Vegetable gardening -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 55).
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "Compiled by workers of the Writers' Program of the Works Projects Administration in the State of Florida"--p. 1
General Note: Sponsored by the University of Florida, Gainesville.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00014586
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA7060
ltuf - AMF9185
oclc - 41449652
alephbibnum - 002453975

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    Grow your own vegetables
        Page 5
    Planning the garden
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Planting the garden
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Cultivation, harvesting, and preserving the surplus
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    What, when, and how to plant
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Planting chart for Florida vegetables
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Disease and insect control
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Disease resistant varieties of vegetables for the home garden
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
Full Text

Rsevis ion of iO
Oct 1931, O

Bulletin No. 52

New Series

March, 1943

Grow Your Own


State of Florida
Department of Agriculture

NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner

I I -


Compiled by workers of the Writers' Program
of the
Works Projects Administration in the State of Florida

State-wide Sponsor of the Writers' Project

John M. Carmody, Administrator

Howard O. Hunter, Commissioner
Florence Kerr, Assistant Commissioner
Wilbur E. Harkness, State Administrator

Published by
Nathan Mayo, Commissioner


This bulletin is particularly timely now that war con-
ditions are again making home gardens popular. The
health of its citizens is the Nation's first line of defense.
Vegetables rich in mineral salts so essential to a well-
rounded diet, can be raised with a minimum of effort and
expense in every section of Florida. The State's daily
average of sunlight-approximately six hours-is great-
er than in any other region in the eastern United States.
Combined with mild winters, this permits of a long grow-
ing season.

In cooperation with a country wide educational program
proposed by the National Nutrition Conference of De-
fense, and the activities of the Farm Security Administra-
tion and the home demonstration forces, Florida authori-
ties offer this booklet. Here is comprehensive informa-
tion as to what vegetables are recommended; the time to
plant them in various sections of the State; how to grow
them successfully; and the best methods of preserving
the surplus.

Rolla A. Southworth, Carita Doggett Corse,
State Director, State Supervisor,
Community Service Programs Florida Writers' Program
Works Projects Administration


Grow Your Own Vegetables .................. .................... Page 5
Planning The Garden ........................ ..................................... 6
Planting The Garden ...8.............. 8
Cultivation, Harvesting, Preserving the Surplus ................... 13
What, When And How To Plant ....................... .............. 16
Lima Beans ................................. ............. ............... 17
Snap or Green Beans .......................... .......... ........... ..... 18
Beets ....................................................................... ..... ... .......... 19
B broccoli ......................................... ............................................ 20
C abbag e ..................................... ................................................ 21
Chinese Cabbage ........................ .............. ......... ....................... 22
Cauliflow er ............................ ..................... .. ................... .... 23
C arrots ................................... ....................... ............................. 23
C hard ....................................................................................... ....... .... 24
C ollards .................................... .............. ......... .... 24
Sweet Corn and "Roasting Ears" .............................................. 25
C ucum bers ........................................................................................ 26
Eggplant ......... ......... ..................................... 27
Endive or Escarole ... ................................................................. 28
K ohlrabi ................................. ................ .... ... ......... ..... 29
L ettuce ................................... ............. ..................................... 30
Muskmelons and Cantaloupes ........... ........................... 31
Okra ................................... ............... 33
O nions .................................33
Parsley ........................ .................... .. 34
E english Peas .......................... ...... .. .....................................
P eppers ................................ ............ ....................................... 3
Irish Potatoes ...... ........................ .......... ................ 36
Sweet Potatoes ............37
Radishes ........................................... .......... .............. ............ 37
Spinach, Squash and Pumpkin ................................................ 39
Strawberries ......... ................................. ............. 40
Tom atoes ........... ...... ................................................. 41
Turnips and Mustard ................................... .......... 43
W term elons ................................. ................................ .. 4
Planting Chart for Florida Vegetables ......................... ......... 45-51
Disease and Insect Control ........................................................ 52
References ..................................................*......................... 55
References "655
Leaflet No. 203, U. S. Department of Agriculture .................. 56-64

A Home Garden In Florida .............................. ... ................... 6
Home Canning of Surplus Veg3tables ...................................... 15
Pole Lima (Butter) Beans........................................................ 17
Bush Lima (Ford Hook) ................................................... 18
Cabbage .................................... ............ ...... .... ................. ..... 21
C ollards .................................... ................... .. ..... 25
Endive and Chicory ............................ ...................................... 29
Big Boston Lettuce ........................... ....................................... 30
Muskmelons (Cantaloupes) .. ..................................... 31
O kra ................................................................. ............................ .... 32
Spinach .......... ................................ ............................ 38
Squash ..................................... .............................................. ... 40
T om atoes ................................... ......... ................................... .... 42
W atermelons .......... ... ....... ....................... ............. 44


Growing their own vegetables is a contribution that
rural families, and many urban dwellers, can make to
the Nation's defense preparations. A home garden not
only aids the family budget, but indirectly helps to
amplify the country's resources. At a time when defense
activities are accelerating with a magnitude unequalled
in history, food becomes increasingly vital. No Nation is
stronger than its food supply. A family producing its
own vegetables is doubly compensated, provided the
methods necessary to success are followed.
Probably thousands of Florida families have given
little thought to the possibilities of a home garden. This
is particularly true of urban residents, to whom vegetable
gardens are associated with farms, or with small com-
munities where large individual plots or back yards are
Whether in town or country, a home garden assures an
independent and immediate supply of fresh vegetables.
After they are gathered, most vegetables quickly de-
preciate in certain food values. This does not occur
where green foods are within a few steps of the kitchen.
The office worker who employs part of his spare time
in gardening, reaps health benefits from exercise in the
fresh air and sunshine, and often finds peace from "jit-
tery" nerves or the solution to mental problems while in
contact with the soil. There are but few normal persons
who are not intrigued by the magic of a seed in the
ground, the inquisitive sprout pushing its way through
the surface; their enthusiasm mounting as the plant
waxes in growth, finally to give forth generously and re-
pay the care and attention it has received.
Many people in various localities still seek employment,
or are able to secure only part-time work. Quite often
the providing of sufficient food is a major problem to the
head of a family whose income is inadequate. In such
cases, if a garden plot is available, it is practically a duty
to grow a vegetable garden. In the lush periods of the
year surpluses can be dried or canned.
Community gardens, in which workers collectively


share the labor and the harvest, have become popular and
many vacant lots are made useful in this way.
Florida farmers who grow staples only, or specialize
in but one, or a few, truck crops, should have a garden in
which to grow an assortment of vegetables for home use.

A Home Garden in Floiida: An Investment In Health.

More than one member of a family may enjoy taking
part in the planning and care of the garden. Sometimes
each individual will select a certain vegetable, or vege-
tables, for personal attention: a sense of pride in pro-
duction develops, and growing the garden takes on the
aspects of a competitive game.
There are many excellent instruction books available on
such subjects as seed selection, cross-pollination, and va-
rious methods of producing superior or even new varie-
ties. And for both adults and children, a garden is an
ideal place to learn many of nature's delightful sur-


In planning the garden the first things to consider are
the types of soil, the water supply and drainage, and the
adaptibility of various vegetables to the specific condi-


tions. Plants, like all living things, have their individual
preferences regarding environment. Many amateurs
meet with defeat through lack of understanding of vege-
table culture and failure to follow certain mandatory
Types of Soil. Although Florida has a great diversity
of soils, they may be generalized into a comparatively
small number of groups. Vegetables, also, may be simi-
larly grouped in their preferences for certain soils.
Many Florida soils are deficient in organic matter. As
a rule, soils dark in color indicate more organic matter
than the lighter types, and are usually more productive.
Generally speaking, however, the majority of Florida
vegetables will grow on most of Florida's soils, with ade-
quate treatment for humus and proper fertilization. Or-
ganic matter, or humus, can be supplied by one of
numerous cover crops, or by compost. This will be
discussed later.
Water Supply and Drainage. Crops grown during dry
seasons must be watered artificially. If piped water is
available, the garden can be sprinkled with a hose. Both
overhead and underground irrigation are methods too
expensive for the small grower unless the equipment has
already been installed. Where the contour of the land
permits, water may be run between the rows. If none of
these methods can be used, water must be carried to the
It is better to water the garden thoroughly once a week
than merely to wet the surface several times during that
period. Preferably, watering should be done early in
the morning or late in the afternoon, for plants are liable
to be scalded when watered while the sun is overhead.
The amount of moisture necessary depends on the type
of soil and weather conditions. Heavy soils retain water
for longer periods than the light types.
Drainage is an evident matter needing little discussion.
If land is allowed to remain soggy during wet periods,
most plants will suffer and the land eventually becomes
sour. Drainage is a problem on low places where excess
water is unable to run off. The usual solution is ditching,
planting on ridges or beds, and frequent cultivation, thus


helping to dry out the soil.
Location. If there is sufficient land for a choice of site
the garden should be planted where moisture control is
possible. For convenience, the plot should be close to
the house, and fenced as a protection against chickens
and roving animals.
Seasonal Planting. When planning a home garden,
seasonal planting must be taken into consideration. Be-
cause some vegetables grow best in warm weather, and
others in cool months, the time of planting is important.
Also, by taking advantage of weather preferences, a gar-
den may be planned to produce continuously.
Cool Weather Vegetables. In the early spring and late
fall, and during the entire winter, if the weather is mild,
such vegetables as cabbage, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts,
collards, turnips, mustard greens and radishes thrive best.
Among others which do well are lettuce, endive, carrots,
beets, onions, English peas, parsley and strawberries.
Warm Weather Vegetables. In the late spring and
early fall one can grow snap beans, lima beans, cucum-
bers, tomatoes, Irish potatoes, corn and a long list of
Hot Weather Vegetables. Even in hot summer months
a few vegetables thrive. These include sweet potatoes,
New Zealand spinach, okra, eggplant, peppers, potatoes,
melons, cantaloupes and squash.
Preparing the Soil. In growing any crop, preparation
of the soil is of first importance. There is a saying that
when land is thoroughly prepared the crop is half grown.
As stated, many Florida soils lack humus, or organic mat-
ter. One may supply this in several ways. If conditions
warrant, the best method is to grow a cover crop. Beg-
garweed, rye, oats, crotalaria, vetch, cowpeas and velvet
beans are all good cover crops. These are planted for
the sole purpose of being ploughed under. In a few
weeks the vegetation is well decomposed.
For the small garden a practical method is to pile
weeds, leaves, grass, and other organic waste into a barrel


or large container several weeks before the actual plant-
ing. Sprinkle with superphosphate and keep the whole
moist. The compost resulting is an excellent soil builder
when worked into the ground.
Well-rotted stable manure is not only one of the best
of all soil-building mediums but a rich fertilizer as well.
If a sufficient quantity can be obtained, this will provide
all the elements necessary for the garden with the ex-
ception of phosphoric acid. The latter is added by mix-
ing two pounds and a half of 16% superphosphate with
every 25 pounds of manure, a quantity sufficient for 100
square feet of garden. The cover crop, compost, or ma-
nure should be spaded or ploughed under at least 20 days
before planting.
If the gardener is using cover crops or compost instead
of manure, the ground probably will need an application
of commercial fertilizer. One of the best for general
use is a 5-7-5 mixture; meaning 5%' nitrogen, 7% phos-
phoric acid, and 5%; potash. This is broadcast at the
rate of from two and a half to five pounds every 100
square feet. The fertilizer should be raked into the
ground not less than 10 days, and preferably two weeks,
before the actual planting, so that it will be thoroughly
absorbed. If applied too near planting time it will burn
the shoots as they emerge from the seed; or in the case
of plants transplanted from a seedbed, the rootlets will
be damaged.
During the period between breaking and planting, the
soil must be well raked to destroy all weeds. Just before
planting, make sure that the surface soil is pulverized
and smoothed.
Testing and Treating Seeds. Granting that the ground
is carefully prepared and worked industriously, results
will be disappointing if poor seeds are used. Seed should
be bought from reliable dealers only. Many varieties of
seed quickly deteriorate in Florida's climate; therefore in
selecting seed an important point is their freshness.
An interesting and simple germination test can be
made. To determine the percentage of germination,
place a porous brick, broad side up, in a pan of water,


with the water almost to the top of the brick. Place a
blotter on the brick and on this distribute 100 seeds from
the lot to be tested. Keep pan in a warm place. Dis-
card the seeds as they sprout and after 10 days count
those which have failed to sprout. By subtracting this
number from 100 the percentage of germination is ascer-
tained; if too low, the seeds should be returned to the
To speed the process of sprouting if planting is to be
done before the garden earth is naturally warmed, a
seedbox or pan filled with warm, moist soil may be of
value to the home gardener. This is especially practical
for larger-seeded varieties. The seed sprout relatively
quickly in the warm earth of the seed box. They then
can be transferred to the garden soil, with the assur-
ance that each seed set out has germinated, and that
under favorable conditions it will produce a plant.

Spores of certain organisms causing plant diseases are
often present on seeds. Fortunately this is not difficult
to correct. An effective method is to prepare a bichloride
of mercury solution, using one tablet to a pint of water.
Place the seeds in a thin cloth bag and soak in the solu-
tion not more than 15 minutes. When removed, rinse
the seeds in water and spread in a cool place to dry. De-
stroy the original container. Not more than three lots of
seed must be used to a batch of solution. Bichloride of
mercury is a deadly poison and a caustic. Use only a
wood or glass vessel and keep children and animals away.
The Seedbed. Because of Florida's mild climate, seed-
beds are not used extensively, as in Northern States.
However, certain plants do better if started in a seedbed.
These include celery, lettuce, romaine, cabbage, escarole,
endive, cauliflower, and onions when grown from seed.
Peppers, eggplant and tomatoes are other varieties fre-
quently started to advantage in a seedbed. There are
several reasons for this: some varieties of seed are so
small they.can be handled more efficiently in this manner;
young plants are easily watered or protected from the
elements; when the plants are ready for setting out, one
may select the sturdy ones and discard the spindlings.
This last advantage dispenses with the thinning out proc-



cramping the tender roots. Pour a liberal amount of
water into each hole before setting in the plant. Then
press the soil carefully around the roots, fill the hole, and
again water.

The first few days after transplanting are crucial to
the plant. It has had a major operation and its recovery
is a matter of care. If the sun is hot, plants can be shaded
by such devices as shingles or scrub palmetto leaves stuck
into the ground beside them.

Planting Seed Directly in the Garden. Although most
plants can be grown successfully by sowing the seeds
directly in the garden, certain difficulties attend certain
varieties. These are usually the small seed, and fre-
quently the tender types. As explained, such varieties
do best when started in a seedbed. When sown directly
treatment is similar to that of the seedbed, only more
laborious because of the greater area. The young plants
cannot be shielded from excessive sunshine, or carefully
protected from other elements as in a seedbed. Also,
they must be thinned out at the proper time.

On the other hand many plants, because of their hardi-
ness or other characteristics, do best when the seeds are
sown directly. These include beans, watermelons, canta-
loupes, okra, sweet and white potatoes, carrots, radishes,
turnips, mustard, onion sets, English peas, cucumbers,
corn and collards.

The depth to plant depends upon the kind of seed.
The earth over the seeds should be firmed slightly, taking
care not to make the soil too compact. A driving rain will
sometimes so pack the ground that shoots will have diffi-
culty in pushing through. After the seeds are planted,
water gently but liberally.

Before planting, the soil should be considered in its
relation to drainage and moisture control. If the location
is low, it is advisable to plant on beds or ridges to prevent
flooding during heavy rains. If high and well drained,
flat -planting is satisfactory.



ess which in many cases is impracticable when seed are
planted in the field.
The seedbed is a simple arrangement. To avoid too
much water, it should be slightly higher than the sur-
rounding land, about three or four feet wide, and as long
as necessary. The soil must be well prepared before
planting, with a moderate amount of rotted manure or
fully-decayed compost mixed with it. Too much fer-
tilizer produces quick, sappy growth and reduces the
chance of the plant to withstand the shock of trans-
Seedbeds should be protected against beating rain,
wind, hot sun, or early frost by stretching fabric over a
framework so as to form a cloth shelter with the sides
sloping gradually. The top of the shelter need not be
more than three or four feet above the plants. Arrange
the covering so that it may be conveniently taken off its
supports when the weather is favorable to the plants.
Transplanting. When the plants have been in the
seedbed from four to six weeks, they are ready to be set
out. About 10 days before transplanting, the plants may
be "blocked off" with advantage to the root system. This
is done with a long knife or similar instrument. Cut
through the soil along one side of each row of plants and
about two inches from the stalks. In three or four days
cut along the other side in like manner. This procedure
severs part of the lateral roots, causing new roots to form
nearer the base. In about six days after the second cut-
ting the new roots are sufficiently developed to trans-
Several hours before taking the plants out of the bed
they should be watered thoroughly. Do not pull the
plants out of the ground but loosen the roots gently, keep-
ing as much soil around them as possible.
In warm weather, transplanting is usually done late in
the afternoon as a protection against the sun. Once re-
moved from the bed, the quicker the plants are set out the
better. In the meantime keep the roots covered with wet
sacking or moss.
Prepare holes in the garden large enough to prevent




When the garden has become a reality one must con-
tinue its care. Weeds have to be fought; and plant dis-
eases, insects and other pests guarded against. As with
humans, plants are subject to diseases. Happily these-
as well as attacks by insects-can in most cases be con-
Except on low places, where water compacts the soil,
cultivation is chiefly confined to keeping weeds in check.
If the land has been thoroughly prepared, subsequent
cultivation will be relatively small.
As plants grow, their root systems expand; therefore
care must be taken not to injure the roots.
Vegetables slow in developing, or those producing
over extended periods, often need subsequent applica-
tions of fertilizer. This is worked in lightly with a hand
cultivator or rake, being careful that the fertilizer does
not touch the leaves or shoots of the plant.

Certain vegetables, to be at their best in texture and
flavor, must be harvested at the right time. Corn arid
English peas become hard and flavorless when left in the
field after reaching maturity. Snap beans and okra be-
come fibrous and tough. On the other hand, root crops
such as carrots, turnips, and beets retain their high
quality as long as they are growing rapidly. Peppers
and eggplants may be safely left on the bush for some
time. Tomatoes, cantaloupes, and watermelons are of
finer quality and flavor if fully vine ripened. Fortun-
ately those vegetables which deteriorate rapidly,: after
reaching maturity can usually be canned or stored.

The small garden will probably produce little more
than may be used at once on the familytable, but ever
a small surplus is often profitably stored or canned.
Storing.. Such vegetables as onions, sweet and Irish
potatoes, rutabagas, carrots, beets and turnips can -be



stored to advantage. Onions keep well when "fired."
Where there is only a small quantity, an oil stove burning
in a small closed room makes an acceptable kiln. Hang
the onions by their tops, or suspend them in wire baskets
until thoroughly dry. Carrots, rutabagas, turnips, and
Irish potatoes may be buried in dry sand in a cool place,
or may be packed in hampers or boxes between layers of
dry sawdust or moss peat. The latter method prevents
vegetables from drying and protects them from insects
and rodents.

Sweet potatoes are difficult to store for an extended
time in Florida because of the humid, high temperatures,
but they can be banked with fair success. The following
method is quoted from Farmers' Bulletin No. 1442, United
States Department of Agriculture.

"Storage pits should be located where drainage is
good. In making a pit a little of the surface soil is thrown
back to form a level bed of the size desired. It is a good
plan to dig two small trenches, and, at the point where
the trenches cross, set a small box on end to form a flue
up through the pile of potatoes. The earth floor of the
pit is covered with four or five inches of straw, hay, leaves,
or pine needles, and the potatoes are placed in a conical
pile around the flue. A covering of straw, hay or similar
material is put on the pile and over this a layer of soil.
The covering of soil should be only a few inches thick at
first, but increased as the weather gets cold. It is better
to make several small pits rather than one large one, be-
cause it is best to remove the entire contents when the
pit is opened."

Canning. The most extensively used method of pre-
serving a majority of the different garden vegetables-
except such things as potatoes, lettuce and watercress-
is through processing and canning them. This is a rela-
tively inexpensive way of absorbing any surplus which
the home garden may produce. Properly performed,
canning retains the nutritional values of the vegetable
and preserves it as a food for an almost limitless length
of time. The vegetables should be canned however as
soon as possible after they are gathered.



Home canning equipment need not be expensive or
elaborate, although the basic equipment necessary may
be augmented by many devices which make the job easier.
Such essentials as trays, measuring cups and spoons,
sieves, bowls, pans, vegetable brushes and paring knives
are usually a regular part of kitchen equipment. Jar
fillers, funnels, jar lifters and a wire basket are also need-

Home Canning of Surplus Vegetables.

ed by the home canner. A lard tin, a wash boiler or a
peanut butter tin may be used to hold cans or jars of
vegetables while they are being processed.
There are several methods of canning, including water
bath, hot pack, oven process, and steam pressure. The
last-named method, of especial value in processing and
. canning such nonacid foods as asparagus, peas, beans and
corn, require a steam pressure cooker, equipped with
a pressure gauge. Because the steam pressure cooker
supplies higher temperatures than the water bath, and
thus insures a more complete processing, it is recommend-
ed for canning many varieties of vegetables. Either glass



jars or tin-coated cans may be used as containers in can-
ning fruits. Each has certain advantages. Glass jars
may be simpler to use, but should be stored in shaded or
dark places to prevent loss of color in certain vegetables.
If tin-coated cans are used, a can-sealing apparatus is
The novice in canning garden vegetables may encoun-
Ther disappointments in such activity if authentic instruc-
tions are not followed carefully. Indifference, ignorance
or carelessness may be responsible for dangerous food
poisons forming in the canned vegetables. To some ex-
tent processing and canning food may be a simple pro-
cedure, but certain well established rules must be fol-
lowed for success, satisfaction and the protection of health
in this phase of home gardening. (For detailed instruc-
tions in canning vegetables write for Bulletin 103, State
Home Demonstration Department, Tallahassee, Florida.)

Perhaps one of the most enjoyable periods of garden-
ing is the time spent in drafting preliminary plans. After
the requirements of soil and climate have been taken into
consideration, the amateur gardener is more or less free
to choose what he shall plant. Of course, there may be
limitations due to family budget, and the amount of
space available for the garden plot. And if the garden
is purely utilitarian, no space may be left for experimenta-
tion. But if the gardener can afford to regard his efforts
as a hobby as well as a source of food, has the funds to
risk on seed and fertilizer, has an investigative nature,
and has the time and space in which to conduct experi-
ments, he should follow his personal inclinations in plan-
ning his garden. This will increase the zest of the ven-
ture, and the results may be of surprising value.
With a range of about six degrees in latitude and eight
in average temperature, Florida's growing season pro-
gresses from south to north. Peculiarity of climate and
wide varieties of soils, serve to divide the State into three
general agricultural areas: south, central, and north.
The approximate planting time in these areas for the dif-
ferent vegetables were obtained from The Home Garden,



Bulletin 80, prepared by F. S. Jamison, Truck Horticul-
turist, Florida Experiment Station, University of Florida.
The central or peninsular area roughly embraces the
counties of Levy, Marion, Volusia, Brevard, Seminole,
Orange, Osceola, Polk, Lake, Sumter, Citrus, Hernando,
Pasco, Pinellas, and Hillsborough.


The lima bean, native of tropical America, and thought
to have been named for Lima, capital of Peru, does well
in warm weather, and is an excellent vegetable for both
home gardener and
Struck grower.
Seeds must be
planted from 1 to
2 inches deep. If
runner varieties are
grown, the distances
Sashould be from 14 to
18 inches, between
0.~~ plants and from 2 to
3 feet between rows.
*i K Bush varieties are
planted from 8 to 14
inches apart. Late
plantings do well un-
der partial shade.
Bush varieties are
less trouble, and do
not require supports.
The garden fence
may-be used for run-
ner varieties, if only
a moderate number
of plants are set out.
As Good pole varie-
ties are Early Levia-
Pole Lima (Butter) Beans: than, Lewis Dailey,
A Good Producer. than, Lewis Dailey,
and Challenger. The
Fordhook and the Henderson Bush are the most generally
used bush types.



Time to Plant. Northern Florida: March-June. Cen-
tral Florida: February-April. Southern Florida: Sep-

Snap beans were grown by Indians in North and South
America, and have been grown in home gardens in this
country since its discovery. Today Florida leads in pro-
duction of green beans for the market. String or snap
beans are cultivated in all parts of the State. Certainly
no gardener would omit this delightful and nourishing

-, .* . . ^.- -, -. .
.-" ] .5i
\ ** - .*
r> - . f V '

Bush Lima (Ford Hook): A Rapid Grower That Does
Not Require Stakes.
vegetable from his plot. Both pole and bush varieties
are excellent, the same care and conditions being neces-
sary for both except that supports must be erected for the
climbing variety.

Several plantings can be made and, when partial shade
is used, the growing period can be extended into either
warm or cool weather since the shelter is a protection
against both heat and cold. Beans may be grown on both
acid and alkaline soils, aided by abundant sunshine, mois-
ture, and warmth.
Seeds should be planted from 8 to 14 inches apart in



warm, moist soil and covered about 2 inches deep. The
rows should be no more than three feet apart.
The crop need not be thinned but must be cultivated to
keep it free of weeds. The plants must not be cultivated
when they are wet from dew or rain, as diseases spread
more rapidly under these conditions. Farmers' Bulletin
1692, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.,
contains detailed information concerning bean diseases.
Beans grown for the family table may be left on the
plant until they begin to fill out the pod; for marketing
they should be picked when the pods are mature but
before they begin to ripen. Several pickings will be
necessary. The Kentucky Wonder is an excellent pole
bean, the only disadvantage being its susceptibility to
bean rust. Florida Pole is another good variety. Among
the bush varieties are Early Speckled Valentine, Early
Refugee, Bountiful, Green Pod, and Stringless Black Val-
The wax bean varieties include Wardell, Kidney Wax,
and Davis White Wax.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: bush beans, March-
April, and August-September; pole beans, March-June.
Central Florida: bush beans, February-March, and Sep-
tember; pole beans, February-April. Southern Florida:
bush beans, September-April; Pole beans, January-Feb-

Both the tops and roots of beets are rich in minerals
and vitamins and should be included regularly in the diet.
The beet is a cool weather vegetable and must be planted
in early spring to attain its best color, texture, and quality.
Seeds should be sown directly in the garden in rows 2
feet apart, and the plants thinned when about 3 inches
high to one plant every 3 or 4 inches.
It is advisable to mix a few radish seed with the beet
seed so that the quickly germinating radish seed will mark
the rows. Since it is sometimes necessary to destroy the
weeds before the beet seed are up, this method of mark-



ing the rows makes wheel-hoe or hand-hoe cultivation
possible. Later the few radishes may be removed.
Varieties grown successfully in Florida include Eclipse,
Detroit Dark Red, Crosby's Egyptian, and Early Wonder.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: February-March,
and September-November. Central Florida: January-
March, and September-November. Southern Florida:
January-March, and September-November.
Broccoli was first mentioned in print in 1724, at which
time the English called it "sprout calli-flower" or Italian
asparagus. Although only recently introduced into the
United States, its popularity has increased phenomenally.
Broccoli is closely related to cauliflower, resembles it
somewhat in appearance and taste, but is a much hardier
plant and easier to grow.
A sandy loam or muck soil, prepared, fertilized, and
cultivated as for cauliflower, is favorable to the growth of
It is necessary to sow the seeds in a seedbed or in flats
during September or October, transplanting when plants
are about six weeks old, or when four inches high. They
should be placed from 15 to 18 inches apart in the gar-
den, in rows three to four feet apart. Seed sown too
thickly will produce spindly plants.
There are two types of broccoli, the sprouting or Italian
green broccoli, and the heading or white broccoli, the
latter not recommended to Florida home gardener.
When fully developed, the center head of the broccoli
plant is clipped from the stem. Later, small heads ap-
pear on lateral shoots, growing out of the buds along
the stem of the plant. These small heads may also be
gathered and eaten.
Aphids are apt to infest broccoli and their appearance
should be watched for. Derris dusts have been used ef-
fectively to combat these insects. Poisonous sprays or
dusts cannot be used on the heads of the plant. Broccoli



is subject to most cabbage diseases, including mildew.
Time to Plant. Nothern Florida: August and Febru-
ary. Central Florida: August and January. Southern
Florida: September-January.

Cabbage was used by the ancient Greeks and Egyp-
tians, and its record as a food is about 4,000 years old.
Its early form probably resembled the wild cabbage
found growing in England, Denmark, and other regions
of Europe, more than the modern firm'heads seen in the
American market today.
Sandy loam, clay loam, and muck soils are suitable for
growing cabbage. Thin, sandy, loose, soil should be
avoided unless liberal fertilization and irrigation can be
provided. Organic matter, such as compost and manure,
can be used to advantage in a small garden. If the plants

Cabbage, one of the world's oldest foods. Always
a stand-by with home gardeners.



grow too slowly, an application of nitrate of soda or sul-
phate of ammonia will produce a sturdy growth and firm-
er heads.
Cabbage should be started in seedbeds or flats, and
seed planted at 6-week intervals thereafter if the vege-
table is desired over a long period. The plants are trans-
planted when from 4 to 6 inches high and spaced 15 to
18 inches apart in rows 3 feet apart. Shallow cultivation
is advisable.
Cabbage are the prey of many insects and diseases.
Full information on this subject is contained in bulletins
issued by the State Department of Agriculture at Tal-
lahassee. Bulletin No. 23, January, 1939, will be par-
ticularly helpful to the unitiated.
Numerous varieties of cabbage will grow successfully
in Florida. For fall planting and early maturing the
pointed-head Charleston Wakefield and Jersey Wakefield
are good. Flat-headed types which mature later include
Copenhagen Market and Early Flat Dutch.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: January-March,
and September-November. Central Florida: September-
January. Southern Florida: September-December.

Chinese cabbage, while neither true cabbage nor let-
tuce, has the characteristics of both and can be either
cooked or used for salad.
Land suitable for cabbage or lettuce is suitable for
Chinese cabbage. On sour soil, hardwood ashes or agri-
cultural lime, applied two weeks before the first applica-
tion of fertilizer, is recommended. This vegetable must
grow quickly to be crisp and succulent. For this reason
a fertilizer of higher than usual nitrate content may be
The Chinese cabbage may be started in a seedbed but
does as well and requires less work if the seed are sown
directly in the garden. When plants are sufficiently
sturdy, they should be thinned to stand 12 to 15 inches
apart in the rows, about 30 inches apart.



The variety commonly used, the Pe-Tsai, produces com-
pact heads.
Time to Plant. Same as cabbage.

Cauliflower grows best in compact, sandy loam, well
fortified with organic matter. Although needing con-
stant moisture, it does not do well in wet land. Overhead
irrigation has been quite successfully used in many areas.
Cauliflower should be started in a seedbed in light, well-
fertilized, and moist soil. The young plants require deli-
cate handling when transplanted. The rows should be
2 to 3 feet apart and the plants spaced at least 20 inches
in the row.
This vegetable is often the victim of numerous pests
and diseases. The farmer should write the Department
of Agriculture, Tallahassee for its bulletin, Plant Diseases
and Pests and Their Treatment.
The leaves are tied over the center head to prevent it
from becoming discolored. Since the roots extend for
about 3 feet in all directions and seldom more than 3
inches below the surface, cultivation must be shallow.
Early Snowball and Erfurt varieties do well in Florida.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: January-February,
and August-October. Central Florida: January-Febru-
ary, and August-October. Southern Florida: January-
February, and September-October.

From the dietary point of view, the carrot is one of the
most valuable garden vegetables, and among the easiest
to grow. They do well in deep loam or muck, and do not
object to a certain amount of acid. The garden soil, in
which the carrot seed should be sown directly, must be
well pulverized and in perfect condition, for the seeds are
small and the young plants delicate.
If the soil is unusually rich, or stable manure is also
used, the quantity of commercial fertilizer should be di-



finished. Fertilizer is applied in two lots, one just be-
fore planting and the other when the plants are half-
Carrot seeds should be sown plentifully to secure a
good stand, since the percentage of germination is low.
They should be sown about 6 inches apart. When 2
inches high, they should be thinned to one plant every 3
or 4 inches.
Red Cored Chantenay and Denver's Half Long are the
most popular varieties among Florida gardeners.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: February-March,
and September-November. Central Florida: January-
March, and September-October. Southern Florida: Janu-
ary-March, and September-November.

Chard, or Swiss chard, as it is often called, although not
well known in Florida, is worth cultivating, for its large
leaves and succulent stalks are enjoyed by all who like
leafy vegetables. Soil, fertilization, planting time, and
cultivation requirements are similar to those given for
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: October-February.
Central Florida: October-February. Southern Florida:

Collards, a relative of the cabbage, are grown in Flori-
da practically every month of the year, can be propagated
at all seasons, and are popular because of their hardiness,
and the ease with which they can be cultivated.
The same conditions under which cabbage is grown will
produce collards. Quick growth is necessary to secure
tender, crisp leaves. They may be planted whenever de-
sired, although too much heat or cold is not advisable for
young plants.
A popular variety is the Georgia.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: February-March,



and September-November. Central Florida: January-
April, and August-November. Southern Florida: Sep-

There is a difference between true sweet corn and the
semi-sweet varieties familiarly known as "roasting ears."
The latter are grown more extensively in the State and
bear much larger ears.
For some time it was thought that roasting ears, having
longer and tighter husks, were better protected against
the corn earworm. The Florida Experiment Station de-
veloped a variety known as Suwannee Sugar, and the
.. .. -.,., *:**^>;^ ^ ., :. .' *i-' .

Texas Experiment Station developed another called
are scarce.

Thney June, both true sweet varieties equal in resistance
to worm damage to the common roasting ear and much
superior in flavor to the older sweet corn varieties. It is

recommended that either or both be tried in the home
Texas Experiment Station developed another called
Honey June, both true sweet varieties equal in resistance
to worm damage to the common roasting ear and much
superior in flavor to the older sweet corn varieties. It is
recommended that either or both be tried in the home



Sweet corn can be grown on any good vegetable land
and in nearly all sections of Florida; but dry, sandy land
or wet, undrained land is to be avoided. Commercial
fertilizer should be worked into the soil before planting.
When the crop is about 2 feet high, broadcast nitrate fer-
tilizer at the rate of one pound per 150 feet of row.
To guard against insect pests, sweet corn should be
planted as early as the weather will permit, and planted
closer than field corn, since it results in better distribution
of pollen which produces well filled out ears; however,
the land must be rich in humus and able to hold moisture.
Plant three or four grains to a hill, about 12 inches
apart in rows approximately 3 feet distant. Roasting
ears may be planted as much as 18 inches apart.
When the plants are about 8 inches above the ground
they should be thinned to one or two leading stalks.
The best producers among sweet corn are the above-
mentioned Sugar and Honey June. Older varieties are
Country Gentleman and Long Island Beauty. Among
roasting ears are Snow Flake, Stowell's Evergreen, Silver-
mine, and Trucker's Favorite.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: March-April. Cen-
tral Florida: February-March. Southern Florida: Janu-

Cucumbers should be included in every garden. Well-
drained, sandy loam with preferably a southern slope will
grow this vegetable. Flat, moist land is also good if well
To prepare soil properly for cucumbers, plow it deeply,
pulverizing the dirt. If vegetation is to be turned under,
it should be done at least one month before planting.
The soil should be liberally fertilized. Half should
be applied 10 days before planting and the remainder 10
days before the first blooms are scheduled to appear.
Side-dressing of fertilizer must not touch the plant direct-
ly but should be worked gently into the soil.



If the plants fail to grow vigorously, nitrogenous ferti-
lizer should be applied as a top-dressing two or three
times at 10- or 12-day intervals. Single heavy applica-
tions are not advisable.
Cucumber seed should be planted directly in the gar-
den in rows from four to six feet apart, as soon as danger
of frost is past. About six seeds should be sown to a hill,
covering the seed about three-fourths of an inch deep.
The hills should be from 2 to 3 feet apart. Successive
plantings should be made. After the plants are well
established, they should be thinned to three or four to
a hill.
As soon as three or four leaves appear, spraying with
Bordeaux mixture should begin, continuing every week
or 10 days until the cucumbers are picked.
Shallow cultivation should be given to control weeds,
care being taken not to injure the roots or tender vine
tops. It is sometimes necessary to irrigate cucumbers,
to obtain maximum yield. Overhead irrigation is apt to
stimulate vine diseases and subirrigation is usually pre-
ferred by experienced growers.
Improved Clark's Special, Straight Eight, Improved
Long Green, Klondike, Early Fortune, and Kirby Stay-
green are popular varieties.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: February-April.
Central Florida: February-March, and September. South-
ern Florida: January-February.

The eggplant is believed to have originated in India
and it is known that the Chinese and Arabs grew them in
the ninth century. At that time the fruit was much
smaller than it is today, and egg-shaped, which probably
accounts for its name.
A sandy loam soil, rich in organic matter, with con-
stant moisture supply and good drainage is necessary for
the successful propagation of this plant.
It is well to apply manure and compost to the soil in
addition to commercial fertilizer, the formula depending



on the type of soil. An application of nitrate of soda or
sulphate of ammonia about blossom time. often gives ex-
cellent results.
Some gardeners plant seeds for a fall crop in the row
where they are to grow but, because of cold temperatures,
a spring crop should be started in a seedbed. South
Florida raises eggplants as a winter crop.
Young plants wilt easily, and must be carefully han-
dled. They are ready to transplant when about four
weeks old, and should be spaced 3 feet apart in rows from
4 to 5 feet apart. Shallow cultivation is sufficient.
Flea beetles, Colorado potato beetles, and other insects
attack eggplant. Spraying with a Bordeaux mixture con-
taining calcium arsenate or dusting with dehydrated cop-
per lime, sulphate lime, and calcium arsenate is usually
effective in combatting these pests.
Eggplant should be cut, not pulled, from the plant as
soon as the fruit has become large enough to use. If
allowed to remain on the bush the flesh becomes tough
and the seeds harden.
Florida Highbush, and New Orleans Market, are all
well-liked varieties.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: February-March.
Central Florida: January-February, and July. Southern
Florida: December-February, and August-September.

Endive or escarole, as the broad-leaftype is commonly
known, is increasing in popularity as a salad plant and
should prove interesting to the small gardener. The outer
green leaves should be tied together to blanch the heart.
Under this treatment the inner leaves become creamy
white, crisp, and palatable. Cultural requirements are
the same as those given for lettuce.
White Curled, Green Curled, and Moss Curled are the
best known varieties of curled leaf endive. Broadleaved
Batavia is an example of the escarole type.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: February-March,



and September. Central Florida: January-February,
and September. Southern Florida: September-January.

& "e I ..--

4- -- k' 4

cam . . :

Endive and Chicory: Along With Lettuce the
Universal Salad Plants.


One of the most interesting vegetables and one which
is still little raised in small gardens in Florida is the kohl-
rabi. It belongs to the cabbage family but resembes the
turnip in flavor. Its cabbagelike roots are in the ground
but the turniplike bulb grows above the surface. The
green leaves, like coarse winter greens, stem from this
bulb. This vegetable is considered superior to either
turnip or cabbage and deserves a place in every home
It is grown under approximately the same conditions
as those necessary for growing turnips. Seed planted at
2-week intervals provides a continuous crop of this de-
licious vegetable. Bulbs should be harvested when about
as large as a medium-sized orange. If allowed to reach
full size the bulb becomes coarse and hard.
Satisfactory varieties are White Vienna, Early Purple,
and Early Green.
Time to plant: North and Central Florida: March-
April, and August. South Florida: January-April, and




Since lettuce is considered so important in the diet the
home gardener should include it in his list. A rich, moist,
sweet, sandy loam is best suited to this plant. The loca-
tion should be such that it can be irrigated and drained;
an oversupply of water can ruin the crop. Where the
land is low the lettuce bed should be intersected with fur-
rows leading to an open ditch.

To produce solid heads the soil must be well supplied
with compost or decayed vegetable matter. In addition,
a commercial fertilizer should be used in two applications,
the first worked into the garden two weeks before the
plants are set out, the second applied two to three weeks
afterward. From one and one-half to two and one-half
pounds should be used for each 10 feet of row.

Lettuce should be started in a rich, well-pulverized
seedbed about October. Plenty of seed must be planted
to allow for poor germination. They should be planted

Big Boston Lettuce: A Loose Leaf Type That Thrives in Florida.


~)-~ Yh
~:C~ ~n~, ~;
L~ ~,-F'~


about 1 -inch deep or rolled lightly into the soil.
The lettuce bed should be checked off in 12- to 15-inch
squares according to the size of variety sown. When the
plants have developed four leaves, which will take from
three to four weeks, they should be set out, one plant to
each square. The soil must be pressed firmly around the
roots by hand and, if the soil is dry, a small amount of
water added.
White Boston is a popular semihead variety; Imperial
847 and 44 are the recommended Iceberg types.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: February-March,
and September. Central Florida: January-February,
and September. Southern Florida: September-January.

Muskmelons, often called cantaloupes, grow best in
sandy loam or clay loam soil that is not too compact or too
moist. Commercial fertilizer should be applied before
planting, using about one pound to a hill.

Rich Muskmelons (Cantaloupes) Do Well in Florida's
Sandy Loam Soils.
One method of planting consists in laying off rows
about 6 feet apart, hills being spaced 3 feet apart. Some,



however, prefer to check the land 4 by 6 feet and plant
in these checks. About six seeds are planted in each hill
or check. When the vines begin to run they should be
thinned to one or two plants to the hill.
Rocky Ford, Netted Gem, and Emerald Gem, are de-
sirable varieties. Old Georgia produces a larger melon
but of inferior quality.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: March-April. Cen-
tral Florida: February-April. Southern Florida: Feb-

Ok ra; a warm weather plant; easy to, grow.




The okra, a southern plant, is closely related to the
cotton plant, and when properly cooked, is an enjoyable
food. It can be grown in a variety of soils but a fairly
moist sandy loam is advisable.
If sufficient stable manure is available, commercial fer-
tilizer is not necessary. Where the latter is used, apply as
for sweet corn, using about one pound for every 15 feet of
row. This should be worked into the soil before planting.
A side dressing of nitrate of soda or sulphate of ammonia,
applied at blossom time, using about one pound to every
150 feet of row, is recommended. The ground must be
fairly warm at planting time, and since okra will produce
during hot weather, it is a valuable addition to the home
garden. The seed can be planted directly in the garden
in rows spaced about 3 feet apart. When plants are
about three-quarters of an inch high, thin to one stalk
every 10 or 12 inches. Okra bears in approximately 45
days from planting, and will continue to bear for several
months if the pods are cut every two or three days.
Favorite varieties are Perkins Mammoth Podded, Long
Green, and White Velvet.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: March-May, and
August. Central Florida: March-May, and August.
Southern Florida: February-March, and August-Septem-


Onions are cool weather vegetables, and under favor-
able conditions are among the easiest to grow. For home
use, onion sets are planted 3 to 4 inches apart directly in
the garden. The rows should be about 12 to 18 inches
apart. The soil should be rich in organic matter. A
dark, sandy loam having a clay or compact subsoil or a
muck soil are both good. Plenty of moisture is essential,
but the land must be well-drained.
Onions need liberal fertilization. In addition to either
compost or manure, two or three applications of commer-
cial fertilizer should be worked into the soil, the first be-



fore planting. One pound to 10 feet of row is the usual
amount used. A later application of one pound of nitrate
of soda or sulphate of ammonia, to each 75 feet of row,
worked in with hand tools, will increase the size of the
Onions should be constantly cared for and cultivated
during the growing period. The roots must not be dis-
turbed, however, which necessitates shallow cultivation.
The young onions can be eaten as soon as they have
attained any size but to harvest and keep a mature crop,
they must remain in the ground between four and five
months. To keep well they should be harvested during
dry weather and carefully handled. After being pulled,
they should not be subjected even to dew, nor should tops
be broken off too close to the bulb. Onions improperly
handled rot easily.
Varieties recommended for Florida include Crystal
Wax, Red Bermuda, Australian Brown, and Riverside
Sweet Spanish.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: January-March, and
August-November. Central Florida: January-March,
and August-November. Southern Florida: January-
March, and September-December.

Parsley is grown extensively in Florida. The seed are
minute and the seedlings delicate, and should be planted
in a seedbed during October or November. A 5-7-5
mixture is used to enrich the bed, applying a pound for
every 20 feet of row.
There are four types of parsley: common or plain-
leaved; celery-leaved or Neapolitan; curled; Hamburg or
turnip-rooted. The plain type is grown extensively. The
outer leaves are pulled first, new ones forming from the
center of the crown. The celery-leaved type can be
blanched and its petioles eaten like celery. The Hamburg
type produces a root similar to the turnip, which can be
eaten fresh or be stored.
Time to Plant: Northern Florida: February. Central



Florida: December-January. Southern Florida: Sep-

English peas require a rich, moist, sweet, soil full of
humus, and will not do well on wet, sandy or sour muck
land. Well-drained hammock land is excellent.
The land should be treated with commercial fertilizer
worked into the soil before planting. It is often desirable
to add nitrate of soda or sulphate of ammonia as a side
dressing when the vines begin to bear. One pound to
150 feet of row should be right for small gardens.
Plant in both single and double rows, spacing the seeds
1 inch apart and about 2 inches deep. The vines begin
to bear about 60 days after planting and should continue
over a 30- or 40-day period. As soon as the pods are
filled, the peas are ready to pick.
Popular varieties are Alaska Extra Early, Thomas
Laxton, Laxtonian, Little Marvel, Gradus, and Hundred-
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: January-February.
Central Florida: September-March. Southern Florida:
Green sweet peppers are a good source of vitamins A,
B, and C, being in this respect the equal of green cabbage,
or young carrots. In addition, they sometimes bear fruit
over a period of from six to eight months. Peppers add
a tang to many food combinations and are canned sweet,
stuffed, or pickled.
Peppers can be grown on a variety of soils provided the
land will retain moisture. A moist, fairly compact, sandy
loam is acceptable, as is a good type of flatwoods.
Ruby King and World Beater are standard varieties of
sweet peppers; Perfection and Tomato are pimento varie-
ties; Anaheim Chile and Mexican are favored as chili
peppers; and for very small, hot peppers, Anaheim and
Tabasco are good varieties.



Time to Plant. Northern Florida: February-April.
Central Florida: January-March. Southern Florida:
January-February, and August-October.
White potatoes do best on well-drained, fairly heavy,
moist soils. If the crop is well fertilized and properly
handled, the yield will be determined greatly by the
moisture content of the land. Bladen fine sand, and
Bladen fine sandy loam, both found in many flatwoods
areas, are well adapted to potato production, provided
the land is sufficiently moist and well drained. Soil must
be liberally supplied with organic matter.
West Florida land requires from two to three times as
much fertilizer as Everglades muck soils. In fact, some
potatoes are produced in the Everglades without added
As a preventive against disease, seed potatoes are
soaked for two hours in a solution of formaldehyde, one
part to 1,000 parts of water, then dried and cut for plant-
ing. (See Press Bulletin 494, Florida Experiment Sta-
tion.) To break the rest period and hasten germination
for the fall crop, the seed should be treated with ethylene
chlorhydin, one part to 60 parts of water.
Seed potatoes should be cut to leave two or three eyes
to a piece, and one piece dropped in hills spaced from 12
to 15 inches apart, and covered about 3 inches deep. The
rows should be from 2 to 4 feet apart. Where the soil is
wet, rows must be ridged, otherwise flat beds are desira-
ble. It is well to use a protective mulch such as dry grass,
leaves, or moss, during dry, warm weather to help con-
trol soil moisture and reduce soil temperature.
Several varieties are successfully raised. Spaulding
Rose No. 4 and Bliss Triumph are favorites. Green
Mountain and Irish Cobbler are also produced and two
new varieties, Katahdin and Warba, show promise of in-
creasing popularity.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: January-February.
Central Florida: January. Southern Florida: Septem-




The sweet potato is well adapted to Florida climate,
but grows best in clay or sandy loam underlaid with red
clay subsoil common in the northern part of the State.
The plant is propagated either by slips taken from the
potato after it has been bedded, or by vine cuttings. By
bedding in spring a luxuriant vine growth will soon ap-
pear from which slips or vine cuttings may be taken.
Select a protected, slightly raised spot for the bed. When
temperature permits, place the sweet potatoes in the bed,
cover lightly with sandy soil or sand, and keep moist.
Sweet potatoes sprout only in warm soil.
When the slips, or draws, are from 6 to 7 inches long
they can be pulled and planted, or be allowed to grow
into long vines which can be divided into cuttings, each
containing a sucker root. Either slips or cuttings are set
in hills spaced from 14 to 18 inches in rows 3 to 4 feet
The soil should be firmed well around the plants and
over the cuttings and water applied to insure growth.
During the rainy season it is usually necessary to ridge
the soil to insure adequate drainage.
The sweet potato is a heavy feeder and most growers
use commercial fertilizer. Sometimes the potash con-
tent is increased to 10 or 12 per cent with favorable
The Porto Rico, a reddish-skinned sweet potato and
Nancy Hall, a light salmon-pink type, are general favor-
ites, both moist-fleshed when baked. The Big Stem Jer-
sey is popular among those who prefer a dry-fleshed type.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: April-June. Cen-
tral Florida: March-July. Southern Florida: February-

Radishes are almost always included in home gardens.
This is a cool-weather plant and should mature quickly
for best results.



Radishes grow best in a deep sandy loam or muck soil
containing an abundance of organic matter and sufficient
moisture. Muck soil seldom needs fertilizer. If not sown
too thickly radishes need not be thinned. Larger varie-
ties should average about six plants per foot, in rows 12
to 15 inches apart.
Long Scarlet, Long White Icicle, White Summer, and
Scarlet Turnip are favored varieties. Also popular are
Scarlet Globe, Crimson Giant, and French Breakfast.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: October-March.
Central Florida: October-March. Southern Florida:

Spinach (Improved Curley Savoy): A Quick Grower Rich in Iron.



Two plants grown in Florida are called spinach, but
one, known as the New Zealand variety, is not spinach
at all. The latter was discovered in New Zealand in 1770
by a member of Captain Cook's crew. The natives were
even then using it as a potherb. It is considered by many
to be superior in quality and taste to real spinach.
A sandy loam or muck produces good spinach. Open
sandy soil or poorly drained, soggy land should be avoid-
ed. Sandy soils should be enriched with a commercial
Seeds of both are covered 1 inch in rows 2 to 3 feet
apart. When growing well, thin to one plant every 6
inches. The apical leaf clusters of New Zealand spinach,
which form the edible portion, are cut or broken off. The
more clusters removed the more new clusters form, and
as long as the plant is healthy, it will continue to produce.
Bloomsdale and New Zealand are the usual varieties
Time to Plant. Northern and Central Florida: March-
April. Southern Florida: January-April.

Squash and pumpkin are typical native American vege-
tables, and were grown by the Indians long before Ameri-
ca was discovered. Almost any type of good soil will
grow them. Muck or flat lands make heavy yields but
their product is not of best quality and will not handle or
keep as well as that produced in higher soils.
In addition to well-rotted stable manure or compost, a
commercial fertilizer should be applied at the rate of one
pound to 15 feet of row, half before planting, the re-
mainder when the plants are almost a month old.
Early squash can be planted in 4 x 4 foot checks, but
later running varieties should be planted in 6 x 8 foot
checks. Four or five seeds are planted to a hill. When
the plants are 2 or 3 inches high, thin to three plants to
a hill.



Cultivation should continue as long as it is possible to
work between the rows, being careful not to disturb the
roots, which are close to the surface.
Early varieties include Cocozelle, White Bush or Patty
Pan, Early Yellow Crook Neck, and Mammoth White
Bush. These yield in from 45 to 60 days after planting.

mer, African, and Table Queen.

Time to Plant. Northern Florida: March-April, and
August Central Florida: February-March, and August.

Southern Florida: January-March, and September-Oc-
- X

Strawberries grow well in Florida Soils And if properly
Scared for produce over a long period. The best lands
are soils having a clay or other compact subsoil, to whichSum-
mer,is applied an abundance ueeof organic matter in the form of

well-rotted manure or compost turned under at least 20
days before planting.
The use of a commercial fertilizer is recommended for
August, Central Florida: February-March, and August.
Southern Florida: January-March, and September-Oc-
Strawberries (Tgr owwell in Florida, and if properly
cared for produce over a long period. The best lands
are soils having a clay or other compact subsoil, to which
is applied an abundance of organic matter in the form of
well-rotted manure or compost turned under at least 20
days before planting.
The use of a commercial fertilizer is recommended for
the first application before the plants are set out; a sec-
ond application, six weeks after planting; and the third,



when the fruit is setting. An application of nitrate of
soda or sulphate of ammonia when the fruit is setting in-
creases the size of the berries and prolongs the bearing
Plants can be set out about 12 to 14 inches apart in
well-drained land in 30- to 36-inch single rows.
When the land is low and poorly drained, the two- or
three-row system is advisable, making narrow beds about
40 inches wide with a water furrow between. The plants
are set 12 inches apart in 12-inch rows, care being taken
not to cover the bud and crown. Firm the soil around
each plant with the fingers and moisten with a cup of
When berries are ready to be picked, it is advisable to
spread a mulch of grass or pine needles around the roots
of the plants. This retains the soil moisture, keeps the
berries off the ground, prevents decay.
Brandywine, Excelsior, and Klondike are varieties
grown in this State but the Missionary, according to tests
conducted at the Strawberry Laboratory at Plant City, is
superior to them all. (See Bulletin No. 63, Agricultural
Extension Service, Gainesville, Florida.) Obtain plants
from a reputable dealer.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: Runners set out
during August and September, depending upon weather.
Central and Southern Florida: About one month later.
When the gardener considers the nutritive value of
tomatoes and the fact that they grow so well in Florida,
this vegetable will be included in his list of plantings.
Tomatoes are successfully grown on several types of
soil. The largest acreage is planted on well drained,
sandy pine land; but marl and muck land also produce
On loose, thin soil, two applications of commercial fer-
tilizer are preferable to one, the first being made soon
after planting and the second when the first bloom comes.
Care must be taken not to break the roots during the sec-



ond application or the bloom will shed, and the first crop
be lost.
Tomato seed can be planted in a seedbed and later
transplanted, but for small plots it is easier to buy plants

Tomatoes; ever popular vegetable, rich in vitamin A.

from reputable dealers.
When the plants are from 6 to 8 inches high, transplant
into rows from 312 feet apart (if they are to be.staked) to
20 to 30 inches apart in the rows. Some growers place a
handful of peat moss around each plant to keep the roots
It is advisable for gardeners with small plots to prune
the plant to a single stem, tie it to a 5-foot stake, and



thin the fruit to four or five clusters. Labor so expended
will be rewarded.
The most satisfactory varieties grown in this State are
Marglobe, Glovel, Livingstone's Globe, and Grothen Red
Globe. Ponderosa, a larger though less uniform variety,
is also suitable for the home garden.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: February-August.
Central Florida: February-September. Southern Flori-
da: August-March.

These vegetables, delectable in tops and roots, are con-
sidered as a unit since they grow well in the same type of
soil and under similar cultural conditions.
Both turnips and mustard develop best in the cool
weather. Plantings can be started directly in the garden
and continue at intervals except in the coolest sections.
Early Flat Dutch, Purple Top Globe, and Early White
Egg turnips are recommended varieties. Southern Giant
Curled and Florida Broad Leaf represent two types of
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: turnips, January-
April, and August-October; mustard, January-March, and
September-November. Central Florida: turnips and
mustard, January-March, and September-November;
Southern Florida: turnips, October-February; mustard,

The home gardener may not care to take up valuable
ground with watermelons, since they require considerable
space for the proper growth. Moreover, the usual truck
garden soil is not well adapted to the production of good
Any soil which is expected to grow melons must be well
drained, and land plowed and harrowed from four to six
weeks before planting. It is not advisable to plant
watermelons three successive years on the same land


unless the variety is vilt resistant. The better grades of
rolling pine land usually produce good crops.
For small gardens, an authority suggests two pounds
per hill of a commercial fertilizer to be worked into-the
soil about a week before planting, which should begin
as soon as the danger of frost is past. The field can be

Watermelons Do Well on High Rolling Pine Lands. Early Melons
And Seeds Are Large Commercial Crops in Florida.

laid off in checks measuring 8 x 8, 10 x 10, or 10 x12 feet.
Six or more seed per hill are planted 2 inches deep.
When well established, the plants are thinned to two or
three per hill.
While the plants are small the surrounding soil should,
be sufficiently cultivated to keep the earth loose and to
kill the weeds. Cultivation must be shallow and at a
safe distance from the plants, for the vines are easily
injured and the roots are tender. If large melons are
desired, it is advisable to prune all but one or two melons
per vine.

The Tom Watson is the most popular variety grown.
Other well known varieties are Stone Mountain, Florida
Favorite, Kleckly Sweet,. and Dixie Queen.

Time to Plant. Northern Florida: Marchi-Aprile Cen-

trial Florida: January-April. Southerth Florida: Febru-
kil-te. ed-.-Cutv tin- ut.be salo a d a ,

_ar v ewed, ulivManmut rlshloc hd.a.a



Because of the widely differing temperatures and soils
found in the State, it is difficult to give figures that will
apply in all cases for depth of planting, spacing, time of
growth to maturity, and other relative information. Home
gardeners should consult experienced farmers, if possi-
ble, and county agents.
The figures in the following chart are a composite of
those contained in Bulletin No. 1, What'and When to
Plant In Florida; Bulletin No. 23, Some Florida Farm
Crops; and Bulletin No. 80, Ready Reference For Farm-
ers, all publications of the State Department of Agricul-



1-Early Leviathan

Seeds or
plants per
100 feet
of row

1 pt.

--------------- I- ------------.-..------I --------1- --------

Ford Hook

/ pt.


14-18 in.

8-14 in.


4 ft.

3 ft.


2-3 ft.

Depth of

1-2 in.

-- I, -*.--.---1--.---..----.--[--- i

2-3 ft.

1-2 in.

Days to

45 to 70

45 to 70

1-Burpee Stringless
Green Beans Greenpod
(snap) 2-Early Speckled
Valentine 1 t. 8-14 in. 2%-3 ft. 2-21/ ft. 1-2 in. 45 to 60
3-Early Refugee, etc.

(wax type) 1-Wardell
2-Kidney Wax
3-Davis White Wax

Green Beans 1-Kentucky Wonder 12 pt. 14-18 in. 4 ft. 3 ft. 1-2 in. 45 to 75
(pole) 2-Florida Pole

Beets 2-Detroit Dark Red 2 oz. 3-4 in. 2-21% ftt.2 ft. in. 50 to 70
3-Crosby's Egyptian


Lima Beans

Lima Beans




11-------------~1----`~I-- - -- I--

--I'''''''''''''''''''~---- --~----'

1-Italian Green
Sprouting 4 oz. 15-18 in. 3-4 ft. % ft. 120 to
Broccoli 2-Mammoth White per acre 150
3-Autumn Protecting
4-White Cape

1-Charleston Wakefield 1/2 oz.
Cabbage 2-Jersey Wakefield
3-Copenhagen Market 65-90 15-18 in. 21/2-3 ft. 2-21/2 ft. 1 in. 80 to 100
4-Early Flat Dutch plants

Chinese Pe-Tsai 8 oz. 12-15 in. 30 in.
Cabbage per acre 1 in. 60 to 70

1-Early Snowball 1/8 oz.
Cauliflower 2-Erfurt 60-75 20 in. 2/2-3 ft. 2-21/2 ft. % in. 100 to
plants 130
Carrots 1-Chanteney 1 oz. % in. 2-21/ ft. 1/2 ft. '/2 in. 75 to 110
2-Danver's Half Long
Chard 1 oz. 5-6 in. 2 ft. 18-24 in. /2-1 in.
200 plants 40 to 60

1/ oz. 100 to
Collards 65-100 18-24 in. 2-2%/ ft. 18-24 in. in. 120

Sweet Corn

1-Suwannee Sugar
2-Honey June
3-Country Gentleman
4-Long Island Beauty

1/ pint;
3 or 4
per hill

12 in.

3-3'/2 ft.

3 ft.

2 in.

60 to 100







--- -- -- I.--- --- ----- ------I--- I ------' ------ _______ --- _________



Seeds or
plants per
100 feet
of row




Depth of


Days to

1-Snow Flake 1/ pt. 18 in:
"Roasting 2-Stowell's Evergreen 3 or 4 between 3-31/2 ft. 3 ft. 2 in. 60 to 100
Ears" 3-Silvermine grains hills
4-Trucker's Favorite per hill

1-Clark's Special 6 seeds
2-Straight Eight per hill; Hills
Cucumbers 3--Improved Long Green thin to 2-3 ft. 4-6 ft. 4-6 ft. % in. 50 to 60
4-Klondike 3 or 4 apart
5-Kirby Staygreen per hill

1-Florida Highbush 14 oz.
Eggplant 2-New Orleans Market 50-70 3 ft. 4-5 ft. 4-5 ft. 1/2 in. 100 to
3-Black Beauty plants 140

Endive 1-White Curled /2 oz.
or 2-Green Curled 8-9 in. 2-2 ft. 15-18 in. %1-% in. 90 to 180
3-Moss Curled 100
Escarole 1-Broadleaved Batavia plants


1-White Vienna
2-Early Purple.
3-Kirby Staygreen

1/2 OZ.

6 in.

2/2-3 ft.

18-24 in.

%2 in.

60 to 80




__~ __ __

1-White Boston 1 plant
Lettuce 2-New York No. 12 to each
3-New York No. 515 square
Romaine 1-Paris White Cos or 12-15 in. 12-15 in. 1/ in. 60 to 90
2-Green Cos 1/2 oz.
per row

6 seeds
Muskmelons Old Georgia per hill; Hills 3-4 5-6 ft. 6 ft. 1-1% in. 120 to
Cantaloupes Rocky Ford thin to ft. apart 150
1 or 2

1-Perkins Mammoth
Okra Podded 2 oz. 10-12 in. 4 ft. 2-3 ft. /4-1 in. 45
2-Long Green
3-White Velvet

Onions 1-Crystal Wax 130 to
(seed) 2-Red Bermuda 1 oz. 3-4 in. 2 ft. 12-18 in. 1/4-1/2 in. 150
(sets) 1-Australian Brown
2-Riverside Spanish 1 qt. sets 3-4 in. 2 ft. 12-18 in. 1-2 in. 90 to 120

1-Common or
Parsley 2-Neapolitan 0/ oz. 3-4 in. 2 ft. 15 in. /s in. 90 to 120

English Peas 1-Alaska Extra Early
(single rows) 2-Thomas Laxton 1-2 pts.. 1 in. 3 ft. 3 ft. 2 in. 40 to 80
(double rows) 4-Little Marvel 1 in. 4 ft. 4 ft.






Seeds or Distances Distances
plants per Distances between between
Vegetables Varieties 100 feet Between rows- rows- Depth of Days to
of row plants horse hand planting maturity
cultivation cultivation
Peppers 1-Ruby King
(sweet) 2-World Beater
(pimento) 1-Perfection 1/8 oz.
2-Tomato 20 in. 2-3 ft. 3 ft. % in. 100 to
(chili) 1-Mexican 140
2-Anaheim Chili 50 plants
(hot) 1-Anaheim

1-Spaulding Rose No. 4
Potatoes 2-Bliss Triumph 1 seed- Hills
(Irish) 3-Irish Cobbler piece 12-15 in. 212-4 ft. 2-4 ft. 21/2-6 in. 80 to 140
4-Katahdin per hill apart
Potatoes 1-Porto Rico 1 slip
(sweet) 2-Nancy Hall or cutting 14-18 in. 3-4 ft. 3-4 ft. 2-3 in. 140 to
3-Big Stem Jersey per hill 160

1-Long Scarlet 1 oz.; 1-4 in ': z
Radishes 2-Long White Icicle thin when 2 ft. 12-15 in. 1/-1 in. 30
3-Scarlet Globe 4 in. high
4-French Breakfast

Thin to
Spinach 1-Bloomsdale 1 oz. 1 plant 2-3 ft. 1 in. 30 to 60
(true) 2-Curley-Savoy every
6 in. 3-4 ft. 1 in. 80 to 90
New Zealand New Zealand 1 oz. 18 in. 3-4 ft.



Squash 1-White Bush
and or Patty Pan 4-5 seeds 4 ft. 4 ft. 1-2 in. 45 to 60
Pumpkins 2-Early Yellow per hill;
(early) Crook Neck 8 ft.
3-Mammoth White Bush thin to 4 ft.
(late) 1-Hubbard 3 plants 6 ft. 8 ft. 1-2 in. 120 to
2-Giant Summer per hill 160
3-Table Queen

Strawberries 1-Brandywine 1 plant Cover
(single row 2-Excelsior every 14 in. 30-36 in. (See roots;
system) 3-Klondyke 14 in. text) leave bud
4-Missionary and crown 80 to 100
(two or three 1 plant exposed
row system) every 12 in. (See 12 in.
12 in. text)

1-Marglobe %/ oz.
Tomatoes 2-Glovel 20-30 in. 3-4 ft. 312-5 ft. 1/2-1 in 100 to
3-Grothen Red Globe 35-50 seedbed 140
4-Ponderosa plants

Turnips 1-Early Flat Dutch % oz. 5-6 in. 2 ft. 14-16 '/- in. 60 to 80
2-Purple Top Globe
Mustard 1-Giant Curled
2-Florida Broad Leaf
Rutabagas 1-Purple Top 1/2 oz. 5-6 in. 3 ft. 1A4-/2 in.


1-Tom Watson
2-Stone Mountain
3-Florida Favorite
4-Kleckly Sweet
5-Dixie Queen

6 or more
per hill;
thin to
2 or 3
ner hill

Watermelons are usually planted
in checks measuring 8x8, 10x10,
or 10x12. One hill is planted in
each check.
1 ft. I

2 in.





100 to




Plant diseases are usually caused by microscopic or-
ganisms known as bacteria and fungi, which are spread
by air currents, water, clothing and hands of persons, ani-
mals, tools, and various other agencies.
The home garden can combat these diseases by using
varieties of seeds that, through scientific experimentation,
have been rendered resistant to certain organisms; by
treating seed with poisonous materials before planting, so
that spores of adhering organisms are destroyed; or by
protecting the plant with substances that are poisonous
to the bacteria and fungi.
In combatting fungus diseases it is necessary that the
gardener observe the axiom that "an ounce of preventive
is worth a pound of cure." Spraying or dusting must be
done before the fungus penetrates the plant tissue, and
repeated often enough to protect the new growth as it
Sprays used to control plant diseases usually have poi-
son content of copper, such as Bordeaux mixture, which
contains blue vitriol (copper sulphate), lime and water.
In dusting plants, a copper-lime mixture of sulphur is
Insects that attack garden plants can be divided into
two distinct types or groups, each type requiring a dif-
ferent method of control. The chewing type of insect,
generally wormlike larvae, shreds foliage and attacks
stems. A stomach poison, in dust or spray form, is ap-
plied thoroughly to all parts of the plant to destroy these
insects. In consuming the vegetation they eat the poison
which has been placed upon it, and are killed. The
sprays or dusts usually contain some form of arsenate.
A poison-bait mixture, such as Paris green, bran, and
syrup, is used to combat cutworms. Because the cut-
worms emerge from the ground to attack vegetation at
night, a small amount of bait is placed at the base of each
plant in the evening.
The other group, or sucking type of insects, cannot
be eliminated by stomach poisons. These pests have a



proboscis which they insert into the plant tissues, sucking
the juices from below the surface of the plant, and thus
while feeding avoid consuming the poison placed on the
exterior of the plant. Among the sucking insects are
plant lice (aphids), plant bugs, scale insects and leaf
hoppers. Poisonous spray or dust must be applied di-
rectly to these so that they are suffocated. Nicotine sul-
phate, rotenone, and pyrethrum are used. Pyrethrum,
nonpoisonous to human beings, also is used to some ex-
tent in controlling chewing insects.
From the standpoint of necessary equipment, dusting
may be more convenient and practicable than spraying in
small garden plots. Combination dusts for disease and
insect control, if used soon enough, employed correctly
and with sufficient persistence, will generally be effective.
Dusts used to control disease organisms or chewing in-
sects will adhere better to plants if applied while the lat-
ter are damp with dew in the morning. Nicotine, intend-
ed to form a suffocating gas to destroy sucking insects, is
better applied during the hottest part of the day, when
the air is still.
Dust is generally easier to handle and apply. Ready-
mixed compounds are sold by all seed dealers, but they
can easily be prepared at home and at less expense. One
good nonpoisonous preparation is made up of derris pow-
der (4 or 5 per cent rotenone), 3 pounds; red copper
oxide, 1 pound: wheat flour 1>. pounds; and talc, 11
The derris destroys insects upon contact or when eaten.
The red copper oxide prevents disease organisms from
being established. The wheat flour acts as an adhesive
for the dust, and the talc is the inert diluting material.
For applying, a hand plunger or bellows duster is used for
the small home garden, and a rotary-fan or bellows-type
knapsack duster for larger areas.
Almost all plants are subject to one or more diseases
and pests, the control of which has been a highly spe2ial-
ized study by State and Federal agencies. Explicit in-
formation concerning control methods can be obtained
from the Florida State Department of Agriculture, Tal-
lahassee, the Florida Experiment SLation, University of



Florida, Gainesville, or the United States Department of
Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
In writing, the home gardener should explain in detail
the situation confronting him, describe the pests or dis-
eases involved, and indicate the apparent effect upon his
plants. In this way a more nearly correct diagnosis can
be made by experts in plant pathology and entomology.
The home gardener should call on the county farm
demonstration agent or write the Experiment Station in




No. 1 What and When to Plant in Florida (1935)

No. 3 Plant Diseases and Pests and Their Treatment

No. 23 Some Florida Truck Crops (1939)

No. 52 The Home Vegetable Garden in Florida (1931)

No. 80 Ready References for Farmers (1937)

No. 88 Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits (1938)


No. 80 The Home Garden (1935)

No. 90 Florida Vegetables (1937)


No. 58 Vegetable Crops in Florida (1930)

No. 103 Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables (1939)


No. 1442 Farmers' Bulletin

No. 1692 Farmers' Bulletin


By R. J. HASKELL, senior extension plant pathologist, Extension
Service and -Bureau of Plant Industry, and V. R. BOSWELL,
principal horticulturist. Division of Fruit and Vegetable Crops and
Diseases, Bureau of Plant Industry.

Home vegetable gardens, which add so much to better
family living, would usually be easier to maintain if it
were not for the ravages of plant diseases and insect
pests. Ways are available to wage a successful fight
against these enemies, however, and those who under-
stand and follow such practices are the ones that are most
successful. A large part of the success in controlling
vegetable diseases lies in early precautions.
In choosing varieties of vegetables to plant it is well
to select those that are resistant to prevailing diseases, if
Also, it is important to start with disease-free seed, as
many diseases are seed borne. This means obtaining
good, high-quality seed that has been grown under sani-
tary conditions, from a reliable, well-established seed
A third precaution to take against disease is to treat or
disinfect some kinds of seed with a good seed-treating
material before planting. Instructions for doing this may
be obtained from your State agricultural college.
Other early precautionary measures include rotation of
the garden plot from one location to another to keep down
soil infestation with plant-disease-producing organisms,
the use of new, clean soil in seed fiats and beds, and avoid-
ing the use of infested compost. After the plants are up,
it is sometimes necessary to spray or dust them for leaf
Ways of preventing vegetable diseases by using some
of these methods are described in United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture Farmers' Bulletin 1371, "Diseases
and Insects of Garden Vegetables."
This leaflet briefly describes some of the diseases which
have caused heavy losses and gives the name of and a few
facts about varieties resistant to these diseases. The list
is rather short, but the United States Department of



Agriculture, the State agricultural experiment stations,
seedsmen, and many private individuals at present are
active in developing more and better disease-resistant
Rust at one time ruined the asparagus-growing industry
of the United States. However, owing to the prompt
development of resistant varieties of asparagus, the dis-
ease was overcome so that today it is not of much im-
Rust is not a disease of the edible, young shoots but of
the mature tops, attacking them in the summer and de-
vitalizing them, and consequently the roots. Small
pustules are formed on the stems, twigs, and leaves that
are at first reddish and later turn black. The tops of
the plants take on a yellow color and look as if they were
ripening prematurely.
Mary Washington and also Martha Washington and
other strains of the Washington type are highly resistant
to rust and are good commercial varieties. Mary Wash-
ington is the most popular variety grown and is carried by
practically all seed firms having asparagus seed or roots
for sale. It is a cross between Mary, a giant female
seedling selected from a bed of Reading Giant from Eng-
land, and Washington (male). The cross was made by
J. B. Norton of Concord, Mass., in 1910. Superior strains
of Mary Washington have been selected and given other
names by certain seedsmen.
Common bean mosaic causes the leaves to be mottled
with light green and dark-green areas. Because of un-
even growth, affected leaves may be puckered, cupped,
and dwarfed. Badly affected plants are stunted and fail
to bear a profitable crop. Usually mosaic comes into the
home garden with the seed. It is spread in seed fields
largely by sucking insects. Some varieties are much more
susceptible than others.
Anthracnose is a seed-borne bean disease that is not so
serious as it used to be, because most bean seed now is
grown in the far West, where dry climate during the
growing season prevents its development. It is character-



ized by dark, sunken, circular cankers on the pods and
blighting of the leaves.
The bacterial blights are caused by seed-borne bacteria.
They cause a blighting of the leaves and spotting of the
pods. As with anthracnose, the best way to avoid injury
is to use disease-free seed. There are considerable differ-
ences in susceptibility of varieties, but as yet none have
been produced that are very resistant. Robust Pea,
Yellow Eye, Marrow, and beans of the Refugee type are
resistant enough so that they can usually be successfully
Rust occurs widely over the United States. It causes
small, reddish-brown pustules on the leaves and some-
times on stems and pods. Affected leaves turn yellow
and drop off. There are several forms or types of this
Curly top occurs in the Rocky Mountain States and
Westward. It also affects sugar beets, tomatoes, squash,
and many other vegetables. Bean plants are stunted and
Green Snap Beans
Refugee U. S. No. 5, Idaho Refugee, and Wisconsin
Refugee are all highly resistant to common bean mosaic,
to which snap beans of the Refugee type are generally
susceptible. They are also resistant to powdery mildew.
The last two varieties are further resistant to some
strains of the anthracnose fungus and tolerant to the bac-
terial blights. Wisconsin Refugee is resistant to some
forms of rust.
Pole Beans
Kentucky Wonder U. S. No. 3 and U. S. No. 4 are two
selections from European pole beans of the Kentucky
Wonder type that are resistant to some forms of rust.
Some of the seed companies also have other selections of
Kentucky Wonder that are more rust tolerant than the
ordinary variety.
Alabama No. 1 is a pole bean selected from a strain
that has long been grown in Alabama. It is said to be
tolerant to the root knot nematode that is serious in sandy
soils of the Southern States.



Shell Beans (dry edible)
Great Northern U. I. Nos. 59, 81, and 123 are three im-
proved selections of shell beans made by the University
of Idaho from the variety Great Northern. They are
highly resistant to common bean mosaic and tolerant to
yellow bean mosaic.
Wells Red Kidney, Geneva, and York are three kidney
beans that have been developed at the New York Agri-
cultural Experiment Station for their resistance to an-
thracnose. Most of the red kidney-bean seed on the mar-
ket is one of or a combination of these varieties.
Perry Marrow, Jumbo Marrow, Castile Marrow, and
Nova Scotia Marrow are beans of the Marrow type resist-
ant to anthracnose.
Geneva Pea, Honeoye Pea are resistant to anthracnose.
Robust Pea is resistant to common bean mosaic and
anthracnose and usually is resistant enough to the bac-
terial blights to make a successful crop.
Red Mexican, California Red, California Pink, Burtner,
Red Mexican U. I. No. 3, and Red Mexican U. I. No. 34
are shell beans adapted to the West that are resistant to
curly top except when very young. The last two are also
resistant to common mosaic.
Lima Bean
Hopi 155 shows some resistance to the root knot nema-
tode in California.
Yellows, or fusarium wilt, attacks cabbage severely and
sometimes affects kale and other plants of the cabbage
family when planted on infested land. Affected plants
become stunted, turn yellow, and drop their leaves, from
the ground up. When cut open, the stems show a brown
discoloration of the woody tissue. This disease is caused
by a fungus that lives in the soil; once established in a
garden or field, it may remain for many years.
Fortunately, excellent varieties of various types of
cabbage that are yellows resistant are available. Most
of these were originated at the United States Department
of Agriculture. The varieties with the approximate



length of time required to reach maturity are as follows:
Jersey Queen. Jersey Wakefield type, 60 days.
Racine Market. Early Copenhagen Market type, 60
Marion Market. Copenhagen Market type, 70 days.
Globe. Glory of Enkhuizen type, 75 days.
Wisconsin Allhead Select. Allhead Early type, 75
Wisconsin All Seasons. All Seasons type, 90 days.
Wisconsin Ballhead. Danish Ballhead type, 95 days.
Wisconsin Hollander No. 8. Hollander type, 100
Red Hollander. Hollander type, 100 days.
Yellows is a disease that is more likely to be trouble-
some in commercial celery areas, where the crop is grown
frequently on the same ground, rather than in home gar-
dens that are rotated occasionally. Affected plants are
stunted and yellowed and have a yellowish or reddish dis-
coloration in the woody part of the stalks near the crown.
Dark-green varieties are very resistant; but easily blanch-
ing celeries are likely to fail if planted on "yellows" soil,
that is, soil infested with the fungus that causes the
Michigan Golden, developed by the Michigan Agricul-
tural Experiment Station, is resistant to yellows. It is
like Golden Self Blanching in type. The seed is pro-
duced, packaged, and sealed under supervision of the
Michigan State College of Agriculture and Applied
Golden Pascal and Florida Golden are other new white
varieties that show resistance.
Mosaic causes mottled, wrinkled, dwarfed leaves;
mottled, warty fruit; and stunted plants. it is caused by
a virus that lives overwinter in the roots of certain wild
perennial plants, such as wild cucumber, milkweed, cat-
nip, pokeberry, and ground cherry.
Shamrock is a large, slicing cucumber suitable for the



home garden that is resistant to mosaic. It is like White
Spine in type.
Brown blight is a disease that has threatened lettuce
growing in the Southwest, particularly California and
Arizona. Affected plants become stunted, yellow, and
gradually turn brown and die. It is apparently a soil-
borne disease. Once a field becomes infested, it stays so
for many years, and lettuce cannot be grown unless resist-
ant varieties are used.
Downy mildew causes spots on the leaves, at first light
green, then yellow, and finally brown. The white mildew
grows on the under side of the spot.
Tipburn is one of the most destructive diseases of head
lettuce. It is associated with high temperatures. It is
not likely to be severe on the early-spring or late-fall
crops. The edges of the leaves turn brown, and growth
is slowed down. Leaves inside the head may become
Varieties of lettuce have been developed by the Bureau
of plant industry that are resistant to both brown blight
and downy mildew.
Imperial No. 847 and other numbered Imperial varie-
ties are resistant to brown blight. They are like New
York in type.
Imperial C, D, and F and other lettered varieties of
Imperial are resistant to both brown blight and downy
Columbia No. 1 appears to be resistant to tipburn. It
is a crispheaded sort similar to New York and adapted to
the lighter soils of the Middle Atlantic States.

Powdery mildew affects melons, cucumbers, and other
related plants. It appears as a white, mealy growth in
spots on the upper surface of the leaves. When there is
a severe attack of the disease, the leaves wither and die.
It is most serious in irrigated sections of the West. There
are at least two forms of the fungus that cause this very
destructive disease.
Powdery Mildew Resistant Cantaloupe No. 45 was de-



veloped in California from a cross between Hales Best
and a melon from India. It is of the Hales Best type, of
excellent quality, and a good shipper. It is resistant to
form No. 1 of the mildew but susceptible to form No. 2,
which was serious in 1939.
Mild mosaic causes a slight crinkling, dark- and light-
green mottling of leaves, a reduction in vigor of the plant,
and a lowering in yield. It is one of the principal causes
of so-called "running out." It is caused by an insect-
transmitted virus.
Late blight and the tuber rot that accompanies it are
often very destructive in moist climates, blighting the
tops and rotting the tubers.
Katahdin, Chippewa, Golden, and Houma are four new
varieties originated by the United States Department of
Agriculture that are resistant to mild mosaic. The first
two are smooth, uniformly shaped, midseason, good-
yielding, widely adapted varieties. Golden is a yellow-
fleshed variety of good quality but limited adaptation.
Houma has proved to be well adapted to parts of Lou-
Sebago is a new variety recently released by the United
States Department of Agriculture that is resistant to late
blight of the vines and tubers. In gardens along the At-
lantic seaboard and in the Northeastern and Lake States,
where late blight is often damaging, this variety can be
grown successfully even without spraying with bordeaux
mixture. It is also resistant to mild mosaic.
Curly top affects pumpkins as well as sugar beets,
beans, and certain other vegetable crops in the Rocky
Mountain States and westward to the extent that these
vegetables frequently cannot be grown unless resistant
varieties are planted.
Varieties of the Cheese group, Cushaw group, and Ten-
nessee Sweetpotato group, and Big Tom are resistant
to curly top.
Mosaic, blight or yellows, is somewhat like mosaic



diseases of other plants in appearance. It causes a mot-
tling and curling of the leaves, which may later become
yellow and die. It is caused by a virus and is spread by
Virginia Savoy and Old Dominion, both originated at
the Virginia Truck Experiment Station, Norfolk, Va., are
resistant to mosaic and of good commercial quality. Vir-
ginia Savoy goes to seed very quickly when sown in the
spring and, therefore, it should be grown only as a fall
Sweet Corn
Bacterial wilt causes diseased streaks in the leaves of
sweet corn, which finally die. Affected plants produce
few or no ears, depending on the earliness of the disease
attack. Yellow early varieties are much more suscep-
tible than the white, late ones. Several early, yellow
hybrid sweet corns that show resistance are now on the
market. When selecting early yellow varieties for the
home garden, select one that is listed as resistant to wilt.
Golden Cross Bantam, developed at the Indiana Ex-
periment Station in cooperation with the United States
Department of Agriculture, is an excellent standard,
early, yellow, wilt-resistant variety. Several lines of
Marcross, Spancross, Whipcross and others developed by
the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station are also
resistant to bacterial wilt. Several other varieties with
some degree of resistance are listed by seedmen.
The Marblehead, the Long White Bush, and the Veg-
etable Marrow varieties of squash are resistant to curly
top. See Pumpkin (p. 5).
Fusarium wilt is very common in all but the more nor-
thern States. It is caused by a fungus that enters the
roots from infested soil, grows into the water vessels, and
causes the leaves to roll, become yellow, and finally die.
When affected plants are cut open, the woody part of the
stem is found to be darkened.
Verticillium wilt is much like fusarium wilt in its ap-
pearance but much less common.
Nailhead spot is caused by a fungus that makes round,



sunken spots on fruits and brown spots on the Ptems and
leaves. It is found chiefly in the South.
Marglobe, Pritchard (Scarlet Topper), and Glovel are
all resistant to fusarium wilt and nailhead spot. Certi-
fied seed is more likely to be satisfactory than uncertified.
Louisiana Pink and Louisiana Red are two varieties
resistant to fusarium wilt and adapted tc conditions in
Louisiana and surrounding States.
Riverside is resistant to fusarium wilt and verticillium
wilt. It was developed in California by the United States
Department of Agriculture in cooperation with the Cali-
fornia Agricultural Experiment Station.
Prairiana, Early Baltimore, Illinois Pride, and Illinois
Baltimore are four field varieties said to be resistant to
fusarium wilt and adapted in Illinois. They were de-
veloped by the Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station.
Fusarium wilt is a very common disease of water-
melons. It is caused by a fungus that, once established in
the soil, is very difficult to get rid of. Many thousands of
acres of watermelon land have been abandoned because
of wilt-sick soil. Affected plants wilt and die early.
Resistant varieties such as the following offer the best
solution of the wilt problem.
Hawkesbury (Hawkesbury Wilt Resistant) is a dark-
seeded, long gray-skinned melon introduced from Au-
Improved Kleckley 3weet No. 6 is a selection from
Kleckley Sweet made by the Iowa Agricultural Experi-
ment Station.
Improved Stone Mountain No. 5 was developed from a
cross of Stone Mountain with a Japanese variety by the
Agricultural Experiment Station.
Leesburg is a resistant selection from Kleckley Sweet
made by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.
Klondike R7 was developed from a cross between Klon-
dike and Iowa Belle( resistant) made in California.


University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs