Almost all leguminous plants have the ability to you the material is fresh and has been stored in a form nodules when inoculated with the right kind cool place. Legume bacteria are killed by excessive of root-nodule bacteria. A few exceptions are the drying and high temperatures. For this reason the honey locust, redbud, and Kentucky coffee tree. expiration date does not always insure a strong and viable culture. Therefore, not only the AGE of the Leguminous plants differ in the amount of culture b a he STORAGE CONDITIONS nitrogen they return to the soil. Obviously, crops inoculation (in the warehouse and on the such as peanuts thatprior to inoculation (in the warehouse and on the such as peanuts that are harvested for nuts and retailer's shelf) are vital factors to be considered. hay return little nitrogen to the soil. Frequently, such crops deplete the soil of some nitrogen because When the seeding date is near, it is a good idea the nodules fail to fix all of the nitrogen needed by to buy the seed and inoculant at the same time. the plant. Other crops, such as soybeans harvested This insures having the culture on hand when the for seed, or lespedeza harvested for hay, leave a weather is favorable for planting. It is the buyer's portion of the plant on the land as stubble. These responsibility to be sure he is getting the proper crops may fix as much nitrogen as that removed in inoculant. Inoculant should be stored in a the harvested crop, leaving the soil nitrogen at its refrigerator or in an air conditioned room if it is not original level. Still other crops, such as clover used immediately. pastures and hairy indigo, may add considerable NOTE: TWICE the manufacturer's amounts of nitrogen to the soil. Mature animals on recommended amount for large seeded legumes and recommended amount for large seeded legumes and a legume pasture leave most of the nitrogen in the FIVE TIMES the recommended amount for small land. The largest increases in soil nitrogen are seeds have given more satisfying results under obtained when the entire plant is returned to thes a e s tin. r d Florida's soil and climate conditions. Hot, dry soil as full grown, succulent green manure. Some weather kills legume bacteria. Using extra weather kills legume bacteria. Using extra excellent green manure crops, with the approxiexcellent green manure crops, with the approxiinoculant, under cool, moist conditions if possible, mate amounts of nitrogen fixed per acre, are as insures against inoculation failure. insures against inoculation failure. follows: lupine, 75 pounds; crimson clover, 80 pounds; hairy indigo, 70 pounds; crotalaria, 72 Care of inoculated seed. Plant legume seed pounds; cowpeas, 86 pounds. as soon as possible after inoculation. Seed should never be exposed to direct sunlight or How can you successfully allowed to dry before planting. Never inoculate inoculate? more seed than can be conveniently planted within a few hours. If there is a delay in seeding Years ago, legume bacteria were introduced into for more than two or three hours, keep the seed new areas by using soil from a field where desired moist and cool. If the seed becomes excessively dry legumes had grown successfully the previous for any reason, REINOCULATE. It will pay. season. This is now unnecessary. Commercial Seedbed preparation. Plant inoculated seed inoculants of legume bacteria are now available prep. i in well-prepared, moist soil. To insure quick from seed dealers. These inoculants are a mixture in eprepar, mot oi To insure qic germination and prevent the death of inoculant of bacteria selected for their ability to "fix" large bermi nation and preen the death of inoculant of nitrogen in a particular legume or bacteria by drying, roll the planted soil with a amounts of nitrogen in a particular legume or amous cultipacker equipped with a seeding attachment. It group of legumes. This helps insure that different group of legumes. This helps insure that different is often necessary to plant clover seed in grass sod. legume species or varieties of the same legume legume species or varieties of the same legume This makes it hard to secure good germination and grown in different areas, where conditions such as say .e c s of te, m e, p, ad nien s s satisfactory inoculation. The chances of obtaining temperature, moisture, pH, and nutrient status mpratre, oisture, p, and nutrient status inoculated clover will increase if the grass is closely may vary, can be successfully inoculated with the clipped and the soil surface scarified by light same bacteria, clipped and the soil surface scarified by light disking just before or at the time of seeding. It is Each container of commercial inoculant has a beneficial if seeding can be done during light rains written set of instructions. Check the following and cloudy skies. The rain keeps the ground moist items carefully: the age of the culture as shown by until the seedlings are established and nodulation the date on the container; the list of plants the takes place. culture will satisfactorily inoculate; the quantity of S t a f ii . Seed treatments and fertilizers. Many seed for which the contents of the container are pesticides are toxic to legume bacteria. Although intended; and directions for applying the inoculant pesticides toxic to legume bactera. to the seed, some pesticides may be non-toxic to legume bacteria, chemicals and inoculant should not be used Because inoculants are PERISHABLE, purchase together in planting. If it is necessary to plant the inoculant from a reliable dealer who can assure pesticide-treated legume seed in large scale opera2
tions, the soil may be "preinoculated." The Group which includes the legume he wishes to inoculant is mixed with moist soil, moist sawdust, plant. The more commonly recognized groups are or other inert material and is then incorporated in as follows: the soil before seeding. This may be carried out on F, plowed fields at the last harrowing for weed control Frequently, strains of bacteria effective on one and final preparation just before seeding. member of a group are ineffective on other members of the same group. An ineffective strain of Inoculated seed should not come in contact with bacteria is "parasitic:" it will nodulate a particular caustic lime, acid fertilizers, or fertilizers plant but will fix little or no nitrogen. Good excontaining chemical salts. Inoculated seed can mix amples of this are in the clover and trefoil groups. in the drill spout with materials such as In the clover group, effective strains of bacteria superphosphate and basic slag. Ordinarily, isolated from crimsom clover are ineffective on concentrations of fertilizer in the soil that do not white clover and vice versa. Bacteria isolated from affect seed germination or injure seedling roots will either big trefoil or birdsfoot trefoil may be totally not harm the root-nodule bacteria. However, ineffective on one or more group members. mixing fertilizer with inoculated seed should be Therefore, satisfactory group cultures can be avoided. prepared by combining strains which have been proven effective on all members of the same group. How do you choose an inoculant? Why does inoculation fail? Several types of legumes may be effectively There are times when inoculation fails. Some nodulated by a single species of root-nodule possible causes of failure are the following: bacteria. Plants nodulated by different species of U Use of wrong inoculant. It is the buyer's respon bacteria are called CROSS INOCULATION sibility to know the type of inoculant he needs, to GROUPS. Commercial inoculant containers are request it specifically, and to ascertain that he clearly labeled with the proper Cross Inoculation has received what he requested. If in doubt Group designation. It is the buyer's responsibility about the type of inoculant required he should to request inoculant for the Cross Inoculation consult his County Extension Director. Alfalfa group U Unfavorable soil conditions. In general, soil alfalfa bur clover conditions (other than high soil N levels) which sweetclover black medic favor plant growth also favor the processes of Cowpea group nodulation and nitrogen fixation. cowpea lima bean crotalaria pigeon pea U Use of dead inoculant. Although unlikely, lespedeza partridge pea inoculant may be dead due to faulty manufacpeanut mung bean kudzu hairy indigo ture. It is more likely to be the result of poor alyce clover Aeschynomene shipping or storage conditions before purchase. beggarweed Stylosanthes humilis In particular, exposure to high temperatures, even for very brief periods of time, or to direct blue Lupine grte lupine sunlight, may severely reduce the success of blue lupine white lupine yellow lupine serradella inoculation. Soybean group M Faulty handling of inoculant after purchase. soybean Inoculant must be transferred and stored under Clover group cool conditions. Pay careful attention to the inBerseem clover crimson clover white clover subterranean clover oculation procedure previously outlined. red clover other true clovers NOTE: Excessive heating or drying of the inPea and vetch group oculant at ANY time before use will result in field pea sweet pea inoculation failure. garden pea rough pea Austrian winter pea (Singletary, Caley) common vetch tangier pea What are the benefits of monantha vetch inoculation? Bean group garden bean scarlet runner bean M Improved quality of forage. The protein content Trefoil group of pasture and hay is increased by the presence birdsfoot trefoil of inoculated legumes. 3
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