abnormalities indicate that the fish associated with a fish disease genic organisms present in the are not feeling well or that someoutbreak. environment or carried by other thing is irritating them. fish. They are contagious, and some Ideally, daily records should also In addition to behavioral be available for immediate refertype oftreatment may be necessary to control the disease outbreak. In changes, there are physical signs ence when a fish disease outbreak , s that1~ should~ aler produce~rs~ . . , contrast, non-infectious diseases are that should alert producers to occurs. These should include the ,, . , . 4. .i 4 caused by environmental problems, potential disease problems in their dates fish were stocked, size of fish, i e . . , nutritional deficiencies, or genetic fish. These include the presence of at stocking, source of fish, feeding i 2 ] , , .anomalies; they are not contagious sores (ulcers or hemorrhages), rate, growth rate, daily mortality ae , r., a,?-i.14. T4 . .T * .* 4and usually cannot be cured by ragged fins, or abnormal body and water quality. This information *?~~~~ 4/* *i* j~ i,4.~1. 1 medications. conformation (i.e. a distended is needed by the aquaculture abdomen or "dropsy", and specialist working with you to solve Infectious diseases. Infectious exopthalmia or "popeye"). When your fish disease problem. Good diseases are broadly categorized as these abnormalities are observed, records, a description of behavioral parasitic, bacterial, viral, or fungal the fish should be evaluated for and physical signs exhibited by sick diseases. Parasitic diseases of fish parasitic or bacterial infections. fish, and results of water quality are most frequently caused by small tests provide a complete case microscopic organisms called What to do if your fish are sick history for the diagnostician workprotozoa which live in the aquatic If you suspect that your fish are ing on your case. environment. There are a variety of If you suspect that your fish are getting sick, the first thing to do is Professional assistance s availwhich infest the gills check the water quality. If you do Fland skin of fish causing irrtation, checkthe . .ae . ult ts weight loss, and eventually death. not have a water quality test kit, the Institute of Food and AgriculM t ooon eos e contact your county extension office; tural Sciences (IFAS) at the Univercreate ea to some counties have been issuedsity of Florida the Department of relatively easy to control using these kits, and your extension agent Agriculture and Consumer Services, s may be able to help you with this. If as well as several private laboratocopper sulfate, oain or t is not 1 . n .potassium permanganate. your county is not equipped with a ries. A list of these resources is formation water quality test kit, call the included at the end of this publicaror of iser ceicas proper use of fishery chemicals is aquaculture extension specialist tion. ava e from yor aac available from your aquaculture nearest to you (see the list at the . t to yu (e te l a t If you decide to submit fish to a extension specialist. end of this publication). Anyone d c l y . I.~~. . -diagnostic laboratory you should . , ,. contemplating commercial Bacterial diseases are often collect live, sick fish, place them in production of fish should invest in a' . internal infections and require a freezer bag (without water), and water quality test kit and learn how eezer bg (thot wte treatment with medicated feeds to use it. A complete kit can be ship them on ice to the nearest to use it. A complete kit can be facility. Small fish can be shipped containing antibiotics which are , , Â« , (honn facility. Small fish can be shipped purchased for under $200, and can li y lai hmn plastic approved for use in fish by the Food save thousands of dollars worth of a l . v e b a y pDu ar t h e m p l p f a s t l ld c and Drug Administration. Typically bags which are partially filled (30%) fish with its first use. ba wc are artay e fish infected with a bacterial with water. Oxygen gas can be with water. Oxygen gas a.nA disease will have hemorrhagic spots Low oxygen is a frequent cause of injected into the bag prior to sealing a Â„ , , ,Â° . , . ,~. . . & or ulcers along the body wall and fish mortality in ponds, especially it. An insulated container is around the eyes and mouth. They in the summer. High levels of recommended for shipping live, may also have an enlarged, fluidammonia are also commonly bagged fish as temperature an r u filled abdomen, and protruding associated with disease outbreaks fluctuations during transit are ing when fish are crowded in vats or minimized. In addition to fish eyes. Bacterial diseases can also be minimized. In addition to fish , ^ ~ ~~~~~~~,c<~~ 4. . ' c -i~~~~ external, resulting in erosion of skin tanks. Separate extension fact samples, a water sample collected a ulrtin. o nris is n sheets are available that explain in a clean jar should also be an na ~~i n ~~~~~ . i _ .example of an external bacterial oxygen cycles, ammonia cycles, and submitted. of an na bacteria infection which may be caused by management of these water quality. problems. In general, it is Types of fish diseases rough handling. appropriate to check dissolved categories of Viral diseases are impossible to oxygen, ammonia, nitrite, and pH, disease that affect fish, infectious distinguish from bacterial diseases during a water quality screen and non-infectious diseases. Infecwithout special laboratory tests. Xo r jThey are difficult to diagnose and If v I tious diseases are caused by patho^', _, 2
there are no specific medications lack of dietary vitamin C contribists is available to help you manage available to cure viral infections of utes to improper bone development, disease outbreaks and develop fish. The most important viral resulting in deformation of the management programs to prevent infection which affects fish producspinal column. Another important them. A list of state specialists is tion in the southeastern United nutritional disease of catfish is "no provided for your convenience at the States is Channel Catfish Virus blood disease" which may be related end of this publication. Disease, caused by a herpes virus. to a folic acid deficiency. Affected Consultation with an aquaculture fish become anemic and may die. State specialists or fish health specialist is recomThe condition seems to disappear U t of ri mended if you suspect a bacterial or when the deficient feed is discarded viral disease is killing your fish. and a new feed provided. IFAS Aquaculture Extension Fungal diseases are the fourth Genetic abnormalities include peal: type of infectious disease. Fungal conformational oddities such as lack Gainesville spores are common in the aquatic of a tail or presence of an extra tail. Dt of F s Department of Fisheries and environment, but are not normally Most of these are of minimal Aquaculture and College of Aquaculture and College of a problem in healthy fish. When significance, however, it is Veterinary Medicine fish are infected with an external important to bring in unrelated fish 7922 NW 71 St. Gine 7922 NW 71 St. Gainesville, Fl. parasite, bacterial infection, or for use as broodstock every few 32606 (904) 392-9617 injured by handling, the fungi can years to minimize inbreeding. colonize diseased tissue on the exterior of the fish. These areas Summary Tampa appear to have a cottony growth or T There are many diseases of fish may appear as brown matted areas troublom to Hillsborough County Extension when the fish are removed from the commercial producers as wel the Office 5339 St. Rd. 579, Seffner, Fl. water. Potassium permanganate is recreational pond owner. Many 33584 (813) 621-5605 recreational pond owner. Many effective against most fungal disease outbreaks of captive fish infections. Since fungi are usually a associated with stressful stocks are associated with stressful secondary problem it is important conditions such as poor Blountstown to diagnose the original problem to diagnose te original quality, excessive crowding or Northwest Florida Aquaculture and correct i as well.inadequate nutrition. Demonstration Farm P.O. Box 754, Non-infectious diseases. Non-here are two broad categories Rt, Blountstown Fl. 32424 infectious diseases can be broadly disease which r e d t to (904) 674-3184 disease which relate directly to categorized as environmental, selection of appropriate treatments: nutritional, or genetic. Environmental diseases are the 1) Infectious diseases are Florida Department of most important in commercial contagious diseases caused by Agriculture and Consumer aquaculture. Environmental parasites, bacteria, viruses, or Services: diseases include low dissolved fungi. These often require some S V oxygen, high ammonia, high nitrite type of medication to help the fish Laboratories or natural or man-made toxins in recover. the aquatic environment. Proper 2) Non-infectious diseases are Kissimmee techniques of managing water broadly categorized as P.O. Box 420460, Kissimmee, Fl. quality will enable producers to environmental, nutritional, or 34742-0460 (407) 847-3185 prevent most environmental prevent most environmentalgenetic. These problems are often diseases. There are separate IFAS corrected by changing management corrected by changing management publications which address water practices. Live Oak quality management in greater detail. Fish disease outbreaks are often Drawer 0, Live Oak, Fl. 32060 complex, involving both infectious (904) 362-1216 Nutritional diseases can be very and non and non-infectious processes. difficult to diagnose. A classic difficult to diagnose. A classic Appropriate therapy often involves example of a nutritional disease of medication and changes in husmedication and changes in huscatfish is '"broken back disease", bandry practices. Assistance from caused by vitamin C deficiency. The FAS aquaculture extension specialIFAS aquaculture extension special-
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