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Fertilization of established bahiagrass pasture in Florida

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Title:
Fertilization of established bahiagrass pasture in Florida
Series Title:
Circular Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Added title page title:
Bahiagrass pasture in Florida, Fertilization of established
Place of Publication:
Gainesville
Publisher:
Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
11 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Pastures -- Florida ( lcsh )
Fertilizers -- Application ( lcsh )
Pastures -- Fertilizers ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Bibliography : p. 8.
General Note:
Cover title.
Statement of Responsibility:
Sid Sumner ... <et al.>.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
023790393 ( ALEPH )
23209250 ( OCLC )
AHM2170 ( NOTIS )

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Circular 916

II


Fertilization of



established bahiagrass pasture



in Florida






Sid Sumner, Wayne Wade, Jim Selph, Jerry Southwell, Vicky Hoge,
Pat Hogue, Ed Jennings, Pat Miller, and Travis Seawright


i-
. ... ...


Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida
John T. Woeste, dean


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Fertilization of established bahiagrass pasture in Florida

Sid Sumner, Wayne Wade, Jim Selph, Jerry Southwell, Vicky Hoge,
Pat Hogue, Ed Jennings, Pat Miller, and Travis Seawright*


Introduction
There are about 2.5 million acres of bahiagrass
pasture used for beef production in Florida. A
major expense of maintaining this resource is its
annual fertilization. Recognizing this expense, and
the importance of good fertilization practices, the
Florida Cattleman's Association recommended in
1985 that the University of Florida, IFAS, reevalu-
ate the fertilization needs of pasture grasses.
A three-year research study conducted at the
Ona Agricultural Research and Education Center
in the early 1960s (McCaleb et al., 1966) showed
that bahiagrass yield was not increased by phos-
phate (P205) fertilization, and a response to potash
(K20) fertilization was not obtained at rates higher
than 24 pounds per acre (lb/A) annually, even with
120 lbs nitrogen (N)/A applied as a split applica-
tion. Based on soil test values reported in the
study, IFAS fertilizer recommendations called for
annual applications of 48 lb of P205 and 96 lb of
K20/A (Jones et al., 1974). Later modifications of
IFAS recommendations indicated that 40 lb P205
and 80 lb K20/A should have been applied annually
(Whitty et al., 1977).
Research at the Beef Research Unit near Gaines-
ville (Blue, 1970) showed that around 70% of the P
applied to a limed Leon fine sand pasture over an
18-year period had remained in the surface soil.
Further study (Rodulfo and Blue, 1970) showed
that bahiagrass responded to added P205 when
grown in the surface horizon of a virgin soil, but did
not respond to P205 when grown in the surface
horizon of soil from previously-fertilized pasture.
Considering evidence that the P205 and K20
requirements of bahiagrass need to be evaluated
under conditions present on commercial ranches
that have been in production for many years, a field
study was conducted with the following objectives:
1) to determine if bahiagrass pasture responds to


P2O, and K20 fertilization when N fertilization is
60 lb/A/yr, a rate commonly used by ranchers
(IFAS, 1986); and 2) to compare the response of
bahiagrass pasture when fertilized according to
IFAS standard recommendations based on soil tests
with the response of bahiagrass fertilized at lower
rates ofN, P205 and K20.

Field study methods
In 1986, one site in each of nine south Florida
counties was selected. Site locations and descrip-
tions are presented in the appendix. Each site was
a bahiagrass pasture on which a cow/calf manage-
ment system had been in effect for more than 10
years. A site in Pasco County was discontinued
after the first year due to severe mole cricket
damage of the bahiagrass pasture.
At each site, five 50 x 100 ft areas were selected
and assigned one of five fertilization treatments.
These were: 1) no fertilizer; 2) 60 lb N/A applied in
March; 3) 60 lb N, 45 lb P205 and 45 lb K20/A
applied in March; 4) 60 lb N/A applied in March
and 60 lb N/A applied again in September; and 5)
60 lb N, 90 lb P205 and 45 lb K20/A applied in
March and 60 lb N and 45 lb K20/A applied in
September. Nitrogen, phosphate, and potash were
applied as ammonium nitrate, superphosphate, and
potassium chloride, respectively. Treatment 5
represented University of Florida, IFAS standard
recommendations (Whitty et al, 1977) for fertilizing
bahiagrass pasture based on test of soil samples from
each site when the demonstration was initiated.
Soil samples were obtained from each treatment
area immediately prior to fertilization in March
and September each year of the demonstration.
Each soil sample consisted of a composite of five 6-
inch deep cores from each treatment area. Soil
samples were analyzed for pH and for Mehlich-I
extractable P, K, calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), copper
(Cu), magnesium (Mg), and manganese (Mn).


*The authors are county extension staff at Polk, Hillsborough, Desoto, Hardee, Okeechobee, Highlands, Pasco, and Manatee
Counties, respectively, and participants in the South Florida Beef-Forage Program, Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS, University
of Florida. Appreciation is also extended to R. J. Stephenson, G. Kidder, M. F. Cole, J. S. Brenneman, J. E. Rechcigl, and F. M. Pate
for assistance on this project.











Fertilization of established bahiagrass pasture in Florida

Sid Sumner, Wayne Wade, Jim Selph, Jerry Southwell, Vicky Hoge,
Pat Hogue, Ed Jennings, Pat Miller, and Travis Seawright*


Introduction
There are about 2.5 million acres of bahiagrass
pasture used for beef production in Florida. A
major expense of maintaining this resource is its
annual fertilization. Recognizing this expense, and
the importance of good fertilization practices, the
Florida Cattleman's Association recommended in
1985 that the University of Florida, IFAS, reevalu-
ate the fertilization needs of pasture grasses.
A three-year research study conducted at the
Ona Agricultural Research and Education Center
in the early 1960s (McCaleb et al., 1966) showed
that bahiagrass yield was not increased by phos-
phate (P205) fertilization, and a response to potash
(K20) fertilization was not obtained at rates higher
than 24 pounds per acre (lb/A) annually, even with
120 lbs nitrogen (N)/A applied as a split applica-
tion. Based on soil test values reported in the
study, IFAS fertilizer recommendations called for
annual applications of 48 lb of P205 and 96 lb of
K20/A (Jones et al., 1974). Later modifications of
IFAS recommendations indicated that 40 lb P205
and 80 lb K20/A should have been applied annually
(Whitty et al., 1977).
Research at the Beef Research Unit near Gaines-
ville (Blue, 1970) showed that around 70% of the P
applied to a limed Leon fine sand pasture over an
18-year period had remained in the surface soil.
Further study (Rodulfo and Blue, 1970) showed
that bahiagrass responded to added P205 when
grown in the surface horizon of a virgin soil, but did
not respond to P205 when grown in the surface
horizon of soil from previously-fertilized pasture.
Considering evidence that the P205 and K20
requirements of bahiagrass need to be evaluated
under conditions present on commercial ranches
that have been in production for many years, a field
study was conducted with the following objectives:
1) to determine if bahiagrass pasture responds to


P2O, and K20 fertilization when N fertilization is
60 lb/A/yr, a rate commonly used by ranchers
(IFAS, 1986); and 2) to compare the response of
bahiagrass pasture when fertilized according to
IFAS standard recommendations based on soil tests
with the response of bahiagrass fertilized at lower
rates ofN, P205 and K20.

Field study methods
In 1986, one site in each of nine south Florida
counties was selected. Site locations and descrip-
tions are presented in the appendix. Each site was
a bahiagrass pasture on which a cow/calf manage-
ment system had been in effect for more than 10
years. A site in Pasco County was discontinued
after the first year due to severe mole cricket
damage of the bahiagrass pasture.
At each site, five 50 x 100 ft areas were selected
and assigned one of five fertilization treatments.
These were: 1) no fertilizer; 2) 60 lb N/A applied in
March; 3) 60 lb N, 45 lb P205 and 45 lb K20/A
applied in March; 4) 60 lb N/A applied in March
and 60 lb N/A applied again in September; and 5)
60 lb N, 90 lb P205 and 45 lb K20/A applied in
March and 60 lb N and 45 lb K20/A applied in
September. Nitrogen, phosphate, and potash were
applied as ammonium nitrate, superphosphate, and
potassium chloride, respectively. Treatment 5
represented University of Florida, IFAS standard
recommendations (Whitty et al, 1977) for fertilizing
bahiagrass pasture based on test of soil samples from
each site when the demonstration was initiated.
Soil samples were obtained from each treatment
area immediately prior to fertilization in March
and September each year of the demonstration.
Each soil sample consisted of a composite of five 6-
inch deep cores from each treatment area. Soil
samples were analyzed for pH and for Mehlich-I
extractable P, K, calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), copper
(Cu), magnesium (Mg), and manganese (Mn).


*The authors are county extension staff at Polk, Hillsborough, Desoto, Hardee, Okeechobee, Highlands, Pasco, and Manatee
Counties, respectively, and participants in the South Florida Beef-Forage Program, Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS, University
of Florida. Appreciation is also extended to R. J. Stephenson, G. Kidder, M. F. Cole, J. S. Brenneman, J. E. Rechcigl, and F. M. Pate
for assistance on this project.








Two 4 x 8 ft wire cattle-exclusion cages were
placed on each 50 x 100 ft treatment area in March.
Cages were positioned on an area where the
bahiagrass had been previously staged to a 2-inch
stubble height, if needed, with a plot harvester.
Forage from a 20-sq-ft area inside and outside each
cage was harvested to a 2-inch stubble every 30 to
60 days from April or May through December. On
each harvest date, each cage was moved to a
pasture area harvested outside that cage, thus
cages were moved around the 50 x 100 ft treatment
areas throughout the year.
Total fresh forage harvested inside and outside
each cage was weighed and sampled for analysis.
Dry matter content was determined on samples
dried in a forced-air dryer at 60C. Dry matter
yield was calculated from fresh weight data and dry
matter content. Crude protein content and total
digestible nutrients (TDN) were determined with a
near-infrared analyzer. Forage samples were
ashed at 6000C and acid digested to determine P, K,
Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn, Cu and iron (Fe).
The field study was initiated in March 1987 and
completed in December 1989.

Forage yields and additional production cost
Two important terms are used in this publication
to describe the type of forage harvested during the
study. Regrowth forage is bahiagrass harvested
inside an animal exclusion cage which had grown
from a 2-inch stubble since the last harvest. Avail-
able forage is bahiagrass harvested outside the
cage and is forage actually available to the grazing
animal. Yield data were obtained from regrowth
harvests.
There was a consistent increase in forage yield to
60 lb of N/A applied in March over the no fertilizer
treatment (Table 1, Appendix Table 1A). Over
three years the treatment receiving 60 lb N/A
averaged 1,760 lb more dry matter per acre annu-
ally than the treatment receiving no fertilizer. It
presently costs about $20/A to apply 60 lb of N,
including $4 per acre spreading cost. This expense
appears justifiable, costing about $23 for each ton
of additional dry forage produced (Table 2).
In comparison to 60 lb of N/A only, a positive
response in dry matter yield was obtained when 45
lb of P205 and 45 lb of K20/A were applied in March
along with 60 lb of N/A (Table 1). However, the
increased production was only 400 lb of dry forage
per acre annually. It costs about $14/A for the P2,O
and K20 and approximately $72 for each additional
ton of dry forage produced.


Applying 60 lb of N/A in March and then again
in September produced an average of 480 lb more
dry matter per acre than one 60 lb N application in
March (Table 1). It would cost about $20/A for the
second N application, and the cost for each addi-
tional ton of dry forage would be about $84 (Table
2). Several research studies have shown a linear
response in dry matter yield of bahiagrass to
increasing rates of N fertilization, even when N
was applied as split applications (Blue, 1966; Blue
and Graetz, 1977). However, these studies did not
evaluate a situation in which one half of the N was
applied as a second application as late as Septem-
ber, a practice used on some ranches in Florida
because of heavy summer rains.
In comparison to two applications of 60 lb N/A, a
positive response was obtained in dry matter yield
with the addition of 90 lb of P205 in March, and 90
lb/A of O20 equally split between March and
September, along with 120 lb of N (Table 1). The
increased yield averaged 700 lb more dry forage per
acre annually than the 120 lb of N/A alone. It
presently costs about $29/A for the P205 and K20
applied, thus costing approximately $82 for each
additional ton of dry forage produced.

Effect of N on bahiagrass growth distribution
Increased yield due to the application of N in
March was immediate, and continued throughout
the summer period (Figure 1). Early spring growth
of pasture forage is important because of low forage
availability after the winter months, and demands
by cows which are usually nursing calves and being
rebred. Typical low spring rainfall was experienced
in all three years of this field study, and yet sub-
stantial responses in forage growth and forage
quality to N fertilization were obtained both in
April and in May. This points out the importance
of applying N fertilizer to bahiagrass pasture as
early as February or March.
The response to N application in September was
also immediate but limited only to the September
or October harvests. Forage growth in general was
reduced after October, because of shorter days, so a
response to N fertilization might not be expected.
The results of this field study document the poor
response of bahiagrass to N applied in September,
and suggest that N should be applied to bahiagrass
as a single application in the spring, but if split, the
second application should be well before Septem-
ber. Research data developed previously at
Gainesville (Blue, 1966; Blue and Graetz, 1977)
support this conclusion.








Two 4 x 8 ft wire cattle-exclusion cages were
placed on each 50 x 100 ft treatment area in March.
Cages were positioned on an area where the
bahiagrass had been previously staged to a 2-inch
stubble height, if needed, with a plot harvester.
Forage from a 20-sq-ft area inside and outside each
cage was harvested to a 2-inch stubble every 30 to
60 days from April or May through December. On
each harvest date, each cage was moved to a
pasture area harvested outside that cage, thus
cages were moved around the 50 x 100 ft treatment
areas throughout the year.
Total fresh forage harvested inside and outside
each cage was weighed and sampled for analysis.
Dry matter content was determined on samples
dried in a forced-air dryer at 60C. Dry matter
yield was calculated from fresh weight data and dry
matter content. Crude protein content and total
digestible nutrients (TDN) were determined with a
near-infrared analyzer. Forage samples were
ashed at 6000C and acid digested to determine P, K,
Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn, Cu and iron (Fe).
The field study was initiated in March 1987 and
completed in December 1989.

Forage yields and additional production cost
Two important terms are used in this publication
to describe the type of forage harvested during the
study. Regrowth forage is bahiagrass harvested
inside an animal exclusion cage which had grown
from a 2-inch stubble since the last harvest. Avail-
able forage is bahiagrass harvested outside the
cage and is forage actually available to the grazing
animal. Yield data were obtained from regrowth
harvests.
There was a consistent increase in forage yield to
60 lb of N/A applied in March over the no fertilizer
treatment (Table 1, Appendix Table 1A). Over
three years the treatment receiving 60 lb N/A
averaged 1,760 lb more dry matter per acre annu-
ally than the treatment receiving no fertilizer. It
presently costs about $20/A to apply 60 lb of N,
including $4 per acre spreading cost. This expense
appears justifiable, costing about $23 for each ton
of additional dry forage produced (Table 2).
In comparison to 60 lb of N/A only, a positive
response in dry matter yield was obtained when 45
lb of P205 and 45 lb of K20/A were applied in March
along with 60 lb of N/A (Table 1). However, the
increased production was only 400 lb of dry forage
per acre annually. It costs about $14/A for the P2,O
and K20 and approximately $72 for each additional
ton of dry forage produced.


Applying 60 lb of N/A in March and then again
in September produced an average of 480 lb more
dry matter per acre than one 60 lb N application in
March (Table 1). It would cost about $20/A for the
second N application, and the cost for each addi-
tional ton of dry forage would be about $84 (Table
2). Several research studies have shown a linear
response in dry matter yield of bahiagrass to
increasing rates of N fertilization, even when N
was applied as split applications (Blue, 1966; Blue
and Graetz, 1977). However, these studies did not
evaluate a situation in which one half of the N was
applied as a second application as late as Septem-
ber, a practice used on some ranches in Florida
because of heavy summer rains.
In comparison to two applications of 60 lb N/A, a
positive response was obtained in dry matter yield
with the addition of 90 lb of P205 in March, and 90
lb/A of O20 equally split between March and
September, along with 120 lb of N (Table 1). The
increased yield averaged 700 lb more dry forage per
acre annually than the 120 lb of N/A alone. It
presently costs about $29/A for the P205 and K20
applied, thus costing approximately $82 for each
additional ton of dry forage produced.

Effect of N on bahiagrass growth distribution
Increased yield due to the application of N in
March was immediate, and continued throughout
the summer period (Figure 1). Early spring growth
of pasture forage is important because of low forage
availability after the winter months, and demands
by cows which are usually nursing calves and being
rebred. Typical low spring rainfall was experienced
in all three years of this field study, and yet sub-
stantial responses in forage growth and forage
quality to N fertilization were obtained both in
April and in May. This points out the importance
of applying N fertilizer to bahiagrass pasture as
early as February or March.
The response to N application in September was
also immediate but limited only to the September
or October harvests. Forage growth in general was
reduced after October, because of shorter days, so a
response to N fertilization might not be expected.
The results of this field study document the poor
response of bahiagrass to N applied in September,
and suggest that N should be applied to bahiagrass
as a single application in the spring, but if split, the
second application should be well before Septem-
ber. Research data developed previously at
Gainesville (Blue, 1966; Blue and Graetz, 1977)
support this conclusion.









Effect of N on bahiagrass quality

When averaged across all harvests in a season,
crude protein content of bahiagrass regrowth forage
increased with increasing rates of N fertilization
(Table 1), but increases were relatively small.
Crude protein increases were most pronounced


20001


1500


1000


500


1987


Forage DM Yield, Ibs/A


Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

S No Fert. M 60 Ib N, March = 120 Ib N March/Sept


1988


Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

I No Fert, E 60 Ib N, March = 120 Ib N, March/Sept


1989


immediately following N application in March and
September and rapidly diminished within 4 to 8
weeks (Figure 2). Short-term increases in crude
protein content of the magnitude observed would be
important in spring grass when cows grazing this
forage are usually nursing young calves and being
rebred.


1987


% Crude Protein


JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC


S No Fert E 60 Ib N, March E 120 Ib N, March/Sept



, f..m, D.^+.,m 1988


MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

S No Fert M 60 Ib N, March ED 120 Ib N, March/Sept




% Crude Protein 1989


Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

SNo Fert. E 60 Ib N, March E 120 Ib N, March/Sept

Figure 1. Effect of N fertilization on dry matter yield of bahia-
grass by month averaged over eight ranches in
south Florida.


2

MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

I No Fert M 60 Ib N, March l 120 Ib N, March/Sept

Figure 2. Effect of N fertilization on the crude protein content
of bahiagrass by month averaged over eight ranches
in south Florida.


3









Table 1. Effect of fertilization treatment on annual yield and quality of regrowth bahiagrass harvested from April to December from
nine commercial ranch sites in south Florida.
Na NPKc
March, March,
No Na NPKb Na NKd
Item fert. March March Sept. Sept.

Annual yield, t/A

1987 3.32' 4.06i 4.091 4.36i 4.51'
1988 3.97' 5.06j 5.32' 5.111k 5.72k
1989 4.60' 5.47i 5.82jk 5.91jk 6.30k

Avg. 3.73 4.58 4.78 4.82 5.18

Crude protein. %h

1987e 9.8 10.3 10.4 11.0 10.8
1988' 8.9 9.0 9.4 10.0 10.4
19899 10.5 10.3 10.7 11.2 11.4

Avg. 9.8 10.0 10.2 10.8 10.9

TDN, %

1987 54.0 54.2 54.6 54.7 54.6
1988 52.5 52.7 53.0 53.2 53.6
1989 53.6 54.2 53.9 54.3 54.5

Avg. 53.4 53.8 54.0 54.2 54.3
aN at 60 Ib/A.
bN at 60 Ib/A, PO, at 45 Ib/A, K20 at 45 Ib/A.
cN at 60 Ib/A, P20s at 90 Ib/A, K20 at 45 Ib/A.
dN at 60 Ib/A, K,0 at 45 Ib/A.
eEach 1987 value is an average of 144 samples taken from 9 sites over 8 harvests.
'Each 1988 value is an average of 96 samples taken from 8 sites over 6 harvests.
sEach 1989 value is an average of 112 samples taken from 8 sites over 7 harvests.
hValues are expressed as a % of the dry matter.
'ikAnnual yield means in a line which are followed by a different superscript differ at the .05 probability as determined by Duncan's Multiple
Range. Mean square for error was .38, .51, and .48 ton/A in 1987, 1988, and 1989, respectively.



Table 2. Benefits and cost of bahiagrass fertilization treatments.
Increased cost Cost of each
Fertilization Increased of fertilizer additional ton
treatment yield of to produce of dry forage
comparisons dry forage forageb produced
Ib/acre Ib/acre $/acre $/ton

60 Ib N in March
vs. no fertilizer 1760 20 23

60 Ib N in March plus
60 Ib N in September
vs. 60 Ib N in March 480 20 84

60 Ib N, 45 Ib P2s,
45 Ib K20 in March
vs. 60 Ib N in March 400 14 72

60 Ib N, 90 Ib P20s
45 Ib KO in March
plus 60 Ib N, 45 Ib
K20 in September
vs 60 Ib N in March plus
60 Ib N in September 700 29 82
aBased on three-year forage yield averages.
bN, P205 and KO are charged at 0.27, 0.17 and 0.15 $ per Ib, respectively. Spreading cost was $4/A and charged only to N application since
P2Os and K20 were applied in addition to N.
cCost per ton of additional forage ($) = increased cost per acre for additional fertilizer ($)/(increased yield of dry forage (lb)/2000).









Nitrogen fertilization also increased TDN of
bahiagrass, but increases, when averaged over the
entire year, were relatively small (Table 1). In-
creases in TDN were most evident immediately
following N application (Figure 3). Fertilization
with P and K had little effect on crude protein
content and TDN of bahiagrass.
TnM 1987


JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC


S No Fert M 60 Ib N, March W 120 Ib N, March/Sept


1988


MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

S No Fert M 60 Ib N, March = 120 Ib N, March/Sept


1989


Quality of regrowth vs available forage

Forage quality values for available forage
responded to fertilization in a manner similar to
that for regrowth forage (data not shown). How-
ever, available forage was lower in crude protein
content and digestibility than regrowth forage, and
from July through the fall this difference became
progressively larger (Figure 4). The crude protein
and TDN requirements for a brood cow nursing a
calf and having average milking ability are about
10% and 58% of the dry matter, respectively (Na-
tional Research Council, 1984). During the spring,
summer, and early fall, cattle would selectively
graze bahiagrass having quality similar to regrowth
forage which would come close to meeting the
requirements of lactating brood cows for crude
protein and TDN. However, in late fall and winter
when bahiagrass stops growing and forage availabil-
ity becomes limited, the quality of forage eaten by
cattle would be similar to that shown for available
forage harvested in October and December. This
forage would only meet the needs of dry, pregnant

% Crude Protein
16
14
12 -







Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec


'Regrowth' Forage M "Available" Forage


% TDN


0 1 i 1 in: :\: :' : -
MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

SNo Fert E 60 Ib N, March Li 120 Ib N, March/Sept
Figure 3. Effect of N fertilization on the TDN content of bahia-
grass by month averaged over eight ranches in
south Florida.


Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Regrowth" Forage "Available" Forage
Figure 4. Crude protein content and TDN in regrowth and
available bahiagrass forage by month averaged
over eight ranches in south Florida (three year
average over all fertilizer treatments).








cows, which are about 8% and 54% of the dry mat-
ter, respectively (National Research Council, 1984).

Fertilization effect on minerals in bahiagrass
Fertilization with P205 and K20 increased P and
K content of bahiagrass regrowth forage, and the
degree of increase was related to the amount of P205
and K2O applied (Table 3, Appendix Table 2A).
Dietary P levels recommended by the National
Research Council (1984) for the types of beef cattle
grazing in Florida range from 0.18% of the dry
matter for dry cows to 0.23% of the dry matter for
lactating cows of average milking ability (most
Florida brood cows), and to 0.29% of the dry matter
for lactating cows with superior milking ability.
Phosphorus levels in regrowth forage were highest
in 1987 (Table 3). Only one site had average P levels
below that recommended for most beef cattle and
that was in treatments not fertilized with P205.
Levels of P in bahiagrass were lowest in 1988, and
average P levels of treatments not receiving P20O at
two sites were slightly below that required by most
lactating cows.
The P content in available forage was lower than
the P content in regrowth forage (Figure 5). The P
level was particularly low in available forage in the
fall and winter. These levels would cause P defi-
ciency in lactating brood cows not supplemented
with P. A deficiency in P could have a negative
effect in rebreeding.


S% Phosphorus


May Jun JUI
S *Regrowth' Fo


Figure 5. Phosphorus conte
bahiagrass forage
ranches in south F
fertilizer treatment


1989




L


for Florida (Cunha et al., 1964) would satisfy the P
needs of cattle, and would be more economical than
fertilizing bahiagrass to provide P nutrition for
cattle.
The National Research Council (1984) recom-
mends a dietary K level for beef cattle of 0.5 to 0.7%
of the dry matter. Bahiagrass K levels were below
this range at several sites in 1988. Other minerals
were present in bahiagrass forage in adequate
amounts as recommended by the National Re-
search Council, with the exception of Cu. The
National Research Council recommends that cattle
diets contain 4 to 10 ppm of Cu. Forage copper
levels were at or below the lower end of this range
in many cases. Possibilities of a Cu deficiency for
cattle grazing Florida pastures has long been
recognized, so the addition of this element to the
mineral supplement is recommended routinely
(Cunha et al., 1964).

Soil analyses from demonstration sites
Soil P values were very low (< 10 ppm) to low (10
to 15 ppm) at seven sites and medium (16 to 30
ppm) at only one site (Table 4). Soil K values were
very low (< 20 ppm) to low (20 to 35 ppm) at five
sites, medium (36 to 60 ppm) at two sites and high
(61 to 125 ppm) at only one site. All soil parameters
were variable among sites and with there being no
obvious relationships between any parameter and
bahiagrass yield. Fertilization treatment also had
no effect on any soil parameters. These data
indicate that soil testing as now commonly used to
manage the fertilization of Florida bahiagrass
pastures is of limited value. This could be because
soil test data and plant response relationships were
developed with annual crops and bahiagrass is a
deep-rooted perennial plant.


Fertilizer recommendations for established
bahiagrass
From data developed in this field study in
Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec conjunction with other data from the literature, the
rage AvailabeForagefollowing recommendations are presented for
rage Available" Forage
fertilizing established bahiagrass pasture in
int in regrowth and available Florida. These recommendations support revised
by month averaged over eight University of Florida, IFAS recommendations
-lorida (one year average over all (Kidder et al., 1990)
). (Kidder et al., 1990).


Although a mineral supplement containing P is
recommended for all grazing cattle in Florida,
mineral supplementation would be more critical if
pastures are not fertilized with P20.5 A mineral
supplement similar to one commonly recommended


1. With the annual application of 60 lb or less N/A
of bahiagrass pasture, do not apply any P205 and
K20 for at least 3 years. The field study is
continuing (1990) and future recommendations
of 60 lb/A of N only may be extended to periods
longer than 3 years.








cows, which are about 8% and 54% of the dry mat-
ter, respectively (National Research Council, 1984).

Fertilization effect on minerals in bahiagrass
Fertilization with P205 and K20 increased P and
K content of bahiagrass regrowth forage, and the
degree of increase was related to the amount of P205
and K2O applied (Table 3, Appendix Table 2A).
Dietary P levels recommended by the National
Research Council (1984) for the types of beef cattle
grazing in Florida range from 0.18% of the dry
matter for dry cows to 0.23% of the dry matter for
lactating cows of average milking ability (most
Florida brood cows), and to 0.29% of the dry matter
for lactating cows with superior milking ability.
Phosphorus levels in regrowth forage were highest
in 1987 (Table 3). Only one site had average P levels
below that recommended for most beef cattle and
that was in treatments not fertilized with P205.
Levels of P in bahiagrass were lowest in 1988, and
average P levels of treatments not receiving P20O at
two sites were slightly below that required by most
lactating cows.
The P content in available forage was lower than
the P content in regrowth forage (Figure 5). The P
level was particularly low in available forage in the
fall and winter. These levels would cause P defi-
ciency in lactating brood cows not supplemented
with P. A deficiency in P could have a negative
effect in rebreeding.


S% Phosphorus


May Jun JUI
S *Regrowth' Fo


Figure 5. Phosphorus conte
bahiagrass forage
ranches in south F
fertilizer treatment


1989




L


for Florida (Cunha et al., 1964) would satisfy the P
needs of cattle, and would be more economical than
fertilizing bahiagrass to provide P nutrition for
cattle.
The National Research Council (1984) recom-
mends a dietary K level for beef cattle of 0.5 to 0.7%
of the dry matter. Bahiagrass K levels were below
this range at several sites in 1988. Other minerals
were present in bahiagrass forage in adequate
amounts as recommended by the National Re-
search Council, with the exception of Cu. The
National Research Council recommends that cattle
diets contain 4 to 10 ppm of Cu. Forage copper
levels were at or below the lower end of this range
in many cases. Possibilities of a Cu deficiency for
cattle grazing Florida pastures has long been
recognized, so the addition of this element to the
mineral supplement is recommended routinely
(Cunha et al., 1964).

Soil analyses from demonstration sites
Soil P values were very low (< 10 ppm) to low (10
to 15 ppm) at seven sites and medium (16 to 30
ppm) at only one site (Table 4). Soil K values were
very low (< 20 ppm) to low (20 to 35 ppm) at five
sites, medium (36 to 60 ppm) at two sites and high
(61 to 125 ppm) at only one site. All soil parameters
were variable among sites and with there being no
obvious relationships between any parameter and
bahiagrass yield. Fertilization treatment also had
no effect on any soil parameters. These data
indicate that soil testing as now commonly used to
manage the fertilization of Florida bahiagrass
pastures is of limited value. This could be because
soil test data and plant response relationships were
developed with annual crops and bahiagrass is a
deep-rooted perennial plant.


Fertilizer recommendations for established
bahiagrass
From data developed in this field study in
Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec conjunction with other data from the literature, the
rage AvailabeForagefollowing recommendations are presented for
rage Available" Forage
fertilizing established bahiagrass pasture in
int in regrowth and available Florida. These recommendations support revised
by month averaged over eight University of Florida, IFAS recommendations
-lorida (one year average over all (Kidder et al., 1990)
). (Kidder et al., 1990).


Although a mineral supplement containing P is
recommended for all grazing cattle in Florida,
mineral supplementation would be more critical if
pastures are not fertilized with P20.5 A mineral
supplement similar to one commonly recommended


1. With the annual application of 60 lb or less N/A
of bahiagrass pasture, do not apply any P205 and
K20 for at least 3 years. The field study is
continuing (1990) and future recommendations
of 60 lb/A of N only may be extended to periods
longer than 3 years.









2. For the most efficient use of the fertilizer bud-
get, only after 60 lb of N have been applied to
every bahiagrass acre to be used for grazing
should consideration be given to applying P205
and KIO. At N rates of 100 to 120 lb/A, apply 25
lb/A of P205 and 50 lb/A of K20 if these plant
nutrients test low for the soil. Do not apply P20
and O20 if these nutrients test medium or
higher for the soil.

3. When applying up to 120 lb of N/A, it appears to
be most efficient to apply all of the N as a single
application in the spring. If a split application is


used, the second should be applied before the
first of July.

4. Apply N fertilizer to bahiagrass pasture in Feb-
ruary or March. Bahiagrass produces growth in the
early spring, so a response in both forage growth
and forage quality to N fertilizer will be obtained.
Bahiagrass should continue to benefit into the
growing season from an early N application.

5. A mineral supplement containing P and trace
elements should be available to all cattle grazing
bahiagrass pastures, especially those grazing
pastures not fertilized with P205.


Table 3. Average phosphorus and potassium levels in regrowth bahiagrass receiving different fertilizer treatments at nine commer-
cial ranch sites from April through December of 1987, 1988, and 1989.
Na NPKc
March, March,
No Na NPKb Na NKd
Item Fert. March March Sept. Sept.

Phosphorus. %h

1987e 0.30 0.31 0.34 0.29 0.36
1988' 0.22 0.21 0.27 0.21 0.28
19899 0.27 0.25 0.31 0.24 0.35

Avg. 0.27 0.26 0.31 0.25 0.33

Potassium, %h

1987 0.70 0.79 0.86 0.77 0.93
1988 0.41 0.40 0.45 0.36 0.50
1989 0.88 0.97 1.04 0.84 1.19

Avg. 0.68 0.74 0.81 0.69 0.90
a,b,c,d,e,fg,hSee respective footnotes on table 1.


Table 4. Soil analysis for eight south Florida commercial ranch sites across all fertilization treatments and for fertilization
treatments across all sites.e
Item pH P K Mg Ca Zn Cu Mn

ppm Mehlich-l extractable
County location

Desoto 6.3 11 14 77 372 1.2 0.3 1.0
Hardee 6.1 10 19 51 802 1.2 0.8 1.8
Highlands 5.5 9 70 90 824 1.6 0.4 1.1
Hillsborough 4.7 11 29 44 428 2.4 0.2 1.0
Manatee 4.9 7 36 59 446 2.2 0.2 1.7
Okeechobee 6.1 25 40 48 617 4.2 1.1 3.6
Polk 6.2 3 22 88 678 0.8 0.2 70.7
Sarasota 5.0 6 21 43 474 1.5 0.4 0.4

Fertilization treatment

No fertilizer 5.6 12 35 62 570 1.8 0.4 1.5
N March 5.6 10 28 62 582 1.8 0.5 1.5
NPK Marchb 5.6 10 29 62 587 1.9 0.5 1.3
N March, N Sept.c 5.6 10 29 65 597 2.0 0.4 1.5
NPK March, NK Sept.d 5.6 9 38 63 576 1.9 0.4 1.4
a,b,c,dSee respective footnotes on table 1.
eData obtained from composite of five 6-inch cores from each treatment on each site for three spring and three fall samplings. County values
are the average of 30 samples and treatment values are the average of 120 samples.








References cited
I Blue, W. G. 19_66 "The effect of nitrogen sources,
rates, and application frequencies on Pensacola
bahiagrass forage yields and nitrogen utiliza-
tion." Soil Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 26:105-109.
Blue, W. G. 1970. "The effect of lime on retention
of fertilizer phosphorus in Leon fine sand." Soil
Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 30:141-150.
Blue, W. G., and D. A. Graetz. 1977. "The effect of
split applications on nitrogen uptake by
Pensacola bahiagrass from an aeric haplaquod."
Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 41:927-930.
Cunha, T. J., R. L. Shirley, H. L. Chapman, Jr., C.
B. Ammerman, G. K. Davis, W. G. Kirk, and J.
F. Hentges, Jr. 1964. Minerals for beef cattle in
Florida. Univ. Fla., IFAS, Agri. Expt. Sta. Bull.
683.
Jones, D. W., C. E. Freeman, J. T. Johnson, and E.
B. Whitty. 1974. "Fertilizer recommendations
for agronomic crops in Florida." Soil Crop Sci.
Soc. Fla., Proc. 33:43-45.
IFAS. 1986. Survey of beef-forage practices, south-
central Florida 1986 summary. Pub. PE-9.
Univ. Fla., IFAS, Coop. Ext. Serv., Gainesville.


Kidder, G., E. A. Hanlon, and C. G. Chambliss.
1990. "IFAS standardized fertilization recom-
mendations for agronomic crops." Highlights in
Soil Science, No. 35 (revised), SS-SOS-002.
Univ. Fla., IFAS, Coop. Ext. Serv., Gainesville.
McCaleb, J. E., C. L. Dantzman, and E. M. Hodges.
S 1966. "Response of pangolagrass and pensacola
bahiagrass to different amounts of phosphorus
and potassium." Soil Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.
26:249-256.
National Research Council. 1984. Nutrient re-
quirements of beef cattle. 6th ed. National
Academy Press, Washington, D.C.
Rodulfo, S., and W. G. Blue. 1970. "The availabil-
ity to forage plants of accumulated phosphorus
in Leon fine sand." Soil Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.
30:167-174.
Whitty, E. B., D. W. Jones, G. Kidder, C. G.
Chambliss, D. L. Wright, and J. J. Street. 1977.
"Fertilization of field and forage crops." Agron.
Facts No. 70. Univ. Fla., IFAS, Coop. Ext. Serv.,
Gainesville.








Appendix

Site descriptions and locations
Desoto County Carlton 2 x 4 Ranch
Site is located approximately 7 miles south of
Arcadia on State Road 31. It is mapped as Malibar
fine sand on flat high ground. The pasture was
limed and fertilized prior to the study as follows: 2/
26/82 1 ton/acre dolomite; 3/9/82 60 lb N, 30 lb
P20, and 55 lb K0O/acre; 11/22/82 40 lb N, 10 lb
P205 and 20 lb K20/acre. The pasture received no
fertilizer after 11/82. Stocking rate was approxi-
mately 2.6 acres per cow.
Hardee County J. P. Platt Ranch
Site is located approximately 6 miles east of
Zolfo Springs on State Road 66 at the Grass Valley
Ranch. The site is relatively flat and located on a
poorly drained Pomona fine sand soil. Annual
fertilization practices since 1980 have been 70 lb N,
18 lb P205 and 35 lb O20/acre in the spring with 65
lb N applied in the fall. The pasture received 1 ton/
acre of dolomite in 1982. Stocking rate was ap-
proximately 2 acres per cow.
Highlands County Oscar Clemons Ranch
Site is located approximately 5 miles north of
State Road 70 on county road 721. Soil is mapped
as an Immokalee sand. The site is flat and poorly
drained. The pasture was fertilized with 1 ton/acre
of lime every 3 years and 300 lbs/acre of 16-8-8
every other year prior to the study. Stocking rate
was approximately 1 acre per cow.
Hillsborough County Warren Allen Ranch
Site is located east of Brandon near Lithia off
county road 640. The study is located on a flat
poorly drained Ona fine sand. Fertilization prac-
tices were: 4/85 65 lb N/acre; 6/85 60 lb N, 30 lb
P205 and KI0/acre; 3/86 60 lb N, 30 lb P205 and
K20/acre; 7/86 65 lb N, 30 lb P20, and 45 lb KO0/
acre. All fertilizer treatments included a complete
micronutrient mix except in 4/85. Stocking rate
was approximately 2.5 acres per cow.
Manatee County Russell Reagan Ranch
Site is located near Bradenton, approximately 8
miles east of Interstate 75 off of State Road 64 on
Rye Road. It is located on high ground and not


subject to standing water. Soil type is mapped as
an Eau Gallie fine sand. The pasture was estab-
lished over 20 years ago and had not received
fertilizer since 1981 and perhaps earlier. Stocking
rate was approximately 1.5 acres per cow.
Okeechobee County Dirr Farms
Site is located east of Kissimmee River and west
of Okeechobee on State Road 70. The plots are
located on a poorly drained flatwoods Immokalee
fine sand. The pasture was renovated in 1976 and
was fertilized annually from 1974-1984 with 30 lb
N and 25 lb P205 and K2O respectively, plus micro-
nutrients. Fertilizer had not been applied since
1984. The 150 acre pasture was stocked with
approximately 80 dry cows and 4 bulls.
Pasco County Joe Barthle Ranch
Site is located west of Dade City on the west side
of county road 581, 1.3 miles north of county road
578 and 1.2 miles south of Johnston road. The
plots are located on a well-drained Kendrick fine
sand. The site was fertilized in 1984 with poultry
layer waste at the rate of 2 tons/acre. Stocking rate
was approximately 4 acres per cow.
Polk County Jerry Keen Ranch
Site is located approximately 11.5 miles west of
Lake Wales on State Road 60. The site is a poorly
drained flatwoods Myakka fine sand. The pasture
is over 20 years old, was rotovated in the fall of
1985 and overseeded with cool-season annual
grasses. Fertility practices have been as follows:
1980 1 ton dolomite/acre; 1982 50 lb N/acre; 1983
- 40 lb N, 10 lb P205 and 20 lb K20/acre; 1984 90
lb N, 25 lb P205 and K20/acre, plus micronutrients;
1985 120 lb N, 20 lb P205 and 35 lb K20/acre, plus
1 ton dolomite/acre; and 1986 65 lb N/acre. Stock-
ing rate was approximately 2 acres per cow.
Sarasota County Mabry Carlton Ranch
Site is located 21 miles east of Interstate 75 on
State road 72. It is west of Gill Road and approxi-
mately 3 miles west of the Desoto Co./Sarasota Co.
line. The site is on a relatively flat Myakka fine
sand. The pasture had not been fertilized for 10
years prior to 1987. Stocking rate was approxi-
mately 5 acres per cow.









Table 1A. Annual yield and average crude protein and TDN content of regrowth bahiagrass receiving different fertilizer treatments at
nine commercial ranch sites in south Florida from April to December (3-year average).
Na NPKc
March March
County No Na NPKb Na NKd
of site Item Fert. March March Sept. Sept.

Desoto Yield, t/A 2.70 3.76 4.25 4.40 4.33
CP, %e 8.0 8.6 8.9 9.3 9.4
TDN, %e 52.4 52.7 53.2 53.7 53.9

Hardee Yield, t/A 4.33 5.19 5.25 5.40 5.83
CP, % 10.0 10.6 10.6 11.1 11.1
TDN, % 54.1 55.0 54.9 53.1 55.1

Highlands Yield, t/A 3.85 5.89 5.43 5.76 6.24
CP, % 10.8 11.1 10.9 11.6 12.0
TDN, % 54.7 55.2 54.9 55.4 55.5

Hillsborough Yield, tA 3.13 4.28 4.26 4.61 4.99
CP, % 9.2 9.8 9.9 10.8 11.1
TDN, % 53.0 53.7 53.7 53.9 54.3

Manatee Yield, t/A 4.87 5.37 6.26 5.54 5.91
CP, % 11.2 10.9 11.3 11.6 11.8
TDN, % 53.7 52.3 53.8 53.8 54.0

Okeechobee Yield, tA 6.19 6.25 7.36 7.36 7.60
CP, % 10.3 10.7 10.9 11.9 11.8
TDN, % 53.6 53.8 53.7 54.1 54.3

Pascof Yield, tA 1.58 2.09 1.71 2.44 2.85
CP, % 10.0 10.4 9.8 11.0 10.9
TDN, % 53.9 53.9 54.1 54.3 53.7

Polk Yield, t/A 2.72 3.81 3.45 3.25 4.33
CP, % 9.4 9.4 9.8 10.4 10.4
TDN, % 53.0 53.4 52.8 53.7 53.7

Sarasota Yield, t/A 2.90 3.07 3.15 3.28 3.19
CP, % 9.6 8.9 10.0 10.0 10.0
TDN, % 53.1 53.1 53.6 54.0 53.9
aN at 60 lb/A.
bN at 60 Ib/A, POs at 45 Ib/A, K0, at 45 Ib/A.
cN at 60 Ib/A, PP 0at 90 Ib/A, K0, at 45 Ib/A.
dN at 60 Ib/A, K20 at 45 Ib/A.
eValues are averages of 42 samples, and presented as % of dry matter.
'Average of one year.

Table 2A. Average mineral content of regrowth bahiagrass receiving different fertilizer treatments at nine commercial ranch sites in
south Florida from April through December (3-year average).
Nb NPKd
March March
County No Nb NPKc Nb NKe
of site Minerala Fert. March March Sept. Sept.

Desoto P, % 0.24 0.22 0.29 0.25 0.28
K, % 0.41 0.47 0.65 0.53 0.70
Ca, % 0.49 0.54 0.48 0.47 0.46
)Mg, % 0.44 0.43 0.42 0.50 0.40
Zn, ppm 59 58 50 47 44
I Cu, ppm 5 10 5 6 7
{ Mn,ppm 60 40 49 29 38
; Fe, ppm 86 93 89 88 84

Hardee P, % 0.34 0.30 0.34 0.28 0.39
K, % 0.65 0.77 0.83 0.62 0.92
Ca, % 0.49 0.46 0.45 0.50 0.44
Mg, % 0.31 0.36 0.27 0.34 0.27
Zn, ppm 39 41 36 39 39
Cu, ppm 7 6 5 6 5


Mn, ppm 52 55 54 61 66
Fe, ppm 71 75 69 72 72

10










Table 2A cont.
Nb NPKd
March March
County No Nb NPKc Nb NKe
of site Minerala Fert. March March Sept. Sept.


Highlands


Hillsborough








Manatee








Okeechobee










Pasco








Polk


P, %
K, %
Ca, %
Mg, %
Zn, ppm
Cu, ppm
Mn, ppm
Fe, ppm

P, %
K, %
Ca, %
Mg, %
Zn, ppm
Cu, ppm
Mn, ppm
Fe, ppm

P, %
K, %
Ca, %
Mg, %
Zn, ppm
Cu, ppm
Mn, ppm
Fe, ppm

P, %
K, %
Ca, %
Mg, %
Zn, ppm
Cu, ppm
Mn, ppm
Fe, ppm


P, %
K, %
Ca, %
Mg, %
Zn, ppm
Cu, ppm
Mn, ppm
Fe, ppm

P, %
K, %
Ca, %
Mg, %
Zn, ppm
Cu, ppm
Mn, ppm
Fe, ppm


0.25
0.67
0.45
0.24
31
4
25
74

0.32
0.79
0.35
0.36
75
4
93
84

0.29
0.91
0.35
0.28
45
5
104
74

0.32
0.93
0.40
0.23
50
5
61
66


0.27
0.70
0.57
0.28
66
6
72
169

0.17
0.60
0.42
0.35
40
4
21
72


0.33
0.94
0.39
0.24
35
6
52
61

0.31
0.86
0.35
0.34
79
5
87
79

0.25
0.85
0.35
0.28
52
10
88
88

0.31
0.88
0.45
0.26
64
6
70
70


0.28
0.78
0.52
0.28
49
6
68
158

0.18
0.68
0.40
0.35
40
5
22
84


Sarasota P, % 0.21 0.19
K, % 0.48 0.43
Ca, % 0.44 0.38
Mg, % 0.37 0.38
Zn, ppm 66 55
Cu, ppm 6 5
Mn, ppm 69 57
Fe, ppm 74 63
aValues presented on dry matter basis; average of 42 samples taken over 3 years.
bN at 60 Ib/A.
cN at 60 Ib/A, PO25 at 45 Ib/A, K,0 at 45 Ib/A.
dN at 60 Ib/A, P2 at 90 Ib/A, K20 at 45 Ib/A.
eN at 60 Ib/A, K20 at 45 Ib/A.

11


0.32
0.82
0.38
0.23
31
4
41
59

0.37
0.87
0.40
0.37
63
5
90
73

0.32
0.95
0.33
0.28
52
5
102
71

0.35
1.07
0.40
0.23
52
5
58
64


0.29
0.88
0.45
0.30
54
6
78
139

0.24
0.67
0.42
0.37
38
4
23
71

0.28
0.56
0.41
0.36
54
6
63
59


0.30
0.86
0.38
0.24
37
5
51
59

0.30
0.68
0.35
0.49
68
5
90
77

0.26
0.84
0.39
0.36
53
5
93
81

0.31
0.99
0.45
0.27
53
6
67
67


0.27
0.74
0.46
0.30
60
6
79
132

0.16
0.50
0.42
0.45
39
5
23
79

0.20
0.43
0.40
0.44
57
6
65
62


0.40
1.01
0.39
0.22
35
5
71
57

0.38
0.99
0.32
0.34
64
5
88
73

0.33
0.99
0.33
0.28
47
6
96
86

0.34
1.14
0.40
0.23
53
6
78
72


0.30
0.90
0.42
0.25
51
6
87
114

0.27
0.78
0.35
0.41
40
5
28
76

0.28
0.63
0.38
0.32
53
5
59
60





















































































COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, John T.
Woeste, director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the May 8
and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and
institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, handicap or national origin. Single copies of extension publications (excluding 4-H and
youth publications) are available free to Florida residents from county extension offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state
purchasers is available from C.M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611.
Before publicizing this publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability. Printed 1/91.




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describe
WARNING CODE 'Daitss::Anomaly' Invalid character
'4461' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFRO' 'sip-files00002.txt'
6ec464ade1df37df8b5eb95d145cb9ac
7123ca4e1ad2ed565432550284bc3eececc570e9
describe
'5084' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFRP' 'sip-files00003.txt'
177ea2d8393903db479d8451b74b041e
24a06581b0888874fd7788dea99f732701dd2703
'2011-12-14T06:24:30-05:00'
describe
Invalid character
'1814' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFRQ' 'sip-files00004.txt'
b8e741e4e40b17d10ec50cbde6d3b15d
dcb5b2359da2d3517e07e93d1e5df138e09f741b
'2011-12-14T06:24:21-05:00'
describe
'4660' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFRR' 'sip-files00005.txt'
464a6c584d9feca42bd931f44b69d29c
1bbe9247385554737f64ecd8d1c8c818e7614ef7
'2011-12-14T06:24:25-05:00'
describe
'2525' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFRS' 'sip-files00006.txt'
da02fe286a1ca0f3f9dc0adbfe326f21
525c842954d584f616876588e85aee1ca5e6259c
describe
'4624' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFRT' 'sip-files00007.txt'
57b9ca963371ba85f43b6b5264630628
9938c0d71a4582bd7a9327484d7169b49c5f9f59
'2011-12-14T06:24:23-05:00'
describe
'4939' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFRU' 'sip-files00008.txt'
bea45a222800bfe301759bc35b136b14
4f677482e6a4a536ed88d487e9e124f2cef5c471
describe
'2132' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFRV' 'sip-files00009.txt'
66b33f14bb3732f9d582eb7aa78be263
d36fa76e34384736e18e3896f44b3771d96d18d6
'2011-12-14T06:24:28-05:00'
describe
'4202' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFRW' 'sip-files00010.txt'
516d24eadab5be58e2e8c3c65bfcb546
a0e713588f3989080f88eb954e12ea276db1c4dc
describe
'6616' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFRX' 'sip-files00011.txt'
ba9121de8c765bc7b607444766df1cbf
50198099117b275939472629ffa0cbdbe450f262
'2011-12-14T06:24:29-05:00'
describe
'3709' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFRY' 'sip-files00012.txt'
2f071b3d60cdeb140c2005bb0442f6ad
882b3dfb44dd9707ed949fb5bcf8a97d1147c4d9
describe
'1124' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFRZ' 'sip-files00014.txt'
4a700453a3ab4a75706088cc652b883a
63dcee303a50505dab485c5219159e9247bb709b
'2011-12-14T06:24:19-05:00'
describe
'12831' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFSA' 'sip-files00001.pro'
0e1ef1a17520d14a35f5adffd58f8e88
6fbd2f3ac9e1ab0533e251419406ab8667ef2b1c
'2011-12-14T06:24:27-05:00'
describe
'115510' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFSB' 'sip-files00002.pro'
ea3397609976762de7b75a804b0c4014
c489dd22b2227f53bb3548b9f0a5dfac406e61b8
'2011-12-14T06:24:20-05:00'
describe
'131647' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFSC' 'sip-files00003.pro'
e4abfb886a5aa25d99c29841b8f68664
be12700c43e438204e407e7edfaaba3cb14f8bf9
'2011-12-14T06:24:15-05:00'
describe
'43954' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFSD' 'sip-files00004.pro'
6a362b1f9c0c5efc920a372c3c14c536
f0b6cc617cd31628248c02c8fcff6d0553c62d52
'2011-12-14T06:24:14-05:00'
describe
'84350' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFSE' 'sip-files00005.pro'
f2d65448a8149e1686218919f096b3b8
c7345a2f27ac2655f70234497c5cc77e50352100
describe
'62029' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFSF' 'sip-files00006.pro'
30ea69854bb2e7ecd2e3b66c9e1456ab
61cc29ed39d5e364269c738bcacc9cb6e52ca5d2
'2011-12-14T06:24:13-05:00'
describe
'114695' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFSG' 'sip-files00007.pro'
cf1e68c1a2796ac37246138e0fbc7768
4fa708ff641aec50aa976a6f8a825199d02ae4ce
'2011-12-14T06:24:32-05:00'
describe
'96195' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFSH' 'sip-files00008.pro'
897f054489b5960535cff67c1b524192
1536d739c5cfabe084a5e18ac76d8a2f86398195
describe
'52188' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFSI' 'sip-files00009.pro'
b1973590cd160cf6945f7cf56a8e4926
3288341138de2a769905c5c8ad2860a290cbc6c7
describe
'107166' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFSJ' 'sip-files00010.pro'
6b40b7eefee4b7362f90fcafd8803eb8
e29cb24d21fb99b6e0db4d12986b40726d804771
describe
'96565' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFSK' 'sip-files00011.pro'
92b4da9c19e880a56b0e77dfd72a6a57
daf01e5d0ab55329e991507da7f6310b56ae6203
'2011-12-14T06:24:18-05:00'
describe
'61294' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFSL' 'sip-files00012.pro'
d8db9313c484ec91abd6b7a4ae1b4587
ea81874ccb7ce778769c2685f9322fd62d53c4c9
'2011-12-14T06:24:17-05:00'
describe
'27838' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFSM' 'sip-files00014.pro'
a3920dad3984e9c93d4a2f957b6678bf
8b1de1aec90beea31a11d39669083144b757a0c7
describe
'543498' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFSN' 'sip-files00001.jp2'
92da02247d080e6f0151e061323b0e80
7819722b8445c792cddfeb436d732833d269390e
describe
'517381' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFSO' 'sip-files00002.jp2'
d27022f1392b33d31598b5f39780615e
f654b43bf1288e1853dcfd7f1ce46af608dde836
describe
'600177' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFSP' 'sip-files00003.jp2'
2515aace7c1e0aa4d8bde9ddb844f054
eba78fcf7e33e567b0a8d4f0940bef4f8b343157
describe
'474732' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFSQ' 'sip-files00004.jp2'
9a9dba5a194cb4b5f8ee531b7d00fefb
44c7a7ce425edf566983ed2c21cf5488c34a6837
describe
'230438' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFSR' 'sip-files00005.jp2'
4d126a0e2911231af8507baecc9dd6cd
025f77fccc51395899d07a54432ab7cea4459401
describe
'542817' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFSS' 'sip-files00006.jp2'
dfd18433c24e1d2f23c29a303795abe9
b7ef936c259ae754777597bf1238494ed9ba3da5
describe
'541602' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFST' 'sip-files00007.jp2'
b3de0ea7a669538734fef20aba6ed6be
631fa1a276eca76798b4b2bd531f55aaba4f6824
describe
'300977' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFSU' 'sip-files00008.jp2'
9a828d179e4eb3670e7717caf86594e4
8409649669df08169c3918a77cdbcf3da8acded9
describe
'249347' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFSV' 'sip-files00009.jp2'
a59647ed6fc758f7fe9e651ca54c6203
60e04103ccd92cfd62b6149e229d7e0b43d6c3b4
describe
'487008' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFSW' 'sip-files00010.jp2'
c0c8ff715c9c747e6a58a933d96643cb
50ac612586aa8c9f6e87610c8227c81701286dbe
describe
'226249' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFSX' 'sip-files00011.jp2'
94a9b7919d15ea6801607ec61cdfa5fb
501c8bdde106d1f40d86cdbedfc108b8e549229a
'2011-12-14T06:24:16-05:00'
describe
'197980' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFSY' 'sip-files00012.jp2'
b22cfcf38ece094b80c161994d8fed79
de1e5cc6221e30cbbc82890dd8568c0374d64d08
'2011-12-14T06:24:31-05:00'
describe
'84349' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFSZ' 'sip-files00014.jp2'
1fea57df608ecd2e10117b389303ceb4
1900abc5eb46da52d13c47209fa6ca470f36622b
describe
'4074548' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFTA' 'sip-files00001.tif'
950bd53bc15d5c0ca8ac47c627c64fd3
6b517fd22161c324b29eaa5110f89c8ac3151179
'2011-12-14T06:24:22-05:00'
describe
'4081304' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFTB' 'sip-files00002.tif'
49e2d6a76344b38a97042a39e16389a6
454fc6235ab24e2556823e57fbc9ef5a3fcbf689
describe
'4083904' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFTC' 'sip-files00003.tif'
08050f1f4bcf8178ab6c4430b26d3063
d1ab7d88b79a15a3f42741b3c2aa581121499a54
describe
'4079760' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFTD' 'sip-files00004.tif'
f0bccf53ad86be4da7657f443ab9bce2
a9243e2d5ab21fd9f91c71d987246304ccb48f2f
describe
'4070772' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFTE' 'sip-files00005.tif'
e0ab6eebfe228e441fc4445b1ff20b11
910ff60dc22ee791067afaa2fae6aa2a592e6234
describe
'4081608' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFTF' 'sip-files00006.tif'
221f48147f4fa7fc436069f47f1b44d2
0a88fcbe1e0500f7c309a3b522ff413a64199f54
describe
'4081092' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFTG' 'sip-files00007.tif'
1d1e42502d574d959d6e05f836d27329
1df371ce1c298d0d72f0a1bcb4e5418bc1bed7ff
describe
'4074512' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFTH' 'sip-files00008.tif'
4ee880543fa21516e84fc73c64bef5f4
4ffbac8e59b36dc406dcdd7f98974153bae1d18c
'2011-12-14T06:24:33-05:00'
describe
'4069340' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFTI' 'sip-files00009.tif'
c20e273668d416e606668127976be401
34226421d1d7861f01231daea80422c9a6ca2414
describe
'4079740' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFTJ' 'sip-files00010.tif'
19857bbae1e43606b708f373643b26ff
76fd2410fc83e5c7332dfd6af8e78ccd15f4a40b
describe
'4072236' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFTK' 'sip-files00011.tif'
f2c68a1410529f9ed2ba0d7c4f0e02bb
f018842ca5209d84c8f6c65221d8da1b56aa602c
describe
'3990632' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFTL' 'sip-files00012.tif'
1f232747537aa26d183b686b9d5368ab
842830b3b85c0eac8760dff8a8d68df0eeddf99c
describe
'4059992' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFTM' 'sip-files00014.tif'
6f9529137eb496a748c11243b6adc7b0
2373bae35a547640ba44fd0e7288b4d2bebeb0e3
describe
'102614' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFTN' 'sip-files00001.jpg'
2f16a51fde516bd3115dacbc0d866741
7aa8ed11d4b21ce6761c03292edace7fb715e705
describe
'205722' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFTO' 'sip-files00002.jpg'
6a150e6171a536452f1e99761801de99
e8b2179afa13a7c2f2ef50c0f728ee215ae73abb
describe
'228673' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFTP' 'sip-files00003.jpg'
74b15ea922d6c941441d4486462ec17c
ace95819c0948470b8b16f5224a8a8e1bdc3aa7e
describe
'149642' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFTQ' 'sip-files00004.jpg'
15b23b4e3ef7cbb442e6689b2ad6cf53
4a9a2b83672a3089d85c71a303b0366d4d4619a9
describe
'97863' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFTR' 'sip-files00005.jpg'
73669aec35b263b4a1f67516ce76314f
2874b4e4520ab17a0eca5668e03bd62d1eb87570
describe
'172989' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFTS' 'sip-files00006.jpg'
241679af993339264ffd9fd682ba8b09
eb543309a5ae6a2c1ef7d1b3dd94fda662bf5467
describe
'202164' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFTT' 'sip-files00007.jpg'
82c7edc01d8bd142da6e11787e06e37a
8dcfe4d56f385c74cff3f3dac43161419f1d1bdb
describe
'125446' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFTU' 'sip-files00008.jpg'
27b3b7d0b2352a6981590576fecd69a1
f94844d32350b0afc019964a487724b077395765
describe
'104552' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFTV' 'sip-files00009.jpg'
3cd631d412bb09d8f7c39c4ecb163abe
e1f598487144ab535f9dc27d62024f2d83c9f909
describe
'195498' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFTW' 'sip-files00010.jpg'
367d062ace3b6f1f6b8d94206f0f8c3c
ce6bcb2a8931bb80593e31181d20b8a3d87bb64a
describe
'100941' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFTX' 'sip-files00011.jpg'
b41c65c8d18a40dc14aefa1047a78004
71e691e8b9af995efc9d5d21c56ffce8f0229b9a
describe
'87504' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFTY' 'sip-files00012.jpg'
4362edfe20a5293d84541497eca39745
f9c2a594dec5fc49a2d686d6b8420b34b48c1db1
describe
'31803' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFTZ' 'sip-files00014.jpg'
f7a68da6f8c2ab5aad4f75230710da02
4961e8941dd1cb2cf8eb72c001c7565c53194a01
describe
'30813' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFUA' 'sip-files00001thm.jpg'
f3029c11c4e1b535763c0dbbf262bf8f
9434fbafb97c1c155f98723c9bcbf5234f16c908
describe
'47126' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFUB' 'sip-files00001.QC.jpg'
b7f13438e80661edc4041b5bcfec0bab
f5ff3c85b53d36887f74711de39b41bf0c1f3bab
describe
'75514' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFUC' 'sip-files00002.QC.jpg'
97b60bd416c1a2c95f091f10180535b1
01fff95d2ddc608033b738be008b861413bdfacd
describe
'41363' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFUD' 'sip-files00002thm.jpg'
87aafac2992998b24823c8baffd5a873
c2249fd891ad54c57b8ce2d80545d845babe5b27
describe
'82276' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFUE' 'sip-files00003.QC.jpg'
253926e9d02e7719b6126cc91a80c869
e96d89e1ad5147ba8d0d79d2bf37e86854c4af0d
describe
'44750' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFUF' 'sip-files00003thm.jpg'
31f1d28a5f518302600062680364691e
cd1096bbe6b77e0c64103ff4ecd75e6081209e30
describe
'63570' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFUG' 'sip-files00004.QC.jpg'
49af0dc2d5b8a7abb62c40cbff092a91
1832b823376bb8cbffeb751539f6e6204dc3d302
describe
'39314' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFUH' 'sip-files00004thm.jpg'
dafaca1b7f550aa91870289e840b65d1
c8e0e70490035b44ae90ae3b557b73b3360f0ebb
describe
'42812' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFUI' 'sip-files00005.QC.jpg'
e3eb3c837fe68596b12902d537206f00
8137514f6a8f0b87a025de1eea26cd335e54c599
describe
'28009' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFUJ' 'sip-files00005thm.jpg'
df49f414bb9155c73bc12e6055377fbb
2290951030d71eaac45abfc48c7f5ee511edf265
describe
'68766' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFUK' 'sip-files00006.QC.jpg'
6e4071b8b34b7d3285c5e1426f53b0b6
265754d2b333a61c958284af6759c2ed0454dc1c
describe
'41626' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFUL' 'sip-files00006thm.jpg'
7734f72ccb7be3ab3ee0e50e96fb6079
1c902266c9a193a941dd389417406d915932872a
describe
'73739' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFUM' 'sip-files00007.QC.jpg'
e5c7283ee9ba758e609159595dceee9b
d90cc906e64cfcd6d1319a824c871595a70863e1
describe
'41167' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFUN' 'sip-files00007thm.jpg'
bed1ef4c67dd48d60dc6a4c17ace7469
5a490a6537524c69f0344b2d8f09fde561beb15c
describe
'53692' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFUO' 'sip-files00008.QC.jpg'
30fb858a9829500af18374255542d18e
55015716e2f6c7832478396bf569b520f507becd
describe
'32139' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFUP' 'sip-files00008thm.jpg'
c91e79c66a38411638ecd44a4d4b3d03
6554a4ef386b337ff1e2d0af4241ac09673fc3af
describe
'41758' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFUQ' 'sip-files00009.QC.jpg'
77a8729bf9c1ffd2efc15eb260e84510
ef051f0eb428db193b0042c626a7d6bacddcd15d
describe
'25071' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFUR' 'sip-files00009thm.jpg'
a545b3c4eb848a663b58627d8e64ee89
b22993e1494c2c614b92af2a66f98ee7bdbe3b42
describe
'71279' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFUS' 'sip-files00010.QC.jpg'
7d437e7ae74b2b54f9fc5b3cd5cdcc68
eaf9ff235eba0ebdf917e79b28dbdea538d6905a
describe
'39157' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFUT' 'sip-files00010thm.jpg'
22f82dced67f1c40d690462dd53eb628
537f4e45df6802f568159c586bf2067b1d06066e
describe
'46413' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFUU' 'sip-files00011.QC.jpg'
76e587d27be699bff347180e6fa5fbf1
459377bc8db4052d1bb7cc434c0cdd24a3b2ffd7
describe
'30593' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFUV' 'sip-files00011thm.jpg'
ff862ca2c1305e08bbc071c321e1d2f7
1811dac8526ef2c1daa7177b5686ac22406a5461
describe
'39937' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFUW' 'sip-files00012.QC.jpg'
51581e1e84c58cf6fba2aa052e903ad3
1c5ac28cfd0a32c35023ae39ede407233915fb5b
describe
'25865' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFUX' 'sip-files00012thm.jpg'
9bd932ce0a618d59396a4c689720e556
c978b8b0a159adcfdf849d4d7b8d7cbc0cd87861
describe
'15874' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFUY' 'sip-files00014.QC.jpg'
47e424b233615d487f444efc8c3dbae2
1c46c066a6518d24de7f4f0a129215cae9c5b5d7
describe
'11755' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFUZ' 'sip-files00014thm.jpg'
17c78d452eb594eadb3949ff8c99e014
8a09006f90098d19ab3d72a761566ec382ea6f81
describe
'31553' 'info:fdaE20080521_AAAABAfileF20080521_AABFVA' 'sip-filesUF00014493_00001.mets'
85887253fc3625285c5467a27dd871cd
e62b7b9b11d0bd0ffca137dc2403ae43af1cdc98
describe
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'2015-05-15T14:55:34-04:00' 'mixed'
xml resolution
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
BROKEN_LINK schema http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
The element type "div" must be terminated by the matching end-tag "
".
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.