ABSTRACT Planning for regeneration begins with the landowner examining the land to be regenerated and then defining the objectives for regeneration and management. This circular assumes that the landowner has decided to have trees on a parcel of land, and it then provides three major alternatives for regeneration: 1) natural regeneration, and two methods of artificial regeneration, 1) direct seeding, and 2) planting. Natural regeneration relies upon older pines left on the site to provide seed for new trees on the regeneration site; these seed trees are then removed after a young stand of trees becomes established. In direct seeding, the landowner sows seed on the land; these seed then germinate and a forest stand results. The majority of sites in the South are planted with seedlings which have been grown at forest tree nurseries, are lifted and sold to the landowner, and then are planted either by hand or machine on the regeneration site. After weighing the advantages and disadvantages of these three regeneration methods, the landowner can then select the method which best fits the specific site, objectives, and economic situation. Contents Introduction 1 Natural Regeneration 1 Definition 1 Steps 1 Advantages 2 Disadvantages 2 Direct Seeding 3 Definition 3 Steps 3 Where to direct seed 4 Advantages 4 Disadvantages 4 Planting 6 Definition 6 Steps 6 Advantages 7 Disadvantages 8 Assessing Success of Your Plantation 8 Literature Cited 10 Credits : Editor, Sally Knox. Graphic Design and Illustration, Ralph Knudsen
-, /5. Spacing. Usually about 500-800 seedlings are Splanted per acre for a pulpwood plantation. -The rows on the planting site are most often 10 ito 12 feet apart and seedlings are planted 5 to 8 --feet apart within the row. A 6 x 10 foot Sspacing will have 726 trees per acre (43,560 ft /acre : 60 ft/tree = 726 trees per acre). hi 6. Planting. Seedlings are either hand-planted or machine-planted. A two person hand planting "r , s-\\ crew can plant 1000-2000 seedlings per day. When machine planting, two people can plant about 8000-10,000 seedlings per day. i Various tools are commonly used for hand planting (Figure 4). The hole is made and the tree is inserted with the root collar slightly below the ground line (Figure 5). The soil is then "firmly packed around the seedling to avoid air pockets. A small tractor and a mechanical planter are used for machine planting (Figure 6). Before planting begins, the following should be checked: 1) the planter must make a furrow deep enough for the entire root system, 2) spacing should be checked and regulated to insure desired spacing between each planted seedling, and 3) depth of Figure 3. Tree planter loads a planting bag with trees planting should be checked; seedlings should be which have been dipped in a bucket of water, planted at or just below the root collar. During planting seedlings should be checked to make sure: 1) that they are planted at the proper D depth, 2) that they are planted straight up and B that the roots are straight in the hole, and 3) that the seedlings are firmly packed in the hole. -To check the latter, grab the top needles of the seedling and firmly pull upward; if the seedling is too loosely planted, it will come out of the soil. A Advantages * Successful survival is more likely with planting compared to natural regeneration and direct seeding. m An evenly spaced plantation is more likely to result from planting, and therefore a plantation established from planted seedlings has better growth and is easier for future harvesting operations. a Planted seedlings will grow faster initially than L seedlings from seed. Thus, planted seedlings will more effectively compete with unwanted grasses, herbs, and shrubs for moisture, nutrients, and Figure 4. Commonly used tools for hand planting light. are a) hoedads, (two shown) b) planting bars (two a With planting, wood yields are generally better shown), c) dibbles for containerized seedlings (one than with seeded stands and the length of the shown), and d) shovels (one shown), rotation is shorter (meaning an earlier harvest). 7
"* Because the forest stand is started with seed clear away logging slash and vegetation which instead of one-year-old seedlings, rotations may be will be obstacles for machine planting; 3) to at least one or more years longer because of the incorporate organic matter into the soil; and 4) to loss in growth. reduce the levels of unwanted weeds which will "* Also, because the direct-seeded seedlings are one compete with tree seedlings for water, light, and year younger, it may be necessary to control nutrents. The three major site preparation methods competing vegetation for a longer period of time ince thee aof 1 fire prescribed burning, to insure successful survival and growth. include the use of 1) fre or prescribed burning, " 2)mechanical methods such as chopping, disking, "a The irregularly spaced stands which often result shearing, and bedding, and 3) chemical herbicides. from direct seeding are not well suited for access For detailed information on these site preparation by mechanical harvesting and fire equipment methods see IFAS Fact Sheet FOR-37, Site (Williston and Balmer 1983). Preparation: Alternatives for Plantation Establish"a And finally, compared to planting, direct seeding ment, Jack et al 1984. generally results in lower yields of timber (Willis3. Care and handling before planting. SEEDLINGS ton and Balmer 1983). ARE PERISHABLE. Realizing that seedlings require special care when they are out of their Planting natural environment, will insure success in Definition regenerating your site. Successful survival and growth depend on the care taken during storage, The majority of sites which are regenerated with transportation, and planting. pine in the South are planted with seedlings. Seedlings should be picked up immediately after Seedlings are grown at and purchased from forest they are lifted at the nursery. If necessary, they tree nurseries. Although mainly bareroot seedlings can be stored at cool temperatures (33-35"F) for are planted, each year there is a slightly increased 1-2 weeks. If cold storage facilities are not number of containerized seedlings available for available, seedlings should be stored in the shade planting, especially longleaf pine seedlings. (with good air circulation), kept moist, and Seedlings are lifted at the nursery and planted planted as soon as possible. Sand pine and during the late fall and winter months. Care and longleaf pine seedlings should not be stored but handling of lifted bareroot seedlings are extremely should be planted immediately (within a week) important to planting success. If seedlings are after lifting. stored, they should be stored at cool temperatures The best way to transport seedlings is in a (33-35*F). Otherwise, they should be planted imcooler or refrigerated vehicle. If this is not mediately. Planting is accomplished either by hand possible, they should be transported in covered or mechanically. Two excellent publications on vehicles and arranged so that air circulates among planting are "Tree Planter's Guide" (Division of the bales or bags. Transporting in open trucks Forestry 1983) and "Guide for Planting Southern can cause excessive drying. Also, when seedlings Pines" by Balmer and Williston 1974. get too warm they may dry out or use up their food reserves and die. If possible transport Steps seedlings at night in canopy-covered trucks. 1. Species and stock selection. Selecting the species .. to be planted can be a complex process but a 4. Care during and after planting. The main congood rule of thumb for Florida is 1) on poorly sideration during planting is protection of the drained sites, plant slash pine, 2) on moderately seedlings, especially the root systems. Seedling drained sites, plant slash or loblolly pine, and 3) roots should not be allowed to dry; putting on dry sites, plant longleaf or sand pine. Using seedlings in buckets of water or covering them genetically improved stock will insure better with wet burlap will protect them until they are growth and improved disease resistance. A in the ground. For.large acreages a planting bag professional forester familiar with local condito hold seedlings is efficient and will protect the tions could assist in choosing the proper species. roots if the seedlings are planted quickly and not left in the bag for a long period (Figure 3). 2. Site preparation. The purposes of site preparWhen planting, it may be helpful to leave a ation are: 1) to clear away logging slash and depression around the seedling to catch water. vegetation and create enough spots to plant Of course, if feasible, watering after planting will seedlings if they are to be hand-planted; 2) to aid survival. 6
\ 2 Disadvantages \\ Initial costs may be higher than for natural \ regeneration and direct seeding. S\ 1 --* The planting site may be inaccessible to planting \ \ machines or crews. a Distortions of the root system such as "L" or "J" shaped roots may result if care is not taken. m Close attention to seedling care and handling is --\ critical; poor survival and growth may result if 3 4 -\\ seedlings are mistreated. S " ' \ Assessing Success of Your Plantation To assess the success of your regeneration efforts, \ it is necessary to check survival of the seedlings. "\\ One year after planting, seeding, or natural regeneration has occurred, is a good time for assessment. S A number of plots should be taken over the entire planting site to get an idea of success over the S5 6 entire site (Table 2). Establish 1/100th acre circular plots on each acre by randomly selecting a spot within the acre and then anchoring an 11.78-foot rope down at this spot. Next walk in a circle counting the number of live seedlings in the plot. Calculate the average number of seedlings on these plots and then multiply times 100 to determine the number per acre. If there are 300 or more surviving , seedlings per acre on the site and these seedlings are well distributed, a replant is not necessary. If Figure 5. Steps for hand-planting pine seedlings. 1. Insert dibble or bar into soil at angle shown and push forward to upright position. 2. Remove dibble or bar and place seedling in hole with root collar just below ground line. 3. Insert dibble or bar about 1/2 way and pull handle towards you to close hole at the bottom. 4. Push handle to close hole and firm soil at the top of the seedling's roots. 5. Fill in last hole with heel. 6. Firm soil around seedling using hands or feet and being careful not to damage seedling. Figure 6. Machine planting of southern pine seedlings. 8
there are fewer than 300 per acre, then a decision direct seeding and natural regeneration, success must be made whether to replant or not. If the should be assessed for at least two years because the surviving seedlings are not well-distributed on the seedlings are so small that they are hard to see and planting site, then a replant may be necessary in the also because mortality of these small seedlings is understocked areas (Williston and Balmer 1983). For more likely. Table 2. Calculations for determining the number of live seedlings per acre and survival percentage on a parcel of land which has been regenerated. A) This is an example of the data collected from a 21-acre parcel of land; one 1/100-acre plot was sampled on each acre for a total of 21 plots. B) Using the data collected and these formulas, we can then estimate the number of live seedlings per acre. C) Using the estimated number of live seedlings per acre and the number of seedlings planted, we can estimate survival. A) Example of data collected from 21 plots on a 21-acre parcel of land. Plot # Number of live Plot # Number of live Plot # Number of live seedlings seedlings seedlings --------------------------------__._1 6 8 0 15 8 2 3 9 5 16 4 3 5 10 7 17 7 4 5 11 3 18 2 5 7 12 9 19 10 6 8 13 6 20 5 7 4 14 5 21 5 Subtotal: 38 Subtotal: 35 Subtotal: 41 Total: 38 + 35 + 41 = 114 live seedlings on the 21 plots B) Formulas for calculating the number of seedlings per acre. (1) Total number Average number of live seedlings + Number of plots = of live seedlings on the 21 plots per plot Example: 114 + 21 = 5.43 (2) Average Estimated number of number of 100 plots = live seedlings seedlings per acre per acre per plot Example: 5.43 X 100 = 543 C) Formula for calculating the survival percentage of planted seedlings on the site: (1) Estimated Number of Estimated number of seedlings percent live -planted X 100 = survival seedlings per acre for site per acre Example: 543 -700 X 100 = 78% 9
FOREST REGENERATION METHODS: NATURAL REGENERATION, DIRECT SEEDING AND PLANTING Mary L. Duryea* Introduction Introduction This circular assumes that the landowner wants to Planning for regeneration begins with the landhave trees on a parcel of land. It then provides owner examining the land and then defining the three major alternatives for getting the trees on the objectives for regeneration and management. Some land: natural regeneration and two kinds of artificial questions to ask concerning a parcel of land include: regeneration: direct seeding and planting seedlings. The landowner can then select the method that best "a Do trees on the land need to be harvested first or e e c te seect e e d tha fits the specific site, objectives, and economic has the land already been harvested? "* Has the land been examined to see if the site has been regenerated naturally? Natural Regeneration Natural Regeneration "* Will the present vegetation on the site be detrimental to small trees, by competing for water, Definition sunlight, or nutrients? (If the answer is yes, some control of the vegetation may be desirable.) Natural regeneration relies on older pine trees left on the land to provide seed to regenerate the site. "* What is the soil like? Is the site: wet? dry? shalThis practice can only be employed if the site has low? deep? (This will help in the selection of not yet been harvested. Plans are then made for species as well as determine whether the site will harvesting the present forest stand and leaving some be difficult to regenerate.) trees to provide the seed. In order to select specific practices for your Pine stands, however, grow best where all trees particular site and answer many of these questions, are of the same age and receive the same amount of it is helpful to consult a professional forester, sunlight and so once the seedlings are established experienced in regeneration. the large seed trees must be removed. For more Setting objectives for a parcel of land means information, some excellent articles describe the making decisions about the present and future process of natural regeneration (Williston and Balmer management schemes. What are the reasons for 1974, Boyer 1978, Lohrey and Jones 1983). wanting a forest on the site? Would planting trees be for: 1) aesthetic reasons, 2) providing future Steps income in 20, 30, or 40 years, 3) restoring marginal 1. Selecting the seed trees. Before the site is or unused cropland, or 4) promoting wildlife? Many logged, seed trees must be selected and marked more reasons for planting trees exist; many are with paint. Selection means choosing the compatible with each other, such as wanting an best-looking trees for seed trees -trees which income and aesthetics, are the straightest and tallest and have large Finally, some of the most important questions may crowns (lots of green needles) and no disease. be: The number to leave on the site will vary according to species (Table 1). More seed "* How much will regeneration of this parcel of land according to species (Table ). More seed cost? trees are required for longleaf pine because it is not a prolific seed producer and its large seeds "* Am I eligible for one of the cost sharing programs are often eaten by animals (Williston and Balmer such as the Forestry Incentives Program (FIP)? 1974). Trees should be well-spaced over the site Information on these programs can be obtained to allow even distribution of seed. from your county extension agent or county fromyour county eension agent or couny 2. Planning for a good seed crop. The frequency of forester, or the Agricultural Stabilization and good seed crops varies from year to year and Conservation Service (ASCS) office. Conservation Service (ASCS) officespecies to species (Table 1). To insure successful "* What will my rate of return on the forestry natural regeneration, the site should be logged investment be? (For ways to assess your forestry just prior to a good seed crop. You can observe investment see IFAS Circular 592, A Guide to the seed crop by looking through binoculars in Comparing Returns From Forestry Investments to the spring or early summer and counting cones to Annual Crops, Eason and Flinchum 1984.) determine the crop for the fall or looking at * Assistant Professor, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville. 1
A B C Figure 2. Three common methods of direct seeding include a) aerial seeding with a helicopter, b) handsowing with a hand-cranked seeder, and c) spot-seeding on raked spots. 5
"* If the seed is abundant and a dense stand results, 2. Obtaining seed. Seed with greater than 85% a pre-commercial thinning may be necessary to viability and with a minimum of 95% sound seed decrease the number of trees per acre. For should be used. After receiving seed, it should example, if there are more than 2000 slash pine be stored immediately in a refrigerator at 34-36Â°F seedlings at age three, growth may be inhibited (Williston and Balmer 1983). and the site will require pre-commercial thinning 700-1000 trees per acre. This thinning may be 3. Sowing rates. The amount of seed required will accomplished by hand-cutting or plowing up rows vary according to species, method of sowing, of seedlings and leaving the remaining rows about degree of site preparation, and general ease of 10-12 feet apart. regeneration of the site. For instance, in an area where summer showers are frequent and survival "* Because the site is planted with seed versus is good, 0.6 lb/acre is adequate for slash pine. 1-year-old seedlings, the rotation length (time until However, in drier areas I lb/acre for broadcast harvest) may be increased by one or more years, sowing, 0.75 lb/acre for row seeding on a disked "a The seed coming from the seed trees is not bed, and 0.5 lb/acre for spot seeding may be genetically improved as when the seed comes from required for adequate regeneration (Lohrey and a seed orchard. Jones 1983). In general for each species there is an average amount of seed which is needed * Natural regeneration may be less expensive initially (Table 3). but more costly in the long run if it is necessary to prepare the site or precommercially thin.e Table 3. Amount of seed needed to direct seed an acre of land and the approximate number of seeds per pound. "* Open sites without trees such as clearcuts, Pine Lbs of seed Approximate abandoned fields, and stands after a wildfire or Species needed per acre* number of windstorm cannot be naturally regenerated. seeds per lb** "* The landowner does not have any control over Loblolly 0.5 18,200 spacing between trees or stocking levels and so Slash 0.6 13,500 often these can be very uneven. Longleaf 2.5 4,900 "* A successfully regenerated site may take longer to Sand 0.6 75,000 reach harvest than with direct seeding or planting. *(\illiston and Balmer 1983) "**(Schopmeyer 1974) Direct Seeding D ntion 4. Treating seed. Seed is often treated with a Definition repellent for seed-eating insects, birds, and Direct seeding means that the landowner applies mammals which will otherwise consume the entire seeds directly to the land; these seeds then gerseed crop. The most common repellent for birds minate and a forest stand results. A lot of the is Thiram. Endrin, which has been used to repel principles for site conditions and site preparation are rodents is no longer available as a repellent. If a the same as with natural regeneration but, in substitute cannot be found, predation will be an addition, a known amount of seed is used. Direct even bigger problem for direct seeding. seeding is often employed on poor or inaccessible Loblolly and sand pine seed also needs to be sites or where little initial involvement is possible or stratified, a process which subjects water-soaked desirable. Sites which are droughty or have high seed to cold temperatures for 20-60 days accorerosion potential should be avoided. Three reviews ding to species and improves its chance of give detailed information on direct seeding (Lohrey germinating. and Jones 1983, Williston and Balmer 1983, Beaufait Stratified and repellent-treated seed can be and others 1984). purchased from most commercial seed companies. The repellent and stratification treatments each Steps increase the weight of seed by about 10% and 25% (Williston and Balmer 1983). 1. Harvesting and preparing the site. First, the (Williston and Balmer 1983). present stand must be harvested and the site 5. Date of sowing. Longleaf and sand pine seed prepared to create a mineral soil seedbed. Again, should be sown in the fall when soil moisture is as in natural regeneration, the options for site high from rains. Longleaf pine appears to natpreparation are burning, mechanically scarifying, urally regenerate better in the panhandle than and/or spraying with herbicides (Jack et al. the peninsula of Florida, perhaps due to the 1984). wetter climate in the fall and winter. 3
--7 DOCUMENT DOCUMENT Circular 759 -Forest SRegeneration Methods Natural Regeneration, Direct Seeding and Planting Florida Cooperative Extension Service Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences University of Florida, Gainesville John T. Woeste, Dean for Extension \ Central Science Sibrary AU G 27 1987 University o Florida
Literature Cited Balmer, W.E. and H.L. Williston.1974. Guide for planting southJack, S., K. Munson, and D. Flinchum. 1984. Site preparation: ern pines. USDA Forest Service. State and Private Forestry. alternatives for plantation establishment. IFAS, University of Southeastern Area S & PF -7. 17 p. Florida. Forest Resources and Conservation Fact Sheet FORBeaufait, W., P.P. Laird, M. Newton, D.M. Smith,.C.H. Tubbs, 37. 4 p. C.A. Wellner, and H.L. Williston. Silviculture. Pages 413-455 Lohrey, R.E. and E.P. Jones, Jr. 1983. Natural regeneration and In: Forestry Handbook. Second Edition. K.F. Wenger, ed. direct seeding. Pages 183-193 In: The Managed Slash Pine John Wiley & Sons. New York. Ecosystem. Proc. of Symp. held June 9-11, 1981. School of Forest Resources and Conservation. University of Florida, Boyer, W.D. 1979. Natural regeneration of longleaf pine. Pages Gainesville. 6-11 In: Proc. Longleaf Pine Workshop. October 17-19, 1978. USDA Forest Service. Technical Publication SA-TP3. Schopmeyer, C.S. (ed.). 1974. Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States. USDA Forest Service Agriculture Handbook Derr, H.J. and W.F. Mann, Jr. 1971. Direct-seeding in the No. 450. Washington, D.C. 883 p. No. 450. Washington, D.C. 883 p. South. USDA Forest Service. Agriculture Handbook no. 391. 68 p. Williston, H.L. and W.E. Balmer. 1974. Managing for Natural Regeneration. USDA Forest Service State and Private ForEason, M.A. and D.M. Flinchum. 1984. A guide for comparing Regeneration USDA Foret Seice State and Private Forreturns from forestry investments to annual crops. Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Williston, H.L. and W.E. Balmer. 1983. Direct-seeding of southFood and Agricultural Sciences, Circular 592. 9 p. ern pines -a regeneration alternative. USDA Forest Service. Southern Region. Forestry Bulletin R8-FB/M1. 6 p. Florida Division of Forestry. 1983. Tree Planter's Guide. Dept. Southern Region. Forestry Bulletin R8-FB/M1. 6 p. of Agriculture and Consumer Services. F83G1. This publication was produced at a cost of $1,206.30, or 40.2 cents per copy, to provide non-industrial private landowners, county agents, county foresters and other Florida residents with information on the various methods of regenerating land with trees. 7-3M-87 COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, K.R. Tefertiller, director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30,1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex or national origin. Single copies of Extension publications (excluding 4-H and Youth publications) are available free to Florida residents from County Extension Offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers is ,available from C.M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability. 10
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TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
BROKEN_LINK schema http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
The element type "div" must be terminated by the matching end-tag "