Citation
Forest regeneration methods

Material Information

Title:
Forest regeneration methods natural regeneration, direct seeding and planting
Series Title:
Circular Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Creator:
Duryea, Mary L
Place of Publication:
Gainesville
Publisher:
Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
10 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Tree planting ( lcsh )
Forest regeneration ( lcsh )
Trees ( lcsh )
Seedlings ( jstor )
Plant roots ( jstor )
Seed trees ( jstor )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Bibliography: p. 10.
General Note:
Cover title.
Statement of Responsibility:
Mary L. Duryea.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
AAA6885 ( LTQF )
AEQ0925 ( LTUF )
16654766 ( OCLC )
027253542 ( AlephBibNum )

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Full Text
DOCUMENT --Circular 759







SForest
SRegeneration
SMethods

S Natural Regeneration,
?, Direct Seeding
and Planting
~Florida Cooperative Extension Service
SInstitute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
SUniversity of Florida, Gainesville
John T. Woeste, Dean for Extension








ABSTRACT
Planning for regeneration begins with the landowner examining the land to be regenerated and then
defining the objectives for regeneration and management. This circular assumes that the landowner has
decided to have trees on a parcel of land, and it then provides three major alternatives for regeneration:
1) natural regeneration, and two methods of artificial regeneration, 1) direct seeding, and 2) planting.
Natural regeneration relies upon older pines left on the site to provide seed for new trees on the
regeneration site; these seed trees are then removed after a young stand of trees becomes established.
In direct seeding, the landowner sows seed on the land; these seed then germinate and a forest stand
results. The majority of sites in the South are planted with seedlings which have been grown at forest
tree nurseries, are lifted and sold to the landowner, and then are planted either by hand or machine on
the regeneration site. After weighing the advantages and disadvantages of these three regeneration
methods, the landowner can then select the method which best fits the specific site, objectives, and
economic situation.

Contents


Introduction 1
Natural Regeneration 1
Definition 1
Steps 1
Advantages 2
Disadvantages 2
Direct Seeding 3
Definition 3
Steps 3
Where to direct seed 4
Advantages 4
Disadvantages 4
Planting 6
Definition 6
Steps 6
Advantages 7
Disadvantages 8
Assessing Success of Your Plantation 8
Literature Cited 10


Credits : Editor, Sally Knox. Graphic Design and Illustration, Ralph Knudsen








FOREST REGENERATION METHODS:
NATURAL REGENERATION, DIRECT SEEDING AND PLANTING
Mary L. Duryea*


Introduction
Planning for regeneration begins with the land-
owner examining the land and then defining the
objectives for regeneration and management. Some
questions to ask concerning a parcel of land include:
* Do trees on the land need to be harvested first or
has the land already been harvested?
* Has the land been examined to see if the site has
been regenerated naturally?
* Will the present vegetation on the site be detri-
mental to small trees, by competing for water,
sunlight, or nutrients? (If the answer is yes,
some control of the vegetation may be desirable.)
* What is the soil like? Is the site: wet? dry? shal-
low? deep? (This will help in the selection of
species as well as determine whether the site will
be difficult to regenerate.)
In order to select specific practices for your
particular site and answer many of these questions,
it is helpful to consult a professional forester,
experienced in regeneration.
Setting objectives for a parcel of land means
making decisions about the present and future
management schemes. What are the reasons for
wanting a forest on the site? Would planting trees
be for: 1) aesthetic reasons, 2) providing future
income in 20, 30, or 40 years, 3) restoring marginal
or unused cropland, or 4) promoting wildlife? Many
more reasons for planting trees exist; many are
compatible with each other, such as wanting an
income and aesthetics.
Finally, some of the most important questions may
be:
* How much will regeneration of this parcel of land
cost?
* Am I eligible for one of the cost sharing programs
such as the Forestry Incentives Program (FIP)?
Information on these programs can be obtained
from your county extension agent or county
forester, or the Agricultural Stabilization and
Conservation Service (ASCS) office.
* What will my rate of return on the forestry
investment be? (For ways to assess your forestry
investment see IFAS Circular 592, A Guide to
Comparing Returns From Forestry Investments to
Annual Crops, Eason and Flinchum 1984.)


This circular assumes that the landowner wants to
have trees on a parcel of land. It then provides
three major alternatives for getting the trees on the
land: natural regeneration and two kinds of artificial
regeneration: direct seeding and planting seedlings.
The landowner can then select the method that best
fits the specific site, objectives, and economic



Natural Regeneration

Definition
Natural regeneration relies on older pine trees left
on the land to provide seed to regenerate the site.
This practice can only be employed if the site has
not yet been harvested. Plans are then made for
harvesting the present forest stand and leaving some
trees to provide the seed.
Pine stands, however, grow best where all trees
are of the same age and receive the same amount of
sunlight and so once the seedlings are established
the large seed trees must be removed. For more
information, some excellent articles describe the
process of natural regeneration (Williston and Balmer
1974, Boyer 1978, Lohrey and Jones 1983).

Steps
1. Selecting the seed trees. Before the site is
logged, seed trees must be selected and marked
with paint. Selection means choosing the
best-looking trees for seed trees -- trees which
are the straightest and tallest and have large
crowns (lots of green needles) and no disease.
The number to leave on the site will vary
according to species (Table 1). More seed
trees are required for longleaf pine because it is
not a prolific seed producer and its large seeds
are often eaten by animals (Williston and Balmer
1974). Trees should be well-spaced over the site
to allow even distribution of seed.
2. Planning for a good seed crop. The frequency of
good seed crops varies from year to year and
species to species (Table 1). To insure successful
natural regeneration, the site should be logged
just prior to a good seed crop. You can observe
the seed crop by looking through binoculars in
the spring or early summer and counting cones to
determine the crop for the fall or looking at


* Assistant Professor, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, IFAS, University of Florida, Gaines-
ville.








conelets to predict next year's crop (Figure 1).
Conelets resemble small pink or light green cones
and are located near the ends of the branches;
cones are green and are located further in on the
branches. Both conelets and cones are in the top
2/3 of the tree crown.
3. Logging. The landowner should supervise the
logging operation especially to insure that the
seed trees are not damaged by the logging.
Damaged trees may die or not produce a good
seed crop.
4. Preparing the site. The site must be prepared to
first incorporate the forest litter (organic matter)
and then expose mineral soil -- seeds need soil to
germinate and grow. Some site preparation
options are to burn, mechanically scarify, and/or
spray with herbicides (see Fact Sheet FOR-37,
Site Preparation: Alternatives for Plantation Es-
tablishment, Jack et al 1984). The soil needs to be
exposed prior to October, when most seeds fall
from the trees. Sometimes the logging operation
is enough of a disturbance to expose the soil.
However, the completeness and intensity of the
site preparation may improve seedling estab-
lishment especially during periods of poor seed
crop or drought (Lohrey and Jones 1983).
5. Logging the remaining trees. When an adequate
seedling stand is established and about 1-2 years
old, the seed trees should be harvested (Boyer
1979). If you wait too long, seed trees will
affect the growth of the seedlings and logging
may damage the seedlings.
6. Controlling unwanted vegetation. Shrubs, small
trees, and herbaceous vegetation will compete
with small seedlings for nutrients, water, and
sunlight causing mortality or slower growth. For
the first few years, the planting site should be
observed to see if this unwanted vegetation is
affecting seedling growth and survival and
measures should be taken to control the weeds.
Chemical control, hand-cutting, and mowing are
three possible methods of control.
Table 1. Minimum number of seed trees to leave for natural
regeneration and the frequency of seed crops for each pine
species (seed tree numbers adapted from Williston and Balmer
1974).
Pine Number of seed trees to leave Frequency of
species per acre by diameter of trees seed crop (yrs)
Diameter (inches)
10 12 14 16+

Slash 12 9 6 4 Every 3 years
Loblolly 12 9 6 4 Every 1-3 years
Longleaf 55 38 28 21 Every 3-5 years


Conelet ., ,


Cone





a~-'









Figure 1. A pine branch showing both a) conelets
which can be used to predict next year's seed crop
and b) cones which can be used to predict the
present year's seed crop.

Advantages
* The initial costs of establishing a forest stand may
be lower especially if site preparation is not
necessary.
* Less heavy equipment and labor is required.
* The seedling has a naturally shaped root system
unlike seedlings which have been grown in a
nursery.
* Chance of tip moth damage is reduced (Beaufait
and others 1984).
* For aesthetic reasons, the landowner may prefer to
see a forest stand which is unevenly and naturally
spaced versus a stand which is in rows.

Disadvantages
A seed crop must be available and seed dispersal
must be timed correctly with site preparation so
that a suitable seedbed is available for the seed
germination.
Moisture in the soil is necessary for the seeds to
germinate; exceptionally dry years or sites may
result in poor germination or seedling mortality.
Insects and other small seed-eating animals may
consume all or most of the seed.
Competing vegetation may be a problem for
survival and growth for a longer time period than
with planting because seedlings are smaller or
seed may not be disseminated in the first year.








* If the seed is abundant and a dense stand results,
a pre-commercial thinning may be necessary to
decrease the number of trees per acre. For
example, if there are more than 2000 slash pine
seedlings at age three, growth may be inhibited
and the site will require pre-commercial thinning
700-1000 trees per acre. This thinning may be
accomplished by hand-cutting or plowing up rows
of seedlings and leaving the remaining rows about
10-12 feet apart.
* Because the site is planted with seed versus
1-year-old seedlings, the rotation length (time until
harvest) may be increased by one or more years.
* The seed coming from the seed trees is not
genetically improved as when the seed comes from
a seed orchard.
* Natural regeneration may be less expensive initially
but more costly in the long run if it is necessary
to prepare the site or precommercially thin.
* Open sites without trees such as clearcuts,
abandoned fields, and stands after a wildfire or
windstorm cannot be naturally regenerated.
m The landowner does not have any control over
spacing between trees or stocking levels and so
often these can be very uneven.
* A successfully regenerated site may take longer to
reach harvest than with direct seeding or planting.

Direct Seeding
Definition
Direct seeding means that the landowner applies
seeds directly to the land; these seeds then ger-
minate and a forest stand results. A lot of the
principles for site conditions and site preparation are
the same as with natural regeneration but, in
addition, a known amount of seed is used. Direct
seeding is often employed on poor or inaccessible
sites or where little initial involvement is possible or
desirable. Sites which are drought or have high
erosion potential should be avoided. Three reviews
give detailed information on direct seeding (Lohrey
and Jones 1983, Williston and Balmer 1983, Beaufait
and others 1984).

Steps
1. Harvesting and preparing the site. First, the
present stand must be harvested and the site
prepared to create a mineral soil seedbed. Again,
as in natural regeneration, the options for site
preparation are burning, mechanically scarifying,
and/or spraying with herbicides (Jack et al.
1984).


2. Obtaining seed. Seed with greater than 85%
viability and with a minimum of 95% sound seed
should be used. After receiving seed, it should
be stored immediately in a refrigerator at 34-36F
(Williston and Balmer 1983).
3. Sowing rates. The amount of seed required will
vary according to species, method of sowing,
degree of site preparation, and general ease of
regeneration of the site. For instance, in an area
where summer showers are frequent and survival
is good, 0.6 lb/acre is adequate for slash pine.
However, in drier areas 1 lb/acre for broadcast
sowing, 0.75 lb/acre for row seeding on a disked
bed, and 0.5 lb/acre for spot seeding may be
required for adequate regeneration (Lohrey and
Jones 1983). In general for each species there is
an average amount of seed which is needed
(Table 3).
Table 3. Amount of seed needed to direct seed an acre of
land and the approximate number of seeds per pound.
Iine Lbs of seed Approximate
Species needed per acre* number of
seeds per Ib**
Loblolly 0.5 18,200
Slash 0.6 13,500
Longleaf 2.5 4,900
Sand 0.6 75,000
*(Williston and Balmer 1983)
**(Schopmeyer 1974)

4. Treating seed. Seed is often treated with a
repellent for seed-eating insects, birds, and
mammals which will otherwise consume the entire
seed crop. The most common repellent for birds
is Thiram. Endrin, which has been used to repel
rodents is no longer available as a repellent. If a
substitute cannot be found, predation will be an
even bigger problem for direct seeding.
Loblolly and sand pine seed also needs to be
stratified, a process which subjects water-soaked
seed to cold temperatures for 20-60 days accor-
ding to species and improves its chance of
germinating.
Stratified and repellent-treated seed can be
purchased from most commercial seed companies.
The repellent and stratification treatments each
increase the weight of seed by about 10% and 25%
(Williston and Balmer 1983).
5. Date of sowing. Longleaf and sand pine seed
should be sown in the fall when soil moisture is
high from rains. Longleaf pine appears to nat-
urally regenerate better in the panhandle than
the peninsula of Florida, perhaps due to the
wetter climate in the fall and winter.








Loblolly and slash seed should be sown in the
spring when freezing temperatures have past,
soil moisture is adequate, and daily temperatures
are warm enough for germination (Williston and
Balmer 1983). Seeds most often germinate in 2-4
weeks and begin growth before the hot dry
summer months.
6. Methods of Sowing. There are many methods
used to sow seed (Figure 2). Large tracts of
land (>500 acres) are often broadcast sown
aerially by airplanes or helicopters. This method
is fastest and has the most accurate and complete
coverage.
Another method for large tracts of land uses
row-seeding machines, which 1) plow a narrow
furrow or strip, 2) meter out a specified amount
of seed, and 3) pack the seed into the soil with
packing wheels (Lohrey and Jones 1983; Williston
and Balmer 1983).
Two methods for small tracts of land include
hand-sowing and spot-seeding. To hand sow,
hand-cranked seeders, with a metering device, are
most useful. One person can sow 15 acres in a
day (Lohrey and Jones 1983; Williston and Balmer
1983). Seed can also be sown on hand-raked
spots, approximately 2 feet in diameter and spaced
about 8 x 8 feet Six to eight seeds are pressed
1/2" into the soil at each spot (Lohrey and Jones
1983); 2-4 acres can be sown in one day using
this method. A small group of landowners can
also share the cost of a helicopter or airplane if
aerial seeding is preferred.

Where to direct seed

Direct seeding is often not successful on dry,
upland sands or coarse sandy soils where the soil
dries out too rapidly and moisture is unavailable for
the seeds to germinate. On these sites, germination
is enhanced if the seed is covered with soil (about
1/2") (Williston and Balmer 1983). In contrast, on
poorly drained sites where seeds or seedlings may be
flooded for more than 1-2 weeks, direct seeding may
not be successful. Also, on sites where heavy
grazing is present, survival may not be good because
animals will trample small seedlings. On sloped sites,
direct seeding followed by heavy rains may result in
seed being washed away (Williston and Balmer 1983).
Sites with heavy grass may have to be disked or
harrowed before direct seeding (Derr and Mann 1971;
Lohrey and Jones 1983). Sites with frost problems
or intense radiation should also be avoided (Wenger
1984).
Direct seeding may be used on small or large land
areas where natural regeneration or planting cannot


be applied. Natural regeneration may be impossible
because of the lack of trees as a seed source.
Planting may be difficult or expensive where terrain
is inaccessible or soil conditions make planting
difficult (Lohrey and Jones 1983).

Advantages
* Compared to natural regeneration, direct seeding
allows the introduction of new species or seed
sources.
* Compared to natural regeneration, direct seeding
enables better control over seed quantity, quality,
and distribution over the site (Lohrey and Jones
1983).
* Direct seeding has a lower initial cost than
planting (1/3 to 1/2 the cost of planting).
* Direct seeding can be employed on sites with
difficult access, or sometimes poor drainage
(Williston and Balmer 1983).
a Direct seeding may be more flexible than planting
-- for instance, when a forest fire or other
natural disaster occurs, it is often easier to obtain
seed rather than seedlings (Williston and Balmer
1983).
a Sometimes with improper planting, a "J" or "L"
shaped root system will result on the planted
seedling but with seeding a more natural, undis-
turbed root system develops.
a For aesthetic reasons, some people might prefer
seeing trees randomly spaced on a site instead of
in rows.

Disadvantages
* Because of bird and mammal problems, it is
necessary to treat the seed with repellents and
these repellents may not be available.
* Sometimes site preparation is more necessary than
with planting because of the requirements for
exposed mineral soil.
a Direct seeding requires more skill than planting to
do it right; the landowner is advised to seek help
from a forester experienced in direct seeding
(Williston and Balmer 1983).
* There are many sites where direct seeding is not
suitable (see section on where to direct seed).
* Relative to planting, there is less control over
spacing and stocking; thus, pre-commercial thin-
ning may be necessary to reduce the number of
trees per acre and establish even spacing between
trees.


































































Figure 2. Three common methods of direct seeding include a) aerial seeding with a helicopter, b) hand-
sowing with a hand-cranked seeder, and c) spot-seeding on raked spots.








m Because the forest stand is started with seed
instead of one-year-old seedlings, rotations may be
at least one or more years longer because of the
loss in growth.
* Also, because the direct-seeded seedlings are one
year younger, it may be necessary to control
competing vegetation for a longer period of time
to insure successful survival and growth.
* The irregularly spaced stands which often result
from direct seeding are not well suited for access
by mechanical harvesting and fire equipment
(Williston and Balmer 1983).
* And finally, compared to planting, direct seeding
generally results in lower yields of timber (Willis-
ton and Balmer 1983).

Planting
Definition
The majority of sites which are regenerated with
pine in the South are planted with seedlings.
Seedlings are grown at and purchased from forest
tree nurseries. Although mainly bareroot seedlings
are planted, each year there is a slightly increased
number of containerized seedlings available for
planting, especially longleaf pine seedlings.
Seedlings are lifted at the nursery and planted
during the late fall and winter months. Care and
handling of lifted bareroot seedlings are extremely
important to planting success. If seedlings are
stored, they should be stored at cool temperatures
(33-35*F). Otherwise, they should be planted im-
mediately. Planting is accomplished either by hand
or mechanically. Two excellent publications on
planting are "Tree Planter's Guide" (Division of
Forestry 1983) and "Guide for Planting Southern
Pines" by Balmer and Williston 1974.

Steps
1. Species and stock selection. Selecting the species
to be planted can be a complex process but a
good rule of thumb for Florida is 1) on poorly
drained sites, plant slash pine, 2) on moderately
drained sites, plant slash or loblolly pine, and 3)
on dry sites, plant longleaf or sand pine. Using
genetically improved stock will insure better
growth and improved disease resistance. A
professional forester familiar with local condi-
tions could assist in choosing the proper species.
2. Site preparation. The purposes of site prepar-
ation are: 1) to clear away logging slash and
vegetation and create enough spots to plant
seedlings if they are to be hand-planted; 2) to


clear away logging slash and vegetation which
will be obstacles for machine planting; 3) to
incorporate organic matter into the soil; and 4) to
reduce the levels of unwanted weeds which will
compete with tree seedlings for water, light, and
nutrients.
The three major site preparation methods
include the use of 1) fire or prescribed burning,
2)mechanical methods such as chopping, disking,
shearing, and bedding, and 3) chemical herbicides.
For detailed information on these site preparation
methods see IFAS Fact Sheet FOR-37, Site
Preparation: Alternatives for Plantation Establish-
ment, Jack et al 1984.

3. Care and handling before planting. SEEDLINGS
ARE PERISHABLE. Realizing that seedlings
require special care when they are out of their
natural environment, will insure success in
regenerating your site. Successful survival and
growth depend on the care taken during storage,
transportation, and planting.
Seedlings should be picked up immediately after
they are lifted at the nursery. If necessary, they
can be stored at cool temperatures (33-35"F) for
1-2 weeks. If cold storage facilities are not
available, seedlings should be stored in the shade
(with good air circulation), kept moist, and
planted as soon as possible. Sand pine and
longleaf pine seedlings should not be stored but
should be planted immediately (within a week)
after lifting.
The best way to transport seedlings is in a
cooler or refrigerated vehicle. If this is not
possible, they should be transported in covered
vehicles and arranged so that air circulates among
the bales or bags. Transporting in open trucks
can cause excessive drying. Also, when seedlings
get too warm they may dry out or use up their
food reserves and die. If possible transport
seedlings at night in canopy-covered trucks.

4. Care during and after planting. The main con-
sideration during planting is protection of the
seedlings, especially the root systems. Seedling
roots should not be allowed to dry; putting
seedlings in buckets of water or covering them
with wet burlap will protect them until they are
in the ground. For-large acreages a planting bag
to hold seedlings is efficient and will protect the
roots if the seedlings are planted quickly and not
left in the bag for a long period (Figure 3).
When planting, it may be helpful to leave a
depression around the seedling to catch water.
Of course, if feasible, watering after planting will
aid survival.








-, -"- |5. Spacing. Usually about 500-800 seedlings are
SI lV planted per acre for a pulpwood plantation.
,The rows on the planting site are most often 10
to 12 feet apart and seedlings are planted 5 to 8
.^ ffeet apart within the row. A 6 x 10 foot
-I- -i spacing will have 726 trees per acre (43,560 ft
i /acre : 60 ft/tree = 726 trees per acre).
i 6. Planting. Seedlings are either hand-planted or
i machine-planted. A two person hand planting
Screw can plant 1000-2000 seedlings per day. When
machine planting, two people can plant about
i 8000-10,000 seedlings per day.
Various tools are commonly used for hand
planting (Figure 4). The hole is made and the
tree is inserted with the root collar slightly below
the ground line (Figure 5). The soil is then
firmly packed around the seedling to avoid air
pockets.
A small tractor and a mechanical planter are
used for machine planting (Figure 6). Before
planting begins, the following should be checked:
1) the planter must make a furrow deep enough
Sfor the entire root system, 2) spacing should be
checked and regulated to insure desired spacing
between each planted seedling, and 3) depth of
Figure 3. Tree planter loads a planting bag with trees planting should be checked; seedlings should be
which have been dipped in a bucket of water, planted at or just below the root collar. During
planting seedlings should be checked to make
sure: 1) that they are planted at the proper
D depth, 2) that they are planted straight up and
B that the roots are straight in the hole, and 3)
that the seedlings are firmly packed in the hole.
SC To check the latter, grab the top needles of the
seedling and firmly pull upward; if the seedling is
too loosely planted, it will come out of the soil.
A
Advantages
Successful survival is more likely with planting
compared to natural regeneration and direct
seeding.
m An evenly spaced plantation is more likely to
result from planting, and therefore a plantation
established from planted seedlings has better
growth and is easier for future harvesting opera-
tions.
a Planted seedlings will grow faster initially than
L seedlings from seed. Thus, planted seedlings will
more effectively compete with unwanted grasses,
herbs, and shrubs for moisture, nutrients, and
Figure 4. Commonly used tools for hand planting light.
are a) hoedads, (two shown) b) planting bars (two a With planting, wood yields are generally better
shown), c) dibbles for containerized seedlings (one than with seeded stands and the length of the
shown), and d) shovels (one shown), rotation is shorter (meaning an earlier harvest).









































Figure 5. Steps for hand-planting pine seedlings.

1. Insert dibble or bar into soil at angle shown and
push forward to upright position.

2. Remove dibble or bar and place seedling in hole
with root collar just below ground line.

3. Insert dibble or bar about 1/2 way and pull handle
towards you to close hole at the bottom.

4. Push handle to close hole and firm soil at the top
of the seedling's roots.

5. Fill in last hole with heel.

6. Firm soil around seedling using hands or feet and
being careful not to damage seedling.


Disadvantages
* Initial costs may be higher than for natural
regeneration and direct seeding.
* The planting site may be inaccessible to planting
machines or crews.
* Distortions of the root system such as "L" or "J"
shaped roots may result if care is not taken.
* Close attention to seedling care and handling is
critical; poor survival and growth may result if
seedlings are mistreated.

Assessing Success of Your Plantation
To assess the success of your regeneration efforts,
it is necessary to check survival of the seedlings.
One year after planting, seeding, or natural regen-
eration has occurred, is a good time for assessment.
A number of plots should be taken over the entire
planting site to get an idea of success over the
entire site (Table 2). Establish 1/100th acre circular
plots on each acre by randomly selecting a spot
within the acre and then anchoring an 11.78-foot
rope down at this spot. Next walk in a circle
counting the number of live seedlings in the plot.
Calculate the average number of seedlings on these
plots and then multiply times 100 to determine the
number per acre. If there are 300 or more surviving
seedlings per acre on the site and these seedlings
are well distributed, a replant is not necessary. If



i


Figure 6. Machine planting of southern pine seedlings.








there are fewer than 300 per acre, then a decision
must be made whether to replant or not. If the
surviving seedlings are not well-distributed on the
planting site, then a replant may be necessary in the
understocked areas (Williston and Balmer 1983). For


direct seeding and natural regeneration, success
should be assessed for at least two years because the
seedlings are so small that they are hard to see and
also because mortality of these small seedlings is
more likely.


Table 2. Calculations for determining the number of live seedlings per acre and survival percentage on a parcel of land
which has been regenerated. A) This is an example of the data collected from a 21-acre parcel of land; one 1/100-acre
plot was sampled on each acre for a total of 21 plots. B) Using the data collected and these formulas, we can then
estimate the number of live seedlings per acre. C) Using the estimated number of live seedlings per acre and the number
of seedlings planted, we can estimate survival.


A) Example of data collected from 21 plots on a 21-acre parcel of land.
Plot # Number of live Plot # Number of live
seedlings seedlings
---- ---------- ---- ----------
1 6 8 0
2 3 9 5
3 5 10 7
4 5 11 3
5 7 12 9
6 8 13 6
7 4 14 5
Subtotal: 38 Subtotal: 35


Plot # Number of live
seedlings
----- ---g--------
15 8
16 4
17 7
18 2
19 10
20 5
21 5
Subtotal: 41


Total: 38 + 35 + 41 = 114 live seedlings on the 21 plots


B) Formulas for calculating the number of seedlings per acre.
(1) Total number
of live seedlings + Number of plots =
on the 21 plots


Example: 114 + 21 = 5.43
(2) Average
number of
seedlings
per plot


100 plots
per acre


Average number
of live seedlings
per plot


Estimated number of
live seedlings
per acre


Example: 5.43 X 100 = 543

C) Formula for calculating the survival percentage of planted seedlings on the site:

(1) Estimated Number of Estimated
number of seedlings percent
live planted X 100 = survival
seedlings per acre for site
per acre

Example: 543 700 X 100 = 78%










Literature Cited


Balmer, W.E. and H.L. Williston.1974. Guide for planting south-
ern pines. USDA Forest Service. State and Private Forestry.
Southeastern Area S & PF 7. 17 p.
Beaufait, W., P.P. Laird, M. Newton, D.M. Smith,'C.H. Tubbs,
C.A. Wellner, and H.L. Williston. Silviculture. Pages 413-455
In: Forestry Handbook. Second Edition. K.F. Wenger, ed.
John Wiley & Sons. New York.
Boyer, W.D. 1979. Natural regeneration of longleaf pine. Pages
6-11 In: Proc. Longleaf Pine Workshop. October 17-19, 1978.
USDA Forest Service. Technical Publication SA-TP3.
Derr, H.J. and W.F. Mann, Jr. 1971. Direct-seeding in the
South. USDA Forest Service. Agriculture Handbook no. 391.
68 p.
Eason, M.A. and D.M. Flinchum. 1984. A guide for comparing
returns from forestry investments to annual crops. Coopera-
tive Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences, Circular 592. 9 p.
Florida Division of Forestry. 1983. Tree Planter's Guide. Dept.
of Agriculture and Consumer Services. F83G1.


Jack, S., K. Munson, and D. Flinchum. 1984. Site preparation:
alternatives for plantation establishment. IFAS, University of
Florida. Forest Resources and Conservation Fact Sheet FOR-
37. 4 p.
Lohrey, R.E. and E.P. Jones, Jr. 1983. Natural regeneration and
direct seeding. Pages 183-193 In: The Managed Slash Pine
Ecosystem. Proc. of Symp. held June 9-11, 1981. School of
Forest Resources and Conservation. University of Florida,
Gainesville.
Schopmeyer, C.S. (ed.). 1974. Seeds of Woody Plants in the
United States. USDA Forest Service Agriculture Handbook
No. 450. Washington, D.C. 883 p.
Williston, H.L. and W.E. Balmer. 1974. Managing for Natural
Regeneration. USDA Forest Service State and Private For-
estry. Forest Management Bulletin. 6 p.
Williston, H.L. and W.E. Balmer. 1983. Direct-seeding of south-
ern pines a regeneration alternative. USDA Forest Service.
Southern Region. Forestry Bulletin R8-FB/M1. 6 p.


This publication was produced at a cost of $1,206.30, or 40.2 cents per copy, to provide non-industrial private land-
owners, county agents, county foresters and other Florida residents with information on the various methods of regen-
erating land with trees. 7-3M-87


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, K.R. Tefertiller,
director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the May 8 and
June 30,1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institu-
tions that function without regard to race, color, sex or national origin. Single copies of Extension publications (excluding 4-H and Youth publica-
tions) are available free to Florida residents from County Extension Offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers is
available from C.M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this publication,
editors should contact this address to determine availability.




Full Text

PAGE 1

ABSTRACT Planning for regeneration begins with the landowner examining the land to be regenerated and then defining the objectives for regeneration and management. This circular assumes that the landowner has decided to have trees on a parcel of land, and it then provides three major alternatives for regeneration: 1) natural regeneration, and two methods of artificial regeneration, 1) direct seeding, and 2) planting. Natural regeneration relies upon older pines left on the site to provide seed for new trees on the regeneration site; these seed trees are then removed after a young stand of trees becomes established. In direct seeding, the landowner sows seed on the land; these seed then germinate and a forest stand results. The majority of sites in the South are planted with seedlings which have been grown at forest tree nurseries, are lifted and sold to the landowner, and then are planted either by hand or machine on the regeneration site. After weighing the advantages and disadvantages of these three regeneration methods, the landowner can then select the method which best fits the specific site, objectives, and economic situation. Contents Introduction 1 Natural Regeneration 1 Definition 1 Steps 1 Advantages 2 Disadvantages 2 Direct Seeding 3 Definition 3 Steps 3 Where to direct seed 4 Advantages 4 Disadvantages 4 Planting 6 Definition 6 Steps 6 Advantages 7 Disadvantages 8 Assessing Success of Your Plantation 8 Literature Cited 10 Credits : Editor, Sally Knox. Graphic Design and Illustration, Ralph Knudsen



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-, /5. Spacing. Usually about 500-800 seedlings are Splanted per acre for a pulpwood plantation. -The rows on the planting site are most often 10 ito 12 feet apart and seedlings are planted 5 to 8 --feet apart within the row. A 6 x 10 foot Sspacing will have 726 trees per acre (43,560 ft /acre : 60 ft/tree = 726 trees per acre). hi 6. Planting. Seedlings are either hand-planted or machine-planted. A two person hand planting "r , s-\\ crew can plant 1000-2000 seedlings per day. When machine planting, two people can plant about 8000-10,000 seedlings per day. i Various tools are commonly used for hand planting (Figure 4). The hole is made and the tree is inserted with the root collar slightly below the ground line (Figure 5). The soil is then "firmly packed around the seedling to avoid air pockets. A small tractor and a mechanical planter are used for machine planting (Figure 6). Before planting begins, the following should be checked: 1) the planter must make a furrow deep enough for the entire root system, 2) spacing should be checked and regulated to insure desired spacing between each planted seedling, and 3) depth of Figure 3. Tree planter loads a planting bag with trees planting should be checked; seedlings should be which have been dipped in a bucket of water, planted at or just below the root collar. During planting seedlings should be checked to make sure: 1) that they are planted at the proper D depth, 2) that they are planted straight up and B that the roots are straight in the hole, and 3) that the seedlings are firmly packed in the hole. -To check the latter, grab the top needles of the seedling and firmly pull upward; if the seedling is too loosely planted, it will come out of the soil. A Advantages * Successful survival is more likely with planting compared to natural regeneration and direct seeding. m An evenly spaced plantation is more likely to result from planting, and therefore a plantation established from planted seedlings has better growth and is easier for future harvesting operations. a Planted seedlings will grow faster initially than L seedlings from seed. Thus, planted seedlings will more effectively compete with unwanted grasses, herbs, and shrubs for moisture, nutrients, and Figure 4. Commonly used tools for hand planting light. are a) hoedads, (two shown) b) planting bars (two a With planting, wood yields are generally better shown), c) dibbles for containerized seedlings (one than with seeded stands and the length of the shown), and d) shovels (one shown), rotation is shorter (meaning an earlier harvest). 7



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"* Because the forest stand is started with seed clear away logging slash and vegetation which instead of one-year-old seedlings, rotations may be will be obstacles for machine planting; 3) to at least one or more years longer because of the incorporate organic matter into the soil; and 4) to loss in growth. reduce the levels of unwanted weeds which will "* Also, because the direct-seeded seedlings are one compete with tree seedlings for water, light, and year younger, it may be necessary to control nutrents. The three major site preparation methods competing vegetation for a longer period of time ince thee aof 1 fire prescribed burning, to insure successful survival and growth. include the use of 1) fre or prescribed burning, " 2)mechanical methods such as chopping, disking, "a The irregularly spaced stands which often result shearing, and bedding, and 3) chemical herbicides. from direct seeding are not well suited for access For detailed information on these site preparation by mechanical harvesting and fire equipment methods see IFAS Fact Sheet FOR-37, Site (Williston and Balmer 1983). Preparation: Alternatives for Plantation Establish"a And finally, compared to planting, direct seeding ment, Jack et al 1984. generally results in lower yields of timber (Willis3. Care and handling before planting. SEEDLINGS ton and Balmer 1983). ARE PERISHABLE. Realizing that seedlings require special care when they are out of their Planting natural environment, will insure success in Definition regenerating your site. Successful survival and growth depend on the care taken during storage, The majority of sites which are regenerated with transportation, and planting. pine in the South are planted with seedlings. Seedlings should be picked up immediately after Seedlings are grown at and purchased from forest they are lifted at the nursery. If necessary, they tree nurseries. Although mainly bareroot seedlings can be stored at cool temperatures (33-35"F) for are planted, each year there is a slightly increased 1-2 weeks. If cold storage facilities are not number of containerized seedlings available for available, seedlings should be stored in the shade planting, especially longleaf pine seedlings. (with good air circulation), kept moist, and Seedlings are lifted at the nursery and planted planted as soon as possible. Sand pine and during the late fall and winter months. Care and longleaf pine seedlings should not be stored but handling of lifted bareroot seedlings are extremely should be planted immediately (within a week) important to planting success. If seedlings are after lifting. stored, they should be stored at cool temperatures The best way to transport seedlings is in a (33-35*F). Otherwise, they should be planted imcooler or refrigerated vehicle. If this is not mediately. Planting is accomplished either by hand possible, they should be transported in covered or mechanically. Two excellent publications on vehicles and arranged so that air circulates among planting are "Tree Planter's Guide" (Division of the bales or bags. Transporting in open trucks Forestry 1983) and "Guide for Planting Southern can cause excessive drying. Also, when seedlings Pines" by Balmer and Williston 1974. get too warm they may dry out or use up their food reserves and die. If possible transport Steps seedlings at night in canopy-covered trucks. 1. Species and stock selection. Selecting the species .. to be planted can be a complex process but a 4. Care during and after planting. The main congood rule of thumb for Florida is 1) on poorly sideration during planting is protection of the drained sites, plant slash pine, 2) on moderately seedlings, especially the root systems. Seedling drained sites, plant slash or loblolly pine, and 3) roots should not be allowed to dry; putting on dry sites, plant longleaf or sand pine. Using seedlings in buckets of water or covering them genetically improved stock will insure better with wet burlap will protect them until they are growth and improved disease resistance. A in the ground. For.large acreages a planting bag professional forester familiar with local condito hold seedlings is efficient and will protect the tions could assist in choosing the proper species. roots if the seedlings are planted quickly and not left in the bag for a long period (Figure 3). 2. Site preparation. The purposes of site preparWhen planting, it may be helpful to leave a ation are: 1) to clear away logging slash and depression around the seedling to catch water. vegetation and create enough spots to plant Of course, if feasible, watering after planting will seedlings if they are to be hand-planted; 2) to aid survival. 6



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\ 2 Disadvantages \\ Initial costs may be higher than for natural \ regeneration and direct seeding. S\ 1 --* The planting site may be inaccessible to planting \ \ machines or crews. a Distortions of the root system such as "L" or "J" shaped roots may result if care is not taken. m Close attention to seedling care and handling is --\ critical; poor survival and growth may result if 3 4 -\\ seedlings are mistreated. S " ' \ Assessing Success of Your Plantation To assess the success of your regeneration efforts, \ it is necessary to check survival of the seedlings. "\\ One year after planting, seeding, or natural regeneration has occurred, is a good time for assessment. S A number of plots should be taken over the entire planting site to get an idea of success over the S5 6 entire site (Table 2). Establish 1/100th acre circular plots on each acre by randomly selecting a spot within the acre and then anchoring an 11.78-foot rope down at this spot. Next walk in a circle counting the number of live seedlings in the plot. Calculate the average number of seedlings on these plots and then multiply times 100 to determine the number per acre. If there are 300 or more surviving , seedlings per acre on the site and these seedlings are well distributed, a replant is not necessary. If Figure 5. Steps for hand-planting pine seedlings. 1. Insert dibble or bar into soil at angle shown and push forward to upright position. 2. Remove dibble or bar and place seedling in hole with root collar just below ground line. 3. Insert dibble or bar about 1/2 way and pull handle towards you to close hole at the bottom. 4. Push handle to close hole and firm soil at the top of the seedling's roots. 5. Fill in last hole with heel. 6. Firm soil around seedling using hands or feet and being careful not to damage seedling. Figure 6. Machine planting of southern pine seedlings. 8



PAGE 1

there are fewer than 300 per acre, then a decision direct seeding and natural regeneration, success must be made whether to replant or not. If the should be assessed for at least two years because the surviving seedlings are not well-distributed on the seedlings are so small that they are hard to see and planting site, then a replant may be necessary in the also because mortality of these small seedlings is understocked areas (Williston and Balmer 1983). For more likely. Table 2. Calculations for determining the number of live seedlings per acre and survival percentage on a parcel of land which has been regenerated. A) This is an example of the data collected from a 21-acre parcel of land; one 1/100-acre plot was sampled on each acre for a total of 21 plots. B) Using the data collected and these formulas, we can then estimate the number of live seedlings per acre. C) Using the estimated number of live seedlings per acre and the number of seedlings planted, we can estimate survival. A) Example of data collected from 21 plots on a 21-acre parcel of land. Plot # Number of live Plot # Number of live Plot # Number of live seedlings seedlings seedlings --------------------------------__._1 6 8 0 15 8 2 3 9 5 16 4 3 5 10 7 17 7 4 5 11 3 18 2 5 7 12 9 19 10 6 8 13 6 20 5 7 4 14 5 21 5 Subtotal: 38 Subtotal: 35 Subtotal: 41 Total: 38 + 35 + 41 = 114 live seedlings on the 21 plots B) Formulas for calculating the number of seedlings per acre. (1) Total number Average number of live seedlings + Number of plots = of live seedlings on the 21 plots per plot Example: 114 + 21 = 5.43 (2) Average Estimated number of number of 100 plots = live seedlings seedlings per acre per acre per plot Example: 5.43 X 100 = 543 C) Formula for calculating the survival percentage of planted seedlings on the site: (1) Estimated Number of Estimated number of seedlings percent live -planted X 100 = survival seedlings per acre for site per acre Example: 543 -700 X 100 = 78% 9



PAGE 1

FOREST REGENERATION METHODS: NATURAL REGENERATION, DIRECT SEEDING AND PLANTING Mary L. Duryea* Introduction Introduction This circular assumes that the landowner wants to Planning for regeneration begins with the landhave trees on a parcel of land. It then provides owner examining the land and then defining the three major alternatives for getting the trees on the objectives for regeneration and management. Some land: natural regeneration and two kinds of artificial questions to ask concerning a parcel of land include: regeneration: direct seeding and planting seedlings. The landowner can then select the method that best "a Do trees on the land need to be harvested first or e e c te seect e e d tha fits the specific site, objectives, and economic has the land already been harvested? "* Has the land been examined to see if the site has been regenerated naturally? Natural Regeneration Natural Regeneration "* Will the present vegetation on the site be detrimental to small trees, by competing for water, Definition sunlight, or nutrients? (If the answer is yes, some control of the vegetation may be desirable.) Natural regeneration relies on older pine trees left on the land to provide seed to regenerate the site. "* What is the soil like? Is the site: wet? dry? shalThis practice can only be employed if the site has low? deep? (This will help in the selection of not yet been harvested. Plans are then made for species as well as determine whether the site will harvesting the present forest stand and leaving some be difficult to regenerate.) trees to provide the seed. In order to select specific practices for your Pine stands, however, grow best where all trees particular site and answer many of these questions, are of the same age and receive the same amount of it is helpful to consult a professional forester, sunlight and so once the seedlings are established experienced in regeneration. the large seed trees must be removed. For more Setting objectives for a parcel of land means information, some excellent articles describe the making decisions about the present and future process of natural regeneration (Williston and Balmer management schemes. What are the reasons for 1974, Boyer 1978, Lohrey and Jones 1983). wanting a forest on the site? Would planting trees be for: 1) aesthetic reasons, 2) providing future Steps income in 20, 30, or 40 years, 3) restoring marginal 1. Selecting the seed trees. Before the site is or unused cropland, or 4) promoting wildlife? Many logged, seed trees must be selected and marked more reasons for planting trees exist; many are with paint. Selection means choosing the compatible with each other, such as wanting an best-looking trees for seed trees -trees which income and aesthetics, are the straightest and tallest and have large Finally, some of the most important questions may crowns (lots of green needles) and no disease. be: The number to leave on the site will vary according to species (Table 1). More seed "* How much will regeneration of this parcel of land according to species (Table ). More seed cost? trees are required for longleaf pine because it is not a prolific seed producer and its large seeds "* Am I eligible for one of the cost sharing programs are often eaten by animals (Williston and Balmer such as the Forestry Incentives Program (FIP)? 1974). Trees should be well-spaced over the site Information on these programs can be obtained to allow even distribution of seed. from your county extension agent or county fromyour county eension agent or couny 2. Planning for a good seed crop. The frequency of forester, or the Agricultural Stabilization and good seed crops varies from year to year and Conservation Service (ASCS) office. Conservation Service (ASCS) officespecies to species (Table 1). To insure successful "* What will my rate of return on the forestry natural regeneration, the site should be logged investment be? (For ways to assess your forestry just prior to a good seed crop. You can observe investment see IFAS Circular 592, A Guide to the seed crop by looking through binoculars in Comparing Returns From Forestry Investments to the spring or early summer and counting cones to Annual Crops, Eason and Flinchum 1984.) determine the crop for the fall or looking at * Assistant Professor, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville. 1



PAGE 1

A B C Figure 2. Three common methods of direct seeding include a) aerial seeding with a helicopter, b) handsowing with a hand-cranked seeder, and c) spot-seeding on raked spots. 5



PAGE 1

"* If the seed is abundant and a dense stand results, 2. Obtaining seed. Seed with greater than 85% a pre-commercial thinning may be necessary to viability and with a minimum of 95% sound seed decrease the number of trees per acre. For should be used. After receiving seed, it should example, if there are more than 2000 slash pine be stored immediately in a refrigerator at 34-36°F seedlings at age three, growth may be inhibited (Williston and Balmer 1983). and the site will require pre-commercial thinning 700-1000 trees per acre. This thinning may be 3. Sowing rates. The amount of seed required will accomplished by hand-cutting or plowing up rows vary according to species, method of sowing, of seedlings and leaving the remaining rows about degree of site preparation, and general ease of 10-12 feet apart. regeneration of the site. For instance, in an area where summer showers are frequent and survival "* Because the site is planted with seed versus is good, 0.6 lb/acre is adequate for slash pine. 1-year-old seedlings, the rotation length (time until However, in drier areas I lb/acre for broadcast harvest) may be increased by one or more years, sowing, 0.75 lb/acre for row seeding on a disked "a The seed coming from the seed trees is not bed, and 0.5 lb/acre for spot seeding may be genetically improved as when the seed comes from required for adequate regeneration (Lohrey and a seed orchard. Jones 1983). In general for each species there is an average amount of seed which is needed * Natural regeneration may be less expensive initially (Table 3). but more costly in the long run if it is necessary to prepare the site or precommercially thin.e Table 3. Amount of seed needed to direct seed an acre of land and the approximate number of seeds per pound. "* Open sites without trees such as clearcuts, Pine Lbs of seed Approximate abandoned fields, and stands after a wildfire or Species needed per acre* number of windstorm cannot be naturally regenerated. seeds per lb** "* The landowner does not have any control over Loblolly 0.5 18,200 spacing between trees or stocking levels and so Slash 0.6 13,500 often these can be very uneven. Longleaf 2.5 4,900 "* A successfully regenerated site may take longer to Sand 0.6 75,000 reach harvest than with direct seeding or planting. *(\illiston and Balmer 1983) "**(Schopmeyer 1974) Direct Seeding D ntion 4. Treating seed. Seed is often treated with a Definition repellent for seed-eating insects, birds, and Direct seeding means that the landowner applies mammals which will otherwise consume the entire seeds directly to the land; these seeds then gerseed crop. The most common repellent for birds minate and a forest stand results. A lot of the is Thiram. Endrin, which has been used to repel principles for site conditions and site preparation are rodents is no longer available as a repellent. If a the same as with natural regeneration but, in substitute cannot be found, predation will be an addition, a known amount of seed is used. Direct even bigger problem for direct seeding. seeding is often employed on poor or inaccessible Loblolly and sand pine seed also needs to be sites or where little initial involvement is possible or stratified, a process which subjects water-soaked desirable. Sites which are droughty or have high seed to cold temperatures for 20-60 days accorerosion potential should be avoided. Three reviews ding to species and improves its chance of give detailed information on direct seeding (Lohrey germinating. and Jones 1983, Williston and Balmer 1983, Beaufait Stratified and repellent-treated seed can be and others 1984). purchased from most commercial seed companies. The repellent and stratification treatments each Steps increase the weight of seed by about 10% and 25% (Williston and Balmer 1983). 1. Harvesting and preparing the site. First, the (Williston and Balmer 1983). present stand must be harvested and the site 5. Date of sowing. Longleaf and sand pine seed prepared to create a mineral soil seedbed. Again, should be sown in the fall when soil moisture is as in natural regeneration, the options for site high from rains. Longleaf pine appears to natpreparation are burning, mechanically scarifying, urally regenerate better in the panhandle than and/or spraying with herbicides (Jack et al. the peninsula of Florida, perhaps due to the 1984). wetter climate in the fall and winter. 3



PAGE 1

--7 DOCUMENT DOCUMENT Circular 759 -Forest SRegeneration Methods Natural Regeneration, Direct Seeding and Planting Florida Cooperative Extension Service Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences University of Florida, Gainesville John T. Woeste, Dean for Extension \ Central Science Sibrary AU G 27 1987 University o Florida



PAGE 1

Literature Cited Balmer, W.E. and H.L. Williston.1974. Guide for planting southJack, S., K. Munson, and D. Flinchum. 1984. Site preparation: ern pines. USDA Forest Service. State and Private Forestry. alternatives for plantation establishment. IFAS, University of Southeastern Area S & PF -7. 17 p. Florida. Forest Resources and Conservation Fact Sheet FORBeaufait, W., P.P. Laird, M. Newton, D.M. Smith,.C.H. Tubbs, 37. 4 p. C.A. Wellner, and H.L. Williston. Silviculture. Pages 413-455 Lohrey, R.E. and E.P. Jones, Jr. 1983. Natural regeneration and In: Forestry Handbook. Second Edition. K.F. Wenger, ed. direct seeding. Pages 183-193 In: The Managed Slash Pine John Wiley & Sons. New York. Ecosystem. Proc. of Symp. held June 9-11, 1981. School of Forest Resources and Conservation. University of Florida, Boyer, W.D. 1979. Natural regeneration of longleaf pine. Pages Gainesville. 6-11 In: Proc. Longleaf Pine Workshop. October 17-19, 1978. USDA Forest Service. Technical Publication SA-TP3. Schopmeyer, C.S. (ed.). 1974. Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States. USDA Forest Service Agriculture Handbook Derr, H.J. and W.F. Mann, Jr. 1971. Direct-seeding in the No. 450. Washington, D.C. 883 p. No. 450. Washington, D.C. 883 p. South. USDA Forest Service. Agriculture Handbook no. 391. 68 p. Williston, H.L. and W.E. Balmer. 1974. Managing for Natural Regeneration. USDA Forest Service State and Private ForEason, M.A. and D.M. Flinchum. 1984. A guide for comparing Regeneration USDA Foret Seice State and Private Forreturns from forestry investments to annual crops. Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Williston, H.L. and W.E. Balmer. 1983. Direct-seeding of southFood and Agricultural Sciences, Circular 592. 9 p. ern pines -a regeneration alternative. USDA Forest Service. Southern Region. Forestry Bulletin R8-FB/M1. 6 p. Florida Division of Forestry. 1983. Tree Planter's Guide. Dept. Southern Region. Forestry Bulletin R8-FB/M1. 6 p. of Agriculture and Consumer Services. F83G1. This publication was produced at a cost of $1,206.30, or 40.2 cents per copy, to provide non-industrial private landowners, county agents, county foresters and other Florida residents with information on the various methods of regenerating land with trees. 7-3M-87 COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, K.R. Tefertiller, director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30,1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex or national origin. Single copies of Extension publications (excluding 4-H and Youth publications) are available free to Florida residents from County Extension Offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers is ,available from C.M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability. 10


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'2012-04-03T14:50:02-04:00'
describe
'37599' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEXV' 'sip-files00002.pdf'
b03e25abbcd80138360c8c6a121d7513
8f8567c08575a781730d09f4a4a6d7a6f187e580
'2012-04-03T14:50:21-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEXV-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AACEXV-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
describe
'2015-05-15T17:17:30-04:00'
normalize
'46189' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEXW' 'sip-files00002.pro'
4bc5dd10b33cb42adddb48abb395db90
da34eb4243f9a1d9786c5c0aa231040a28f9964c
'2012-04-03T14:49:19-04:00'
describe
'19224' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEXX' 'sip-files00002.QC.jpg'
083b5733d400f4f160adf8ddcd08f282
ff3f03bba0d400236d99a6e3a2d6bc097637be91
'2012-04-03T14:50:05-04:00'
describe
'995712' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEXY' 'sip-files00002.tif'
3747326df34d4a7b42533b7cb60817f3
cc78568d7cc1b50870f2f95ea1fb81fdc8c80f85
describe
'2631' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEXZ' 'sip-files00002.txt'
dfd4a77ec0bff361ee7f72c6965bdf18
688ec9e4bdb1b28e7820d476b565a9ce065dc790
'2012-04-03T14:49:56-04:00'
describe
'5189' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEYA' 'sip-files00002thm.jpg'
0ff739b643b6c93faf3f1342cf2a5f62
35a8a3daca3b2581b0b44491ab0bf59799a2aa89
'2012-04-03T14:50:03-04:00'
describe
'217274' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEYB' 'sip-files00003.jp2'
44fc5516a85895106913ef5fbb4dcd07
795e5611ca2c306e64dd8190e8fca2b556dce638
'2012-04-03T14:49:50-04:00'
describe
'151269' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEYC' 'sip-files00003.jpg'
c58706a6380fc9eea13707ab3ea18c6c
ecd255e84168a5b8a5559d0fd85a989ab1e7c47a
'2012-04-03T14:49:16-04:00'
describe
'91196' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEYD' 'sip-files00003.pdf'
6b885b7387d602f3398fc9aa5d2ad54a
355ab1f4c4f1e51f7306bb7cd7096e4c2f1a6d11
'2012-04-03T14:49:53-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEYD-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AACEYD-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
'2015-05-15T17:17:34-04:00'
describe
'2015-05-15T17:17:15-04:00'
normalize
'112870' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEYE' 'sip-files00003.pro'
1fd12bc2f23e0ea7465a1dad0629fe6d
47511897c25f9d2391e4e197024d314f8123f779
describe
'41185' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEYF' 'sip-files00003.QC.jpg'
3f722661fc28be5ba62c8aaf7873a6f0
7491606f89d21f5239f168dec14f958e68aed825
'2012-04-03T14:50:20-04:00'
describe
'1008852' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEYG' 'sip-files00003.tif'
01091524459697cfcced719443fd846e
dc6882938e20c6ff0f0312dd00a6861241d225c4
'2012-04-03T14:49:59-04:00'
describe
'4543' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEYH' 'sip-files00003.txt'
67edb111a4dd61a887fd676cda33966d
c79b26ee6bbb6e7c7b0bb4a949935db1f6f1f8e4
'2012-04-03T14:50:26-04:00'
describe
'9946' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEYI' 'sip-files00003thm.jpg'
4a9a9c842836b81435e2821f1af3c6cd
dea2b75d1cda5036b45aaec5d4917be640995e6e
'2012-04-03T14:49:51-04:00'
describe
'219392' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEYJ' 'sip-files00004.jp2'
c87550515b40424dd6cc3d5a3129a412
241839306a25aaddc4b506ff7ea699aaee642aef
'2012-04-03T14:50:23-04:00'
describe
'145287' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEYK' 'sip-files00004.jpg'
262291c1f55444daf8659f43445ee2f3
f72149fa1ecb8149e2de19f27e69f6f87517fe50
describe
'99031' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEYL' 'sip-files00004.pdf'
d2b7e8eea0577c19b85e4341d1ce4161
3ef9bdd45b66f74e41c5908f36be05610be460ed
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEYL-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AACEYL-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
describe
'2015-05-15T17:17:11-04:00'
normalize
'97172' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEYM' 'sip-files00004.pro'
5abfcfdc5d8b575dc4c0dbd055bb1881
09e75d4df3d2a2a9ac6e3dda0d155ab17f12c2d2
'2012-04-03T14:50:22-04:00'
describe
'40513' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEYN' 'sip-files00004.QC.jpg'
2ddbb2faf53c5e21505f418e53493999
d7e8d15089e06b4493444e00b302dbb59c231298
describe
'1010472' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEYO' 'sip-files00004.tif'
4efff25ddc27b4e9d4cb5fcd9069e361
6679a50ea7fa203154767b1eb5fa2698b54cf2a9
'2012-04-03T14:50:07-04:00'
describe
'4068' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEYP' 'sip-files00004.txt'
0eb9efa52d4a1e0b87595982858a4522
6a902296208ca8f39768066175db2fa599acb637
describe
'10303' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEYQ' 'sip-files00004thm.jpg'
003ed7fe0d62d86a0b813501c03f9618
63c5832356f2423bcd8bb825942ff74cc1fee375
'2012-04-03T14:50:11-04:00'
describe
'222795' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEYR' 'sip-files00005.jp2'
bcb655147a06847fbe1cd19bb1571e29
9be355b2001c2b5d3b9ae2b4db812c4e0ff7e7e1
describe
'152251' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEYS' 'sip-files00005.jpg'
2ee53faf009d22737fcf1ede5dde7141
9a95a491a26f1999661ded3cc1a6395bd5bf7cbc
'2012-04-03T14:50:25-04:00'
describe
'93698' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEYT' 'sip-files00005.pdf'
a59a513a8519da81b7e06f9bcd988878
3a8d962095a34d4f4a7697bd290f870f91d92a5d
'2012-04-03T14:49:43-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEYT-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AACEYT-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
'2015-05-15T17:17:32-04:00'
describe
'2015-05-15T17:17:07-04:00'
normalize
'118042' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEYU' 'sip-files00005.pro'
bcbd7a3b042457d5a5282b13c5ef9d86
548a14cc489b192a69a75fd70c56c04b3440f028
describe
'41080' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEYV' 'sip-files00005.QC.jpg'
8f686c18debce56d9147dd539afb2ed7
f0c40dd0222cb0aea568897ed9c844ea22f183e8
describe
'1009696' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEYW' 'sip-files00005.tif'
8ec9bf6a3cfab3f541dfe87d16f5bbba
e154e62fdf15412c9b369dfdf9f04cd16310cebd
'2012-04-03T14:49:52-04:00'
describe
'4926' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEYX' 'sip-files00005.txt'
6b16a3dd794e0a90a4862382783065c7
b55a645d5abac50e28ed7fa6e730b530d37ff4f0
'2012-04-03T14:49:44-04:00'
describe
WARNING CODE 'Daitss::Anomaly' Invalid character
'10083' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEYY' 'sip-files00005thm.jpg'
bf7963b4e36461febdd906cc35a77bb4
61620abe7841590c279188e204f7f76a85678e33
describe
'224962' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEYZ' 'sip-files00006.jp2'
240408304775e0d455f9e398edf39912
a3073171e1f8cc06a4b4e5efeeaed80be722aa9a
describe
'155448' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEZA' 'sip-files00006.jpg'
241025ad01acbc403a53a24a11a0385d
e976e406f47035ada2ce8ad07f9a763260640e05
'2012-04-03T14:49:58-04:00'
describe
'93888' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEZB' 'sip-files00006.pdf'
dd62ff7bdf6c3c10fbf499abe1d17e66
6e04f9730cd682ade1279dad08c2bf4361b53ec1
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEZB-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AACEZB-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
describe
'2015-05-15T17:17:13-04:00'
normalize
'116367' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEZC' 'sip-files00006.pro'
a4670d902cd4c7efb57e0752d315ab42
e4ad107ad7824a4231697f5b3512afa81e14b53c
'2012-04-03T14:49:49-04:00'
describe
'43702' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEZD' 'sip-files00006.QC.jpg'
b86a93683818f25bb3ba88ee9eba887d
e0e8db5e5d2bacb399955ba8e0f34f75233cb972
'2012-04-03T14:49:27-04:00'
describe
'1010400' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEZE' 'sip-files00006.tif'
a075f9a061ef092e1811d21bf6b546d0
f83fb0a19c2570faed44ec245efe3d5a0bfb89fa
'2012-04-03T14:50:14-04:00'
describe
'4645' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEZF' 'sip-files00006.txt'
e03d5dd691ccbde6e1e853f8eafe5e29
5d6f752af2d8d41449284fc0a0a6f9af7c72311b
'2012-04-03T14:49:55-04:00'
describe
'10705' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEZG' 'sip-files00006thm.jpg'
230ae837fbbdf15a63ea2b2e795a019a
493d1530d7b084be9aca6cf890ed1a993948e68c
describe
'93846' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEZH' 'sip-files00007.jp2'
3c68df2b34140dfc81d61a501f9f5eab
7171c24f4a2385c46b7ff41e268d5992c5a6f5c9
'2012-04-03T14:49:18-04:00'
describe
'67469' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEZI' 'sip-files00007.jpg'
d72ab1f2c502ea7ea9629ee0602f75fe
7e72fa211e2d97c0976479dfe83a01d6f058f0c3
'2012-04-03T14:49:37-04:00'
describe
'40971' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEZJ' 'sip-files00007.pdf'
2265b018c5518a8944e2d0baf9798c31
cfedddbff3e4d32ef5226005fa84d28f1b74da7d
'2012-04-03T14:50:06-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEZJ-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AACEZJ-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
describe
'2015-05-15T17:17:25-04:00'
normalize
'5124' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEZK' 'sip-files00007.pro'
6f9cb8403f1e818f4abca2611bc9df22
0a6e1954a96715e4cc60df57720221917e473eac
describe
'22522' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEZL' 'sip-files00007.QC.jpg'
ab092986cc317366605568681717d3e4
aacfa2db3b6fa3f1794865b55885fd96e26a1855
'2012-04-03T14:49:34-04:00'
describe
'998972' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEZM' 'sip-files00007.tif'
8df7c2362e50ea3923ba09be8f966960
95ae772fd597b9ca0c76dda16900d5ae5fcba974
describe
'307' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEZN' 'sip-files00007.txt'
2393ecb11228f652e13783cf828605f7
c2ccb12c62e42e055e7610571edb5cf7f5f5e9e1
'2012-04-03T14:50:12-04:00'
describe
'6797' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEZO' 'sip-files00007thm.jpg'
e778c001e4a70307f94e7412fca9f216
027f0453e73939a31dd6ffd30c6fa4708e81bce1
'2012-04-03T14:50:00-04:00'
describe
'241195' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEZP' 'sip-files00008.jp2'
7c596cf9e15fdbc805c2013b0d41ab63
c6aeff5b22e42e6c0a901f848615b4ebed225491
describe
'169618' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEZQ' 'sip-files00008.jpg'
3795fbbeda99e67490fb9d878f09700b
b7853bf19987e5df0137c7f8d28cd63a9de51e06
describe
'101151' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEZR' 'sip-files00008.pdf'
706e19a27c0fe37ce47f2e3554f072a8
744848b8dbf3c98b01cd68563af7c77c4a25985c
'2012-04-03T14:49:31-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEZR-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AACEZR-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
describe
'2015-05-15T17:17:01-04:00'
normalize
'124105' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEZS' 'sip-files00008.pro'
523f4bd7d6c0a041f63abdbfb9b6d12b
4eb73f25380615d03d21402c6d967710d0c98126
describe
'47091' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEZT' 'sip-files00008.QC.jpg'
40cd77200006100cd3edf17c76144ec4
3a8bb2030689f8e6e59f1c31f64c1f529c661f39
'2012-04-03T14:49:54-04:00'
describe
'1012132' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEZU' 'sip-files00008.tif'
36ced06b1a969deb91f5f7c3c3ea3c63
2ec2b4bcabbe96ba52f40f3e305cb15e61e2d402
describe
'5025' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEZV' 'sip-files00008.txt'
af50453cb669417ff2b6135fce53b728
c5e924c960c0814d9cc3ba0fe901e26d4ef45d8d
'2012-04-03T14:49:32-04:00'
describe
'11191' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEZW' 'sip-files00008thm.jpg'
4cc5fc495c8c60751c95baef74046bb6
db5320ea9f94a883f265183d254550ccb6b178cc
describe
'182810' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEZX' 'sip-files00009.jp2'
fe0e5244c3a5726a804013ccbb79140a
43fa46cac9a407abbed108efea0a64749e64d62f
describe
'128353' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEZY' 'sip-files00009.jpg'
5573a10ec23677d631e5f988109764e5
71eae06b1b319760cee7eb5da28d63af3b642e17
describe
'79256' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEZZ' 'sip-files00009.pdf'
7767158fcd3efc8b0e446bbaf9653b66
3a20d782b6244d5bfcf66e1609a2f333184ca53a
'2012-04-03T14:49:26-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACEZZ-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AACEZZ-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
describe
'2015-05-15T17:16:58-04:00'
normalize
'75243' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACFAA' 'sip-files00009.pro'
b34fc4f8d0cf8cf5df0fe9822073f43d
7171db26915a24046f59c3eef5d513c40b8600e0
describe
'37140' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACFAB' 'sip-files00009.QC.jpg'
567bbfcf560021c2d1986e930c99cdad
c01effaaafbf080d320608c74a059e76b6b0cecd
describe
'1008408' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACFAC' 'sip-files00009.tif'
851ce3bf24afddf4e82a09bdf0b22fc9
f78499f5169c9ed04fa288123f1617cc233b0cb7
describe
'5032' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACFAD' 'sip-files00009.txt'
6725b0ea18443bcdce8af440ae846dc2
6c3a3a2182bfaed14c85187176476f8614f9812f
describe
'9837' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACFAE' 'sip-files00009thm.jpg'
dfc6ad65953bb605361dc2e30b90dcdb
ff55c940855f24d9ee1b5331d3d40884d5550b3f
describe
'974406' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACFAF' 'sip-files00010.jp2'
e89638780b582f50e52a5851effc9f0e
0ffeca157e2e6bbaa62b06d28a96ab2f829046da
'2012-04-03T14:49:35-04:00'
describe
'117436' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACFAG' 'sip-files00010.jpg'
d36d7e27731b96b246f496e7a3f945b7
59aa9e5217b0126ce2cd62822e3b97edce16fcd5
'2012-04-03T14:49:36-04:00'
describe
'663584' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACFAH' 'sip-files00010.pdf'
c0c2667ea592d9db183ab0dce5d1da35
e2278c06b5a38abb3f50b70c454988978de0a6e6
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACFAH-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AACFAH-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
describe
'2015-05-15T17:17:19-04:00'
normalize
'48911' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACFAI' 'sip-files00010.pro'
7bb3695eb073b8c45d04d0b9a5562929
fbcd3aae00300711854c0152be25acfc5ea533a9
'2012-04-03T14:49:40-04:00'
describe
'33884' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACFAJ' 'sip-files00010.QC.jpg'
e2a414762d2e0e055bd79fefcdec9bab
0b17e0a89ba226b187951d47c866d85cdc2fec17
'2012-04-03T14:50:24-04:00'
describe
'7817576' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACFAK' 'sip-files00010.tif'
4fae2f08372834ee020d7ce4b4dbc0d1
db64128ea82e5157ffab5fd912fa09ddf52834ec
'2012-04-03T14:50:15-04:00'
describe
'2033' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACFAL' 'sip-files00010.txt'
0ddb6644879ad08e0551b6eea82134f4
6e2dfb628b1c8ad0da6578addee8a768fad169d8
describe
'8805' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACFAM' 'sip-files00010thm.jpg'
96253833935aebd78114a840b46133f5
39e6daecf2d4a505974b822e3be456e6d10c714c
'2012-04-03T14:49:20-04:00'
describe
'108101' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACFAN' 'sip-files00011.jp2'
0cd186873bf3175389f31e5bb9456623
abc4af07168760702547cb75a10b98f1e2ae3da2
'2012-04-03T14:49:45-04:00'
describe
'77011' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACFAO' 'sip-files00011.jpg'
46a980b81cf9450e080bad3584ba2359
55f74fd5fe2ac54d7470bfb708a46e0f663b4acf
'2012-04-03T14:49:17-04:00'
describe
'43733' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACFAP' 'sip-files00011.pdf'
a47d246a477814493f48a78a4b26da27
af5ce50ddfe9170332dc6343dfda63f7c59116a4
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACFAP-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AACFAP-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
describe
'2015-05-15T17:17:04-04:00'
normalize
'60099' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACFAQ' 'sip-files00011.pro'
b274d7aefaf96237c780055baf36bc39
761b3574f21f326ff4ec7d6a7cf8786e07b02765
'2012-04-03T14:49:42-04:00'
describe
'22654' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACFAR' 'sip-files00011.QC.jpg'
6568edbbe5aca90575f303afac99fe5f
df5eb256b9adec8777c275d5e37efd3dccd88e23
'2012-04-03T14:49:28-04:00'
describe
'999712' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACFAS' 'sip-files00011.tif'
28a51620344146cc5e4d2287dff54e29
89339803977c0061e9afbc787106d90c46d814c6
describe
'3066' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACFAT' 'sip-files00011.txt'
d6660f50a8882efd9adfb87231e11139
c4073690449a30d58f0d2d1c7042c8a597ec4338
'2012-04-03T14:49:38-04:00'
describe
'6739' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACFAU' 'sip-files00011thm.jpg'
3aa85434f1a881cfbdcd92fee339af8e
9d5f270b7bd0576ef89bed61c751a5d77b4e99b4
describe
'120772' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACFAV' 'sip-files00012.jp2'
0dc1e06173bba23dcff87298c3201898
9d828656b71a7571345b78a0e38d5ee9823b22da
'2012-04-03T14:50:10-04:00'
describe
'81161' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACFAW' 'sip-files00012.jpg'
9abd4f634f09f3953cb4deff65adb4e2
9aeb9eae5673a754e5816a9d0aeb1ae63a4b2ef9
describe
'53282' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACFAX' 'sip-files00012.pdf'
7cbcd1cfea9ea2c6cd9fa7eb1bfc921a
d8d51f2759acf8adf782fde6aefcdcb5e3af484d
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACFAX-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AACFAX-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
describe
'2015-05-15T17:16:56-04:00'
normalize
'84122' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACFAY' 'sip-files00012.pro'
fcd23b065806ee974722ccdd9e75dfb6
8e787b694c16289785e43332c08c9c3686b5427d
describe
'23340' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACFAZ' 'sip-files00012.QC.jpg'
13955a01105767585858ec93616fbbb1
5696e74202f7e4eb72d5ebb306168aabde7712a6
describe
'997696' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACFBA' 'sip-files00012.tif'
0e95179a75385c273a2cc1a2d065ab44
e989cb4c472599ac56e73d7bf22af113cebf5db2
describe
'3293' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACFBB' 'sip-files00012.txt'
4d4d53ca5ad15f8b08b0168e3956ec9e
4bcf18bc40b567c215bea473e7a606d428cbdb96
describe
'6372' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACFBC' 'sip-files00012thm.jpg'
eb0ff66ce070fa4415df7950b478a207
aeb8909de26b08ab47061f541cb0038c851b1b96
describe
'28706' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACFBD' 'sip-filesUF00014471_00001.mets'
f62942ba1adf9f35026a2ef74e8fe595
a23f10f1eb137762f34bc9f92ffe9845bf7b12a8
'2012-04-03T14:50:09-04:00'
describe
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'2015-05-15T17:17:36-04:00' 'mixed'
xml resolution
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
BROKEN_LINK schema http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
The element type "div" must be terminated by the matching end-tag "
".
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'33269' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAAMBfileF20090919_AACFBG' 'sip-filesUF00014471_00001.xml'
638f676e41a6202f8e4251199a345489
85f24405e23bdd22bedee710afc1d62513c53964
describe
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'2015-05-15T17:17:35-04:00'
xml resolution
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
The element type "div" must be terminated by the matching end-tag "".
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.



PAGE 1

Loblolly and slash seed should be sown in the be applied. Natural regeneration may be impossible spring when freezing temperatures have past, because of the lack of trees as a seed source. soil moisture is adequate, and daily temperatures Planting may be difficult or expensive where terrain are warm enough for germination (Williston and is inaccessible or soil conditions make planting Balmer 1983). Seeds most often germinate in 2-4 difficult (Lohrey and Jones 1983). weeks and begin growth before the hot dry summer months. Advantages 6. Methods of Sowing. There are many methods * Compared to natural regeneration, direct seeding used to sow seed (Figure 2). Large tracts of allows the introduction of new species or seed land (>500 acres) are often broadcast sown sources. aerially by airplanes or helicopters. This method a Compared to natural regeneration, direct seeding is fastest and has the most accurate and complete enae ette l over seed qantity, qality, enables better control over seed quantity, quality, "coverage. and distribution over the site (Lohrey and Jones Another method for large tracts of land uses 1983). row-seeding machines, which 1) plow a narrow furrow or strip, 2) meter out a specified amount a Direct seeding has a lower initial cost than of seed, and 3) pack the seed into the soil with planting (1/3 to 1/2 the cost of planting). packing wheels (Lohrey and Jones 1983; Williston and Bamer 1983). Direct seeding can be employed on sites with and Balmer 1983). difficult access, or sometimes poor drainage Two methods for small tracts of land include (illit and Balmer 1983). (Williston and Balmer 1983). hand-sowing and spot-seeding. To hand sow, hand-cranked seeders, with a metering device, are a Direct seeding may be more flexible than planting most useful. One person can sow 15 acres in a -for instance, when a forest fire or other day (Lohrey and Jones 1983; Williston and Balmer natural disaster occurs, it is often easier to obtain 1983). Seed can also be sown on hand-raked seed rather than seedlings (Williston and Balmer spots, approximately 2 feet in diameter and spaced 1983). about 8 x 8 feet .Six to eight seeds are pressed 1/2" into the soil at each spot (Lohrey and Jones Sometimes with improper planting, a "J or shaped root system will result on the planted 1983); 2-4 acres can be sown in one day using seedlig t with seedin a more naturl unds this method. A small group of landowners can seedling but with seeding a more natural, undisthis method. A small group of landowners can also share the cost of a helicopter or airplane if turbed root sstem d aerial seeding is preferred. a For aesthetic reasons, some people might prefer seeing trees randomly spaced on a site instead of Where to direct seed in rows. Direct seeding is often not successful on dry, Disadvantages upland sands or coarse sandy soils where the soil * Because of bird and mammal problems, it is dries out too rapidly and moisture is unavailable for necessary to treat the seed with repellents and the seeds to germinate. On these sites, germination these repellents may not be available. is enhanced if the seed is covered with soil (about 1/2") (Williston and Balmer 1983). In contrast, on a Sometimes site preparation is more necessary than poorly drained sites where seeds or seedlings may be with planting because of the requirements for flooded for more than 1-2 weeks, direct seeding may exposed mineral soil. not be successful. Also, on sites where heavy * Direct seeding requires more skill than planting to grazing is present, survival may not be good because do it right; the landowner is advised to seek help animals will trample small seedlings. On sloped sites, from a forester experienced in direct seeding direct seeding followed by heavy rains may result in (Williston and Balmer 1983). seed being washed away (Williston and Balmer 1983). T • There are many sites where direct seeding is not Sites with heavy grass may have to be disked or suitable (see section on where to direct seed). harrowed before direct seeding (Derr and Mann 1971; Lohrey and Jones 1983). Sites with frost problems * Relative to planting, there is less control over or intense radiation should also be avoided (Wenger spacing and stocking; thus, pre-commercial thin1984). ning may be necessary to reduce the number of Direct seeding may be used on small or large land trees per acre and establish even spacing between areas where natural regeneration or planting cannot trees. 4



PAGE 1

conelets to predict next year's crop (Figure 1). Conelets resemble small pink or light green cones Conelet and are located near the ends of the branches; ni cones are green and are located further in on the branches. Both conelets and cones are in the top Cone 2/3 of the tree crown. one 3. Logging. The landowner should supervise the logging operation especially to insure that the 7 . seed trees are not damaged by the logging. Damaged trees may die or not produce a good seed crop. 4. Preparing the site. The site must be prepared to first incorporate the forest litter (organic matter) i' , and then expose mineral soil -seeds need soil to germinate and grow. Some site preparation options are to burn, mechanically scarify, and/or spray with herbicides (see Fact Sheet FOR-37, Site Preparation: Alternatives for Plantation Establishment, Jack et al 1984). The soil needs to be Figure 1. A pine branch showing both a) conelets exposed prior to October, when most seeds fall which can be used to predict next year's seed crop from the trees. Sometimes the logging operation and b) cones which can be used to predict the is enough of a disturbance to expose the soil. present year's seed crop. However, the completeness and intensity of the site preparation may improve seedling estabAdvantages lishment especially during periods of poor seed m The initial costs of establishing a forest stand may crop or drought (Lohrey and Jones 1983). be lower especially if site preparation is not 5. Logging the remaining trees. When an adequate necessary. seedling stand is established and about 1-2 years a Less heavy equipment and labor is required. old, the seed trees should be harvested (Boyer 1979). If you wait too long, seed trees will m The seedling has a naturally shaped root system affect the growth of the seedlings and logging unlike seedlings which have been grown in a may damage the seedlings, nursery. 6. Controlling unwanted vegetation. Shrubs, small m Chance of tip moth damage is reduced (Beaufait trees, and herbaceous vegetation will compete and others 1984). with small seedlings for nutrients, water, and m For aesthetic reasons, the landowner may prefer to sunlight causing mortality or slower growth. For see a forest stand which is unevenly and naturally the first few years, the planting site should be spaced versus a stand which is in rows. observed to see if this unwanted vegetation is affecting seedling growth and survival and Disadvantages measures should be taken to control the weeds. Chemical control, hand-cutting, and mowing are * A seed crop must be available and seed dispersal three possible methods of control. must be timed correctly with site preparation so that a suitable seedbed is available for the seed Table 1. Minimum number of seed trees to leave for natural germination. regeneration and the frequency of seed crops for each pine species (seed tree numbers adapted from Williston and Balmer m Moisture in the soil is necessary for the seeds to 1974). germinate; exceptionally dry years or sites may Pine Number of seed trees to leave Frequency of result in poor germination or seedling mortality. species per acre by diameter of trees seed crop (yrs) * Insects and other small seed-eating animals may Diameter (inches) consume all or most of the seed. 10 12 14 16+ * Competing vegetation may be a problem for Slash 12 9 6 4 Every 3 years survival and growth for a longer time period than Loblolly 12 9 6 4 Every 1-3 years with planting because seedlings are smaller or Longleaf 55 38 28 21 Every 3-5 years seed may not be disseminated in the first year. 2