Citation
Agricultural pesticide safety

Material Information

Title:
Agricultural pesticide safety purchasing, storing, labeling, mixing, symptoms, loading, P.P.E., applying, transporting, disposal
Series Title:
Circular Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Creator:
Becker, William J., 1930-
Johnson, Freddie Allen, 1938-
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Publisher:
Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
12 p. : ill., 1 plan ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Pesticides -- Safety measures ( lcsh )
Pesticides -- Application ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Cover title.
Statement of Responsibility:
William J. Becker and Freddie A. Johnson.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This document is copyrighted by the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) for the people of the State of Florida. UF/IFAS retains all rights under all conventions, but permits free reproduction by all agents and offices of the Cooperative Extension Service and the people of the State of Florida. Permission is granted to others to use these materials in part or in full for educational purposes, provided that full credit is given to the UF/IFAS, citing the publication, its source, and date of publication.
Resource Identifier:
AAA6887 ( LTQF )
AFG2471 ( LTUF )
19569470 ( OCLC )
022097825 ( ALEPH )
Classification:
101F636c 779

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This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
Circular 779


Agricultural

Pesticide Safety


Purchasing
Labeling
Symptoms
P.P.E.
Transporting


Storing
Mixing
Loading
Applying
Disposal


William J. Becker and Freddie A.


Johnson
I, / -"


'v


Florida Cooperative Extension Service/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida,Gainesville/John T. Woeste, Dean for Extension





Table of Contents


Introduction ........................................... 1

Determining If You Need a Pesticide ................... .......... 1

Purchasing the Pesticide ................... ............... 1

Understanding the Label ................................... 1.
1. EPA registration number .... ................... ........ 2
2. Directions for use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
3. Precautions ............................. ...... . 2
4. Statement of Practical Treatment. . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. 3
5. Storage and disposal ....................... .......... 3
6. Classification statement ...................... ........... 3

Entrance into the Body ...................................... 3

The Cholinesterase Inhibitor Factor. . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . 4

Symptoms of Pesticide Poisoning ................... ............ 4

Transportation and Storage ............................ .... 4
Transportation ................... ......... .. ..... 4
Storage .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Mixing and Loading ........................ .... ........ 7

Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. 8

Pesticide and Pesticide Container Disposal . . . . . . . . ... . . . . 8
Mixed Pesticides ................... .................... 8
Excess Pesticides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Pesticide Containers ................... ................. 9

Accidental Spills...... ................................ .. 11

Summary...... ................ ...................... 12















William J. Becker is Associate Professor-Extension Safety Specialist, Agricultural Engineering Department, and
Freddie A. Johnson is Professor-Extension Entomologist, Entomology and Nematology Department, IFAS, University
of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611.




Introduction
Safety with pesticides
should be a concern of
everyone involved with
these chemicals, for
while they provide real
benefits, they can also
be dangerous if
mishandled or misused.
An accidental death
from pesticides is rare,
but skin disorders and health problems are not.
Also, improper handling or use of pesticides can
result in harmful effects to the environment.
Pesticide safety begins with the selection of the
proper product and proceeds through the transpor-
tation, storage, mixing, loading, application, and
disposal of the pesticide and its container.

Determining If You Need a Pesticide
Before purchasing a pesticide, determine if you
have a pest problem, and if a problem exists, what
control will be most efficient, cost effective and
safe. You may not need a pesticide, since alterna-
tives are often available. These may be resistant
varieties or species, rotation and soil sterilization,
management practices and housekeeping, environ-
mental and cultural controls, proper watering and
fertilization, or even mechanical or biological con-
trols. These alternatives may be as efficient and
cost effective as pesticides. Indiscriminate use of
pesticides should be avoided.


Purchasing the Pesticide
Once you are sure you have a pest problem and
have determined that a pesticide is the best solu-
tion, you still have other decisions to make before
you can make a well-thought-out purchase. Cer-
tainly, more than quantity and price should be
considered.
For most pest problems there are usually at least
two pesticide products on the market. In addition,
each product may be available in different dry or
liquid formulations (dusts, wettable or soluble pow-
ders, emulsifiable concentrates, granules, baits,
etc.), in different concentrations (less than 1%
chemical concentration to more than 90%) and in
different sizes and types of containers (eight-ounce
box, one-gallon plastic container, 30-gallon drum, to
give a few examples.

Understanding the Label
Reading and understanding the label before pur-
chase is the first consideration. The product name
provides recognition. It is generally designed to
attract you so you will make a purchase and to
promote product identification. It helps you to find
the product when you return to make additional
purchases. Below is an example representing a
typical label. Note the types of items it contains,
such as the name of the product, directions for its
use, storage and disposal, and other information.









Signal Word


Toxicity


Lethal (Oral)Dose
(160 lb. man)**


Danger Poison*


Highly toxic


Warning

Caution


Moderately toxic

Low toxicity


Few drops to 1 teaspoon

1 teaspoon to 1 Tablespoon

1 ounce to more than 1 pint


* Skull and crossbones symbol included.
** Less for a child or person weighing less than 160 Ibs.


The terms "active ingredient" and "percent" give
you more precise information. The active ingredient
is the material which controls the pest. Should
product "A" have two percent active ingredient, and
product "B" four percent, product "B" has twice the
amount of actual pesticide and it will be twice as
strong. Likewise, if product "C" has two pounds of
active ingredient per gallon, it has twice the active
ingredient of product "D" if it contains only one
pound per gallon. Remember, this comparison
applies only when two products have the same
active ingredient. Other factors, however, may
determine the concentration of the product best
suited for your needs.
There are many other items of information you
must study on the pesticide label before you can
make an intelligent purchase:
1. EPA registration numberLook for this number
on every product. It is your assurance that the
product has been reviewed by the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and
should be safe and effective when used as
directed on the label. This means you must
read the rest of the label before making your
purchase.

2. Directions for use: Before you buy any pes-
ticide, make sure the product is labeled for use
against the pest, on the plants or animals, in
the environment where you plan to use the
product. A product may be labeled to control a
pest on nursery plants, but not for the same
pest on fruits, vegetables, or house plants in the
home.
3. Precautions: Pesticides carry one of three
precautionary words or phrases. The products
most toxic to humans will be labeled DANGER-
POISON. These products are extremely toxic in


the form found in the container, before they are
diluted. Only a few drops could cause severe
burns, serious health problems or even death.
STOP READ THE LABEL


DANGER


POISON


Products labeled WARNING are less toxic to
humans, but extreme care must be exercised in
their use, particularly before they are diluted.
The word CAUTION will appear on those pes-
ticides which are the least harmful when used
as directed. These products, however, can still
cause serious injury or health problems and even
death. You will notice that pesticides carrying
even the least toxic precaution -- the word
CAUTION -- often carry the statement, "KEEP
OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN".

LD or lethal dose value is another term used
in describing pesticide toxicity. An LD/50
indicates the amount of active ingredient in the
pesticide formulation that would be lethal to 50
percent of a population of test animals. The LD
amount is expressed in milligrams of toxic
product per kilogram of body weight. Thus, a
pesticide with an LD/50-50mg/kg is ten times
more toxic than a pesticide with an LD/50-
500mg/kg. Sometimes an LD/90, or other
number, is given. An LD/90 indicates that the
product would be lethal to 90 percent of the test
animal population


V 01 V<^v

CA^N|WKIYO





Many pesticides have two LD or lethal dose
values; one LD/50 value for oral ingestion of the
product, the other for dermal absorption
(through the skin) of the pesticide. Normally
the oral LD/50 value of a pesticide is lower,
thus more toxic, than the dermal LD/50 value of
the product. However, since we are more apt to
get the product on our skin than we are to
swallow it, dermal exposure may be a much more
common problem.
The "precaution" portion of the label will give
additional advice on the safe use of the product.
It might require that people and animals be kept
out of treated areas, that the product not be
used in enclosed areas, that special clothing and
protective equipment be worn, that treated
fruits, vegetables or other products not be
handled or eaten for a particular period of time,
that care be followed not to have the product
drift onto or be sprayed on other plants or find
its way into surface or ground waters.
The precautionary statements may be few or
many, but the potential purchaser of the pes-
ticide must heed this information. Failure to do
so can be extremely hazardous and is in viola-
tion of federal law.
4. Statement of Practical Treatment: This is in-
formation about first aid and can be limited or
detailed. It may give advice on what to do if the
product is accidentally swallowed, inhaled or gets
into the eyes or onto the skin. The statement
may tell you that you need to purchase addi-
tional equipment and supplies before you can use
the product safely and be able to deal with
accidents effectively.
You need to know what to do if someone is
accidentally poisoned by the pesticide. Be sure
you understand the Statement of Practical
Treatment. Have materials available to ad-
minister first aid. Always call a doctor or
emergency room immediately if an accident
occurs. Make sure the doctors are given the
pesticide label; it will help them prescribe
immediate correct treatment. Emergency tele-
phone numbers, including that of the nearest
poison control center, should be posted near all
StelpIMPORTANT PHONE
NUMBeRS


5. Storage and disposal: Don't purchase the pes-
ticide if you cannot store it properly or dispose
of unwanted quantities safely. Seek an agree-
ment with the dealer that unopened, unused
quantities can be returned for credit. Pur-
chasers of large quantities of pesticides might
even obtain an agreement on the return of
empty pesticide containers.
6. Classification statement: Pesticides are classi-
fied as "general" or "restricted". Those classified
as "general" can be purchased and used, in
accordance with the label, by the general public.
"Restricted Use Pesticides" can be purchased and
applied by State-certified licensed pesticide
applicators only.

RESTRICTED USE PESTICIDE
For retail sale to and use only by certified
applicators or persons under their direct
supervision, and only for those uses covered by
the certified applicator's certification.


You can make intelligent purchases of pesticides
through completely reading and understanding the
label. A product you have chosen wisely will do
the job economically and safely. It is the user's
legal responsibility to thoroughly read and follow
label instructions. Remember, by reading the direc-
tions and warnings before you purchase the pes-
ticide, you can protect yourself, your family and
the environment from serious accidents.
Entrance into the Body
There are three ways for pesticides to enter the
body: breathing, swallowing (also called ingesting),
or through the skin or eyes. All three methods can
cause immediate danger. Inhaled pesticides are
absorbed rapidly into the body through the thin
membranes of the lungs. Wearing a properly-fitted
respirator with the proper cartridge or canister is
very important. Replace the canister or cartridge
every few hours of use, or whenever the odor or
taste of the pesticide is detected, or when breath-
ing becomes difficult. Working upwind of the pes-
ticide dust, mists and vapor and not smoking pes-
ticide-contaminated cigarettes are other safety
practices to follow.

SMod of Entry
l Inhalation
ngestion
\ bsorption




Pesticides can enter the body in three ways--
inhalation, ingestion and skin or eye absorption.






While breathing pesticides is the most rapid way
for them to enter the bloodstream, most acute
poisonings are the result of swallowing pesticides,
which happens more often. Swallowed or ingested,
pesticides are absorbed more slowly and less com-
pletely than by breathing. Establishing good work
habits, including washing hands before eating, and
not eating, smoking or drinking while working with
pesticides, will reduce the chances of ingestion. It
must be emphasized that pesticides should never be
stored in other than their original containers.
Putting pesticides in containers that originally held
food or drink has resulted in many accidental
poisonings.
All pesticides may enter the body by absorption
through the skin and eyes, the most common meth-
od of accidental poisoning. The eyes, stomach,
groin, arms, hands, and forehead are the likely
areas for absorption. Be extremely careful to see
that open wounds, sores or blisters are not exposed
to pesticides. Wearing the proper protective cloth-
ing and equipment, changing and laundering
immediately after working with pesticides, and
showering thoroughly with detergent and soap will
reduce the danger of absorption. Should a pesticide
spill onto your body, the next two minutes are
critical Immediate removal of your clothing and
thorough washing are required!

The Cholinesterase Inhibitor Factor
Mixers, loaders, applicators and others working
with concentrated pesticides, or those who have
accrued long hours of exposure to diluted pesticides,
should be particularly aware of the dangers of the
organophosphate and carbamate pesticides as cholin-
esterase inhibitors. Cholinesterase is an enzyme in
the blood. It affects the red blood cell and plasma
ChE levels. Organophosphate and carbamate
pesticides affect this enzyme and cause lower red
blood cell and plasma ChE levels. Affected
individuals may exhibit pesticide poisoning symptoms
such as fatigue, listlessness and headaches. Severe
exposures can result in death. Users of these
pesticides should be in a cholinesterase testing
program. Consult your medical doctor.

Symptoms of Pesticide Poisoning
Many of the early symptoms of mild pesticide
poisoning are similar to the symptoms of the flu.
heat stroke, exhaustion or the common cold. How-
ever, if these symptoms occur while working, or
shortly after you have been working, with pesticides
contact your supervisor, nurse or doctor. Symptoms
which may occur are:


Transportation and Storage
Whether you are a homeowner, farmer, grower,
rancher or commercial applicator, proper transpor-
tation and storage are important aspects of safe
pesticide use.

Transportation
Pesticides should never be transported inside the
passenger compartment of an automobile or truck
cab; put them in the trunk or in the back of the
truck. Never transport them where they could come
in contact with groceries, livestock feed or other
products which might become contaminated.
When transporting pesticides in a truck, see that
they are secured to prevent spillage or loss due to
sudden starts, stops, turns, etc. Should there be an
accident or spill,immediately inform the local police
and fire officials of the quantity and name of the
pesticide involved. Large spills, particularly of "Re-
stricted Use Pesticides," should be reported to the
Florida Department of Environmental Regulation
(DER) (1-904-488-1320), CHEMTREC (1-800-424-
9300) and/or the manufacturer.
Applicators of pesticides, particularly in heavily
populated areas, must take special precautions to
secure products transported to the application site.
Allowing containers of pesticides to remain unat-
tended on the back of an open truck is inviting an
accident -- and a costly lawsuit.
Commercial transporters of pesticides must meet
special requirements: vehicles must carry placards,
bills of lading, labels of the product, etc. Consult
the Florida Department of Transportation regarding
these requirements.

Storage
Nationally, nearly three-fourths of all pesticide
accidents occur to non-users of the materials.Many
of these accidents involve children. In addition,
each year there are several cases of livestock and
pet poisonings from contacts with improperly stored
pesticides. These accidents not only cause human
suffering and economic losses, but improper storage
is contrary to federal regulations. READ THE
LABEL: IT IS THE LAW.


Mild Poisoning
Fatigue
Headache
Dizziness
Blurred vision
Excessive sweating and salivating
Nausea, vomiting
Stomach cramps or diarrhea


Moderate Poisoning
Unable to walk
Weakness
Chest discomfort
Constriction of pupil of eye


Severe Poisoning
Unconsciousness
Severe construction of pupil
Muscle twitching
Secretions from nmouth and nose
Breathing difficulty
Coma
Death





Whether you are a homeowner, producer or ap-
plicator of pesticide, there are basic safe storage
rules to follow:
1. Keep pesticides, other poisons, and related
materials locked in a cabinet, room or sep-
arate building designated solely for the stor-
age of these materials. Metal storage cabi-
nets, such as discarded school lockers, provide
excellent storage for homeowners or other
users of small amounts of pesticides.
2. Post the facilities
with a sign:
"PESTICIDES-
POISONS, KEEP PESTICIDES
POISON
OUT', or similar
signs.
3. Control access to i s IN
this facility to only SMO
one, two, or three -
highly trusted, -
responsible and
informed individuals.
4. Never store pesticides where food, feed, seed,
fertilizers or other products can become
contaminated.
5. Store pesticides in their original containers.
It's the law.
6. The facility should be reasonably fireproof
and well-ventilated. Temperatures should be
kept between freezing and 100 degrees F.
7. Sealed concrete floors, concrete block walls
and metal shelves are recommended over
wooden structures.
8. With shelf storage, store dry pesticides on
the top shelves, liquids on the lower shelves.
9. Electrical fixtures should be of the dust-and
explosion-proof type.
10. Provide adequate space for the secure stor-
age of empty pesticide containers until proper
disposal of them is possible.
Those businesses with large quantities of pes-
ticides to store should have a separate building for
this purpose. In addition to the above features,
this building should also include the following char-
acteristics.
1. When feasible, the building should be down-
wind and downhill from sensitive areas, such
as homes, play areas, feedlots, animal shel-
ters, gardens and ground water sources.
2. The building should be located in an area not
subject to flooding.


3. A drainage system should be built to collect
any tank rinsing water or spoils. This ma-
terial should be treated as surplus pesticide
and must be disposed of properly, according
to label instructions.
4. A water supply should be furnished, not only
for mixing, loading, tank rinsing and cleanup,
but for showers and cleanup for the persons
who mix, load and apply the pesticides.
5. Fire detectors and fire fighting equipment
should be available.
6. A telephone should be convenient, with all
emergency numbers posted.
7. A current inventory of all materials in stor-
age, along with a label of all materials, should
be maintained in a secure area away from the
storage area. The local fire department should
be provided with an updated copy of this
inventory.
8. Equip the storage area with all personal
protective equipment and materials to prevent
accidents and to handle accidents and spills.
Activated charcoal, absorptive clay, vermicu-
lite, clay-granule type cat litter or sawdust are
good materials to absorb liquid spills.

9. Date and identify all pesticides when they are
placed into storage, and store no more than
will be needed for one season. Establish a
policy of first-in, first-used, so that pesticides
do not become outdated.


10. Have your fire insurance carrier inspect
pesticide storage facility periodically --
intelligent management and may reduce
insurance premium.


your
it is
your


Many pesticide storage facilities are inadequate,
dangerous and lack security. On page 7 is a plan
for constructing a safe pesticide storage building.
If drains are installed in the building or in the
mixing/loading platform out-of-doors this drain
water must be captured and not allowed to enter
ground or surface water. Copies of this plan
(EX6346 Pesticide Storage Building) are available
from the Cooperative Extension Service.



Mixing and Loading
Mixing and loading of pesticides are among the
most dangerous tasks involving work with these
products, because it is at this time that people are
working with open containers of concentrated pes-
ticides.





For this reason, individuals employed to perform
this activity should be well-informed of the dangers
involved and work under the supervision of a prop-
erly certified, licensed applicator whenever handling
"Restricted-Use Pesticides."
HAT
Mixing and loading
should never be done RESPIRATOR
without a full understand-
ing of the pesticide label RUBBER
and with the use of all
recommended personal
protective equipment. The
label will identify the /
dangers involved and the SLEEVO
precautions to follow, may
indicate the signs and
symptoms of poisoning and
recommend first aid prac- BOOTS
tices, should one be ex-
posed to the product.
Before you begin to mix, load and apply pes-
ticides, and after you understand the label direc-
tions, make certain you have taken the following
precautions:
1. Have detergent or soap and an adequate supply
of water available.
2. Know the early symptoms of poisoning for the
pesticide you are using.
3. Know the first aid procedures and make
certain that materials and supplies are avail-
able.
4. Be certain that materials are available to
handle spills.
5. Make certain that all equipment is functioning
properly.
6. Do not work alone; be sure help is available
if you get into trouble.
7. Have all the recommended protective clothing
and equipment. Double-check that the respira-
tor fits properly and has the correct canister
cartridge.
8. Never eat, drink, smoke or go to the bath-
room while working with pesticides, without
first washing your hands.
You are now ready to begin mixing and loading.
Follow these suggestions:
1. Reread the label and follow the directions;
pay special attention to the warnings and
precautions.
2. Make sure only authorized mixers, loaders
and/or supervisors are in the mixing and


loading area. No other people or animals
should be there.
3. Work only in a well-ventilated, well-lighted
area.
4. Pesticide containers should be in a secure
position when opening, to prevent any spil-
lage. Be sure everyone is wearing the proper
personal protective equipment.


5. Mix and pour concentrated pesticides down
low, preferably below waist level. Never pour
pesticides at eye level. A spill or splash
could be disastrous. Always remove clothing
and wash yourself and your clothing thor-
oughly, immediately (within two minutes), if
pesticides are spilled or splashed on you.
6. Stand with your back to the wind -- upwind
-- so that any fumes or dusts are blown away
from you.
7. Pour the pesticide into water, never water
into the pesticide.
8. If stirring is necessary, use a stir stick,
never your hands.
9. Mixing and loading are best done on a con-
crete slab where spills can be handled more
effectively. Avoid mixing or loading near
surface water or near a well-head.
10. Never pour pesticide directly into- a spray
tank. Always mix and dilute in a small
container.
11. When pouring, stand with your head well
above the spray tank, to prevent pesticides
from splashing in your face. Protect your
eyes with splash-proof goggles.
12. Never overflow a spray tank. The cleanup
could be an all-day, all-night task, costly and
dangerous.










































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FLOOR PLAN


SECTION A
SLAB EDGE DETAIL


a '" O r


235f ASPHALT SHINGLES
W/ SELF SEAL TABS
150 ROOFING FELT
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COURSE


INDICATES
FILLED CEL


CONT R OGE VENT






S5/." T l II PLYWOOD


-LIGHT BROOM FINISH
4" CONC. SLAB W/ 6"X6" # 10 WWM
d W/ 6 NIL VAPOR BARRIER OVER
WELL-COMPACTED TREATED SOIL




SlI'i.. P 5 4 CONT


WALL SECTION

SAFETY
ALL DOORS METAL FIRE RATED W/ FIRE RATED
JAMBS AND KEYED LOCAS


SI SAFETY SHOWER UNIT
I EYEWASH UNIT
0 2 WALL MOUNT 10f ABC FIRE EXT
O 2 CEILING MOUNT JON TYPE DETECTORS
SI INDUSTRIAL TYPE FIRST AID KIT
7 I DANGER PESTICIDE STORAGE SIGN

ELECTRICAL
ALL ELECTRICAL SHALL BE EXPLOSION PROOF TYPE
AND ALL OUTLETS WEATHER PROTECTED
LIGHT FIXTURES ARE 100 WATT INCANDESCENT VP
FIXTURES
SDUPLEX CONVENIENCE OUTLET
5 SINGLE POLE SWITCH
THREE WAY SWITCH
S 500 CFM EXHAUST FAN W/ INLET GUARD AND
EXHAUST DAMPER
100 AMP PANEL- WEATHER PROTECTED
WALL MOUNT HEATER APPROVED BY FIRE DEPT
CEILING OUTLET
FLOOD LIGHT


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS





PESTICIDE STORAGE BUILDING

FL '83 Ex. 6346 I SHEET I OF I


LIGHT BROOM FINISH ON
4" CONG SLAB W/ 6"X6"
*10 WW




6 MIL VAPOR
BARRIER OVER I S5 4 CONT
WELL-COMPACTED --
SOIL


I





After the mixing-loading task has been completed,
your responsibility continues:

1. Securely close pesticide containers immedi-
ately after use. Return unused pesticide to
its proper storage.
2. Clean up all spills, no matter how small the
amount.
3. Wash mixing and loading pails, measuring
devices and stirring equipment or tools in
strong detergent water, rinse in clear water,
store to air-dry.
4. Wash your personal protective equipment in
detergent, rinse and hang to air-dry.
5. The wash and rinse water used in steps 3 and
4 can best be disposed of by pouring it into
the spray tank. Don't overfill the spray tank,
so that there will be room for the rinse water.
6. Remove your clothing and launder separately
with heavy-duty liquid detergent and hot
water. DO NOT USE BLEACH as it could
cause a dangerous chemical reaction. Line-
dry the clothing where it is exposed to
sunlight.
7. Take a hot shower, using a detergent-type
soap. Don't forget to wash your hair. Put
on clean clothing.

Application
When applying pesticides, you are not generally
exposed to the same high concentration of pesticide
as during the mixing and loading operation. How-
ever, the time-length of exposure is much longer,
thus the cumulative exposure may be equal to or
greater than during the mixing-loading operation.
Pesticide applications are made with everything
from hand sprayers and dusters, to irrigation
equipment, large airblast grove sprayers and air-
craft. Whatever equipment is used, many of the
safety precautions are the same. These include:
1. Read and follow the label. Applications made
which vary from label requirements are a
violation of federal law.
2. Use the correct equipment, and make sure it
is properly maintained and adjusted. Screens,
strainers and nozzles should be clean and
functioning properly. Nozzles should be of
the right type and properly adjusted and all
lines, valves, seals should be checked for
leaks.
3. The application equipment should be accu-
rately calibrated on a regular basis. When-


ever you have any suspicion that the equip-
ment is applying an inaccurate amount, recali-
brate it. Your operator's manual should provide
information on calibration of the equipment.
Additional information is available through
your county's Cooperative Extension Service.
4. Wear the proper protective clothing and
equipment.
5. Check the weather forecast frequently to
determine if conditions will be favorable for
the application and effectiveness of the
pesticide. The National Weather Service
provides a continuously updated weather
forecast for Florida via VHF/FM channels
WX1 (162.550 MHz), WX2 (162.400 MHz) and
WX3 (162.475 MHz).
6. Avoid spraying near sensitive areas where
drift could damage neighboring crops or the
environment. When spraying must be done in
these areas,attempt to spray when the air is
still, humidity is high and any potential drift
will be away from sensitive areas.
7. Lower pressures, proper boom and nozzle
adjustments, larger nozzle size and drift-
reducing additives (if the label permits) will
reduce drift.
8. Do not make field adjustments to the sprayer
in a recently sprayed, still-wet area. Move to
an unsprayed area.
9. Never attempt to clean a nozzle, screen or
hose by blowing or sucking on it with your
mouth. Use small soft-bristle brushes and/or
an air pressure bulb for these purposes.
10. Always empty a tank by spraying the entire
contents onto the vegetation or other area
for which it was intended. Never drain a
spray tank onto the ground. Important:
Never mix more than you need!

Pesticide and Pesticide Container Disposal
Major problems exist in the disposal of pesticides
and pesticide containers. These are: the disposal of
excess quantities of mixed pesticides, disposal of
rinsates, the disposal of unwanted quantities of
obsolete, deteriorated or unwanted pesticides, and
the disposal of containers.

Mixed Pesticides
Excess mixed pesticides can be used only for a
use which is approved on the pesticide's label. The
best solution to this problem is to not mix more
than needed. However, there are times when the
spray job is complete and a quantity of spray re-






mains in the tank. If it can't be saved until the
next time it is needed, what can be done? The
best solution is to find another field, lawn or
garden where the material can be applied, where it
is needed and where the use is in accordance with
label instructions. Another solution would be to
spray the material on another area where no dam-
age can be done and the application is in accor-
dance with the label.
What should not be done? Don't go back into a
sprayed area and spray on a second application.
This could prove toxic to the crop and/or cause
problems with excess residue on the harvested prod-
uct. Do not dump the excess; the pesticide could
end up in surface water as a result of run-off, or it
could end up in ground water as a result of per-
colation through the soil. Do not dump the excess
into a drain; it could cause septic tank or sewage
system problems.

Excess Pesticides
To prevent the problem of excess pesticides, don't
purchase more than will be used. This is the best
and easiest solution. Disposal of old, out-dated and
unneeded pesticides is a major problem and there is
no simple solution. If possible, use the product for
the purpose it was purchased. If you can't, maybe a
neighbor, friend or other business can. However, if
a use cannot be found or if the product has deteri-
orated or has been banned, what are the alterna-
tives?
1. Contact the manufacturer or the marketer of
the product. They may have a program
designed for taking these products off users
hands.
2. Contact your county's Cooperative Extension
Service. They may be able to provide in-
formation on proper disposal of your pes-
ticide.
3. Contact the Department of Environmental
Regulation (1-800-342-0184) for a solution to
your problem. This agency has the respon-
sibility for the proper disposal of hazardous
wastes in Florida.


WITH EXCESS PESTICIDES DO NOT:
1. Attempt to burn the product.
2. Bury the product.
3. Dispose of the product in the garbage.
4. Dump it down a drain.
Florida's water supply is highly susceptible to
contamination. Improper disposal of pesticides by


only a few individuals or businesses could result in
serious, persistent and costly consequences.

Pesticide Containers
Most pesticide containers are hazardous waste
products, just like pesticides, unless they are pro-
perly handled. Always follow label instructions on
the proper disposal of the container.
Empty pesticide containers should be handled with
the same care as full containers. The same safety
precautions should be followed when working with
these as mixers and loaders follow. Wear protective
equipment, avoid contact, inhalation or ingestion of
any of the materials, avoid eating, drinking and
smoking, and practice all aspects of personal hy-
giene.
Proper decontamination procedures of most empty
pesticide containers can change them from hazar-
dous waste products to solid waste products. Dis-
posal of solid waste products are much less compli-
cated. There are a few acutely toxic pesticides,
however, which come in containers which are
difficult to decontaminate. Follow the disposal
procedures on the label of these pesticides care-
fully.
Pesticide containers should be properly decon-
taminated immediately after they are emptied or,
certainly, before the end of the day. Both treated
and untreated empty pesticide containers should be
secured. Pesticide containers should never be used
for any other purpose.
There are several types of pesticide containers,
including combustible bags and boxes (with or with-
out plastic liners) as well as metal, glass and plastic
containers. Combustible bags and boxes should first
be emptied -- by shaking -- as completely as pos-
sible. If these containers have a plastic liner they
can be triple-rinsed or cleaned by an alternative
method called jet-rinsing which has been scientifi-
cally shown to be equivalent to triple-rinsing.
Paper bags and boxes without plastic liners, or with
plastic liners that you have properly rinsed, can
now be considered solid wastes, not hazardous
wastes, and may be disposed of by burning, burying
or disposal at a sanitary landfill. Florida has strict
regulations on open burning: Check with local
authorities before burning any empty pesticide con-
tainers. If the local authorities permit burning,
State regulations still must be followed. Waste
pesticide containers may be burned in open fields by
the owner of the crops, the owner's authorized
employee or caretaker, or by commercial pesticide
applicators hired by the owner or caretaker. Open
burning is subject to all of the following conditions:





1. Plastic containers (liners) must be the original
container provided by the pesticide manufac-
turer or formulator as end-user conveyance for
the specified product, not reused containers
designed for other products.
2. Containers must bear label instructions stating
that small quantities of the containers may be
burned in open fields by the user of the
pesticide when such open burning is permitted
by State and local regulations.
3. The quantity of containers to be burned each
day per parcel treated, shall not exceed the
amount accumulated during one day's use of
pesticide. No more than 500 pounds of
pesticide containers shall be burned per day
at any specific location. If more than one
fire is to be set in any area, each specific
burning location shall be at least 1,000 yards
from each other location at which burning
will occur concurrently.
4. Containers which are to be disposed of by
open burning shall be completely empty and
free of residual material pursuant to the
following criteria:
(a) Plastic containers, including inner liners,
shall be triple-rinsed with the same kind
of solvent used to dilute the spray mix-
ture in the field. The rinse liquids from
the containers shall be added to the
spray mixture in the field.
(b) Paper containers shall be emptied by a
final shaking and tapping of the sides and
bottom to remove clinging particles. All
loosened particles shall be added to the
spray mixture for application in the field.


5. The open burning shall meet the following
conditions:
(a) The open burning does not produce
smoke, soot, odors, visible emissions,
heat, flame, radiation, or other conditions
to such a degree as to create a nuisance.
(b) The open burning is 200 feet or more
away from any farm workers or occupied
buildings and is 100 feet or more away
from any public road.
(c) The fire is ignited after 9:00 A.M. and is
extinguished one hour before sunset of
the same day.
(d) The person responsible for the burning is
in attendance at an upwind location from
the fire for the entire period of the burn
(until all flame and smoke have dissipated).
(e) The open burning is not prohibited by
any local, county, municipal, or other
governmental rule, regulation, law, or
ordinance.
(f) Prior authorization is obtained from the
Division of Forestry, unless the open
burning is enclosed in a noncombustible
container or ground excavation covered
by a metal grill.
The metal, glass and plastic containers should be
triple- or jet-rinsed, with the exception of aerosol
cans. The triple-rinse procedure is illustrated in
the following diagram.


FOLLOW THIS RINSE AND DRAIN PROCEDURE FOR PESTICIDE
CONTAINERS

Add a measured amount
of rinse water
(or other dilutent)
Empty container into so container is 1/5 to 1/4
spray tank. Then drain full. For example, one
in vertical position quart in a one-gallon
for 30 seconds. container.



Rinse container Crush pesticide
Rinse container container immediately.
thoroughly, pour into Sell as scrap for
tank, and drain 30 sec. recycling or bury.
Repeat three times. Do not reuse.
Puncture container
before final drain.






Several proven closed-system, "jet-rinse" devices
are marketed, which spray water into a pesticide
container under pressure and transfer the rinse
into the spray tank. These are adequate if the
directions for use are followed.
After triple-rinsing or jet-rinsing, replace and
tighten the closures on 30-and 55-gallon drums
which are to be returned to the manufacturer or to
a drum recycling company. Do not reuse these
drums for any other purpose. They should be kept
in secure storage until shipment.
Other metal containers and glass and plastic con-
tainers should be punctured or crushed after they
are triple-rinsed, to prevent reuse. These con-
tainers are now solid waste and can be transported
to a State-approved sanitary landfill. The sanitary
landfill may require you to complete an indemnifica-
tion agreement to verify that the containers have
been triple- or jet-rinsed. Do not attempt to
triple-rinse or puncture empty aerosol cans. They
should be buried or disposed of at a sanitary
landfill.
Empty pesticide containers may be buried on the
property where used. They are not to be trans-
ported to another property for burial unless it is a
state-approved sanitary landfill. Farmers can bury
triple-rinsed containers on their own property.
They should be buried a minimum of 18 inches
deep, but well above the ground water table, never
in wetlands or sinkholes. Permission should be ob-
tained from the landowner before burying containers
on rented property. Non-farmers who bury empty
pesticide containers on their own property must
notify their local Department of Environmental
Regulation of such burial.


One final problem exists. All the mixed pesticides
and pesticide containers have been disposed of
properly. Now what do you do with the wash water
from the final cleaning of the sprayer tank, boom
and nozzles and from washing down of the external
surfaces of the sprayer and personal protective
equipment? Do not allow this rinse water to con-
taminate the soil or enter a water supply. The best
solution is to wash down the equipment, capture the
rinse water and place this rinse water into the
spray tank. Next, refill the spray tank with water,
(this mix will have an extremely low concentration
of pesticide material) and spray this material onto
an area for which the pesticide is labeled, such as
in the field just sprayed.
Research is presently being conducted into the
feasibility of using pesticide degradation and/or
evaporation systems for pesticide rinse waters, but
the effectiveness of these methods is still under
study.
Accidental Spills
Accidental spills can happen in transport, in stor-
age or in the mixing, loading or application ac-
tivities. Many labels describe what actions should
be taken should a spill occur; if the label contains
such directions, follow them.
The following are practices to handle with all
spills: Secure the accident scene. Keep people and
animals away. Equip the clean-up personnel with
protective equipment. Keep the spill from spread-
ing. Control the spill by banking with soil, or by
absorbing the liquid. Never hose down a contami-
nated area. Notify the local police or fire depart-
ment of serious spills immediately, particularly if
the spill is in a public or populated area.




If the spill is liquid, activated charcoal, absorp-
tive clay, vermiculite or sawdust should be used to
soak up all the material. Sufficient absorbent mat-
erial should be used to soak up the liquid. The
material should then be swept up and/or shoveled
into a leakproof drum. Saturated soil should also
be placed into drums.
It may be necessary to neutralize the area.
Again, check the label. Hydrated lime, lye, am-
monia, sodium hypochlorite and detergents are fre-
quently recommended.
Supplies of absorbent and neutralizing materials
should be available in the storage area at all times,
along with the tools and supplies necessary for a
clean-up.
The contaminated materials may be hazardous
wastes. In many cases they are not usable and
must be shipped to an incinerator or sanitary land-


fill approved for disposal of hazardous wastes. This
type of disposal is costly; therefore, it is important
to follow all safety precautions to prevent spills.
When there is a significant spill or release of
pesticides, it is recommended that the supplier of
the pesticide be notified. The label normally has an
800 number to call; also notify CHEMTREC (1-800-
424-9300) and the Florida Department of Environ-
mental Regulation (1-800-488-1320).

Summary
Pesticides are a necessary and integral element of
modern agriculture. Appropriate use of them bene-
fits all segments of society. But pesticides can be
dangerous if they are handled inappropriately or
applied indiscriminately. Pesticide applicators have
a major responsibility to assure that pesticides are
handled and applied safely.



































































This publication was produced at a cost of $2,896.80, or 22.2 cents per copy, to inform pesticide users of the
safe purchase, transportation, storage, mixing, loading, application and disposal of pesticide materials and
containers. 9-13M-88


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, K.R. Tefertiller,
director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the May 8 and
June 30,1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institu-
tions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin. Single copies of Extension publications (excluding 4-H I ... .
and Ybuth publications) are available free to Florida residents from County Extension Offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state
purchasers is available from C.M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 82611. Before publicizing
this publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability.




Full Text

PAGE 1

Table of Contents Introduction ........................................... 1 Determining If You Need a Pesticide ................... .......... 1 Purchasing the Pesticide ................... ............... .1 Understanding the Label ................................... 1. 1. EPA registration number.... .................... .. .... .. .2 2. Directions for use ....................................2 3. Precautions ............................. ....... ..2 4. Statement of Practical Treatment. .................. ......... 3 5. Storage and disposal ....................... .......... .3 6. Classification statement ...................... ........... 3 Entrance into the Body ...................................... 3 The Cholinesterase Inhibitor Factor. ................... ...........4 Symptoms of Pesticide Poisoning ................... ............ 4 Transportation and Storage ............................ .... .4 Transportation ................... ......... .. ..... 4 Storage ... ...................................4 Mixing and Loading ........................ .... ......... 7 Application ...................................... ..... 8 Pesticide and Pesticide Container Disposal ................... ........8 Mixed Pesticides ................... .................... 8 Excess Pesticides ................... ................... 9 Pesticide Containers ................... ................. 9 Accidental Spills...... ................................ .. 11 Summary...... ................ ...................... 12 William J. Becker is Associate Professor-Extension Safety Specialist, Agricultural Engineering Department, and Freddie A. Johnson is Professor-Extension Entomologist, Entomology and Nematology Department, IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611.


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'2015-05-15T17:01:52-04:00'
normalize
'87104' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDKU' 'sip-files00004.pro'
c256cf1b36162d4bfeda0a557a5a3bd5
f61888ae45563c38c83a1ce3ed0a2f07e8ef9d77
'2012-04-06T08:10:51-04:00'
describe
'36919' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDKV' 'sip-files00004.QC.jpg'
d0b3574184cf1923fc194fd6f4f7145e
58dc1dcb0e6614a54aaca796e5682b16be8582cd
describe
'1007048' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDKW' 'sip-files00004.tif'
abe071f7ac0154ea1ec2770e0702327b
6590afec99e648ba23c33accee32b730177c9da8
'2012-04-06T08:10:59-04:00'
describe
'3440' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDKX' 'sip-files00004.txt'
68d664076ea0de3df7bacc65baaae736
c1a499371514fb5cd388dd7c061c8402249ce2e6
'2012-04-06T08:11:03-04:00'
describe
'9742' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDKY' 'sip-files00004thm.jpg'
5972c8054d5fe7b4444369109b12c6be
250d6a0d25c3354d1d091d995d784c403a0926e3
describe
'225007' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDKZ' 'sip-files00005.jp2'
48c61f7c7d49532120bb075745e8857f
c5e300ce2024f222af46bc86360b1522d69170d2
describe
'153184' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDLA' 'sip-files00005.jpg'
6c7404482f8160c7b434e6d81568f77b
28acbda0cb3e3b45261d3087ddcb28471ff93edd
describe
'97174' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDLB' 'sip-files00005.pdf'
7a1bf4fb2897d4ea8c03b44ff2ad3a40
355692567eead598c7fd2195cb937692640ecf15
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDLB-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AACDLB-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
'2015-05-15T17:02:39-04:00'
describe
'2015-05-15T17:02:32-04:00'
normalize
'111812' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDLC' 'sip-files00005.pro'
942edb867c9937412c2b306171561114
325aab4f884fbe36c308975fd23ed4e1bc53b46c
'2012-04-06T08:11:28-04:00'
describe
'41397' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDLD' 'sip-files00005.QC.jpg'
13b624601bb8cb981603ae27ce334524
925b1f9733c55e7e52afe77b714b0702fb5f78d8
'2012-04-06T08:11:17-04:00'
describe
'1009524' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDLE' 'sip-files00005.tif'
96626b20da8dfcaecd29f5874438c0d7
7a8ad302de31c439f1605844bdf832bf17ef4952
'2012-04-06T08:10:58-04:00'
describe
'4761' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDLF' 'sip-files00005.txt'
cf438f79240a3120481337d39d494c19
f86b25a753063727b3765531b2608be1b16e233c
'2012-04-06T08:11:33-04:00'
describe
'10150' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDLG' 'sip-files00005thm.jpg'
c89fa00c3193b5261deccfce58962b61
e5d1417feefbcd6f8b8f92617d7b57109b013376
'2012-04-06T08:11:24-04:00'
describe
'1001072' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDLH' 'sip-files00006.jp2'
89efd26ac8d9d450f73ccad0bbe31367
4cae890c3df59fe9651e751907a4b2a5dff87176
'2012-04-06T08:10:48-04:00'
describe
'170242' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDLI' 'sip-files00006.jpg'
850433aed2bd81c0fde4288070200029
87bb44e04b10eb7ee32e0b020f978dfcf0f4077c
'2012-04-06T08:11:13-04:00'
describe
'996141' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDLJ' 'sip-files00006.pdf'
cea7ca6184449ac725f5b44cad41a03d
da3c9cc51b55ca35ee8456a775fe520fca1879af
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDLJ-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AACDLJ-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
'2015-05-15T17:02:37-04:00'
describe
'2015-05-15T17:02:15-04:00'
normalize
'126927' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDLK' 'sip-files00006.pro'
d8089c30a2cd9e033e9b0968ededd2be
3e6c4d5b6b09b95d9edd35213bf72e1c71d58a9f
'2012-04-06T08:11:18-04:00'
describe
'45161' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDLL' 'sip-files00006.QC.jpg'
9baf76a2704b8984a1fd7557e8a48991
4d86256c412a5f951872380fedb85732cc837893
'2012-04-06T08:11:27-04:00'
describe
'8035672' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDLM' 'sip-files00006.tif'
b40daa019ddce71e1a49c0f8b2b4c87f
5c1f0009e862dfa455f0f718ea7234776ff38c1a
describe
'5008' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDLN' 'sip-files00006.txt'
46c9648c8b45237d7c0e3a0b5d75d00d
48f521db93366fbdcf62e363f0b39de0f8cf0f2d
'2012-04-06T08:11:25-04:00'
describe
'10720' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDLO' 'sip-files00006thm.jpg'
cee435864048671df2cce338bb66625d
e801482faaa71da057fc3ace5a562decf619aef8
'2012-04-06T08:11:32-04:00'
describe
'206882' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDLP' 'sip-files00007.jp2'
f0418c75211b456ee6f08ea2dbc46750
b4886f7acd6a5b5f75f57e5da0f0d38b0a48273c
'2012-04-06T08:11:10-04:00'
describe
'140371' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDLQ' 'sip-files00007.jpg'
bb9dff96f5ad1b558a4a10767f8a56bd
2386c5e242664ab7e326ccb52bcd6925265a6b0c
'2012-04-06T08:10:41-04:00'
describe
'87242' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDLR' 'sip-files00007.pdf'
f08bee3a0fd5a027cb7150e9b89468cd
e26dafe2782284f02e2a68ba89b604dcb2f700c6
'2012-04-06T08:11:11-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDLR-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AACDLR-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
describe
'2015-05-15T17:02:21-04:00'
normalize
'104254' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDLS' 'sip-files00007.pro'
96e164ce9634dfd6c5e9391b737b426a
9aa6088cf47b07c583677237047dc3ff7737c168
describe
'40924' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDLT' 'sip-files00007.QC.jpg'
d92ef45b37cf972d39c47795436fd0c8
42f1839de7ae1f84b01d9f0c872ffee938b65ae1
describe
'1009276' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDLU' 'sip-files00007.tif'
e2b44326123216c795ce1c29ee8c52f0
5ee1f1fb8436c1142c6ae04efa1c70c1ff67bab7
describe
'4417' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDLV' 'sip-files00007.txt'
53edf7125d14fbcfaca6b5d2f78baeaf
3db4bacec5dce8b514cd7e82f17464f0d1752d0d
describe
'10423' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDLW' 'sip-files00007thm.jpg'
a0632f12cca954c42f7074ee74bb39f8
914bf74fbd9b85b3faf6dea733f0f0ae3bd198ca
describe
'190531' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDLX' 'sip-files00008.jp2'
dc46213ddd726e19316df17a6925fcb2
217f5e2176cea271893054862fff49433f972359
describe
'127520' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDLY' 'sip-files00008.jpg'
f9a7b10bb9b1b3a0c1cbe386d912c7b1
afdf9bd7e21e77b11120f79941de13098d026281
'2012-04-06T08:10:46-04:00'
describe
'81784' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDLZ' 'sip-files00008.pdf'
ab3a6a32d3bb89bb684cf129530dcf31
22313acb3a39385ec7da2fdd250b337fed0ce754
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDLZ-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AACDLZ-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
'2015-05-15T17:02:42-04:00'
describe
'2015-05-15T17:02:00-04:00'
normalize
'83640' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDMA' 'sip-files00008.pro'
fb1bb57a26aa78415f5dea854666cc72
1edf25ce45f8c55af5f07c53e035030f0b5ee9e3
describe
'38274' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDMB' 'sip-files00008.QC.jpg'
af2d14fc197d96a74c6a29ace8336448
bfafa1df45f79a42738665da736960527a4a303e
'2012-04-06T08:10:53-04:00'
describe
'1007404' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDMC' 'sip-files00008.tif'
fb946f866f9881bd1580e8c71517491a
9106a9d33d38b1d71b756e72a8e6d34e92135840
'2012-04-06T08:11:29-04:00'
describe
'3517' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDMD' 'sip-files00008.txt'
eb5603cbe1259d21d23f96d31e42f68e
1fe69df1a6c215af0a54a4c44fe8978bd07f53a9
describe
'10492' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDME' 'sip-files00008thm.jpg'
7a85a53686332881ef3259b0acbbb5d5
3d55a38126b30c66a06ab3b418f06e27e7932dcb
describe
'113736' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDMF' 'sip-files00009.jp2'
b1e5ee5d37dbc5e03a708f24362c5eeb
f83b3d6c5bf835dfdbfcdbc7cf40eae2ccd712ae
describe
'51738' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDMG' 'sip-files00009.jpg'
9a3bfdfadb61aa93036339c5025912ef
9f9aff852720f1a5ee33798ff209206616889271
describe
'54126' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDMH' 'sip-files00009.pdf'
983e2efd051d59f4daffe98e37a36053
2a2f1ce48f43091bc5b24c4e63f1a6d4f1ee6786
'2012-04-06T08:10:55-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDMH-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AACDMH-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
describe
'2015-05-15T17:02:06-04:00'
normalize
'47681' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDMI' 'sip-files00009.pro'
cd238b35c0b155549c0d3acea024f134
a1c0d84ecab9adbd11688ace4b4f9d0f8e3d8cd8
describe
'15638' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDMJ' 'sip-files00009.QC.jpg'
ec3799f68775b47c5906623c13acdb2b
6ab51fa2710171c1b3828ca08d2551e3641f1f4f
describe
'889336' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDMK' 'sip-files00009.tif'
7f44b33114e7c084f62f02f590f11dbf
815a56e847a2301cec34ba326abe5744d4d10b7d
describe
'2347' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDML' 'sip-files00009.txt'
9497eb8451dbbde4249c6cc8925b74cd
84fca62aeef2cdcf429a4e2f170aa590d14f4e60
describe
'4631' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDMM' 'sip-files00009thm.jpg'
056b67619ac5ca9d4cf39feb10038ec3
2ef70d2f146db3858388c7bb738f2c7af925c1c9
'2012-04-06T08:11:01-04:00'
describe
'218497' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDMN' 'sip-files00010.jp2'
74c32c898edc50af82a88eaa86fec5b5
e0cfd15c35d318656238a0498ccd049b5d5d82bc
describe
'151514' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDMO' 'sip-files00010.jpg'
877b967576cff4324f3fb7d0b8b244d6
03f3ffa8e793b20643b86b6c0409cc76b6496572
'2012-04-06T08:10:40-04:00'
describe
'91705' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDMP' 'sip-files00010.pdf'
92eed56d08a5ed4e620c7207a7493fd9
0e1855d8e4001f09a734b358f0719edd88b1eb64
'2012-04-06T08:10:45-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDMP-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AACDMP-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
describe
'2015-05-15T17:01:56-04:00'
normalize
'110363' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDMQ' 'sip-files00010.pro'
4f280900d394da3335c0dc68ab6827fe
697e97361865cf1e90da06e097bc9ef684f1f05c
describe
'44061' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDMR' 'sip-files00010.QC.jpg'
691588556328a8e5f7ba5447a76a61de
5f367da3aa930d078f74781935e1d1ccc676e28e
describe
'1010652' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDMS' 'sip-files00010.tif'
de19cabb72184fa01d170c8095719060
0ba7fb84fbf75ca2a221105079f56e193836643b
describe
'4581' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDMT' 'sip-files00010.txt'
d8f445d8dbe69fa9e50cf9bd5f9cfa97
9bd796ecbec84006e2c2efbd1473b470f432b81e
'2012-04-06T08:10:39-04:00'
describe
'11138' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDMU' 'sip-files00010thm.jpg'
c047c322870480be69ab729b339d4caa
1cbadb4d193770db0a149e35d4430aab4a2a5808
describe
'236250' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDMV' 'sip-files00011.jp2'
b2b76b3bdece550b95d801776874763a
7fd5b60853dc4b0eb883a3ee444c25678fc2d2cc
describe
'162714' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDMW' 'sip-files00011.jpg'
2aaf6b7c3abb4bfc05cc9ec503596238
c60e6c126f4ffad86ed6e243c902badce0a2b4dc
'2012-04-06T08:11:09-04:00'
describe
'100686' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDMX' 'sip-files00011.pdf'
ba654e5e449576cfc2476a05a09bafe8
be4e08e0563a2d3209411de60cf63f44325d1fe2
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDMX-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AACDMX-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
'2015-05-15T17:02:40-04:00'
describe
'2015-05-15T17:02:04-04:00'
normalize
'121951' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDMY' 'sip-files00011.pro'
b748189d5b74f4d77e9fb7d457a370fc
372eaff3ecfb2328c482bdb01ea5ec57bc395ef6
describe
'44711' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDMZ' 'sip-files00011.QC.jpg'
cbfb8d3bb1705c1e9cab62a6a9175e42
111d4bab7886f449e7c32b0dd7b9abd5a0b578ce
describe
'1011340' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDNA' 'sip-files00011.tif'
8f92f18899b82a407543a61dd55d1ac1
3f133eff9f0f5939ea398301aad472ed174ef77c
describe
'4842' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDNB' 'sip-files00011.txt'
b114dede50df22709cf7c22e240a50de
7e97fcd50dd7199b87c210a1843e24d8c385d6a2
describe
'11005' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDNC' 'sip-files00011thm.jpg'
304eb374f17dafb50cebcdfc3221fcf3
3e2310f17afe18f306de204c2896571a5ff08ecc
describe
'175818' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDND' 'sip-files00012.jp2'
f3324ba76e2c788c0c1afd24f6eebf28
81ab63c82fbe02ec596cc1c72cdb2820e637c5c9
describe
'124005' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDNE' 'sip-files00012.jpg'
cfd662176968fb75de3c99da90a9d67b
eea1e48a09396fd2825269519981703945219be6
describe
'73999' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDNF' 'sip-files00012.pdf'
9b74384b869f0038eee8c22e609c5669
4d4575340bb8fe555756d84463fe210412eb818c
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDNF-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AACDNF-norm-0.pdf'
f1f59ad7d39927e36766de20dc51726d
47d890447f3fa0f04054e853e39ccc8b1571d028
describe
'2015-05-15T17:02:12-04:00'
normalize
'85693' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDNG' 'sip-files00012.pro'
6b732f012fd7268d6988d40cd4da6997
db539cfa5cb2f6c3b38734df6867423e408e1e39
describe
'37299' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDNH' 'sip-files00012.QC.jpg'
72523610a1f37c51e2ba5cc8a911cec8
704bfc6c0b4228d2c2d48e0778da71ee438fd93f
describe
'1005904' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDNI' 'sip-files00012.tif'
427f5533aba5d422498048c2000c9de8
61d6ed069537e6b88618c4dca0d518b8f4c7c00b
describe
'4163' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDNJ' 'sip-files00012.txt'
2c2156c16a444a882da8952c371994c3
681d69871017a8468f67932a03ec694ca95a9c8d
describe
'9813' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDNK' 'sip-files00012thm.jpg'
7e8a1df61cfc446eb7f4048c589246ac
4648a8f1ab6b66fec9878c8eb4f07043c231fa4e
describe
'245426' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDNL' 'sip-files00013.jp2'
ab5f686420524c7d2d3ea5c47ea71471
710108ab0bf8e6d07a8a672f6191ca2b4922d792
describe
'161924' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDNM' 'sip-files00013.jpg'
d14cd162fca0a86b8197fb438c67d4d3
a83e1072d319a617530219eb7981a28f57829c1c
describe
'104515' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDNN' 'sip-files00013.pdf'
6555df5b03a2c3ca45e2339a2b4ff67e
9520d7af32dd167c00e02461b0129ff29982901b
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAAALJfileF20090919_AACDNN-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AACDNN-norm-0.pdf'
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Several proven closed-system, "jet-rinse" devices One final problem exists. All the mixed pesticides are marketed, which spray water into a pesticide and pesticide containers have been disposed of container under pressure and transfer the rinse properly. Now what do you do with the wash water into the spray tank. These are adequate if the from the final cleaning of the sprayer tank, boom directions for use are followed, and nozzles and from washing down of the external After triple-rinsing or jet-rinsing, replace and surfaces of the sprayer and personal protective tighten the closures on 30-and 55-gallon drums equipment? Do not allow this rinse water to contighten the + clsureson30-n 55-g n d s taminate the soil or enter a water supply. The best which are to be returned to the manufacturer or to taminate the soil or enter a water supply. The best Sdru re in c r solution is to wash down the equipment, capture the a drum recycling company. Do not reuse these rinse water and place this rinse water into the drums for any other purpose. They should be kept in secure storage until shipment. spray tank. Next, refill the spray tank with water, (this mix will have an extremely low concentration Other metal containers and glass and plastic conof pesticide material) and spray this material onto tainers should be punctured or crushed after they an area for which the pesticide is labeled, such as are triple-rinsed, to prevent reuse. These conin thefield just sprayed. tainers are now solid waste and can be transported to a State-approved sanitary landfill. The sanitary Research is presently being conducted into the landfill may require you to complete an indemnificafeasibility of using pesticide degradation and/or tion agreement to verify that the containers have evaporation systems for pesticide rinse waters, but been tripleor jet-rinsed. Do not attempt to the effectiveness of these methods is still under triple-rinse or puncture empty aerosol cans. They study. should be buried or disposed of at a sanitary Accidental Spills landfill. Accidental spills can happen in transport, in storEmpty pesticide containers may be buried on the age or in the mixing, loading or application acproperty where used. They are not to be transtivities. Many labels describe what actions should ported to another property for burial unless it is a be taken should a spill occur; if the label contains state-approved sanitary landfill. Farmers can bury such directions, follow them. triple-rinsed containers on their own property. The following are practices to handle with all They should be buried a minimum of 18 inches spills: Secure the accident scene. Keep people and deep, but well above the ground water table, never animals away. Equip the clean-up personnel with in wetlands or sinkholes. Permission should be obprotective equipment. Keep the spill from spreadtained from the landowner before burying containers ing. Control the spill by banking with soil, or by on rented property. Non-farmers who bury empty absorbing the liquid. Never hose down a contamipesticide containers on their own property must nated area. Notify the local police or fire departnotify their local Department of Environmental ment of serious spills immediately, particularly if Regulation of such burial, the spill is in a public or populated area. 11 •r o, ·a :`1l·



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LIGHT BROOM FINISH ON 4" CONG SLAB W/ 6"X6" SECTION A 10 wM ..SLAB EDGE DETAIL ' CONC. PAD *, , ,* M 6 MIL VAPOR SI i ARRIER OVER I 05 4 CONT --------L WELL-COMPACTED SOIL 1R'OST PROF INDICATESO "HOSE BB R -SLOPE FLOOR \235 ASPHALT SHINGLES ST DOR W/ SELF SEAL TABS STEP15W ROOFING FELT Di '" C-D EXT PLYWOOD CONCRETE APRON FHA EAVE DRIP REFAB TRUSS, 24" OC SIX6" FACIA B MIL VAPOR z" "x4' PLATE -BARRIER " PLYWOO SOFFIT ," FIRE RATED SHEETROCK -CONT S6CREN VN6 FOIL BACK INSULATION "B o ' "X8"X16" CONC BLOCK \\HURRICANE CLIP AT EACH TRUSS IT T 1"X2" TRIM I sF5 1 CONT FROM2'X8" TOP PLATE W/ V4 'J' BOLTS, 36RB'HIGH TOP PLATE TO 48" O.C KN [ FOOTING IN FILLED SCELL AS INDICATED S5-0. 13-0 ._ON PLAN 5 0 ON PLAN -LIGHT BROOM FINISH X24 AIR DEFLECTOR _-; CONC. SLAB W/ 6"X6" 0 10 WWM FAN WIRE MESH HORiZ 4" CONC. SLAB W/ ROB' * I WN REINF EVERY 3I W / 6 MIL VAPOR BARRIER OVER S_ COURSE WELL-COMPACTED TREATED SOIL S' 8 4 0 ' INDICATES 2d 0 FILLED CELL FLOOR PLAN 0 CONT CONT RIDGE VENT WALL SECTION SLL DOORS METAL FIRE RATED W/ FIRE RATED JAME5 AND KEYED LOCKS ----. .i T IPLYWOOD I I SAFETY SHOWER UNIT 2-0 I I EYEWASH UNIT .2 WALL MOUNT 10ýI ABC FIRE EXT 0 2 CEILING MOUNT JON TYPE DETECTORS SI INDUSTRIAL TYPE FIRST AID KIT I "DANGER PESTICIDE STORAGE" SIGN ELECTRICAL ALL ELECTRICAL SHALL BE EXPLOSION PROOF TYPE AND ALL OUTLETS WEATHER PROTECTED L.GHT FIXTURES ARE 100 WATT INCANDESCENT VP FIXTURES DUPLEX CONVENIENCE OUTLET SOUTH ELEVATION WEST ELEVATION _ SINGLE POLE SWITCH 500 CFM EXHAUST FAN W/ INLET GUARD AND / EXHAUST DAMPER "100 AMP PANELWEATHER PROTECTED _ _ _WALL MOUNT HEATER APPROVED BY FIRE DEPT ----'CEILING OUTLET 4 SECTION OF FLOOD LIGHT ----_GUTTER OVER DOOR 1-2 CLIGOTE_______________ JI DAN:ER PEANGSDE COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN PESTICIDE C EN STORAGE AA _ AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS AnITIO IKat ,A C HtMINT rrooFIAlTUKCRKnKITHN. UNLESS OTHERWISE PESTICIDE STORAGE BUILDING NOTED -_ NOTED __FL '83 E. 6346 1SHEET I OF I NORTH ELEVATION EAST ELEVATION



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This publication was produced at a cost of $2,896.80, or 22.2 cents per copy, to inform pesticide users of the safe purchase, transportation, storage, mixing, loading, application and disposal of pesticide materials and containers. 9-13M-88 COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, K.R. Tefertiller, director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30,1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin. Single copies of Extension publications (excluding 4-H I ... . and Ybuth publications) are available free to Florida residents from County Extension Offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers is available from C.M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 82611. Before publicizing this publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability.



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For this reason, individuals employed to perform loading area. No other people or animals this activity should be well-informed of the dangers should be there. involved and work under the supervision of a prop3. Work only in a well-ventilated, well-lighted erly certified, licensed applicator whenever handling area. "Restricted-Use Pesticides." HAT 4. Pesticide containers should be in a secure Mixing and loading position when opening, to prevent any spilshould never be done e RESPIRATOR lage. Be sure everyone is wearing the proper ithout a fu underan RUBBER personal protective equipment. ing of the pesticide label APRONU and with the use of all recommended personal protective equipment. The label will identify the / n i dangers involved and the SE EL precautions to follow, may indicate the signs and symptoms of poisoning and recommend first aid pracOaos tices, should one be exposed to the product. Before you begin to mix, load and apply pesticides, and after you understand the label directions, make certain you have taken the following precautions: 1. Have detergent or soap and an adequate supply 5. Mix and pour concentrated pesticides down of water available, low, preferably below waist level. Never pour 2. Know the early symptoms of poisoning for the pesticides at eye level. A spill or splash pesticide you are using. could be disastrous. Always remove clothing and wash yourself and your clothing thor3. Know the first aid procedures and make oughly, immediately (within two minutes), if certain that materials and supplies are availpesticides are spilled or splashed on you. able. 6. Stand with your back to the wind -upwind 4. Be certain that materials are available to -so that any fumes or dusts are blown away handle spills. from you. 5. Make certain that all equipment is functioning 7. Pour the pesticide into water, never water properly, into the pesticide. 6. Do not work alone; be sure help is available 8. If stirring is necessary, use a stir stick, if you get into trouble. never your hands. 7. Have all the recommended protective clothing 9. Mixing and loading are best done on a conand equipment. Double-check that the respiracrete slab where spills can be handled more tor fits properly and has the correct canister effectively. Avoid mixing or loading near cartridge. surface water or near a well-head. 8. Never eat, drink, smoke or go to the bath10. Never pour pesticide directly intoa spray room while working with pesticides, without tank. Always mix and dilute in a small first washing your hands. container. You are now ready to begin mixing and loading. 11. When pouring, stand with your head well Follow these suggestions: above the spray tank, to prevent pesticides 1. Reread the label and follow the directions; from splashing in your face. Protect your pay special attention to the warnings and eyes with splash-proof goggles. precautions. 12. Never overflow a spray tank. The cleanup 2. Make sure only authorized mixers, loaders could be an all-day, all-night task, costly and and/or supervisors are in the mixing and dangerous. 6



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After the mixing-loading task has been completed, ever you have any suspicion that the equipyour responsibility continues: ment is applying an inaccurate amount, recalibrate it. Your operator's manual should provide 1. Securely close pesticide containers immediinformation on calibration of the equipment. ately after use. Return unused pesticide to Additional information is available through its proper storage. your county's Cooperative Extension Service. 2. Clean up all spills, no matter how small the 4. Wear the proper protective clothing and amount. equipment. 3. Wash mixing and loading pails, measuring 5. Check the weather forecast frequently to devices and stirring equipment or tools in determine if conditions will be favorable for strong detergent water, rinse in clear water, the application and effectiveness of the store to air-dry. pesticide. The National Weather Service 4. Wash your personal protective equipment in provides a continuously updated weather detergent, rinse and hang to air-dry, forecast for Florida via VHF/FM channels WX1 (162.550 MHz), WX2 (162.400 MHz) and 5. The wash and rinse water used in steps 3 and WX3 (162.475 MHz). 4 can best be disposed of by pouring it into the spray tank. Don't overfill the spray tank, 6. Avoid spraying near sensitive areas where so that there will be room for the rinse water. drift could damage neighboring crops or the environment. When spraying must be done in 6. Remove your clothing and launder separately these areas,attempt to spray when the air is with heavy-duty liquid detergent and hot still, humidity is high and any potential drift water. DO NOT USE BLEACH as it could will be away from sensitive areas. cause a dangerous chemical reaction. Linedry the clothing where it is exposed to 7. Lower pressures, proper boom and nozzle sunlight, adjustments, larger nozzle size and driftreducing additives (if the label permits) will 7. Take a hot shower, using a detergent-type reduce drift. soap. Don't forget to wash your hair. Put on clean clothing. 8. Do not make field adjustments to the sprayer in a recently sprayed, still-wet area. Move to Application an unsprayed area. When applying pesticides, you are not generally 9. Never attempt to clean a nozzle, screen or exposed to the same high concentration of pesticide hose by blowing or sucking on it with your as during the mixing and loading operation. Howmouth. Use small soft-bristle brusnes and/or ever, the time-length of exposure is much longer, an air pressure bulb for these purposes. thus the cumulative exposure may be equal to or 10. Always empty a tank by spraying the entire greater than during the mixing-loading operation. contents onto the vegetation or other area Pesticide applications are made with everything for which it was intended. Never drain a from hand sprayers and dusters, to irrigation spray tank onto the ground. Important: equipment, large airblast grove sprayers and airNever mix more than you need! craft. Whatever equipment is used, many of the safety precautions are the same. These include: Pesticide and Pesticide Container Disposal 1. Read and follow the label. Applications made Major problems exist in the disposal of pesticides which vary from label requirements are a and pesticide containers. These are: the disposal of violation of federal law. excess quantities of mixed pesticides, disposal of rinsates, the disposal of unwanted quantities of 2. Use the correct equipment, and make sure it obsolete, deteriorated or unwanted pesticides, and is properly maintained and adjusted. Screens, the disposal of containers. strainers and nozzles should be clean and functioning properly. Nozzles should be of Mixed Pesticides the right type and properly adjusted and all pesticides can be used only for a Excess mixed pesticides can be used only for a lines, valves, seals should be checked for use which is approved on the pesticide's label. The eabest solution to this problem is to not mix more 3. The application equipment should be accuthan needed. However, there are times when the rately calibrated on a regular basis. Whenspray job is complete and a quantity of spray re8



PAGE 1

mains in the tank. If it can't be saved until the only a few individuals or businesses could result in next time it is needed, what can be done? The serious, persistent and costly consequences. best solution is to find another field, lawn or garden where the material can be applied, where it Pesticide Containers is needed and where the use is in accordance with label instructions. Another solution would be to Most pesticide container are hazardous waste spray the material on another area where no damproducts, just like pesticides, unless they are proa tperly handled. Always follow label instructions on age can be done and the application is in accorper handled. Alas follow label i ctions dance with the label. the proper disposal of the container. What should not be done? Don't go back into a Empty pesticide containers should be handled with the same care as full containers. The same safety sprayed area and spray on a second application. the same care asfu containers. The same safety This could prove toxic to the crop and/or cause precautions should be followed when working with these as mixers and loaders follow. Wear protective problems with excess residue on the harvested prodthese as mxersand loaders folow ea rotective uct. Do not dump the excess; the pesticide could equipment, avoid contact, inhalation or ingestion of end up in surface water as a result of run-off, or it any of the materials, avoid eating, drinking and smoking, and practice all aspects of personal hycould end up in ground water as a result of permokng and a ects ersal h colation through the soil. Do not dump the excess giene. into a drain; it could cause septic tank or sewage Proper decontamination procedures of most empty system problems. pesticide containers can change them from hazardous waste products to solid waste products. DisExcess Pesticides posal of solid waste products are much less compliTo prevent the problem of excess pesticides, don't cated. There are a few acutely toxic pesticides, purchase more than will be used. This is the best however, which come in containers which are and easiest solution. Disposal of old, out-dated and difficult to decontaminate. Follow the disposal unneeded pesticides is a major problem and there is procedures on the label of these pesticides careno simple solution. If possible, use the product for fully. the purpose it was purchased. If you can't, maybe a Pesticide containers should be properly deconneighbor, friend or other business can. However, if taminated immediately after they are emptied or, a use cannot be found or if the product has detericertainly, before the end of the day. Both treated orated or has been banned, what are the alternaand untreated empty pesticide containers should be tives? secured. Pesticide containers should never be used 1. Contact the manufacturer or the marketer of for any other purpose. the product. They may have a program There are several types of pesticide containers, designed for taking these products off users including combustible bags and boxes (with or withhands. out plastic liners) as well as metal, glass and plastic 2. Contact your county's Cooperative Extension containers. Combustible bags and boxes should first Service. They may be able to provide inbe emptied -by shaking -as completely as posformation on proper disposal of your pessible. If these containers have a plastic liner they ticide. can be triple-rinsed or cleaned by an alternative method called jet-rinsing which has been scientifi3. Contact the Department of Environmental cally shown to be equivalent to triple-rinsing. Regulation (1-800-342-0184) for a solution to Paper bags and boxes without plastic liners, or with your problem. This agency has the responplastic liners that you have properly rinsed, can sibility for the proper disposal of hazardous now be considered solid wastes, not hazardous wastes in Florida. wastes, and may be disposed of by burning, burying or disposal at a sanitary landfill. Florida has strict WITH EXCESS PESTICIDES DO NOT: regulations on open burning: Check with local authorities before burning any empty pesticide con1. Attempt to burn the product. tainers. If the local authorities permit burning, 2. Bury the product. State regulations still must be followed. Waste pesticide containers may be burned in open fields by 3. Dispose of the product in the garbage, the owner of the crops, the owner's authorized 4. Dump it down a drain, employee or caretaker, or by commercial pesticide applicators hired by the owner or caretaker. Open Florida's water supply is highly susceptible to burning is subject to all of the following conditions: contamination. Improper disposal of pesticides by 9



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Introduction Purchasing the Pesticide Safety with pesticides Once you are sure you have a pest problem and should be a concern of have determined that a pesticide is the best solueveryone involved with Vk tion, you still have other decisions to make before these chemicals, for you can make a well-thought-out purchase. Cerwhile they provide real tainly, more than quantity and price should be benefits, they can also considered. be dangerous if mishandled or misused For most pest problems there are usually at least An accidental death two pesticide products on the market. In addition, from pesticides is rare, each product may be available in different dry or but skin disorders and health problems are not. liquid formulations (dusts, wettable or soluble powAlso, improper handling or use of pesticides can ders, emulsiiable concentrates, granules, baits, result in harmful effects to the environment. etc.), in different concentrations (less than 1% chemical concentration to more than 90%) and in Pesticide safety begins with the selection of the different sizes and types of containers (eight-ounce proper product and proceeds through the transporbox, one-gallon plastic container, 30-gallon drum, to tation, storage, mixing, loading, application, and give a few examples. disposal of the pesticide and its container. Understanding the Label Determining If You Need a Pesticide Reading and understanding the label before purBefore purchasing a pesticide, determine if you chase is the first consideration. The product name have a pest problem, and if a problem exists, what provides recognition. It is generally designed to control will be most efficient, cost effective and attract you so you will make a purchase and to safe. You may not need a pesticide, since alternapromote product identification. It helps you to find tives are often available. These may be resistant the product when you return to make additional varieties or species, rotation and soil sterilization, purchases. Below is an example representing a management practices and housekeeping, environtypical label. Note the types of items it contains, mental and cultural controls, proper watering and such as the name of the product, directions for its fertilization, or even mechanical or biological conuse, storage and disposal, and other information. trols. These alternatives may be as efficient and cost effective as pesticides. Indiscriminate use of pesticides should be avoided. ACTIVE INGREDIENT: % INERT INGREDIENTS:______ % : SODUCT NAME "-AUTION -ARDS TO HUMANS STATEMENT OF PRACTICAL TREATMENT IF ON SKIN IF IN EYES KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN DIRECTIONS FOR USE E..::.:.::: ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS '-::::'i..:.«^.^ll ~s1



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Whether you are a homeowner, producer or ap3. A drainage system should be built to collect plicator of pesticide, there are basic safe storage any tank rinsing water or spoils. This marules to follow: terial should be treated as surplus pesticide and must be disposed of properly, according 1. Keep pesticides, other poisons, and related and must be disposed of properly, according materials locked in a cabinet, room or septo label instructions. arate building designated solely for the stor4. A water supply should be furnished, not only age of these materials. Metal storage cabifor mixing, loading, tank rinsing and cleanup, nets, such as discarded school lockers, provide but for showers and cleanup for the persons excellent storage for homeowners or other who mix, load and apply the pesticides. users of small amounts of pesticides. users of sma amounts of pesticides. 5. Fire detectors and fire fighting equipment 2. Post the facilities should be available. with a sign: "PESTICIDES6. A telephone should be convenient, with all POISONS, KEEP PESTICIDES emergency numbers posted. POISON OUT', or similar 7. A current inventory of all materials in storsigns. age, along with a label of all materials, should 3. Control access to NO be maintained in a secure area away from the this facility to only SMOKING storage area. The local fire department should one, two, or three be provided with an updated copy of this one, two, or three highly trusted, inventory. responsible and _ 8. Equip the storage area with all personal informed individuals. protective equipment and materials to prevent 4. Never store pesticides where food, feed, seed, accidents and to handle accidents and spills. fertilizers or other products can become Activated charcoal, absorptive clay, vermicucontaminated. lite, clay-granule type cat litter or sawdust are good materials to absorb liquid spills. 5. Store pesticides in their original containers. It's the law. 9. Date and identify all pesticides when they are placed into storage, and store no more than 6. The facility should be reasonably fireproof w ill e needed or, an seaso n. Estabsh a will be needed for one season. Establish a and well-ventilated. Temperatures should be w sao . and well-ven tilte. Temperures s d be policy of first-in, first-used, so that pesticides kept between freezing and 100 degrees F. do not become outdated do not become outdated. 7. Sealed concrete floors, concrete block walls 7. ealed c rete flors, c rete b k w s 10. Have your fire insurance carrier inspect your and metal shelves are recommended over . wooden structures. pesticide storage facility periodically -it is woodenintelligent management and may reduce your 8. With shelf storage, store dry pesticides on in e en mnemen n m rece r insurance premium. the top shelves, liquids on the lower shelves. 9. Etricl fixures s d be of te dt-a Many pesticide storage facilities are inadequate, 9. Electrical fixtures should be of the dust-and .te dangerous and lack security. On page 7 is a plan explosion-prooftype. for constructing a safe pesticide storage building. 10. Provide adequate space for the secure storIf drains are installed in the building or in the age of empty pesticide containers until proper mixing/loading platform out-of-doors this drain disposal of them is possible. water must be captured and not allowed to enter ground or surface water. Copies of this plan Those businesses with large quantities of pesground or surface water. Copies of this plan Those businesses with large quantities of pes(EX6346 Pesticide Storage Building) are available ticides to store should have a separate building for ( 6 Petie Storage Buildi) ae from the Cooperative Extension Service. this purpose. In addition to the above features, this building should also include the following characteristics. 1. When feasible, the building should be downMixing and Loading wind and downhill from sensitive areas, such as homes, play areas, feedlots, animal shelMixing and loading of pesticides are among the ters, gardens and ground water sources. most dangerous tasks involving work with these products, because it is at this time that people are 2. The building should be located in an area not working with open containers of concentrated pessubject to flooding, ticides. 5



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Many pesticides have two LD or lethal dose 5. Storage and disposal: Don't purchase the pesvalues; one LD/50 value for oral ingestion of the ticide if you cannot store it properly or dispose product, the other for dermal absorption of unwanted quantities safely. Seek an agree(through the skin) of the pesticide. Normally ment with the dealer that unopened, unused the oral LD/50 value of a pesticide is lower, quantities can be returned for credit. Purthus more toxic, than the dermal LD/50 value of chasers of large quantities of pesticides might the product. However, since we are more apt to even obtain an agreement on the return of get the product on our skin than we are to empty pesticide containers. swallow it, dermal exposure may be a much more common problem. 6. Classification statement: Pesticides are classified as "general" or "restricted". Those classified The "precaution" portion of the label will give as "general" can be purchased and used, in additional advice on the safe use of the product, accordance with the label, by the general public. It might require that people and animals be kept "Restricted Use Pesticides" can be purchased and out of treated areas, that the product not be applied by State-certified licensed pesticide used in enclosed areas, that special clothing and applicators only. protective equipment be worn, that treated fruits, vegetables or other products not be RESTRICTED USE PESTICIDE handled or eaten for a particular period of time, For retail sale to and use only by certified that care be followed not to have the product applicators or persons under their direct drift onto or be sprayed on other plants or find supervision, and only for those uses covered by its way into surface or ground waters, the certified applicator's certification. The precautionary statements may be few or many, but the potential purchaser of the pesYou can make intelligent purchases of pesticides ticide must heed this information. Failure to do through completely reading and understanding the so can be extremely hazardous and is in violalabel. A product you have chosen wisely will do tion of federal law. the job economically and safely. It is the user's 4. Statement ofPracticalTreatment: Thisisinlegal responsibility to thoroughly read and follow 4. Statement of Practical Treatment: This is inlabel instructions. Remember, by reading the direcformation about first aid and can be limited or tions and warnings before you purchase the pesdetailed. It may give advice on what to do if the ticide, you can protect yourself, your family and product is accidentally swallowed, inhaled or gets the environment from serious accidents. into the eyes or onto the skin. The statement may tell you that you need to purchase addiEntrance into the Body tional equipment and supplies before you can use There are three ways for pesticides to enter the the product safely and be able to deal with body: breathing, swallowing (also called ingesting), accidents effectively. or through the skin or eyes. All three methods can You need to know what to do if someone is cause immediate danger. Inhaled pesticides are accidentally poisoned by the pesticide. Be sure absorbed rapidly into the body through the thin you understand the Statement of Practical membranes of the lungs. Wearing a properly-fitted Treatment. Have materials available to adrespirator with the proper cartridge or canister is minister first aid. Always call a doctor or very important. Replace the canister or cartridge emergency room immediately if an accident every few hours of use, or whenever the odor or occurs. Make sure the doctors are given the taste of the pesticide is detected, or when breathpesticide label; it will help them prescribe ing becomes difficult. Working upwind of the pesimmediate correct treatment. Emergency teleticide dust, mists and vapor and not smoking pesphone numbers, including that of the nearest ticide-contaminated cigarettes are other safety poison control center, should be posted near all practices to follow. telephones. -i -IMPORTANT PHONE Mi& of Enr NUUmr -Mode of Entry i Inhalation S...O" 1 _ p2ngestion i PO5S'-LEMCRC "bsorption 7^^S^ I _________ -Pesticides can enter the body in three ways-inhalation, ingestion and skin or eye absorption. 3



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Circular 779 Agricultural Pesticide Safety Purchasing Storing Labeling Mixing Symptoms Loading P.P.E. Applying Transporting Disposal William J. Becker and Freddie A. Johnson \ Florida Cooperative Extension Service/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences University of Florida,Gainesville/John T. Woeste, Dean for Extension



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1. Plastic containers (liners) must be the original 5. The open burning shall meet the following container provided by the pesticide manufacconditions: turer or formulator as end-user conveyance for (a) The open burning does not produce the specified product, not reused containers smoe soot odors designed for other products. smoke, soot, odors, visible emissions, heat, flame, radiation, or other conditions 2. Containers must bear label instructions stating to such a degree as to create a nuisance. that small quantities of the containers may be (b) The open burning is 200 feet or more burned in open fields by the user of the on rnn f or more pesticide when such open burning is permitted away from an farm workers or occuped by State and local regulations. buildings and is 100 feet or more away from any public road. 3. The quantity of containers to be burned each day per parcel treated, shall not exceed the (c) The fire is ignited after 9:00 A.M. and is day per parcel treated, shall not exceed the e sne extinguished one hour before sunset of amount accumulated during one day's use of e e h e pesticide. No more than 500 pounds ofe sameday. pesticide containers shall be burned per day (d) The person responsible for the burning is at any specific location. If more than one in attendance at an upwind location from fire is to be set in any area, each specific the fire for the entire period of the burn burning location shall be at least 1,000 yards (until all flame and smoke have dissipated). from each other location at which burning (e) The open burning is not prohibited by will occur concurrently. (e) The open burning is not prohibited by will occur concurrentlyany local, county, municipal, or other 4. Containers which are to be disposed of by governmental rule, regulation, law, or open burning shall be completely empty and ordinance. free of residual material pursuant to the f r of ri l teria (f) Prior authorization is obtained from the Division of Forestry, unless the open (a) Plastic containers, including inner liners, burning is enclosed in a noncombustible shall be triple-rinsed with the same kind container or ground excavation covered of solvent used to dilute the spray mixby a metal grill. ture in the field. The rinse liquids from thue containers shall e addrinse liquiThe metal, glass and plastic containers should be the containers shall be added to the g spray mixture in the field. tripleor jet-rinsed, with the exception of aerosol cans. The triple-rinse procedure is illustrated in (b) Paper containers shall be emptied by a the following diagram. final shaking and tapping of the sides and bottom to remove clinging particles. All loosened particles shall be added to the spray mixture for application in the field. FOLLOW THIS RINSE AND DRAIN PROCEDURE FOR PESTICIDE CONTAINERS Add a measured amount of rinse water (or other dilutent) Empty container into so container is 1/5 to 1/4 spray tank. Then drain full. For example, one in vertical position quart in a one-gallon for 30 seconds. container. Rinse container Crush pesticide Rinse container icontainer immediately. thoroughly, pour into Sell as scrap for tank, and drain 30 sec. recycling or bury. Repeat three times. Do not reuse. Puncture container before final drain. 10



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While breathing pesticides is the most rapid way Transportation and Storage for them to enter the bloodstream, most acute Whether you are a homeowner, farmer, grower, poisonings are the result of swallowing pesticides, rancher or commercial applicator, proper transporwhich happens more often. Swallowed or ingested, tation and storage are important aspects of safe pesticides are absorbed more slowly and less compesticide use. pletely than by breathing. Establishing good work habits, including washing hands before eating, and Transportation not eating, smoking or drinking while working with pesticides, will reduce the chances of ingestion. It Pesticides should never be transported inside the must be emphasized that pesticides should never be passenger compartment of an automobile or truck stored in other than their original containers, cab; put them in the trunk or in the back of the Putting pesticides in containers that originally held truck. Never transport them where they could come food or drink has resulted in many accidental in contact with groceries, livestock feed or other poisonings. products which might become contaminated. All pesticides may enter the body by absorption When transporting pesticides in a truck, see that through the skin and eyes, the most common meththey are secured to prevent spillage or loss due to od of accidental poisoning. The eyes, stomach, sudden starts, stops, turns, etc. Should there be an groin, arms, hands, and forehead are the likely accident or spill,immediately inform the local police areas for absorption. Be extremely careful to see and fire officials of the quantity and name of the that open wounds, sores or blisters are not exposed pesticide involved. Large spills, particularly of "Reto pesticides. Wearing the proper protective clothstricted Use Pesticides," should be reported to the ing and equipment, changing and laundering Florida Department of Environmental Regulation immediately after working with pesticides, and (DER) (1-904-488-1320), CHEMTREC (1-800-424showering thoroughly with detergent and soap will 9300) and/or the manufacturer. reduce the danger of absorption. Should a pesticide Applicators of pesticides, particularly in heavily spill onto yoIm r body the nem a to r inmt an populated areas, must take special precautions to secure products transported to the application site. thorough washing ar require! Allowing containers of pesticides to remain unatThe Cholinesterase Inhibitor Factor tended on the back of an open truck is inviting an accident -and a costly lawsuit. Mixers, loaders, applicators and others working Commercial transporters of pesticides must meet with concentrated pesticides, or those who have special requirements: vehicles must carry placards, accrued long hours of exposure to diluted pesticides, bills of lading, labels of the product, etc. Consult should be particularly aware of the dangers of the the Florida Department of Transportation regarding organophosphate and carbamate pesticides as cholinthese requirements. esterase inhibitors. Cholinesterase is an enzyme in the blood. It affects the red blood cell and plasma Storage ChE levels. Organophosphate and carbamate . p esticides aect ths enme and case loer red Nationally, nearly three-fourths of all pesticide pesticides affect this enzyme and cause lower red accidents occur to non-users of the matealsMany blood cell and plasma ChE levels. Affected accidents occur to non-users of the materials.Many Sof these accidents involve children. In addition, individuals may exhibit pesticide poisoning symptoms such as fatigue, listlessness and headaches. Severe pet poisonis fm cotacts wth improperly stored exposures can result in death. Users of these pet poisonings from contacts with improperly stored exposures can result in death. Users of these pesticides shoud be in a chonesterase testing pesticides. These accidents not only cause human pesticides should be in a cholinesterase testing suffering and economic losses, but improper storage program. Consultyour medical doctor. is contrary to federal regulations. READ THE LABEL: IT IS THE LAW. Symptoms of Pesticide Poisoning Many of the early symptoms of mild pesticide poisoning are similar to the symptoms of the flu. Mild Poioning Moderate Poisoning Severe Poisoning heat stroke, exhaustion or the common cold. HowFHa Unable to ak cons U Co n of pupi Headache Weakness Severe constriction of puril ever, if these symptoms occur while working, or Dizzines Chesdiscomfort Muscle twitching shortly after you have been working, with pesticides vsnseating and salivating Constricion retinf t and contact your supervisor, nurse or doctor. Symptoms Naose ong diarrhea Coma Stomac camps or diarrhea Death which may occur are: 4



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If the spill is liquid, activated charcoal, absorpfill approved for disposal of hazardous wastes. This tive clay, vermiculite or sawdust should be used to type of disposal is costly; therefore, it is important soak up all the material. Sufficient absorbent matto follow all safety precautions to prevent spills. erial should be used to soak up the liquid. The When there is a significant spill or release of material should then be swept up and/or shoveled pesticides, it is recommended that the supplier of into a leakproof drum. Saturated soil should also into a leakproof drum. Saturated soil should also the pesticide be notified. The label normally has an be placed into drums. 800 number to call; also notify CHEMTREC (1-800It may be necessary to neutralize the area. 424-9300) and the Florida Department of EnvironAgain, check the label. Hydrated lime, lye, ammental Regulation (1-800-488-1320). monia, sodium hypochlorite and detergents are frequently recommended. Summary Supplies of absorbent and neutralizing materials Pesticides are a necessary and integral element of should be available in the storage area at all times, modern agriculture. Appropriate use of them benealong with the tools and supplies necessary for a fits all segments of society. But pesticides can be clean-up, dangerous if they are handled inappropriately or The contaminated materials may be hazardous applied indiscriminately. Pesticide applicators have wastes. In many cases they are not usable and a major responsibility to assure that pesticides are must be shipped to an incinerator or sanitary landhandled and applied safely. 12



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Signal Word Toxicity Lethal (Oral)Dose (160 lb. man)** Danger Poison* Highly toxic Few drops to 1 teaspoon Warning Moderately toxic 1 teaspoon to 1 Tablespoon Caution Low toxicity 1 ounce to more than 1 pint "* Skull and crossbones symbol included. ** Less for a child or person weighing less than 160 Ibs. The terms "active ingredient" and "percent" give the form found in the container, before they are you more precise information. The active ingredient diluted. Only a few drops could cause severe is the material which controls the pest. Should burns, serious health problems or even death. product "A" have two percent active ingredient, and STOP! READ THE LABEL product "B" four percent, product "B" has twice the amount of actual pesticide and it will be twice as strong. Likewise, if product "C" has two pounds of active ingredient per gallon, it has twice the active ingredient of product "D" if it contains only one pound per gallon. Remember, this comparison applies only when two products have the same active ingredient. Other factors, however, may determine the concentration of the product best DANGER POISON suited for your needs. Products labeled WARNING are less toxic to There are many other items of information you humans, but extreme care must be exercised in must study on the pesticide label before you can their use, particularly before they are diluted. make an intelligent purchase: The word CAUTION will appear on those pes1. EPA registration numberLook for this number ticides which are the least harmful when used on every product. It is your assurance that the s irecte he products, however, can still product has been reviewed by the U.S. as directed. These products, however, can still product has been reviewed by the U.S. cause serious injury or health problems and even Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and death. You will notice that pesticides carrying should be safe and effective when used as even the least toxic precaution -the word directed on the label. This means you must CAUTION -often carry the statement, "KEEP read the rest of the label before making your OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN'. purchase. LD or lethal dose value is another term used 2. Directions for use: Before you buy any pesin describing pesticide toxicity. An LD/50 ticide, make sure the product is labeled for use indicates the amount of active ingredient in the against the pest, on the plants or animals, in pesticide formulation that would be lethal to 50 the environment where you plan to use the percent of a population of test animals. The LD product. A product may be labeled to control a amount is expressed in milligrams of toxic pest on nursery plants, but not for the same product per kilogram of body weight. Thus, a pest on fruits, vegetables, or house plants in the pesticide with an LD/50-50mg/kg is ten times home. more toxic than a pesticide with an LD/503. Precautions: Pesticides carry one of three 500mg/kg. Sometimes an LD/90, or other precautionary words or phrases. The products number, is given. An LD/90 indicates that the most toxic to humans will be labeled DANGERproduct would be lethal to 90 percent of the test POISON. These products are extremely toxic in animal population 2