RESTRICTIONS ON PESTICIDE USE The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency or authorized state agencies have approved labels for the pesticides mentioned in this Schedule, prescribing conditions for their safe use, and establishing waiting periods between application and harvest that will ensure the residues on fresh fruit grown will not exceed the federally established tolerance. If used preharvest, no limiting tolerances have been set for sulfur, copper, zinc, manganese, and oil. The following table is extracted from the EPA Compendium of Registered Pesticides as of December 1, 1973, and from registered state labels. Waiting days (wd) Dosage And other limitations Pesticide Lb. actual/acre (see footnote) Carzol SP 4.6$ 7 wd; registered for oranges, lemons, grapefruit and tangerines Chlorobenzilate 3.75 NTL Comite 7.5 7 wd; registered only for oranges, grapefruit and lemons. Do not apply more than twice per year Delnav 12.5 NTL; on lemon and lime do not apply more than twice in 1 year; do not make second application within 4 months after first On other citrus do not reapply within 3 months if fruit is present during first application Diazinon 10.0 21 wd Difolatan 80.0 Do not apply when mature fruit is on tree Dimethoate 15 wd. when used at dosage of 0.5 lb. actual/100 gal. water. Registered for oranges, grapefruit, tangerines and lemons; do not apply during bloom period. Make no more than 2 applications to mature fruit Ethion 10.0 30 wd; on grapefruit and orange only 7.5 21 wd; on lemon and lime; do not apply more than once per season 7.5 NTL; on grapefruit, orange, tangelo, tangerine do not repeat within 90 days and do not apply more than twice per season on tangerines Ferbam 40.0 NTL Guthion 7.5 28 wd; where 2 applications per season; do not apply more than 2 times per fruit year 7 wd; where 1 application per season Kelthane 8.0 7 wd Lead arsenate 5.4 NTL; white grapefruit only, 1 to 6 weeks after bloom 2.6 NTL; pink and red grapefruit only, 1 to 6 weeks after bloom Malathion 25.0 7 wd; do not apply during full bloom Meta Systox-R 7 wd; do not apply more than twice per season. Registered for oranges, grapefruit, and lemons Parathion 10.0 30 wd 4.0 14wd Phosphamidon 15.0 15 wd. Registered for only grapefruit, lemon, orange and tangerine 2
Formula 10 Amount per 500 gal. Trithion 4 liquid 2.5 pt. (See Table III) or ethion 4 liquid 2.5 pt. (See Table III) or Kelthane MFt 5.0 pt. or Delnav 8 liquid 2.0 pt. Supplements (if needed): Neutral coppers (See Table I) Parathion 4 liquid 2.5 pt. (See Table III) or malathion 5 liquid 6.0 to 10.0 pt. (See Table 111) Zinc (See Table I) Manganese (See Table I) Borates (58-66% BO,) 1.25 lb. Formula 11 Amount per 500 gal. Ferbam 7.5 lb. Supplements (if needed): Wettable sulfur 25.0 lb. or chlorobenzilatet 4 liquid 1.25 pt. (See Table III) or Carzolt 5.0 to 10.0 oz. Parathion 4 liquid 2.5 pt. (See Table III) or malathion 5 liquid 6.0 to 10.0 pt. (See Table 111) *Most materials except oil and borax can be applied as concentrate mixtures. Concentrations of 6 times usually give good control at 1 /8 dilute gallonage. Â· *For pink or red grapefruit, see note under Physiological Sprays. tDo not use Guthion, Kelthane MF, chlorobenzilate, Comite or Carzol in highly alkaline sprays. USEFUL TABLES FOR MIXING SPRAY FORMULAS TABLE 1. POUNDS OF COPPER, ZINC, AND MANGANESE COMPOUNDS TO EQUAL THE STANDARD DOSAGEt PER 500 GAL. OF WATERtÂ§. Metallic content shown on label (%) 34-36 48 52-56 75 80 85-90 Copper 11.0 8.5 7.0 5.0 4.5 Zinc 10.0 7.0 Manganese 8.5 6.5 4.5 tThe standard dosage required to correct deficiencies, based on the metal content per 500 gal. is 3.75 lb. for copper, 5.0 Ib. for zinc, and 3.75 lb. for manganese. tFor concentrate sprays, multiply the pounds required by 0.75. Â§For information on use of soluble sulfates, see Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 536C. TABLE II. GALLONS OF OIL CONCENTRATES TO USE FOR EACH 500 GAL. OF SPRAY If % oil in the stock is and the percentage oil desired in the spray tank is 0.5% 0.7% 1.0% 1.3% 97+ 2.55 3.55 5.10 6.60 90-92 2.75 3.85 5.50 7.15 83-84 3.00 4.20 6.00 7.80 13
heavy. Good spray coverage of the lower leaf surface is essential for satisfactory greasy spot control. Brown rot control can be obtained by spraying the lower 6 ft. of the tree with neutral copper (1/2 the amount shown in Table I), applying the spray around the middle of August in groves where the disease has been troublesome in the past. Where brown rot is only an occasional problem, spraying may be deferred until immediately after the first appearance of affected fruit, when the entire tree should be sprayed. Chopping of cover crops, hedging of trees, and pruning off low hanging branches will improve ventilation and reduce the likelihood of infection. PHYSIOLOGICAL SPRAYS Nutritional Sprays.-Applications of zinc in nutritional sprays are recommended wherever zinc deficiency symptoms appear. Spray applications of manganese are recommended for any grove having persistent manganese deficiency symptoms, and particularly for groves on alkaline soils. Copper is recommended in nutritional sprays only where a deficiency actually exists and when this element is not used in a disease control program. Where boron deficiency is suspected, use 1.25 lb. of soluble borate containing 58 or 66% B.O, equivalent or 1.67 lb. of 46% soluble borate per 500 gal. Sodium molybdate sprays at 5.0 to 10.0 oz. per 500 gal. are recommended to control yellow spot. For additional information on nutritional sprays and fertilization, see Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 536C. Maturity Sprays.-Lead arsenate is the only arsenical compound cleared for use on grapefruit to reduce acidity. Use of arsenic on other citrus is illegal. To avoid excessive phytotoxicity, arsenic should not be applied to trees less than 7 years of age. The most effective use of arsenic is obtained by spraying within 1 to 6 weeks after bloom. Use 2.0 to 6.25 lb. of lead arsenate per 500 gal. for white varieties and 2.0 to 3.0 Ib. for pink and red grapefruit. The lower amount is used for a high ratio of solids to acids in mid-season, and the higher amount for a high ratio in the early season. (See Sprays I, II, and III.) Preharvest-Drop Control Sprays.-2,4-D is effective for reducing preharvest drop of Pineapple, seedling oranges, and Temple oranges. For further information, see the 1973 Spray and Dust Schedule. CAREFULLY NOTE INSTRUCTIONS ON MANUFACTURER'S LABEL ON ALL SPRAY AND DUST MATERIALS SCHEDULE The main sprays in this program are the postbloom (I), summer (III), and fall (V) sprays. These 3 will be adequate for most Florida groves. The optional sprays are the spring citrus rust mite spray (II); the summer citrus rust mite spray (IV); the dormant spray (VI) where mites and scab must be controlled; and the delayed dormant (VII) for scab control. The grove operator must check his trees regularly and be prepared to make supplemental treatment If insect, mite, disease, or nutritional troubles are not held under control. I. Postbloom Sprays, March and April. A. For melanose, scab, greasy spot, and rust mites-Use copper; plus chlorobenzilate, Carzol, or wettable sulfur (Formula 1). Apply 1 to 3 weeks after petal-fall for melanose control; or when 2/3 of the petals have fallen for scab and melanose control. If scab is the primary disease, use ferbam (Formula 11). Supplements: For scale, mealybugs, and whitefly-Parathion or malathion (Formula 1). For spider mites-Substitute Kelthane, ethion or Trithion for chlorobenzilate or sulfur in Formula 1. Nutritional-Zinc, manganese, borate (Formula 1). Maturity-Arsenic (on grapefruit only) (Formula 1). 9
Plictran is available as a 50% wettable powder and is effective against citrus rust mite at a dosage of 20-30 ounces per 500 gallons. Do not tank mix with oil. Do not apply oil within 4 weeks before or after application of Plictran. Do not apply to lemons when yellow fruit is present. If possible, time applications on citrus to avoid new flush or 'feather' growth, especially with concentrate sprays, since temporary foliar injury may occur on such growth. Dimethoate is effective against citrus red mite at the rate suggested under "Scalicides." FUNGUS DISEASES AND THEIR CONTROL Melanose produces brownish, raised pustules on fruit, leaves, and twigs of all varieties of citrus. A single copper spray containing 3.75 lb. of copper (metallic) per 500 gal. (see Table I) applied 1 to 3 weeks after petal-fall usually controls melanose. Where the disease has been troublesome in past years, or during very wet springs, or in the event of late or scattered bloom, a second application should be made 4 weeks later. See "Difolatan," below. Scab, a wart-like growth on fruit, twigs, and leaves, may affect Temples, Murcotts, Satsumas, grapefruit, tangelos, and lemons, particularly in coastal and flatwoods areas. Either ferbam (at 7.5 lb. of 76% wettable powder or 6.0 lb. of 95% wettable powder per 500 gal.) or copper (see Table I) may be used. Two sprays must be applied, the first just before trees begin to flush, and the second when 2/3 of the petals have fallen. Ferbam is more effective than copper in the 2/3 petal-fall application. If scab is likely to be severe, the copper concentration in the prebloom spray should be 1.5 to 2.0 times that listed in Table I. Ferbam and copper should not be mixed. See "Difolatan," below. Where both melanose and scab control is necessary, use (1) ferbam dormant and copper at 2/3 petal-fall if melanose is the primary disease, or (2) copper dormant and ferbam at 2/3 petal-fall if scab is the primary disease. For extra clean fruit, use copper dormant, ferbam at 2/3 petal-fall, and copper at 2 to 3 weeks after bloom. Under conditions of high moisture, summer and fall flushes may be protected by sprays applied when new growth begins to appear. Difolatan 4F at 4 to 5 gal. per 500 gal. may be used for scab and melanose control in a single application as a delayed dormant spray in groves where overhead irrigation is available to further distribute the fungicide. Do not apply to mature fruit or postbloom to fresh market citrus, as rind blemish, leaf burn, and premature defoliation may occur. Follow directions on label carefully. Greasy spot often causes serious premature defoliation during the fall and winter. Infection occurs mostly in the summer, but symptoms do not appear until 2 to 9 months later, the incubation period depending partly on the variety affected. The greasy spot fungus also infects fruit rind, causing specks to appear in areas between the oil glands. Living cells adjacent to the specks retain a green color for longer than normal and such areas often fail to respond to ethylene degreening treatment. On grapefruit, the specks tend to be larger, giving rise to a condition that has been described as "pink pitting." Rind infection is of economic importance only on fresh market citrus. Copper fungicides at 1.25 to 2.50 lb. metallic copper per 500 gal. or oil (FC 435-66 specifications) at 1.0%, applied in late June or July, will control greasy spot on the spring flush and fruit rind and on any later flushes that have grown out prior to spraying. Groves in which greasy spot is severe may need an additional spray in August or September to control greasy spot on the later flushes. Postbloom copper sprays applied for melanose control also give some control of greasy spot on the spring flush, but they are not as reliable as a June or July copper spray. Particularly on oranges, copper sprays may blacken any existing corky areas on the rind and lead to a further downgrading of fruit intended for the fresh market. To be weighed against this possible disadvantage, is the fact that copper fungicides are more effective than oil for greasy spot control when disease pressure is 8
B. For rust mite, spider mites, and scale-Use chlorobenzilate, or Carzol and oil (Formula 2), or ethion and oil (Formula 3); or Kelthane or Trithion plus either parathion or malathion (Formula 4). Apply when mites first appear. Supplement: Maturity-Arsenic (on grapefruit only). (Formulas 2 or 4) C. For rust mite, scale, mealybug, and whitefly-Use Guthion (Formula 5); or combinations of chlorobenzilate, Carzol, or sulfur, with either parathion or malathion (Formula 6). Supplement: Maturity-Arsenic (on grapefruit only). (Formulas 5 or 6) II. Between Postbloom and Summer Sprays, if necessary. A. If rust mite appears before time for summer spray, use wettable sulfur, or chlorobenzilate, or Carzol (Formula 7), or dust with sulfur. Supplement: For scale-Parathion or malathion (Formula 7). Maturity-Arsenic (on grapefruit only) (Formula 7). B. For rust mite and spider mites-Use Kelthane, Trithion, ethion, or Delnav (Formula 8). Supplements: Maturity-Arsenic (on grapefruit only) (Formula 8). For scale-Parathion or malathion (Formula 8). Ill. Summer Spray, June through August. A. For rust mite, greasy spot, and scale-Use (1) chlorobenzilate or Carzol with oil (Formula 2), or ethion with oil (Formula 3); or (2) chlorobenzilate or Carzol with either oil plus parathion or oil plus malathion (Formula 2). Time application for rust mite control. For greasy spot control, oil should be applied in July. Supplement: Maturity-Arsenic (on grapefruit only) (Formula 2). B. For scale, rust mite, and greasy spot-Use Guthion (Formula 5); or a combination of either parathion or malathion with either chlorobenzilate, Carzol, or sulfur; plus copper (Formula 7). Supplement: Maturity-Arsenic (on grapefruit only) (Formula 7). C. For scab control on June bloom fruit-Use ferbam at 2/3 petal-fall (Formula 11). IV. Between Summer Spray and Fall Mite Spray, if necessary. A. If rust mite becomes numerous before time for fall mite spray-Use sulfur spray or dust, or chlorobenzilate or Carzol. B. For scale and rust mite-Use Guthion (Formula 5) or combinations of either parathion or malathion plus either chlorobenzilate, Carzol, or sulfur (Formula 6, omitting lead arsenate). V. Fall Mite Spray. A. For spider mite control and rust mite control-Use Formula 9 in September and October if population of spider mite is low. Formula 10 is preferred in November and December. Do not use nutritional supplements in the fall. Supplement: For scale-Parathion or malathion (Formulas 9 or 10). VI. Dormant Spray, January or February (if needed). A. For spider mites, rust mite, and scab-Use a combination miticide for spider mite and rust mite; for scab, use a copper fungicide and apply before any appreciable spring growth (Formula 10). Supplements: For scale-Parathion or malathion (Formula 10). Nutritional-Zinc, manganese, borate (Formula 10). VII. Delayed Dormant Spray. A. For Scab-Use copper (Formula 10) or ferbam (Formula 11) when pinpoint growth begins. Supplements: For scale-Parathion or malathion (Formula 10). Nutritional-Zinc, manganese, borate with copper (Formula 10). 10
SPRAY FORMULAS REFERRED TO IN SCHEDULE lead general instructions for further information on spray chemicals.) Quantities of materials are for 500 gallons of dilute spray. For concentrate spraying, see footnote*. 0o6 ormula 1 Amount per 500 gal. C( Neutral coppers (See Table I) Chlorobenzilatet 4 liquid 1.25 pt. (See Table III) or Carzolt 5.0 to 10.0 oz. /' or wettable sulfur 25.0 lb. Supplements (if needed): Zinc (See Table I) Manganese (See Table I) Borates (58-66% BO,) 1.25 lb. Lead arsenate** (grapefruit 2.0 to 6.25 lb. only) CQ Parathion 4 liquid 2.5 pt. (See Table III) or malathion 5 liquid 6.0 to 10.0 pt. (See Table V) Kelthane MFt 5.0 pt. or Trithion 4 liquid 3.75 pt. (See Table III) or ethion 4 liquid 3.75 pt. (See Table III) Formula 2 Amount per 500 gal. Chlorobenzilate 4 liquid 1.25 pt. (See Table III) .or Carzolt 5.0 to 10.0 oz. Oil (See Table II) 1.0% or oil (See Table II) plus 0.5 to 0.7% parathion 4 liquid 1.25 pt. (See Table III) or malathion 5 liquid 5.0 pt. (See Table III) Supplement: Lead arsenate* (grapefruit 2.0 to 6.25 lb. only) Formula 3 Amount per 500 gal. Oil (See Table II) 0.5 to 0.7% plus ethion 4 liquid 3.75 pt. (See Table III) Supplement (if needed): Lead arsenate** (grapefruit 2.0 to 6.25 lb. only) Formula 4 Amount per 500 gal. Kelthane MF 5.0 pt. or Trithion 4 liquid 3.75 pt. (See Table III) or ethion 4 liquid 3.75 pt. (See Table III) or Delnav 8 liquid 2.0 pt. Parathion 4 liquid 2.5 pt. (See Table III) or malathion 5 liquid 6.0 to 10.0 pt. (See Table 111) 11
Plictran 2.8 NTL; registered for oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, lemons, and limes only Systox 2.5 21 wd; on orange, grapefruit and lemon only Torak 10.0 7 wd; do not apply more than twice a year. Do not make a second application within 3 months if fruits were present on the tree at the time of the first application Trithion 5.0 30 wd 3.75 14 wd; 30 days required between applications 2.5 NTL; 30 days required between applications tAll pesticides listed are registered for use on orange, grapefruit, tangerine, lime, lemon, and tangelo unless otherwise noted in table. tCarzol is limited to 4.6 lb. per acre per year. NTL =No time limitation; i.e., no waiting days required between last application and harvest unless otherwise specified in table. PRECAUTIONS All precautions on the labels of pesticide containers should be read and observed at all times with all pesticides. Pesticides should not be discharged in or near the immediate vicinity of any body of water. Furthermore, due care should be exercised by anyone adding pesticides to spray tanks or other pesticide application equipment to preclude contamination of any body of water. Protective canopies should be placed on tractors pulling airblast sprayers in order to minimize the hazards of spray drift to the operator. Florida regulations require labels to carry instructions for decontamination and disposal of empty containers of highly toxic pesticides. Read and heed these instructions. Do not reuse containers. Wash spray equipment daily to avoid hazardous accumulations. All highly toxic pesticides should be kept in locked storage and never be removed from the spray job. Do not use pesticide chemicals where drift may be a hazard to the public. Waiting periods established by EPA (See Panel 1) should be observed to ensure that the residue tolerances will not be exceeded. Additional waiting periods intended to safeguard workers in sprayed groves may soon be announced under authority of the Occupational Safety and Health Act. Everyone responsible for grove operations should become thoroughly familiar with the regulations when announced. Special Precautions when Using Parathion, Guthion, Phosphamidon, Systox, Torak, or Carzol. 1. When mixing and applying sprays, use a chemical cartridge respirator approved for the specific pesticide, and wear protective clothing, long sleeves, a washable rain hat, and natural rubber boots and gloves. 2. Start with clean clothing each day, and change if garments become wet with spray. If a liquid formulation is spilled on garments, remove them at once and take a bath. Take a thorough bath as soon as the work day is finished. 3. Wash hands before eating or smoking. 4. Spray crews regularly using these materials should receive cholinesterase tests before spraying begins and at 10-day intervals thereafter. OTHER SOURCES OF INFORMATION This Schedule does not include descriptions of or recommendations for control of all minor pests or pests occurring infrequently. See "Florida Guide to Citrus Insects, Diseases, and Nutritional Disorders"; Fla. Agr. Ext. 3
little value against spider mites. Chlorobenzilate should not be used in alkaline solutions. Carzol SP is available as a 92% active water soluble powder. It is effective against citrus rust mite at 5 to 10 oz. per 500 gal. It may be used any time rust mite control is needed. Carzol should not be used in alkaline solutions. Guthion is available as a liquid concentrate containing 2.0 lb. per gal. or as a 50% wettable powder. It is effective against citrus rust mite at the dosage of 5.0 pt. of Guthion LC 2* per 500 gal. See discussion under "Scalicides." Sulfur applications often are followed by increases in citrus red mite populations, and repeated applications or excessive amounts of sulfur often are followed by increased populations of armored scales; however, the dosage of 25.0 lb. of wettable sulfur per 500 gal. of spray is useful in the postbloom spray and where supplemental rust mite control is needed between the main sprays. Do not use wettable sulfur in combination with oil emulsion. Any application of sulfur should not be closer than 3 weeks to an oil application. Sulfur dust users should note the following: Good coverage is just as important in dusting as in spraying. Dust sites and tops of trees in two directions, preferably when the air is calm and the leaves are covered with dew. Night conditions usually are more favorable for dusting. Apply a total of 0.5 to 1.5 lb. per tree (depending on size) at each application. Torak is an emulsifiable concentrate containing 4.0 lb. active ingredient per gallon. It may be used at 4.0 pt. per 500 gal. to control rust mite and spider mites in postbloom, or rust mite in summer sprays. Trithion is available as a liquid concentrate containing 4.0 lb. or 8.0 lb. per gal., as a 25% powder, and as a 2% dust. Although Trithion sprays can be used at any time, the preferred application is late fall and winter for combined control of rust mite and spider mites. Use 2.5 pt. of the 4.0 lb. material per 500 gal. of spray for this purpose, but increase the dosage to 3.75 pt. at other times. Trithion can be used with oil on oranges, but Trithion may injure grapefruit if combined with oil in the summer or if applied alone in the fall before the fruit is fully colored. Ethion is available as a liquid concentrate containing 4.0 lb. per gal. and as a 25% powder. Its preferred use is in the late fall and winter for combined control of spider mites and rust mite at the dosage of 2.5 pt. per 500 gal. of spray. Increase the dosage to 3.75 pt. at other times. When used at 3.75 pt. in combination with oil, it is an excellent summer spray for scale insects, rust mite, and spider mites. See discussion under ethion-oil under "Scalicides." Delnav is available as liquid concentrate containing 8.0 lb. per gal. Its preferred use is for the combined control of rust mite and spider mites during the late fall and winter. Use 2.0 pt. of 8.0 lb. material per 500 gal. of spray. Kelthane MF is an emulsifiable concentrate containing 4.0 lb. per gal. It can be used as a miticide at any time at a dosage of 5.0 pt. per 500 gal., but is best used during the late fall and winter months for combined control of rust mite and the spider mites. Kelthane should preferably be confined to groves where ethion, Trithion, and Delnav no longer control the spider mites. Kelthane should not be used in groves infested with snow scale unless a scalicide is also included. Kelthane should not be used in highly alkaline sprays. Comite is available as a liquid concentrate containing 6.75 Ibs. active Comite per gallon and is used at a dosage of 25 oz. per 500-gal. tank. Its preferred use is during the late fall and winter for the combined control of rust mite and spider mites. Comite should not be used in highly alkaline solutions (over pH 10), tank mixed with oil, or applied within 2 weeks prior to or following an oil treatment. Oil is effective against spider mites at dosages of 0.5% and higher. See discussion about scalicides. * See Table III for other formulations. 7
persistent green spots on tangerines and other early varieties intended for the fresh fruit market. Black scale, brown soft scale, and green scale are only serious in groves where parasite activity is retarded. Mealybugs can best be controlled by applying a recommended scalicide before the fruit becomes infested. Scalicides applied after the fruit has set will kill mealybugs that are exposed but not those that have settled under the button. Whitefly larvae often become numerous on the lower leaf surfaces in March, June, and September. A postbloom spray applied after the adult females have deposited their eggs and followed by a summer scalicide application, provides the best control of whiteflies. Sooty mold forms a black film on the upper surfaces of leaves and fruit. It grows on excretions from whiteflies, black scale, brown soft scale, mealybugs, and aphids. It is prevented by controlling these insects. Sprays containing oil loosen sooty mold and aid its removal by rain and wind. SCALICIDES Oil.-Only oils with specific properties are now recommended for citrus. These are designated FC 435-66 and FC 412-66. Growers should use only oils which conform to those specifications. Spray oil meeting FC 435-66 specifications has the greatest pesticidal action without excessive adverse effect on tree and fruit in mid-summer. It is intended for application in June and July. Oil meeting FC 412-66 specifications is a lighter oil and has the minimum adverse effect on tree and crop consistent with adequate pesticidal effect. It is recommended for applications made after August or where tree growth is less vigorous due to weather or season. Oil is applied as an emulsion, diluted to a specified concentration of actual oil in the final spray mixture. See Table II. A 1% oil emulsion is effective for the control of Glover, purple, chaff, yellow, Florida red, black, and brown soft scale. It also controls whiteflies and protects against greasy spot. Lower concentrations are used for spider mite control and for loosening sooty mold. Precautions in the use of oil include: Do not apply oil spray when trees are wilting or near wilting. Do not apply oil and sulfur within 3 weeks of each other. Oil spray applied after October 1 may increase susceptibility of trees to cold damage and may reduce the fruit crop the following year. Oil sprays applied in the fall may inhibit solids formation in the juice and retard coloring of fruit, and should not be applied within 60 days of anticipated harvest. Parathion is effective for the control of mealybugs and for Glover, chaff, purple, yellow, Florida red, snow, black, and cottony cushion scale. Parathion is only effective against black scale when applied in mid-May when there is a peak hatch of crawlers. Do not use parathion for control of brown soft scale. Parathion may be applied in any month. Normally, use 2.5 pt. of parathion 4 liquid* per 500 gal. See discussion under mealybugs. Guthion is effective for the control of black, yellow, snow, Florida red, chaff, Glover, purple scale, mealybugs, and whitefly. Black scale is effectively controlled with a postbloom application of Guthion. While Guthion can be used in any month of the year, its use is restricted to 2 applications per year to fruit. The recommended dosage is 5.0 pt. of Guthion LC 2 liquid* per 500 gal. See discussion under citrus rust mite, mealybugs, and whitefly. Guthion should not be used in highly alkaline sprays. Malathion is substantially less hazardous than parathion or Guthion and may be used for the control of Glover, purple, yellow, red, snow, and brown soft scale. Malathion may be applied in any month. Use 6.0 pt. of malathion 5 liquid* per 500 gal. for light infestations, and 10.0 pt. for moderate or heavy infestations. Use the higher rate for snow, Glover, and yellow scale control. * See Table III for other formulations. Whenever necessary, liquid formulations are designated by numbers which are the pounds of active ingredient per gallon of formulation. Thus parathion 4 liquid means a liquid formulation containing 4 lb. of actual parathion per gal. 5
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WARNING CODE 'Daitss::Anomaly' Invalid character
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File not found
File not found
File not found
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TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
BROKEN_LINK schema http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
The element type "div" must be terminated by the matching end-tag "