Citation
Florida irrigation systems

Material Information

Title:
Florida irrigation systems
Series Title:
Circular Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Creator:
Smajstrla, A. G ( Allen George )
Clark, Gary A
Place of Publication:
Gainesville
Publisher:
Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
13 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Irrigation -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
"February 1992."
Statement of Responsibility:
Allen G. Smajstrla and Gary A. Clark.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
AAA6895 ( LTQF )
AJC9168 ( LTUF )
25677567 ( OCLC )
021929246 ( ALEPHBIBNUM )

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Fe~rary1992Cirular103


Florida Irrigation Systems







Allen G. Smajstrla and Gary A. Clark

















Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida
John T. Woeste, Dean


Februa-ry 1992


Circular 1035














































































*Allen G. Smajstria is a Professor, Agricultural Engineering Department, IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, and Gary A.
Clark is an Associate Professor, IFAS Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, Bradenton, FL.








TABLE OF CONTENTS


Introduction ................................... .......... 1

Sprinkler irrigation systems ................. .............. 1
Multiple sprinkler systems ................. ............ .. .2
Portable sprinkler systems ............................ 2
Hand-moved systems ............................ 2
Tractor-moved systems ........................... 3
Self-moved systems ............................. .3
Side-wheel-roll sprinkler systems .................. 3
Side-move sprinkler systems ................... .. 3
Semi-permanent sprinkler systems ................... .. 3
Permanent sprinkler irrigation systems ................. 4
Solid set irrigation systems ................... .... .4
Self-propelled sprinkler irrigation systems ............. .4
Center pivot irrigation systems ................. .. .4
Lateral-move irrigation systems .................. 5
Single sprinkler (gun) irrigation systems ................... .6
Portable gun systems ........................... ... .6
Hand-moved portable guns ................... .... .6
Tractor-moved portable guns ................... ... .6
Self-propelled (traveling) gun systems .................. 6
Cable-tow traveling guns .......................... 7
Hose-reel traveling guns .......................... 7

Surface irrigation systems ............... .................... 7
Level systems ............................. ........ .... 8
Level furrows ................................ .... 8
Level borders .................. .... ............ 8
Basins ................................ ..... ....... 8
Graded system s ............................... ....... .8
Graded furrows ................. ................. 9
Contour furrows ................ ..... ........... 9
Corrugations .............................. ..........9
Graded borders .................................9.
Flooding .............................. ....... ..... 9

Subirrigation (seepage) systems ........................... 10
Constant water table systems .......................... 10
Fluctuating water table systems ................. ....... .11

Microirrigation systems .............. .......... ........... 11
Drip .................................... ........... 11
Spray (microsprinkler) .............................. . 12
Bubbler ................................. .......... 12
Line-source ............................ ............ 12


Summary .................. .......


........... ....... ... 13








Introduction
Irrigation is extensively used for crop production
in Florida. Currently, more than two million acres
of cropland are irrigated. Florida's large irrigated
acreage is due to low water-holding capacity soils
and nonuniform rainfall distributions, despite large
annual rainfall amounts. The high cash values of
many crops grown, and the sensitivity of yield and
quality to drought stress provide the economic in-
centives for irrigation.

Many different types of irrigation systems are
used in Florida. This occurs because of the great
variety of crops, the relative availability of water,
diverse hydrological conditions, the costs of differ-
ent systems, and the fact that all irrigation systems
are not adaptable to all types of crops and crop pro-
duction systems. Irrigation system selection is also
affected by soil type. The deep sandy ridge soils re-
quire water to be transported in pipes and pressur-
ized irrigation systems to be used, while the high
water table flatwoods and muck soils permit the
use of gravity-flow irrigation systems and open
ditches. Microirrigation systems are becoming in-
creasingly popular, especially in areas where peri-
odic water shortages have occurred. Sprinkler sys-
tems may be required for irrigation for freeze pro-
tection, transplant establishment, crop cooling, and
some field preparation procedures.

Irrigation systems can be grouped into four gen-
eral classes, all of which are in use in Florida. The
four classes are: (1) sprinkler, (2) surface, (3)
subirrigation (seepage), and (4) microirrigation.
Most Florida acreage (about 900,000 acres) is irri-
gated with seepage systems. Sprinkler systems
rank second, irrigating almost 600,000 acres.


Microirrigation systems (about 450,000 acres) are
the newest and most rapidly increasing type of sys-
tem. Only about 100,000 acres are surface (flood)
irrigated.


Sprinkler irrigation systems
Sprinkler irrigation systems are systems in
which water is applied by spraying it through the
air from nozzles mounted on pressurized pipelines.
Thus, water applications approximate rainfall, and
systems are designed to apply water uniformly over
the crop production area.

Sprinklers consist of nozzles mounted in a sprin-
kler body through which water is discharged under
pressure. Nozzles may either rotate or be fixed. Ro-
tating nozzles are typically impact-driven, gear-
driven, or driven by the reaction as the jet of water
is discharged. All of these methods use the energy
of the flowing water to make the system operate.
Individual sprinklers apply water to a circular or
part-circle pattern created by the nozzle rotation.
A typical impact sprinkler is shown in Fig. 1.

Fixed (spray) nozzle systems use a rigidly-
mounted nozzle which discharges against a deflec-
tor plate to distribute water (Fig. 2). Circular, part-
circle, square, or rectangular water application pat-
terns are possible, depending on the nozzle and de-
flector design.

Nozzle sizes for sprinkler irrigation vary widely.
Sizes range from very small (1/8-inch or smaller)
diameters which discharge only 1 to 2 gallons per
minute (gpm) to very large (over 1-inch) diameters
which discharge up to 1000 gpm.


Figure 1. Typical impact-type rotating sprinkler. Figure 2. Typical fixed nozzle (spray) Irrigation sprinkler.








Operating pressures also vary widely, ranging
from only 10 pounds per square inch (psi) to over
100 psi. Larger nozzles usually require larger oper-
ating pressures to provide sufficient energy for
proper water distribution.

Rotating nozzle sprinklers have much larger di-
ameters of coverage than fixed nozzle sprinklers.
As a result, they are most commonly used in large
field systems where it is desirable to uniformly dis-
tribute water over large areas with as few sprin-
klers as possible. Spray nozzles are used in appli-
cations where the diameters of coverage are not as
critical, such as small plot areas and in self-pro-
pelled irrigation systems (center pivots and linear
move systems) where the irrigation system travels
over the area to be irrigated.

Many types of sprinkler irrigation systems are in
use, ranging from small, portable manually-oper-
ated systems to large permanent, automatically-
operated systems. Sprinkler systems are classified
in the following sections of this circular, and typical
applications of each class are discussed.


Multiple sprinkler systems
Multiple sprinkler systems use many small
sprinklers with overlapping patterns. The amount
of overlap is critical to achieve high uniformity of
water application. Sprinklers are typically over-
lapped 50% to 60% of their diameters of coverage
under low wind (less than 5 mph) conditions.
Greater overlaps (and thus closer spacings) are re-
quired for higher wind speed conditions.

In multiple sprinkler systems, sprinklers are
mounted on a lateral pipe or network of lateral
pipes which carry water to the sprinklers. Water is
supplied to the laterals from manifold (header) or
main pipelines, depending on the system design.
Multiple sprinkler systems are classified as por-
table, semi-permanent, or permanent based on
whether the sprinklers and pipelines are moved
from location-to-location between irrigation sets or
whether the components are permanently buried in
the field.


Portable sprinkler systems
Portable sprinkler systems are systems in which
the sprinklers are mounted on movable lateral pipe
sections which are transported from one location to
another between irrigations (Fig. 3). The lateral
pipes and sprinklers are set up on the soil surface


Figure 3. Portable sprinkler irrigation system with impact
sprinklers installed on aluminum lateral pipelines.


and remain in place while irrigation occurs, then
they are moved to a new location (zone, or set) and
the process is repeated. These systems are typi-
cally designed with sufficient capacity to irrigate all
zones in time to be returned to the first zone before
plant water stress occurs. There are three types of
portable sprinkler systems based on the method
used to move the lateral pipes and sprinklers be-
tween irrigations: hand-moved, tractor-moved, and
self-moved.


Hand-moved systems
Portable, hand-moved sprinkler systems are
manually-moved from zone to zone. They consist of
sprinklers mounted on portable aluminum lateral
pipes, usually using short risers. Aluminum pipe is
used because it is strong, light-weight, resistant to
degradation by sunlight, and easily transported
and connected with quick-connect couplings. Short
risers are typically used because the laterals are
not firmly anchored, and tall risers tend to lean or
fall.

Laterals may be connected to portable aluminum
manifold and mainline pipes, which may also be
moved between sets. Buried PVC mainlines and
manifolds are sometimes installed, and lateral con-
nections are made through permanent hydrant
valves which bring the water to the surface. These
systems are sometimes called semi-permanent be-
cause the mainlines are permanently installed and
only the laterals are portable.

Portable hand-moved sprinkler systems are
widely used in Florida because they (1) have a low
initial cost, (2) are flexible, easily adapted to vari-



















Figure 4. Side-wheel-roll sprinkler system irrigating cabbage
transplants for establishment.

ous field shapes and sizes, and (3) can be moved
with many Florida vegetable crops which are ro-
tated from field-to-field to avoid disease problems
or on rented land. A limitation to the use of por-
table hand-moved systems is the large labor re-
quirements to move the pipe between zones. Be-
cause the pipes must be manually moved, these
systems are not adaptable to tall crops such as
corn, or other crops which would prohibit easily
moving the system.


Tractor-moved systems
Portable tractor-moved sprinkler systems consist
of sprinklers mounted on portable aluminum lat-
eral pipes which are rigidly connected and mounted
on wheels or skids. The laterals are towed between
zones by pulling from the ends of the laterals with
a tractor. These systems are more expensive than
portable hand-moved systems, but have lower labor
requirements. They are only used on short crops
which are not disturbed by the skids or tractor traf-
fic. These systems are most adaptable to larger
land areas (longer lateral lengths) than hand-
moved systems, or heavier soils than typical
Florida sands so that less frequent moves are re-
quired. Therefore, portable tractor-moved sprin-
kler systems are not often used in Florida.


Self-moved systems
Portable self-moved sprinkler systems consist of
sprinklers mounted on aluminum lateral pipes
which are mounted above the soil surface on wheels
(Fig. 4). They also contain the mechanical compo-
nents required to move the system, thus making
these systems more expensive than hand or tractor-
moved systems. There are 2 types of self-moved
sprinkler systems, classified by the method of
movement: (a) Side-wheel-roll, and (b) Side-move
sprinkler systems.


Side-wheel-roll sprinkler systems. These sys-
tems use laterals which serve as the axle for wheels
located along the length of the lateral. This system
is moved between sets by rotating the lateral pipe
(axle). The lateral pipe is typically rotated by a
chain drive system powered by a small gasoline-
powered engine located near the center of the lat-
eral. Sprinklers are kept in an upright position for
effective operation by means of a weighted swivel
coupling on each sprinkler.

Because the lateral pipe is mounted only 3-4 ft
above the soil surface, this system is only adaptable
to short crops. Few of these systems are used in
Florida. The most common applications are for
vegetables, short forage crops, and turf production.

Side-move sprinkler systems. These systems
use a lateral pipe mounted on a short A-frame 4-5
ft above the soil surface. Each A-frame is sup-
ported by 2 wheels, which are typically powered by
a chain-drive mechanism from a drive shaft that
runs parallel to the lateral pipe along the length of
the lateral. These systems are more expensive, but
have no appreciable advantages over side-wheel-
roll systems for Florida crop production systems.
Thus, they are not commonly used in Florida.


Semi-permanent sprinkler systems
A semi-permanent sprinkler irrigation system
(Fig. 5) is a system which is set up and left in place
throughout the crop growing season, after which it
is manually removed and stored for the next grow-
ing season. Components of the system, such as the
main or manifold pipelines are often permanently
installed. A type of semi-permanent multiple sprin-
kler irrigation system used in Florida is the solid
set system. Solid set systems are those in which the
laterals and sprinklers cover the entire field to be


Figure 5. Semi-permanent sprinkler system with portable lat-
erals fed from permanent underground pipelines.








irrigated, thus they do not need to be moved be-
tween irrigations.

The entire production area under a semi-perma-
nent solid set system is not necessarily irrigated at
once. In many cases, valves are used to control flow
to individual laterals or zones. In other cases, such
as when required for freeze protection, the entire
field may be irrigated at once. In both cases, labor
costs for system operation are low, because irriga-
tions are controlled simply by opening and closing
valves rather than by moving pipe.

Solid set, semi-permanent systems typically con-
sist of sprinklers mounted on portable aluminum
pipe. Because the entire production area is simulta-
neously covered with pipe and sprinklers, the ini-
tial system cost is much greater than the cost of a
portable sprinkler system. Field traffic problems
may also exist because the pipe remains in place on
the soil surface during the irrigation season. In
Florida, these irrigation systems are primarily used
for vegetable and sod production.


Permanent sprinkler irrigation systems
There are two types of permanent irrigation sys-
tems: solid set and self-propelled irrigation sys-
tems. Both types are commonly used in Florida.


Solid set irrigation systems
Permanent solid set irrigation systems are sys-
tems which consist of permanently placed pipes
and sprinklers. In Florida, lateral, manifold, and
mainline pipes are typically buried, and only the
sprinklers and risers extend above the ground sur-
face (Fig. 6). Because pipes and sprinklers are re-
quired to cover the entire production surface, per-
manent solid set systems are usually considerably
more expensive than other types of irrigation sys-
tems. Therefore, permanent systems are typically


Figure 6. Pipelines are buried In permanent solid set sprinkler
systems used for strawberry production.


Figure 7. Center pivot irrigation laterals are supported by large
A-frames with drive wheels for self-propelled operation.


used only on high cash value crops including citrus,
strawberries, ornamental ferns and other nursery
crops.

As with semi-permanent solid set systems, the
entire production area under a permanent solid set
system is not necessarily irrigated at once. Valves
are often used to control flow to individual zones.
However, when required for freeze protection, plant
establishment, or crop cooling, the entire field may
be irrigated at once. In both cases, labor costs for
system operation are low because water delivery to
a zone is controlled by simply opening and closing
valves rather than by moving pipe.


Self-propelled sprinkler irrigation systems
Self-propelled irrigation systems are those which
operate under their own power. During irrigation,
they move slowly and continuously across the field
as it is being irrigated. There are two types of self-
propelled multiple sprinkler irrigation systems
which are being manufactured: center pivot and
lateral-move systems.

Center pivot irrigation systems. These sys-
tems consist of sprinklers which are mounted on a
lateral pipe which is supported approximately 10-
12 ft above the ground by large A-frames (Fig. 7).
The lateral is fixed to a pivot point at one end. Wa-
ter is supplied at the pivot point. In most systems,
the lateral rotates around the pivot point and irri-
gates a circular or part-circle area in the center of a
square block of land (Fig. 8).

Most center pivot systems are equipped with a
large diameter end gun. The end gun operation is
normally limited to a 180-degree arc, and its appli-
cation is directed to areas beyond the lateral pipe-
























Figure 8. Center pivots irrigate circular (or part-circle) land
areas.


line. This extends the effective diameter of the irri-
gation lateral. In many systems, the end gun is op-
erated only in the corners of the square field, thus
increasing the acreage that can be irrigated.

Some center pivot systems are equipped with
corner units which operate only in the corners of a
square field to irrigate most of the square. Corner
units typically consist of one additional tower and
section of lateral pipeline which are extended for
irrigation of the corners of the field and retracted
along the sides of the field.

Because the laterals travel over the area to be
irrigated, center pivots can effectively use low pres-
sure spray nozzles to distribute water. When spray
nozzles are used, pumping costs are reduced, how-
ever, application rates are high because the water
is applied near the lateral rather than being dis-
tributed over a wide area. The high application
rates can cause runoff from soils with low infiltra-
tion rates. This is normally not a problem in
Florida because of the high infiltration rates of
typical sandy soils. Thus low pressure center pivot
systems equipped with spray nozzles are often used
in Florida.

Because of the height of the lateral, center pivot
systems are adaptable to most crops, including tall
crops like corn. The cost of a center pivot system
per acre irrigated decreases with increasing size up
to the common size of 160 acres. Thus center pivots
are often used to irrigate large acreages of lower
cash value crops such as field crops. They are also
adaptable to both small and large acreages of high
cash value crops, but irrigation schedules are not as
flexible as solid set system schedules. For example,


24 to 48 hours may be required to complete one
revolution of a center pivot system, and this time
may be excessive for shallow-rooted vegetable crops
grown on sandy soils.

Center pivot systems are more expensive than
portable systems, but less expensive than perma-
nent solid set systems. Because they are self-pro-
pelled, irrigations are easily scheduled and ad-
justed, and labor costs are low.

Center pivot systems are widely used for field
crop production throughout the world. They are
used for field crops in north Florida, and for sod,
forage crops, pasture, and waste disposal through-
out Florida.

Lateral-move irrigation systems. Lateral-
move irrigation systems are similar to center pivot
systems with the exception that the A-frame sup-
ported lateral pipe travels in a lateral (linear) di-
rection rather than pivoting around a central point
(Fig. 9). Thus, lateral-move systems are better
adapted to rectangular land areas than center
pivots.

Because lateral-move systems do not rotate
about a fixed pivot point, they must drag a large
flexible hose, use a permanent underground pipe-
line with risers modified for automatic operation, or
use an open ditch for the water supply. The hose-
drag units are the most common. The open ditch
systems require a pump to travel with the lateral
pipe to pressurize the water. Lined ditches would
be required in the deep sandy soil areas of Florida,
but unlined ditches could be used in the flatwoods
soil areas where high water tables exist. Perma-
nent underground pipe systems with automatic


Figure 9. Lateral-move irrigation systems irrigate rectangular
land areas. The pumping station travels with the lateral.








couplers are more technically complicated and ex-
pensive than the other methods of supplying water
to a lateral-move irrigation system.

Lateral-move irrigation systems are more expen-
sive than center pivots. Thus, these systems are
primarily used in areas where the value of land dic-
tates the use of systems which are adapted to rect-
angular land areas, and for irrigation of very large
land areas so that the cost per acre is lower. Lat-
eral-move systems are not commonly used in
Florida.


Single sprinkler (gun) irrigation
systems
Gun sprinklers are very large sprinklers which
operate at high pressures (Fig. 10). Nozzle sizes
commonly range to over 1-inch in diameter. Pres-
sures required for proper operation typically range
from 80 to 120 psi, with 100 psi being very common.
While flow rates may range up to 1000 gpm for very
large guns, rates of 500 to 600 gpm are very com-
mon for large field scale guns. Typically only one or
two guns are used in a gun irrigation system.

Gun irrigation systems require large energy in-
puts per unit of water delivered because of their
high operating pressures. They also have relatively
high labor requirements, both to move the portable
guns between sets and to set up the self-propelled
(traveling) guns. Despite these limitations, gun
systems are popular in Florida. They are flexible,
that is, they allow irrigation of oddly-shaped fields,
they are available in a range of sizes to permit irri-
gation of small to relatively large (up to 90 acres


U .- -,

-Th -


Figure 10. Gun sprinklers use large diameter nozzles to dis-
charge high flow rates at high pressures.


Figure 11. Portable gun system for field crop irrigation in
north Florida.


per gun) areas, and they are easily transported be-
tween fields. Guns also have relatively low initial
costs as compared to permanent or portable solid set
irrigation systems, and they require less labor than
portable multi-sprinkler systems.


Portable gun systems
Portable gun irrigation systems (Fig. 11) are
widely used in Florida. Guns may be moved by
hand, but due to their size, they are typically towed
with tractors.


Hand-moved portable guns
Hand-moved portable guns have larger labor re-
quirements than other types of guns because they
must be manually moved between sets, and a gun is
a relatively large item of equipment. Hand-moved
guns are most adaptable to relatively small acre-
ages. They are commonly used to irrigate small
fields of vegetables, melons, and tobacco, especially
in north Florida. Water for hand-moved portable
guns is typically supplied by either portable alumi-
num pipe or large diameter flexible hoses.


Tractor-moved portable guns
Tractor-moved guns are mounted on skids or
wheels to facilitate moving them between sets. Less
labor is required, thus permitting them to be used on
larger acreages than hand-moved guns.


Self-propelled (traveling) gun systems
Traveling guns are widely used in Florida. These
are self-propelled irrigation systems. Two types of






















Figure 12. A cable-tow traveling gun pulls itself through the
field by winding up a cable anchored at the edge of the field.


traveling gun systems are in common use. They
both use the same types of guns for water distribu-
tion, but they are different with respect to the way
the guns are moved through the field. With both
systems the guns are mounted on carts or trailers
that are slowly and continuously moved through
the field as the guns operate. The rate of water ap-
plication and total depth applied depend on the
flow rate from the gun, the diameter of coverage,
and the speed at which the gun travels.


Cable-tow traveling guns
Cable-tow systems automatically tow a large gun
through the field by winding up a cable (Fig. 12).
The gun is mounted on a cart which also contains a
cable reel and winch. The cable is stretched across
the field in the desired direction of travel, and the
end of the cable is firmly anchored at the end of the
travel lane. As water flows to the gun, an impeller
drive unit or water piston is used to power the
winch. Thus, the cable-tow traveling gun pulls it-
self across the field by winding up the cable. The
speed of travel is adjustable from only a few feet
per minute (fpm) to 10 or more fpm. Water is sup-
plied to the gun by a collapsible, flexible hose that
is also towed by the system. A travel lane approxi-
mately 10 ft wide is required for this type of travel-
ing gun because the flexible hose loops behind the
cart.

Because they are set up to irrigate long travel
lanes, cable-tow systems require much less labor
than portable guns. Travel lane lengths of up to
1320 ft are typical. A typical 500 gpm cable-tow
traveling gun can irrigate up to 80 acres.

. Despite the high cost of gun operation, cable-tow
systems are commonly used to irrigate field crops,


J.


Figure 13. A hose-reel traveling gun winds up the hose on a
large reel to move the gun during Irrigation.


j6 A,^


vegetables, melons, and citrus in Florida. They are
widely used throughout the state, although their
high operating costs have caused some systems to be
replaced by more energy-efficient microirrigation sys-
tems, especially for perennial crops such as citrus.


Hose-reel traveling guns
A hose-reel traveling gun uses a large reel unit to
wind up the hose and retract the gun (Fig. 13). The
hose is semi-rigid and does not collapse on the reel,
so that water can be continuously pumped through it
during operation. The hose and gun are laid out in
the desired direction of travel. The reel is then used
to retract the hose and gun at slow speeds, irrigating
as the gun is retracted.

Hose-reel systems require less labor than cable-
tow systems because they are easier to set up for op-
eration. A typical 500 gpm hose-reel traveling gun
can irrigate up to 90 acres. However, these systems
are more expensive than cable-tow systems, thus
they have not displaced all cable-tow systems.

Hose-reel systems are used for the same crops as
cable-tow gun systems. In addition, there is some
use of hose-reel systems for the establishment of
transplanted vegetable crops. The smaller cart on
which the hose-reel gun is mounted permits use in
row crops without the need for a wide travel lane to
tow the hose behind the gun.


Surface irrigation systems
Surface irrigation systems are those in which wa-
ter is applied on the soil surface and is distributed








across the surface by the soil hydraulic characteris-
tics or by flooding the entire area to be irrigated.
Surface irrigation is primarily applicable on
heavier clay and loam soils which have finer tex-
tural classifications and lower hydraulic conductivi-
ties than typical Florida sandy soils. Where such
heavy soils exist in Florida (primarily in north
Florida, near Georgia and Alabama), irrigation is
not generally practiced because of the high water-
holding capacities of these soils and Florida's large
annual rainfall. Thus, except for rice flood irriga-
tion systems and citrus crown flood systems, sur-
face irrigation is not commonly used in Florida.


Level systems
Level surface irrigation systems are those in
which the soil surface is essentially level and the
water moves across the surface primarily due to the
difference in water depths. These systems are irri-
gated by applying water at high rates across the
soil surface to wet the surface as quickly as pos-
sible, and then continuing to apply water at re-
duced rates while infiltration occurs simulta-
neously across the entire field being irrigated. The
water is applied and then allowed to stand and in-
filtrate until all of that applied has infiltrated.
Normally several inches (2 to 6 inches) are applied
per irrigation.


Level furrows
Level furrows are used in row crop production
systems. Crops are planted on beds and water is
directed into the furrows, normally into each or ev-
ery other furrow. Water is typically applied by si-


Figure 14. Field ditches are flooded with water for crown flood
Irrigation of citrus.


phon tubes from open ditches or by gates or valves
from gated aluminum pipes.

In Florida, a type of level furrow irrigation sys-
tem is used to irrigate bedded citrus on flatwoods
(high water table) soils. This "crown flood" irrigated
citrus is irrigated by allowing water inflow to large
furrows between the citrus beds (Fig. 14), allowing
the water to stand in the furrows for 8 to 24 hours,
and then draining the furrows by pumping the wa-
ter to the next citrus grove. In these systems, wa-
ter is applied through large diameter conduits from
a large manifold or header ditch.


Level borders
Borders are typically rectangular blocks of land
bordered by soil ridges (levees or borders) 1 to 2 ft
high. The borders retain the water applied within
the area to be irrigated. Water is typically applied
by large gates from open ditches, portable gated
pipe, or valves from underground pipelines. Less
frequently, siphon tubes are used in open ditches.

Rice irrigation systems are the only level border
surface irrigation system used in Florida (Fig. 15).
Levees (borders) maintain water depths in each
paddy (border) within about 1 inch of the average
depth. Water levels are maintained above the soil
surface to flood the area for weed control. Water
levels in each paddy are maintained by drop struc-
tures or weirs which are set at the required water
elevation. Runoff from each paddy flows into the
next downstream paddy.


Basins
Basins are small border areas, primarily used for
permanent crops such as orchards or vineyards, but
also used for some ornamental crops. Basins may
encompass only one or several trees or other plants.
Irrigation may be applied by risers from under-
ground pipelines into individual basins, or by any
of the other methods discussed for level border sys-
tems.


Graded systems
Graded surface irrigation systems are those in
which the field slope is large enough that it signifi-
cantly influences the way that water must be man-
aged to obtain uniform water applications. Graded
systems are typically irrigated by initially applying
water at high rates to wet the entire surface, then
reducing the application rate or pulsing the appli-





















Figure 15. Rice production systems are flooded for irrigation,
weed control, and to prevent oxidation of muck soils.


cations to closely approximate the soil infiltration
rate. Large amounts of runoff may occur if slopes
are steep.

Land smoothing is typically required to obtain
high efficiencies from graded surface irrigation sys-
tems. Other techniques used to obtain high irriga-
tion efficiencies are tailwater recovery (re-use or
recycling), cablegation (an automated flow rate cut-
back irrigation method), and surge irrigation
(where several separate pulses of water rather than
continuous applications are used).


Graded furrows
Graded furrows are irrigated with the same
equipment as level furrows. In order to obtain uni-
form water applications along the furrow without
excessive runoff, cut-back irrigation is practiced. In
cut-back irrigation, the flow rate is reduced to the
rate required for infiltration after the water
reaches the distant end of the furrow.


Contour furrows
A contour furrow has a gradient to allow runoff
from rainfall to flow nonerosively from the field
site. Irrigation management is similar to the man-
agement of graded furrows. However, more labor is
typically required to avoid erosion and nonuniform
water application which might occur if furrows
overflow during irrigation.


Corrugations
Corrugations are small furrows which are
formed when small grain seeds are drill-planted.
Management of the irrigation of corrugated fields is
similar to the management of graded furrows.


However, irrigation of corrugated fields is more dif-
ficult and labor-intensive than that of conventional
furrows because it is difficult to prevent these small
furrows from overflowing.


Graded borders
Graded borders retain irrigation water within
the border areas because the ridges constructed are
typically 1 to 2 ft tall. However, if rapid surface
wetting followed by reduced (cut-back) flow rates
are not used, the uniformity of water application
will be reduced. If cut-back irrigation is not accu-
rately practiced, excess water will accumulate and
infiltrate at the lower ends of the borders, and thus
the efficiency of these systems will be reduced.


Flooding
The term "flooding" is used to describe three dis-
tinctly different types of irrigation practices: (1) in
many parts of the world, flooding refers to the irri-
gation of heavy soils where furrows, corrugations,
or borders do not exist to direct water uniformly
across the surface, (2) this term is also widely used
to describe the practice of inundating the soil sur-
face in rice production systems, and (3) in Florida,
the term "crown flood" is used to refer to a citrus
irrigation method that was previously discussed in
the "level furrow" section of this publication.

Flooding is often practiced where water supplies
are plentiful and inexpensive, so that irrigation ef-
ficiency is not the major concern, although irriga-
tion efficiencies can be relatively high, depending
on soil properties and whether tailwater is re-used.


Figure 16. Seepage irrigation of sandy soils uses water fur-
rows to distribute water for tomato production.









-.-- &... __~


Figure 17. Muck soils are seepage irrigation with widely
spaced surface ditches for sugarcane production.

In Florida, both rice and citrus are irrigated with
flood irrigation systems. Rice is produced on high
water table organic soils which must also be flooded
for another purpose, to prevent oxidation and loss of
the organic soil. When citrus is produced using the
crown flood method, runoff water is typically used to
irrigate another citrus grove in a large management
area, thus the overall efficiency of water use is high.


Subirrigation (seepage) systems
Subirrigation (seepage) systems are those in
which water is supplied at rates high enough to es-
tablish and maintain a water table just beneath the
crop root zone. Irrigation then occurs by capillary
movement of water into the crop root zone. This
method of irrigation is limited to use on sandy (Fig.
16) and muck (Fig. 17) soils with high hydraulic
conductivities in the surface soil layers, but with re-
strictive subsurface layers and existing high water
tables. Large quantities of water must also be
available to raise the water tables in addition to
providing water for crop evapotranspiration (ET).

Water is typically applied from a parallel network
of open field ditches (water furrows) or underground
pipe (drain tiles), called laterals. Open ditches are
more common because underground pipe systems
are more expensive, and they are sometimes clogged
by bacterial activity, chemical precipitation, and
other causes. The ditches are also required for sur-
face drainage during large rainfall events. Re-
cently, subsurface drip irrigation systems have been
developed for water table control (Fig. 18). Al-
though they are more expensive and have higher
maintenance requirements than open ditches, they
conserve water by avoiding runoff and standing wa-
ter in ditches, and they allow more precise water
table control through the network of underground


pipelines. Thus, these systems are primarily being
installed in areas where water shortages exist.

Lateral ditches are typically spaced from 12 to 60
ft apart on sandy soils, depending on the soil hydrau-
lic conductivity and on irrigation, drainage, cultural,
and field equipment requirements. On muck soils,
ditches are often wider spaced, typically from 100 to
200 ft, because of the greater conductivity of these
soils.


Constant water table systems
Constant water table systems are systems in which
irrigation water is applied continuously (except dur-
ing, or in anticipation of rainfall) to maintain a water
table at the height required for optimum crop growth.
Water is continuously pumped into ditches or water
furrows, and water levels are typically controlled with
flashboard riser structures at the downstream end of
the irrigated field. Flow rates are often adjusted as a
function of stage of crop growth, time of year, and in
some cases, even time of day. Diurnal field water
tables typically fluctuate only a few inches in re-
sponse to changes in ET rates during the day.

Constant water table seepage systems are used to
irrigate large acreages of vegetables and sugarcane,
and some citrus in Florida. Depending on field slope,
soil properties, ET rates, and management practices,
runoff often occurs from the fields. Irrigation efficien-
cies are lowest when runoff water is discharged from
the irrigated field. Efficiencies are highest when run-
off is recycled or applied to other irrigated fields and
when application rates are matched to changes in wa-
ter requirements during each day.


Figure 18. Water tables are controlled for Irrigation without
runoff using subsurface drip irrigation laterals.





































Figure 19. Spaghetti tube drip emitters are used to apply water
to each individual container in this ornamental nursery.


Fluctuating water table systems
Fluctuating water table seepage irrigation sys-
tems are systems in which water tables are permit-
ted to fluctuate on a daily basis as water is only ap-
plied intermittently in an effort to reduce runoff.
These systems shut off irrigation pumps when water
tables are high and runoff begins to occur. Pumps
are re-started when water tables drop to critical lev-
els, or during peak ET times of the day.

Fluctuating water table systems are less fre-
quently used than constant water table systems be-
cause higher levels of management are required, the
potential for leaching crop nutrients is increased,
and yield reductions occur when water tables fluctu-
ate excessively.


Microirrigation systems
Microirrigation systems are those which use low
flow rate emitting devices (emitters) to place water
on the soil surface near the plants being irrigated or
below the surface directly into the plant root zone.


Microirrigation systems are characterized by the use
of small diameter, flexible plastic lateral pipes and
operation at low pressures. Normally only a fraction
of the crop root zone is irrigated, and frequent, small
irrigations, which keep the irrigated zone near field
capacity, are practiced. Chemicals, especially fertil-
izers and cleaning agents, are often applied through
microirrigation systems.

The term "microirrigation" is a general term
which includes several specific types of systems, in-
cluding drip, spray (or microsprinkler), bubbler, line
source perforated pipes or seepage hoses, or other
similar types of systems. With microirrigation, the
levels of management, water treatment, and filtra-
tion generally exceed those associated with other
types of irrigation systems.


Drip
Drip types of microirrigation systems apply water
from discrete point source emitters attached to or
molded into lateral pipes (Fig. 19). Emitter dis-
charges are in the form of small streams or indi-
vidual drops, with flow rates ranging from 0.3 to 2
gph, but most commonly being 1 gph. Operating
pressures typically range from 6 to 30 psi.

In Florida, drip irrigation systems are primarily
used in vegetable (especially tomato and pepper),
ornamental (container nurseries), and fruit crop (cit-
rus) production systems. Because of system costs,
they are not used in agronomic (field) crops.

Emitters are typically placed on or slightly below
the soil surface or under the plastic mulch in


Figure 20. Spray (microsprinkler) emitters irrigate a large frac-
tion of the tree root zone in this citrus production system.








mulched vegetable production systems. Because
drip emitters rely on the soil hydraulic properties to
distribute water, and typical Florida sandy soils
limit lateral unsaturated water movement, spray (or
microsprinkler) emitters have become more popular
in those tree crop production systems where it is de-
sirable to irrigate a significant fraction of the tree
root zone with relatively few emitters.


Spray (microsprinkler)
Spray or microsprinkler types of microirrigation
systems, like drip systems, emit water at discrete
points. However, emitters typically have flow rates
much greater than drip emitters. Flow rates nor-
mally range from 8 to 30 gph, with 15 to 20 gph
emitters being very common. Spray emitters dis-
tribute water by spraying it through the air over di-
ameters of 5 to 25 ft, depending on the crop being
irrigated. Emitters are typically mounted on short
(6 to 12-inch) risers above the ground surface to im-
prove distribution patterns.

Spray emitters are most commonly used in citrus
microirrigation systems (Fig. 20). In citrus, the ad-
vantage of distributing water over a large diameter
as compared to the much smaller diameter of drip
emitters has been demonstrated to increase yields.
The larger flow rates and orifice sizes also reduce
filtration requirements and clogging problems.

Both spinners and fixed deflectors are used to dis-
tribute the water from spray emitters. The fixed de-
flector type are more often used because the moving
parts in spinner emitters sometimes fail to function
under field conditions.


14W 416


Figure 21. Bubblers have high flow rates and require sc
means of containing the water to prevent runoff.


Figure 22. Line-source microirrigation systems require a lat-
eral under the plastic mulch of each crop row for tomato pro-
duction.


Bubbler
Bubblers are relatively large flow rate
microirrigation emitters (Fig. 21). Flow rates are
typically 1-gpm or greater. Because of the high
flow rates, relatively large orifice sizes are used,
and clogging is typically not a problem, even with-
out filtration. However, the high flow rates may
result in runoff rather than infiltration into the
soil. Thus, bubbler systems are typically only used
in containers such as large ornamental planters or
in individual tree basins, which retain the water
and prevent runoff. Also, bubblers are typically op-
erated only a few minutes per irrigation, because
the required water volumes can be applied in a
short period of time.


Line-source


Line-source microirrigation systems use laterals
S with very closely spaced emitters, or either perfo-
rated or porous tubing are used rather than dis-
crete emitters. Water is emitted either continu-
ously along the lateral lengths, or at close intervals
so that the wetting patterns overlap and approxi-
mate that of a continuous line source.

Line-source tubing laterals are used in Florida
vegetable, strawberry and ornamental (bedded
flower) production systems (Fig. 22). These are
S typically thin-walled tubing of the disposable, lay-
flat type that have perforations or emitters molded
into the tubes at 6 to 24-inch intervals along their
lengths. Because of the limited water movement
for typical sandy soils, 8 to 12-inch spacings are
ome commonly used.
























Figure 23. Installation of line-source porous pipe
microirrigation laterals for subsurface irrigation of a small turf
plot.


Another common application of line-source tub-
ing is porous tubing which is buried or placed un-
der mulch in turf and landscape irrigation systems
(Fig. 23). Buried porous tubing can be used to
avoid overspray of water from roadway medium
strips and other turf areas where the sprayed water
might cause an inconvenience or hazard.


Summary
Irrigation is extensively practiced in Florida be-
cause of typical low water-holding capacity sandy
soils, nonuniform rainfall distributions, and sensi-
tivity to drought stress of the many high cash value
crops grown. Irrigation systems can be classified as
sprinkler, surface, subirrigation (seepage), and
microirrigation. Irrigation system characteristics,
applications, advantages and limitations were pre-
sented for systems in each of these classes, with
emphasis on systems commonly used in Florida.
The choice of an irrigation system for a specific ap-
plication requires careful consideration of econom-
ics, yield potential, water supply quantity and qual-
ity, soil, crop and cultural characteristics, design
limitations and management, maintenance and la-
bor requirements.
















































































COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, John T. Woeste,
Director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the May 8 and June
30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that
function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin. Single copies of extension publications (excluding 4-H and youth
publications) are available free to Florida residents from county extension offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers
is available from C.M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing
this publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability. Printed 2/92.




Full Text

PAGE 1

*Allen G. Smajstria is a Professor, Agricultural Engineering Department, IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, and Gary A. Clark is an Associate Professor, IFAS Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, Bradenton, FL.



PAGE 1

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, John T. Woeste, Director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin. Single copies of extension publications (excluding 4-H and youth publications) are available free to Florida residents from county extension offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers is available from C.M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability. Printed 2/92.



PAGE 1

However, irrigation of corrugated fields is more difficult and labor-intensive than that of conventional furrows because it is difficult to prevent these small furrows from overflowing. Graded borders Graded borders retain irrigation water within the border areas because the ridges constructed are typically 1 to 2 ft tall. However, if rapid surface wetting followed by reduced (cut-back) flow rates are not used, the uniformity of water application will be reduced. If cut-back irrigation is not accuFigure 15. Rice production systems are flooded for irrigation, rately practiced, excess water will accumulate and weed control, and to prevent oxidation of muck soils. infiltrate at the lower ends of the borders, and thus infiltrate at the lower ends of the borders, and thus the efficiency of these systems will be reduced. cations to closely approximate the soil infiltration rate. Large amounts of runoff may occur if slopes are steep. Flooding The term "flooding" is used to describe three disLand smoothing is typically required to obtain tinctly different types of irrigation practices: (1) in high efficiencies from graded surface irrigation sysmany parts of the world, flooding refers to the irritems. Other techniques used to obtain high irrigagation of heavy soils where furrows, corrugations, tion efficiencies are tailwater recovery (re-use or or borders do not exist to direct water uniformly recycling), cablegation (an automated flow rate cutacross the surface, (2) this term is also widely used back irrigation method), and surge irrigation to describe the practice of inundating the soil sur(where several separate pulses of water rather than face in rice production systems, and (3) in Florida, continuous applications are used), the term "crown flood" is used to refer to a citrus irrigation method that was previously discussed in the "level furrow" section of this publication. Graded furrows Graded furrows are irrigated with the same Flooding is often practiced where water supplies equipment as level furrows. In order to obtain uniare plentiful and inexpensive, so that irrigation efform water applications along the furrow without ficiency is not the major concern, although irrigaexcessive runoff, cut-back irrigation is practiced. In tion efficiencies can be relatively high, depending cut-back irrigation, the flow rate is reduced to the on soil properties and whether tailwater is re-used. rate required for infiltration after the water reaches the distant end of the furrow. Contour furrows A contour furrow has a gradient to allow runoff from rainfall to flow nonerosively from the field site. Irrigation management is similar to the management of graded furrows. However, more labor is typically required to avoid erosion and nonuniform water application which might occur if furrows "overflow during irrigation. Corrugations Corrugations are small furrows which are formed when small grain seeds are drill-planted. Management of the irrigation of corrugated fields is similar to the management of tgraded furrows Figure 16. Seepage Irrigation of sandy soils uses water fursimilar to the management of graded furrows. rows to distribute water for tomato production. 9



PAGE 1

24 to 48 hours may be required to complete one revolution of a center pivot system, and this time may be excessive for shallow-rooted vegetable crops grown on sandy soils. Center pivot systems are more expensive than portable systems, but less expensive than permanent solid set systems. Because they are self-propelled, irrigations are easily scheduled and adjusted, and labor costs are low. Center pivot systems are widely used for field crop production throughout the world. They are used for field crops in north Florida, and for sod, forage crops, pasture, and waste disposal throughFigure 8. Center pivots irrigate circular (or part-circle) land out Florida. areas. Lateral-move irrigation systems. Lateralline. This extends the effective diameter of the irrimove irrigation systems are similar to center pivot gation lateral. In many systems, the end gun is opsystems with the exception that the A-frame superated only in the corners of the square field, thus ported lateral pipe travels in a lateral (linear) diincreasing the acreage that can be irrigated. rection rather than pivoting around a central point (Fig. 9). Thus, lateral-move systems are better Some center pivot systems are equipped with adapted to rectangular land areas than center corner units which operate only in the corners of a pivots. square field to irrigate most of the square. Corner units typically consist of one additional tower and Because lateral-move systems do not rotate section of lateral pipeline which are extended for about a fixed pivot point, they must drag a large irrigation of the corners of the field and retracted flexible hose, use a permanent underground pipealong the sides of the field. line with risers modified for automatic operation, or use an open ditch for the water supply. The hoseBecause the laterals travel over the area to be drag units are the most common. The open ditch irrigated, center pivots can effectively use low pressystems require a pump to travel with the lateral sure spray nozzles to distribute water. When spray pipe to pressurize the water. Lined ditches would nozzles are used, pumping costs are reduced, howbe required in the deep sandy soil areas of Florida, ever, application rates are high because the water but unlined ditches could be used in the flatwoods is applied near the lateral rather than being dissoil areas where high water tables exist. Permatributed over a wide area. The high application nent underground pipe systems with automatic rates can cause runoff from soils with low infiltration rates. This is normally not a problem in Florida because of the high infiltration rates of typical sandy soils. Thus low pressure center pivot systems equipped with spray nozzles are often used in Florida. Because of the height of the lateral, center pivot systems are adaptable to most crops, including tall crops like corn. The cost of a center pivot system per acre irrigated decreases with increasing size up to the common size of 160 acres. Thus center pivots are often used to irrigate large acreages of lower cash value crops such as field crops. They are also adaptable to both small and large acreages of high cash value crops, but irrigation schedules are not as Figure 9. Lateral-move irrigation systems irrigate rectangular flexible as solid set system schedules. For example, land areas. The pumping station travels with the lateral. 5


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'97024' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZPB' 'sip-files00003.jpg'
79598b727aaf847c2036247e9a751544
31792a4992f0d5c4150b9fac6326cb021da566f1
'2012-04-06T10:55:01-04:00'
describe
'30946' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZPC' 'sip-files00003.pdf'
b224c7d18390ea98c1a55b3c133d0b9d
6ff6a00e874d1ffc67ac4ad3a2274acaab1106d3
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZPC-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AADZPC-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
describe
'2015-05-15T18:23:51-04:00'
normalize
'69706' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZPD' 'sip-files00003.pro'
4ca19bd9653f753a0d9be4e2d87f1b62
f0e4e7aebcfd1a5102b6af0f81098ccbf3d5f41e
'2012-04-06T10:55:57-04:00'
describe
'38168' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZPE' 'sip-files00003.QC.jpg'
e64469efbfbd0b6b67f20c6e19b13751
3d70a30fd6385251bcfdce91db652e25281f334b
'2012-04-06T10:55:04-04:00'
describe
'981164' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZPF' 'sip-files00003.tif'
d6cb7811e0fd67a01a65fb016ff126f7
21d9c089d1ed94f00497957d32b4f2a03b0f7a62
'2012-04-06T10:56:10-04:00'
describe
'2898' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZPG' 'sip-files00003.txt'
f08a7474438077954413015ee5b59639
8fc84cf45fbc5a5948227ed539c653d726438fe2
describe
'21625' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZPH' 'sip-files00003thm.jpg'
52c616c9d676726098147114bde5a2a2
9c95ea5bdd63a8f2667c8ff18b34ba50804b509c
'2012-04-06T10:55:23-04:00'
describe
'3384' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZPI' 'sip-files00004.jp2'
4bb58cdd66e7de8c817c1d82fbadaa54
b3305bcd1ab191348d9e965518e2358f49fac20b
'2012-04-06T10:56:07-04:00'
describe
'9697' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZPJ' 'sip-files00004.jpg'
38c2466e5e5e6565be31c873e9248321
664b968da4cf66000605241f5231f8f6db252080
'2012-04-06T10:56:01-04:00'
describe
'3516' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZPK' 'sip-files00004.pdf'
962dd7892dc0e69b7365644bebb64204
6c3119ab565f797d05589341e590e8fc4dcfcddc
'2012-04-06T10:55:55-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZPK-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AADZPK-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
'2015-05-15T18:24:38-04:00'
describe
'2015-05-15T18:24:20-04:00'
normalize
'8079' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZPL' 'sip-files00004.QC.jpg'
56222df787c60bf119b5d918a825c6c3
69fa593af0c4be121f6175947da42ff4922f6acc
'2012-04-06T10:55:46-04:00'
describe
'970960' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZPM' 'sip-files00004.tif'
a99bac24246baa0b398007e5dc083772
109356bf532214764e84ea4a89ea59d090478277
'2012-04-06T10:55:29-04:00'
describe
'7642' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZPN' 'sip-files00004thm.jpg'
7118b0289413fd4f92ed6e772a46ec2a
71b20db2625b208445bbe7c53292287bec572e94
'2012-04-06T10:56:11-04:00'
describe
'961979' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZPO' 'sip-files00005.jp2'
8b08385893e26e3184055e1ccf3a5260
01d7e8376b215859a18ce3728efe6268a702ffa5
describe
'180142' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZPP' 'sip-files00005.jpg'
568b3f9140e1b88e7eb847d458c0c38b
724285f077c7f0f904df8506c71998d79c9952b6
'2012-04-06T10:56:02-04:00'
describe
'759483' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZPQ' 'sip-files00005.pdf'
78ed2b7ba4ba2d079b2768c4cb2179db
a43eb0beea7b9f5cb4badd8380c9deba47b6a71c
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZPQ-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AADZPQ-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
describe
'2015-05-15T18:23:59-04:00'
normalize
'87145' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZPR' 'sip-files00005.pro'
09951407991c5a0364d2b1770de4062a
2a423f9c90dfe502f4db083c9bafa206020380e9
describe
'62297' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZPS' 'sip-files00005.QC.jpg'
2d5d43dd800ccec47285bcd7bb203982
6020e07e9153f51b960a25b26e34ff94a17820ef
'2012-04-06T10:55:07-04:00'
describe
'7717696' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZPT' 'sip-files00005.tif'
40bfd4e4194fa22eb369c5038a01fd9c
f1e6ad049d554368b011bab9e071b17bb18901af
'2012-04-06T10:55:36-04:00'
describe
'3440' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZPU' 'sip-files00005.txt'
c642dc92f30b1bb78b914f39475cb396
53efaa07ddf308f4983a3485a17e89eed12bb9ed
'2012-04-06T10:56:05-04:00'
describe
'31598' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZPV' 'sip-files00005thm.jpg'
c914963be1e4047d3cab4bf52dddffde
a263de86278f133ce5cb9e9c4fc28d0e85beda04
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZPW' 'sip-files00006.jp2'
d8187c6f847a3d557a706c50e33b61b9
9fd39b8057ff8b98ee467d9a7f0faca411e77b78
'2012-04-06T10:55:28-04:00'
describe
'181889' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZPX' 'sip-files00006.jpg'
29754f7802b5e78cd70b1ad6682a7751
aee759d518c81e09c215b7a00659e725df1b1363
'2012-04-06T10:55:09-04:00'
describe
'766313' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZPY' 'sip-files00006.pdf'
a68a3ba03931e0bfe4380699d306568d
2d741c4481295989cae6867f7942671f39c52f48
'2012-04-06T10:55:44-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZPY-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AADZPY-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
describe
'2015-05-15T18:24:07-04:00'
normalize
'103346' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZPZ' 'sip-files00006.pro'
128d95b4b3f00d65047dc720bc853321
6d7cb34d804577abe7ede6c4c69ed147ea716851
'2012-04-06T10:55:02-04:00'
describe
'59657' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZQA' 'sip-files00006.QC.jpg'
e1e6b1e30cd112b087b83a958b6ec585
5b60887d6c3dbd50d41d40cf145abee6d5c17e13
describe
'7716484' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZQB' 'sip-files00006.tif'
1142c64b7dfe9904333f361654223a86
c1b7a69797d5e915dc6065b5510ace10ea6057d9
'2012-04-06T10:56:04-04:00'
describe
'4023' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZQC' 'sip-files00006.txt'
924f1cf22c3541002dfb4275358fa7bf
6c52e6409f8139044cfb23925a70268fd3d3fa37
'2012-04-06T10:55:37-04:00'
describe
'29947' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZQD' 'sip-files00006thm.jpg'
805bae460295e13cf5fd04be1bfec8d3
aedc72c0b0f28bee8838741caf0347219072e0b7
describe
'961978' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZQE' 'sip-files00007.jp2'
248bb34f33ccc73bcbd482037359ff03
0d0bf771d406cba5dfea3d4b9701a58978315256
describe
'187655' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZQF' 'sip-files00007.jpg'
d713464f6887ff55941c1cf70108a94d
bf3344caf8dc8c7643538c46ca98566d3abc1b24
'2012-04-06T10:55:58-04:00'
describe
'776173' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZQG' 'sip-files00007.pdf'
b50b691f0801702c5265e31e1e5c41ed
5b7b8b24d887d133709e1784e038b6a62c4fe687
'2012-04-06T10:55:56-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZQG-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AADZQG-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
'2015-05-15T18:24:39-04:00'
describe
'2015-05-15T18:24:22-04:00'
normalize
'97181' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZQH' 'sip-files00007.pro'
f6f78ac369e04913a695138590cd62a9
83e62f822fc7c217e68335422056154b3f5439c3
describe
'63598' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZQI' 'sip-files00007.QC.jpg'
8d10691ce8fbaf0dc08af51c13a7f4fa
58bb83e6af1cccdc8d21877b9ddf09fbe8981ff6
describe
'7718212' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZQJ' 'sip-files00007.tif'
4b41217b5f1407791e94b772ce2b6013
8a69d56ad667ff7d638e60171b2bd7096c300200
describe
'3806' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZQK' 'sip-files00007.txt'
a708852239a7c3cb50437149fe55887a
97d7189b2b6096785032fd20783ede97f6d4313e
'2012-04-06T10:55:50-04:00'
describe
'31999' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZQL' 'sip-files00007thm.jpg'
58c7cb1bc3f09ae318edb5c031d4de2e
643d9c007179d2044cebc7bb1fab5816952b41e9
'2012-04-06T10:55:17-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZQM' 'sip-files00008.jp2'
ca128258b23edd757f35411c3a9b602d
5f624c8d8f564e8221e52b954e32a9c34c733694
describe
'172266' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZQN' 'sip-files00008.jpg'
3e73f5d1d07bd283a216c795d87e5acf
e75afd7619e86a1986933d96f24322fc448a3e88
describe
'696963' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZQO' 'sip-files00008.pdf'
56a3c91ba44d61eb3633fdbc067e5ac6
ec5fe96bef417c1d89cab76b7ead1d93636db087
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZQO-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AADZQO-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
describe
'2015-05-15T18:24:32-04:00'
normalize
'95362' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZQP' 'sip-files00008.pro'
f2987c1eaab13ea793e5f57e5a3008fb
4557bd3bfa06a40f4570f2588b733e52a2cae9e7
'2012-04-06T10:55:25-04:00'
describe
'58901' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZQQ' 'sip-files00008.QC.jpg'
d99fc7e8b0c85ced9fdec8719955b529
3d2149b77b25ad77ab9be64e5e57cfa31778a2a2
'2012-04-06T10:55:16-04:00'
describe
'7716492' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZQR' 'sip-files00008.tif'
07da906c7ee79070e9b425e4763914fa
7375a5fc213af629e825bf15f9a7e4ef8026f0f1
'2012-04-06T10:55:15-04:00'
describe
'3713' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZQS' 'sip-files00008.txt'
acbd86d39e84409fad61813ae1cbd9a4
74b1b3b23ee068cbe8dae616902661715d0e83ab
describe
'29936' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZQT' 'sip-files00008thm.jpg'
0f5fa5f45bb1473c47e7a0292051b3a7
6d63c50f6f336027cbbb13f4b01859ac4b57c92f
describe
'961980' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZQU' 'sip-files00009.jp2'
5340a19b906395a0bfd83e750dd7736e
5e2b0632b97fe7747acc8a2fc5b8d7d3bf97ed14
describe
'172838' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZQV' 'sip-files00009.jpg'
f6751265ec86823ac89d7cc534e093df
dafae17a70e08e9818d5db5b9f80857f2541f3f9
describe
'753747' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZQW' 'sip-files00009.pdf'
1d20962592cbe62080e9db014e4cd62e
1c1358f6bb09fc18a79fe58a0cbabb9aca743ff2
'2012-04-06T10:55:51-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZQW-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AADZQW-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
describe
'2015-05-15T18:24:17-04:00'
normalize
'91318' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZQX' 'sip-files00009.pro'
1547fdce4d33d4bf4e5e862751c6a4b0
ae0a0c06077789f5b3598f7f908edb5186b2f2c6
describe
'59962' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZQY' 'sip-files00009.QC.jpg'
d38aa381e5282ce440c96f81545ad380
34eb51a00a098a11f5fd71bd0f7ed56058b3951f
'2012-04-06T10:55:11-04:00'
describe
'7716652' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZQZ' 'sip-files00009.tif'
d3ea92334d56601ca61984097997b7e2
6477cc3997ca97cde49b381f0cc9ef316244a5a9
'2012-04-06T10:55:40-04:00'
describe
'3585' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZRA' 'sip-files00009.txt'
fc8ac62157ed4bf59270a34be079437e
9bcad8f3585076add574d878e41fe80efd7675fc
'2012-04-06T10:56:12-04:00'
describe
'30026' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZRB' 'sip-files00009thm.jpg'
22e52b7bfa4976d0206e71288de198cd
9d3c123915d22d1ef04c48b735b3515b6d30af3e
describe
'961941' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZRC' 'sip-files00010.jp2'
cb02a9cf7f809e89f25953b98dfa70da
1730ee20c06958cca52a66a4c2d0d19f47ba6505
'2012-04-06T10:55:24-04:00'
describe
'163548' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZRD' 'sip-files00010.jpg'
2210620cbcfe2ae291a19d84c3257fde
909a772479fd118b91f3b3cfbd07591d30b8e06c
describe
'684618' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZRE' 'sip-files00010.pdf'
dddd824c8f91e61141f6b59cdf2cb356
51a9f52af2e24eccab28224992540d38e622f0a0
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZRE-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AADZRE-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
describe
'2015-05-15T18:23:57-04:00'
normalize
'80769' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZRF' 'sip-files00010.pro'
a42f64958843c7d663f3be97f059d621
a4efedd9f8ac3788d78cb55bcc7d923899e89879
describe
'58132' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZRG' 'sip-files00010.QC.jpg'
7ad85cf360d21bc5a14963663ac18499
010855ea1d4f11fd321ee34b7cead1b59dadce2c
describe
'7716300' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZRH' 'sip-files00010.tif'
bb4b5b7f19b8ca27be9544d8bc43aa38
296e795854f0a7b6ecc00fe4cd2d012faa05c5d9
'2012-04-06T10:55:53-04:00'
describe
'3175' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZRI' 'sip-files00010.txt'
c2a5e05dc44e6329601d4771d8870565
6ffdd69662cbfd56d976171e6ad0a8577c8c94ac
'2012-04-06T10:55:49-04:00'
describe
'29757' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZRJ' 'sip-files00010thm.jpg'
1152bd9d2d0151e7fc5550fa59faa0fd
da7f88462c46fb156d69beeb7dde334d2820ef62
describe
'976358' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZRK' 'sip-files00011.jp2'
d7b34fcfbcf387b6a59fb966d3bb6360
647afc00e2522c8fde42abc6e2bb294795691eeb
describe
'178580' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZRL' 'sip-files00011.jpg'
e7e45b8b1a4bd3645124afb270bc0263
508b932876d4c3aed1c83242bdcd3a96d83e3b57
'2012-04-06T10:55:05-04:00'
describe
'749100' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZRM' 'sip-files00011.pdf'
b8fe92eb763dbd2e9968cadbbbf6d798
c962bb06ae2ad750f74c11bc9304240a676ae764
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZRM-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AADZRM-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
describe
'2015-05-15T18:24:25-04:00'
normalize
'90046' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZRN' 'sip-files00011.pro'
638f5e3d967c26fb84c0eb40ad04c97a
cb092263e33fb3b9def7949d42c838d0d7a30759
'2012-04-06T10:56:03-04:00'
describe
'62389' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZRO' 'sip-files00011.QC.jpg'
8f3959a462a3d5bbe79ec5df2ff0dd89
ad3e937583e1707bfe972943351d02ea9e30d415
describe
'7833736' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZRP' 'sip-files00011.tif'
5e78b33389c7a650fc4a85fc8af30561
7007ee87da71cac902aae6bd0a069e1329fa4c48
'2012-04-06T10:55:03-04:00'
describe
'3549' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZRQ' 'sip-files00011.txt'
2a2bc12a5a289687245c90b21add6f2d
e7d582ce2787c0f99fac6a847349dc277a3b3489
describe
WARNING CODE 'Daitss::Anomaly' Invalid character
'32674' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZRR' 'sip-files00011thm.jpg'
15ab4bf713154678f5ee43551b49a7e4
b7bb83e19719145aa2cb5d011ba04244c82e969a
describe
'961949' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZRS' 'sip-files00012.jp2'
e0e98612b7d140796a1d03a67ffb48ba
210d7c96084169340f46882b0a30b2f0545bded7
describe
'181502' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZRT' 'sip-files00012.jpg'
41e717606844ca16018052745c177cff
a7b6616cd46cba010b29dd4272a63e89f2b7d6de
describe
'707786' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZRU' 'sip-files00012.pdf'
84b40e0106b40edaf4ea82803c65ffc4
09bda6f79c43b2df13768b7b4e50b8b4d1d294fb
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZRU-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AADZRU-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
describe
'2015-05-15T18:23:48-04:00'
normalize
'100214' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZRV' 'sip-files00012.pro'
fce2e19ab73706b41b9d63b962f9e9ed
77e9af0f68b8b28a636568c97ca55c27c7f32600
describe
'62725' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZRW' 'sip-files00012.QC.jpg'
c334221624e368d40dd92294973c0f22
0d1fdc52afb48aae758b3b7c2ea1723a0a568354
'2012-04-06T10:55:54-04:00'
describe
'7717596' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZRX' 'sip-files00012.tif'
324f96a79d6f84a33eb3ccc80a03b310
7e7f126dcfb8bd9b45580ab3b8b6711e4775d340
'2012-04-06T10:55:39-04:00'
describe
'3929' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZRY' 'sip-files00012.txt'
e582b6edf91e2c9c87d6b60638bb72d1
fbfc9954b2cb253ddbbe3059f5fecb4e334ec271
describe
'31622' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZRZ' 'sip-files00012thm.jpg'
b38fe5ed24fb14de69715de81e89e7de
13949651520f73f99ce2767bbdd4398d0bdf3aa7
describe
'961911' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZSA' 'sip-files00013.jp2'
6faaa1c479cd8bd459f1a90b29121445
db2704e01d356da2fcf38c8c47b6844c08105c8b
describe
'169686' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZSB' 'sip-files00013.jpg'
46d0b79426d9122c841fc17001ee28db
a43fd62756b86d951c4f60927232999db6a8afe8
'2012-04-06T10:56:08-04:00'
describe
'723017' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZSC' 'sip-files00013.pdf'
bd9b814e0348c80eb2bc35ed78bfc05f
bb15f61a4024898c129874655432a3562e1f2927
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZSC-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AADZSC-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
describe
'2015-05-15T18:23:44-04:00'
normalize
'83303' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZSD' 'sip-files00013.pro'
e6069d74ab0f1d215e790607348d9d0b
655941567088fc6225f9f36e7e1ae2ea281ce4a8
describe
'59392' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZSE' 'sip-files00013.QC.jpg'
01d983647efffb98dc04970db0f87d88
9993feecd3cb3d48c123734581ec40feef9b5655
describe
'7717092' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZSF' 'sip-files00013.tif'
72cdbff9a81a3b237547b32d36b67c60
e62dadb41b50f68626f2ecb429b80c8bd6b61ef9
'2012-04-06T10:55:52-04:00'
describe
'3314' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZSG' 'sip-files00013.txt'
b03b375453cda95be5863e31686c7c77
c17c37c1ded7165c50e8550183a3164111c71cad
describe
'30703' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZSH' 'sip-files00013thm.jpg'
dd8f2b5eaa6248cc5a685231fbee175e
7399a6a883986091e6803879fee8a245945933df
describe
'955070' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZSI' 'sip-files00014.jp2'
6f449a6acca39cebe45788d1522a60a4
4d006af75afc05bbb205df39dc577b936359fb81
describe
'181885' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZSJ' 'sip-files00014.jpg'
45de77a535a5b58440d32b18bf202975
393031ae8643e50a41ff044e04a666cdf7671e62
describe
'751549' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZSK' 'sip-files00014.pdf'
87daa9d757d058282535028808ed9a53
dd0db23a1a702667dd8c0c62703a418f55cbc174
'2012-04-06T10:56:13-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZSK-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AADZSK-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
describe
'2015-05-15T18:24:37-04:00'
normalize
'97731' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZSL' 'sip-files00014.pro'
b528bb35b8767d853ea9d606236ceca0
430d3e487d281a42f5f00892bb463b30b694331e
describe
'61705' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZSM' 'sip-files00014.QC.jpg'
1c8a113d89875331e6ff4c58ea0ccc8c
00505c197364040861a27ddca7c6cb5683e6b5ba
describe
'7661796' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZSN' 'sip-files00014.tif'
d35b73a6844b677cff9ee7a0fab3fb28
9ad3176964cfa283e7b39ef7100080ae97a34f4e
'2012-04-06T10:55:20-04:00'
describe
'3788' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZSO' 'sip-files00014.txt'
2e9591e3ddc0a5646a01b7009348bd6a
3ec542b404a1f30b43707004d1d21235075d0ec1
describe
'31034' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZSP' 'sip-files00014thm.jpg'
eda59206532414c4fde691444bad25d2
a092506b32f3422f87ab45afea57766cf73ad522
'2012-04-06T10:55:41-04:00'
describe
'961972' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZSQ' 'sip-files00015.jp2'
d82ca6ae7950eb2a7bf5eb2092f6c0ed
dec71b158910d98509ec85118f2413f66c54d64e
describe
'165284' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZSR' 'sip-files00015.jpg'
7ce630a1dbc3c42ca4a568b2c3fda578
5b06c6b1959e7d6cda41a5b723e59b88568e8757
describe
'745053' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZSS' 'sip-files00015.pdf'
af1b4150f59101a7531f8d15e309e0e9
4b94cc4e21e10b9b7a3d4f514d504e0b0b783a15
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZSS-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AADZSS-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
describe
'2015-05-15T18:24:34-04:00'
normalize
'71552' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZST' 'sip-files00015.pro'
f5a19c6dd1d357ed18a7eabb1b87e79e
1d33f35fb1fa98bfdfb9b6f5f8a9ebcc9b592161
describe
'59304' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZSU' 'sip-files00015.QC.jpg'
6e2a32dc5fb9dcec8e202b535a73586d
e2448b46e78715410a6fcc46b22b27d18b764b28
describe
'7717160' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZSV' 'sip-files00015.tif'
565dbc8ef2589aa27226bac60f70cbe1
29b586f7cc783d489357454e124f1b639f9e4741
describe
'2864' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZSW' 'sip-files00015.txt'
ef4e9c713d4eda5f64273aa7d561dbd7
a999d7f82e0c9707381989e78527d685cd52f23c
describe
'30854' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZSX' 'sip-files00015thm.jpg'
14f4a137c3d3583d8fb22567bb94dc37
538da99f0aa0346f62ddf00a591257e61edc5509
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZSY' 'sip-files00016.jp2'
4080ac58a5970c8213d591e8379f3ac2
e87cfaed98666351179da295c6ba0f49f9cfb9ee
'2012-04-06T10:55:26-04:00'
describe
'167223' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZSZ' 'sip-files00016.jpg'
e666cd1c207afff66e4380170d2ae991
6ab1241604a4d28336fc9c947b8b6f6da4c00dd7
describe
'710031' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZTA' 'sip-files00016.pdf'
7ffaaf6835927bc3c4797c0d4a125db3
90db800d02d61a8436dee69285a2a44edc8372e5
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZTA-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AADZTA-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
describe
'2015-05-15T18:24:28-04:00'
normalize
'87218' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZTB' 'sip-files00016.pro'
b00685f0d44357ece0a8b479db7ae11e
563b4b56b9bdf56ced0d59f202e35c20201df3f0
describe
'58672' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZTC' 'sip-files00016.QC.jpg'
acdb5ca35271b0ad3228f0fe3bd40bc7
0ca1c3d69c5414c8b4c4d8d79bb7da78debf9ca9
describe
'7716360' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZTD' 'sip-files00016.tif'
e02fe5cb7cedef9f3fbfd5c1a5443b0c
c1012e3f8c948cce805aaf58bc12bd156936153c
describe
'3547' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZTE' 'sip-files00016.txt'
b3f3c264028c2df0dcdf015d1af982b3
8547c192bd42c5b049aebb15993627e8df370959
describe
'29771' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZTF' 'sip-files00016thm.jpg'
88f2da14237aef49236ade964040827f
4a54c64f0b27481fe2ff8206b3efd988536aa4fc
describe
'961952' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZTG' 'sip-files00017.jp2'
92bcab77e0e105a7e254fdf520e7f239
5dacafb88cc8c47eeced19641a9b7a87357a618c
describe
'87333' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZTH' 'sip-files00017.jpg'
de03c6980be4e2c5a1ee199fdd309cea
6c8e7d28ee93680b0f1e61bdb63a46cfb2351b33
describe
'406108' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZTI' 'sip-files00017.pdf'
4ceb222863f4432ef7b4cb6e5de34d01
203ca4e749efdbec539543b391d6203b8cb5b6f1
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZTI-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AADZTI-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
describe
'2015-05-15T18:24:02-04:00'
normalize
'33248' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZTJ' 'sip-files00017.pro'
f2a33c9a10b3f975355cfe5d4c3236ff
997affd73ff19e16f9fb15980da2ab7560e34269
describe
'32156' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZTK' 'sip-files00017.QC.jpg'
ace7e7ac19a0a06fbe21558d6ab00e29
6d6b3de6db6b3d57e56ed1327a52e77ce3eb300c
describe
'7709316' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZTL' 'sip-files00017.tif'
e3ac53ccdaddaf829f550075a9debe00
7ab2afb4877b140c558e4dacc573a65734966dcd
'2012-04-06T10:55:00-04:00'
describe
'1337' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZTM' 'sip-files00017.txt'
4fa94653c0bdbb803dd99cdc2fdc8de1
ed719f0a83edab9f948873a51197ac5f6c8fa45b
describe
'18414' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZTN' 'sip-files00017thm.jpg'
ef6ef7f91a20810e2d173e7e4b2a0087
33834d6e79325638538003ede0134fe6a23c924b
describe
'34904' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZTO' 'sip-files00020.jp2'
38847a4630faecbae1bea1d76c1ab31e
e295b20107c0a3a03364467a645d0cecca5fab31
describe
'32688' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZTP' 'sip-files00020.jpg'
9057e3d05eba21b4545c9e952d2b8132
792e822dd39a9ef904541b7c60c0a83aef8de797
describe
'17878' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZTQ' 'sip-files00020.pdf'
b0237707a21ef121de90720df8630d41
ac9eb6ef2c96fd04bbcb30e7e65dccae8bcc21c1
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZTQ-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AADZTQ-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
describe
'2015-05-15T18:24:11-04:00'
normalize
'27945' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZTR' 'sip-files00020.pro'
aac1b06343b40585629e08054402eeb9
4cf0fd1143bdfdbe384c3eb4f97d01d3c5118a77
describe
'16150' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZTS' 'sip-files00020.QC.jpg'
cd74ceaa19741ce33408c7f0ad021032
f69edf8bebad25bda5e9939ddb5adba50e6acf37
describe
'973632' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZTT' 'sip-files00020.tif'
ce8115a9079aef555d5497805ce03328
141f03bcb843b070fcc98f4692f61573e64fcf81
describe
'1119' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZTU' 'sip-files00020.txt'
a26f2872e47189948ae71088e1e6926a
4eba46a41d203b51cc35ebeeb024f82c22251442
describe
'11668' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZTV' 'sip-files00020thm.jpg'
71c5c1991c977834571c697745f918cc
91a9cd055e9d1e391c9f833cd5c2e8328e747699
describe
'8' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZTW' 'sip-filesprocessing.instr'
095cd9cd5c2970c936c019bdff8ca83d
24003965d8c90859b23b399fe8801132d62778cd
describe
'38990' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZTX' 'sip-filesUF00014462_00001.mets'
1fbf4ed8636d988d0d9ce26595184ddb
75c4bb06defb250eb4f063a5a4d0edd787ec5112
describe
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'2015-05-15T18:24:44-04:00' 'mixed'
xml resolution
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
BROKEN_LINK schema http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
The element type "div" must be terminated by the matching end-tag "
".
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'48230' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABYHfileF20090919_AADZUA' 'sip-filesUF00014462_00001.xml'
a0c8e11beeff150eca0e7bc2192e1372
e837e8537d67cf2088aeecc19ea2bee11326088a
'2012-04-06T10:55:35-04:00'
describe
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
xml resolution
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
The element type "div" must be terminated by the matching end-tag "".
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.



PAGE 1

S' Microirrigation systems are characterized by the use of small diameter, flexible plastic lateral pipes and operation at low pressures. Normally only a fraction of the crop root zone is irrigated, and frequent, small irrigations, which keep the irrigated zone near field capacity, are practiced. Chemicals, especially fertilizers and cleaning agents, are often applied through microirrigation systems. The term "microirrigation" is a general term Swhich includes several specific types of systems, including drip, spray (or microsprinkler), bubbler, line source perforated pipes or seepage hoses, or other similar types of systems. With microirrigation, the levels of management, water treatment, and filtration generally exceed those associated with other types of irrigation systems. Drip Drip types of microirrigation systems apply water from discrete point source emitters attached to or molded into lateral pipes (Fig. 19). Emitter discharges are in the form of small streams or individual drops, with flow rates ranging from 0.3 to 2 gph, but most commonly being 1 gph. Operating pressures typically range from 6 to 30 psi. Figure 19. Spaghetti tube drip emitters are used to apply water to each individual container in this ornamental nursery. In Florida, drip irrigation systems are primarily used in vegetable (especially tomato and pepper), ornamental (container nurseries), and fruit crop (citFluctuating w er tale sste s rus) production systems. Because of system costs, water table systems they are not used in agronomic (field) crops. Fluctuating water table seepage irrigation systems are systems in which water tables are permitEmitters are typically placed on or slightly below ted to fluctuate on a daily basis as water is only apthe soil surface or under the plastic mulch in plied intermittently in an effort to reduce runoff. These systems shut off irrigation pumps when water tables are high and runoff begins to occur. Pumps are re-started when water tables drop to critical levels, or during peak ET times of the day. Fluctuating water table systems are less frequently used than constant water table systems because higher levels of management are required, the potential for leaching crop nutrients is increased, and yield reductions occur when water tables fluctuate excessively. Microirrigation systems Microirrigation systems are those which use low flow rate emitting devices (emitters) to place water on the soil surface near the plants being irrigated or Figure 20. Spray (microsprinkler) emitters irrigate a large fracbelow the surface directly into the plant root zone. tion of the tree root zone in this citrus production system. 11



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irrigated, thus they do not need to be moved between irrigations. The entire production area under a semi-permanent solid set system is not necessarily irrigated at once. In many cases, valves are used to control flow to individual laterals or zones. In other cases, such as when required for freeze protection, the entire field may be irrigated at once. In both cases, labor costs for system operation are low, because irrigations are controlled simply by opening and closing valves rather than by moving pipe. Solid set, semi-permanent systems typically conFigure 7. Center pivot irrigation laterals are supported by large sist of sprinlers monted on por lA-frames with drive wheels for self-propelled operation. sist of sprinklers mounted on portable aluminum pipe. Because the entire production area is simultaneously covered with pipe and sprinklers, the iniused only on high cash value crops including citrus, tial system cost is much greater than the cost of a strawberries, ornamental ferns and other nursery portable sprinkler system. Field traffic problems crops. may also exist because the pipe remains in place on the soil surface during the irrigation season. In As with semi-permanent solid set systems, the Florida, these irrigation systems are primarily used entire production area under a permanent solid set for vegetable and sod production. system is not necessarily irrigated at once. Valves are often used to control flow to individual zones. Permanent sprinkler irrigation systems However, when required for freeze protection, plant establishment, or crop cooling, the entire field may There are two types of permanent irrigation sysbe irrigated at once. In both cases, labor costs for tems: solid set and self-propelled irrigation syssystem operation are low because water delivery to tems. Both types are commonly used in Florida. a zone is controlled by simply opening and closing valves rather than by moving pipe. Solid set irrigation systems Permanent solid set irrigation systems are sysSelf-propelled sprinkler irrigation systems tems which consist of permanently placed pipes Self-propelled irrigation systems are those which and sprinklers. In Florida, lateral, manifold, and operate under their own power. During irrigation, mainline pipes are typically buried, and only the they move slowly and continuously across the field sprinklers and risers extend above the ground suras it is being irrigated. There are two types of selfface (Fig. 6). Because pipes and sprinklers are repropelled multiple sprinkler irrigation systems quired to cover the entire production surface, perwhich are being manufactured: center pivot and manent solid set systems are usually considerably lateral-move systems. more expensive than other types of irrigation systems. Therefore, permanent systems are typically Center pivot irrigation systems. These systems consist of sprinklers which are mounted on a lateral pipe which is supported approximately 10"12 ft above the ground by large A-frames (Fig. 7). The lateral is fixed to a pivot point at one end. Water is supplied at the pivot point. In most systems, the lateral rotates around the pivot point and irrigates a circular or part-circle area in the center of a square block of land (Fig. 8). Most center pivot systems are equipped with a large diameter end gun. The end gun operation is Figure 6. Pipelines are buried In permanent solid set sprinkler normally limited to a 180-degree arc, and its applisystems used for strawberry production. cation is directed to areas beyond the lateral pipe4



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couplers are more technically complicated and expensive than the other methods of supplying water to a lateral-move irrigation system. Lateral-move irrigation systems are more expensive than center pivots. Thus, these systems are primarily used in areas where the value of land dictates the use of systems which are adapted to rectangular land areas, and for irrigation of very large land areas so that the cost per acre is lower. Lateral-move systems are not commonly used in Florida. Single sprinkler (gun) irrigation systems Figure 11. Portable gun system for field crop rrigation in north Florida. Gun sprinklers are very large sprinklers which operate at high pressures (Fig. 10). Nozzle sizes per gun) areas, and they are easily transported becommonly range to over 1-inch in diameter. Prestween fields. Guns also have relatively low initial sures required for proper operation typically range sts s ed o eranent or or scosts as compared to permanent or portable solid set from 80 to 120 psi, with 100 psi being very common. irrigation systems, and they require less labor than While flow rates may range up to 1000 gpm for very por table multi-sprin ter systems. large guns, rates of 500 to 600 gpm are very common for large field scale guns. Typically only one or two guns are used in a gun irrigation system. Portable gun systems Portable gun irrigation systems (Fig. 11) are Gun irrigation systems require large energy inwidely used in Florida. Guns may be moved by puts per unit of water delivered because of their puts p1ers ut of water delivered because of their hand, but due to their size, they are typically towed high operating pressures. They also have relatively with tractors. high labor requirements, both to move the portable guns between sets and to set up the self-propelled (traveling) guns. Despite these limitations, gun Hand-moved portable guns systems are popular in Florida. They are flexible, Hand-moved portable guns have larger labor rethat is, they allow irrigation of oddly-shaped fields, quirements than other types of guns because they they are available in a range of sizes to permit irrimust be manually moved between sets, and a gun is gation of small to relatively large (up to 90 acres a relatively large item of equipment. Hand-moved guns are most adaptable to relatively small acreages. They are commonly used to irrigate small fields of vegetables, melons, and tobacco, especially in north Florida. Water for hand-moved portable guns is typically supplied by either portable aluminum pipe or large diameter flexible hoses. Tractor-moved portable guns Tractor-moved guns are mounted on skids or wheels to facilitate moving them between sets. Less labor is required, thus permitting them to be used on larger acreages than hand-moved guns. Self-propelled (traveling) gun systems Traveling guns are widely used in Florida. These Figure 10. Gun sprinklers use large diameter nozzles to disare self-propelled irrigation systems. Two types of charge high flow rates at high pressures. 6



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vegetables, melons, and citrus in Florida. They are widely used throughout the state, although their high operating costs have caused some systems to be replaced by more energy-efficient microirrigation systems, especially for perennial crops such as citrus. Hose-reel traveling guns A hose-reel traveling gun uses a large reel unit to wind up the hose and retract the gun (Fig. 13). The hose is semi-rigid and does not collapse on the reel, so that water can be continuously pumped through it during operation. The hose and gun are laid out in Figure 12. A cable-tow traveling gun pulls itself through the the desired direction of travel. The reel is then used field by winding up a cable anchored at the edge of the field. to retract the hose and gun at slow speeds, irrigating as the gun is retracted. traveling gun systems are in common use. They Hose-reel systems require less labor than cableboth use the same types of guns for water distributow systems because they are easier to set up for option, but they are different with respect to the way eration. A typical 500 gpm hose-reel traveling gun the guns are moved through the field. With both systems the guns are mounted on carts or trailers can irrigate up to 90 acres. However, these systems systems the guns are mounted on carts or trailers are more expensive than cable-tow systems, thus that are slowly and continuously moved through e ae nt isae a cable-tow systems, they have not displaced all cable-tow systems. the field as the guns operate. The rate of water application and total depth applied depend on the Hose-reel systems are used for the same crops as flow rate from the gun, the diameter of coverage, cable-tow gun systems. In addition, thee is some and the speed at which the gun travels, cable-tow gun systems. In addition, there is some and the speed at which the gun travels. use of hose-reel systems for the establishment of transplanted vegetable crops. The smaller cart on Cable-tow traveling guns which the hose-reel gun is mounted permits use in Cable-tow systems automatically tow a large gun row crops without the need for a wide travel lane to Cable-tow systems automatically tow a large gun tow the hose behind the gun. through the field by winding up a cable (Fig. 12). tow the hose behid the gun. The gun is mounted on a cart which also contains a cable reel and winch. The cable is stretched across Surface irrigation systems the field in the desired direction of travel, and the end of the cable is firmly anchored at the end of the Surface irrigation systems are those in which watravel lane. As water flows to the gun, an impeller ter is applied on the soil surface and is distributed drive unit or water piston is used to power the winch. Thus, the cable-tow traveling gun pulls itself across the field by winding up the cable. The speed of travel is adjustable from only a few feet per minute (fpm) to 10 or more fpm. Water is supplied to the gun by a collapsible, flexible hose that is also towed by the system. A travel lane approximately 10 ft wide is required for this type of traveling gun because the flexible hose loops behind the cart. Because they are set up to irrigate long travel lanes, cable-tow systems require much less labor than portable guns. Travel lane lengths of up to 1320 ft are typical. A typical 500 gpm cable-tow traveling gun can irrigate up to 80 acres. * Despite the high cost of gun operation, cable-tow Figure 13. A hose-reel traveling gun winds up the hose on a systems are commonly used to irrigate field crops, large reel to move the gun during Irrigation. 7



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TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction ................................... .......... 1 Sprinkler irrigation systems ................. .............. .1 Multiple sprinkler systems ................. ............ .. .2 Portable sprinkler systems ............................ 2 Hand-moved systems ............................ 2 Tractor-moved systems ........................... 3 Self-moved systems ............................. .3 Side-wheel-roll sprinkler systems .................. 3 Side-move sprinkler systems ................... .. 3 Semi-permanent sprinkler systems ................... .. 3 Permanent sprinkler irrigation systems ................. .4 Solid set irrigation systems ................... .... .4 Self-propelled sprinkler irrigation systems ............. .4 Center pivot irrigation systems ................. .. .4 Lateral-move irrigation systems .................. .5 Single sprinkler (gun) irrigation systems ................... ..6 Portable gun systems ........................... ... .6 Hand-moved portable guns ................... ... .6 Tractor-moved portable guns ................... .... 6 Self-propelled (traveling) gun systems .................. .6 Cable-tow traveling guns .......................... 7 Hose-reel traveling guns .......................... 7 Surface irrigation systems ................. ................. 7 Level systems ............................. ........ .... 8 Level furrows ................................ .... .8 Level borders .................. .... ............ .8 Basins ................................ ..... ....... 8 Graded system s ............................... ....... .8 Graded furrows ................. ................. 9 Contour furrows ................ ..... ........... .9 Corrugations .............................. ..........9 Graded borders .................................9. Flooding .............................. ....... ..... 9 Subirrigation (seepage) systems ........................... .10 Constant water table systems .......................... .10 Fluctuating water table systems ................. ....... ..11 Microirrigation systems .............. .......... ........... 11 Drip .................................... ........... 11 Spray (microsprinkler) .............................. ..12 Bubbler ................................. .......... 12 Line-source ............................ ............ 12 Summary .............................................13



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Side-wheel-roll sprinkler systems. These systems use laterals which serve as the axle for wheels located along the length of the lateral. This system is moved between sets by rotating the lateral pipe (axle). The lateral pipe is typically rotated by a chain drive system powered by a small gasolinepowered engine located near the center of the lateral. Sprinklers are kept in an upright position for effective operation by means of a weighted swivel coupling on each sprinkler. Figure 4. Side-wheel-roll sprinkler system irrigating cabbage transplants for establishmqnt. Because the lateral pipe is mounted only 3-4 ft above the soil surface, this system is only adaptable ous field shapes and sizes, and (3) can be moved to short crops. Few of these systems are used in with many Florida vegetable crops which are roFlorida. The most common applications are for tated from field-to-field to avoid disease problems vegetables, short forage crops, and turf production. or on rented land. A limitation to the use of portable hand-moved systems is the large labor reSide-move sprinkler systems. These systems quirements to move the pipe between zones. Beuse a lateral pipe mounted on a short A-frame 4-5 cause the pipes must be manually moved, these ft above the soil surface. Each A-frame is supsystems are not adaptable to tall crops such as ported by 2 wheels, which are typically powered by corn, or other crops which would prohibit easily a chain-drive mechanism from a drive shaft that moving the system. runs parallel to the lateral pipe along the length of the lateral. These systems are more expensive, but have no appreciable advantages over side-wheelTractor-moved systems roll systems for Florida crop production systems. Portable tractor-moved sprinkler systems consist Thus, they are not commonly used in Florida. of sprinklers mounted on portable aluminum lateral pipes which are rigidly connected and mounted on wheels or skids. The laterals are towed between Semi-permanent sprinkler systems zones by pulling from the ends of the laterals with A semi-permanent sprinkler irrigation system a tractor. These systems are more expensive than (Fig. 5) is a system which is set up and left in place portable hand-moved systems, but have lower labor throughout the crop growing season, after which it requirements. They are only used on short crops is manually removed and stored for the next growwhich are not disturbed by the skids or tractor trafing season. Components of the system, such as the fic. These systems are most adaptable to larger main or manifold pipelines are often permanently land areas (longer lateral lengths) than handinstalled. A type of semi-permanent multiple sprinmoved systems, or heavier soils than typical kler irrigation system used in Florida is the solid Florida sands so that less frequent moves are reset system. Solid set systems are those in which the quired. Therefore, portable tractor-moved sprinlaterals and sprinklers cover the entire field to be kler systems are not often used in Florida. Self-moved systems Portable self-moved sprinkler systems consist of sprinklers mounted on aluminum lateral pipes which are mounted above the soil surface on wheels (Fig. 4). They also contain the mechanical components required to move the system, thus making these systems more expensive than hand or tractormoved systems. There are 2 types of self-moved sprinkler systems, classified by the method of movement: (a) Side-wheel-roll, and (b) Side-move Figure 5. Semi-permanent sprinkler system with portable latsprinkler systems. erals fed from permanent underground pipelines. 3



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Introduction Microirrigation systems (about 450,000 acres) are the newest and most rapidly increasing type of sysIrrigation is extensively used for crop production tem. Only about 100,000 acres are surface (flood) in Florida. Currently, more than two million acres irrigated. of cropland are irrigated. Florida's large irrigated acreage is due to low water-holding capacity soils and nonuniform rainfall distributions, despite large Sprinkler irrigation systems annual rainfall amounts. The high cash values of many crops grown, and the sensitivity of yield and Sprinkler irrigation systems are systems in many crops grown, and the sensitivity of yield and which water is applied by spraying it through the quality to drought stress provide the economic inair from nozzles mounted on pressurized pipelines. centives for irrigation. Thus, water applications approximate rainfall, and y d t t s of i s a systems are designed to apply water uniformly over Many different types of irrigation systems are .the crop production area. used in Florida. This occurs because of the great variety of crops, the relative availability of water, diverse hydrological conditions, the costs of differkler b ody throuh wich wter is ducharged under ent systems, and the fact that all irrigation systems k ler bod y through whic water roae or be fied und are not adaptable to all types of crops and crop proozzles may either rotate or be fed Rduction systems Irrigation system selection is also tating nozzles are typically impact-driven, gearduction systems. Irrigation system selection is also driven, or driven by the reaction as the jet of water affected by soil type. The deep sandy ridge soils redischarged. All of these methods use the energy to be transp d i pie ad p -is discharged. All of these methods use the energy quire water to be transported in pipes and pressurof the flowing water to make the system operate. ized irrigation systems to be used, while the high Individual sprinklers apply water to a circular or water table flatwoods and muck soils permit the water tale flatwoods and m soils ermt te part-circle pattern created by the nozzle rotation. use of gravity-flow irrigation systems and open dhes. Mcroirrigation systems are b ming inA typical impact sprinkler is shown in Fig. 1. ditches. Microirrigation systems are becoming increasingly popular, especially in areas where periFixed (spray) nozzle systems use a rigidlyFixed (spray) nozzle systems use a rigidlyodic water shortages have occurred. Sprinkler sysmounted nozzle which discharges against a deflectems may be required for irrigation for freeze protor plate to distribute water (Fig. 2). Circular, parttection, transplant establishment, crop cooling, and cir, s r, or rectangular water application patcircle, square, or rectangular water application patsome field preparation procedures. terns are possible, depending on the nozzle and de.flector design. Irrigation systems can be grouped into four general classes, all of which are in use in Florida. The irrigation vary widely. Nozzle sizes for sprinkler irrigation vary widely. four classes are: (1) sprinkler, (2) surface, (3) Sizes range from very small (1/8-inch or smaller) Sizes range from very small (1/8-inch or smaller) subirrigation (seepage), and (4) microirrigation. diameters which discharge only 1 to 2 gallons per Most Florida acreage (about 900,000 acres) is irri-meters which discharge only 1 to 2 gallons per Most Florida acreage minute (gpm) to very large (over 1-inch) diameters gated with seepage systems. Sprinkler systems which discharge up to 1000 gpm. rank second, irrigating almost 600,000 acres. Figure 1. Typical Impact-type rotating sprinkler. Figure 2. Typical fixed nozzle (spray) Irrigation sprinkler. 1



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mulched vegetable production systems. Because drip emitters rely on the soil hydraulic properties to distribute water, and typical Florida sandy soils limit lateral unsaturated water movement, spray (or microsprinkler) emitters have become more popular in those tree crop production systems where it is desirable to irrigate a significant fraction of the tree root zone with relatively few emitters. Spray (microsprinkler) Spray or microsprinkler types of microirrigation systems, like drip systems, emit water at discrete points. However, emitters typically have flow rates much greater than drip emitters. Flow rates norSgrete thn dip emitter. F rates or Figure 22. Line-source microirrigation systems require a latmally range from 8 to 30 gph, with 15 to 20 gph eral under the plastic mulch of each crop row for tomato proemitters being very common. Spray emitters disduction. tribute water by spraying it through the air over diameters of 5 to 25 ft, depending on the crop being irrigated. Emitters are typically mounted on short Bubbler (6 to 12-inch) risers above the ground surface to imBubblers are relatively large flow rate prove distribution patterns. microirrigation emitters (Fig. 21). Flow rates are pry r are mos use typically 1-gpm or greater. Because of the high Spray emitters are most commonly used in citrus flow rates, relatively large orifice sizes are used, microirrigation systems (Fig. 20). In citrus, the adand clogging is typically not a problem, even withvantage of distributing water over a large diameter out filtration. However, the high flow rates may as compared to the much smaller diameter of drip result in runoff rather than infiltration into the emitters has been demonstrated to increase yields. soil. Thus, bubbler systems are typically only used The larger flow rates and orifice sizes also reduce in containers such as large ornamental planters or filtration requirements and clogging problems. in individual tree basins, which retain the water S and prevent runoff. Also, bubblers are typically opBoth spinners and fixed deflectors are used to diserated only a few minutes per irrigation, because tribute the water from spray emitters. The fixed dethe required water volumes can be applied in a flector type are more often used because the moving short period of time. parts in spinner emitters sometimes fail to function under field conditions. Line-source Line-source microirrigation systems use laterals with very closely spaced emitters, or either perforated or porous tubing are used rather than discrete emitters. Water is emitted either continuously along the lateral lengths, or at close intervals so that the wetting patterns overlap and approximate that of a continuous line source. Line-source tubing laterals are used in Florida vegetable, strawberry and ornamental (bedded flower) production systems (Fig. 22). These are -typically thin-walled tubing of the disposable, layflat type that have perforations or emitters molded into the tubes at 6 to 24-inch intervals along their lengths. Because of the limited water movement for typical sandy soils, 8 to 12-inch spacings are Figure 21. Bubblers have high flow rates and require some commonly used. means of containing the water to prevent runoff. 12



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Summary Irrigation is extensively practiced in Florida beScause of typical low water-holding capacity sandy tivity to drought stress of the many high cash value crops grown. Irrigation systems can be classified as sprinkler, surface, subirrigation (seepage), and microirrigation. Irrigation system characteristics, applications, advantages and limitations were preSsented for systems in each of these classes, with emphasis on systems commonly used in Florida. The choice of an irrigation system for a specific application requires careful consideration of economics, yield potential, water supply quantity and qualFigure 23. Installation of line-source porous pipe ity, soil, crop and cultural characteristics, design microirrigation laterals for subsurface irrigation of a small turf limitations and management, maintenance and laplot. bor requirements. Another common application of line-source tubing is porous tubing which is buried or placed under mulch in turf and landscape irrigation systems (Fig. 23). Buried porous tubing can be used to avoid overspray of water from roadway medium strips and other turf areas where the sprayed water might cause an inconvenience or hazard. 13



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February 1992 Circular 1035 Florida Irrigation Systems Allen G. Smajstrla and Gary A. Clark Florida Cooperative Extension Service Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences University of Florida John T. Woeste, Dean


xml record header identifier oai:www.uflib.ufl.edu.ufdc:UF0001446200001datestamp 2009-04-07setSpec [UFDC_OAI_SET]metadata oai_dc:dc xmlns:oai_dc http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc xmlns:dc http:purl.orgdcelements1.1 xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc.xsd dc:title Florida irrigation systems Circular Florida Cooperative Extension Service dc:creator Smajstrla, A. G ( Allen George )Clark, Gary Adc:subject Irrigation -- Florida ( lcsh )dc:description b Statement of Responsibility Allen G. Smajstrla and Gary A. Clark.Cover title."February 1992."dc:publisher Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Floridadc:type Bookdc:format 13 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.dc:identifier http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/ufdc/?b=UF00014462&v=00001AAA6895 (LTQF)AJC9168 (LTUF)25677567 (OCLC)001716769 (ALEPHBIBNUM)dc:source University of Floridadc:language English



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across the surface by the soil hydraulic characterisphon tubes from open ditches or by gates or valves tics or by flooding the entire area to be irrigated, from gated aluminum pipes. Surface irrigation is primarily applicable on heavier clay and loam soils which have finer texIn Florida, a type of level furrow irrigation systural classifications and lower hydraulic conductivitem is used to irrigate bedded citrus on flatwoods ties than typical Florida sandy soils. Where such (high water table) soils. This "crown flood" irrigated heavy soils exist in Florida (primarily in north citrus is irrigated by allowing water inflow to large Florida, near Georgia and Alabama), irrigation is furrows between the citrus beds (Fig. 14), allowing not generally practiced because of the high waterthe water to stand in the furrows for 8 to 24 hours, holding capacities of these soils and Florida's large and then draining the furrows by pumping the waannual rainfall. Thus, except for rice flood irrigater to the next citrus grove. In these systems, wation systems and citrus crown flood systems, surter is applied through large diameter conduits from face irrigation is not commonly used in Florida. a large manifold or header ditch. Level systems Level borders Level surface irrigation systems are those in Borders are typically rectangular blocks of land which the soil surface is essentially level and the bordered by soil ridges (levees or borders) 1 to 2 ft water moves across the surface primarily due to the high. The borders retain the water applied within difference in water depths. These systems are irrithe area tobe irrigated. Water s typically applied gated by applying water at high rates across the by large gates from open ditches, portable gated soil surface to wet the surface as quickly as pospipe, or valves from underground pipelines. Less sible, and then continuing to apply water at refrequently, siphon tubes are used in open ditches. sible, and then continuing to apply water at reduced rates while infiltration occurs simultaRice irrigation systems are the only level border neously across the entire field being irrigated. The Rice irrigation systems are the only level border water is applied and then allowed to stand and insurface irrigation system used in Florida (Fig. 15). water is applied and then allowed to stand and infiltrate until all of that applied has infiltrated. Levees (borders) maintain water depths in each Normally several inches (2 to 6 inches) are applied paddy (border) within about 1 inch of the average per irrigation. depth. Water levels are maintained above the soil p surface to flood the area for weed control. Water levels in each paddy are maintained by drop strucLevel furrows tures or weirs which are set at the required water Level furrows are used in row crop production elevation. Runoff from each paddy flows into the systems. Crops are planted on beds and water is next downstream paddy. directed into the furrows, normally into each or every other furrow. Water is typically applied by siBasins Basins are small border areas, primarily used for permanent crops such as orchards or vineyards, but S also used for some ornamental crops. Basins may Sencompass only one or several trees or other plants. Irrigation may be applied by risers from underground pipelines into individual basins, or by any of the other methods discussed for level border systems. Graded systems Graded surface irrigation systems are those in which the field slope is large enough that it significantly influences the way that water must be managed to obtain uniform water applications. Graded systems are typically irrigated by initially applying water at high rates to wet the entire surface, then Figure 14. Field ditches are flooded with water for crown flood reducing the application rate or pulsing the appliIrrigation of citrus. 8



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Operating pressures also vary widely, ranging from only 10 pounds per square inch (psi) to over 100 psi. Larger nozzles usually require larger operating pressures to provide sufficient energy for proper water distribution. Rotating nozzle sprinklers have much larger diameters of coverage than fixed nozzle sprinklers. As a result, they are most commonly used in large field systems where it is desirable to uniformly distribute water over large areas with as few sprinklers as possible. Spray nozzles are used in applications where the diameters of coverage are not as critical, such as small plot areas and in self-propelled irrigation systems (center pivots and linear Figure 3. Portable sprinkler irrigation system with impact move systems) where the irrigation system travels sprinklers installed on aluminum lateral pipelines. over the area to be irrigated. and remain in place while irrigation occurs, then Many types of sprinkler irrigation systems are in use, ranging from small, portable manually-operthey are moved to a new location (zone, or set) and the process is repeated. These systems are typiated systems to large permanent, automaticallythe process is repeated. These systems are typioperated systems. Sprinkler systems are classified cally designed with sufficient capacity to irrigate all Ste oo eto of this circar ad tica zones in time to be returned to the first zone before in the following sections of this circular, andplant water stress occurs. There are three typesof plant water stress occurs. There are three types of portable sprinkler systems based on the method used to move the lateral pipes and sprinklers beMultiple sprinkler systems tween irrigations: hand-moved, tractor-moved, and self-moved. Multiple sprinkler systems use many small sprinklers with overlapping patterns. The amount of overlap is critical to achieve high uniformity of Hand-moved systems water application. Sprinklers are typically overPortable, hand-moved sprinkler systems are lapped 50% to 60% of their diameters of coverage manually-moved from zone to zone. They consist of under low wind (less than 5 mph) conditions. sprinklers mounted on portable aluminum lateral Greater overlaps (and thus closer spacings) are repipes, usually using short risers. Aluminum pipe is quired for higher wind speed conditions. used because it is strong, light-weight, resistant to degradation by sunlight, and easily transported In multiple sprinkler systems, sprinklers are and connected with quick-connect couplings. Short mounted on a lateral pipe or network of lateral risers are typically used because the laterals are pipes which carry water to the sprinklers. Water is not firmly anchored, and tall risers tend to lean or supplied to the laterals from manifold (header) or fall. main pipelines, depending on the system design. Multiple sprinkler systems are classified as porLaterals may be connected to portable aluminum table, semi-permanent, or permanent based on manifold and mainline pipes, which may also be whether the sprinklers and pipelines are moved moved between sets. Buried PVC mainlines and from location-to-location between irrigation sets or manifolds are sometimes installed, and lateral conwhether the components are permanently buried in nections are made through permanent hydrant the field. valves which bring the water to the surface. These systems are sometimes called semi-permanent because the mainlines are permanently installed and Portable sprinkler systems areonly the laterals are portable. the sprinklers are mounted on movable lateral pipe Portable hand-moved sprinkler systems are sections which are transported from one location to widely used in Florida because they (1) have a low another between irrigations (Fig. 3). The lateral initial cost, (2) are flexible, easily adapted to varipipes and sprinklers are set up on the soil surface 2



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pipelines. Thus, these systems are primarily being installed in areas where water shortages exist. Lateral ditches are typically spaced from 12 to 60 ft apart on sandy soils, depending on the soil hydraulic conductivity and on irrigation, drainage, cultural, and field equipment requirements. On muck soils, ditches are often wider spaced, typically from 100 to 200 ft, because of the greater conductivity of these soils. Constant water table systems Figure 17. Muck soils are seepage irrigation with widely Constant water table systems are systems in which spaced surface ditches for sugarcane production. irrigation water is applied continuously (except during, or in anticipation of rainfall) to maintain a water In Florida, both rice and citrus are irrigated with table at the height required for optimum crop growth. flood irrigation systems. Rice is produced on high Water is continuously pumped into ditches or water water table organic soils which must also be flooded furrows, and water levels are typically controlled with for another purpose, to prevent oxidation and loss of flashboard riser structures at the downstream end of the organic soil. When citrus is produced using the the irrigated field. Flow rates are often adjusted as a crown flood method, runoff water is typically used to function of stage of crop growth, time of year, and in irrigate another citrus grove in a large management some cases, even time of day. Diurnal field water area, thus the overall efficiency of water use is high. tables typically fluctuate only a few inches in response to changes in ET rates during the day. Subirrigation (seepage) systems Constant water table seepage systems are used to Subirrigation (seepage) systems are those in irrigate large acreages of vegetables and sugarcane, which water is supplied at rates high enough to esand some citrus in Florida. Depending on field slope, tablish and maintain a water table just beneath the soil properties, ET rates, and management practices, crop root zone. Irrigation then occurs by capillary runoff often occurs from the fields. Irrigation efficienmovement of water into the crop root zone. This cies are lowest when runoff water is discharged from method of irrigation is limited to use on sandy (Fig. the irrigated field. Efficiencies are highest when run16) and muck (Fig. 17) soils with high hydraulic off is recycled or applied to other irrigated fields and conductivities in the surface soil layers, but with rewhen application rates are matched to changes in wastrictive subsurface layers and existing high water ter requirements during each day. tables. Large quantities of water must also be available to raise the water tables in addition to providing water for crop evapotranspiration (ET). Water is typically applied from a parallel network of open field ditches (water furrows) or underground pipe (drain tiles), called laterals. Open ditches are more common because underground pipe systems are more expensive, and they are sometimes clogged by bacterial activity, chemical precipitation, and other causes. The ditches are also required for surface drainage during large rainfall events. Recently, subsurface drip irrigation systems have been developed for water table control (Fig. 18). Although they are more expensive and have higher maintenance requirements than open ditches, they conserve water by avoiding runoff and standing water in ditches, and they allow more precise water Figure 18. Water tables are controlled for Irrigation without table control through the network of underground runoff using subsurface drip irrigation laterals. 10