Citation
Peaches and nectarines in Florida

Material Information

Title:
Peaches and nectarines in Florida
Series Title:
Circular
Creator:
Crocker, T. E ( Timothy Eugene ), 1944-
Williamson, Jeffrey Grover, 1957-
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Publisher:
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
19 p. : ill., map ; 23 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Peach -- Florida ( lcsh )
Nectarine -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Revised 4/93"--P. 4 of cover.
Statement of Responsibility:
T.E. Crocker and J.G. Williamson.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
AAA7031 ( LTQF )
AJQ7283 ( LTUF )
29343729 ( OCLC )
029131981 ( ALEPHBIBNUM )

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Full Text
CIRCULAR 299-E



Peaches and

Nectarines

in Florida


T. E. Crocker and
J G. Williamson



Urniversily ot Florida
Institute ol Food .and Agricultural Sciences
Florida Cooperative EAlension Service
John T Woeste Dear




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PEACHES AND NECTARINES IN FLORIDA
T. E. Crocker'
Introduction

Commercial acreage of peaches and nectarines in Florida is now
estimated at 1500 hectares (3,000 acres), most of which is in Madison
County. The northern production area extends from Madison County
west, and the cultivars grown in this area require 400 to 650 hours of
chilling. In the central area of the state, cultivars that require 200 to 300
hours of chilling have been developed. Chilling hours are relative to the
amount of cold received during average winters in each area.
Peaches planted for home use represent a sizeable amount of the total
number of peaches grown in the state. The peach requires more special-
ized care than many homeowners give. This circular will provide informa-
tion to homeowners and outline production practices for commercial
orchards.

Site Selection
Proper site selection and cultivar choice rank as two of the most impor-
tant factors in successful peach growing. Good air and water drainage are
essential to tree growth and production. In selecting a site, avoid low
areas (pockets) and sections characterized by late spring frosts. The ef-
fect of cold on crops has been studied in Alachua county for 11 seasons.
Out of 11 crops on a cold site, 7 were lost, but on a warm site a few miles
away there were only 2 partial crop losses due to spring frost after
February 10.
Even in central Florida critical temperatures for fruit kill can occur
throughout February and March in cold locations; thus, late blooming -
due to delayed dormancy is not as good insurance as good site choice.
Peach flower buds that have just begun to swell withstand temperatures
to about 20 F (-7 C). Open blossoms show injury at about 260 F
(-3 C). Following petal fall, the young fruit are generally killed by
minimums of 28 F (-20 C). The generalized map (Fig. 1) shows last
dates when 280 F (-20 C) occurs in 30% of the years. Use of good sites
and recommended cultivars should reduce risks of spring frost injury to
10% to 20% of the years.
Peaches can be grown on a wide variety of soils, provided there is good
internal drainage in the upper 4 to 6 ft (1.3 to 1.8 m). Avoid "hardpan"
soils unless an excellent system of subsoil drainage tiles is provided.
Water damage has occurred on normally well-drained soils of heavy tex-
ture during exceptionally wet summers in northern Florida.

1Professor of Horticulture, Fruit Crops Department, University of Florida, Gaines-
ville. 32611.









Feb. 20th
,, Feb. 10th

Y Feb. 1st


Figure 1. Generalized pattern of date
after which the risk of a temperature
as low as 28 degrees is 30 percent.


Orchard Layout
Normal spacing is 20 X 20 ft or 108 trees/a (6 X 6 m). All common
peach cultivares are self-fruiting and should be planted in solid blocks for
easier spraying and harvesting. There have been some 10 X 20 ft and
15 X 20 ft (3 X 6 m and 4.5 X 6 m) plantings, with the expectation that a
larger number of trees per unit will result in increased yields per acre
during the early life of the orchard. Peach trees established at 10 X 20 ft
(3 X 6 m) have been more difficult to prune and handle than those
planted with normal spacing. On lighter soils the 15 X 20 ft (4.5 X 6 m)
spacing has been satisfactory.

Nursery Stock
June-budded trees 2/V2 to 4 ft (0.8 to 1.3 m) high are a good size to set.
Although acceptable, smaller sizes are likely to have rather limited root
systems and may start poorly in light soils. Larger sizes are more dif-
ficult to handle and more expensive, but they grow better in sandy soils
and yield more during the first 4 seasons.
Peach cultivars for home or commercial planting should be budded on
rootstocks resistant to root-knot nematode species Meloidogyne in-
cognita and M. javanica. Okinawa and Nemaguard peach stocks have
satisfactory resistance and are the only stocks recommended for Florida.
Other stocks such as Elberta, Tennessee "Naturals", Lovell and local
seedling rootstocks are susceptible to both root-knot species.
A new nematode (M. incognita, race 3) has been found that infests
Okinawa and Nemaguard, but it is not yet widespread in Florida. Long-
range studies are needed to make definate recommendations for northern
Florida, but in central Florida there is hardly any choice but to use resist-
ant stocks. If common peach stocks are used in northern Florida,
fumigate bands 6 to 8 ft (1.8 to 2.4 m) wide in the fall, before planting








with EDB, DD, or Telone as recommended by the manufacturers of these
materials.
Peaches are generally propagated in Florida by T-budding in May.
Stratified seeds should be planted in late January or early February.
Remove seeds from the pits in autumn and store in damp peat or perlite
at 35 to 45 F (1.7 to 7.2 C) for 40 to 60 days before planting. If the
seeds are not removed from the pits, the pits must be stratified and can
be kept in cold storage for up to 100 days. If soil temperatures are high at
planting, and seeds have not begun sprouting, seeds will revert into dor-
mancy. Nursery site approval is required by the Division of Plant In-
dustry to prevent spread of burrowing nematode if plants are to be sold
or shipped.

Setting trees
Peach trees are generally set bare-rooted in the dormant season in
December or as soon thereafter as possible so that new root growth can
develop before spring growth begins. In well-drained soils, plant trees
slightly deeper than they were grown in the nursery. Peach trees do not
need to be watered at planting if the soil is moist and packed well around
the roots. Trees that are planted early in the winter and kept free of weed
competition will require minimum watering the first season. Usually only
1 or 2 basin-type irrigations in April and May will be required, except in
unusually dry years or on coarser sands.
Keep the area 3 to 4 ft (0.9 to 1.3 m) out from newly-set trees free of
weeds the first season. Plant middle strips with oats or rye, or leave un-
cultivated until mid-April for protection from blowing sand. Cover can be
left in the middles, mowing as needed, throughout the first summer if
desired. In November, disc under all cover in the orchard.
Cultivate bearing orchards thoroughly up until early January, then
leave the soil as firm and clean as possible during and after bloom in
order to reduce frost hazard. Resume cultivation after the danger of frost
is past and keep the orchard clean until just before fruit harvest. After
harvest, native cover crops or hairy indigo may be grown. Avoid plant
covers that tend to build up stink bug populations (see insect notes).

Weed Control
Chemical weed control is being developed to supplement mechanical
control. A recommended procedure is to apply herbicide to a strip down
the tree row and mow the sod middles. Herbicides cleared for peaches in-
clude Terbacil, Dichlobenil, Simazine, Paraquat, Diuron, Trifluralin and
Oryzalin. Some of these should not be used on young trees, and growers
should consult label instructions. Paraquat, a contact herbicide, is
registered for use on trees of all sizes in the orchard and is effective for
burn-down or existing weeds.








Fertilization
Prior to setting trees, apply liming materials as needed to bring soil
within a range of pH 6.0 to 6.5. Use of some dolomitic lime is recom-
mended, especially on sandy soils where magnesium level in the soil is
low.
Because of soil type variations, there is a distinct difference in the
fertilizer recommendations for peaches growing in loamy peach soils
predominantly west of the Suwannee river, and those growing on the
sandy peach soils of peninsular Florida. It is suggested that mixed fer-
tilizers for the western (heavier soils) area include 8-8-8 or similar
materials. Fertilizers for the peninsular (sandy) area should approximate
a 12-4-8 formulation. All fertilizers should contain 1% or 2% zinc oxide
(ZnO) equivalent when used on young trees. On older trees, zinc may be
applied as part of the regular spray program by including 2 lbs (1 kg) of
neutral zinc per 100 gal (400 liters) of water in 1 or 2 cover sprays each
year, or it may continue to be supplied in the regular fertilizer program
(also see notes under rust disease).
Quickly available nitrogen, applied sufficiently ahead of bloom to be
taken up by the tree, is believed to improve set of fruit. Delayed
availability of nitrogen may delay fruit maturity and reduce colors.
Therefore, it is recommended that only mineral sources of nitrogen be
used in spring peach fertilizers prior to harvest.
Sandy soils are sometimes deficient in minor elements other than zinc.
Boron, at rates of 5 lbs (2 kg) B2 03 per acre, and occasionally manganese,
in sprays containing 0.75 metallic Mn per 100 gal (400 liters) have been
needed to correct symptoms. Requirements for other minor elements for
peaches in Florida have not been determined.
Apply fertilizer in the first (or planting) year in a circular area 6 to 24 in
(1.5 to 6 dm) from the trunk as follows:
1/8 lb (0.05 kg) per tree in February
1/4 lb (0.1 kg) in late May
1/2 lb (0.2 kg) in July
On the loamy soils of west Florida fertilizer may be applied on a dif-
ferent schedule, one that provides 1/2 lb (0.2 kg) in February and 1/2 lb
(0.2 kg) in June. In wet seasons when nitrogen is leached rapidly and
trees show slow growth, apply 1/4 lb (0.1 kg) of sodium nitrate or calcium
nitrate or equivalent amount of ammonium nitrate per tree in August.
In a second year, apply fertilizer to cover the area 1 ft (30 cm) from the
trunk to 1 ft (30 cm) beyond the branch spread. Apply 1 to 1/2 lbs (0.4 to
0.6 kg) per tree in January and the same quantity in late May. In the
third year, start broadcast applications of mixed fertilizer in quantities
sufficient to supply 30 to 40 lb/a (30 to 40 kg/h) actual nitrogen in
January and again in late May or after the crop is harvested. Apply 20 to
30 lbs/a (20 to 30 kg/h) of actual nitrogen if needed in August during wet
seasons.








Table 1. Leaf Analysis Levels in Peach


Optimum Range


Nitrogen (N)
Potassium (K)
Phosphorus (P)
Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)

Zinc (Zn)
Manganese (Mn)
Copper (Cu)
Iron (Fe)
Boron (B)


-percent of dry weight basis-
less than 2.8 3.00 3.50
less than 1.0 1.10 2.00
less than 0.15 0.17 0.29
less than 0.80 0.90 1.50
less than 0.30 0.30 1.00
-parts per million dry weight basis-
less than 16 17 60
less than 30 40 100
less than 4 7 18
less than 40 50 100
less than 20 25 80


Peach orchards in Florida are usually mature at the beginning of the
fourth year. Differences in cultivar and grove practices dictate variation
in fertilization practices. It is suggested that the recommended fertilizers
be applied in quantities sufficient to supply 80 to 100 lbs/a (80 to 100
kg/h) of nitrogen each year. Use %/ of the fertilizer in the first application
2 to 3 weeks ahead of bloom, and % in the second application in late May
or, in the case of later ripening cultivars, after the crop is harvested.
Excessive nitrogen can delay fruit ripening up to 10 days. Very fertile
areas may need only 20 to 30 lbs/a (20 to 30 kg/h) nitrogen per acre in the
spring application. Weeds must be controlled so fertilizer is made
available to the trees.
In central Florida applications of 20 to 30 lbs/a (20 to 30 kg/h) of addi-
tional nitrogen in mid-August may help control leaf drop from rust and
subsequent premature bloom.
As a guide to fertilization, some growers have leaf samples analyzed.
Samples should be taken from mid-shoot areas of average terminals in
June or July. Based on limited experience, the following levels are sug-
gested (Table 1.)

Irrigation

Irrigation of bearing trees has materially improved fruit development
and significantly increased young tree growth. Most major commercial
orchards are equipped for irrigation with volume guns, perforated pipes,
or sprinklers. The cultivars of commercial interest in Florida ripen in late
April and May when rainfall is usually light. Trees probably need at least
4 in (100 mm) of water per month-from soil storage, rainfall, or from
irrigation-for maximum fruit growth. Applications should be made


Low Range








before moisture stress becomes excessive. From 1 to 2 in (25 to 50 mm)
every 10 days is suggested.

Pruning
Pruning is necessary to form a well-shaped, strong tree, and to control
fruit bearing. Peach trees are pruned to form an open-center. One method
of pruning or training calls for trees to be cut back at planting time to a
single stem 2 ft (40 cm) high. If laterals have formed on the nursery tree,
cut the lower laterals off flush with the stem, but allow stubs 1 to 2 in (3
to 5 cm) long to remain on the upper ones. This is necessary to insure
leaving buds for new shoot development. After the tree sprouts in early
spring, select 3 evenly-spaced, vigorous, wide-angled shoots to be the
major scaffolding (see Fig. 2). Remove or cut back other shoots and
remove all low-growing suckers, including those from the rootstock.
In the first winter, cut back the main scaffold branches approximately
one-third, to a lateral branch growing on the outside of the main
branches. Water sprouts and limbs that are too low to the ground should
be removed. Trees should be kept growing low; this enables more of the
fruit to be harvested from the ground in later years. Continue this train-
ing procedure for the second and third winters. Trees that are bearing
should not be pruned until January or February to avoid winter injury.
After the third winter, pruning consists of removing overcrowded
branches, removing water sprouts, heading back terminal growth to
prevent the tree from growing to excess heights, and keeping the center
of the tree open to allow sunlight to reach all parts of the tree. In order to
reduce excess fruit load fruiting laterals need to be thinned and renewed
depending on vigor, flower bud set, and cultivar habits.



-4D







Figure 2. Select three wide-angled
shoots for the framework branches
and cut back other shoots.








Pruning is a time consuming, costly operation. Along with thinning, it
is one of the major production costs. Studies from other areas show 18 to
23 hours labor per acre for pruning, and 21 to 35 hours for thinning.
Other studies made found that if mechanical top-hedging, followed by
some thinning cuts was done pruning time could be cut in half. Topping
in summer after harvest, to promote better fruit hanger limb develop-
ment and height control, may be practical if costs are not prohibitive.

Thinning
Peach trees often set more fruit than can be matured to marketable
size, even though attempts are made to avoid excess cropping by careful
pruning. The fruit should be thinned before the pits harden, leaving one
fruit approximately every 6 in (16 cm) along the branches, depending on
the cultivar and market conditions. Thinning reduces total poundage, but
profit depends on the price as related to size. Determine the extent of
thinning in the basis of market demands and response of the cultivar to
thinning.
For maximum effect on improving size and early ripening, thinning
should be done as early as possible. Some growers make a first thinning
during bloom, when conditions favor very heavy fruit set. At present, no
recommendations are available on the use of chemical sprays for thinning
peach fruits under Florida conditions.

Harvesting and Marketing
Peaches are harvested when nearly mature, but still firm enough to
ship well. Change in ground color is used to judge picking stage. Peaches
for local markets can be picked more mature than those to be shipped
long distances. A rapid increase in quality and size occurs during the
ripening stage, and very careful judgement is necessary to obtain
maximum maturity while avoiding losses due to over-maturity.
Pick and handle fruit very carefully to prevent bruising. Peaches do not
mature uniformly on the trees, and therefore it is necessary to pick over
the orchard 3 to 4 times at 2-day intervals in order to obtain fruit that
have reached the right stage for marketing.
Peaches must be carefully graded, sized, brushed, cooled, and packed
for long distance shipment. This requires a sizeable investment in a
packinghouse which isn't likely to prove economically feasible with much
less than 100 to 150 acres (40 to 60 h).
Growers having up to 20 acres (8 h) may be able to sell by customer
picking or on local markets without extensive packing. In such orchards
a succession of cultivars is essential. It is poor practice to transport fruit
more than a few miles to a packinghouse, so growers need to plan their
market outlets carefully before planting.









Another important consideration in harvesting and marketing is to
plan cultivar plantings to insure use of harvest labor and packing
facilities evenly over as long a period as possible. Additional new
cultivars are needed to give a ripening succession from late April through
early June, and the future of the industry will be primarily dependant on
such development. Fortunately, the supply and variety of fresh fruits is
limited in May, and market competition does not become heavy until
June, when volume production of southern peaches and other fruits start
moving to market.
Present production of peaches for fresh use in the eastern United
States average over 5,000,000 bu (100,000,000 kg) per month during the
summer season. One or more cultivars ripening together probably should
not constitute more than 15% to 20% of the total acreage, assuming a
harvest period of 7 to 10 days for a cultivar. Up to 2,000 acres (800 h)
produced per week in Florida has been marketed profitably, but approx-
imately 3,000 acres (1,200 h) of Junegold cultivar in north Florida has
often resulted in prices too low for good profits.

Cultivars

An ideal commercial peach tree should produce firm fruit 2 in (5 cm) or
over in diameter-with yellow flesh, capable of a week's marketing
life-and with 70% or more attractive surface blush. It would be
preferably freestone and in Florida, it needs local adaptation and early
enough ripening to market before other areas. These early ripening
peaches are usually not freestone. In such terms, all present cultivars
represent some compromise of desirable traits. Fruit without high blush
color or 2 in (5 cm) diameter for peach and 1 in (4.5 cm) for nectarine
have not been very acceptable in commercial markets. Cultivars suitable
for commercial use and others useful for home plantings are listed in
Table 2. For further information on area adaptation, see chilling require-
ment of cultivars.
Ripening dates for each cultivar can be determined or based on bloom
date (Fig. 3) and days from bloom to ripening (Tables 2 and 3).

Chilling Requirements of Cultivars
Depending upon the cultivar, varying amounts of winter chilling are
necessary to provide good dormancy break and heavy fruit set. Chilling
should be completed by the end of January in central Florida and by
February 10 to 15 in north Florida. Extreme south Florida receives less
than 100 equivalent hours and north Florida over 600 hours. It is recom-
mended that cultivars be chosen that receive their chilling requirement in
at least 75% of the winters. Thus, by consulting the chilling requirement
of the cultivar (Tables 2 and 3) and the map (Fig. 3), proper choices can be
made.


10










Table 2. A summary of peach cultivar characteristics for Florida


Equiv. Full
chill bloom Flower
needed to ripe Flower Stone bud
Cultivar (hr.) (days) type freeness setz
FlordaGrande 75 104 showy semi-free 7

Okinawa 100 120 showy free 9

Flordabelle 150 105 showy free 8

Floraprince 150 80 showy semi-cling 8

Flordaglo 150 78 showy semi-cling 9

TropicBeauty 150 89 showy semi-cling 8

Rayon 175 105 showy free 8

TropicSweet 175 94 showy semi-free 9

Flordabelle 200 106 showy free 8

Flordadawn 200 58 showy semi-cling 9

EarliGrande 200 75 non- semi-cling 6
showy
TropicSnow 225 84 showy semi-free 9

Flordastar 225 75 showy semi-cling 8


Fruit

Red
color Ground Flesh Size
(%) color color Shapez Firmnessz (g)
60 yellow yellow 8 7 98

10 greenish white 6 6 60
white
60 greenish yellow 10 8 120
yellow
80 yellow yellow 9 8 82

80 creamy white 9 9 94
white
80 bright yellow 10 9 100
yellow
80 yellow yellow 8 7 109

70 creamy yellow 10 9 122
white
80 yellow yellow 10 9 120

80 bright yellow 8 9 75
yellow
40 yellow yellow 8 6 80

40 creamy white 8 9 108
white
70 bright yellow 8 8 80
yellow


Flesh

Main
Tastez Browningz usey

7 10 H,L,C

3 1 R

10 7 H,L

8 8 H,L,C

8 9 H,L,C

9 9 H,L,C

8 10 H,L,C

10 8 H,L,C

10 9 H,L,C

9 9 H,L,C

7 8 H,L

10 10 H,L,C

6 8 H,L,C










Table 2. A summary of peach cultivar characteristics for Florida


Fruit Flesh
Equiv. Full
chill bloom Flower Red
needed to ripe Flower Stone bud color Ground Flesh Size Main
Cultivar (hr.) (days) type freeness setz (%) color color Shapez Firmnessz (g) Tastez Browningz usey
Flordagold 325 88 showy semi-cling 10 60 bright yellow 7 10 102 9 8 H,L,C
yellow
Flordacrest 350 75 showy semi-cling 8 80 bright yellow 7 9 92 8 9 H,L,C
yellow
Flordahome 400 110 double free 7 30 creamy white 6 6 60 4 3 H
showy white
Flordaking 400 68 non semi-cling 6 50 yellow yellow 7 7 96 7 9 H,L,C
showy
Flordaglobe 450 63 non semi-cling 9 90 yellow white 9 9 85 8 8 H,L,C
showy
JuneGold 650 80 showy semi-cling 8 40 bright yellow 7 9 90 7 9 H,L,C
yellow
Springcrest 700 75 showy semi-cling 8 80 yellow yellow 10 9 75 7 8 H,L


yH home, L local, C commercial, R rootstock
1 least desirable, 10 most desirable










Table 3. A summary of nectarine cultivar characteristics for Florida


Fruit


Flesh


Equiv. Full
chill bloom Flower Red
needed to ripe Flower Stone bud color Ground Flesh Size Main
Cultivar (hr.) (days) type freeness setz (%) color color Shapez Firmnessz (g) Tastez Browningz use
Sunblaze 250 90 non- semi-free 9 90 yellow yellow 10 9 90 10 6 H,L,C
showy
Sunred 250 94 showy semi-free 10 100 yellow yellow 10 7 70 9 8 H,L

Sundollar 400 70 showy semi-cling 8 90 yellow yellow 9 9 90 10 6 H,L,C

C Sungem 400 85 showy semi-cling 10 100 yellow yellow 10 9 80 8 9 H,L,C

Sunlite 450 94 showy free 9 80 light yellow 8 8 80 8 9 H,L,C
yellow
Sunfre 525 90 showy semi-free 7 80 dull yellow 9 9 100 8 9 H,L,C
yellow
Sungold 550 110 showy free 8 70 yellow yellow 8 7 85 9 7 H,L

Armking 600 70 non- semi-cling 7 40 greenish yellow 6 8 90 6 8 H,L,C
showy yellow


yH home, L local, C commercial
z least desirable, 10 most desirable

























Figure 3. Generalized map showing
chilling hours below 45 degrees
received to February 10 in 75 percent
of the winters.


Insufficient chilling results in light to no cropping, irregular fruit
development, and late and sometimes inadequate leafing-followed in
severe cases by sunscald and damage to the main framework. Although
choice of cultivars requiring more chilling than the average for an area
may result in late bloom and reduced spring frost hazards, fruit set is
often unsatisfactory and ripening is delayed in seasons with inadequate
winter chilling. Excess chilling for the cultivar is also undesirable.
Cultivars with low chilling requirements such as Flordaprince, bloom too
early in northern Florida and fruit is generally lost to spring frosts.
It should be recognized that chilling effectiveness is not entirely
measured by hours below 45 oF (7 C). Temperatures in the range of
450 F to 550 F (70 to 130 C) also have considerable benefit. For such low-
chilling cultivars as Earligrande or Flordaprince, 550 F (13 C) is fully as
effective as 45 F (7 C) in inducing dormancy break. Temperatures
above 700 F (210 C) during the chilling period appear to be detrimental.
Thus, a winter marked by considerable cloudy weather usually is
followed by a better dormancy break than one with an equal accumula-
tion of chilling hours that is marked by generally dry, sunny conditions.

Peach Pests and Control
See the latest recommendations from the Cooperative Extension Serv-
ice for control of the most important insects and diseases on commercial
bearing peaches in Florida.


14








Dooryard trees will generally require some spraying to produce
satisfactory fruits. In southern Florida, the Caribbean fruit fly has
become a serious pest of the peach, and no practical control is now
available. In central and northern Florida, where native plums are
common, sprays for curculio are required. While peach scale is common
throughout the state, most common diseases are scab and brown rot.
To control curculio and stink bugs in dooryard trees, use a mixture of
Malathion plus Sevin or Methoxychlor. To make these sprays, mix 4
tablespoons of 25% Malathion wettable powder or 2 teaspoons of 57%
Malathion liquid concentrate per gallon. Then add 3 tablespoons of 50%
Methoxychlor wettable powder or 2 tablespoons of 50% Sevin wettable
powder. For disease control, add 5 tablespoons of wettable sulfur (80%)
or 2 tablespoons of 50% Captan wettable powder or 1 tablespoon of
Benlate wettable powder per gallon. Do not apply Malathion within 7
days or Sevin within 1 day or Methoxychlor within 21 days of harvest.
Apply a Petal-Fall spray (using one of the combination sprays dis-
cussed above) after all petals are off and before fruits are showing. Follow
with 3 additional sprayings at 7 to 10 day intervals. Apply a spray con-
taining Malathion plus Sevin plus Captan or Benlate 2 weeks before
harvest and 1 week before harvest. For southern Florida, see notes under
curculio and Caribbean fruit fly. The summer sprays for rust may be
needed if defoliation occurs before October, but isolated trees usually can
be kept in good condition by proper culture and fertilization.

Insects

White peach scale can cause much tree damage if allowed to become
established. Check carefully and spray infected orchards with 3% oil
twice in the dormant season. Dormant sprays may not be necessary if in-
secticides are properly timed during the spring and summer. In problem
orchards, diazinon, ethion, or other materials, applied as recommended
on the label for scale, should be used at times of major crawler activity.
This is generally mid-April, mid-June and late August. Best timing is
regularly announced by Extension personnel, as it varies somewhat by
seasons (Fig. 4).
Curculio appears not to be a problem at present in southern Florida,
but is the most serious pest of peaches in central and northern Florida
where wild plums are common. At Gainesville, major egg-laying periods
on fruit have ranged between March 8 and April 10. Egg-laying activity
appears to be timed with the shucksplit (usually 15 to 20 days after full
bloom) stage in wild plums. Sprays applied during the middle to end of
March are generally effective but should be modified with seasonal dif-
ferences. Egg-laying is prolonged through the month of March if cool
weather persists, and an additional spray may be needed.


15





















Fig. 4. White peach scale on peach. Fig. 5. Plum curculio is making cresent-
shaped cuts on fruit where eggs are laid.

Fig. 6. Peaches gnarled as a result of egg laying and feeding punctures of the plum
curculio.


-* 1- t,*"S 3


1La-AS*& rS VPMI


V
~


'";~\~li~s~"7"


^*k^








Stink bugs are sucking insects that cause "catfacing" or "dimpling" of
fruits from early season feeding and gumming later in the season. They
also increase brown rot damage. Sprays may be needed prior to first
cover on early flowering cultivars. Use insecticides at rates used for cur-
culio. Where cultural conditions permit, some reduction in populations
has been reported by eliminating cover crops such as peas, beans,
crotalaria, beggar-weed, and citrons.
Caribbean fruit fly has become widespread in southern Florida, and
peaches are a favorite host. Infestation is normally detected by the
presence of small white worms in the fruit. At present there is no prac-
tical control.
Borers are a problem throughout central and northern Florida. Uncon-
trolled populations ruin trees by severe girdling of the branches or tree
trunk at the soil line. The lesser borer attacks the tree framework at in-
juries or at large pruning cuts, and is becoming more important in
Florida. The lesser borer lays eggs earlier in the season, has more life
cycles per summer, and requires sprays as soon as possible after fruit
harvest. Thiodan is commonly used for borer control. Borers in dooryard
trees can be removed by hand digging under gum spots in late summer
and fall. The immature insect is a small white grub. There are at least 2
generations of the main borer and 3 to 4 of the lesser borer in Florida.

Diseases
Scab affects peaches in all areas of the state, causing small brown spots
on skin of fruit. Sulfur sprays 4 to 6 weeks after full bloom are essential
for control. The earliest cultivars ripen before spotting is too noticeable.
Bacterial spot is serious on Maygold in the Quincy area in some years,

Fig. 7. Ripe peach showing the effect Fig. 8. Peach tree attacked at the base by
of attack by leaf-footed bugs several the peach tree borer.
months before.


4J6
A~ au-f;~i,~~ly"t





Fig. 9. Scab spots on peaches, showing the cracking that often develops when the
spots are numerous.


and is not effectively controlled by sprays. It has not yet become serious
in central Florida areas. Trees with good fertilization are less susceptible
to bacterial spot than are under-fertilized ones.
Brown rot has not been a very serious problem on early peaches in cen-
tral Florida, probably due to the characteristically dry climate in April
and May. It can be quite serious in northern Florida in springs that are
wet, for at this time the late-ripening cultivars grown for local use are
reaching maturity.
Rust can be one of the more serious diseases in central Florida. Severe
defoliation has occurred by mid-summer in some instances and un-
doubtedly weakens the trees. In northern Florida infection usually does
not appear until late summer or fall, as it does in Georgia and South
Carolina where the disease is considered of minor importance. Sprays of
zinc sulfate-lime, 4-4-100 for control of zinc deficiency helps to control
rust. Sulfur has some control value. If desired, Zineb may be used at 2 lbs
per 100 gallons.
Mushroom root rot is a fungus disease often present in newly cleared
red oak land. There is no practical control, other than planting on sites
relatively free of decaying oak roots. Peach trees wilt suddenly, usually
starting about their third year in the orchard. Cutting through the bark
at and just below the ground line discloses a thin white fungus growth be-
tween the bark and wood. This white growth may be visible on only one
side of the tree or may completely encircle the tree.
Phony peach caused by a bacterium occurs in all established peach
growing regions in Florida. It is introduced in nursery stocks, in infected
budwood, or through wild hosts. Phony is found in wild plum trees in
Florida but causes no observable damage to these plums. When transmit-





















Fig. 10. Peaches covered with spores of the rot fungus. The infection spreads to the
twig from the blighted blossom still attached to it, and to the fruit from the twig.


ted to the peach by leafhoppers, it causes tree dwarfing, distorted small
fruit, and poor fruit production. Before planting peaches, remove or kill
all wild plums within one quarter mile of the orchard where possible.
Spray with 2, 4, 5-T or Ammate in the spring after leafing to kill wild
plums. Examine orchards for dwarfed trees in early summer and remove
them promptly to avoid spread.




























































COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTI-
TUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, John T. Woeste, Director,
in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this ,
information to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of E
Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and *
other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to
race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin. Single copies of extension *
publications (excluding 4-H and youth publications) are available free to Florida 10
residents from county extension offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for
out-of-state purchasers is available from C.M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building
664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this publication, editors should
contact this address to determine availability. Revised 4/93.




Full Text

PAGE 1

r~c, Ef LItwRtY



PAGE 1

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOODANDAGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, John T.Woeste, Director, P s' in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this , information to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of SF Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin. Single copies of extension publications (excluding 4-H and youth publications) are available free to Florida residents from county extension offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers is available from C.M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability. Revised 4/93.



PAGE 1

Table 3. A summary of nectarine cultivar characteristics for Florida Fruit Flesh Equiv. Full chill bloom Flower Red needed to ripe Flower Stone bud color Ground Flesh Size Main Cultivar (hr.) (days) type freeness setz (%) color color Shapez Firmnessz (g) Tastez Browningz use y Sunblaze 250 90 nonsemi-free 9 90 yellow yellow 10 9 90 10 6 H,L,C showy Sunred 250 94 showy semi-free 10 100 yellow yellow 10 7 70 9 8 H,L Sundollar 400 70 showy semi-cling 8 90 yellow yellow 9 9 90 10 6 H,L,C Sungem 400 85 showy semi-cling 10 100 yellow yellow 10 9 80 8 9 H,L,C Sunlite 450 94 showy free 9 80 light yellow 8 8 80 8 9 H,L,C yellow Sunfre 525 90 showy semi-free 7 80 dull yellow 9 9 100 8 9 H,L,C yellow Sungold 550 110 showy free 8 70 yellow yellow 8 7 85 9 7 H,L Armking 600 70 nonsemi-cling 7 40 greenish yellow 6 8 90 6 8 H,L,C showy yellow YH home, L local, C commercial 1 least desirable, 10 most desirable



PAGE 1

Pruning is a time consuming, costly operation. Along with thinning, it is one of the major production costs. Studies from other areas show 18 to 23 hours labor per acre for pruning, and 21 to 35 hours for thinning. Other studies made found that if mechanical top-hedging, followed by some thinning cuts was done pruning time could be cut in half. Topping in summer after harvest, to promote better fruit hanger limb development and height control, may be practical if costs are not prohibitive. Thinning Peach trees often set more fruit than can be matured to marketable size, even though attempts are made to avoid excess cropping by careful pruning. The fruit should be thinned before the pits harden, leaving one fruit approximately every 6 in (16 cm) along the branches, depending on the cultivar and market conditions. Thinning reduces total poundage, but profit depends on the price as related to size. Determine the extent of thinning in the basis of market demands and response of the cultivar to thinning. For maximum effect on improving size and early ripening, thinning should be done as early as possible. Some growers make a first thinning during bloom, when conditions favor very heavy fruit set. At present, no recommendations are available on the use of chemical sprays for thinning peach fruits under Florida conditions. Harvesting and Marketing Peaches are harvested when nearly mature, but still firm enough to ship well. Change in ground color is used to judge picking stage. Peaches for local markets can be picked more mature than those to be shipped long distances. A rapid increase in quality and size occurs during the ripening stage, and very careful judgement is necessary to obtain maximum maturity while avoiding losses due to over-maturity. Pick and handle fruit very carefully to prevent bruising. Peaches do not mature uniformly on the trees, and therefore it is necessary to pick over the orchard 3 to 4 times at 2-day intervals in order to obtain fruit that have reached the right stage for marketing. Peaches must be carefully graded, sized, brushed, cooled, and packed for long distance shipment. This requires a sizeable investment in a packinghouse which isn't likely to prove economically feasible with much less than 100 to 150 acres (40 to 60 h). Growers having up to 20 acres (8 h) may be able to sell by customer picking or on local markets without extensive packing. In such orchards a succession of cultivars is essential. It is poor practice to transport fruit more than a few miles to a packinghouse, so growers need to plan their market outlets carefully before planting. 9



PAGE 1

Fig. 10. Peaches covered with spores of the rot fungus. The infection spreads to the twig from the blighted blossom still attached to it, and to the fruit from the twig. ted to the peach by leafhoppers, it causes tree dwarfing, distorted small fruit, and poor fruit production. Before planting peaches, remove or kill all wild plums within one quarter mile of the orchard where possible. Spray with 2, 4, 5-T or Ammate in the spring after leafing to kill wild plums. Examine orchards for dwarfed trees in early summer and remove them promptly to avoid spread. 19



PAGE 1

Dooryard trees will generally require some spraying to produce satisfactory fruits. In southern Florida, the Caribbean fruit fly has become a serious pest of the peach, and no practical control is now available. In central and northern Florida, where native plums are common, sprays for curculio are required. While peach scale is common throughout the state, most common diseases are scab and brown rot. To control curculio and stink bugs in dooryard trees, use a mixture of Malathion plus Sevin or Methoxychlor. To make these sprays, mix 4 tablespoons of 25% Malathion wettable powder or 2 teaspoons of 57% Malathion liquid concentrate per gallon. Then add 3 tablespoons of 50% Methoxychlor wettable powder or 2 tablespoons of 50% Sevin wettable powder. For disease control, add 5 tablespoons of wettable sulfur (80%) or 2 tablespoons of 50% Captan wettable powder or 1 tablespoon of Benlate wettable powder per gallon. Do not apply Malathion within 7 days or Sevin within 1 day or Methoxychlor within 21 days of harvest. Apply a Petal-Fall spray (using one of the combination sprays discussed above) after all petals are off and before fruits are showing. Follow with 3 additional sprayings at 7 to 10 day intervals. Apply a spray containing Malathion plus Sevin plus Captan or Benlate 2 weeks before harvest and 1 week before harvest. For southern Florida, see notes under curculio and Caribbean fruit fly. The summer sprays for rust may be needed if defoliation occurs before October, but isolated trees usually can be kept in good condition by proper culture and fertilization. Insects White peach scale can cause much tree damage if allowed to become established. Check carefully and spray infected orchards with 3% oil twice in the dormant season. Dormant sprays may not be necessary if insecticides are properly timed during the spring and summer. In problem orchards, diazinon, ethion, or other materials, applied as recommended on the label for scale, should be used at times of major crawler activity. This is generally mid-April, mid-June and late August. Best timing is regularly announced by Extension personnel, as it varies somewhat by seasons (Fig. 4). Curculio appears not to be a problem at present in southern Florida, but is the most serious pest of peaches in central and northern Florida where wild plums are common. At Gainesville, major egg-laying periods on fruit have ranged between March 8 and April 10. Egg-laying activity appears to be timed with the shucksplit (usually 15 to 20 days after full bloom) stage in wild plums. Sprays applied during the middle to end of March are generally effective but should be modified with seasonal differences. Egg-laying is prolonged through the month of March if cool weather persists, and an additional spray may be needed. 15



PAGE 1

before moisture stress becomes excessive. From 1 to 2 in (25 to 50 mm) every 10 days is suggested. Pruning Pruning is necessary to form a well-shaped, strong tree, and to control fruit bearing. Peach trees are pruned to form an open-center. One method of pruning or training calls for trees to be cut back at planting time to a single stem 2 ft (40 cm) high. If laterals have formed on the nursery tree, cut the lower laterals off flush with the stem, but allow stubs 1 to 2 in (3 to 5 cm) long to remain on the upper ones. This is necessary to insure leaving buds for new shoot development. After the tree sprouts in early spring, select 3 evenly-spaced, vigorous, wide-angled shoots to be the major scaffolding (see Fig. 2). Remove or cut back other shoots and remove all low-growing suckers, including those from the rootstock. In the first winter, cut back the main scaffold branches approximately one-third, to a lateral branch growing on the outside of the main branches. Water sprouts and limbs that are too low to the ground should be removed. Trees should be kept growing low; this enables more of the fruit to be harvested from the ground in later years. Continue this training procedure for the second and third winters. Trees that are bearing should not be pruned until January or February to avoid winter injury. After the third winter, pruning consists of removing overcrowded branches, removing water sprouts, heading back terminal growth to prevent the tree from growing to excess heights, and keeping the center of the tree open to allow sunlight to reach all parts of the tree. In order to reduce excess fruit load fruiting laterals need to be thinned and renewed depending on vigor, flower bud set, and cultivar habits. Figure 2. Select three wide-angled shoots for the framework branches and cut back other shoots. _-p~~~~~



PAGE 1

Another important consideration in harvesting and marketing is to plan cultivar plantings to insure use of harvest labor and packing facilities evenly over as long a period as possible. Additional new cultivars are needed to give a ripening succession from late April through early June, and the future of the industry will be primarily dependent on such development. Fortunately, the supply and variety of fresh fruits is limited in May, and market competition does not become heavy until June, when volume production of southern peaches and other fruits start moving to market. Present production of peaches for fresh use in the eastern United States average over 5,000,000 bu (100,000,000 kg) per month during the summer season. One or more cultivars ripening together probably should not constitute more than 15% to 20% of the total acreage, assuming a harvest period of 7 to 10 days for a cultivar. Up to 2,000 acres (800 h) produced per week in Florida has been marketed profitably, but approximately 3,000 acres (1,200 h) of Junegold cultivar in north Florida has often resulted in prices too low for good profits. Cultivars An ideal commercial peach tree should produce firm fruit 2 in (5 cm) or over in diameter-with yellow flesh, capable of a week's marketing life-and with 70% or more attractive surface blush. It would be preferably freestone and in Florida, it needs local adaptation and early enough ripening to market before other areas. These early ripening peaches are usually not freestone. In such terms, all present cultivars represent some compromise of desirable traits. Fruit without high blush color or 2 in (5 cm) diameter for peach and 13/4 in (4.5 cm) for nectarine have not been very acceptable in commercial markets. Cultivars suitable for commercial use and others useful for home plantings are listed in Table 2. For further information on area adaptation, see chilling requirement of cultivars. Ripening dates for each cultivar can be determined or based on bloom date (Fig. 3) and days from bloom to ripening (Tables 2 and 3). Chilling Requirements of Cultivars Depending upon the cultivar, varying amounts of winter chilling are necessary to provide good dormancy break and heavy fruit set. Chilling should be completed by the end of January in central Florida and by February 10 to 15 in north Florida. Extreme south Florida receives less than 100 equivalent hours and north Florida over 600 hours. It is recommended that cultivars be chosen that receive their chilling requirement in at least 75% of the winters. Thus, by consulting the chilling requirement of the cultivar (Tables 2 and 3) and the map (Fig. 3), proper choices can be made. 10



PAGE 1

Table 2. A summary of peach cultivar characteristics for Florida Fruit Flesh Equiv. Full chill bloom Flower Red needed to ripe Flower Stone bud color Ground Flesh Size Main Cultivar (hr.) (days) type freeness setz (%) color color Shapez Firmnessz (g) Tastez Browningz use y FlordaGrande 75 104 showy semi-free 7 60 yellow yellow 8 7 98 7 10 H,L,C Okinawa 100 120 showy free 9 10 greenish white 6 6 60 3 1 R white Flordabelle 150 105 showy free 8 60 greenish yellow 10 8 120 10 7 H,L yellow Floraprince 150 80 showy semi-cling 8 80 yellow yellow 9 8 82 8 8 H,L,C Flordaglo 150 78 showy semi-cling 9 80 creamy white 9 9 94 8 9 H,L,C white TropicBeauty 150 89 showy semi-cling 8 80 bright yellow 10 9 100 9 9 H,L,C yellow Rayon 175 105 showy free 8 80 yellow yellow 8 7 109 8 10 H,L,C TropicSweet 175 94 showy semi-free 9 70 creamy yellow 10 9 122 10 8 H,L,C white Flordabelle 200 106 showy free 8 80 yellow yellow 10 9 120 10 9 H,L,C Flordadawn 200 58 showy semi-cling 9 80 bright yellow 8 9 75 9 9 H,L,C yellow EarliGrande 200 75 nonsemi-cling 6 40 yellow yellow 8 6 80 7 8 H,L showy TropicSnow 225 84 showy semi-free 9 40 creamy white 8 9 108 10 10 H,L,C white Flordastar 225 75 showy semi-cling 8 70 bright yellow 8 8 80 6 8 H,L,C yellow


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'2015-05-15T16:21:07-04:00'
normalize
'51584' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGII' 'sip-files00004.pro'
57dc12fcc9f2a7998db2b362fb364b62
d6d815dbe8f853f1b5c6e22eae6159582ba3faa5
describe
'64559' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGIJ' 'sip-files00004.QC.jpg'
ad0114e259be5dc5d820f87447f168bf
ef3e89246d312afff4d4356b1dc3c1e7d8958304
describe
'2395784' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGIK' 'sip-files00004.tif'
355a65c81d827dccf759edbe7fab4ab1
81db6caa33259fb9d3aa2e8a0edc49d7a5313d4b
'2012-02-23T09:03:37-05:00'
describe
'2069' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGIL' 'sip-files00004.txt'
5e9aac54720c24975190fcd19fd6052e
35edd989070b52ffd553af3aa6205350a8bb1e1e
'2012-02-23T09:04:14-05:00'
describe
'32785' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGIM' 'sip-files00004thm.jpg'
ac1037e52b596d2c3f0f2c50135ad43b
32d194e5b0e96ab886486cca6482cbd5f5f3e3ac
'2012-02-23T09:03:33-05:00'
describe
'305380' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGIN' 'sip-files00005.jp2'
c43e6587b1e7973d15bdb2059e35425c
b59494de5ac99598ea458da4254237514852ec2f
'2012-02-23T09:04:57-05:00'
describe
'209475' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGIO' 'sip-files00005.jpg'
0a59edc72b60b43b1befda2272ff1987
cf0ad4c2468b53bfa135561fcece0f3da794476f
describe
'114770' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGIP' 'sip-files00005.pdf'
24e529ea007c3d3148c0aa08ec3373c5
63f7ddb71906ea348f549742c308ac3c69ddb54f
'2012-02-23T09:04:47-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGIP-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADGIP-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
'2015-05-15T16:21:53-04:00'
describe
'2015-05-15T16:21:32-04:00'
normalize
'70520' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGIQ' 'sip-files00005.pro'
f8ce51dcbc18c7b49a43af822c4ee06a
949182608dadd8fde87120047229eaf6c7bf92c5
'2012-02-23T09:04:21-05:00'
describe
'76993' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGIR' 'sip-files00005.QC.jpg'
5904dca2ae50aaf799e48d8f3d9094fb
b82ab37652466e0631a5e7dcfd03d61659812cca
describe
'2396408' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGIS' 'sip-files00005.tif'
4e638b800b536daa1346e4e13849b29a
ef9e8d01d7df172c7b4de1f17a5faec07cebae52
'2012-02-23T09:03:30-05:00'
describe
'2820' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGIT' 'sip-files00005.txt'
55831c4449f8ea0bb6fc3f35e96f85b7
2937bbe5eedefc67fc0358800f1ec7e8b9921876
'2012-02-23T09:05:00-05:00'
describe
Invalid character
'37717' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGIU' 'sip-files00005thm.jpg'
6f7bfcd97995613d879386501050f19e
3a1545f535180a34eafe967dc80f0a78206144b2
'2012-02-23T09:03:56-05:00'
describe
'317669' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGIV' 'sip-files00006.jp2'
b3e4e201f02a5f82be99f78ffb95a5fb
f63edd1f8839a5afde49f506badccfaaf198e579
'2012-02-23T09:04:37-05:00'
describe
'216681' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGIW' 'sip-files00006.jpg'
4242a074f646f8d83805a1380c903b9c
21a62c351ecd6e113120c8240d4a6f947df54e60
'2012-02-23T09:03:51-05:00'
describe
'119958' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGIX' 'sip-files00006.pdf'
85dbc0a1498eb80b9c196cad6bffcfde
0f93df6648d9574b43ee0a09cdc70f7e0dc4343c
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGIX-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADGIX-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
'2015-05-15T16:21:48-04:00'
describe
'2015-05-15T16:20:53-04:00'
normalize
'73790' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGIY' 'sip-files00006.pro'
ad82ebbcbc7cc11b8612865658e21e33
724a7924a0b5d0c355fc8d827a24e72bce4691d3
'2012-02-23T09:04:22-05:00'
describe
'80052' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGIZ' 'sip-files00006.QC.jpg'
e161b95b57fab1213446c23a157632d2
e5eaa0742b7f33d6041e800e16fc952b193b6ed2
'2012-02-23T09:04:43-05:00'
describe
'2397192' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGJA' 'sip-files00006.tif'
c2e4cf72edc0520f5ce981d39805d06c
2c426d67f0bb5d4220f962c640e61ee4cbff6813
'2012-02-23T09:03:28-05:00'
describe
'2920' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGJB' 'sip-files00006.txt'
35179b0f40872a7c8f7fd8e94dd28248
66bda121d13c227d977a3d802c79af1f54073a87
describe
'38235' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGJC' 'sip-files00006thm.jpg'
3802f450301c8517ab14903866a98275
52b8b46191014f0cc87e76c2654fcbee3bdc5d85
'2012-02-23T09:04:17-05:00'
describe
'246240' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGJD' 'sip-files00007.jp2'
83f56e2511773771933c143241385ad9
ac8c246b8b4e31575de969f8ad6a563eaa7e7080
'2012-02-23T09:03:43-05:00'
describe
'168815' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGJE' 'sip-files00007.jpg'
307e5ad5955218d7c179428c7d90252c
0ca8911b181c03cd18274d2bea9abf6ae747827f
'2012-02-23T09:04:36-05:00'
describe
'91808' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGJF' 'sip-files00007.pdf'
3c1ec18b3296e0442e5da3ad917a6106
c34ffb26777f4815854a02b77b39a6933a747071
'2012-02-23T09:04:26-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGJF-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADGJF-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
describe
'2015-05-15T16:21:24-04:00'
normalize
'59430' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGJG' 'sip-files00007.pro'
a8c5a37a2b1409a133bf6c9449ef2677
91783c883102a50461b700f5039366b3064ed024
'2012-02-23T09:04:08-05:00'
describe
'65879' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGJH' 'sip-files00007.QC.jpg'
9c3dc78fde8cda75d66eac6a075de70d
3039f28e77de863b69342b57b6f9cf19461a48e1
'2012-02-23T09:04:25-05:00'
describe
'2392084' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGJI' 'sip-files00007.tif'
ad7f2db1f7796d958a8b401fba2760c2
15fb5085c72df76d7fda2b2ee4dc3cd0435d1eda
'2012-02-23T09:04:53-05:00'
describe
'2517' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGJJ' 'sip-files00007.txt'
c1b52343930b6a220f1beafcae4ebc5e
21305859ddd8b3393577b2ff01b367c670828589
'2012-02-23T09:04:20-05:00'
describe
'33747' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGJK' 'sip-files00007thm.jpg'
ca4db4c5a03f8aa0d997a329e827dca1
7846f771beb4feeca0e6e80f4ca78443502d1bb1
'2012-02-23T09:05:02-05:00'
describe
'242285' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGJL' 'sip-files00008.jp2'
9cd21e11bb77999d2a35d64ff57aa377
cdeb38003a7cb373195454b93f539aeb56cce74e
'2012-02-23T09:04:02-05:00'
describe
'167538' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGJM' 'sip-files00008.jpg'
0c90e67ec2d3aebfbd275f63b6dcc354
f287f1b2182e479d9248ddb9feeda6b698bfcd72
'2012-02-23T09:04:41-05:00'
describe
'91008' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGJN' 'sip-files00008.pdf'
f81698cfbfa5e7f45bf28523c27347a1
8767d60885cfd99573b4542df28a470dd3045d92
'2012-02-23T09:03:59-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGJN-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADGJN-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
describe
'2015-05-15T16:20:57-04:00'
normalize
'48570' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGJO' 'sip-files00008.pro'
c7246e353abb2f2bde0f01097d898c5e
2ca7191085eb63b214eb8c8d33b18c4c101371f6
describe
'63988' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGJP' 'sip-files00008.QC.jpg'
7c84851f97c63c0e5f304d5c40d35e80
95e1b1ffd03c7233609a7f968ad81ec0cdbbde5b
'2012-02-23T09:03:50-05:00'
describe
'2390940' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGJQ' 'sip-files00008.tif'
49adb94ee038caff7ed6c52517369488
6784d10675c83513269d96b4090875ae94c5eaed
describe
'2060' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGJR' 'sip-files00008.txt'
1e5a8144ec2ec5e74447ca6447e5a401
889707bc17ab6b0b4d1608a22ccab477e5feaf47
'2012-02-23T09:04:48-05:00'
describe
'31792' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGJS' 'sip-files00008thm.jpg'
d9c7171c8058663f2a7d0dd8a758c7e2
6370f04456c52f088495ac125b3d216064918c95
'2012-02-23T09:04:10-05:00'
describe
'301995' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGJT' 'sip-files00009.jp2'
7f9d10e4e24e1c5bb25f9be0f391d798
f098fc65c25832c6a7ccf6210c8023b69138f447
'2012-02-23T09:03:55-05:00'
describe
'206078' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGJU' 'sip-files00009.jpg'
ac66d8cbaef011c12be75bbd8ea44e8c
05cf6d1bde6500e53c86b871bce56f098384723e
'2012-02-23T09:03:29-05:00'
describe
'113735' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGJV' 'sip-files00009.pdf'
b0bd5594e4ec8ff901dadbeb26deaf0f
bfe5fbd92dbd03af7c8d4ce42cc74efaeff8c10a
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGJV-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADGJV-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
describe
'2015-05-15T16:21:00-04:00'
normalize
'68758' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGJW' 'sip-files00009.pro'
7904d93fa24ef3188a013a3a23b44035
9c9fa8838733b65a05eb41242dac35335f69dc22
describe
'77369' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGJX' 'sip-files00009.QC.jpg'
b69d4c7516a9836a276cffb997277aca
4710094c815bd71646a49c4c3a7e09102590d160
'2012-02-23T09:04:07-05:00'
describe
'2398460' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGJY' 'sip-files00009.tif'
7b440b4db04f70cb18ac2bc4653fd645
6d1df79261820cd7e2fee24960a4b9a391318131
describe
'2744' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGJZ' 'sip-files00009.txt'
cabfb5abaa3c657060f7ed19893a764d
4b3026f6b629fc439053b7aa706e760630b18121
'2012-02-23T09:03:31-05:00'
describe
'38066' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGKA' 'sip-files00009thm.jpg'
ae1e53adbde094b46921057ccbb52159
654806b94fa61e9a2cb70b8d59ddff29271c099d
'2012-02-23T09:04:16-05:00'
describe
'312479' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGKB' 'sip-files00010.jp2'
20907797d5c4a518eccd23d71b6fa87e
6b11b5dfe8778abba2b02b6152d26caeb1dbc9f7
'2012-02-23T09:04:24-05:00'
describe
'212096' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGKC' 'sip-files00010.jpg'
7c1049c4a4fc123cfbcf53fd18fda66a
640170ae1d44084e5fed6fca5d5be0b7172179ba
'2012-02-23T09:03:32-05:00'
describe
'117968' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGKD' 'sip-files00010.pdf'
6bbb892cb3d0696097d55a01a620bf0a
a829df53c81a42a2beb722597eb19c03a05f3190
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGKD-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADGKD-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
'2015-05-15T16:21:50-04:00'
describe
'2015-05-15T16:21:16-04:00'
normalize
'70568' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGKE' 'sip-files00010.pro'
329637a79d12b14294d1e88f4423ffb0
dfa78f3beb94660e94f528815db1df133a278fb5
describe
'78719' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGKF' 'sip-files00010.QC.jpg'
f85b27f549f1a3982a9bba03435785e9
9841a1cb36ba8d232aab42e4375b6a1c6951b989
'2012-02-23T09:03:45-05:00'
describe
'2398352' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGKG' 'sip-files00010.tif'
7eef3c585b5af9c12c54442b947a7748
038350a5354fa9380e44d1375abea393a0256e5b
'2012-02-23T09:04:58-05:00'
describe
'2811' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGKH' 'sip-files00010.txt'
74b06f3a0bd6da8647ad476a3bc07b33
b94f0ff22ddd2bf899a92bc91857dd2c49c020d4
'2012-02-23T09:04:49-05:00'
describe
Invalid character
'37708' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGKI' 'sip-files00010thm.jpg'
d1c64306481824827da1908ab78ca2fb
5f56331d030d12d74dac9992ddaee438368e1efe
'2012-02-23T09:04:38-05:00'
describe
'134293' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGKJ' 'sip-files00011.jp2'
00f263061e404836d140ab6ded16c21e
c2fc126f78c535b5df3d62c40bf84c0fd0dac64e
'2012-02-23T09:04:00-05:00'
describe
'62549' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGKK' 'sip-files00011.jpg'
224fd3661a7ca20c0a44f22b7ab713b7
a2f125911c503129b99a29d5e4782884e4dd5b41
describe
'45951' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGKL' 'sip-files00011.pdf'
219f5dd43eb06652c4ecc7d869fa35d5
9e16dab3a2454cc835ee83593f74159be9a2d460
'2012-02-23T09:04:59-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGKL-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADGKL-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
'2015-05-15T16:21:52-04:00'
describe
'2015-05-15T16:21:41-04:00'
normalize
'42256' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGKM' 'sip-files00011.pro'
0e18e010a00e7695699486e20924e850
358191a2ee1fb784cc4fc23b3a6562594243c657
'2012-02-23T09:04:42-05:00'
describe
'35327' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGKN' 'sip-files00011.QC.jpg'
1590b74e867a3b6f894815a68595fd1c
910e40ecbe8e2d9c7391fa431703457e44b32a9d
'2012-02-23T09:04:11-05:00'
describe
'2388024' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGKO' 'sip-files00011.tif'
829124ef45d8b9cccd9b0f5a00d2eeac
152ab53ffd29aaadcb8d37a6c31ea8b8f780e4ee
'2012-02-23T09:03:48-05:00'
describe
'2428' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGKP' 'sip-files00011.txt'
f682eb35f46e1a742ca260e0659e2939
405c143549820f0fa00d99d360a75bfb469a5501
'2012-02-23T09:03:47-05:00'
describe
'24901' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGKQ' 'sip-files00011thm.jpg'
5c6ffd85d065c6452c9a4ac954f6e6b3
87f7297b1bc1662daebc637aab268b5ba517236a
'2012-02-23T09:04:29-05:00'
describe
'98962' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGKR' 'sip-files00012.jp2'
5c6032b935aa4f5e82194dfcd9936b17
2e9f9b057590ec565df3ffc253071b3c6bd846c9
describe
'45736' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGKS' 'sip-files00012.jpg'
070b00baa48e1b45475d17266f1a8cf2
12f689a6ddd0b8f553a37f566a9315479bd0b091
describe
'34606' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGKT' 'sip-files00012.pdf'
7a164948e633d3338b6f8a23c8151334
5e7c6e1c6f2925e0badbbcc5ab08534a3cc34ac5
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGKT-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADGKT-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
describe
'2015-05-15T16:21:04-04:00'
normalize
'31379' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGKU' 'sip-files00012.pro'
266d3d1ddd0c69e74f3c79ae75ccf0b4
d81679951e9a00221086cf7bbbadc73dbd5475e2
describe
'26977' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGKV' 'sip-files00012.QC.jpg'
863bfb48a31dcb396dab3e45e76506ec
fdb8d1d49ca838fe80b2e36d54a7fe08f07c8ed9
describe
'2383972' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGKW' 'sip-files00012.tif'
e8960dd16cb89224f38f59c92ad14812
1886dad01c00f6534e5e7fd80dec276000536433
'2012-02-23T09:03:34-05:00'
describe
'2053' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGKX' 'sip-files00012.txt'
cdc3de3e2b1f1aed94d7416f1cf9d005
e309e3f82cee4936908f52624bc4a35b87d4f121
'2012-02-23T09:03:35-05:00'
describe
'19510' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGKY' 'sip-files00012thm.jpg'
89ae6e4ccfccd2b24bca38bb78ae1e77
114616d84f0b355df883dbf13a302d848051780e
'2012-02-23T09:03:46-05:00'
describe
'102073' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGKZ' 'sip-files00013.jp2'
1c28b87bcc37f4b743839ab841435ed5
e3070f2c248d3359eedaad132b3e7a1d567fe336
describe
'48478' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGLA' 'sip-files00013.jpg'
d9d5eb377eecbcec0868a0059aaca27e
afbebc872bca4241adafdcdcb62df599698fcdf6
'2012-02-23T09:04:50-05:00'
describe
'35080' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGLB' 'sip-files00013.pdf'
5a379a1480af6d87b2c770e2713deff7
6710b9ab61cf52326c639582c146e4dce3d5d691
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGLB-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADGLB-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
describe
'2015-05-15T16:21:14-04:00'
normalize
'32732' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGLC' 'sip-files00013.pro'
d0a70f82aa2850895b3fa8691e54f642
3633514b5a5447a50428c2ad803eeb5484daed24
'2012-02-23T09:03:39-05:00'
describe
'28024' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGLD' 'sip-files00013.QC.jpg'
387bdc1dfc2eb434ad61f10e4b4ba17c
518579db74f1f14b8a5b4ac1d80dbaac7531798c
describe
'2388032' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGLE' 'sip-files00013.tif'
54f53b3a032bd7bf05becfd793751245
ad3146d5e82dedad99bb2560ffb82fff6ab6c1f1
describe
'1945' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGLF' 'sip-files00013.txt'
cd342ed0a1455202ed0532d43136d85c
02d917dab2b95780c77d5842e43c1d6d2fe3f305
describe
'20405' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGLG' 'sip-files00013thm.jpg'
2bde3a9e53c7f8f049a7910bf2b77cb4
0da6b8b8f3fac0eb8d18af7d03bbccc556fcb08e
'2012-02-23T09:04:54-05:00'
describe
'213667' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGLH' 'sip-files00014.jp2'
2028bf1467fca3a1448a01a00e63316e
67f7abf399cb3eee745934ffa0ca0244e5254db7
describe
'150735' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGLI' 'sip-files00014.jpg'
7229449a200be18bec698ab296e13183
a56578f75c8a5800279379cb2bc1d4c0ce67eb0d
describe
'79948' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGLJ' 'sip-files00014.pdf'
02aa3db0105a90c8fd89f63b1eeca14e
403e98e6d9d7c8088714f5fe7e172cf31659b08b
'2012-02-23T09:03:58-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGLJ-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADGLJ-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
describe
'2015-05-15T16:20:55-04:00'
normalize
'42064' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGLK' 'sip-files00014.pro'
0a6cde992edc7020d83a7365605c56ec
5128caac5a70f72c190c4dc66c4266c991eae0d4
'2012-02-23T09:04:46-05:00'
describe
'59896' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGLL' 'sip-files00014.QC.jpg'
4be8780c7cdf298166f6c96b48a888af
25d599dd8ce6f734484228777da3af0a00e2c46e
describe
'2392984' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGLM' 'sip-files00014.tif'
332f9c55312ef8260636d504ae37b90a
23d3a8c76ddb26aafc161db5cc10bc23330ab647
'2012-02-23T09:03:57-05:00'
describe
'1709' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGLN' 'sip-files00014.txt'
3dc035970bd66293514d3b38bb8e65bd
cc862a749f4e4051e9ca01d9e54f0f9351a9ff3c
describe
Invalid character
'31303' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGLO' 'sip-files00014thm.jpg'
e8bb4eba41d4107ccaf5a366eeda3d3c
0a69008167a5688707ab549c4283902225a1a27f
describe
'326589' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGLP' 'sip-files00015.jp2'
0527fc06eff443a2104936ef87445b1a
bc04776573da5ce2213300d3c4510a7204061a6f
'2012-02-23T09:04:19-05:00'
describe
'223473' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGLQ' 'sip-files00015.jpg'
f1fdd75abd334e7142face0ef9d085ef
beaeb6f96b008bb3f52a06431c50750e9ef01385
'2012-02-23T09:04:23-05:00'
describe
'123594' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGLR' 'sip-files00015.pdf'
ae45ff6245b852347b788340212fc12e
9006c9baca88ee47a0c452eadbca5ae05d0c3e86
'2012-02-23T09:04:18-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGLR-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADGLR-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
'2015-05-15T16:21:49-04:00'
describe
'2015-05-15T16:21:19-04:00'
normalize
'73491' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGLS' 'sip-files00015.pro'
889cf5a6e121641481640d7aba54c67d
65162bf99c766fb190332234965d71ef8baafbc5
'2012-02-23T09:04:39-05:00'
describe
'81691' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGLT' 'sip-files00015.QC.jpg'
02d4292168a770fe6d5d81e7afe9686a
8e17b9cf4df29285ffd29a3d551a5b440e88c6ae
describe
'2398720' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGLU' 'sip-files00015.tif'
77d7dff0e601063086da4f7ac70abeea
c24aeef5f5208acae61c22d19551244476c42a18
describe
'2909' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGLV' 'sip-files00015.txt'
b4f14f98875c3056ba3b53332f13ab49
2089adb5115051aa44dd9ce860c0e0f89b00d56b
describe
'39380' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGLW' 'sip-files00015thm.jpg'
40ec547c8cc8d8f600ef0d07cbebb25f
c5aa88f6602b088527be2e3e3db8e1e347a8f1e5
describe
'580504' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGLX' 'sip-files00016.jp2'
e4507ff3a4f9adff79b34712f3b63d5f
16f62c81205ee7f9cd4b808db01b40b23d59b41a
describe
'93239' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGLY' 'sip-files00016.jpg'
ea687a4f5ab2ca08f81771e5cb3e3fa0
4c6385673b3ce8dbcdbe4daabdf334eac314c26d
describe
'2718462' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGLZ' 'sip-files00016.pdf'
c31831e03f75af56dc9f6b4c68b5e11a
0030b97cd12b9a1dec0210165e9a2a510ddd0e4a
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGLZ-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADGLZ-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
describe
'2015-05-15T16:21:34-04:00'
normalize
'8343' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGMA' 'sip-files00016.pro'
290f778c620fff3d50a7526ebb2a6ce3
4ac5d3b74535bc6a15accf37221ac5f69ca7e28a
describe
'35572' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGMB' 'sip-files00016.QC.jpg'
9ec1f49d4d5e557da8f6516f5a86d2a3
742813874c985d4ddc7d8fce3ea8fcef0958ea6b
describe
'4653164' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGMC' 'sip-files00016.tif'
5e46ab6defbadd5ad481c94127874e41
9234d2cac37af39b964b08b793f0f1ee669c3dfb
'2012-02-23T09:03:27-05:00'
describe
'443' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGMD' 'sip-files00016.txt'
5447b6f6ecb5eecbae6e93b296164dea
37e99a2f91e39bd19e8c4eddf0f2c016c0ff3065
describe
'17355' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGME' 'sip-files00016thm.jpg'
25b1c27dc0fe8711157c68e42848bc85
e652ea282f22d072d28c4e159e544cff952f141a
describe
'583186' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGMF' 'sip-files00017.jp2'
c2782fbded2c72a4d25b275aa472e335
11fc266b2f4a7b3971f2be032cb8c9ac602ef1ff
describe
'155238' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGMG' 'sip-files00017.jpg'
4a28a2d139cb0d8892fbf7c8b4d7796c
074ba491831d0cbe1a97bd4f28e99f9ed6c471e9
describe
'2010263' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGMH' 'sip-files00017.pdf'
278b31fbb49b36ba8abf5926ab9db3cf
c39c32e45b442a3546731f49f5503a539e5012f9
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGMH-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADGMH-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
describe
'2015-05-15T16:21:38-04:00'
normalize
'49592' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGMI' 'sip-files00017.pro'
6cf1f861e514566a27b5a4c5ab145587
058e4fbdc22e4d46efbd7ef1d3405c9edf7ea2be
describe
'52017' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGMJ' 'sip-files00017.QC.jpg'
ef093eeda8ae2019e312cfdf4b5e5971
8b7475614f37483e1e89b03333c0baf72cee9f5a
describe
'4674788' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGMK' 'sip-files00017.tif'
eedcdcd0465cf65abee63279ae547368
d04a4545bff05b782824713447d9ff85c61ea6c8
'2012-02-23T09:04:44-05:00'
describe
'1993' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGML' 'sip-files00017.txt'
ad319a688ff79a22e35639c740272072
15901239cf793153103e10591feecb99f8b8850d
describe
Invalid character
'19951' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGMM' 'sip-files00017thm.jpg'
9cccaa111db8e23cb506de56d8521c39
97ab61e1d8204b372e674e65c85ef043042a76ee
'2012-02-23T09:03:21-05:00'
describe
'582947' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGMN' 'sip-files00018.jp2'
0b19cc7b9b9f59b82acf7bacca91b583
8a54cbb0430da5669d9e517fc2263ade19d51b96
'2012-02-23T09:04:04-05:00'
describe
'144948' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGMO' 'sip-files00018.jpg'
bdd58241e08dd04a49bc718246f4c81e
772240026ce84ddf5158719b121a2c1b2be426e5
'2012-02-23T09:04:06-05:00'
describe
'1615808' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGMP' 'sip-files00018.pdf'
da9b8f617858f8fbad93ae27af8febf8
286a113fb8a425cab69aef670df6abc3296ccabf
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGMP-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADGMP-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
describe
'2015-05-15T16:21:09-04:00'
normalize
'50281' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGMQ' 'sip-files00018.pro'
f8910c5cc19afa98c1d3702d6a2221e0
6a2aad56ffb7f46fdec6c951b6095bc9db18ab3b
describe
'48828' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGMR' 'sip-files00018.QC.jpg'
0996a25c59b725dd1329394edbc4c0fd
864fe96d74b1205846516c7e9bc608519897d9d0
describe
'4672616' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGMS' 'sip-files00018.tif'
cc081f8a873fe53716cdb89e7aa924ad
0df5911505a8d658b064e636e2181ff1fdb2095a
describe
'1952' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGMT' 'sip-files00018.txt'
534dbaef9b70c532712a86a9c5e5bb56
cfd5654e025c8d04e273a8cbce3f3a143a9a4593
describe
'18585' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGMU' 'sip-files00018thm.jpg'
6e77f8951b35640112ddedd41ce1081d
abf506b990125c5fd01d41ddd9f73017f2e4feaf
describe
'582241' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGMV' 'sip-files00019.jp2'
213647b495eadc3ae0b0b79bc6b726fc
d911a513c790b601cb86184e575e4b9a8425a59e
describe
'82734' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGMW' 'sip-files00019.jpg'
791ca84076269cac567e7cb0ca84a9e7
679398463d0939601d3759f1a8fd490d46749167
describe
'1331388' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGMX' 'sip-files00019.pdf'
bf52559537fa4bd451d4d90697c19492
e8c503b3f166d140fbf438008c2e8826fd2c9d50
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGMX-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADGMX-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
describe
'2015-05-15T16:21:02-04:00'
normalize
'14604' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGMY' 'sip-files00019.pro'
42a0b59472d1b64db9ccd960623b18e0
32eb40239ae9b81af20f04c2a2c108ce1b284c09
describe
'29591' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGMZ' 'sip-files00019.QC.jpg'
09084399b2f9c10418fdc23c813ce1c6
a69bc7bc763fb08806755630633dbc56028b8951
'2012-02-23T09:04:51-05:00'
describe
'4666984' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGNA' 'sip-files00019.tif'
9e3486d25abcc05106e0359a4587db88
c6ee55904679b8e2e2ae51234cda66d515334a45
'2012-02-23T09:04:52-05:00'
describe
'611' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGNB' 'sip-files00019.txt'
1490f88dfa99fa44095e219a3038578d
26a9e761632cb27e5ba3a94cbd13cc1822e2b54a
describe
'13905' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGNC' 'sip-files00019thm.jpg'
3bdd82d08a8178b17a92496790592db7
9157da4786d5bd9b813ffb739f09b6c9cde7f7de
describe
'88069' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGND' 'sip-files00020.jp2'
d617f2c7ae4525cc026f02d65c78a4e6
f511f49afb78bd4eaf196624263aa7e7727c3f55
describe
'52390' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGNE' 'sip-files00020.jpg'
34d81422254ef1d6edd96678ea13704d
1f96dc6bbf5fb6be8e82444c595cd675c7e437cd
'2012-02-23T09:03:52-05:00'
describe
'36660' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGNF' 'sip-files00020.pdf'
7d40a9f6325712afc66b00d35e6ed05e
2737f2464ccf1270f076c4ff57638b31581c33e6
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGNF-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADGNF-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
describe
'2015-05-15T16:21:21-04:00'
normalize
'26630' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGNG' 'sip-files00020.pro'
ed7baa3d0b8df03663e5f067d9386956
e2b32135e53ab9ec523141b1034dad24b58b0d0a
describe
'21550' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGNH' 'sip-files00020.QC.jpg'
058125cb4e8fbf5a6e340a54ff358a98
2732b00ef8c3b382d8fe377fa9d1e68296d42dee
describe
'2395024' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGNI' 'sip-files00020.tif'
7ed833d7afefaa05774787f526c94d85
0c16e0ed2f42ca18ca87c075497dd71774b83f78
describe
'1104' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGNJ' 'sip-files00020.txt'
ce545dee6c7e6132c6043beedc35619f
bd9532f61ef1ad694e667daa81c284269dd302fd
describe
'13536' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGNK' 'sip-files00020thm.jpg'
3ace098ff1925d7deb8c4e76a08049f8
b84d090ad0cf05e07a89dcf9d4672e10327ba95a
describe
'27193' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGNL' 'sip-filesUF00014567.xml'
3f55133d48271dac4f7a94957c84573e
d859b9b569001474961e20fa129f3b4bf6e1ea62
describe
File not found
'2015-05-15T16:21:56-04:00'
xml resolution
File not found
File not found
'42575' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGNM' 'sip-filesUF00014567_00001.mets'
50bb74f12a6658caec6021ae5aa85063
99677c8a415afc2c3041181fe09b89be329ac66e
describe
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'2015-05-15T16:21:55-04:00' 'mixed'
xml resolution
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
BROKEN_LINK schema http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
The element type "div" must be terminated by the matching end-tag "
".
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'52922' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAANQfileF20090712_AADGNP' 'sip-filesUF00014567_00001.xml'
b15a0ff682cba0e31d905bfd3aca8612
c752231a4eb5728a2c4acd138e5433e0cc9605a5
'2012-02-23T09:04:34-05:00'
describe
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
xml resolution
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
The element type "div" must be terminated by the matching end-tag "".
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.



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PEACHES AND NECTARINES IN FLORIDA T. E. Crocker 1 Introduction Commercial acreage of peaches and nectarines in Florida is now estimated at 1500 hectares (3,000 acres), most of which is in Madison County. The northern production area extends from Madison County west, and the cultivars grown in this area require 400 to 650 hours of chilling. In the central area of the state, cultivars that require 200 to 300 hours of chilling have been developed. Chilling hours are relative to the amount of cold received during average winters in each area. Peaches planted for home use represent a sizeable amount of the total number of peaches grown in the state. The peach requires more specialized care than many homeowners give. This circular will provide information to homeowners and outline production practices for commercial orchards. Site Selection Proper site selection and cultivar choice rank as two of the most important factors in successful peach growing. Good air and water drainage are essential to tree growth and production. In selecting a site, avoid low areas (pockets) and sections characterized by late spring frosts. The effect of cold on crops has been studied in Alachua county for 11 seasons. Out of 11 crops on a cold site, 7 were lost, but on a warm site a few miles away there were only 2 partial crop losses due to spring frost after February 10. Even in central Florida critical temperatures for fruit kill can occur throughout February and March in cold locations; thus, late blooming due to delayed dormancy is not as good insurance as good site choice. Peach flower buds that have just begun to swell withstand temperatures to about 20° F (-7° C). Open blossoms show injury at about 26° F (-3° C). Following petal fall, the young fruit are generally killed by minimums of 28° F (-2° C). The generalized map (Fig. 1) shows last dates when 28° F (-2° C) occurs in 30% of the years. Use of good sites and recommended cultivars should reduce risks of spring frost injury to 10% to 20% of the years. Peaches can be grown on a wide variety of soils, provided there is good internal drainage in the upper 4 to 6 ft (1.3 to 1.8 m). Avoid "hardpan" soils unless an excellent system of subsoil drainage tiles is provided. Water damage has occurred on normally well-drained soils of heavy texture during exceptionally wet summers in northern Florida. Professor of Horticulture, Fruit Crops Department, University of Florida, Gainesville. 32611. 3



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Table 1. Leaf Analysis Levels in Peach Low Range Optimum Range -percent of dry weight basisNitrogen (N) less than 2.8 3.00 3.50 Potassium (K) less than 1.0 1.10 2.00 Phosphorus (P) less than 0.15 0.17 0.29 Calcium (Ca) less than 0.80 0.90 1.50 Magnesium (Mg) less than 0.30 0.30 1.00 -parts per million dry weight basisZinc (Zn) less than 16 17 60 Manganese (Mn) less than 30 40 100 Copper (Cu) less than 4 7 18 Iron (Fe) less than 40 50 100 Boron (B) less than 20 25 80 Peach orchards in Florida are usually mature at the beginning of the fourth year. Differences in cultivar and grove practices dictate variation in fertilization practices. It is suggested that the recommended fertilizers be applied in quantities sufficient to supply 80 to 100 lbs/a (80 to 100 kg/h) of nitrogen each year. Use 1/3 of the fertilizer in the first application 2 to 3 weeks ahead of bloom, and 2/3 in the second application in late May or, in the case of later ripening cultivars, after the crop is harvested. Excessive nitrogen can delay fruit ripening up to 10 days. Very fertile areas may need only 20 to 30 lbs/a (20 to 30 kg/h) nitrogen per acre in the spring application. Weeds must be controlled so fertilizer is made available to the trees. In central Florida applications of 20 to 30 lbs/a (20 to 30 kg/h) of additional nitrogen in mid-August may help control leaf drop from rust and subsequent premature bloom. As a guide to fertilization, some growers have leaf samples analyzed. Samples should be taken from mid-shoot areas of average terminals in June or July. Based on limited experience, the following levels are suggested (Table 1.) Irrigation Irrigation of bearing trees has materially improved fruit development and significantly increased young tree growth. Most major commercial orchards are equipped for irrigation with volume guns, perforated pipes, or sprinklers. The cultivars of commercial interest in Florida ripen in late April and May when rainfall is usually light. Trees probably need at least 4 in (100 mm) of water per month-from soil storage, rainfall, or from irrigation-for maximum fruit growth. Applications should be made 7



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with EDB, DD, or Telone as recommended by the manufacturers of these materials. Peaches are generally propagated in Florida by T-budding in May. Stratified seeds should be planted in late January or early February. Remove seeds from the pits in autumn and store in damp peat or perlite at 35 to 45° F (1.7 to 7.2° C) for 40 to 60 days before planting. If the seeds are not removed from the pits, the pits must be stratified and can be kept in cold storage for up to 100 days. If soil temperatures are high at planting, and seeds have not begun sprouting, seeds will revert into dormancy. Nursery site approval is required by the Division of Plant Industry to prevent spread of burrowing nematode if plants are to be sold or shipped. Setting trees Peach trees are generally set bare-rooted in the dormant season in December or as soon thereafter as possible so that new root growth can develop before spring growth begins. In well-drained soils, plant trees slightly deeper than they were grown in the nursery. Peach trees do not need to be watered at planting if the soil is moist and packed well around the roots. Trees that are planted early in the winter and kept free of weed competition will require minimum watering the first season. Usually only 1 or 2 basin-type irrigations in April and May will be required, except in unusually dry years or on coarser sands. Keep the area 3 to 4 ft (0.9 to 1.3 m) out from newly-set trees free of weeds the first season. Plant middle strips with oats or rye, or leave uncultivated until mid-April for protection from blowing sand. Cover can be left in the middles, mowing as needed, throughout the first summer if desired. In November, disc under all cover in the orchard. Cultivate bearing orchards thoroughly up until early January, then leave the soil as firm and clean as possible during and after bloom in order to reduce frost hazard. Resume cultivation after the danger of frost is past and keep the orchard clean until just before fruit harvest. After harvest, native cover crops or hairy indigo may be grown. Avoid plant covers that tend to build up stink bug populations (see insect notes). Weed Control Chemical weed control is being developed to supplement mechanical control. A recommended procedure is to apply herbicide to a strip down the tree row and mow the sod middles. Herbicides cleared for peaches include Terbacil, Dichlobenil, Simazine, Paraquat, Diuron, Trifluralin and Oryzalin. Some of these should not be used on young trees, and growers should consult label instructions. Paraquat, a contact herbicide, is registered for use on trees of all sizes in the orchard and is effective for burn-down or existing weeds. 5



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Fig. 4. White peach scale on peach. Fig. 5. Plum curculio is making cresentshaped cuts on fruit where eggs are laid. Fig. 6. Peaches gnarled as a result of egg laying and feeding punctures of the plum curculio. 1 6 3,t 16



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Stink bugs are sucking insects that cause "catfacing" or "dimpling" of fruits from early season feeding and gumming later in the season. They also increase brown rot damage. Sprays may be needed prior to first cover on early flowering cultivars. Use insecticides at rates used for curculio. Where cultural conditions permit, some reduction in populations has been reported by eliminating cover crops such as peas, beans, crotalaria, beggar-weed, and citrons. Caribbean fruit fly has become widespread in southern Florida, and peaches are a favorite host. Infestation is normally detected by the presence of small white worms in the fruit. At present there is no practical control. Borers are a problem throughout central and northern Florida. Uncontrolled populations ruin trees by severe girdling of the branches or tree trunk at the soil line. The lesser borer attacks the tree framework at injuries or at large pruning cuts, and is becoming more important in Florida. The lesser borer lays eggs earlier in the season, has more life cycles per summer, and requires sprays as soon as possible after fruit harvest. Thiodan is commonly used for borer control. Borers in dooryard trees can be removed by hand digging under gum spots in late summer and fall. The immature insect is a small white grub. There are at least 2 generations of the main borer and 3 to 4 of the lesser borer in Florida. Diseases Scab affects peaches in all areas of the state, causing small brown spots on skin of fruit. Sulfur sprays 4 to 6 weeks after full bloom are essential for control. The earliest cultivars ripen before spotting is too noticeable. Bacterial spot is serious on Maygold in the Quincy area in some years, Fig. 7. Ripe peach showing the effect Fig. 8. Peach tree attacked at the base by of attack by leaf-footed bugs several the peach tree borer. months before. ·. 8, ~~L `';;BL .1 17



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1/3 -CIRCULAR 299-E :, ,',' Peaches and Nectarines ./ :'X , ip in Florida !,JJ,' r ' 't . , x; ) -. iJ > . -T. E. Crocker and J G. Williamson i9~~~~~~~ D~~~~~Urversly ot Florida j ~[ r ".~ ' t j ,'.. In.titule ol Food and Agricultural SclencES Florida Cooperallve Elenson Service "D_.J ., ~1 John T Voeste Dear, 1.)1 A ; °;_* ,\ e ,* t4-SFmIs


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Table 2. A summary of peach cultivar characteristics for Florida Fruit__ Flesh Equiv. Full chill bloom Flower Red needed to ripe Flower Stone bud color Ground Flesh Size Main Cultivar (hr.) (days) type freeness setz (%) color color Shapez Firmnessz (g) Tastez Browningz use y Flordagold 325 88 showy semi-cling 10 60 bright yellow 7 10 102 9 8 H,L,C yellow Flordacrest 350 75 showy semi-cling 8 80 bright yellow 7 9 92 8 9 H,L,C yellow Flordahome 400 110 double free 7 30 creamy white 6 6 60 4 3 H showy white 3 Flordaking 400 68 non semi-cling 6 50 yellow yellow 7 7 96 7 9 H,L,C showy Flordaglobe 450 63 non semi-cling 9 90 yellow white 9 9 85 8 8 H,L,C showy JuneGold 650 80 showy semi-cling 8 40 bright yellow 7 9 90 7 9 H,L,C yellow Springcrest 700 75 showy semi-cling 8 80 yellow yellow 10 9 75 7 8 H,L YH home, L local, C commercial, R rootstock 1 least desirable, 10 most desirable



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w 4 Fig. 9. Scab spots on peaches, showing the cracking that often develops when the spots are numerous. and is not effectively controlled by sprays. It has not yet become serious in central Florida areas. Trees with good fertilization are less susceptible to bacterial spot than are under-fertilized ones. Brown rot has not been a very serious problem on early peaches in central Florida, probably due to the characteristically dry climate in April and May. It can be quite serious in northern Florida in springs that are wet, for at this time the late-ripening cultivars grown for local use are reaching maturity. Rust can be one of the more serious diseases in central Florida. Severe defoliation has occurred by mid-summer in some instances and undoubtedly weakens the trees. In northern Florida infection usually does not appear until late summer or fall, as it does in Georgia and South Carolina where the disease is considered of minor importance. Sprays of zinc sulfate-lime, 4-4-100 for control of zinc deficiency helps to control rust. Sulfur has some control value. If desired, Zineb may be used at 2 lbs per 100 gallons. Mushroom root rot is a fungus disease often present in newly cleared red oak land. There is no practical control, other than planting on sites relatively free of decaying oak roots. Peach trees wilt suddenly, usually starting about their third year in the orchard. Cutting through the bark at and just below the ground line discloses a thin white fungus growth between the bark and wood. This white growth may be visible on only one side of the tree or may completely encircle the tree. Phony peach caused by a bacterium occurs in all established peach growing regions in Florida. It is introduced in nursery stocks, in infected budwood, or through wild hosts. Phony is found in wild plum trees in Florida but causes no observable damage to these plums. When transmit18



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Fertilization Prior to setting trees, apply liming materials as needed to bring soil within a range of pH 6.0 to 6.5. Use of some dolomitic lime is recommended, especially on sandy soils where magnesium level in the soil is low. Because of soil type variations, there is a distinct difference in the fertilizer recommendations for peaches growing in loamy peach soils predominantly west of the Suwannee river, and those growing on the sandy peach soils of peninsular Florida. It is suggested that mixed fertilizers for the western (heavier soils) area include 8-8-8 or similar materials. Fertilizers for the peninsular (sandy) area should approximate a 12-4-8 formulation. All fertilizers should contain 1% or 2% zinc oxide (ZnO) equivalent when used on young trees. On older trees, zinc may be applied as part of the regular spray program by including 2 lbs (1 kg) of neutral zinc per 100 gal (400 liters) of water in 1 or 2 cover sprays each year, or it may continue to be supplied in the regular fertilizer program (also see notes under rust disease). Quickly available nitrogen, applied sufficiently ahead of bloom to be taken up by the tree, is believed to improve set of fruit. Delayed availability of nitrogen may delay fruit maturity and reduce colors. Therefore, it is recommended that only mineral sources of nitrogen be used in spring peach fertilizers prior to harvest. Sandy soils are sometimes deficient in minor elements other than zinc. Boron, at rates of 5 lbs (2 kg) B 2 03 per acre, and occasionally manganese, in sprays containing 0.75 metallic Mn per 100 gal (400 liters) have been needed to correct symptoms. Requirements for other minor elements for peaches in Florida have not been determined. Apply fertilizer in the first (or planting) year in a circular area 6 to 24 in (1.5 to 6 dm) from the trunk as follows: 1/8 lb (0.05 kg) per tree in February 1/4 lb (0.1 kg) in late May 1/2 lb (0.2 kg) in July On the loamy soils of west Florida fertilizer may be applied on a different schedule, one that provides 1/2 lb (0.2 kg) in February and 1/2 lb (0.2 kg) in June. In wet seasons when nitrogen is leached rapidly and trees show slow growth, apply 1/4 lb (0.1 kg) of sodium nitrate or calcium nitrate or equivalent amount of ammonium nitrate per tree in August. In a second year, apply fertilizer to cover the area 1 ft (30 cm) from the trunk to 1 ft (30 cm) beyond the branch spread. Apply 1 to 11/2 lbs (0.4 to 0.6 kg) per tree in January and the same quantity in late May. In the third year, start broadcast applications of mixed fertilizer in quantities sufficient to supply 30 to 40 lb/a (30 to 40 kg/h) actual nitrogen in January and again in late May or after the crop is harvested. Apply 20 to 30 lbs/a (20 to 30 kg/h) of actual nitrogen if needed in August during wet seasons. 6



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600-65 -~ 500-600 400-500 Figure 3. Generalized map showing00 100-200 Figure 3. Generalized map showing chilling hours below 45 degrees received to February 10 in 75 percent 50-100 of the winters. Insufficient chilling results in light to no cropping, irregular fruit development, and late and sometimes inadequate leafing-followed in severe cases by sunscald and damage to the main framework. Although choice of cultivars requiring more chilling than the average for an area may result in late bloom and reduced spring frost hazards, fruit set is often unsatisfactory and ripening is delayed in seasons with inadequate winter chilling. Excess chilling for the cultivar is also undesirable. Cultivars with low chilling requirements such as Flordaprince, bloom too early in northern Florida and fruit is generally lost to spring frosts. It should be recognized that chilling effectiveness is not entirely measured by hours below 45° F (7° C). Temperatures in the range of 45 F to 55° F (7 to 13 C) also have considerable benefit. For such lowchilling cultivars as Earligrande or Flordaprince, 55° F (13° C) is fully as effective as 45° F (7° C) in inducing dormancy break. Temperatures above 70° F (21° C) during the chilling period appear to be detrimental. Thus, a winter marked by considerable cloudy weather usually is followed by a better dormancy break than one with an equal accumulation of chilling hours that is marked by generally dry, sunny conditions. Peach Pests and Control See the latest recommendations from the Cooperative Extension Service for control of the most important insects and diseases on commercial bearing peaches in Florida. 14



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Feb. 20th F e b . 1 O t h Feb. 1st Figure 1. Generalized pattern of date after which the risk of a temperature as low as 28 degrees is 30 percent. Orchard Layout Normal spacing is 20 X 20 ft or 108 trees/a (6 X 6 m). All common peach cultivares are self-fruiting and should be planted in solid blocks for easier spraying and harvesting. There have been some 10 X 20 ft and 15 X 20 ft (3 X 6 m and 4.5 X 6 m) plantings, with the expectation that a larger number of trees per unit will result in increased yields per acre during the early life of the orchard. Peach trees established at 10 X 20 ft (3 X 6 m) have been more difficult to prune and handle than those planted with normal spacing. On lighter soils the 15 X 20 ft (4.5 X 6 m) spacing has been satisfactory. Nursery Stock June-budded trees 21/2 to 4 ft (0.8 to 1.3 m) high are a good size to set. Although acceptable, smaller sizes are likely to have rather limited root systems and may start poorly in light soils. Larger sizes are more difficult to handle and more expensive, but they grow better in sandy soils and yield more during the first 4 seasons. Peach cultivars for home or commercial planting should be budded on rootstocks resistant to root-knot nematode species Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica. Okinawa and Nemaguard peach stocks have satisfactory resistance and are the only stocks recommended for Florida. Other stocks such as Elberta, Tennessee "Naturals", Lovell and local seedling rootstocks are susceptible to both root-knot species. A new nematode (M. incognita, race 3) has been found that infests Okinawa and Nemaguard, but it is not yet widespread in Florida. Longrange studies are needed to make definate recommendations for northern Florida, but in central Florida there is hardly any choice but to use resistant stocks. If common peach stocks are used in northern Florida, fumigate bands 6 to 8 ft (1.8 to 2.4 m) wide in the fall, before planting 4