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Florida's groundwater resource

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Title:
Florida's groundwater resource vast quantity, good quality?
Series Title:
Circular Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Creator:
Graham, Wendy D ( Wendy Dimbero )
United States -- Extension Service
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Publisher:
Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
5 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Groundwater -- Florida ( lcsh )
Groundwater -- Quality -- Florida ( lcsh )
Groundwater -- Pollution -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 5).
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
"June 1991."
General Note:
"This material is based upon work supported by the USDA, Extension Service, under special project #90-EWQI-1-9214."
Statement of Responsibility:
Wendy D. Graham.

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University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
AAA6936 ( LTQF )
AHY6936 ( LTUF )
24323071 ( OCLC )
025879211 ( ALEPHBIBNUM )

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9 June 1991


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Circular 944


Florida's groundwater resource:


Vast quantity, good quality?



Wendy D. Graham



























Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida
John T. Woeste, dean


1

















































































Wendy D. Graham, assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural Engineering, IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-(










Introduction

SWater is one of Florida's most
valuable resources. Each year
millions of residents and tourists
enjoy the recreational opportunities
and esthetics afforded by thousands
of miles of ocean and marine
waterways along the coasts.
Though scenic and plentiful, this
water cannot be used for drinking,
irrigation, or industrial supply,
because of its salt content. Fresh
water supplies come from extensive
beds of porous rock beneath the
ground called aquifers and from
fresh water lakes, streams and
reservoirs. Figure 1 summarizes the
status of Florida's fresh water
sources and uses in 1980. As this
figure illustrates, over 50% of the
total fresh water used in Florida
comes from groundwater, and over
90% of the public rely on groundwa-
ter supplies for their drinking
water. Thus groundwater is a
particularly important resource for
this state.
Of all the fresh water withdrawn
in Florida, only about one-third is
consumptively used, i.e. consumed
by evaporation, transpiration or
.production processes. The remain-
ing two-thirds are returned to the
environment, either to surface
streams or to aquifers. Because
water comes into contact with a
variety of heavy metals, organic
chemicals, pesticides and fertilizers
during its use, the quality of the
water which is returning to the
environment has become a wide-
spread concern.

Groundwater and
the hydrologic

cycle

The continuous circulation of
water from land and sea to the
atmosphere and back again is called
the hydrologic cycle. Figure 2
provides a schematic diagram of the


2000


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a-
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n,)
z
0
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z
0
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1792
SURFACE WATER
E GROUND WATER 1574
1423

1184

1000-

643


290
138 177
67
20


RURAL INDUSTRIAL PUBLIC
SUPPLY


THERMO- IRRIGATION
ELECTRIC


Figure 1. Florida's water uses and sources 1980 [7].


Figure 2. The hydrologic cycle [6].


hydrologic cycle for a generalized
Florida setting. Inflow to the
hydrologic system arrives as pre-
cipitation, primarily in the form of
rainfall in Florida. Outflow takes
place as streamflow (or runoff), as
evapotranspiration (a combination
of evaporation from open bodies of
water, evaporation from soil sur-
faces and transpiration from the
soil by plants), and outflow from the
groundwater flow system (to wells,
rivers, springs or oceans). Precipi-
tation is delivered to streams both


on the land surface, as overland
flow to tributary channels, and b3
subsurface flow routes, as interflc
and baseflow following infiltration
into the soil.
Between the land surface and t
groundwater table is the unsatur-
ated, or vadose zone, where both
water and air occur in the soil
pores. In the flatwoods soils of
Florida the unsaturated zone is
typically small. It may occupy the
first 10 to 40 inches below the
ground surface in the dry season,















S --- WATEI
POTE1

WATER TABLE




v3


c-Fu

Figure 3. a) unconfined aquifer, and b) confined aquifer.


and may be non-existent in the wet
season when the water table is at or
above the ground surface. In the
sandy soils of the Central Florida
Ridge however, the vadose zone can
extend 100 feet or more. Water in
the unsaturated zone is either
taken up by plants, evaporated, or
drained by gravity into the satu-
rated zone.
In the saturated groundwater
zone all pores and crevices are filled
with water, and all of the air has
been forced out. Water seeping into
this zone is called recharge.
Groundwater can occur either as an
unconfined (phreatic) aquifer, or as
a confined (artesian) aquifer as
illustrated in Figure 3. In an
unconfined aquifer, the water table
forms the upper boundary of the
aquifer, and the water level in a
well will rest at this level. Water
infiltrating from the surface has the
potential to move rapidly into an
unconfined aquifer, thus there is a
good chance of contamination from
surface activities. In an unconfined
aquifer, groundwater moves by
gravity from areas of high water
table elevation to areas of low water
table elevation. Since the water
table elevation often follows the
surface topography, it can generally


be assumed that groundwater
moves from areas of high land
surface elevation to areas of low
land surface elevation.
Confined aquifers are overlain by
an impermeable, or semi-permeable
confining layer, and are typically
under pressure. Therefore the
potentiometric surface, or level to
which water will rise in a tightly
cased well, is above the top of its
upper confining layer. When this
occurs the well is called an artesian
well and the aquifer is said to exist
under artesian conditions. In some
cases the water level may rise above
the land surface, in which case the
well is known as a flowing artesian
well.
Water in confined aquifers moves
from areas of high potentiometric
head (as measured by the level to
which water will rise in a tightly
cased well) to areas of low potentio-
metric head. Confined aquifers are
less susceptible to contamination
from local surface activities because
infiltrating water typically moves
very slowly through the confining
layer. However the confining layers
may be fractured and missing in
many places. Thus, contaminated
water may move horizontally on top


SAND AND GRAVEL /1
S AQUIFER "
W FLORIDAN AQUIFER
| SHALLOW AQUIFER
SBISCAYNE AQUIFER
I AREA OF HIGHLY
MINERALIZED AQUIFER


Figure 4. Principal aquifers in Florida

of the confining layer for some
distance before recharging the
confined aquifer through a brea
in the confining layer.

Major Florida
aquifers

Figure 4 is a map of the prin(
aquifers that yield large quantil
of water to wells, streams, lakes
and springs in Florida. The pri
mary source of groundwater for
most of the state is the Floridar
aquifer. Figure 5 shows the are
extent of this formation, which:
one of the most prolific aquifers
the United States. It should be
noted however that the Floridai
aquifer is generally not usable i
regions of the state south of Lal
Okeechobee due to its high salt
content.
In much of Florida the aquife
confined by low permeability
sediments of the Hawthorne for
tion. The Hawthorne formation
absent however in the north cer
part of the state along the Ocal
Uplift. In this area the aquifer
unconfined, and thus receives
recharge from water infiltrating
from the surface.


2









The potentiometric surface of the
Floridan aquifer is shown in Figure
6. This surface indicates that the
origin of subsurface flow for north-
ern Florida is in Alabama and
Georgia; however, the origin of
subsurface flow for peninsular
Florida is in the Central Uplands of
the state. In many areas the poten-
tiometric surface is above the land
surface, thus artesian flow occurs in
wells or along geologic openings
(springs). Figure 7 shows the areas
of potential artesian flow from the
Floridan aquifer. Not included in
this figure are small areas of local
artesian flow near springs that
derive their flow from the Floridan
aquifer.
The unconfined Biscayne aquifer
underlies an area of about 3000
square miles in Dade, Broward, and
Palm Beach Counties. This aquifer
is 100 to 400 feet thick near the
coast, but thins to a thickness of
only a few feet further inland.
Water in the Biscayne aquifer is
derived chiefly from local rainfall
and, during dry periods, from canals
ultimately linked to Lake
Okeechobee. The Biscayne is an
important source of water supply for
the lower east coast cities.


An unconfined, sand and gravel
aquifer is the major source of
groundwater in the extreme west-
ern part of the Florida panhandle.
This aquifer ranges in thickness
from 300 to 700 feet and consists
primarily of very coarse quartz
sand. Water in the sand and gravel
aquifer is derived chiefly from local
rainfall. Wells in this aquifer
furnish most of the groundwater
used in Escambia and Santa Rosa
Counties and part of Okaloosa
County.
A shallow, unconfined aquifer is
present over much of the state, but
in most areas it is not an important
source of groundwater because a
better supply is available from
other aquifers. However where
water requirements are small, this
aquifer is tapped by small diameter
wells. In south Florida the shallow
aquifer is a major source of ground-
water in Martin, Palm Beach,
Hendry, Lee, Collier, Indian River,
St. Lucie, Galdes and Charlotte
Counties. The water in this shallow
aquifer is derived primarily from
local rainfall.


Sources of
groundwater
contamination

Florida's unique hydrogeologic
features of a thin soil layer, high
water table, porous limestone, an<
large amounts of rainfall, coupled
with its rapid population growth,
result in a groundwater resource
extremely vulnerable to contain
tion. Numerous structures result
in~g from human activities through]
out Florida have the potential to
contribute to groundwater contain
nation. There are tens of thousand
of point sources such as surface
water impoundments, drainage
:wells, underground storage tanks
flowing saline artesian wells,
hazardous waste sites, power-
plants, landfills, and cattle and
dairy feedlots. Similarly, there ai
numerous septic tanks and urban
and industrial-commercial areas
that may recharge water of undes
able quality. Non-point sources,
which have vast potential for
contributing to groundwater con-
tamination, include coastal saltwC
ter bodies, urban storm water,
agricultural and silvicultural
practices, and mining.
9


Figure 5. Areal extent of the Floridan
aquifer [6].


Figure 6. Potentiometric surface of the
Floridan aquifer.[6]


Explanation
Area of artesian flow
extent and distribution
of areas of artesian
flow vary fluctuations
of the potentiometric
surface. Areas of
artesian flow adjacent
springs, many rivers,
and coastal beach
ridge areas have not
been included.


3


ALABAMA


ALABAMA


Explanation
-60- Potentiometric contour
shows altitude at which
water level would have
stood in tightly cased
wells that penetrate the
floridan aquifer, May
1974. Contour interval
20 feet. Datum is mean
sea level.


,to


Figure 7. Areas of potential artesian flow
the Floridan aquifer.[6]


6do









Salt water intrusion
Florida's situation as a penin-
sula between two bodies of salt
water creates the potential for salt
Water intrusion into the fresh
groundwater supply. Salt water is
-more dense than fresh water and
thus exerts a constant pressure to
flow into the fresh water aquifers.
As long as fresh water levels in the
aquifer are above sea level, the
fresh water pressure limits the
inland movement of the salt water.
-Over-pumping of coastal wells,
however, can increase the salt
water intrusion. If water is
pumped out faster than the aquifer
is replenished, the pressure of the
fresh water is decreased. This
causes the level at which the salt
water and fresh water meet to rise
in the aquifer, degrading the fresh
water quality. The problem of salt
water intrusion is aggravated by
periods of drought during which
there is not enough rainfall to
replenish the fresh water aquifers.
All of the aquifers shown in
Figure 4 experience problems with
salt water intrusion in coastal
areas. In south Florida, fresh
water levels in coastal canals are

I I


managed carefully to control the
fresh water level in the Biscayne
aquifer and thus minimize salt
water intrusion. Figure 8 shows
areas of the Floridan aquifer which
contain chloride concentrations
greater than 250 milligrams per
liter, due to salt water intrusion.
In south Florida, where the
Floridan aquifer is artesian and
underlies the Biscayne and shallow
aquifers, its saline water may
recharge the overlying fresh water
aquifers increasing their salt
content. This type of recharge may
occur naturally by upward seepage
through the confining layer or it
may be increased by flowing
artesian wells.

Hazardous waste
sites
SThe Florida Department of
Environmental Regulation has
identified 413 potential hazardous
waste sites in Florida. The distri-
bution of these sites over the state
is shown in Figure 9. One hundred
and eighty-five of these sites have
some type of water or soil contami-
nation, and 84 additional sites are
suspected of contamination.


Groundwater contamination h
been confirmed at 156 sites.
Enforcement action requiring
contamination assessment anc
remedial action has been initie
at 118 sites. Because of the
absence of a significant amoun
impermeable material to retar
downward movement of contain
nants, leakage from many of tI
sites poses a direct threat to tf
principal aquifers.

Gasoline storage
tanks
The Florida Department of
-Environmental Regulation has
documented more than 400 in-
stances of groundwater contain
tion from leaking gasoline pipe
_storage tanks. The greatest fre
quency of gasoline contaminat:
has occurred in Dade, Browarc
and Palm Beach Counties, affe
ing the quality of water in som
locations of the Biscayne aquif
The most environmentally and
financially significant incident
the leaking of 10,000 gallons o:
gasoline between October 197c
March 1980, which contaminai
the public water supply for 2,0
residents in Belleview Florida.
Other smaller gasoline leaks h
caused local contamination of
aquifers in several Florida cou
ties.

Municipal landfills
Florida has about 300 activ(
500 inactive landfill sites. Mo4
the landfills are unlined, incre
ing the chance that rainwater
which percolates through then
may dissolve harmful chemical
and ultimately reach the groui
water. Six of Florida's 39
Superfund sites are landfills, E
all have contaminated ground&
ter. Three in southeastern Flc
have directly contaminated the
Biscayne aquifer.


Figure 8. Areas of the upper Floridan
aquifer containing non-potable water [6].


Figure 9. Potential hazardous waste sites
in Florida [8].


ALABAMA
S- GEORGIA
.-S
~ -7---


D Explanation
Areas where upper part
of the Floridan Aquifer
contains water with
chloride concentration
greater than 250
milligrams per liter.





r~cTEl" 1.1i, FY R.)
1J r i
A P eO-


Organic compounds
Contamination of groundwater
by volatile organic compounds
(VOC) from industrial discharges
have become a concern, particularly
in southern Florida. A recent study
of public supplies from the Biscayne
aquifer in Broward, Dade and Palm
Beach Counties reported that four
supplies serving 290,000 people
contained VOC (primarily trichloro-
ethylene and vinyl chloride) concen-
trations that slightly exceeded
Florida drinking water standards.
Recent incidents of VOC contamina-
tion in groundwater supplies have
also occurred in other parts of the
state. Several city wells for
Pensacola, Gainesville and Talla-
hassee have been closed tempo-
rarily because of VOC contamina-
tion.

Agrichemicals
Florida ranks second in
agrichemical application in the
nation, primarily due to the warm
humid climate, sandy soil condi-
tions, and large planted acreage.
As a result, pesticide and nitrate
contamination of groundwater has
become a major environmental
issue in Florida. Since 1983, water
from more than 1,000 public and
private supply wells, primarily in
the Floridan aquifer system, have
been found to contain levels of the
soil fumigant ethylene dibromide
(EDB) above the state regulation of
0.02 micrograms per liter. The
distribution of EDB contamination
was extensive, with detections in 22
of the 66 counties tested. Most
were in Jackson, Lake, Highlands
and Polk Counties.
Aldicarb has also been detected
in groundwater at seven agricul-
tural study sites in Hillsborough,
Martin, Polk, St. Johns, Seminole
and Volusia Counties. Contamina-
tion by nitrate from fertilizers and/
or wastewater effluent has occurred
in some localized portions of the


Floridan aquifer, however it has not
yet been detected as a widespread
problem.

Solutions to the
groundwater
quality problem

Historically, people have re-
garded groundwater as pristine,
believing that soil cleanses the
water as it seeps down into the
aquifer. While it is true that the
organic matter in soil has some
ability to retain or absorb organic
compounds such as VOCs, petro-
leum products and pesticides, it is
by no means an infinite sink for
these compounds. In addition, the
soil has no ability to absorb inor-
ganic anions such as nitrate or
chloride. Whether or not the soil
filters out viruses and other mi-
crobes remains an open question.
Therefore, man must actively
reclaim and restore soils and
aquifers with existing contamina-
tion problems, and prevent future
groundwater contamination
through effective land-use planning
and thoughtful management of
potential groundwater contamina-
tion sources.
Future land-use plans must
prevent potential contamination
sources from locating over critical
'recharge areas. Industries, farmers
and citizens located above ground-
water supplies should minimize
their use of hazardous chemicals,
and exercise good chemical disposal
practices. Site-specific best manage-
ment practices for both industry
and agriculture must be developed
which take local soils, geology,
aquifer characteristics, and climatic
conditions into account. Groundwa-
ter monitoring networks should be
installed at all potential contamina-
tion sources to provide data to fine
tune management practices, and to
provide early detection of ground-
water contamination problems.


References and
further reading
material

1. Baldwin, L.B., and R.R.
Carricker, Water Resource
Management in Florida, 1985,
Institute of Food and Agricul-
tural Sciences Bulletin 206,
University of Florida, Gainesvi]
FL, 16p.
2. Carriker, R.R., and A.L. Starr,
Florida's Water Resources, 198'
Food and Resource Economics
Bulletin FRE 40, Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesvil
FL, 6p.
3. Freeze, R.A., and J.A. Cherry,
1979, Ground Water, Prentice-
Hall, Inc., Engelwood Cliffs, N(
Jersey, 604p.
4. Haman, D.Z. and A.B. Bottcher
Home Water Quality and Safet:
1986, Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences Circular
703, University of Florida,
Gainesville FL, 12p.
5. Hornsby, A.G., Ground Water:
The Hidden Resource, 1986, Soi
Science Fact Sheet SL 48, Insti-
tute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences, University of Florida,
Gainesville FL, 4p.
6. Spangler, D.P., Florida's Water
Resources, with Particular
Emphasis on Ground Water,
Proceedings of the First Annual
Symposium on Florida
Hydrogeology, 36 p.
7. U.S. Geological Survey, 1986,
Water for Florida Cities, U.S.
Geological Survey Water Re-
sources Investigations Report 81
4122, 30 p.
8. U.S. Geological Survey, 1986,
National Water Summary 1986.
Ground Water Quality: Florida,
205-213.






r !7 1 B RIP, r TIC


This material is based upon work supported by the USDA, Extension Service, under special project
# 90-EWQI-1-9214.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITYOF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, John T. Woeste, director, i_ _
in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of
Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard
to race, color, sex, handicap or national origin. Single copies of extension publications (excluding 4-H and youth publications) are available free to Florida
residents from county extension offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers is available from C.M. Hinton, Publications Distribution --..
Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this publication, editors should contact this address to
determine availability. Printed 6/91.




Full Text

PAGE 1

rWendy D. Graham, assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural Engineering, IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-(



PAGE 1

[i,;'fSTO[ S(. iVCE L" " RAR j j ,,;ec Z iff S,, ;... , .i R.. ; ' '.' * . . .. . :. -. I l This material is based upon work supported by the USDA, Extension Service, under special project # 90-EWQI-1-9214. COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITYOF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURALSCIENCES, John T. Woeste, director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, handicap or national origin. Single copies of extension publications (excluding 4-H and youth publications) are available free to Florida residents from county extension offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers is available from C.M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this publication, editors should contact this address to L determine availability. Printed 6/91.



PAGE 1

Introduction 2000 1792 Water is one of Florida's most * SURFACE WATER valuable resources. Each year > GROUND WATER 1574 millions of residents and tourists 1423 enjoy the recreational opportunities and esthetics afforded by thousands " . 1184 of miles of ocean and marine n/ waterways along the coasts. 10ooo00 Though scenic and plentiful, this j water cannot be used for drinking, 643 irrigation, or industrial supply, z because of its salt content. Fresh water supplies come from extensive _ 290/ beds of porous rock beneath the 138 177 ground called aquifers and from 20 67 fresh water lakes, streams and 0 reservoirs. Figure 1 summarizes the RURAL INDUSTRIAL PUBLIC THERMOIRRIGATION SUPPLY ELECTRIC status of Florida's fresh water sources and uses in 1980. As this Figure 1. Florida's water uses and sources 1980 [7]. sources and uses in 1980. As this figure illustrates, over 50% of the total fresh water used in Florida comes from groundwater, and over 90% of the public rely on groundwater supplies for their drinking _ _._// water. Thus groundwater is a [ . W -WINDS particularly important resource for this state. ~/ 1 PR I IT 10 sOLAR RA IA IoN Of all the fresh water withdrawn U////F/ EVAPOTRANSPIRTION/ / \ in Florida, only about one-third is l / N O FF//// I 1 R Vo / I \ consumptively used, i.e. consumed WATERA LEA KV )S I N by evaporation, transpiration or POTENTRMETLAK EVAPORATION production processes. The remain-'STREAM EVAPORATION ing two-thirds are returned to the / ' / environment, either to surface CONFINING B ED GULF OF M *_ . . . ,7 ,-'-' , .. a GROUND A -'_ streams or to aquifers. Because FLORN AQUIFER, '" I ''iwater comes into contact with a / / / variety of heavy metals, organic / l I / l 7 // I chemicals, pesticides and fertilizers Figure 2. The hydrologic cycle [6]. during its use, the quality of the water which is returning to the hydrologic cycle for a generalized on the land surface, as overland environment has become a wideFlorida setting. Inflow to the flow to tributary channels, and b) spread concern. hydrologic system arrives as presubsurface flow routes, as interflc cipitation, primarily in the form of and baseflow following infiltration G ro\\un date r aSn^ d "rainfall in Florida. Outflow takes into the soil. place as streamflow (or runoff), as the hydrologic evapotranspiration (a combination Between te land surface and t l nt:I nV UrI U lU 1 A, evapotranspiration (a combination S r . w 1 w. p groundwater table is the unsaturf AID^\f\ 0of evaporation from open bodies of g cyclwater, evapor n fm sl sated, or vadose zone, where both water, evaporation from soil sand air occur in the soil The----cotnuu crultono ii'h lnf) nl v , . p. o water and air occur in the soil faces and transpiration from the The continuous circulation of pores. In the flatwoods soils of The continuous circulation of soil by plants), and outflow from the p or I n the unsatua ted zone is water from land and sea to thegroundwater flow system (to wells,unsaturated zone atmosphere and back again is called rivers, springs or oceans). Precipitypically small. It may occupy the the hydrologic cycle. Figure 2 station is delivered to streams both first 10 to 40 inches below the provides a schematic diagram of the ground surface in the dry season, 1


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'2015-05-15T16:54:22-04:00'
describe
'2015-05-15T16:53:59-04:00'
normalize
'8812' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQFI' 'sip-files00001.pro'
6686b0b6b1c6cee35b13eb94a2f2f840
bf40b3ee76ad071d7222910f98fc288c1d0d224b
'2012-02-23T09:20:11-05:00'
describe
'29915' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQFJ' 'sip-files00001.QC.jpg'
6b0f2ab1a5e09ad6ab4028e184720a0e
2fef66356ae96db6914be1e4e9bb1a72beda71cb
'2012-02-23T09:19:54-05:00'
describe
'4087416' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQFK' 'sip-files00001.tif'
45076842309fcb06b81f8eae8bd80921
e18c253849c7d22562bfb0df61c820350dcd4cc0
'2012-02-23T09:20:27-05:00'
describe
'557' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQFL' 'sip-files00001.txt'
43963afbe94a4b5d6f5adbaa438713e4
a0f2ffdefe7d9eaa3651313bde9d65d55ba0af2d
'2012-02-23T09:19:56-05:00'
describe
WARNING CODE 'Daitss::Anomaly' Invalid character
'19983' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQFM' 'sip-files00001thm.jpg'
924423203d8f579aa3a7672cdb3470fb
e25773da87a6c177114fa51e8dbe69e3ed402d59
'2012-02-23T09:20:14-05:00'
describe
'28800' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQFN' 'sip-files00002.jp2'
0ca67d6ace3f6e48e93bc8a3c90d0780
9c45331c8fb77dfebf8d4295d67baecda354c3a0
'2012-02-23T09:20:06-05:00'
describe
'17822' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQFO' 'sip-files00002.jpg'
4aabd1d7d98365a8263591c84363f869
8322a717afc4afc1ef4069e08fd4008e9b52e72a
'2012-02-23T09:20:12-05:00'
describe
'9050' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQFP' 'sip-files00002.pdf'
eddf7bd4b34edf270ca4302ab13e592b
bc3e3dfc17244abf1123f312bfeb127fdc285341
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQFP-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADQFP-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
'2015-05-15T16:54:23-04:00'
describe
'2015-05-15T16:54:16-04:00'
normalize
'4173' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQFQ' 'sip-files00002.pro'
d6946fbd77dd2409675bc3df16a60758
d557ba78b287e4dd070b0cd472e15b22df62ea56
'2012-02-23T09:20:04-05:00'
describe
'12136' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQFR' 'sip-files00002.QC.jpg'
3621153fbe9b0b3620d90f385b6fcae6
0a2afdc99c4dc06020286a2bf57b608523c06c4b
describe
'4102380' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQFS' 'sip-files00002.tif'
65076434450714c38f72e943303766bf
7b20baa03a5dbe0d312ea26865c359547ede1d27
'2012-02-23T09:20:26-05:00'
describe
'296' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQFT' 'sip-files00002.txt'
8ecf21235c83c1947e7c1e6b238db21d
dcdc0da3f2e7b4440285479c220ff03dd675d609
'2012-02-23T09:19:52-05:00'
describe
'9779' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQFU' 'sip-files00002thm.jpg'
426344bff36afeba4fdda7a968c42e91
f594adb4b738f75d77a9f1816198eb316af429e8
'2012-02-23T09:20:10-05:00'
describe
'506001' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQFV' 'sip-files00003.jp2'
e85f207537b1f9668989642e265651f8
dbe6b2c7636f6d2180751fc1d729fb6d5f44f3f2
'2012-02-23T09:19:55-05:00'
describe
'185703' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQFW' 'sip-files00003.jpg'
558733b9df0e78c340ded1bfd9cffeeb
b36d67bca7c98a13f2905b1495f76a9e7d5d035a
'2012-02-23T09:20:23-05:00'
describe
'193624' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQFX' 'sip-files00003.pdf'
78af122e7e789b252ae862c0612be37b
0feb18ce246fd1a3d9c1283cd2ba2a52f3e122a7
'2012-02-23T09:20:28-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQFX-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADQFX-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
describe
'2015-05-15T16:54:21-04:00'
normalize
'75512' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQFY' 'sip-files00003.pro'
18d4e871731e9d27cbe136f94c814958
2e046d5d107274f83ceac3f266d464f51de590b5
'2012-02-23T09:20:02-05:00'
describe
'70647' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQFZ' 'sip-files00003.QC.jpg'
9b09fd6b1af612559610ac3c64d7b555
b4274d846ee4c48640aeabddbc5c0d7f79e84b29
'2012-02-23T09:20:18-05:00'
describe
'4155676' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQGA' 'sip-files00003.tif'
705a95fac1a1a73b7bfc9c2763cf72a4
cf9a0350954baad70696cacc5411d7559fa7157f
describe
'3262' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQGB' 'sip-files00003.txt'
ea3281d841ece1bc37b743cb8bba0ef8
d408f152f158cf737eeba65837db702e3cfe6dd2
'2012-02-23T09:20:21-05:00'
describe
'40410' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQGC' 'sip-files00003thm.jpg'
69634531710e3de4ccc1050dabd307bf
713dd1391dc16f62bea13c5e63593d9cc4d84b75
'2012-02-23T09:20:07-05:00'
describe
'510126' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQGD' 'sip-files00004.jp2'
cb38155bf03e8199ce2d988949ac51e8
a5e13219bf0bc5f7093a8e06222a80638ce2ac5c
describe
'188175' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQGE' 'sip-files00004.jpg'
1426b520c54f97de08db59ff5d8a4dfd
cc6875d2f37ae48a50691cde4b6500a4ef01fc2d
describe
'182944' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQGF' 'sip-files00004.pdf'
664e16c81a5156945f8951f0b1a21a16
a3d12104010b7bfdabbca6e8ea38be7f7f0a48f9
'2012-02-23T09:20:00-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQGF-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADQGF-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
'2015-05-15T16:54:24-04:00'
describe
'2015-05-15T16:54:03-04:00'
normalize
'93178' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQGG' 'sip-files00004.pro'
a273da0def48da5013a31fdb29eda242
9ebac8f66c8395a4f401103c495bf0d625e072f9
describe
'72462' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQGH' 'sip-files00004.QC.jpg'
09397bc5bd047d764b3f8b855b4159d8
dff1aa7a3b28d4c46f71629f159e2881ac1c87e2
'2012-02-23T09:20:03-05:00'
describe
'4156636' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQGI' 'sip-files00004.tif'
d46d905d60e76c8597ad04853afc9506
3149b572a0e6266c897994050c066abee308c3ed
'2012-02-23T09:20:20-05:00'
describe
'3772' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQGJ' 'sip-files00004.txt'
766b3e51b5f1a0430870738d1a758ae6
23b47145dbeb2dc4f2f39be9838cd99041a84172
describe
'41433' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQGK' 'sip-files00004thm.jpg'
d1a64f2d8d4a00573f221e4e7af90154
872f37f15dc353f902c1ce600076d54fa9f88023
'2012-02-23T09:20:13-05:00'
describe
'514106' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQGL' 'sip-files00005.jp2'
60ce36cd2d4d7898f76940a3b5bc4dfc
584bcb4202a795924a445789a34aaedd580c7a98
describe
'182780' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQGM' 'sip-files00005.jpg'
3d4837a56b96fe7e2c1f5d222e49b502
9dcc0763218471d43acb85e2b2da404aa2991063
describe
'179283' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQGN' 'sip-files00005.pdf'
66e558d72d5839e4bcc99aad1e546ab9
5f50db63dd14943b1f57d4e301ec08a1298406b8
'2012-02-23T09:20:16-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQGN-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADQGN-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
describe
'2015-05-15T16:54:09-04:00'
normalize
'100630' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQGO' 'sip-files00005.pro'
8b1566dfe7914d45cf09dec76e7ebf3f
8a369b8cedbc510fae82aca2f0ed462e8a2ac94f
describe
'68267' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQGP' 'sip-files00005.QC.jpg'
8ee612f5f7948defba019697f4a03900
c561f96ef2e3a9def83a2a4039850312bcf70bf3
describe
'4145532' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQGQ' 'sip-files00005.tif'
d50d7aae1b60141b638d1bd6c6866ce2
7e89decfc3a5237878ff2292efbbdb19179bf575
describe
'3989' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQGR' 'sip-files00005.txt'
33d6282f130e253a5666ff2fd3c4dd96
cca2b1bf8e92a47eddede0842da2d92323ec918f
describe
'39161' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQGS' 'sip-files00005thm.jpg'
1b1db6d1d657e59bf7becd75512a07c9
9f7862b21f057c2a96d716c3c5ff305e10e250ce
describe
'513884' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQGT' 'sip-files00006.jp2'
1d3c63e714097ef91cf88650a7fe23c4
e3f4f91cdd08cc67405f2009cca8dc4f758d8ccc
'2012-02-23T09:19:57-05:00'
describe
'187054' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQGU' 'sip-files00006.jpg'
1439b1c17bb91d1f52f220331b85ac95
c7f8319a4c86847288f589b82503ed2d8a71dba1
'2012-02-23T09:20:17-05:00'
describe
'196146' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQGV' 'sip-files00006.pdf'
560618a7809fce5f86c1ddac8c3dd1c8
89842f601addbfaccbda9e593cbc050553f41495
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQGV-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADQGV-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
describe
'2015-05-15T16:54:11-04:00'
normalize
'102019' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQGW' 'sip-files00006.pro'
46fb7901c142e6772d29bd504f3bba19
56eb130f5146f9c07378bc5fe42b3044fabbc0be
'2012-02-23T09:20:09-05:00'
describe
'69444' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQGX' 'sip-files00006.QC.jpg'
5630f0355215105ac136b4536931c0f9
b17de3ee534441cc91406015d42739049f0877a3
describe
'4145832' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQGY' 'sip-files00006.tif'
634dff84459a849d708c482971e1c5ff
e9c94199eb69e6743e8330f64db6a3e91a980eca
'2012-02-23T09:19:59-05:00'
describe
'4174' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQGZ' 'sip-files00006.txt'
78110c8cd3161a9983b14396931374e1
759aab80a9bb828ea800f24ce005c304fe7a61c4
describe
'39556' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQHA' 'sip-files00006thm.jpg'
140140a11137ab5a0b50336b63757e24
3d9e45443bebd9024ea53cf0b828c51b552ebf8e
describe
'577224' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQHB' 'sip-files00007.jp2'
2e94114ab8f0264fec251b3bf026828e
9a784daa2c442994e64aa77c24ff32748e2bd916
'2012-02-23T09:20:01-05:00'
describe
'218781' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQHC' 'sip-files00007.jpg'
40554c9d82a64ec5a6f29a300b49b6bc
1fffaf1784225d915add91da38d4880e6c8a92ba
describe
'214104' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQHD' 'sip-files00007.pdf'
dedad03407fae24e7686a257f27eba15
b5a876c360cf54b21003b9c2fd5a220c9b8c62d8
'2012-02-23T09:20:19-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQHD-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADQHD-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
describe
'2015-05-15T16:54:13-04:00'
normalize
'124035' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQHE' 'sip-files00007.pro'
cd87a969530a3b2e5dbbac76d1005b18
2db4e22bc5d7a15fff128586c297b3b7fe7c3ed3
describe
'79293' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQHF' 'sip-files00007.QC.jpg'
9c11e8942fc6d0c32352b82d5d9f4f44
8de80969fbd1cfc654341209f623efeec8069c5d
describe
'4140836' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQHG' 'sip-files00007.tif'
4e1ea60adb88dd6a1882497399365b27
d672cc78b5e7e7f7a7877869ec97e3ae18c9c17c
describe
'5018' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQHH' 'sip-files00007.txt'
39aeed321836441430ff6eab5d913ac4
c04c41d31354179c4f1a094b30bfe45224672b82
describe
'43610' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQHI' 'sip-files00007thm.jpg'
282fa876ab2c3442d9ec78d6c0287994
aaa80e6dee4e8d8bb987d064ebecd03cbb1ae68c
describe
'125958' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQHJ' 'sip-files00008.jp2'
2fc8bca54175a71cc6a299ccd52eef24
a57da47195161bccce7305f2b83d949ab284db63
'2012-02-23T09:20:08-05:00'
describe
'46908' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQHK' 'sip-files00008.jpg'
8f5583f65ed84c82aa23be2ffcc47ba5
63236e5ee1509ac2bef6dfadc4f69e50ec0debfc
describe
'43086' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQHL' 'sip-files00008.pdf'
cd3c11204be7b2cde476b8643cfbbd76
5de0315eac057158466af72edbc421f6dd431530
'2012-02-23T09:20:25-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQHL-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADQHL-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
describe
'2015-05-15T16:54:18-04:00'
normalize
'31933' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQHM' 'sip-files00008.pro'
8f39c0116dfe1ed817c2628d347dca5e
80ccdfde5eab5c9f9fbcd0a455e63272edb38d59
'2012-02-23T09:20:24-05:00'
describe
'21363' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQHN' 'sip-files00008.QC.jpg'
e00d6fa556c5abc795f1f635159a551a
6d2499a8ef3cf5a3bedaaa1edbec451ee60c2abe
describe
'4058692' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQHO' 'sip-files00008.tif'
6e55376a5922a9f6f9e6166d5a37b97b
5802ff0c391287655b5b626d33154e9c951d81e3
describe
'1144' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQHP' 'sip-files00008.txt'
3f3f615e3b7c7f12176fbad371ae9292
9f68d7b84eecd6e6ff757adc686e91af646861d8
describe
'14399' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQHQ' 'sip-files00008thm.jpg'
ffa7da4ec73dcf9aae5cd914903928ad
7feca124c44062a049b1098951f2c92910e8fbc6
describe
'11818' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQHR' 'sip-filesUF00014496.xml'
a186506e0923178c36317fb8e79b48f0
913bc50d5573ad15087ad613c248d8b0d72babcf
describe
File not found
'2015-05-15T16:54:26-04:00'
xml resolution
File not found
File not found
'22413' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQHS' 'sip-filesUF00014496_00001.mets'
7e5e48c2cca8a32bf36b6c49dca0a9fc
611b023b64e5e24f92c995ca369c32fe52902a8b
describe
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'mixed'
xml resolution
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
BROKEN_LINK schema http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
The element type "div" must be terminated by the matching end-tag "
".
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'27336' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAQKfileF20090712_AADQHV' 'sip-filesUF00014496_00001.xml'
b7f0651cd6f53505646c9279cc6655f5
3a1a866f0e387a43a258a51307844ae96b9db405
describe
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'2015-05-15T16:54:25-04:00'
xml resolution
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
The element type "div" must be terminated by the matching end-tag "".
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.



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Organic compounds Floridan aquifer, however it has not References and yet been detected as a widespread Contamination of groundwater problem. further reading by volatile organic compounds materi (VOC) from industrial discharges Solutions to theater have become a concern, particularly in southern Florida. A recent study gdwater 1 Baldwin, LB., and R.R. U problem l..Carricker, Water Resource of public supplies from the Biscayne q ality Cace, Water Resource aquifer in Broward, Dade and PalmManagement in Florida, 1985, Institute of Food and AgriculBeach Counties reported that four Institute of Food and AgriculsBeach Counies rs ervig 2 0 people Historically, people have retural Sciences Bulletin 206, supplies seBling 290,000 people contained VC (primarily trichloro garded groundwater as pristine, University of Florida, Gainesvi contained VOC primarilyy trochloroG a i n e s v i X contained VOC ( arily tichlorobelieving that soil cleanses the FL, 16p. ethylene and vinyl chloride) concentrations that slightly exceeded water as it seeps down into the tratons that slightly exceeded aquifer. While it is true that the 2. Carriker, R.R., and A.L. Star, Florida drinking water standards. organic matter in soil has some Florida's Water Resources, 198' Recent incidents of VOC contaminaFood and Resource Economics ability to retain or absorb organic tion in groundwater supplies have compounds such as VOCs, petro-Bulletin FRE 40, Institute of also occurred in other parts of the pesticides, it iFood and Agricultural Sciences leum products and pesticides, it is state. Several city wells for e s an University of Florida, Gainesvi Pensacola, Gainesville and Tallaby no means an infinite sink for Pensacola, Gaiesville and Tallathese compounds. In addition, the FL, 6p. hassee have been closed temporar because of V contamisoil has no ability to absorb inor3. Freeze, R.A. and J.A. Cherry, rariiy because of VOC contamination. ganic anions such as nitrate or 1979, Ground Water, Prenticechloride. Whether or not the soil Hall, Inc., Engelwood Cliffs, N( Agrichemicals filters out viruses and other miJersey, 604p. crobes remains an open question. Florida ranks second in Therefore, man must actively 4 H a m a n , D. and A.B. Bottche agrichemical application in the reclaim and restore soils andHome Water Quality and Safet nation, primarily due to the warm aquifers with existing contamina-1986, Institute o Food and Agricultural Sciences Circular humid climate, sandy soil condition problems, and prevent future Agricultural Sciences Circular tions, and large planted acreage. groundwater contamination 703, Uversty of Florida, As a result, pesticide and nitrate through effective land-use planning Ganesville FL, 12p. contamination of groundwater has and thoughtful management of 5. Hornsby, A.G., Ground Water: become a major environmental potential groundwater contaminaThe Hidden Resource, 1986, Soi issue in Florida. Since 1983, water tion sources. Science Fact Sheet SL 48, Instifrom more than 1,000 public and Future land-use plans must tute of Food and Agricultural private supply wells, primarily in prevent potential contaminationSciences, University of Florida, the Floridan aquifer system, have sources from locating over critical Gainesville FL, 4p. been found to contain levels of the sorecharge areas. Industries, farmers 6. Spangler, D.P., Florida's Water soil fumigant ethylene dibromide and citizens located above groundResources, with Particular (EDB) above the state regulation of 0E02 mro m te te e water supplies should minimize Emphasis on Ground Water, 0.02 micrograms per liter. The 0 ico;' their use of hazardous chemicals, Proceedings of the First Annual distribution of EDB contamination distribution of contention and exercise good chemical disposal Symposium on Florida was extensive, with detections in 22 a s extensive, with detections in 2 practices. Site-specific best manageHydrogeology, 36 p. of the 66 counties tested. Most ment practices for both industry were in Jackson, Lake, Highlands ment practices for both industry 7. U.S. Geological Survey, 1986, were in Jackson, Lake, Highlands and agriculture must be developed Water for Florida Cities, U.S. and Polk Counties. which take local soils, geology,Water or loria Aldicarb has also been detected aquifer characteristics, and climatic Geological Survey Water Rein groundwater at seven agriculconditions into account. Groundwasources Investigations Report 8 tural study sites in Hillsborough, ter monitoring networks should be4122, 30 p. Martin, Polk, St. Johns, Seminole installed at all potential contamina8. U.S. Geological Survey, 1986, and Volusia Counties. Contamination sources to provide data to fine National Water Summary 1986 tion by nitrate from fertilizers and/ tune management practices, and to Ground Water Quality: Florida, or wastewater effluent has occurred provide early detection of ground205-213. in some localized portions of the water contamination problems. 5



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The potentiometric surface of the An unconfined, sand and gravel Sources of Floridan aquifer is shown in Figure aquifer is the major source of 6. This surface indicates that the groundwater in the extreme westr n wat origin of subsurface flow for northern part of the Florida panhandle. contam nation ern Florida is in Alabama and This aquifer ranges in thickness Georgia; however, the origin of from 300 to 700 feet and consists Florida's unique hydrogeologic subsurface flow for peninsular primarily of very coarse quartzfeatures of a thin soil layer, high Florida is in the Central Uplands of sand. Water in the sand and gravel water table, porous limestone, an the state. In many areas the potenaquifer is derived chiefly from local large amounts ofrainfall, coupled tiometric surface is above the land rainfall. Wells in this aquifer with its rapid population growth, surface, thus artesian flow occurs in furnish most of the groundwater result in a groundwater resource wells or along geologic openings used in Escambia and Santa Rosa extremely vulnerable to contain (springs). Figure 7 shows the areas Counties and part of Okaloosa tion. Numerous structures result of potential artesian flow from the County. f human activities through Floridan aquifer. Not included in g ha aciti + this fiur ai fer. Not included in ll A shallow, unconfined aquifer is out Florida have the potential to this figure are small areas ofa present over much of the state, but contribute to groundwater contain artesian flow from theiFloridan in most areas it is not an important nation. There are tens of thousand derive their flow from the Floridan s of point sources such as surface source of groundwater because a aquifer.better supply is available fromwater impoundments, drainage The unconfined Biscayne aquifer other aquifers. However where; wells, underground storage tanks underlies an area of about 3000 water requirements are small, this flowing saline artesian wells, square miles in Dade, Broward, and aquifer is tapped by small diameter hazardous waste sites, powerPalm Beach Counties. This aquifer wells. In south Florida the shallow plants, landfills, and cattle and is 100 to 400 feet thick near the aquifer is a major source of grounddairy feedlots. Similarly, there ai coast, but thins to a thickness of water in Martin, Palm Beach, numerous septic tanks and urban only a few feet further inland. Hendry, Lee, Collier, Indian River, and industrial-commercial areas Water in the Biscayne aquifer is St. Lucie, Galdes and Charlotte that may recharge water of undes derived chiefly from local rainfall Counties. The water in this shallow able quality. Non-point sources, and, during dry periods, from canals aquifer is derived primarily from which have vast potential for ultimately linked to Lake local rainfall. contributing to groundwater conOkeechobee. The Biscayne is an tamination, include coastal saltwE important source of water supply for ter bodies, urban storm water, the lower east coast cities. agricultural and silvicultural practices, and mining. ALABAMA /'-b ~ GEORGIA ALABAMA GEORGIA \.n ^P^"^ 1 0 " ^ V^ < ^ ) (\Explanation -60Explanation contour Q Explanation Q \-60Potentiometric contour C %" /.Area of artesian flow )/ FORsDA ~shows altitude at which \ extent and distribution FLORIDA l l water level would have I of areas of artesian stood in tightly cased I flow vary fluctuations ~\ y~\ \wells that penetrate the of the potentiometric floridan aquifer, May surface. Areas of , 1974. Contour interval artesian flow adjacent 20 feet. Datum is mean springs, many rivers, sea level. and coastal beach * *-_,. 'd · '· I I Iridge areas have not been included. Figure 5. Areal extent of the Floridan Figure 6. Potentiometric surface of the Figure 7. Areas of potential artesian flow aquifer [6]. Floridan aquifer.[6] the Floridan aquifer.[6] 3



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l i .I ~ , , i ... , . i. . lf . ' X ' June 1991 Circular 944 Florida's groundwater resource: Vast quantity, good quality? Wendy D. Graham Florida Cooperative Extension Service Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences University of Florida John T. Woeste, dean


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Salt water intrusion managed carefully to control the Groundwater contamination h fresh water level in the Biscayne been confirmed at 156 sites. Florida's situation as a peninaquifer and thus minimize salt Enforcement action requiring sula between two bodies of salt water intrusion. Figure 8 shows contamination assessment anc water creates the potential for salt areas of the Floridan aquifer which remedial action has been initi) water intrusion into the fresh contain chloride concentrations at 118 sites. Because of the groundwater supply. Salt water is greater than 250 milligrams per absence of a significant amount -more dense than fresh water and liter, due to salt water intrusion. impermeable material to retar thus exerts a constant pressure to In south Florida, where the downward movement of contain flow into the fresh water aquifers. Floridan aquifer is artesian and nants, leakage from many of tl As long as fresh water levels in the underlies the Biscayne and shallow sites poses a direct threat to ti aquifer are above sea level, the aquifers, its saline water may principal aquifers. fresh water pressure limits the recharge the overlying fresh water inland movement of the salt water. aquifers increasing their salt Gasoline storage ,/Over-pumping of coastal wells, content. This type of recharge may tanks however, can increase the salt occur naturally by upward seepage water intrusion. If water is through the confining layer or it The Florida Department of pumped out faster than the aquifer may be increased by flowing Environmental Regulation has is replenished, the pressure of the artesian wells. documented more than 400 infresh water is decreased. This stances of groundwater contain causes the level at which the salt Hazardous waste tion from leaking gasoline pipe water and fresh water meet to rise sie storage tanks. The greatest fre in the aquifer, degrading the fresh quency of gasoline contaminate: water quality. The problem of salt The Florida Department of has occurred in Dade, Browarc water intrusion is aggravated by Environmental Regulation has and Palm Beach Counties, affe periods of drought during which identified 413 potential hazardous ing the quality of water in som there is not enough rainfall to waste sites in Florida. The distrilocations of the Biscayne aquif replenish the fre abution of these sies over aquiferthe state -The most environmentally and All of the aquifers shown in is shown in Figure 9. One hundred financially significant incident Figure 4 experience problems with and eighty-five of these sites have the leaking of 10,000 gallons o: salt water intrusion in coastal some type of water or soil contamigasoline between October 197 c areas. In south Florida, fresh nation, and 84 additional sites are March 1980, which contaminai water levels in coastal canals are suspected of contamination. the public water supply for 2,0 residents in Belleview Florida. Other smaller gasoline leaks h l 1~~T-Aw<~caused local contamination of ALABAMA aquifers in several Florida cou _ GEORGIA ~) ties. FLORIDA Municipal landfills Florida has about 300 activ( 500 inactive landfill sites. Mo. the landfills are unlined, incre r Explanation \ \ ing the chance that rainwater Areas where upper part .which percolates through then of the Floridan Aquifer W contains water with Waste Site m a y dissolve harmful chemical chloride concentration ~ Potential hazardous-waste .and ultimately reach the groui greater than 250 sites, by county.water. Six of Florida's 39 milligrams per liter. Io miligam r lE Superfund sites are landfills, E E 11-25 all have contaminated ground& 1 26-50 ter. Three in southeastern Flc have directly contaminated the Biscayne aquifer. Figure 8. Areas of the upper Floridan Figure 9. Potential hazardous waste sites aquifer containing non-potable water [6]. in Florida [8]. 4



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. WATER TABLE POTENTIOMETRIC SURFACE SAND AND GRAVEL WATER TABLE AQUIFER< "^^ -I I FLORIDAN AQUIFER V'".1'. '7 :,| '. l,' [:J .'^ '.. ESHALLOW AQUIFER ? BISCAYNE AQUIFER [J AREA OF HIGHLY l MINERALIZED AQUIFER \/ I L IS-^T^^~)--Figure 3. a) unconfined aquifer, and b) confined aquifer. Figure 4. Principal aquifers in Florida and may be non-existent in the wet be assumed that groundwater of the confining layer for some season when the water table is at or moves from areas of high land distance before recharging the above the ground surface. In the surface elevation to areas of low confined aquifer through a brea sandy soils of the Central Florida land surface elevation. in the confining layer. Ridge however, the vadose zone can C a a extend 100 feet or more. Water in Confied aqufers are overlaid by Mair Florida the unsaturated zone is either an impermeable, or semi-permeable Ma or Florida taken up by plants, evaporated, or confining layer, and are typically aq ife under pressure. Therefore the drained by gravity into the saturated zone. potentometric surface, or level to Figure 4 is a map of the prin( which water will rise in a tightly aquifers that yield large quanti In the saturated groundwater cased well, is above the top of its of water to wells, streams, lakes zone all pores and crevices are filled upper confining layer. When this and springs in Florida. The pri with water, and all of the air has occurs the well is called an artesian mary source of groundwater for been forced out. Water seeping into well and the aquifer is said to exist most of the state is the Floridar this zone is called recharge. under artesian conditions. In some aquifer. Figure 5 shows the are Groundwater can occur either as an cases the water level may rise above extent of this formation which unconfined (phreatic) aquifer, or as the land surface, in which case the one of the most prolific aquifers a confined (artesian) aquifer as well is known as a flowing artesian the United States. It should be illustrated in Figure 3. In an well. noted however that the Florida unconfined aquifer, the water table unconfined aquifer, the water table Water in confined aquifers moves aquifer is generally not usable i forms the upper boundary of the from areas of high potentiometric regions of the state south of Lal aquifer, and the water level in a well wil res a thie w level. i a t head (as measured by the level to Okeechobee due to its high salt well will rest at this level. Water . . . which water will rise in a tightly content. infiltrating from the surface has the potential to move rapidly into an cased well) to areas of low potent In much of Florida the aquife unconfined aquifer, thus there is a metric head. Confined aquifers are confined by low permeability good chance of contamination from less susceptible to contamination sediments of the Hawthorne for surface activities. In an unconfined from local surface activities because tion. The Hawthorne formation aquifer, groundwater moves by infiltrating water typically moves absent however in the north cer gravity from areas of high water very slowly through the confining part of the state along the Ocalc table elevation to areas of low water layer. However the confining layers Uplift. In this area the aquifer table elevation. Since the water may be fractured and missing in unconfined, and thus receives table elevation often follows the many places. Thus, contaminated recharge from water infiltrating surface topography, it can generally water may move horizontally on top from the surface. 2