Citation
Commercial vegetable crop nutrient requirements

Material Information

Title:
Commercial vegetable crop nutrient requirements
Series Title:
Circular
Creator:
Hochmuth, George J ( George Joseph )
Hanlon, Edward A ( Edward Aloysius ), 1946-
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Publisher:
Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
8 p. : ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Vegetables -- Fertilizers -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"June 1989."
General Note:
"Reprinted August 1990"--P. 4 of cover.
Statement of Responsibility:
G.J. Hochmuth and E.A. Hanlon.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
AAA6929 ( LTQF )
AJG5679 ( LTUF )
26977794 ( OCLC )
027810571 ( ALEPHBIBNUM )

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June 1989 Circular 806






Commercial Vegetable
Crop Nutrient
Requirements irary
SJ P 8 1982
G. J. Hochmuth and E. A. Hanlon no:,, .


Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida / John T. Woeste, Dean








Contents

1 Introduction
Nutrient requirements


2 Soil testing


3 Irrigation
Supplemental fertilizer
Mulched crops
Soil pH


3CU~Kcv


4 Nutrient forms


5 Secondary nutrients


6 Micronutrients
Placement and timing


Liquid vs. dry fertilizer
Foliar fertilization
Double-cropping


Authors

G. J. Hochmuth, Associate Professor and Extension
Specialist, Vegetable Crops Dept., IFAS, Gainesville.
E. A. Hanlon, Assistant Professor, Extension Soils
Specialist, Soil Science Dept., IFAS, Gainesville.


7


'* '.











Introduction


The purpose of this circular is to present crop
nutrient requirements for commercial vegetables in
Florida. It is intended to be a supplement to Exten-
sion Circular 225-C, "Commercial Vegetable Fer-
tilization Guide." Certain information included in
225-C is repeated here to increase the clarity of this
presentation.
The first part of this publication contains discus-
sions of several topics pertaining to fertilization of
vegetable crops. The second part presents, in tabular
form, the crop nutrient requirements of vegetables
in Florida.


Table 1. Crop nutrient requirements for N, P, and K
for vegetables grown on irrigated mineral soils.


Crop
Beans, bush
Beans, pole
Beans, lima
Beets
Broccoli
Cabbage
Carrots
Cauliflower
Celery
Chinese cabbage
Collards
Corn, sweet
Cucumber
Eggplant
Lettuce
Muskmelon
Mustard
Okra
Onions
Peas, English
Peas, southern
Pepper
Potato, Irish
Potato, sweet
Radish
Spinach
Squash, summer
Squash, winter
Strawberry
Tomato
Turnip
Watermelon


Crop nutrient requirements1'2
N-P205-KO
Lb/A
60-80-80
90-120-120
90-120-120
90-120-120
110-150-150
120-160-160
110-150-150
110-150-150
200-300-300
110-150-150
110-150-150
90-120-120
90-120-120
120-160-160
110-150-150
120-160-160
110-150-150
110-150-150
120-120-120
60-80-80
60-80-80
160-160-160
150-120-140
60-120-120
90-120-120
90-120-120
90-120-120
90-120-120
120-160-160
160-160-160
110-150-150
120-160-120


Footnotes
3
3
3
3
3,4,5,10
3,4,5,10
3
3,4,5,10
3,10
3,10
3
3
3,4,5
3,4,5,10
3,10,11
3,4,5,10
3
3
3
3
3
3,4,5,7,10
3
3
3,6,9
3
3,4,5
3,4,5
5,7,8
3,4,5,7,10
3
3,4,5,10


Footnotes:
1These amounts should be applied as fertilizer only to soils testing
"very low" in P and K. Use a soil test to determine precisely how
much fertilizer is needed.
2Additional supplemental sidedress applications of 30 ib N and 20
Ib K20 should be applied only after rainfall/irrigation amounts ex-


ceed 2- to 3-inches within a 3-day period or 4 inches within a 7-day
period. Avoid mechanical damage to plants when applying sidedress
fertilizers.
3Fertilizer should be applied in split applications in order to reduce
leaching losses and to lessen danger of fertilizer burn. Broadcast
in the bed or band all P20s and micronutrients, if any, and 25% to
50% of the N and K20 at planting. Apply remaining N and K20 in
sidedress bands during the early part of the growing season.
4For mulched, subsurface-irrigated crops, incorporate 10% to 20%
of the N and K20, plus all of the P205 and micronutrients, if any,
in the bed. Apply the remainder of the N and K20 one inch deep
in bands about 6 to 10 inches from the plant row. For mulched,
overhead-irrigated crops, incorporate all of the N, P205, K20, and
micronutrients, if any, in the bed prior to installation of the mulch.
sFor drip irrigation, incorporate 20% to 40% of the N and K20 and
all of the P20s and micronutrients, if any, in the bed. Apply the re-
mainder of the N and K20 periodically though drip tubes according
to the rate of crop growth and development. For management
systems where both subsurface and drip irrigation are used, apply
no more than 20% of the N and K20 in the bed before mulching.
6Apply all fertilizer prior to or at planting.
7From 25% to 30% of the N may be supplied from slow-release N
sources, such as sulfur-coated urea or isobutylidene-diurea (IBDU).
Due to higher N efficiency with slow-release N sources, it might be
possible to reduce the overall N-fertilizer amount by about 15% to
20%.
8Apply all P20s and micronutrients, if any, and 25% of the N and
K20, in the bed. Place the remaining N and K20 in a band 2- to
3-inches deep in the center of the bed.
9Usually adequate for 2 to 3 crops in succession.
lOTransplants might benefit from application of starter-fertilizer solu-
tion, especially under cool soils.
"Ilncludes head, leaf, and romaine lettuces, in addition to escarole
and endive.





Nutrient requirements

Plants require 16 elements (C, H, O, P, K, N, S, Ca,
Mg, Fe, B, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cl) for normal growth and
reproduction. The crop nutrient requirement (CNR)
for a particular element is defined as the total
amount in lb/A of that element needed by the crop
to produce economic optimum yield. This concept of
economic optimum yields is important for vegetables
because a certain amount of nutrients might produce
a moderate amount of biomass, but produce negligi-
ble marketable product due to small fruit size. Fruit
size and quality must be considered in the crop
nutrient requirement concept for vegetables.
The crop nutrient requirement can be satisfied
from many sources, including soil, water, air, organic
matter, or fertilizer. For example, the CNR of
potassium (K) can be supplied from K-containing
minerals in the soil, from K retained by soil organic
matter, or from K fertilizers.








The CNR for a crop is determined from field ex-
periments that test the yield response to levels of
added fertilizer. For example, a watermelon study
involving K might be conducted on a soil which tests
very low in extractable K. In this situation, the soil
can be expected to contribute only a small amount
of K for optimum watermelon growth and yield and
K must be supplied largely from fertilizer. The re-
searcher plots the relationship of crop yield to fer-
tilizer rate. The CNR is equivalent to the'fertilizer
rate above which no significant increases in yield are
expected. The CNR values derived from such ex-
periments take into account factors such as fertilizer
efficiencies of the soils. These efficiencies include
fertilizer leaching or fertilizer nutrient fixing
capability of the soil. If data are available from
several experiments, then reliable estimates of CNR
values can be made.
In Florida, CNR values vary according to the type
of soil and vegetable crop and have been determined
for many vegetable crops on several soils in Florida.
For other situations, CNR values are those that have
been published in previous Extension circulars deal-
ing with fertilizer management for vegetables. Tables
1 through 4 present CNR values as we currently
understand them for vegetable crops in Florida. Us-
ing the CNR concept when developing a fertilizer
program will ensure optimum, economic yields while
minimizing both pollution from overfertilization and
loss of yield due to underfertilization.





Soil testing

The CNR values listed in Tables 1 through 4 are
those amounts of nutrients needed to produce op-
timum, economic yields from a fertilization stand-
point. It is important to remember that these
amounts of nutrients are supplied to the crop from
both the soil and the fertilizer. The amounts listed
in the tables are applied as fertilizers only when a
properly calibrated soil test indicates very small ex-
tractable amounts of these nutrients to be present
in the soil. Therefore, soil testing must be conducted
to determine the exact contribution from the soil to
the overall CNR. Based on such tests, the amount of
fertilizer that is needed to supplement the nutrition
component of the native soil can be calculated.
It is important that soil samples represent the field
or management unit to be fertilized. A competent soil
testing laboratory that uses calibrated methodologies
should analyze the samples. Not all laboratories can
provide accurate fertilizer recommendations for


Florida soils. Details on soil testing and how to make
it work effectively can be found in Extension Cir-
cular 596, "Procedures Used by the IFAS Extension
Soil Testing Laboratory, and Interpretations of
Results."




Table 2. Crop nutrient requirements for N, P, and K
for vegetables grown on irrigated organic soils.


Crop
Beans, bush
Beans, pole
Beans, lima
Beets
Broccoli
Cabbage
Carrots
Cauliflower
Celery
Chinese cabbage
Collards
Corn, sweet
Cucumber
Eggplant
Endive
Lettuce
Muskmelon
Mustard
Okra
Onions
Peas, English
Peas, southern
Pepper
Potato, Irish
Potato, sweet
Radish
Spinach
Squash, summer
Squash, winter
Strawberry
Tomato
Turnip
Watermelon


Crop nutrient requirements
N-P20s-K20
Lb/A
0-60-120
0-120-180
0-120-180
0-120-180
0-120-180
0-120-180
0-180-180
0-120-180
0-200-360
0-100-120
0-100-120
0-120-180

0-120-240
0-100-180
0-120-240

0-100-180
0-80-120
0-120-180
0-120-200
0-100-150
0-160-240
0-160-240

0-160-240
0-100-120
0-100-120
0-100-120


0-100-150


Footnotes
3,5
3,5
3,5
3,5
3,5
3,5
3,5
3,5
3,5
3,5
3,5
3,5
4
3,5,
3,5,6
3,5,7
4
3,5
3,5
3,5
3,5
3,5
3,5
3,5
4
3,5
3,5
3,5
3,5
4
4
3,5
4


Footnotes:
1These amounts should be applied as fertilizer only to soils testing
"very low" in P and K. Use a soil test to determine precisely how
much fertilizer is needed.
2These CNR values are sufficient for normal conditions. Most crops
will respond to supplemental applications of 30 to 40 Ib of nitrate-N
per acre during periods of cool weather or after a leaching rain.
30n new peat soils, make a broadcast application of 11 Ib of Cu/A,
7 Ib of Mn/A, and 1 Ib of B/A before the crop is planted. Use a soil
test to determine needs for further micronutrient applications.
4These crops not recommended for production on organic soils.
SApply all fertilizer broadcast prior to planting.
6lncludes escarole and chicory.
71ncludes head, leaf, and romaine.










Irrigation

Fertilizer and water management programs are
linked. Optimum management of one program re-
quires proper management of the other as well.
Overhead irrigation generally causes the
downward movement of nutrients such as nitrogen
(N) and K. Small amounts of irrigation water applied
on a regular basis will result in less leaching than will
large amounts applied infrequently. Excessive irriga-
tion can even remove fertilizer from plastic-mulched
beds, especially from the soil near the plant hole.
The water table in a subsurface (seep) irrigation
system should be maintained 13- to 15-inches below
the top of the bed. The water table should not be
fluctuated appreciably because nutrients can be lost
from the bed during fluctuations. High water tables
after heavy rains should also be lowered quickly to
avoid leaching of nutrients from flooded beds.
Drip irrigation provides an optimum method for ap-
plying water and nutrients, especially if used in con-
junction with mulch. Savings of water of more than
50%, compared to either seepage or overhead irriga-
tion methods, have been reported. However,
nutrient leaching can be severe with an improperly
managed drip system. For more information on drip
irrigation management, refer to Extension Circulars
606 and 607.




Supplemental fertilizer

If the CNR component supplied through fertiliza-
tion is properly managed in relation to irrigation and
fertilizer application timing, it is unlikely that sup-
plemental fertilizer will be needed. Supplemental
fertilizer may be needed after a leaching rainfall,
during which, about 50% of the N and 25% of the
K would be leached out of the root zone by a 2- to
3-inch rainfall under unmulched culture.
Supplemental applications, in general, should
supply approximately 30 lb N/A. Since leaching of
K is not as great as that of N, only about 20 lb KO20/A
is required in a typical supplemental application. The
number of supplemental applications will vary ac-
cording to the number of leaching rainfalls and the
length of the crop growing season.
Supplemental fertilizer should be applied in bands
to each side of the row for unmulched crops. The fer-
tilizer should be placed in the soil just ahead of the
advancing root tips. For crops growing in close rows


or in broadcast fashion, the supplemental fertilizer
can be broadcast over the top by air, ground
spreader, or overhead sprinkler-irrigation system.
Where plastic mulch is used, supplemental applica-
tions can be made through the mulch by a liquid in-
jection wheel or through the drip irrigation system.
Whenever applying supplemental fertilizer, the
equipment must be calibrated carefully. Fertilizer
placement is important in order to avoid damage to
either plants or roots from the application
equipment.




Mulched crops

Mulching is a standard practice for the production
of many vegetable crops in Florida. Polyethylene
mulch improves fumigant effectiveness, increases
weed control, increases soil temperature, and
reduces fruit rot. In addition, mulch can reduce fer-
tilizer leaching. Even though crop growth and pro-
duction are often greater with mulch, the increased
fertilizer efficiency of mulch culture means that CNR
requirements for the mulch system are not higher
than for unmulched crops. Therefore, CNR values in
Tables 1 through 4 apply to both unmulched and
mulched crops. The difference is in the application
of the fertilizer in each system. In unmulched
cultures, split applications of N and K should be used,
but in mulched systems, all N and K can be placed
under the mulch when the mulch is applied to the
bed.
Extra, or insurance fertilizer under the mulch is
not recommended. It can cause soluble-salt injury to
plants and can also contribute to groundwater pollu-
tion if it is leached from under the mulch by flooding
or by a high water table.




Soil pH

Current IFAS standardized recommendations call
for maintaining soil pH in the range of 6.0 to 6.5.
However, some vegetables, such as watermelon, will
perform normally at lower pH values as long as large
amounts of micronutrients are not present in the soil.
A common problem in Florida has been overliming,
resulting in high soil pH levels. Overliming and
resulting high soil pH can cause tie-up of
micronutrients and restrict their availability.to the









Table 3. Crop nutrient requirements for N, P, and K
for vegetables grown on irrigated marl soils.


Crop
Beans, bush
Beans, pole
Beans, lima
Beets
Broccoli
Cabbage
Carrots
Cauliflower
Celery
Chinese cabbage
Collards
Corn, sweet
Cucumber
Eggplant
Endive
Lettuce
Muskmelon
Mustard
Okra
Onions
Peas, English
Peas, southern
Pepper
Potato, Irish
Potato, sweet
Radish
Spinach
Squash, summer
Squash, winter
Strawberry
Tomato
Turnip
Watermelon


Footnotes:
1These amounts should be applied as fertilizer only to soils testing
"very low" in P and K. Use a soil test to determine precisely how
much fertilizer is needed.
2Make a supplemental sidedress application to unmulched crops of
30-0-20 Ib N-P205-K20/A after any rainfall that amounts to 2- to
3-inches in a 7-day period. Use a liquid-injection wheel or drip ir-
rigation to apply supplemental fertilizer to mulched crops. Sup-
plemental applications will probably not be needed on mulched crops
unless flooding occurs. Crops might respond to a sidedress-band
application of P during cool periods.
3For unmulched crops, apply all P and micronutrients before or at
planting. Increased efficiency of plant use of these nutrients might
be realized by banding these nutrients in the soil to the side of the
row. Apply 25% to 50% of the N and K at planting, or sidedress at
crop emergence. Apply the remainder of the N and K in 2 to 3 split
applications during the growing season.
4For mulched crops, apply 25% to 50% of the fertilizer broadcast
in the bed and the remainder in bands prior to installing the mulch.
sFor drip-irrigated crops apply all P and micronutrients, and 20%
to 40% of the N and K, in the bed. Apply the remaining N and K
through the drip system.


6Apply all fertilizer prior to or at planting.
7lncludes escarole and chicory.
slncludes head, leaf, and romaine.


Crop nutrient requirements1'2
N-P205-K20
Lb/A
45-60-60
70-100-100
60-80-80
60-80-80
90-80-100
90-80-100
90-80-100
90-80-100
90-80-100
90-80-100
90-80-100
80-70-80
80-60-90
80-70-100
80-70-80
80-70-80
90-80-100
80-70-80
80-70-100
80-70-100
50-70-70
50-70-70
80-70-100
60-120-120
40-80-80
45-60-60
80-70-80
45-60-60
45-60-60
90-120-120
120-160-160
80-70-80
90-80-100


Footnotes
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3,4
3
3
3
3
3,4
3,4
3,7
3,8
4
3
3
3
3
3
3,4
3
3
6
3
3
3
4,5
3,4,5
3
3,4


crop. Overliming also can reduce the accuracy with
which a soil test can predict the fertilizer component
of the CNR.
It is important, however, not to allow soil pH to
drop below approximately 5.5 for most vegetable
production, especially where micronutrient levels in
the soil may be high due to a history of micronutrient
fertilizer and micronutrient-containing pesticide ap-
plications. When soil pH decreases in such soils, the
solubility of micronutrients can increase to levels
that may become toxic to plants.
Irrigation water from wells supplied by limestone
aquifers is an additional source of liming material
usually not considered in many liming programs. The
combination of routine additions of lime and use of
alkaline irrigation water has resulted in soil pH
values greater than 8.0 for many sandy soils in
southern Florida. To measure the liming effect of ir-
rigation, have a water sample analyzed for total
bicarbonates and carbonates, and the results con-
verted to pounds of calcium carbonate per acre an-
nually. Include this information in your decisions
concerning lime.
It should be evident that liming, fertilization, and
irrigation programs are closely related to each other.
An adjustment in one program will often influence
the other. To maximize overall production efficiency,
soil and water testing must be made a part of any
fertilizer management program.






Nutrient forms

Nitrogen can be supplied in both nitrate and am-
moniacal forms. Nitrate-nitrogen is generally the
preferred form for plant uptake in most situations,
but ammoniacal N can be absorbed by some plants
directly or after conversion td nitrate-N by soil
microbes. Since this rate of conversion is reduced in
cold, fumigated, or strongly acidic soils, it is recom-
mended that under such conditions 25% to 50% of
the N be supplied from nitrate sources. This ratio is
not as critical for unfumigated or warm soils. For
more information on nutrient sources, consult Ex-
tension Circular 225-C.










Table 4. Crop nutrient requirements for N, P, and K
for vegetables grown on irrigated Rockdale soils.


Crop
Beans, bush
Beans, pole
Beans, lima
Beets
Broccoli
Cabbage
Carrots
Cauliflower
Celery
Chinese cabbage
Collards
Corn, sweet
Cucumber
Eggplant
Endive
Lettuce
Muskmelon
Mustard
Okra
Onions
Peas, English
Peas, southern
Pepper
Potato, Irish
Potato, sweet
Radish
Spinach
Squash, summer
Squash, winter
Strawberry
Tomato
Turnip greens
Watermelon


Crop nutrient requirements1'2
N-P,20-K20
Lb/A
45-60-60
70-90-90
70-90-90

70-90-90
70-90-90

70-90-90
90-120-120
70-90-90
70-90-90
70-60-90
70-90-90
70-90-90
70-90-90
70-90-90
70-90-90
70-90-90
70-90-90
70-90-90
60-90-90
60-90-90
70-90-90

30-60-70

70-90-70
70-90-90
70-90-90
90-120-120
120-200-180
70-90-90
70-90-90


Footnotes
4
4
4
3
4,5,6,7
4,5
3
4,5,6,7
4
4
4
4
4,5
4,5,7
4,8
4,9
4,5
4
4
4
4
4
4,5,7
3
4
3
4
4
4
5,6,7
4,5,6,7
4
4,5


Footnotes:
1These amounts should be applied as fertilizer only to soils testing
"very low" in P and K. Use a soil test to determine precisely how
much fertilizer is needed.
2Make a supplemental application to unmulched crops of 30-0-20
Ib N-P20s-K20/A after any rainfall or excessive irrigation amounting
to 2 to 3 inches in a 7-day period. Use a liquid-injection wheel or
drip irrigation to apply supplemental fertilizer to mulched crops. Sup-
plemental applications will probably not be needed for mulched crops
unless flooding occurs. Crops might respond to a banded supplemen-
tal application of 30 Ib. P20s/A in cool periods.
3These crops not recommended for commercial production on
Rockdale soils.
4For unmulched crops, apply all P and micronutrients before or at
planting. These nutrients can be broadcast and incorporated in the
bed; however, increased efficiency in plant uptake of nutrients might
result from banding the fertilizer in the soil to the sides of the row.
Apply 25% to 50% of the N and K at planting, or sidedress at crop
emergence. Apply the remainder of the N and K in 2 to 3 split ap-
plications during the growing season.
sFor mulched crops, apply all fertilizer in the bed either broadcast
or 25% broadcast and the remainder banded in the soil to the sides
of the row prior to installing the mulch.


5


6For drip-irrigated crops, apply all P and micronutrients, and 20%
to 40% of the N and K, in the bed. Apply remaining N and K through
the drip system.
7When transplanting into cool soils, benefit might result from applica-
tion of starter-fertilizer solution with the transplant.
8Includes escarole and chicory.
91ncludes head, leaf, and romaine.



Phosphorus (P) can be supplied from several
sources, including normal and triple superphosphate,
diammonium phosphate, and monoammonium phos-
phate. All sources can be effective for plant nutri-
tion on sandy soil. However, on soils that test very
low in native micronutrient levels, diammonium
phosphate has been shown to reduce yields when
banded in large amounts in mixtures containing
micronutrients. Negative effects of diammonium
phosphate can be minimized by using diammonium
phosphate for only a portion of the P requirements
and by broadcasting this material in the bed.
Potassium can also be supplied from several
sources, including potassium chloride, potassium
sulfate, potassium nitrate, and potassium-magnesium
sulfate. If soil-test-predicted amounts of K fertilizer
are adhered to, there should be no concern about the
K source or its relative salt index.





Secondary nutrients

The secondary nutrients such as calcium (Ca),
magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S) have not commonly
been a problem in Florida. Calcium usually occurs in
adequate supply for most vegetables when soil pH
is maintained at 5.5 or above. If the Mehlich-I soil
Ca index is above 250 ppm, it is unlikely that there
will be a response to added Ca. Maintaining correct
moisture levels in the soil by irrigation will aid in Ca
supply to the roots. Calcium is not mobile in the
plant; therefore, foliar sprays of Ca are not likely to
correct serious deficiencies. It is difficult to place
enough foliar-applied Ca at the growing point of the
plant on a timely basis.
Sulfur deficiencies have not been documented for
Florida vegetables. Sulfur deficiency would most
likely occur on deep, sandy soils low in organic mat-
ter, after leaching rains. If. S deficiency has been
diagnosed, it can be corrected by using S-containing
fertilizers such as magnesium sulfate, potassium
sulfate, normal superphosphate, or potassium-
magnesium sulfate. Using one of these materials in









Table 5. List of University of Florida extension publi-
cations pertaining to crop production and fertilization.
Publication
Topic number Title of publication
Beans Circ. 100 Bean Production Guide
Broccoli Circ. 555 Broccoli and Cauliflower
Production in Florida
Cabbage Circ. 117 Cabbage Production Guide
for Florida
Cauliflower Circ. 555 Broccoli and Cautiflower
Production in Florida
Corn, sweet Circ. 99 Sweet Corn Production in
Florida
Cucumber Circ. 101 Cucumber Production Guide
for Florida
Eggplant Circ. 109 Eggplant Production Guide
Fertilization Circ. 225-C Commercial Vegetable
Fertilization Guide
Bull. 183-C Fertilizers and Fertilization
Lettuce Circ. 123 Lettuce and Endive
Production Guide
Muskmelon Circ. 122 Muskmelon Production
Guide for Florida
Okra Circ. 492 Okra in Florida
Onions Circ. 176 Onion Production Guide
Peas, Southern Circ. 478 The Southern Pea in Florida
Pepper Circ. 102 Pepper Production Guide for
Florida
Potato, Irish Circ. 118 Potato Production Guide
Potato, Sweet Circ. 551 Sweet Potatoes in Florida
Squash Circ. 103 Squash Production in Florida
Strawberry Circ. 142 Strawberry Production Guide
for Florida
Tomato Circ. 98 Tomato Production Guide for
Florida
Watermelon Circ. 96 Watermelon Production in
Florida


Micronutrients

It has been common practice in Florida vegetable
production to routinely apply a micronutrient
package. This practice has been justified in the past
on the basis that these nutrients were inexpensive,
and their application was viewed as insurance for
high yields. In addition, there has been little research
data and a lack of soil-test calibrations to guide
judicious application of micronutrient fertilizers.
Compounding the problem has been the vegetable
industry's use of micronutrient-containing pesticides
for disease control. Micronutrients, such as copper
(Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn), from these
sources have tended to accumulate in the plow zone
of the soil.
This situation has forced some vegetable producers
to overtime in an effort to avoid micronutrient tox-
icities. Data have now been accumulated which per-
mit a more accurate assessment of micronutrient re-
quirements. Growers are encouraged to have a
calibrated micronutrient soil test conducted and to
refrain from shotgun micronutrient fertilizer applica-
tions. It is unlikely that micronutrient fertilizers will
be needed on old vegetable land, especially where
micronutrients are being applied regularly via recom-
mended pesticides. A micronutrient soil test every
2- to 3-years should help provide adequate
micronutrient levels for crop production.


the fertilizer blend at levels sufficient to supply 30
to 40 lb S/A should prevent S deficiencies. In many
areas of Florida, ample S will be supplied to vegetable
crops through the irrigation water because sulfur can
be present in the aquifer.
Magnesium deficiency may be a problem for
vegetable production; however, when the Mehlich-I
soil-test index for Mg is below 15 ppm, research has
shown that 30 lb Mg/A will satisfy the Mg CNR for
several years. If lime is also needed, Mg can be add-
ed by using dolomite as the liming material. If no lime
is needed, then the Mg requirement can be satisfied
through use of magnesium sulfate or potassium-
magnesium sulfate. Blending of the Mg source with
other fertilizer(s) to be applied to the soil is an ex-
cellent way of ensuring uniform application of Mg
to the soil.


Placement and timing

Because phosphorus (P) is considered immobile in
the soil, it should be placed in the bed and not on
the surface of the bed. Efficiency in P-fertilizer use
may be enhanced by reducing the amount of soil with
which the fertilizer is mixed. This statement is
especially true for the alkaline marl and Rockdale
soils of southern Florida. Banding or incorporating
P in the bed area are excellent methods of increas-
ing P efficiency.
In most situations, all P should be applied before
planting. Side-dressing of P in bands might be need-
ed on the marl or Rockdale soils during winter to in-
crease P availability to the slow-growing roots.
Nitrogen and, to a lesser extent, K can leach in san-
dy soils which are low in organic matter or clay con-
tent. Therefore, these nutrients should be applied to


6








unmulched crops in split applications to reduce
leaching losses and to reduce soluble-salt injury. For
muck soils, K can be broadcast at planting time with
the P.
Most micronutriefits are essentially immobile in soil
and should be managed like P. Foliar applications of
Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn can be used to correct deficien-
cies which might occur on alkaline soils during cool
periods.




Liquid vs. dry fertilizer

Research in Florida has shown that there is no dif-
ference in response of crops to similar amounts of
nutrients when applied in either liquid or dry form.
Certain situations (use of drip irrigation or injection
wheel) require clear or true solutions. However,
sidedress applications of fertilizer can be made equal-
ly well with dry or liquid forms of nutrients.
The decision to use liquid or dry fertilizer sources
should depend largely on economics and on the type
of application equipment available. The cost per unit
of nutrient (e.g., dollars per ton of actual N) should
be used in any decision-making process.


Foliar fertilization


Foliar fertilization should be thought of as a last
resort for correcting a deficiency. The plant leaf is
structured in such a way that it naturally resists easy
infiltration by fertilizer salts. Foliar fertilization most
appropriately applies to micronutrients and not to
macronutrients such as N, P, and K. Research has
shown that foliar applications of N, P, and/or K are
not needed where proper soil-directed fertilizer pro-
grams are being followed. Leaves cannot absorb
enough of these nutrients (without burning the
leaves) to correct any significant deficiency. Any
benefit from macronutrient foliar sprays probably
results when nutrients are washed by rain or irriga-
tion water off of the leaf surface into the soil. The
nutrient then enters the plant via the plant roots.
Amounts of macronutrients recommended on the
label of most commercial foliar products are so
minuscule compared to nutrition derived from the
soil that benefit to the plant is highly unlikely. Ad-
ditionally, fertilizer should only be added if addi-


tional yield results, and research with foliar-nutrient
applications has not clearly documented a yield in-
crease for vegetables.
In certain situations, temporary deficiencies of Mn,
Fe, Cu, or Zn can be corrected by foliar application.
Examples include vegetable production in winter
months when soils are cool and roots cannot extract
adequate amounts of micronutrients, and in cases
where high pH (marl and Rockdale soils) fixes broad-
casted micronutrients into unavailable forms.
Micronutrients are so termed because small, or
micro, amounts are required to satisfy the CNR. Such
micro amounts may be supplied adequately through
foliar applications to correct a temporary deficiency.
Boron is highly immobile in the plant. To correct
boron deficiencies, small amounts of boron must be
applied frequently to the young tissue or buds.
Any micronutrient should be applied only when
a specific deficiency has been clearly diagnosed. Do
not make shotgun applications of micronutrients.
There is a fine line between adequate and toxic
amounts of these nutrients. Shotgun application of
micronutrients can actually reduce plant growth and
rob yields because of toxicity. Compounding the pro-
blem is the fact that the micronutrients will end up
in the soil where they can accumulate to levels which
may threaten crop production on that soil. An im-
portant part of any micronutrient program involves
careful calculations of all micronutrients being ap-
plied, from all sources.




Double-cropping

Successive cropping of existing mulched beds is a
good practice in order to make effective use of the
polyethylene mulch and fumigant. Double-cropping
also can make use of residual fertilizer in the beds.
If fertilizer-N applications and amounts were proper-
ly managed for the first crop, then there should be
negligible amounts of fertilizer-N remaining in the
beds. It is not a good practice to add extra fertilizer
to the beds when planting the first crop, thinking
that this fertilizer will aid growth of the second crop.
The extra fertilizer could contribute to soluble-salt
damage to the first crop, and might still be leached
from the root zone before the second crop is
established.
If double-cropping is to be practiced, then a drip-
irrigation system could be used to supply adequate
nutrition to each crop. In most cases, only N and K


7








may be needed for the second crop. Amounts of P
and micronutrients (if any) used for the first crop will
likely remain adequate for the second crop as well.
Soil testing of a sample taken from the bed away
from any fertilizer bands will help determine P or
micronutrient needs, assuming that these nutrients
were broadcast in the bed prior to planting the first
crop.
If N for the first crop was not applied jn excess of
the CNR, then the second crop should receive an
amount of N equal to its own CNR. Potassium re-
quirements of the second crop can be determined as
for P in cases where the K for the first crop was in-
corporated in the bed. Potassium requirements for
the second crop are more difficult to determine in
cases where K for the first crop was banded. A
moderate amount of residual K will probably remain
in the bed from the application to the first crop.
Therefore, K requirements for the second crop will
likely be slightly less than the CNR value for the
chosen crop.
Once the crop fertilizer requirements have been
ascertained, the needed nutrition may be applied
through the drip system. Where drip irrigation is not
being used, a liquid injection wheel can be used to
place fertilizer in the bed for the second crop.












































































Reprinted August 1990



COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, John T.
Woeste, director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the
May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to
individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin. Single copies of extension
publications (excluding 4-H and youth publications) are available free to Florida residents from county extension offices. Information on bulk
rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers is available from C.M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability.




Full Text

PAGE 1

Contents 1 Introduction Nutrient requirements 2 Soil testing 3 Irrigation Supplemental fertilizer Mulched crops Soil pH 4 Nutrient forms 5 Secondary nutrients 6 Micronutrients Placement and timing 7 Liquid vs. dry fertilizer Foliar fertilization Double-cropping Authors G. J. Hochmuth, Associate Professor and Extension Specialist, Vegetable Crops Dept., IFAS, Gainesville. E. A. Hanlon, Assistant Professor, Extension Soils Specialist, Soil Science Dept., IFAS, Gainesville.



PAGE 1

unmulched crops in split applications to reduce tional yield results, and research with foliar-nutrient leaching losses and to reduce soluble-salt injury. For applications has not clearly documented a yield inmuck soils, K can be broadcast at planting time with crease for vegetables. the P. In certain 'situations, temporary deficiencies of Mn, Most micronutriefts are essentially immobile in soil Fe, Cu, or Zn can be corrected by foliar application. and should be managed like P. Foliar applications of Examples include vegetable production in winter Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn can be used to correct deficienmonths when soils are cool and roots cannot extract cies which might occur on alkaline soils during cool adequate amounts of micronutrients, and in cases periods. where high pH (marl and Rockdale soils) fixes broadcasted micronutrients into unavailable forms. Micronutrients are so termed because small, or micro, amounts are required to satisfy the CNR. Such micro amounts may be supplied adequately through Liquid vs. dry fertilizer foliar applications to correct a temporary deficiency. Boron is highly immobile in the plant. To correct Research in Florida has shown that there is no difboron deficiencies, small amounts of boron must be ference in response of crops to similar amounts of applied frequently to the young tissue or buds. nutrients when applied in either liquid or dry form. An micronutrient should be applied only when Certain situations (use of drip irrigation or injection a specific deficiency has been clearly diagnosed. Do wheel) require clear or true solutions. However, not make shotgun applications of micronutrients. sidedress applications of fertilizer can be made equalThere is a fine line between adequate and toxic ly well with dry or liquid forms of nutrients, amounts of these nutrients. Shotgun application of The decision to use liquid or dry fertilizer sources micronutrients can actually reduce plant growth and should depend largely on economics and on the type rob yelds because of toxicity. Compounding the proof application equipment available. The cost per unit blem is the fact that the micronutrients will end up of nutrient (e.g., dollars per ton of actual N) should in the soil where they can accumulate to levels which be used in any decision-making process. may threaten crop production on that soil. An important part of any micronutrient program involves careful calculations of all micronutrients being applied, from all sources. Foliar fertilization Foliar fertilization should be thought of as a last resort for correcting a deficiency. The plant leaf is Double-cropping structured in such a way that it naturally resists easy infiltration by fertilizer salts. Foliar fertilization most Successive cropping of existing mulched beds is a appropriately applies to micronutrients and not to good practice in order to make effective use of the macronutrients such as N, P, and K. Research has polyethylene mulch and fumigant. Double-cropping shown that foliar applications of N, P, and/or K are also can make use of residual fertilizer in the beds. not needed where proper soil-directed fertilizer proIf fertilizer-N applications and amounts were propergrams are being followed. Leaves cannot absorb ly managed for the first crop, then there should be enough of these nutrients (without burning the negligible amounts of fertilizer-N remaining in the leaves) to correct any significant deficiency. Any beds. It is not a good practice to add extra fertilizer benefit from macronutrient foliar sprays probably to the beds when planting the first crop, thinking results when nutrients are washed by rain or irrigathat this fertilizer will aid growth of the second crop. tion water off of the leaf surface into the soil. The The extra fertilizer could contribute to soluble-salt nutrient then enters the plant via the plant roots. damage to the first crop, and might still be leached Amounts of macronutrients recommended on the from the root zone before the second crop is label of most commercial foliar products are so established. minuscule compared to nutrition derived from the If double-cropping is to be practiced, then a dripsoil that benefit to the plant is highly unlikely. Adirrigation system could be used to supply adequate ditionally, fertilizer should only be added if addinutrition to each crop. In most cases, only N and K 7



PAGE 1

Table 5. List of University of Florida extension publications pertaining to crop production and fertilization. M icronutrients Publication Topic number Title of publication It has been common practice in Florida vegetable Beans Circ. 100 Bean Production Guide production to routinely apply a micronutrient Broccoli Circ. 555 Broccoli and Cauliflower package. This practice has been justified in the past Production in Florida on the basis that these nutrients were inexpensive, Cabbage Circ. 117 Cabbage Production Guide a t a for Florida for Florida and the l r application was viewed as insurance for Cauliflower Circ. 555 Broccoli and Cautiflower high yields. In addition, there has been little research Production in Florida data and a lack of soil-test calibrations to guide Corn, sweet Circ. 99 Sweet Corn Production in judicious application of micronutrient fertilizers. Florida Compounding the problem has been the vegetable Cucumber Circ. 101 Cucumber Production Guide industry's use of micronutrieg for Florida for Florida industry's use of micronutrient-containimmg pesticides Eggplant Circ. 109 Eggplant Production Guide for disease control. Micronutrients, such as copper Fertilization Circ. 225-C Commercial Vegetable (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn), from these Fertilization Guide sources have tended to accumulate in the plow zone Bull. 183-C Fertilizers and Fertilization of the soil. Lettuce Circ. 123 Lettuce and Endive Production Guide This situation has forced some vegetable producers Muskmelon Circ. 122 Muskmelon Production to overtime in an effort to avoid micronutrient toxGuide for Florida cities. Data have now been accumulated which perOkra Circ. 492 Okra in Florida mit a more accurate assessment of micronutrient reOnions Circ. 176 Onion Production Guide quirements. Growers are encouraged to have a Peas, Southern Circ. 478 The Southern Pea in Florida Pepper Circ. 102 Pepper Production Guide for rfanrcalibrated micronutrient soil test conducted and to Florida refrain from shotgun micronutrient fertilizer applicaPotato, Irish Circ. 118 Potato Production Guide tions. It is unlikely that micronutrient fertilizers will Potato, Sweet Circ. 551 Sweet Potatoes in Florida be needed on old vegetable land, especially where Squash Circ. 103 Squash Production in Florida micronutrients are being applied regularly via recomStrawberry Circ. 142 Strawberry Production Guide m d p A m s t for Florida for Florida mended pesticides. A micronutrient soil test every Tomato Circ. 98 Tomato Production Guide for 2to 3-years should help provide adequate Florida micronutrient levels for crop production. Watermelon Circ. 96 Watermelon Production in Florida Placement and timing the fertilizer blend at levels sufficient to supply 30 to 40 lb S/A should prevent S deficiencies. In many Because phosphorus (P) is considered immobile in areas of Florida, ample S will be supplied to vegetable the soil, it should be placed in the bed and not on crops through the irrigation water because sulfur can the surface of the bed. Efficiency in P-fertilizer use be present in the aquifer. may be enhanced by reducing the amount of soil with Magnesium deficiency may be a problem for which the fertilizer is mixed. This statement is vegetable production; however, when the Mehlich-I especially true for the alkaline marl and Rockdale soil-test index for Mg is below 15 ppm, research has soils of southern Florida. Banding or incorporating shown that 30 lb Mg/A will satisfy the Mg CNR for P in the bed area are excellent methods of increasseveral years. If lime is also needed, Mg can be adding P efficiency. ed by using dolomite as the liming material. If no lime In most situations, all P should be applied before is needed, then the Mg requirement can be satisfied planting. Side-dressing of P in bands might be needthrough use of magnesium sulfate or potassiumed on the marl or Rockdale soils during winter to inmagnesium sulfate. Blending of the Mg source with crease P availability to the slow-growing roots. other fertilizer(s) to be applied to the soil is an exNitrogen and, to a lesser extent, K can leach in sancellent way of ensuring uniform application of Mg dy soils which are low in organic matter or clay conto the soil. tent. Therefore, these nutrients should be applied to 6



PAGE 1

may be needed for the second crop. Amounts of P and micronutrients (if any) used for the first crop will likely remain adequate for the second crop as well. Soil testing of a sample taken from the bed away from any fertilizer bands will help determine P or micronutrient needs, assuming that these nutrients were broadcast in the bed prior to planting the firsf crop. If N for the first crop was not applied jn excess of the CNR, then the second crop should receive an amount of N equal to its own CNR. Potassium requirements of the second crop can be determined as for P in cases where the K for the first crop was incorporated in the bed. Potassium requirements for the second crop are more difficult to determine in cases where K for the first crop was banded. A moderate amount of residual K will probably remain in the bed from the application to the first crop. Therefore, K requirements for the second crop will likely be slightly less than the CNR value for the chosen crop. Once the crop fertilizer requirements have been ascertained, the needed nutrition may be applied through the drip system. Where drip irrigation is not being used, a liquid injection wheel can be used to place fertilizer in the bed for the second crop. 8





PAGE 1

ceed 2to 3-inches within a 3-day period or 4 inches within a 7-day ~~~~~~~~Introduction ^-l-w^^l~period. Avoid mechanical damage to plants when applying sidedress introduction fertilizers. 3 Fertilizer should be applied in split applications in order to reduce The purpose of this circular is to present crop leaching losses and to lessen danger of fertilizer burn. Broadcast nutrient requirements for commercial vegetables in in the bed or band all P20 5 and micronutrients, if any, and 25% to Florida. It is intended to be a supplement to Exten50% of the N and K20 at planting. Apply remaining N and K20 in rio . C ir C "omer Vegenta b Fesidedress bands during the early part of the growing season. sion Circular 225-C, "Commercial Vegetable Fertilization Guide." Certain information included in 4 For mulched, subsurface-irrigated crops, incorporate 10% to 20% 225-C is repeated here to increase the clarity of this of the N and K20, plus all of the P 2 0 5 and micronutrients, if any, 225-C is repeated here to increase the clarity of this in the bed. Apply the remainder of the N and K20 one inch deep presentation. in bands about 6 to 10 inches from the plant row. For mulched, The first part of this publication contains discusoverhead-irrigated crops, incorporate all of the N, P20 5 , K20, and sions of several topics pertaining to fertilization of micronutrients, if any, in the bed prior to installation of the mulch. vegetable crops. The second part presents, in tabular 5 For drip irrigation, incorporate 20% to 40% of the N and K20 and form, the crop nutrient requirements of vegetables all of the P20s and micronutrients, if any, in the bed. Apply the rein Florida. mainder of the N and K20 periodically though drip tubes according to the rate of crop growth and development. For management systems where both subsurface and drip irrigation are used, apply Table 1. Crop nutrient requirements for N, P, and K no more than 20% of the N and K20 in the bed before mulching. for vegetables grown on irrigated mineral soils. 6 Apply all fertilizer prior to or at planting. Crop nutrient requirements'12 7 From 25% to 30% of the N may be supplied from slow-release N N-P20-IK2O sources, such as sulfur-coated urea or isobutylidene-diurea (IBDU). Crop Lb/A Footnotes Due to higher N efficiency with slow-release N sources, it might be possible to reduce the overall N-fertilizer amount by about 15% to Beans, bush 60-80-80 3 20%. Beans, pole 90-120-120 3 Beans, lima 90-120-120 3 8 Apply all P20 5 and micronutrients, if any, and 25% of the N and Beets 90-1 20-1 20 3 K20, in the bed. Place the remaining N and K20 in a band 2to Broccoli 110-150-150 34,5,10 3-inches deep in the center of the bed. Broccoli 110-150-150 3,4,5,10 Cabbage 120-160-160 3,4,5,10 9 Usually adequate for 2 to 3 crops in succession. Carrots 110-150-150 3 1 0 Transplants might benefit from application of starter-fertilizer soluCauliflower 110-150-150 3,4,5,10 tion, especially under cool soils. Celery 200-300-300 3,10 Chinese cabbage 110-150-150 3,10 1 Includes head, leaf, and romaine lettuces, in addition to escarole Collards 110-150-150 3 and endive. Corn, sweet 90-120-120 3 Cucumber 90-120-120 3,4,5 Eggplant 120-160-160 3,4,5,10 Lettuce 110-150-150 3,10,11 Muskmelon 120-160-160 3,4,5,10 Mustard 11-10-5 3 Nutrient requirements Mustard 110-150-150 3 Okra 110-150-150 3 Onions 120-120-120 3 Plants require 16 elements (C, H, 0, P, K, N, S, Ca, Peas, English 60-80-80 3 Mg, Fe, B, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cl) for normal growth and Peas, southern 60-80-80 3 reproduction. The crop nutrient requirement (CNR) Pepper 160-160-160 3,4,5,7,10 for a particular element is defined as the total Potato, Irish 150-120-140 3 Potato, Irish 015-1201 4 0 3 amount in lb/A of that element needed by the crop Potato, sweet 60-120-120 3 Radish 90-120-120 3,6,9 to produce economic optimum yield. This concept of Spinach 90-12-120 3 economic optimum yields is important for vegetables Squash, summer 90-120-120 3,4,5 because a certain amount of nutrients might produce Squash, winter 90-120-120 3,4,5 a moderate amount of biomass, but produce negligiStrawberry 120-160-160 5,7,8 ble marketable product due to small fruit size. Fruit Tomato 1660-160-160 3,4,5,7,10 Turnip 160-160-150 3,4, 0 size and quality must be considered in the crop Watermelon 120-160-120 3,4,5,10 nutrient requirement concept for vegetables. Footnotes:\ The crop nutrient requirement can be satisfied Footnotes: 1 These amounts should be applied as fertilizer only to soils testing from many sources, including soil, water, air, organic "very low" in P and K. Use a soil test to determine precisely how matter, or fertilizer. For example, the CNR of much fertilizer is needed. potassium (K) can be supplied from K-containing 2Additional supplemental sidedress applications of 30 ib N and 20 minerals in the soil, from K retained by soil organic lb K20 should be applied only after rainfall/irrigation amounts exmatter, or from K fertilizers. .. V6___ 1Oa ._, , ^ F X 5, ati ,iAR1 *


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'2012-02-23T09:13:19-05:00'
describe
'585' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOOX' 'sip-files00002.txt'
a9615b1c7d026d759b61616ce7a8a3c2
d65539d3ee03352420c6cc796dbb6c2fb14aa065
describe
'15786' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOOY' 'sip-files00002thm.jpg'
3fbfd25659e89d00a012cb4757e93d7d
3872704cc578652afe3d050fa63fd29b3deaf466
describe
'480613' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOOZ' 'sip-files00003.jp2'
96cdce737d8c2b1e4ba76e77b115114a
b3cf2a7dc953ac03f64d0fded3429bf6874b7f10
'2012-02-23T09:13:28-05:00'
describe
'189205' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOPA' 'sip-files00003.jpg'
61b689e184dbce31ccb28c84334b76d3
364d36d8d9d2f6b4589e7a247bffd89107292307
describe
'181165' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOPB' 'sip-files00003.pdf'
ebf4b6651a947b522bd7025267d0f548
f8bcb3fc97bdbd80171f69ad54128e5bc51dd56e
'2012-02-23T09:13:31-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOPB-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADOPB-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
'2015-05-15T16:39:01-04:00'
describe
'2015-05-15T16:38:55-04:00'
normalize
'131366' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOPC' 'sip-files00003.pro'
2f06dc8ca0e2b7486c0e4f9d7af62e3c
52cf7e31dd5236890898f2115b7651a55720bec7
'2012-02-23T09:13:30-05:00'
describe
'70381' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOPD' 'sip-files00003.QC.jpg'
c8dc558896f86d63f0e3e38794c210f2
55c40edeb24c0c64f07b98ff5a07dc3d201617a4
describe
'4083308' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOPE' 'sip-files00003.tif'
9c0e470f76d53097b91c1f8301b17d86
92db8a1049e1c9850c0ae92e47e950ed28e97133
'2012-02-23T09:13:12-05:00'
describe
'5435' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOPF' 'sip-files00003.txt'
485743d550d10805d1b717e566a08c22
2be97d3c11c184ddf4ec7bfc032a046d5216024c
describe
'39377' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOPG' 'sip-files00003thm.jpg'
b52c74fb4ece4653f68ff49e9a9c8295
0f0eb363c5a0824c744bec120b5ea51e5374d49d
describe
'474155' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOPH' 'sip-files00004.jp2'
83979de39163805f9ee0eca642c86703
205dcae71aac9beb0f04198eb98aaaa0781bc779
describe
'194559' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOPI' 'sip-files00004.jpg'
27320804be92b7810952a8ca17915f11
25d3438cef806826d3ade682f80f2bfcf1f2d72f
'2012-02-23T09:13:11-05:00'
describe
'180176' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOPJ' 'sip-files00004.pdf'
0e68405dfa7a68f61e84bbf6fc998ff4
38584e5152ea89cb9636b5490184742f11ec800b
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOPJ-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADOPJ-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
'2015-05-15T16:38:58-04:00'
describe
'2015-05-15T16:38:29-04:00'
normalize
'118951' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOPK' 'sip-files00004.pro'
18c6b1ffb72351ff1b61b172eaad5b62
970d40c0b234cfe064c46744681a46c3cffe3e43
describe
'69954' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOPL' 'sip-files00004.QC.jpg'
68ce553f57db722e587d34bb09517269
6846cedeec9991ac4da4406f852c4d9d7b27ff59
describe
'3905188' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOPM' 'sip-files00004.tif'
d87739a73d097d857c22438d538ac1f3
3d5b6dee770badfeeb10c90cd39eda129aff7f07
describe
'4973' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOPN' 'sip-files00004.txt'
5491dffe801c3c0e5cc49e9b5f79343a
3705e7c2e35ae275bac10a4028e3858fc555b643
describe
'38157' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOPO' 'sip-files00004thm.jpg'
64bd3cca91c986fa056928cfa45e9e24
a207efaab95089b238b1fde3282422181da554b2
describe
'518981' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOPP' 'sip-files00005.jp2'
15b1333d8b21d17e0e03da9c8112a3d3
c427c6bc29d127ca7c1cefb91c9edfef58b3c851
'2012-02-23T09:13:38-05:00'
describe
'203720' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOPQ' 'sip-files00005.jpg'
868532a19b12724116b3a5d7081c7510
f43ec736852f4638920dce3ff442b0c2cd0419b4
'2012-02-23T09:13:21-05:00'
describe
'193620' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOPR' 'sip-files00005.pdf'
bc04121f0285dae9978bcbdfd7bf63a1
4405de26ae0b7701661b1986045319c74c3d1ab6
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOPR-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADOPR-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
'2015-05-15T16:39:02-04:00'
describe
'2015-05-15T16:38:40-04:00'
normalize
'114742' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOPS' 'sip-files00005.pro'
faf1090be2b70792ea4562239eb00fb1
06183881d96cc3c798b1ad1add8b74afe23814bc
describe
'72154' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOPT' 'sip-files00005.QC.jpg'
9b42b67a114848d1990b3ffe9c04dd63
c894a5a3cc5de89c8360b941c1db753b8030303f
describe
'4083728' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOPU' 'sip-files00005.tif'
532a719e0b439845c823242ef570583e
d93e03adff368e2305c3ea36d6c687e98b2990a7
'2012-02-23T09:13:27-05:00'
describe
'4495' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOPV' 'sip-files00005.txt'
39fc923e1489cb685a95c066db13abf8
3a53fe0dbc41c8bbefe8990e8f9e28908867c15b
describe
'39667' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOPW' 'sip-files00005thm.jpg'
0337366bbbe6ea25a853ee86110331fe
6e6d68f14c6c2f88e6e25d81ddccc71f6146fe82
'2012-02-23T09:13:32-05:00'
describe
'446307' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOPX' 'sip-files00006.jp2'
2b636f64030b4f9e73279be3cba0c848
1d14eab66886e71554fb3964e9d20dfac95eb28f
describe
'178807' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOPY' 'sip-files00006.jpg'
52fcb17a61776399ce655ba93c5ce67e
19e07233a53d264c4229f4381462e071462cb9b8
describe
'168728' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOPZ' 'sip-files00006.pdf'
f8d797d8b801304ce527b6a81c85411d
d5009c54d8d520f763c0c9d164a2e622d7ba496c
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOPZ-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADOPZ-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
describe
'2015-05-15T16:38:48-04:00'
normalize
'117367' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOQA' 'sip-files00006.pro'
ce9da1808512586cdeaa08d849d5f6af
39ed167a55902ce2563b7162bc3a5b3e299c8131
'2012-02-23T09:13:20-05:00'
describe
'65989' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOQB' 'sip-files00006.QC.jpg'
5b1a8aa8187037a12ddee2080ef77b55
122a562aa81dad9d7e441962e41abe57572847de
describe
'3930344' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOQC' 'sip-files00006.tif'
e629280673921300374542abef7d4539
70e3c03f71f0e66f0d068a7e752fcb2617a87984
'2012-02-23T09:13:22-05:00'
describe
'4932' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOQD' 'sip-files00006.txt'
cf5c25bbacaa0edfa134eab0ef45f741
465a2a6f39edc18691c3922cae1dcc36a076013c
describe
'36465' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOQE' 'sip-files00006thm.jpg'
82ebca97198944c52fe2074ae961ac33
dbcd10033466ee23181d1d4efdcac8bd062557e1
describe
'465105' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOQF' 'sip-files00007.jp2'
3ca3c944506185c92f1832e5a95efd89
2e6f8967ae086a0d0f403219487c8eecd06d464c
describe
'183925' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOQG' 'sip-files00007.jpg'
06965c45aaaa1fc569dd246a7f204c4e
a81e2ba98329240899bb5af062638646edf7e9f5
describe
'173750' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOQH' 'sip-files00007.pdf'
dbafd919b76f1bc8158593fa83905526
9faa72ed8bb2389f83eedcaf2dcff35e864df710
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOQH-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADOQH-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
'2015-05-15T16:38:59-04:00'
describe
'2015-05-15T16:38:38-04:00'
normalize
'124141' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOQI' 'sip-files00007.pro'
91ba69fcb7f26719a59f55e3ef1cec27
2fe41c3ecc923ff7839e76f49b0519bac1aa1eff
describe
'67786' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOQJ' 'sip-files00007.QC.jpg'
b5dcf34ca1ff84e6e7ee986e62aff368
606ffe6be065737db154bbc1198154dea1271797
describe
'4082820' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOQK' 'sip-files00007.tif'
00cad4b7b37be5820b9a4ad99eb2b062
ebbbb11dcf34e8663bc20c4b5b157c4bf2e93ad7
'2012-02-23T09:13:26-05:00'
describe
'5120' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOQL' 'sip-files00007.txt'
e386beb5cd0fbf735de6203cb39796c3
f7d612f66c154c9edd1fcaba82bdc6be01681673
describe
'38347' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOQM' 'sip-files00007thm.jpg'
0b679543850545891ae3354b837bda80
774c704f4ed8a3754599b8720b7c012892594637
describe
'474051' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOQN' 'sip-files00008.jp2'
c911f3c9c45fd334b4dec8947121e0a5
93e31851e0b76a47ec50c020d0f233d7aff8df39
describe
'190473' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOQO' 'sip-files00008.jpg'
9d364098b5cb72b50bb473bb1a6de960
f1fb26d0ce4fb1d59d8821aac4bd469884736293
describe
'178637' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOQP' 'sip-files00008.pdf'
9dfe729a66cff83042d18f06bdcf0729
cc0382255a8fca1186f210928006a4cc5c5813e2
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOQP-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADOQP-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
describe
'2015-05-15T16:38:43-04:00'
normalize
'117384' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOQQ' 'sip-files00008.pro'
a24a061be87459913e490c81e140689e
60e4579d13db24e391faff06f772a8b1e45d26f5
describe
'71374' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOQR' 'sip-files00008.QC.jpg'
57539dcf103933bb6969787699cdd788
157b9669ba6353f627c320f3f3130090f3f8b3d9
describe
'4083636' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOQS' 'sip-files00008.tif'
528783cf99922a51d3efd45e698b797c
b1c6b8f8b554cfee50180f92ca897f9d3d6f4fb2
describe
'4983' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOQT' 'sip-files00008.txt'
dba655b9a09dec0c28d3335c12df2abb
43da14247242931fc592c3a1afba02e23acbf21c
describe
'39295' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOQU' 'sip-files00008thm.jpg'
8f816384e5a8250a6a6dfee3634dc9e3
8eff0d5158d85cfc5ac9e208ee69594b59e2449a
describe
'524765' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOQV' 'sip-files00009.jp2'
a324d863e398cca8253ff6438a65c51f
0e6a48bd0b6634279911f62682949ba4876c6558
describe
'207777' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOQW' 'sip-files00009.jpg'
31723a57c5a7ae168b3b6a6dfed930ee
e7d1f7a09bbf959a0f3f3b4419b3d7e66b1e4c5e
describe
'194742' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOQX' 'sip-files00009.pdf'
7e111c816333673cef25c9aa57b2467f
00c7fc832a0a00492bf05bbe8d50e6f36b7c75e3
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOQX-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADOQX-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
describe
'2015-05-15T16:38:24-04:00'
normalize
'117759' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOQY' 'sip-files00009.pro'
63f0a98737e1b554d0d5461b5a4f56e7
9a161f3644564acc20d8e723e5e7ab901f630c33
describe
'73708' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADOQZ' 'sip-files00009.QC.jpg'
7bbd6cd93d47232456aa02f6f31d9869
2c2ee7d714bae517993e3c00d37044d813510ff5
describe
'4084204' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADORA' 'sip-files00009.tif'
5079a9c2739ee65c92c90f293004a1e4
a2ab5c1db0ced344b92d5143b8d5ed794f86f856
describe
'4582' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADORB' 'sip-files00009.txt'
496da94b1324eebe072ec58a0cf3316d
93664f1b9b49d37ba850b958e85364a2f7524427
describe
'40071' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADORC' 'sip-files00009thm.jpg'
92b47bbe20ca0dd54f7a0f53b5ff04cd
3683b103d68eeca59f31108d82a1f6752b37bf86
'2012-02-23T09:13:39-05:00'
describe
'154496' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADORD' 'sip-files00010.jp2'
faca5d63efe63ae2d56701c0e3d97d82
c35fb6181c9dd48822a7da65d51b3e8c7a3823fe
describe
'66056' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADORE' 'sip-files00010.jpg'
79c27a8b90f3a39a4c321effbe67d6d7
ee5ac4e7a139f21ec1825fd9a5b862e8ca66687e
describe
'57570' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADORF' 'sip-files00010.pdf'
1f4f7e64d1cd87abd0f79ba34876ff69
f687b3d3b0b27c6673d584e761985dd36af8411a
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADORF-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADORF-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
describe
'2015-05-15T16:38:27-04:00'
normalize
'32677' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADORG' 'sip-files00010.pro'
f5b65df0ae7fd320344f896a1da1afcb
1923801d7241fccb3289a01aff03a46e75496a12
describe
'26229' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADORH' 'sip-files00010.QC.jpg'
45cf3ec7588244517bce53240ae94b10
1c22728f9529cf30c123c5b5a208323b53a39543
describe
'3994152' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADORI' 'sip-files00010.tif'
8c684bce317fa57903569ce078fc1ef8
b73d89e8f48522a3162e0b0a235e595f913a4702
describe
'1282' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADORJ' 'sip-files00010.txt'
d0669372e9673e605b7210906f6f9833
5342c41679aa017b47595a808c8fe2215ea3f11b
describe
'16670' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADORK' 'sip-files00010thm.jpg'
b217020d03a2e22fbc9fbd7fa7e5806f
f42df1a9802040c81d66b61343524206ca3d76b7
describe
'9887' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADORL' 'sip-files00011.jp2'
d29c44e93a8c714dacbfd6ac98916b94
63ace19cace329ab155fe931bf31eceb37fcebb2
describe
'9832' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADORM' 'sip-files00011.jpg'
ad841257e64bf6a9ecf5389216bc763a
a1f467df4c277e185599a8467c05a3e3d3f25d35
describe
'4116' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADORN' 'sip-files00011.pdf'
8aa93e36109cc45673355fb231dfd5cf
bdaee3f046417a017770b05b4cdc4ca378a28b82
describe
'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADORN-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090712_AADORN-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
describe
'2015-05-15T16:38:50-04:00'
normalize
'8146' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADORO' 'sip-files00011.QC.jpg'
601f200a05717581e013313ace29b3a6
7f3547f7bf4a176d7913fe08bb95f47dff437efa
describe
'4061184' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADORP' 'sip-files00011.tif'
faf04fd5b1f333a55935064ff58a3753
d10f4d32662b3f77cae9b745face69e2a0db0601
describe
'7705' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADORQ' 'sip-files00011thm.jpg'
72d1b6ccca6e5849cc1df8e744dfd84c
6c07d1dd557e3fd4ef7c256b1c1e1c2a4e034ee7
describe
'86413' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADORR' 'sip-files00012.jp2'
aaf4e8e701d61e3b263b9a23ee67dccb
cdbd47d5d46ca8b82e93c0762cea7b4b1ff21385
describe
'34018' 'info:fdaE20090712_AAAAPQfileF20090712_AADORS' 'sip-files00012.jpg'
d7e6dc501c092720fac1c4b5402a4e26
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Table 4. Crop nutrient requirements for N, P, and K 6 For drip-irrigated crops, apply all P and micronutrients, and 20% for vegetables grown on irrigated Rockdale soils. to 40% of the N and K, in the bed. Apply remaining N and K through __________the drip system. Crop nutrient requirements' 7 When transplanting into cool soils, benefit might result from applicaN-P 2 0' K 2 0 tion of starter-fertilizer solution with the transplant. Crop Lb/A Footnotes Beans,-------bush-45-60-60----81lncludes escarole and chicory. Beans, bush 45-60-60 4 Beans, pole 70-90-90 4 91ncludes head, leaf, and romaine. Beans, lima 70-90-90 4 Beets 3 Broccoli 70-90-90 4,5,6,7 Phosphorus (P) can be supplied from several Cabbage 70-90-90 4,5 Carrots 3 sources, including normal and triple superphosphate, Cauliflower 70-90-90 4,5,6,7 diammonium phosphate, and monoammonium phosCelery 90-120-120 4 phate. All sources can be effective for plant nutriChinese cabbage 70-90-90 4 tion on sandy soil. However, on soils that test very Collards 70-90-90 4 low in native micronutrient levels, diammonium Corn, sweet 70-60-90 4 Cucumber 70-90-90 45 phosphate has been shown to reduce yields when Eggplant 70-90-90 4,5,7 banded in large amounts in mixtures containing Endive 70-90-90 4,8 micronutrients. Negative effects of diammonium Lettuce 70-90-90 4,9 phosphate can be minimized by using diammonium Muskmelon 70-90-90 4,5 phosphate for only a portion of the P requirements Mustard 70-90-90 4 Okra 70-90-90 4 and by broadcasting this material in the bed. Onions 70-90-90 4 Potassium can also be supplied from several Peas, English 60-90-90 4 sources, including potassium chloride, potassium Peas, southern 60-90-90 4 sulfate, potassium nitrate, and potassium-magnesium Pepper 70-90-90 4,5,7 sulfate. If soil-test-predicted amounts of K fertilizer Potato, Irish 3 Potato, sweet 30-60-70 4 are adhered to, there should be no concern about the Radish -3 K source or its relative salt index. Spinach 70-90-70 4 Squash, summer 70-90-90 4 Squash; winter 70-90-90 4 Strawberry 90-120-120 5,6,7 Tomato 120-200-180 4,5,6,7 n tri Turnip greens 70-90-90 4 eco ary n ients Watermelon 70-90-90 4,5 Footnotes: The secondary nutrients such as calcium (Ca), 1 These amounts should be applied as fertilizer only to soils testing magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S) have not commonly "very low" in P and K. Use a soil test to determine precisely how been a problem in Florida. Calcium usually occurs in much fertilizer is needed. adequate supply for most vegetables when soil pH 2Make a supplemental application to unmulched crops of 30-0-20 is maintained at 5.5 or above. If the Mehlich-I soil lb N-P 2 0 5 -K20/A after any rainfall or excessive irrigation amounting Ca index is above 250 ppm, it is unlikely that there to 2 to 3 inches in a 7-day period. Use a liquid-injection wheel or drip irrigation to apply supplemental fertilizer to mulched crops. Supwill be a response to added Ca. Maintaining correct plemental applications will probably not be needed for mulched crops moisture levels in the soil by irrigation will aid in Ca unless flooding occurs. Crops might respond to a banded supplemensupply to the roots. Calcium is not mobile in the tal application of 30 lb. P20 5 /A in cool periods, plant; therefore, foliar sprays of Ca are not likely to 3 These crops not recommended for commercial production on correct serious deficiencies. It is difficult to place Rockdale soils. enough foliar-applied Ca at the growing point of the 4 For unmulched crops, apply all P and micronutrients before or at plant on a timely basis. planting. These nutrients can be broadcast and incorporated in the Sulfur deficiencies have not been documented for bed; however, increased efficiency in plant uptake of nutrients might Florida vegetables. Sulfur deficiency would most result from banding the fertilizer in the soil to the sides of the row. Apply 25% to 50% of the N and K at planting, or sidedress at crop likely occur on deep, sandy soils low in organic matemergence. Apply the remainder of the N and K in 2 to 3 split apter, after leaching rains. If. S deficiency has been plications during the growing season. diagnosed, it can be corrected by using S-containing sFor mulched crops, apply all fertilizer in the bed either broadcast fertilizers such as magnesium sulfate, potassium or 25% broadcast and the remainder banded in the soil to the sides sulfate, normal superphosphate, or potassiumof the row prior to installing the mulch. magnesium sulfate. Using one of these materials in 5



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or in broadcast fashion, the supplemental fertilizer Irrigation can be broadcast over the top by air, ground spreader, or overhead sprinkler-irrigation system. Where plastic mulch is used, supplemental applicaFertilizer and water management programs are Fertilizer and water management programs are tions can be made through the mulch by a liquid inlinked. Optimum management of one program reirrigation system. section wheel or through the drip irrigation system. quires proper management of the other as well. Overhead irrigation generally causes the Whenever applying supplemental fertilizer, the Overhead irrigation generally causes the dOw had m etio gnuri c ntren equipment must be calibrated carefully. Fertilizer downward movement of nutrients such as nitrogen downwd m ent f n t sc as ntron placement is important in order to avoid damage to (N) and K. Small amounts of irrigation water applied either plants or roots from the application on a regular basis will result in less leaching than will ei nt large amounts applied infrequently. Excessive irrigaequipment tion can even remove fertilizer from plastic-mulched beds, especially from the soil near the plant hole. The water table in a subsurface (seep) irrigation system should be maintained 13to 15-inches below Mulched crops the top of the bed. The water table should not be fluctuated appreciably because nutrients can be lost from the bed during fluctuations. High water tables Mulching is a standard practice for the production after heavy rains should also be lowered quickly to of many vegetable crops in Florida. Polyethylene avoid leaching of nutrients from flooded beds. mulch improves fumigant effectiveness, increases Drip irrigation provides an optimum method for apweed control, increases soil temperature, and plying water and nutrients, especially if used in conreduces fruit rot. In addition, mulch can reduce ferjunction with mulch. Savings of water of more than tilizer leaching. Even though crop growth and pro50%, compared to either seepage or overhead irrigaduction are often greater with mulch, the increased tion methods, have been reported. However, fertilizer efficiency of mulch culture means that CNR nutrient leaching can be severe with an improperly requirements for the mulch system are not higher managed drip system. For more information on drip than for unmulched crops. Therefore, CNR values in irrigation management, refer to Extension Circulars Tables 1 through 4 apply to both unmulched and 606 and 607. mulched crops. The difference is in the application of the fertilizer in each system. In unmulched cultures, split applications of N and K should be used, but in mulched systems, all N and K can be placed under the mulch when the mulch is applied to the Supplemental fertilizer bed. Extra, or insurance fertilizer under the mulch is not recommended. It can cause soluble-salt injury to If the CNR component supplied through fertilizacntue o ou aeolluplants and can also contribute to groundwater pollution is properly managed in relation to irrigation andrtmulc floo tion if it is leached from under the mulch by flooding fertilizer application timing, it is unlikely that supor by a high water table. plemental fertilizer will be needed. Supplemental fertilizer may be needed after a leaching rainfall, during which, about 50% of the N and 25% of the K would be leached out of the root zone by a 2to 3-inch rainfall under unmulched culture. Supplemental applications, in general, should Soil pH supply approximately 30 lb N/A. Since leaching of K is not as great as that of N, only about 20 lb K 2 0/A Current IFAS standardized recommendations call is required in a typical supplemental application. The for maintaining soil pH in the range of 6.0 to 6.5. number of supplemental applications will vary acHowever, some vegetables, such as watermelon, will cording to the number of leaching rainfalls and the perform normally at lower pH values as long as large length of the crop growing season. amounts of micronutrients are not present in the soil. Supplemental fertilizer should be applied in bands A common problem in Florida has been overliming, to each side of the row for unmulched crops. The ferresulting in high soil pH levels. Overliming and tilizer should be placed in the soil just ahead of the resulting high soil pH can cause tie-up of advancing root tips. For crops growing in close rows micronutrients and restrict their availability.to the 3



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]0G 3o( June 1989 Circular 806 Commercial Vegetable Crop Nutrient CR opquireutm ents Central Science Requirements Li8 19r2 G. J. Hochmuth and E.A. Hanlon Universit of Florida Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences University of Florida / John T. Woeste, Dean


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Reprinted August 1990 COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, John T. Woeste, director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin. Single copies of extension publications (excluding 4-H and youth publications) are available free to Florida residents from county extension offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers is available from C.M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of u,,o^\ Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability.



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Table 3. Crop nutrient requirements for N, P, and K 6 Apply all fertilizer prior to or at planting. for vegetables grown on irrigated marl soils. 7 Includes escarole and chicory. Crop nutrient requirements 1 '2 8 lncludes head, leaf, and romaine. N-P 2 0-K20 Crop Lb/A Footnotes Beans, bush 45-60-60 3 Beans,bush 4 5 -6p06 10 3 crop. Overliming also can reduce the accuracy with Beans, pole 70-100-100 3 Beans, lima 60-80-80 3 which a soil test can predict the fertilizer component Beets 60-80-80 3 of the CNR. Broccoli 90-80-100 3 It is important, however, not to allow soil pH to Cabbage 90-80-100 3 drop below approximately 5.5 for most vegetable Carrots 90-80-100 3 Caullrrot 90-80-1 00 3,4 production, especially where micronutrient levels in Celery 90-80-100 3 the soil may be high due to a history of micronutrient Chinese cabbage 90-80-100 3 fertilizer and micronutrient-containing pesticide apCollards 90-80-100 3 plications. When soil pH decreases in such soils, the Corn, sweet 80-70-80 3 solubility of micronutrients can increase to levels Cucumber 80-60-90 3,4 that may become toxic to plants. Eggplant 80-70-100 3,4 Endive 80-70-80 37 Irrigation water from wells supplied by limestone Lettuce 80-70-80 3,8 aquifers is an additional source of liming material Muskmelon 90-80-100 4 usually not considered in many liming programs. The Mustard 80-70-80 3 combination of routine additions of lime and use of Okra 80-70-100 3 alkaline irrigation water has resulted in soil pH Onions 80-70-100 3 Peas, English 50-70-70 3 values greater than 8.0 for many sandy soils in Peas, southern 50-70-70 3 southern Florida. To measure the liming effect of irPepper 80-70-100 3,4 rigation, have a water sample analyzed for total Potato, Irish 60-120-120 3 bicarbonates and carbonates, and the results conPotato, sweet 40-80-80 3 verted to pounds of calcium carbonate per acre anRadish 45-60-60 6 Spinach 80-70-80 3 nually. Include this information in your decisions Squash, summer 45-60-60 3 concerning lime. Squash, winter 45-60-60 3 It should be evident that liming, fertilization, and Strawberry 90-120-120 4,5 irrigation programs are closely related to each other. Tomato 120-160-160 3,4,5 An adjustment in one program will often influence Turnip 80-70-80 3 Watermelon 90-80-100 34 the other. To maximize overall production efficiency, soil and water testing must be made 9 part of any Footnotes: fertilizer management program. 'These amounts should be applied as fertilizer only to soils testing "very low" in P and K. Use a soil test to determine precisely how much fertilizer is needed. 2 Make a supplemental sidedress application to unmulched crops of 30-0-20 lb N-P20 5 -K20/A after any rainfall that amounts to 2to 3-inches in a 7-day period. Use a liquid-injection wheel or drip irNutrient form s rigation to apply supplemental fertilizer to mulched crops. Supplemental applications will probably not be needed on mulched crops unless flooding occurs. Crops might respond to a sidedress-band Nitrogen can be supplied in both nitrate and amapplication of P during cool periods. moniacal forms. Nitrate-nitrogen is generally the 3 For unmulched crops, apply all P and micronutrients before or at preferred form for plant uptake in most situations, planting. Increased efficiency of plant use of these nutrients might but ammoniacal N can be absorbed by some plants be realized by banding these nutrients in the soil to the side of the directly or after conversion td nitrate-N by soil row. Apply 25% to 50% of the N and K at planting, or sidedress at . t r crop emergence. Apply the remainder of the N and K in 2 to 3 split mico iate o con rsion in applications during the growing season. cold, fumigated, or strongly acidic soils, it is recom4For mulched crops, apply 25% to 50% of the fertilizer broadcast mended that under such conditions 25% to 50% of in the bed and the remainder in bands prior to installing the mulch. the N be supplied from nitrate sources. This ratio is 5 For drip-irrigated crops apply all P and micronutrients, and 20% not as critical for unfumigated or warm soils. For to 40% of the N and K, in the bed. Apply the remaining N and K more information on nutrient sources, consult Exthrough the drip system. tension Circular 225-C. 4



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The CNR for a crop is determined from field exFlorida soils. Details on soil testing and how to make periments that test the yield response to levels of it work effectively can be found in Extension Ciradded fertilizer. For example, a watermelon study cular 596, "Procedures Used by the IFAS Extension involving K might be conducted on a soil which tests Soil Testing Laboratory, and Interpretations of very low in extractable K. In this situation, the soil Results." can be expected to contribute only a small amount of K for optimum watermelon growth and yield and K must be supplied largely from fertilizer. The researcher plots the relationship of crop yield to ferTable 2. Crop nutrient requirements for N, P, and K tilizer rate. The CNR is equivalent to the'fertilizer for vegetables grown on irrigated organic soils. rate above which no significant increases in yield are Crop nutrient expected. The CNR values derived from such exN r o p -P 2 0 5 periments take into account factors such as fertilizer Crop Lb/A Footnotes efficiencies of the soils. These efficiencies include Be bush 0-60c..T i .c .*1.... ^ *Beans, bush 0-60-120 3,5 fertilizer leaching or fertilizer nutrient fixing Beans, pole 0-120-180 3,5 capability of the soil. If data are available from Beans, lima 0-120-180 3,5 several experiments, then reliable estimates of CNR Beets 0-120-180 3,5 values can be made. Broccoli 0-120-180 3,5 In Florida, CNR values vary according to the type Cabbage 0-120-180 3,5 Carrots 0-180-180 3,5 of soil and vegetable crop and have been determined Cauliflower 0-120-180 3,5 for many vegetable crops on several soils in Florida. Celery 0-200-360 3,5 For other situations, CNR values are those that have Chinese cabbage 0-100-120 3,5 been published in previous Extension circulars dealCollards 0-100-120 3,5 ing with fertilizer management for vegetables. Tables Co, sweet 0-120-180 3,5 Cucumber 4 1 through 4 present CNR values as we currently Eggplant 0-120-240 3,5, understand them for vegetable crops in Florida. UsEndive 0-100-180 3,5,6 ing the CNR concept when developing a fertilizer Lettuce 0-120-240 3,5,7 program will ensure optimum, economic yields while Muskmelon 4 minimizing both pollution from overfertilization and Mustard 0-10-10 3,5 loss of yield due to underfertilization. Onions 0-120-180 3,5 Peas, English 0-120-200 3,5 Peas, southern 0-100-150 3,5 Pepper 0-160-240 3,5 Potato, Irish 0-160-240 3,5 .Soil *1 tn ^ 4.Potato, sweet 4 Soil testing Radish 0-160-240 3,5 Spinach 0-100-120 3,5 The CNR values listed in Tables 1 through 4 are Squash, summer 0-100-120 3,5 those amounts of nutrients needed to produce opquash, winter 0-100-120 3,5 Strawberry 4 timum, economic yields from a fertilization standTomato 4 point. It is important to remember that these Turnip 0-100-150 3,5 amounts of nutrients are supplied to the crop from Watermelon 4 both the soil and the fertilizer. The amounts listed Footnotes: in the tables are applied as fertilizers only when a 1 These amounts should be applied as fertilizer only to soils testing properly calibrated soil test indicates very small ex"very low" in P and K. Use a soil test to determine precisely how tractable amounts of these nutrients to be present much fertilizer is needed. in the soil. Therefore, soil testing must be conducted 2 These CNR values are sufficient for normal conditions. Most crops to determine the exact contribution from the soil to will respond to supplemental applications of 30 to 40 lb of nitrate-N the overall CNR. Based on such tests, the amount of per acre during periods of cool weather or after a leaching rain. fertilizer that is needed to supplement the nutrition 3 0n new peat soils, make a broadcast application of 11 lb of Cu/A, component of the native soil can be calculated. 7 lb of Mn/A, and 1 lb of B/A before the crop is planted. Use a soil test to determine needs for further micronutrient applications. It is important that soil samples represent the field or management unit to be fertilized A compe t sl 4 These crops not recommended for production on organic soils. or management unit to be fertilized. A competent soil testing laboratory that uses calibrated methodologies 5 Apply all fertilizer broadcast prior to planting. should analyze the samples. Not all laboratories can 6 Includes escarole and chicory. provide accurate fertilizer recommendations for 7 Includes head, leaf, and romaine. 2.