Citation
Legume inoculation in Florida

Material Information

Title:
Legume inoculation in Florida
Series Title:
Circular Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Creator:
Hubbell, D. H ( David Heuston ), 1937-
Jones, D. W
Thornton, G. D ( George Daniel ), 1910-
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Publisher:
Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
3 p. : ; 28 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Legumes -- Inoculation -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Cover title.
Statement of Responsibility:
D.H. Hubbell, D.W. Jones and G.D. Thornton.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
AAA6884 ( LTQF )
AHR4417 ( LTUF )
24153751 ( OCLC )
025031710 ( AlephBibNum )

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SCircular 376
) IT TE OF FOOD A D A R I L T U R A L SC I FENCES
00* LnuINSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES


Legume inoculation in Florida
D.H. Hubbell, D.W. Jones and G.D. Thornton

Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida/ John T. Woeste, dean


What is legume inoculation?
Legume inoculation is the practice of introducing
specific bacteria into the soil with legume seed,
usually when planting. The bacteria belong to the
genera Rhizobium or Bradyrhizobium but are
commonly referred to as "rhizobia," "legume
bacteria" or "root nodule bacteria." They infect the
roots of leguminous plants a few days after seed
germination. Within one or two weeks, small
nodules appear on the roots as a result of these -',- c
infections. Mature nodules iay be round,t :i,,- r
cylindrical, or lobed, depending on the plant
species. JUL _2 4 1931

What is successful inoculation?
['" -'I, o 0' ,:
The presence of nodules on legume roots proves
the bacteria have successfully eifectedTh i~oo-its
This is important because the rhizobia living in the
nodule enter into a "symbiotic" or mutually bene-
ficial relationship with the plant. The plant and
the bacteria work together to reduce or "fix"
nitrogen gas (N2) from the air into ammonium
(NH4+) in the plant root. As ammonium, it can be
used by both the bacteria and the plant as a nut-
rient for growth. A pink color within the nodule in-
dicates nitrogen is being fixed. This can be observ-
ed by crushing or slicing nodules which are about
one week old. Very young nodules have a white
interior and very old nodules have a brown interior.
Little or no nitrogen is fixed in these nodules.

Why is inoculation important?
The ability of the plant-bacteria combination to
"fix" and use an otherwise unavailable form of
nitrogen is of considerable economic importance to
farmers. The symbiotically-fixed nitrogen
supplements soil nitrogen, which is low in most
soils. This is especially true for the mineral soils of
the Southeastern coastal areas, where leaching,

Professor, department of Soil Science. Professor, Department
of Agronomy. Professor, Department of Soil Science; IFAS,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.


erosion and removal of crop residues have severely
reduced the supply of soil nitrogen.
Nitrogen is a key element for living cells. It is
an essential part of protein, the building block of
plant and animal tissue. Nitrogen is the plant
nutrient that most often limits crop growth, for two
main reasons. First, plants need more nitrogen
than other nutrients in order to achieve good
growth. Second, soil nitrogen is constantly being
lost through run-off, leaching, denitrification and
removal of nitrogen-containing crop residues from
the sqil. Denitrification is the process of changing
plant'available nitrate nitrogen to atmospheric
nitrogen, which then diffuses as a gas to the
atmosphere. Denitrification results in a loss of soil
nitrogen and is opposite in effect to the process of
"nitrogen fixation" carried on by rhizobia.
Soil nitrogen is replenished primarily from
fertilizers and nitrogen fixation. Nitrogen
fertilizers may be inorganic materials such as urea,
ammonium nitrate or ammonium sulphate. Nitro-
gen fertilizers are immediately available for plant
uptake. They are rather expensive because of the
process involved in their manufacture.
As a soil residue, "organic nitrogen," or rhizobia-
fixed nitrogen, is not immediately available for
plants. Numerous kinds of soil organisms must
first decompose the organic residues. This results
in a slow but continuous release of inorganic
nitrogen which can be used by growing plants.
Because of the slow release, nitrogen is not lost
through leaching.

Do all leguminous plants fix
nitrogen?
A leguminous plant is one that has seed pods.
Beans, peas, soybeans, lupine, peanuts, and
cowpeas are common legumes with prominent seed
pods. Other legumes with less conspicuous seed
pods are clover, lespedeza, beggarweed, crotalaria,
hairy indigo, trefoil, alfalfa, and vetch.








Almost all leguminous plants have the ability to
form nodules when inoculated with the right kind
of root-nodule bacteria. A few exceptions are the
honey locust, redbud, and Kentucky coffee tree.
Leguminous plants differ in the amount of
nitrogen they return to the soil. Obviously, crops
such as peanuts that are harvested for nuts and
hay return little nitrogen to the soil. Frequently,
such crops deplete the soil of some nitrogen because
the nodules fail to fix all of the nitrogen needed by
the plant. Other crops, such as soybeans harvested
for seed, or lespedeza harvested for hay, leave a
portion of the plant on the land as stubble. These
crops may fix as much nitrogen as that removed in
the harvested crop, leaving the soil nitrogen at its
original level. Still other crops, such as clover
pastures and hairy indigo, may add considerable
amounts of nitrogen to the soil. Mature animals on
a legume pasture leave most of the nitrogen in the
land. The largest increases in soil nitrogen are
obtained when the entire plant is returned to the
soil as full grown, succulent green manure. Some
excellent green manure crops, with the approxi-
mate amounts of nitrogen fixed per acre, are as
follows: lupine, 75 pounds; crimson clover, 80
pounds; hairy indigo, 70 pounds; crotalaria, 72
pounds; cowpeas, 86 pounds.

How can you successfully
inoculate?
Years ago, legume bacteria were introduced into
new areas by using soil from a field where desired
legumes had grown successfully the previous
season. This is now unnecessary. Commercial
inoculants of legume bacteria are now available
from seed dealers. These inoculants are a mixture
of bacteria selected for their ability to "fix" large
amounts of nitrogen in a particular legume or
group of legumes. This helps insure that different
legume species or varieties of the same legume
grown in different areas, where conditions such as
temperature, moisture, pH, and nutrient status
may vary, can be successfully inoculated with the
same bacteria.
Each container of commercial inoculant has a
written set of instructions. Check the following
items carefully: the age of the culture as shown by
the date on the container; the list of plants the
culture will satisfactorily inoculate; the quantity of
seed for which the contents of the container are
intended; and directions for applying the inoculant
to the seed.
Because inoculants are PERISHABLE, purchase
the inoculant from a reliable dealer who can assure


you the material is fresh and has been stored in a
cool place. Legume bacteria are killed by excessive
drying and high temperatures. For this reason the
expiration date does not always insure a strong and
viable culture. Therefore, not only the AGE of the
culture, but also the STORAGE CONDITIONS
prior to inoculation (in the warehouse and on the
retailer's shelf) are vital factors to be considered.
When the seeding date is near, it is a good idea
to buy the seed and inoculant at the same time.
This insures having the culture on hand when the
weather is favorable for planting. It is the buyer's
responsibility to be sure he is getting the proper
inoculant. Inoculant should be stored in a
refrigerator or in an air conditioned room if it is not
used immediately.
NOTE: TWICE the manufacturer's
recommended amount for large seeded legumes and
FIVE TIMES the recommended amount for small
seeds have given more satisfying results under
Florida's soil and climate conditions. Hot, dry
weather kills legume bacteria. Using extra
inoculant, under cool, moist conditions if possible,
insures against inoculation failure.
Care of inoculated seed. Plant legume seed
as soon as possible after inoculation. Seed should
never be exposed to direct sunlight or
allowed to dry before planting. Never inoculate
more seed than can be conveniently planted
within a few hours. If there is a delay in seeding
for more than two or three hours, keep the seed
moist and cool. If the seed becomes excessively dry
for any reason, REINOCULATE. It will pay.
Seedbed preparation. Plant inoculated seed
in well-prepared, moist soil. To insure quick
germination and prevent the death of inoculant
bacteria by drying, roll the planted soil with a
cultipacker equipped with a seeding attachment. It
is often necessary to plant clover seed in grass sod.
This makes it hard to secure good germination and
satisfactory inoculation. The chances of obtaining
inoculated clover will increase if the grass is closely
clipped and the soil surface scarified by light
disking just before or at the time of seeding. It is
beneficial if seeding can be done during light rains
and cloudy skies. The rain keeps the ground moist
until the seedlings are established and nodulation
takes place.
Seed treatments and fertilizers. Many
pesticides are toxic to legume bacteria. Although
some pesticides may be non-toxic to legume bacte-
ria, chemicals and inoculant should not be used
together in planting. If it is necessary to plant
pesticide-treated legume seed in large scale opera-








tions, the soil may be "preinoculated." The
inoculant is mixed with moist soil, moist sawdust,
or other inert material and is then incorporated in
the soil before seeding. This may be carried out on
plowed fields at the last harrowing for weed control
and final preparation just before seeding.
Inoculated seed should not come in contact with
caustic lime, acid fertilizers, or fertilizers
containing chemical salts. Inoculated seed can mix
in the drill spout with materials such as
superphosphate and basic slag. Ordinarily,
concentrations of fertilizer in the soil that do not
affect seed germination or injure seedling roots will
not harm the root-nodule bacteria. However,
mixing fertilizer with inoculated seed should be
avoided.

How do you choose an
inoculant?
Several types of legumes may be effectively
nodulated by a single species of root-nodule
bacteria. Plants nodulated by different species of
bacteria are called CROSS INOCULATION
GROUPS. Commercial inoculant containers are
clearly labeled with the proper Cross Inoculation
Group designation. It is the buyer's responsibility
to request inoculant for the Cross Inoculation


Alfalfa group
alfalfa bur clover
sweetclover black medic
Cowpea group
cowpea lima bean
crotalaria pigeon pea
lespedeza partridge pea
peanut mung bean
kudzu hairy indigo
alyce clover Aeschynomene
beggarweed Stylosanthes humilis
velvet bean
Lupine group
blue lupine white lupine
yellow lupine serradella
Soybean group
soybean
Clover group
Berseem clover crimson clover
white clover subterranean clover
red clover other true clovers
Pea and vetch group
field pea sweet pea
garden pea rough pea
Austrian winter pea (Singletary, Caley)
common vetch tangier pea
monantha vetch
Bean group
garden bean scarlet runner bean
Trefoil group
birdsfoot trefoil


Group which includes the legume he wishes to
plant. The more commonly recognized groups are
as follows:
Frequently, strains of bacteria effective on one
member of a group are ineffective on other
members of the same group. An ineffective strain of
bacteria is "parasitic:" it will nodulate a particular
plant but will fix little or no nitrogen. Good ex-
amples of this are in the clover and trefoil groups.
In the clover group, effective strains of bacteria
isolated from crimsom clover are ineffective on
white clover and vice versa. Bacteria isolated from
either big trefoil or birdsfoot trefoil may be totally
ineffective on one or more group members.
Therefore, satisfactory group cultures can be
prepared by combining strains which have been
proven effective on all members of the same group.

Why does inoculation fail?
There are times when inoculation fails. Some
possible causes of failure are the following:
* Use of wrong inoculant. It is the buyer's respon
sibility to know the type of inoculant he needs, to
request it specifically, and to ascertain that he
has received what he requested. If in doubt
about the type of inoculant required he should
consult his County Extension Director.
* Unfavorable soil conditions. In general, soil
conditions (other than high soil N levels) which
favor plant growth also favor the processes of
nodulation and nitrogen fixation.
* Use of dead inoculant. Although unlikely,
inoculant may be dead due to faulty manufac-
ture. It is more likely to be the result of poor
shipping or storage conditions before purchase.
In particular, exposure to high temperatures,
even for very brief periods of time, or to direct
sunlight, may severely reduce the success of
inoculation.
M Faulty handling of inoculant after purchase.
Inoculant must be transferred and stored under
cool conditions. Pay careful attention to the in-
oculation procedure previously outlined.
NOTE: Excessive heating or drying of the in-
oculant at ANY time before use will result in
inoculation failure.

What are the benefits of
inoculation?
M Improved quality of forage. The protein content
of pasture and hay is increased by the presence

of inoculated legumes.









* Increased animal gains. Higher protein content
can improve legume taste. This results in
increased consumption of total digestible nutri-
ents by the animal. Compared with other
forages, the leguminous plants are higher in
calcium, phosphorus, and other essential growth
elements.
* Added soil nitrogen. An inoculated legume crop
may add anywhere from 50 to more than 100
pounds of nitrogen per acre to the soil. The
amount depends on the soil reaction, crop size,
effectiveness of the fixation process, portion of
the crop left on the land, phosphorus and potas-
sium levels in the soil, and amount of nitrogen
already available in the soil.
* Increased subsequent crop yields. Yields of corn
and other crops have been doubled and even
tripled by growing them in rotation with legumi-
nous green manure crops.
* Improved soil conditions. Properly nodulated
legumes are rich in nitrogen. They often contain
several times as much nitrogen as was with-
drawn from the soil. The presence of certain
high-nitrogen compounds in legumes causes
them to decompose rapidly. This leaves finely
divided organic matter in the soil which im-
proves soil moisture, nutrient retention, and soil
structure.
* Reduced erosion. Legumes inoculated with
effective strains of root-nodule bacteria thrive in
soils poor in nitrogen. If adequate amounts of
lime, phosphate, and potash are present, water
and soil losses may be reduced to a minimum by
growing legumes. Properly inoculated kudzu,
beggarweed, crotalaria, hairy indigo and peren-
nial lespedeza are exceptionally well adapted for
this purpose.

Growing factors of legumes
Although proper inoculation is the key to eco-
nomic production of legumes, it alone cannot insure
success. Other essential factors are:
n Good seedbed preparation.


* Use of lime where needed. (Usually not required
for legumes of the Cowpea Group).
* Adequate supply of phosphorus and potassium.
* Use of micronutrients where needed. Many
Florida soils fail to support the satisfactory
growth of legumes. This can be overcome by
supplementing with copper, manganese, zinc,
boron, or a combination of these micronutrients.
Follow the recommendations of your county
extension agent.
* Selection of the kind and variety of legume best
suited for the soil conditions and area within the
state.

Legume and inoculation
information
There are several current publications on
growing various legume crops in Florida. The
publications listed below may be obtained from
County Extension Offices or by writing to: Publica-
tions Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.
Soybean production guide (Circular 277E)
"Osceola" White Clover (Circular S-311)
"Florida 77" Alfalfa and Recommended Practices for its
Production (Circular S-191)
"Florigraze" Rhizoma Peanut, a Perennial Forage Legume
(Circular S-275)
"Arbrook" Rhizoma Peanut, a Perennial Forage Legume
(Circular S-332)
Hairy Indigo, a Summer Legume for Florida (Circular S-316)
Production and Utilization of the Tropical Legume
Aeschynomene (Circular S-290)
"Florida" Carpon Desmodium, a Perennial Tropical Forage
Legume for Use in South Florida (Circular S-260)
Stylosanthes humilis, a Summer-growing, Self-regenerating
Annual Legume for Use in Florida Pastures (Circular S-184)
Phasey Bean, a Summer Legume with Forage Potential for
Florida Flatwoods (Circular S-330)


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, John T.
Woeste, director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the May 8
and June 30,1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and
institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, handicap or national origin. Single copies of extension publications (excluding 4-H J
and youth publications) are available free to Florida residents from county extension offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state
purchasers is available from C.M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 .......... 1
Before publicizing this publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability. Printed 6/91.




Full Text

PAGE 1

Almost all leguminous plants have the ability to you the material is fresh and has been stored in a form nodules when inoculated with the right kind cool place. Legume bacteria are killed by excessive of root-nodule bacteria. A few exceptions are the drying and high temperatures. For this reason the honey locust, redbud, and Kentucky coffee tree. expiration date does not always insure a strong and viable culture. Therefore, not only the AGE of the Leguminous plants differ in the amount of culture b a he STORAGE CONDITIONS nitrogen they return to the soil. Obviously, crops inoculation (in the warehouse and on the such as peanuts thatprior to inoculation (in the warehouse and on the such as peanuts that are harvested for nuts and retailer's shelf) are vital factors to be considered. hay return little nitrogen to the soil. Frequently, such crops deplete the soil of some nitrogen because When the seeding date is near, it is a good idea the nodules fail to fix all of the nitrogen needed by to buy the seed and inoculant at the same time. the plant. Other crops, such as soybeans harvested This insures having the culture on hand when the for seed, or lespedeza harvested for hay, leave a weather is favorable for planting. It is the buyer's portion of the plant on the land as stubble. These responsibility to be sure he is getting the proper crops may fix as much nitrogen as that removed in inoculant. Inoculant should be stored in a the harvested crop, leaving the soil nitrogen at its refrigerator or in an air conditioned room if it is not original level. Still other crops, such as clover used immediately. pastures and hairy indigo, may add considerable NOTE: TWICE the manufacturer's amounts of nitrogen to the soil. Mature animals on recommended amount for large seeded legumes and recommended amount for large seeded legumes and a legume pasture leave most of the nitrogen in the FIVE TIMES the recommended amount for small land. The largest increases in soil nitrogen are seeds have given more satisfying results under obtained when the entire plant is returned to thes a e s tin. r d Florida's soil and climate conditions. Hot, dry soil as full grown, succulent green manure. Some weather kills legume bacteria. Using extra weather kills legume bacteria. Using extra excellent green manure crops, with the approxiexcellent green manure crops, with the approxiinoculant, under cool, moist conditions if possible, mate amounts of nitrogen fixed per acre, are as insures against inoculation failure. insures against inoculation failure. follows: lupine, 75 pounds; crimson clover, 80 pounds; hairy indigo, 70 pounds; crotalaria, 72 Care of inoculated seed. Plant legume seed pounds; cowpeas, 86 pounds. as soon as possible after inoculation. Seed should never be exposed to direct sunlight or How can you successfully allowed to dry before planting. Never inoculate inoculate? more seed than can be conveniently planted within a few hours. If there is a delay in seeding Years ago, legume bacteria were introduced into for more than two or three hours, keep the seed new areas by using soil from a field where desired moist and cool. If the seed becomes excessively dry legumes had grown successfully the previous for any reason, REINOCULATE. It will pay. season. This is now unnecessary. Commercial Seedbed preparation. Plant inoculated seed inoculants of legume bacteria are now available prep. i in well-prepared, moist soil. To insure quick from seed dealers. These inoculants are a mixture in eprepar, mot oi To insure qic germination and prevent the death of inoculant of bacteria selected for their ability to "fix" large bermi nation and preen the death of inoculant of nitrogen in a particular legume or bacteria by drying, roll the planted soil with a amounts of nitrogen in a particular legume or amous cultipacker equipped with a seeding attachment. It group of legumes. This helps insure that different group of legumes. This helps insure that different is often necessary to plant clover seed in grass sod. legume species or varieties of the same legume legume species or varieties of the same legume This makes it hard to secure good germination and grown in different areas, where conditions such as say .e c s of te, m e, p, ad nien s s satisfactory inoculation. The chances of obtaining temperature, moisture, pH, and nutrient status mpratre, oisture, p, and nutrient status inoculated clover will increase if the grass is closely may vary, can be successfully inoculated with the clipped and the soil surface scarified by light same bacteria, clipped and the soil surface scarified by light disking just before or at the time of seeding. It is Each container of commercial inoculant has a beneficial if seeding can be done during light rains written set of instructions. Check the following and cloudy skies. The rain keeps the ground moist items carefully: the age of the culture as shown by until the seedlings are established and nodulation the date on the container; the list of plants the takes place. culture will satisfactorily inoculate; the quantity of S t a f ii . Seed treatments and fertilizers. Many seed for which the contents of the container are pesticides are toxic to legume bacteria. Although intended; and directions for applying the inoculant pesticides toxic to legume bactera. to the seed, some pesticides may be non-toxic to legume bacteria, chemicals and inoculant should not be used Because inoculants are PERISHABLE, purchase together in planting. If it is necessary to plant the inoculant from a reliable dealer who can assure pesticide-treated legume seed in large scale opera2



PAGE 1

tions, the soil may be "preinoculated." The Group which includes the legume he wishes to inoculant is mixed with moist soil, moist sawdust, plant. The more commonly recognized groups are or other inert material and is then incorporated in as follows: the soil before seeding. This may be carried out on F, plowed fields at the last harrowing for weed control Frequently, strains of bacteria effective on one and final preparation just before seeding. member of a group are ineffective on other members of the same group. An ineffective strain of Inoculated seed should not come in contact with bacteria is "parasitic:" it will nodulate a particular caustic lime, acid fertilizers, or fertilizers plant but will fix little or no nitrogen. Good excontaining chemical salts. Inoculated seed can mix amples of this are in the clover and trefoil groups. in the drill spout with materials such as In the clover group, effective strains of bacteria superphosphate and basic slag. Ordinarily, isolated from crimsom clover are ineffective on concentrations of fertilizer in the soil that do not white clover and vice versa. Bacteria isolated from affect seed germination or injure seedling roots will either big trefoil or birdsfoot trefoil may be totally not harm the root-nodule bacteria. However, ineffective on one or more group members. mixing fertilizer with inoculated seed should be Therefore, satisfactory group cultures can be avoided. prepared by combining strains which have been proven effective on all members of the same group. How do you choose an inoculant? Why does inoculation fail? Several types of legumes may be effectively There are times when inoculation fails. Some nodulated by a single species of root-nodule possible causes of failure are the following: bacteria. Plants nodulated by different species of U Use of wrong inoculant. It is the buyer's respon bacteria are called CROSS INOCULATION sibility to know the type of inoculant he needs, to GROUPS. Commercial inoculant containers are request it specifically, and to ascertain that he clearly labeled with the proper Cross Inoculation has received what he requested. If in doubt Group designation. It is the buyer's responsibility about the type of inoculant required he should to request inoculant for the Cross Inoculation consult his County Extension Director. Alfalfa group U Unfavorable soil conditions. In general, soil alfalfa bur clover conditions (other than high soil N levels) which sweetclover black medic favor plant growth also favor the processes of Cowpea group nodulation and nitrogen fixation. cowpea lima bean crotalaria pigeon pea U Use of dead inoculant. Although unlikely, lespedeza partridge pea inoculant may be dead due to faulty manufacpeanut mung bean kudzu hairy indigo ture. It is more likely to be the result of poor alyce clover Aeschynomene shipping or storage conditions before purchase. beggarweed Stylosanthes humilis In particular, exposure to high temperatures, even for very brief periods of time, or to direct blue Lupine grte lupine sunlight, may severely reduce the success of blue lupine white lupine yellow lupine serradella inoculation. Soybean group M Faulty handling of inoculant after purchase. soybean Inoculant must be transferred and stored under Clover group cool conditions. Pay careful attention to the inBerseem clover crimson clover white clover subterranean clover oculation procedure previously outlined. red clover other true clovers NOTE: Excessive heating or drying of the inPea and vetch group oculant at ANY time before use will result in field pea sweet pea inoculation failure. garden pea rough pea Austrian winter pea (Singletary, Caley) common vetch tangier pea What are the benefits of monantha vetch inoculation? Bean group garden bean scarlet runner bean M Improved quality of forage. The protein content Trefoil group of pasture and hay is increased by the presence birdsfoot trefoil of inoculated legumes. 3


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'1071716' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALXfileF20090919_AACEPC' 'sip-files00001.tif'
4db0d22a76888cbce0c11ba0c5441fde
117b818a81e53846f271057c81784151e507636a
'2012-04-03T14:46:19-04:00'
describe
'4476' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALXfileF20090919_AACEPD' 'sip-files00001.txt'
970d9ed1fc57f47476a451387bf099b5
95f284c418440eb57ce71d049c647c4c8c2f44b5
'2012-04-03T14:46:22-04:00'
describe
WARNING CODE 'Daitss::Anomaly' Invalid character
'9771' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALXfileF20090919_AACEPE' 'sip-files00001thm.jpg'
9aefc6651238a4ddcb41c688f384ba8b
1a5d6410e56079757e4ea15a78df0ca44cefe696
describe
'263984' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALXfileF20090919_AACEPF' 'sip-files00002.jp2'
0936dc474f0cd8b4a97ed142bcac7a53
547f6f1b2f7d0334c76fcc038424a4cbe78adc94
describe
'160076' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALXfileF20090919_AACEPG' 'sip-files00002.jpg'
dbb88a8e07132ddda7aaa4f4e77d9fef
595a1a111a3328dcedc7ab2c0b633fd6b39d4cf7
'2012-04-03T14:46:14-04:00'
describe
'115606' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALXfileF20090919_AACEPH' 'sip-files00002.pdf'
32dada007e372445290ecb0eda88945f
0bc2f4169f00750461ca5f1223d82be9d81342e5
'2012-04-03T14:46:12-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALXfileF20090919_AACEPH-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AACEPH-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
'2015-05-15T17:06:32-04:00'
describe
'2015-05-15T17:06:23-04:00'
normalize
'133463' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALXfileF20090919_AACEPI' 'sip-files00002.pro'
7a53a14486090eb6732784d75d685c1f
e1d0abc2219bf7d4dd258c4ebfaef6b6279f5392
describe
'41541' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALXfileF20090919_AACEPJ' 'sip-files00002.QC.jpg'
8973686b8754ba0a3175de7dcb167de9
90d43136223bb72fd8f563057c071d472cbd3b4a
describe
'1072528' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALXfileF20090919_AACEPK' 'sip-files00002.tif'
a0c324521e13d6ce6b3ddd7097f696eb
9d9ed4df033da02aa635f4b4aa7a46c2cf5031b8
'2012-04-03T14:46:13-04:00'
describe
'5147' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALXfileF20090919_AACEPL' 'sip-files00002.txt'
98058cbfde1cc137b60bf548927c72d5
f4f0e60c0c0e7a56ab3e7a012e735b717a4138c0
'2012-04-03T14:46:15-04:00'
describe
'10128' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALXfileF20090919_AACEPM' 'sip-files00002thm.jpg'
ce9d7c23390e801952107af127c27421
0e32b6ea168250b9c6012f9e6a71a39b524fb5e8
'2012-04-03T14:46:10-04:00'
describe
'204330' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALXfileF20090919_AACEPN' 'sip-files00003.jp2'
4c60d69de4edd2b398ef1a061981fd31
1fd589f959dc1edffff8c9f524fb0e35a72d9fd2
'2012-04-03T14:46:21-04:00'
describe
'126547' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALXfileF20090919_AACEPO' 'sip-files00003.jpg'
2272b3415edb9eb5345cf744c1b0de99
42107556827a64f85444b445652014b6e5bb60e3
describe
'88550' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALXfileF20090919_AACEPP' 'sip-files00003.pdf'
b91324033be8ddc4ce303dda4568400b
cc14c3b583cb4c706e5db7bc50d1319f60f8a6d5
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALXfileF20090919_AACEPP-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AACEPP-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
'2015-05-15T17:06:34-04:00'
describe
'2015-05-15T17:06:28-04:00'
normalize
'108101' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALXfileF20090919_AACEPQ' 'sip-files00003.pro'
4a38d2c506092f94b33b8fc2dc5788eb
6e77c8d417ed655388ef703e897229f823ed0376
describe
'34140' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALXfileF20090919_AACEPR' 'sip-files00003.QC.jpg'
27199767968c22f2049394277ff00985
b3d23485e90075ac979ec3afac6c1b7f6d98baab
describe
'1059140' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALXfileF20090919_AACEPS' 'sip-files00003.tif'
e05f1980cfc9da5c6efaa9131b572f04
e36fe028d510592cef7b3550921f08df65481fc4
describe
'4369' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALXfileF20090919_AACEPT' 'sip-files00003.txt'
34d26f08d40a011f790556fdebe52f11
d49213c641e4b69ddcc5ff0f1cf8894a3fa1da19
describe
'8795' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALXfileF20090919_AACEPU' 'sip-files00003thm.jpg'
7bc62008e1df19ea9b216fb4e79f1ee6
953979c4afa9a06f11d0a9ff66957181fd605e54
describe
'209287' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALXfileF20090919_AACEPV' 'sip-files00004.jp2'
76279fca317cb59b258fdb951f1cb298
7bab1fefbd60f67206db631189bec5ae64b01883
describe
'126522' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALXfileF20090919_AACEPW' 'sip-files00004.jpg'
7bc4a34b0f9ba5d6e9db2eeaa12f89f9
163bd9c61e1447f53eaed82fd6d4a8f005b830f2
describe
'92323' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALXfileF20090919_AACEPX' 'sip-files00004.pdf'
66458c1ec3492ab614f3b5ffd3353321
6354917971aa27daac4d37e472821fc22871cf03
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALXfileF20090919_AACEPX-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AACEPX-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
describe
'2015-05-15T17:06:30-04:00'
normalize
'116648' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALXfileF20090919_AACEPY' 'sip-files00004.pro'
0028375c2762814d3f5b6f2047068f5c
10a82a1928aa1eb5efcd634b1c059e3cf04c45df
describe
'34507' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALXfileF20090919_AACEPZ' 'sip-files00004.QC.jpg'
80ca84b8ec7e5c6ede2d767c9c8ebe53
013fd5d9f38f4f490cf36e815841513fd96b02e2
describe
'1060700' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALXfileF20090919_AACEQA' 'sip-files00004.tif'
f5d7cf40c94f81aaa1f628b776ae07af
d866e9cea3414a6349ee1305c93054a96e865df5
describe
'4608' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALXfileF20090919_AACEQB' 'sip-files00004.txt'
011ead4547a11b046fa883bac2ba2ce3
3f32a5b3a8d3545378b1b03c8ef5519936666f27
describe
'8737' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALXfileF20090919_AACEQC' 'sip-files00004thm.jpg'
d0eb4b3a40d7ca8fe33ecd71164a036b
989c5f3dd495c6b23780a963ed43ded308e5d37a
describe
'15185' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALXfileF20090919_AACEQD' 'sip-filesUF00014472_00001.mets'
5bc3b11b20412a690f88de09b227558c
a5910be961a562cd3bc659afe53ce4b6da07d5ac
describe
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'2015-05-15T17:06:35-04:00' 'mixed'
xml resolution
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
BROKEN_LINK schema http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
The element type "div" must be terminated by the matching end-tag "
".
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'17146' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALXfileF20090919_AACEQG' 'sip-filesUF00014472_00001.xml'
c3302757d50f99e3d09a965a1e7a09dc
ee2b3d673bc9f83bebc2d7c41018153182a1661e
describe
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
xml resolution
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
The element type "div" must be terminated by the matching end-tag "".
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.



PAGE 1

v/ "7(0 Circular 376 T HUE I T Y 0 F F L I D A )// --"* INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENC ES Legume inoculation in Florida D.H. Hubbell, D.W. Jones and G.D. Thornton Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida/ John T. Woeste, dean What is legume inoculation? erosion and removal of crop residues have severely reduced the supply of soil nitrogen. Legume inoculation is the practice of introducing specific bacteria into the soil with legume seed, Nitrogen is a key element for living cells. It is usually when planting. The bacteria belong to the an essential part of protein, the building block of genera Rhizobium or Bradyrhizobium but are plant and animal tissue. Nitrogen is the plant commonly referred to as "rhizobia," "legume nutrient that most often limits crop growth, for two bacteria" or "root nodule bacteria." They infect the main reasons. First, plants need more nitrogen roots of leguminous plants a few days after seed than other nutrients in order to achieve good germination. Within one or two weeks, small growth. Second, soil nitrogen is constantly being nodules appear on the roots as a result.of thesefY lost through run-off, leaching, denitrification and infections. Mature nodules iiay be round, i " removal of nitrogen-containing crop residues from cylindrical, or lobed, dependihg on the plant " the scil. Denitrification is the process of changing species. J L. plant'available nitrate nitrogen to atmospheric JUspeL : J I nitrogen, which then diffuses as a gas to the What is successful inoculation? atmo phere. Denitrification results in a loss of soil Uni"''S[? 0I i F0ri nitrogen and is opposite in effect to the process of The presence of nodules on legume roots proves "nitroen fixation" carried on by rhizobia. the bacteria have successfully infectedthe roots. This is important because the rhizobia living in the Soil nitrogen is replenished primarily from nodule enter into a "symbiotic" or mutually benefertilizers and nitrogen fixation. Nitrogen ficial relationship with the plant. The plant and fertilizers may be inorganic materials such as urea, the bacteria work together to reduce or "fix" ammonium nitrate or ammonium sulphate. Nitronitrogen gas (N2) from the air into ammonium gen fertilizers are immediately available for plant (NH4+) in the plant root. As ammonium, it can be uptake. They are rather expensive because of the used by both the bacteria and the plant as a nutprocess involved in their manufacture. rient for growth. A pink color within the nodule inAs a soil residue, "organic nitrogen," or rhizobiadicates nitrogen is being fixed. This can be observfixed nitrogen, is not immediately available for ed by crushing or slicing nodules which are about plants. Numerous kinds of soil organisms must one week old. Very young nodules have a white first decompose the organic residues. This results interior and very old nodules have a brown interior, in a slow but continuous release of inorganic Little or no nitrogen is fixed in these nodules. nitrogen which can be used by growing plants. Because of the slow release, nitrogen is not lost Why is inoculation important? through leaching. The ability of the plant-bacteria combination to Do all leguminous plants fix "fix" and use an otherwise unavailable form of nitrogen is of considerable economic importance to nitrogen? farmers. The symbiotically-fixed nitrogen farmers. The symbiotically-fxed nitrogen A leguminous plant is one that has seed pods. supplements soil nitrogen, which is low in most n e soils. This is especially true for the mineral soils of Beans peas so n lupine, peanut, and cowpeas are common legumes with prominent seed the Southeastern coastal areas, where leaching, cowpes e o o legumes with l conspiuo seed pods. Other legumes with less conspicuous seed Professor, department of Soil Science. Professor, Department pods are clover, lespedeza, beggarweed, crotalaria, of Agronomy. Professor, Department of Soil Science; IFAS, hairy indigo, trefoil, alfalfa, and vetch. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.



PAGE 1

"* Increased animal gains. Higher protein content U Use of lime where needed. (Usually not required can improve legume taste. This results in for legumes of the Cowpea Group). increased consumption of total digestible nutriA e s y o p a 1 Adequate supply of phosphorus and potassium. ents by the animal. Compared with other forages, the leguminous plants are higher in E Use of micronutrients where needed. Many calcium, phosphorus, and other essential growth Florida soils fail to support the satisfactory elements. growth of legumes. This can be overcome by supplementing with copper, manganese, zinc, "* Added soil nitrogen. An inoculated legume crop supplementing with copper, manganese, zinc, S add n re e boron, or a combination of these micronutrients. may add anywhere from 50 to more than 100 Follow the recommendations of your county Follow the recommendations of your county pounds of nitrogen per acre to the soil. The extension agent. amount depends on the soil reaction, crop size, effectiveness of the fixation process, portion of U Selection of the kind and variety of legume best the crop left on the land, phosphorus and potassuited for the soil conditions and area within the sium levels in the soil, and amount of nitrogen state. already available in the soil. "* Increased subsequent crop yields. Yields of corn Legume and inoculation and other crops have been doubled and even information tripled by growing them in rotation with legumiThere are several current publications on nous green manure crops. growing various legume crops in Florida. The "* Improved soil conditions. Properly nodulated publications listed below may be obtained from legumes are rich in nitrogen. They often contain County Extension Offices or by writing to: Publicaseveral times as much nitrogen as was withtions Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, drawn from the soil. The presence of certain University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. high-nitrogen compounds in legumes causes So n p n g e ( r Soybean production guide (Circular 277E) them to decompose rapidly. This leaves finely divided organic matter in the soil which im"Osceola" White Clover (Circular S-311) proves soil moisture, nutrient retention, and soil ,, . proves soil moisture, nutrient retention, and soil "Florida 77" Alfalfa and Recommended Practices for its structure. Production (Circular S-191) "* Reduced erosion. Legumes inoculated with ece ers o. ue icte th i "Florigraze" Rhizoma Peanut, a Perennial Forage Legume effective strains of root-nodule bacteria thrive in (Circular S-275) soils poor in nitrogen. If adequate amounts of lime, phosphate, and potash are present, water "Arbrook" Rhizoma Peanut, a Perennial Forage Legume and soil losses may be reduced to a minimum by (Circular S-332) growing legumes. Properly inoculated kudzu, "growing legumes. Properly inoculated kudzu, Hairy Indigo, a Summer Legume for Florida (Circular S-316) beggarweed, crotalaria, hairy indigo and perennial lespedeza are exceptionally well adapted for Production and Utilization of the Tropical Legume this purpose. Aeschynomene (Circular S-290) Growing factors of legumes "Florida" Carpon Desmodium, a Perennial Tropical Forage Legume for Use in South Florida (Circular S-260) Although proper inoculation is the key to ecoStylosanthes humilis, a Summer-growing, Self-regenerating nomic production of legumes, it alone cannot insure Annual Legume for Use in Florida Pastures (Circular S-184) success. Other essential factors are: Phasey Bean, a Summer Legume with Forage Potential for n Good seedbed preparation. Florida Flatwoods (Circular S-330) COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, John T. Woeste, director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30,1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, handicap or national origin. Single copies of extension publications (excluding 4-H J and youth publications) are available free to Florida residents from county extension offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers is available from C.M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 .... ...... Before publicizing this publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability. Printed 6/91.