Citation
Introduction to fish health management

Material Information

Title:
Introduction to fish health management
Series Title:
Circular
Creator:
Francis-Floyd, Ruth
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Publisher:
Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
3 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Fishes -- Diseases ( lcsh )
Fish culture -- Florida ( lcsh )
Fishes -- Parasites ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Title from caption.
Statement of Responsibility:
Ruth Francis-Floyd.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
AAA6945 ( LTQF )
AJG5670 ( LTUF )
26846457 ( OCLC )
027810413 ( ALEPHBIBNUM )

Related Items

Related Item:
PALMM Version

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text



Circular 921

IVIITY I N S T IT U T E O F F O O D A N D A G R I C U L T U R A L S C I E N C E S

-'

Introduction to fish health management.

Ruth Francis-Floyd* ,


Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florid Woeste,ean


What is fish health
management?
Fish health management is a
term used in aquaculture to
describe management practices
which are designed to prevent fish
disease. Once fish get sick it can be
difficult to salvage them.
Successful fish health
management begins with
prevention of disease rather than
treatment. Prevention of fish
disease is accomplished through
good water quality management,
nutrition, and sanitation. Without
this foundation it is impossible to
prevent outbreaks of opportunistic
diseases. The fish is constantly
bathed in potential pathogens,
including bacteria, fungi, and
parasites. Even use of sterilization
technology (i.e., ultraviolet
sterilizers, ozonation) does not
eliminate all potential pathogens
from the environment. Suboptimal
water quality, poor nutrition, or
immune system suppression
generally associated with stressful
conditions allow these potential
pathogens to cause disease.
Medications used to treat these
diseases provide a means of buying
time for fish and enabling them to
overcome opportunistic infections,
but are no substitute for proper
animal husbandry.
Daily observation of fish behavior
and feeding activity allows early


detection of problems when they do
occur so that a diagnosis can be
made before the majority of the
population becomes sick. If
treatment is indicated, it will be
most successful if it is implemented
early in the course of the disease
while the fish are still in good
shape.

The significance of fish disease
to aquaculture
Fish disease is a substantial
source of monetary loss to
aquaculturists. Production costs are
increased by fish disease outbreaks
because of the investment lost in
dead fish, cost of treatment, and
decreased growth during
convalescence. In nature we are less
aware of fish disease problems
because sick animals are quickly
removed from the population by
predators. In addition, fish are
much less crowded in natural
systems than in captivity. Parasites
and bacteria may be of minimal
significance under natural
conditions, but can contribute to
substantial problems when animals
are crowded and stressed under
culture conditions.
Disease is rarely a simple
association between a pathogen and
a host fish. Usually other
circumstances must be present for
active disease to develop in a
population. These circumstances
are generally grouped under the


umbrella term "Stress"(Fi e 1).
Stress is discussed in greater detail
in the IFAS publication "Stress Its
Role In Fish Disease". Management
practices directed at limiting stress
are likely to be most effective in
preventing disease outbreaks.


Host Disease


P thogen nviro, ment



Figure 1. Disease rarely results from simple
contact between the fish and a
potential pathogen. Environmental
problems, such as poor water
quality, or other stressors often
contribute to the outbreak of
disease.


Determining if your fish are sick
The most obvious sign of sick fish
is the presence of dead or dying
animals. However, the careful
observer can usually tell that fish
are sick before they start dying
because sick fish often stop feeding
and may appear lethargic. Healthy
fish should eat aggressively if fed at
regularly scheduled times. Pond
fish should not be visible except at
feeding time. Fish that are observed
hanging listlessly in shallow water,
gasping at the surface, or rubbing
against objects indicate something
may be wrong. These behavioral


*IFAS extension veterinarian, Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences and Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Institute of Food
and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.

tL~b- ^-.:.i i.2 L^ a'.^..'-** i~^->;... i'i.0








abnormalities indicate that the fish
are not feeling well or that some-
thing is irritating them.
In addition to behavioral
changes, there are physical signs
that should alert producers to
potential disease problems in their
fish. These include the presence of
sores (ulcers or hemorrhages),
ragged fins, or abnormal body
conformation (i.e. a distended
abdomen or "dropsy", and
exopthalmia or "popeye"). When
these abnormalities are observed,
the fish should be evaluated for
parasitic or bacterial infections.

What to do if your fish are sick
If you suspect that your fish are
getting sick, the first thing to do is
check the water quality. If you do
not have a water quality test kit,
contact your county extension office;
some counties have been issued
these kits, and your extension agent
may be able to help you with this. If
your county is not equipped with a
water quality test kit, call the
aquaculture extension specialist
nearest to you (see the list at the
end of this publication). Anyone
contemplating commercial
production of fish should invest in a
water quality test kit and learn how
to use it. A complete kit can be
purchased for under $200, and can
save thousands of dollars worth of
fish with its first use.
Low oxygen is a frequent cause of
fish mortality in ponds, especially
in the summer. High levels of
ammonia are also commonly
associated with disease outbreaks
when fish are crowded in vats or
tanks. Separate extension fact
sheets are available that explain
oxygen cycles, ammonia cycles, and
management of these water quality
problems. In general, it is
appropriate to check dissolved
oxygen, ammonia, nitrite, and pH,
during a water quality screen
ls [
!24 ?>


associated with a fish disease
outbreak.
Ideally, daily records should also
be available for immediate refer-
ence when a fish disease outbreak
occurs. These should include the
dates fish were stocked, size of fish
at stocking, source of fish, feeding
rate, growth rate, daily mortality
and water quality. This information
is needed by the aquaculture
specialist working with you to solve
your fish disease problem. Good
records, a description of behavioral
and physical signs exhibited by sick
fish, and results of water quality
tests provide a complete case
history for the diagnostician work-
ing on your case.
Professional assistance is avail-
able to Florida residents through
the Institute of Food and Agricul-
tural Sciences (IFAS) at the Univer-
sity of Florida, the Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services,
as well as several private laborato-
ries. A list of these resources is
included at the end of this publica-
tion.
If you decide to submit fish to a
diagnostic laboratory you should
collect live, sick fish, place them in
a freezer bag (without water), and
ship them on ice to the nearest
facility. Small fish can be shipped
alive by placing them in plastic
bags which are partially filled (30%)
with water. Oxygen gas can be
injected into the bag prior to sealing
it. An insulated container is
recommended for shipping live,
bagged fish as temperature
fluctuations during transit are
minimized. In addition to fish
samples, a water sample collected
in a clean jar should also be
submitted.

Types of fish diseases
There are 2 broad categories of
disease that affect fish, infectious
and non-infectious diseases. Infec-
tious diseases are caused by patho-


genic organisms present in the
environment or carried by other
fish. They are contagious, and some
type of treatment may be necessary
to control the disease outbreak. In
contrast, non-infectious diseases are
caused by environmental problems,
nutritional deficiencies, or genetic
anomalies; they are not contagious
and usually cannot be cured by
medications.
Infectious diseases. Infectious
diseases are broadly categorized as
parasitic, bacterial, viral, or fungal
diseases. Parasitic diseases of fish
are most frequently caused by small
microscopic organisms called
protozoa which live in the aquatic
environment. There are a variety of
protozoans which infest the gills
and skin of fish causing irritation,
weight loss, and eventually death.
Most protozoan infections are
relatively easy to control using
standard fishery chemicals such as
copper sulfate, formalin, or
potassium permanganate.
Information on specific diseases and
proper use of fishery chemicals is
available from your aquaculture
extension specialist.
Bacterial diseases are often
internal infections and require
treatment with medicated feeds
containing antibiotics which are
approved for use in fish by the Food
and Drug Administration. Typically
fish infected with a bacterial
disease will have hemorrhagic spots
or ulcers along the body wall and
around the eyes and mouth. They
may also have an enlarged, fluid-
filled abdomen, and protruding
eyes. Bacterial diseases can also be
external, resulting in erosion of skin
and ulceration. Columnaris is an
example of an external bacterial
infection which may be caused by
rough handling.
Viral diseases are impossible to
distinguish from bacterial diseases
without special laboratory tests.
They are difficult to diagnose and


/ r
SCT-~'








there are no specific medications
available to cure viral infections of
fish. The most important viral
infection which affects fish produc-
tion in the southeastern United
States is Channel Catfish Virus
Disease, caused by a herpes virus.
Consultation with an aquaculture
or fish health specialist is recom-
mended if you suspect a bacterial or
viral disease is killing your fish.
Fungal diseases are the fourth
type of infectious disease. Fungal
spores are common in the aquatic
environment, but are not normally
a problem in healthy fish. When
fish are infected with an external
parasite, bacterial infection, or
injured by handling, the fungi can
colonize diseased tissue on the
exterior of the fish. These areas
appear to have a cottony growth or
may appear as brown matted areas
when the fish are removed from the
water. Potassium permanganate is
effective against most fungal
infections. Since fungi are usually a
secondary problem it is important
to diagnose the original problem
and correct it as well.
Non-infectious diseases. Non-
infectious diseases can be broadly
categorized as environmental,
nutritional, or genetic.
Environmental diseases are the
most important in commercial
aquaculture. Environmental
diseases include low dissolved
oxygen, high ammonia, high nitrite
or natural or man-made toxins in
the aquatic environment. Proper
techniques of managing water
quality will enable producers to
prevent most environmental
diseases. There are separate IFAS
publications which address water
quality management in greater
detail.
Nutritional diseases can be very
difficult to diagnose. A classic
example of a nutritional disease of
catfish is "broken back disease",
caused by vitamin C deficiency. The


lack of dietary vitamin C contrib-
utes to improper bone development,
resulting in deformation of the
spinal column. Another important
nutritional disease of catfish is "no
blood disease" which may be related
to a folic acid deficiency. Affected
fish become anemic and may die.
The condition seems to disappear
when the deficient feed is discarded
and a new feed provided.
Genetic abnormalities include
conformational oddities such as lack
of a tail or presence of an extra tail.
Most of these are of minimal
significance, however, it is
important to bring in unrelated fish
for use as broodstock every few
years to minimize inbreeding.

Summary
There are many diseases of fish
which can be troublesome to
commercial producers as well as the
recreational pond owner. Many
disease outbreaks of captive fish
stocks are associated with stressful
conditions such as poor water
quality, excessive crowding or
inadequate nutrition.
There are two broad categories of
disease which relate directly to
selection of appropriate treatments:
1) Infectious diseases are
contagious diseases caused by
parasites, bacteria, viruses, or
fungi. These often require some
type of medication to help the fish
recover.
2) Non-infectious diseases are
broadly categorized as
environmental, nutritional, or
genetic. These problems are often
corrected by changing management
practices.
Fish disease outbreaks are often
complex, involving both infectious
and non-infectious processes.
Appropriate therapy often involves
medication and changes in hus-
bandry practices. Assistance from
IFAS aquaculture extension special-


ists is available to help you manage
disease outbreaks and develop
management programs to prevent
them. A list of state specialists is
provided for your convenience at the
end of this publication.

State specialists
University of Florida:
IFAS Aquaculture Extension
Specialists:
Gainesville
Department of Fisheries and
Aquaculture and College of
Veterinary Medicine
7922 NW 71 St. Gainesville, Fl.
32606 (904) 392-9617


Tampa
Hillsborough County Extension
Office 5339 St. Rd. 579, Seffner, Fl.
33584 (813) 621-5605


Blountstown
Northwest Florida Aquaculture
Demonstration Farm P.O. Box 754,
Rt.1, Blountstown, Fl. 32424
(904) 674-3184


Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer
Services:
State Veterinary Diagnostic
Laboratories
Kissimmee
P.O. Box 420460, Kissimmee, Fl.
34742-0460 (407) 847-3185


Live Oak

Drawer O, Live Oak, Fl. 32060
(904) 362-1216


3





















































































COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, John T.
Woeste, director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the
May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to
individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin. Single copies of extension
publications (excluding 4-H and youth publications) are available free to Florida residents from county extension offices. Information on bulk
rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers is available from C.M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability.




Full Text

PAGE 1

abnormalities indicate that the fish associated with a fish disease genic organisms present in the are not feeling well or that someoutbreak. environment or carried by other thing is irritating them. fish. They are contagious, and some Ideally, daily records should also In addition to behavioral be available for immediate refertype oftreatment may be necessary to control the disease outbreak. In changes, there are physical signs ence when a fish disease outbreak , s that1~ should~ aler produce~rs~ . . , contrast, non-infectious diseases are that should alert producers to occurs. These should include the ,, . , . 4. .i 4 caused by environmental problems, potential disease problems in their dates fish were stocked, size of fish, i e . . , nutritional deficiencies, or genetic fish. These include the presence of at stocking, source of fish, feeding i 2 ] , , .anomalies; they are not contagious sores (ulcers or hemorrhages), rate, growth rate, daily mortality ae , r., a,?-i.14. T4 . .T * .* 4and usually cannot be cured by ragged fins, or abnormal body and water quality. This information *?~~~~ 4/* *i* j~ i,4.~1. 1 medications. conformation (i.e. a distended is needed by the aquaculture abdomen or "dropsy", and specialist working with you to solve Infectious diseases. Infectious exopthalmia or "popeye"). When your fish disease problem. Good diseases are broadly categorized as these abnormalities are observed, records, a description of behavioral parasitic, bacterial, viral, or fungal the fish should be evaluated for and physical signs exhibited by sick diseases. Parasitic diseases of fish parasitic or bacterial infections. fish, and results of water quality are most frequently caused by small tests provide a complete case microscopic organisms called What to do if your fish are sick history for the diagnostician workprotozoa which live in the aquatic If you suspect that your fish are ing on your case. environment. There are a variety of If you suspect that your fish are getting sick, the first thing to do is Professional assistance s availwhich infest the gills check the water quality. If you do Fland skin of fish causing irrtation, checkthe . .ae . ult ts weight loss, and eventually death. not have a water quality test kit, the Institute of Food and AgriculM t ooon eos e contact your county extension office; tural Sciences (IFAS) at the Univercreate ea to some counties have been issuedsity of Florida the Department of relatively easy to control using these kits, and your extension agent Agriculture and Consumer Services, s may be able to help you with this. If as well as several private laboratocopper sulfate, oain or t is not 1 . n .potassium permanganate. your county is not equipped with a ries. A list of these resources is formation water quality test kit, call the included at the end of this publicaror of iser ceicas proper use of fishery chemicals is aquaculture extension specialist tion. ava e from yor aac available from your aquaculture nearest to you (see the list at the . t to yu (e te l a t If you decide to submit fish to a extension specialist. end of this publication). Anyone d c l y . I.~~. . -diagnostic laboratory you should . , ,. contemplating commercial Bacterial diseases are often collect live, sick fish, place them in production of fish should invest in a' . internal infections and require a freezer bag (without water), and water quality test kit and learn how eezer bg (thot wte treatment with medicated feeds to use it. A complete kit can be ship them on ice to the nearest to use it. A complete kit can be facility. Small fish can be shipped containing antibiotics which are , , « , (honn facility. Small fish can be shipped purchased for under $200, and can li y lai hmn plastic approved for use in fish by the Food save thousands of dollars worth of a l . v e b a y pDu ar t h e m p l p f a s t l ld c and Drug Administration. Typically bags which are partially filled (30%) fish with its first use. ba wc are artay e fish infected with a bacterial with water. Oxygen gas can be with water. Oxygen gas a.nA disease will have hemorrhagic spots Low oxygen is a frequent cause of injected into the bag prior to sealing a „ , , ,° . , . ,~. . . & or ulcers along the body wall and fish mortality in ponds, especially it. An insulated container is around the eyes and mouth. They in the summer. High levels of recommended for shipping live, may also have an enlarged, fluidammonia are also commonly bagged fish as temperature an r u filled abdomen, and protruding associated with disease outbreaks fluctuations during transit are ing when fish are crowded in vats or minimized. In addition to fish eyes. Bacterial diseases can also be minimized. In addition to fish , ^ ~ ~~~~~~~,c<~~ 4. . ' c -i~~~~ external, resulting in erosion of skin tanks. Separate extension fact samples, a water sample collected a ulrtin. o nris is n sheets are available that explain in a clean jar should also be an na ~~i n ~~~~~ . i _ .example of an external bacterial oxygen cycles, ammonia cycles, and submitted. of an na bacteria infection which may be caused by management of these water quality. problems. In general, it is Types of fish diseases rough handling. appropriate to check dissolved categories of Viral diseases are impossible to oxygen, ammonia, nitrite, and pH, disease that affect fish, infectious distinguish from bacterial diseases during a water quality screen and non-infectious diseases. Infecwithout special laboratory tests. Xo r jThey are difficult to diagnose and If v I tious diseases are caused by patho^', _, 2



PAGE 1

there are no specific medications lack of dietary vitamin C contribists is available to help you manage available to cure viral infections of utes to improper bone development, disease outbreaks and develop fish. The most important viral resulting in deformation of the management programs to prevent infection which affects fish producspinal column. Another important them. A list of state specialists is tion in the southeastern United nutritional disease of catfish is "no provided for your convenience at the States is Channel Catfish Virus blood disease" which may be related end of this publication. Disease, caused by a herpes virus. to a folic acid deficiency. Affected Consultation with an aquaculture fish become anemic and may die. State specialists or fish health specialist is recomThe condition seems to disappear U t of ri mended if you suspect a bacterial or when the deficient feed is discarded viral disease is killing your fish. and a new feed provided. IFAS Aquaculture Extension Fungal diseases are the fourth Genetic abnormalities include peal: type of infectious disease. Fungal conformational oddities such as lack Gainesville spores are common in the aquatic of a tail or presence of an extra tail. Dt of F s Department of Fisheries and environment, but are not normally Most of these are of minimal Aquaculture and College of Aquaculture and College of a problem in healthy fish. When significance, however, it is Veterinary Medicine fish are infected with an external important to bring in unrelated fish 7922 NW 71 St. Gine 7922 NW 71 St. Gainesville, Fl. parasite, bacterial infection, or for use as broodstock every few 32606 (904) 392-9617 injured by handling, the fungi can years to minimize inbreeding. colonize diseased tissue on the exterior of the fish. These areas Summary Tampa appear to have a cottony growth or T There are many diseases of fish may appear as brown matted areas troublom to Hillsborough County Extension when the fish are removed from the commercial producers as wel the Office 5339 St. Rd. 579, Seffner, Fl. water. Potassium permanganate is recreational pond owner. Many 33584 (813) 621-5605 recreational pond owner. Many effective against most fungal disease outbreaks of captive fish infections. Since fungi are usually a associated with stressful stocks are associated with stressful secondary problem it is important conditions such as poor Blountstown to diagnose the original problem to diagnose te original quality, excessive crowding or Northwest Florida Aquaculture and correct i as well.inadequate nutrition. Demonstration Farm P.O. Box 754, Non-infectious diseases. Non-here are two broad categories Rt, Blountstown Fl. 32424 infectious diseases can be broadly disease which r e d t to (904) 674-3184 disease which relate directly to categorized as environmental, selection of appropriate treatments: nutritional, or genetic. Environmental diseases are the 1) Infectious diseases are Florida Department of most important in commercial contagious diseases caused by Agriculture and Consumer aquaculture. Environmental parasites, bacteria, viruses, or Services: diseases include low dissolved fungi. These often require some S V oxygen, high ammonia, high nitrite type of medication to help the fish Laboratories or natural or man-made toxins in recover. the aquatic environment. Proper 2) Non-infectious diseases are Kissimmee techniques of managing water broadly categorized as P.O. Box 420460, Kissimmee, Fl. quality will enable producers to environmental, nutritional, or 34742-0460 (407) 847-3185 prevent most environmental prevent most environmentalgenetic. These problems are often diseases. There are separate IFAS corrected by changing management corrected by changing management publications which address water practices. Live Oak quality management in greater detail. Fish disease outbreaks are often Drawer 0, Live Oak, Fl. 32060 complex, involving both infectious (904) 362-1216 Nutritional diseases can be very and non and non-infectious processes. difficult to diagnose. A classic difficult to diagnose. A classic Appropriate therapy often involves example of a nutritional disease of medication and changes in husmedication and changes in huscatfish is '"broken back disease", bandry practices. Assistance from caused by vitamin C deficiency. The FAS aquaculture extension specialIFAS aquaculture extension special-


xml version 1.0
xml-stylesheet type textxsl href daitss_report_xhtml.xsl
REPORT xsi:schemaLocation 'http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitss2Report.xsd' xmlns:xsi 'http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance' xmlns 'http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss'
DISSEMINATION IEID 'E20090712_AAAAQG' PACKAGE 'UF00014505_00001' INGEST_TIME '2009-07-12T12:57:53-04:00'
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT 'UF' PROJECT 'UFDC'
REQUEST_EVENTS TITLE Disseminate Event
REQUEST_EVENT NAME 'disseminate request placed' TIME '2015-05-15T14:47:12-04:00' NOTE 'request id: 302209; This is a disseminate from UF Chelsea S Dinsmore for migration DigiTool to Islandora see CAS-56088-F3Z2' AGENT 'Stephen'
finished' '2015-05-15T16:47:10-04:00' '' 'SYSTEM'
FILES
FILE SIZE '509919' DFID 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQAD' ORIGIN 'DEPOSITOR' PATH 'sip-files00001.jp2'
MESSAGE_DIGEST ALGORITHM 'MD5' 19a438612b7d7845b45419454fff2a3d
'SHA-1' d2283cbc6f704f510677cd673397ff806bd03be2
EVENT '2012-02-23T09:12:14-05:00' OUTCOME 'success'
PROCEDURE describe
'202598' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQAE' 'sip-files00001.jpg'
b5f16b85aa910e2e4c9d9e9a0bc221d6
0fb1d4f580446f31a0f9cf2c1954304f3cfcc450
'2012-02-23T09:12:23-05:00'
describe
'190074' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQAF' 'sip-files00001.pdf'
9d35a197f60ad4bf23807fde09159b8d
879d4ec745c1e6ae891b563eb4998dc903d9d1e1
'2012-02-23T09:12:21-05:00'
describe
'3037872' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQAF-norm-0' 'ARCHIVE' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADQAF-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
'2015-05-15T16:46:48-04:00'
describe
'2015-05-15T16:46:42-04:00'
normalize
'107527' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQAG' 'sip-files00001.pro'
5e4d5ea5875b66017cac3b28499a01d1
5ee2c2b28750c71bac7eb5866047d6ccafb8f7de
'2012-02-23T09:12:22-05:00'
describe
'76015' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQAH' 'sip-files00001.QC.jpg'
bfc26b6e0b8d413d99a307071f061cc4
19137ec347ffe4904cc4a704bfd975e10691ac34
'2012-02-23T09:12:19-05:00'
describe
'4032400' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQAI' 'sip-files00001.tif'
3d098883a8d5694e02f12d22cbcb0498
e48c051cf85e1fefef144b7d986a1024f912c3bd
'2012-02-23T09:12:15-05:00'
describe
'4574' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQAJ' 'sip-files00001.txt'
472f4e46520e93747c7e4e58270bd4b1
93b2f5abcf1316eec20a80c3214a5e8d0f5f7bbb
describe
'43153' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQAK' 'sip-files00001thm.jpg'
d12609819de1f89dc9a34fd73beb6045
140615e658e358675d9c077bb294f82a745baf11
'2012-02-23T09:12:18-05:00'
describe
'616723' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQAL' 'sip-files00002.jp2'
18150dba47d0c52e33dbabad8f648f8c
a42cbc41c14f215315b2deab1cae9c1944de48f4
'2012-02-23T09:12:26-05:00'
describe
'234157' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQAM' 'sip-files00002.jpg'
010373fd40dadb687aed7e05e9972950
849b79a1b58b783933a38f7a4aaff472851e36cd
describe
'238854' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQAN' 'sip-files00002.pdf'
369c59fd92c8a3446bbae3f7e2557285
c63825c40649d720f9f57b1f0e7959dcf12fc55d
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQAN-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADQAN-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
describe
'2015-05-15T16:46:47-04:00'
normalize
'137032' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQAO' 'sip-files00002.pro'
4486628eb7b9eb0719c7abb4dd98934f
eb0d1fa3706326825881770d0c4842a7d3ba2012
'2012-02-23T09:12:25-05:00'
describe
'81843' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQAP' 'sip-files00002.QC.jpg'
6c0ead31d9379bbdd81a620ea5e04b4d
44f910e158eafde19a0c864d597c4c5eb294a76f
'2012-02-23T09:12:17-05:00'
describe
'4011760' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQAQ' 'sip-files00002.tif'
b746bc9e576fd875cc933d3381e8ddfd
c7267fc36bbfd529ee41e23b6634e95e2a1dbbac
describe
'5426' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQAR' 'sip-files00002.txt'
e2e031303d37770a749c1f1be2220620
68f5397d286d50d753bf0fecab97b1337b525fee
'2012-02-23T09:12:20-05:00'
describe
'44203' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQAS' 'sip-files00002thm.jpg'
b95acc0309dc396c7bf78aa153fbdcc7
071cb7ba052ae5826266fe82e37b1fae0b35535f
describe
'510875' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQAT' 'sip-files00003.jp2'
416b1acd9d9d7576f0a61147dd2ff347
cba84395e2e3513443fdf837fd034ff774c16ab2
describe
'198481' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQAU' 'sip-files00003.jpg'
bebe79d529f04d1e6960857f4bb128cd
6f21fdc0eb6bbb27c482a070ae51b5ecbd059008
describe
'192580' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQAV' 'sip-files00003.pdf'
5def8ac81e85c0a61f4e408438ce502c
b1f367c43938a404d4dbb804551283690778ef3a
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQAV-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADQAV-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
describe
'2015-05-15T16:46:37-04:00'
normalize
'110742' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQAW' 'sip-files00003.pro'
2e202610d31ea83736fec93e47f3859e
5f57af529420099ebae15bf069c0f98dfb2f6215
describe
'72457' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQAX' 'sip-files00003.QC.jpg'
a5158f8956b84b56f4370af9d4246307
0320cecdd787e05ec0983288c533a35bc3c48536
describe
'3973388' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQAY' 'sip-files00003.tif'
53e40ff46d69da80fcb07ae734e3c742
54cc47d8df76f1a59a6659c3bc7eb4bcd2b9c9a5
'2012-02-23T09:12:24-05:00'
describe
'4420' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQAZ' 'sip-files00003.txt'
815e00db6eb3dae7c6f51cf1828a15b2
c01069aac47d3fac61fa5e4c6035acbd88f96247
describe
'40511' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQBA' 'sip-files00003thm.jpg'
d6fa27a268555d001c3da424bee2ae42
38e4030108fa40f05a8ca3837188313452efaa92
describe
'82523' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQBB' 'sip-files00004.jp2'
63844c5de20fa4bc6d602bd9818a493b
ea0ed893faf07dd8edbf35db45637959820eb42f
describe
'33215' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQBC' 'sip-files00004.jpg'
789d435e7fbab82b7e3908796a2f59ee
967d70d2e3b5c66446d68eb03a462f21239d34fe
describe
'33202' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQBD' 'sip-files00004.pdf'
6d253e278b56cb8cad43c7b312948a03
e205ab71624fb0d0e8c7433109a98085620b24bc
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQBD-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADQBD-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
describe
'2015-05-15T16:46:39-04:00'
normalize
'27551' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQBE' 'sip-files00004.pro'
e94258663dadebb82d3d4e82ace53562
3067211cb939bbff4acf056b14e50779791c704c
describe
'15687' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQBF' 'sip-files00004.QC.jpg'
e7953bd70ff7c438ba6d8dab21823be5
c34e22ff9fb2199e94f0d498fa537bd294371821
describe
'3880336' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQBG' 'sip-files00004.tif'
1e87e051c9698b8d3ff02559b0dd824f
9200970e1ced2c591d63011aae63a8ca9e5f5795
describe
'1115' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQBH' 'sip-files00004.txt'
821e3a6b93a11ad2d250e268ac8ade6b
0ab4dcc143ef64458d1e6cf373f35a864a0d4108
describe
'11181' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQBI' 'sip-files00004thm.jpg'
9245af44c3d80f02840131e58bd8f090
524ee53ed9f67dfd0c90a1900dc97465039bd3f9
describe
'6670' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQBJ' 'sip-filesUF00014505.xml'
ca8aea9b8e8f5c7fa5bc77237cf62ac5
73575dad04894196ed687c77417227760cbc9f87
describe
File not found
'2015-05-15T16:46:49-04:00'
xml resolution
WARNING CODE 'Daitss::Anomaly' File not found
File not found
'14371' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQBK' 'sip-filesUF00014505_00001.mets'
dd9bd8b090ba0aeabba678862ca78ee1
03d341f3a69b2addab7c2fe5a1d404c2a864269e
'2012-02-23T09:12:16-05:00'
describe
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'mixed'
xml resolution
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
BROKEN_LINK schema http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
The element type "div" must be terminated by the matching end-tag "
".
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'17486' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQGfileF20090712_AADQBN' 'sip-filesUF00014505_00001.xml'
3a46b03e7de3ec509b49d164e5a67353
1cc2a7627551ffba17a819aadbdc47009dd3c275
describe
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
xml resolution
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
The element type "div" must be terminated by the matching end-tag "".
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.



PAGE 1

Circular 921 lll I a a * U"'IV""ITIOLOI N S T IT U T E O F F O O D A N D A G R I C U L T U R A L S C I E N C E S Introduction to fish health management 4 Ruth Francis-Floyd* ' ,. / "-". A / Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida.,'Jorr,. Woeste, ean What is fish health detection of problems when they do umbrella term "Stress" (Figure 1). management? occur so that a diagnosis can be Stress is discussed in greater detail made before the majority of the in the IFAS publication "Stress Its Fish health management is a population becomes sick. If Role In Fish Disease". Management term used in aquaculture to ... term used in aquaculture to treatment is indicated, it will be practices directed at limiting stress describe management practices most successful if it is implemented are likely to be most effective in which are designed to prevent fish early in the course of the disease preventing disease outbreaks. disease. Once fish get sick it can be while the fish are still in good difficult to salvage them. shape. shape. Successful fish health e e management begins with The significance of fish disease prevention of disease rather than to aquaculture treatment. Prevention offish P disease isasubstantial Fish disease is a substantial disease is accomplished through source of monetary loss to good water quality management, aquaculturists. Production costs are nutrition, and sanitation. Without increased by fish disease outbreaks Figure 1. Disease rarely results from simple this foundation it is impossible to because of the investment lost in contact between the fish and a prevent outbreaks of opportunistic dead fish, cost of treatment, and potential pathogen. Environmental diseases. The fish is constantly decreased growth during problems, such as poor water badtd i ecreased growth during quality, or other stressors often bathed in potential pathogens, convalescence. In nature we are less contribute to the outbreak of including bacteria, fungi, and aware of fish disease problems disease. parasites. Even use of sterilization because sick animals are quickly technology (i.e., ultraviolet removed from the population by sterilizers, ozonation) does not predators. In addition, fish are Determining if your fish are sick eliminate all potential pathogens much less crowded in natural from the environment. Suboptimal stms than in captivity. Parasits he most obvious sign of sick fish systems than in captivity. Parasites water quality, poor nutrition, or d bacteria may be of minimal is the presence of dead or dying immune system suppression and bacteria ma e f inial animals. However, the careful generally associated with stressful significance under natural observer can usually tell that fish generally associated with stressful conditions, but can contribute to conditions allow these potential substantial problems when animals are sick before they start dying pathogens to cause disease. arcrowded and stressed under because sick fish often stop feeding Medications used to treat these and may appear lethargic.Healthy culture conditions. diseases provide a means of buying fish should eat aggressively if fed at time for fish and enabling them to Disease is rarely a simple regularly scheduled times. Pond overcome opportunistic infections, association between a pathogen and fish should not be visible except at but are no substitute for proper a host fish. Usually other feeding time. Fish that are observed animal husbandry. circumstances must be present for hanging listlessly in shallow water, active disease to develop in a gasping at the surface, or rubbing Daily observation of fish behavior population. These circumstances against objects indicate something and feeding activity allows early are generally grouped under the may be wrong. These behavioral *IFAS extension veterinarian, Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences and Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. tL bi · ·t. : i. · L^ ' . . ^'* ! ia -;'.-'i


xml record header identifier oai:www.uflib.ufl.edu.ufdc:UF0001450500001datestamp 2009-04-01setSpec [UFDC_OAI_SET]metadata oai_dc:dc xmlns:oai_dc http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc xmlns:dc http:purl.orgdcelements1.1 xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc.xsd dc:title Introduction to fish health management Circular dc:creator Francis-Floyd, Ruthdc:subject Fishes -- Diseases ( lcsh )Fish culture -- Florida ( lcsh )Fishes -- Parasites ( lcsh )dc:description b Statement of Responsibility Ruth Francis-Floyd.Title from caption.dc:publisher Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Floridadc:type Bookdc:format 3 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.dc:identifier http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/ufdc/?b=UF00014505&v=00001AAA6945 (LTQF)AJG5670 (LTUF)26846457 (OCLC)001752713 (ALEPHBIBNUM)dc:source University of Floridadc:language English



PAGE 1

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, John T. Woeste, director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin. Single copies of extension publications (excluding 4-H and youth publications) are available free to Florida residents from county extension offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers is available from C.M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability.