Citation
Hatchability problem analysis

Material Information

Title:
Hatchability problem analysis
Series Title:
Circular
Creator:
Wilson, Henry R ( Henry Russell )
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Publisher:
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
11 p. : ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Eggs -- Incubation ( lcsh )
Incubators ( lcsh )
Chickens -- Hatcheries ( lcsh )
Chickens -- Diseases ( lcsh )
Eggs ( jstor )
Embryos ( jstor )
Incubators ( jstor )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 10-11).
General Note:
Title from caption.
Statement of Responsibility:
H.R. Wilson.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
AAA6834 ( LTQF )
AJU3485 ( LTUF )
29506700 ( OCLC )
021862165 ( ALEPHBIBNUM )

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Circular 1112
UNIVERSITY OFircular 1112

v' FLORIDA


Hatchability problem analysis

H. R. Wilson*

University of Florida / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / Florida Cooperative Extension Service / John T. Woeste, Dean


Introduction
When a problem occurs in hatchability, usually
it can be categorized as a hatchery, egg handling,
or breeder flock problem. If the problem has origi-
nated within the breeder flock, it is probable that
it happened at least 4 weeks earlier, assuming 3
weeks of incubation and 1 week of egg storage.
This delay in identifying a problem is costly and
may even make it impossible to determine the
cause if the effect is of short duration. It is neces-
sary to identify the problem as early as possible,
using candling at 1 week of incubation and con-
stantly monitoring unhatched eggs, to minimize
the delay in taking corrective measures. Analysis
of hatch debris does not yield definitive diagnoses;
however, it is a useful tool for determining the
most likely areas for further examination.

It is of utmost importance for hatchery, egg han-
dling, and breeder farm personnel to work together
as a team to produce top quality chicks and to iden-
tify problems when they occur. Very accurate and
complete records of the breeder flock (including
egg production, mortality, morbidity, egg weight,
shell quality, hatchability, feed consumption, and
antibody titers) and the egg history from the nest
through the hatchery are essential in providing
clues to most hatchability problems. Personnel
should be trained in recognizing problems, iden-
tifying causes, and implementing appropriate
corrective measures.

The objective of the following outline is to
suggest possible causes, and corrective measures
when appropriate, for some of the signs of trouble
observed when decreased hatchability occurs.


General comments
The magnitude of the effects of deviations from
recommended incubation conditions (temperature,

*Poultry Science Department, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32611.


humidity, turning frequency, ventilation, and
egg orientation) is a function of the severity of the
deviation, the length of time of the deviation, and
the age of the embryo at the time of the deviation.
The manifestation of abnormalities and the embry-
onic age at which mortality peaks occur due to
nutritional factors usually depend upon the sever-
ity of the nutrient deficiency, how long the defi-
ciency has existed, or how long an adequate diet
has been fed to the breeders following a deficiency.
Therefore, depletion rate, repletion rate, egg depo-
sition efficiency, interference from inhibitors, and
yolk formation time are factors that contribute to
the effects manifested in embryonic abnormalities
and mortality.


Troubleshooting:
General problems

1. Sign: Eggs candle clear; broken out eggs
show small white-dot germinal disc;
no blood. Infertile.

Causes:
a. Immature males. Males may need to be
photostimulated 2 weeks earlier than
females.
b. Males with abnormal sperm; females
with abnormal egg (germinal disc). This
occurs most often in very young or very
old breeders.
c. Too few males, resulting in infrequent mat-
ing; too many males, resulting in fighting or
interference. Ratios of 1:12 to 1:15 for light
breeds and 1:10 to 1:12 for heavy breeds are
suggested.
d. Extreme weather conditions.
e. Old breeders. Spiking with young males
may help if the problem is with the male.
f. Breeder flock disease. This is often indicated
by rough, misshaped, or thin-shelled eggs.








g. Excess body weight, especially in broiler
breeder males (>4,800 g, 10.6 lb).
h. Nutritional deficiencies or excesses; severe
feed restriction.
i. Feet and leg problems, especially in males
of heavy breeds.
j. Certain drugs, pesticides, chemicals, toxins,
or mycotoxins.
k. Parasites, such as mites.
1. Inadequate floor space.
m. Decreased mating frequency, or no mating,
is commonly seen in many of the conditions
listed above; this may often be the direct
cause of infertility.
n. Inadequate lighting (intensity or daylength).
o. Improper artificial insemination procedures
(if artificial insemination is used).

2. Sign: Eggs candle clear; broken out eggs
show enlarged germinal disc; no blood.
Fertile. Some are termed blastodermm
without embryo."

Causes:
a. Eggs stored too long. They should be stored
<7 days.
b. Eggs held under poor conditions, tempera-
ture too high or too low. Fluctuating tem-
peratures. Temperature should be 60 to
65F (15.60 to 18.30C).
c. Fumigation improper too severe or
done between 12 and 96 h of incubation.
Incorrectly spraying or foaming eggs with
disinfectant.
d. Eggs damaged during handling and trans-
port by jarring, temperature shock (tempera-
ture increased or decreased too rapidly), etc.
e. Eggshell sealed respiration inhibited.
f. High temperature in early incubation.
g. Very young or very old breeders.
h. Heredity, inbreeding, chromosome abnor-
malities, or parthenogenesis.
i. Breeder flock diseases.
j. Failure of a basic organ system to develop
normally.
k. Egg wash temperature too high.
1. Egg-borne infections (e.g., salmonella).
m. Drugs, toxins, pesticides, etc.
n. Infrequent or incomplete egg collection.
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F- 3 <

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3. Sign: Eggs candle clear; broken out eggs
show blood ring or small embryo that died
before 3 days of incubation; no dark eye
visible.

Causes:
a. Eggs stored too long or under improper
temperature.
b. Fumigation improper too severe or done
between 12 and 96 h of incubation.
c. High temperature in early incubation.
d. Low temperature in early incubation.
e. Eggs damaged during transport by jarring,
etc.
f. Breeder flock diseases.
g. Old breeders.
h. Embryological development accidents.
i. Inbreeding, chromosome abnormalities.
j. Severe nutritional deficiencies, e.g., biotin,
vitamin A, copper, vitamin E, boron, or
pantothenic acid.
k. Frequently associated with a high incidence
of infertility.
1. Drugs, toxins, or pesticides.
m. Contamination.
n. Embryos less developed at oviposition,
i.e., pre-endoderm or very early endoderm
formation.

4. Sign: Dead embryos; 3 to 6 days of incuba-
tion; yolk sac circulatory system present,
embryo on left side, no egg tooth.

Causes:
a. See causes 3.a-n.
b. Lack of ventilation, or sealed shells, carbon
dioxide >1%.
c. Improper turning 6/h; improper
turning angle.
d. Vitamin deficiencies vitamin E, riboflavin,
biotin, pantothenic acid, or linoleic acid.

5. Sign: Dead embryos; 7 to 17 days of
incubation; each embryo has egg tooth,
toenails, feather follicles (8 days), feathers
(11 days).

Causes:
a. Improper incubator temperature, humidity,
turning, ventilation. Low humidity increases
abnormalities of aortic arches (13 days).








b. Contamination.
c. Nutritional deficiencies riboflavin,
vitamin B12, biotin, niacin, pyridoxine,
pantothenic acid, phosphorus, boron, or
linoleic acid.
d. Lethal genes (>30 have been described).

6. Sign: Dead embryos; >18 days of
incubation.

Causes:
a. Improper incubator temperature, humidity,
turning, ventilation.
b. Improper hatcher temperature, humidity,
ventilation.
c. Contamination, especially from molds
(aspergillis, etc.).
d. Fumigation too severe or too prolonged.
e. Eggs chilled in transfer, or transferred too
late.
f. Broken shell pre-set, during incubation,
or at transfer.
g. Nutritional deficiencies vitamin D,
vitamin A, folic acid, or pantothenic acid,
riboflavin, vitamin E, selenium, vitamin K,
biotin, thiamin, vitamin B12, calcium,
phosphorus, manganese, or linoleic acid.
h. Embryonic malposition; embryo fails to move
into proper hatching position (see #21).
i. Embryological development accident.
Failure to change to lung respiration and all
intra-embryonic circulation, and/or to retract
the intestinal loops and yolk sac. These and
other changes are critical at this time.
j. Heredity lethal genes, chromosome
abnormalities.
k. Twinning.
1. Hatcher opened too much during pipping
and hatching.
m. Poor shell quality.
n. Breeder diseases.


Troubleshooting:
Specific problems

7. Sign: Not pipped. Full-term embryo, large
yolk sac; yolk sac may not be fully enclosed
by abdominal wall, may have residual
albumen.


Causes:
a. Inadequate turning, resulting in decreased
embryonic membrane development and
nutrient absorption.
b. Humidity too high during incubation or
after transfer.
c. Incubator temperature too low.
d. Hatcher temperature too high.
e. Eggs chilled (e.g., at transfer).
f. Nutritional deficiencies.
g. Heredity.
h. Embryological development accident.
i. Breeder diseases.
j. Inadequate ventilation.
k. Prolonged egg storage.

8. Sign: Pipped. Full-term embryo, dead in
shell.

Causes:
a. Low humidity or temperature for a pro-
longed period.
b. Low humidity during hatching.
c. High temperature during hatching.
d. Nutritional deficiencies.
e. Breeder diseases.
f. Poor ventilation.
g. Inadequate turning during first 12 days.
h. Injury during transfer.
i. Prolonged egg storage.

9. Sign: Shell partially pipped, embryo alive
or dead.

Causes:
a. See 8.a-i.
b. Excessive fumigation during hatching.
c. Eggs set small end up.

10. Sign: Chicks hatch early; tendency to be
thin and noisy.

Causes:
a. Small eggs.
b. Differences among breeds.
c. Incubator temperature too high.
d. Incubator humidity too low.








11. Sign: Chicks hatch late.


Causes:
a. Large eggs.
b. Old breeders.
c. Eggs stored too long (40 min. increase in
incubation time/day of storage, .5% to 1.2%
decrease in number hatched/day of storage).
d. Incubator temperature too low.
e. Weak embryos.
f. Inbreeding.
g. Incubator humidity too high.

12. Sign: Slow, protracted (drawn-out) hatch.

Causes:
a. Mix in the incubator of eggs stored for long
and short periods (1.2% loss of hatch/day of
storage when all eggs set at the same time;
only .5% loss/day when eggs stored for long
periods are set earlier to allow a longer
incubation period).
b. Mix of eggs from young and old breeders.
c. Mix of large and small eggs.
d. Improper egg handling.
e. Hot or cold spots in incubator or hatcher.
f. Incubator or hatcher temperature too high
or too low.
g. Room ventilation system improper; high
positive pressure or low negative pressure.
Such pressures may alter incubator or
hatcher ventilation.

13. Sign: Trays not uniform in hatch or
chick quality.

Causes:
a. Mix of large and small eggs.
b. Mix of eggs from young and old breeders.
c. Mix of eggs from different strains or breeds.
d. Some eggs stored much longer.
e. Lack of uniform ventilation in setter or
hatcher.
f. Disease or other stress in one or more
breeder flocks.
g. Variation in egg storage procedures among
flocks.


14. Sign: Sticky chicks; chicks smeared with
albumen.

Causes:
a. Low incubation temperature.
b. High incubation humidity.
c. Improper turning. This results in reduced
embryonic membrane growth and reduced
nutrient absorption.
d. Old eggs.
e. Very large eggs.

15. Sign: Chicks stuck in shell, dry; chicks with
shell fragments stuck to down feathers.

Causes:
a. Humidity too low during egg storage,
incubation, and/or hatching.
b. Improper egg turning.
c. Cracked eggs or poor shell quality.

16. Sign: Premature hatching; bloody navels.

Causes:
a. Incubator and/or hatcher temperature
too high.

17. Sign: Small chicks.

Causes:
a. Small eggs.
b. Low humidity during egg storage and/or
incubation.
c. High incubation temperature.
d. High altitude. Hatcheries at high altitudes
(>1,500 m or 4,920 ft) may need to adjust
for low humidity, carbon dioxide, and oxygen.
Atmospheric pressure <600 mmHg (-1,830 m
or 6,004 ft) reduces growth and metabolic
rate, increases loss of water from the egg.
e. Thin, porous shells.

18. Sign: Unhealed navel; dry, rough down
feathers.

Causes:
a. High incubator temperature or wide fluctua-
tions in temperature.
b. Low temperature in hatcher.
c. Humidity too high in hatcher or not lowered
when hatching complete.
d. Inadequate breeder nutrition.








19. Sign: Unhealed navel, wet, odorous;
mushy, large, soft-bodied, and lethargic
chick.

Causes:
a. Omphalitis (navel infection). Contamination
from dirty trays, unsanitary machines or
hatchery, dirty eggs, inadequate egg sanita-
tion or fumigation.
b. Low incubator temperature.
c. High incubator or hatcher humidity.
d. Inadequate ventilation.

20. Sign: Weak chicks.

Causes:
a. High hatcher temperature.
b. Poor hatcher ventilation.
c. Excessive fumigation.
d. Contamination.

21. Sign: Chicks malpositioned. Normal
position after 19 days of incubation:
embryo's long axis same as long axis of egg;
head in large end of egg; head to the right
and under right wing; beak toward air cell;
feet toward head.

Causes:
a. Eggs set small end up or in horizontal
position.
b. Inadequate or improper turning.
c. High or low incubator temperature.
d. High humidity.
e. Old breeders.
f. Round-shaped eggs or very large eggs.
g. Nutritional deficiencies, especially vitamin A
and vitamin B12.
h. Eggs handled or stored improperly.
i. Retarded development.

Embryos <18 days old may be in a position
different from that for hatching but one
normal for their age (for example, the head-
between-thighs position). The feet-over-head
position is hard to distinguish and may be
normal. The beak-over-wing position is prob-
ably a normal variant. Some malpositions
are lethal; others are not.


22. Sign: Malformations.

Causes:
a. Improper egg storage.
b. Jarring of eggs or transporting large end
down.
c. Heredity.
d. Nutritional deficiencies, e.g., biotin, riboflavin,
zinc, or manganese.
e. Inadequate turning.
f. Improper egg orientation, e.g., small end up.
g. High or low incubator temperature.
h. Breeder diseases.
i. Inadequate ventilation or shells with low
porosity or permeability.

23. Sign: Crooked toes, spraddled legs.

Causes:
a. High or low incubator temperature.
b. Inadequate nutrition.
c. Smooth bottom hatching trays.

24. Sign: Short down, wiry down.

Causes:
a. Nutritional deficiencies, especially riboflavin.
b. Mycotoxins and other toxic or inhibitory sub-
stances, resulting in nutritional deficiencies.
c. High incubation temperature during days
1 to 14.

25. Sign: Eyes closed, down stuck to eyes.

Causes:
a. Temperature too high in hatcher.
b. Humidity too low in hatcher.
c. Down collectors inadequate.
d. Chicks remain in hatcher too long after
hatching.
e. Excessive air movement in hatcher.

26. Sign: Exploders.

Causes:
a. Dirty eggs from nest. Dirty nests.
b. Floor eggs.
c. Eggs improperly washed; eggs wiped or
cleaned with contaminated cloth or buffer.
d. Dust from breeder house, cooler, transport, etc.
e. Water condensation on eggs (sweating).








f. Water sprayed, fogged, or splashed on eggs;
eggs dipped in contaminated solutions.
g. Contamination from earlier exploders,
leakers, or broken eggs.
h. Contamination from handling eggs with dirty
hands or equipment.
i. Contaminated setter flats, air filters, water
(humidity) system.

27. Sign: Dwarf embryos: runts in growing
chicks.

Causes:
a. Egg contamination.
b. Hatchery contamination, especially during
hatching.
c. Breeder diseases.
d. Heredity.
e. Nutritional deficiencies.
f. Thyroid abnormalities.

28. Sign: Crossed beak, twisted beak.

Causes:
a. Heredity.

29. Sign: Missing eye(s), other eye
abnormalities.

Causes:
a. High incubator temperature during days
1 to 6.
b. Low oxygen during days 1 to 6.

30. Sign: Exposed brain.

Causes:
a. High incubator temperature during days
1to 3.
b. Low oxygen during days 1 to 3.

31. Sign: Red hocks in hatched chicks or
unhatched pips.

Causes:
a. Prolonged pushing on shell during pipping and
hatching.
b. Vitamin deficiencies.
c. Thick shells, as in pullet flocks.
d. High incubator humidity and/or low incubator
temperature.


32. Sign: Small air cell, broad pip area,
membrane incompletely cut, red hocks,
edematous chick, unabsorbed albumen,
yolk incompletely retracted, egg weight
loss <10%.

Causes:
a. High incubator humidity.
b. Very thick shells, as in pullet flocks.
c. Low incubator temperature.

33. Sign: Micromelia (shortened long bones,
parrot beak, bent bones); chondrodystro-
phy (similar to micromelia).

Causes:
a. Heredity, lethal genes.
b. Nutritional deficiencies (biotin or manga-
nese).

34. Sign: Short beak, missing beak, face
abnormalities.

Causes:
a. Incubator temperature too high during days
1to 5.
b. Heredity, lethal genes.
c. Developmental accidents.
d. Nutritional deficiencies (niacin).

35. Sign: Ectopic (exposed) viscera.

Causes:
a. Incubator temperature too high.
b. Heredity, lethal genes.

36. Sign: Hemorrhage.

Causes:
a. Red skin incubator or hatcher tempera-
ture too high.
b. Bleeding in chorioallantois rough
handling at transfer.
c. Nutritional deficiencies (vitamin K or
vitamin E).
d. Embryos that died at days 11 to 15 and
appear small and dark red usually caused
by molds or other contamination.








37. Sign: Swollen head and back of neck
exudativee diathesis increased capillary
permeability).

Causes:
a. Nutritional deficiencies vitamin E or
selenium.

38. Nutritional deficiencies and toxicities;
almost always a breeder flock problem.

Vitamin A:
Circulatory system development abnormal;
skeletal abnormalities, especially in the skull
and spinal column; degenerative changes in
the brain, spinal cord, and nerves; embryonic
mortality is early (during days 2 to 3). Chicks
hatching may have watery discharge from
eyes or have eyelids stuck together. A great
excess of vitamin A also will cause skeletal
abnormalities.

Vitamin D3:
Late embryonic mortality (>17 days); stunting;
poor skeletal growth; rickets.

Vitamin E:
Circulatory system problems, exudative
diathesis, hemorrhages, stunting, encephalo-
malacia, eye abnormalities (e.g., cloudy lens
or hemorrhages), edema of neck and feet;
embryonic mortality peaks during days 2 to 5.
Muscular weakness after hatching.

Vitamin K:
Hemorrhages in embryo and membranes,
especially at or near time of hatching.

Thiamin:
Polyneuritis; early mortality peak and late peak
219 days; many dead chicks in hatching trays.

Riboflavin:
Stunting, short legs, disorganization of the
circulatory system, edema, clubbed down, curled
toes, micromelia, anemia, brown or dark green
liver; mortality peaks during days 3 to 5, 10 to
15, and 21 to 22. Mortality peaks change from
late to early as breeder depletion of riboflavin
proceeds.

Niacin:
Hypoplasia (decreased growth and development)
of skeletal muscles, edema, short upper beak,
nervous and vascular system abnormalities.
Mortality peaks during days 8 to 14.


Vitamin B, (pyridoxine):
Inhibition of early embryonic growth; mortality
peaks during days 8 to 14.

Pantothenic acid:
Subcutaneous hemorrhages, edema,
hydrocephalus, poor feathering, twisted legs,
fatty livers, opacities of the eye, pale, dilated
hearts; embryonic mortality peaks during days
2 to 4 and 11 to 15.

Biotin:
Chondrodystrophy and micromelia (deformed
skeleton, shortened long bones, parrot beak),
syndactylism (webbing between toes); hemor-
rhages in the embryo and chorioallantois; peak
embryonic mortality during days 3 to 4 and 217.
The early mortality peak is greatest with severe
deficiency, while the late peak is greatest with
mild deficiency.

Folic acid:
Bent tibia, syndactylism (toe webbing), flattened
head, small eyes, exposed viscera, parrot beak,
other beak defects, stunting; peak embryonic
mortality days >17.

Vitamin B1:
Edema (especially around eyes), hemorrhages,
curled toes, short beak, poor leg muscle develop-
ment, dwarfing, fatty liver, enlarged thyroid,
dilated, irregularly shaped heart, head-between-
thighs malposition; peak embryonic mortality
during days 8 to 14 (small peak) and 16 to 18.

Manganese:
Chondrodystrophy, deformed skeleton, shortened
long bones, parrot beak, micromelia, edema,
abnormal down feathers; peak embryonic mortal-
ity days >18. Chicks uncoordinated.

Zinc:
Skeletal defects, especially in posterior vertebral
column (most common defect is rumplessness),
small eyes, exposed viscera, beak and head
abnormalities, edema. Chicks are weak; will
not stand, eat, or drink. Embryonic mortality
can be very high.

Calcium:
Effects more indirect through poor shell quality,
increased egg weight loss, and increased con-
tamination. Stunted growth, decreased bone
development, and increased mortality tend to
occur in later stages. A great excess of calcium
also will cause embryonic abnormalities.








Magnesium:
Nervous tremor, gasping, and convulsions at
hatching.

Phosphorus:
Abnormal bone formation, stunting; mortality
peaks during days 14 to 16.

Copper:
Blood and circulatory system defects. Mortality
peaks during days <3.

Iodine:
Affects thyroid activity. Deficiency or excess
causes increased incubation time, decreased
growth, and increased mortality. Thyroid
may be enlarged.

Selenium:
Exudative diathesis; selenium will spare vita-
min E. Very high levels of selenium are toxic:
edema of head and neck, twisted legs, necrosis
in brain and spinal cord, short upper beak,
missing eyes, protruding eyes, an increase in
malpositions.

Molybdenum:
>17 ppm in the egg results in 100% mortality by
day 12.

Lithium:
Excess causes high embryonic mortality associ-
ated with inhibited development, eye defects,
enlarged aorta, abnormal neural tube.

Boron:
Excess boron in egg (44 ppm) causes embryonic
mortality in early development and at day 13.
Abnormalities similar to those ofriboflavin
deficiency. Face, beak, and appendicular skel-
eton abnormalities.

Protein, amino acids:
Deficiency, excess, or imbalance of some amino
acids can cause embryonic abnormalities and
mortality. Abnormalities include small or
abnormal upper and/or lower beak, disorganized
protrusions in the brain, exposed viscera,
twisted and shortened limbs, twisted spine,
short body, degeneration of the eye.

Fat, fatty acids:
Linoleic acid deficiency: slow development,
75% of embryos in the head-over-right-wing
malposition; mortality peaks during days 1 to 4,
8 to 14, and >21. Lipid transfer from the yolk


to the embryo is reduced in the first few eggs
produced by young pullets; this appears to
result in increased embryonic mortality.

39. Miscellaneous substances:

Tetracyclines:
Inhibition of skeletal mineralization, erosion of
long-bone cartilage, skeleton malformation.

Sulfanilamides:
Retarded growth, shortened long bones,
extreme micromelia, parrot beak, rumplessness.

Penicillin:
Edema and hemorrhage in wings, legs, and head.

Aflatoxin BI:
Stunting (beginning at day 12), small liver, high
mortality.

Ammonia (in incubators):
No closure of neural tube, mortality.

40. Microorganisms:

Infectious bronchitis:
Stunting, retarded lung development, small
heart, enlarged spleen. Small chick resulting
from thin, porous shell and excessive water loss.

Newcastle disease:
Reduced growth, small amnion, abnormalities
in neural and sensory tissues in early embryo.

Botulism:
Muscle atrophy, fat accumulation, joint prob-
lems, short upper beak.

Staphylococcus:
Extensive hemorrhages and tissue damage.

Streptococcus:
Destruction of the synovial lining of the joints.

E. coli:
Rots.

Aspergillus:
Black or dark green rots. Embryo red or dark,
dwarfed.

S. pullorum, S. gallinarum, and
S. typhimurium:
Egg transmitted. Embryonic septicemia, high
embryonic mortality, high chick mortality.









Landmarks of embryonic
development

Before oviposition:

Ovulation First meiotic division of
oogenesis.
30 min. post-ovulation Second meiotic
division and fertilization.
4 h post-ovulation First embryonic
division.
4.3 h post-ovulation Second embryonic
division.
5.5 h post-ovulation Third division.
6.3 h post-ovulation Fourth division.
6.4 to about 25.5 h post-ovulation (oviposition)
Continued division and growth; cells segre-
gate into groups for special functions. Several
hundred cells at oviposition.
Between oviposition and incubation -
No growth; embryo is inactive (if embryo is
held below 76F or 25.50C, which is physiologi-
cal zero); normal storage temperature is 550
to 650F or 130 to 180C.

During incubation:

Day 1:
6 to 10 h- First kidney-like cells (pronephros)
begin to form.
8 h- Appearance of primitive streak.
10 h Yolk sac (embryonic membrane)
begins. Functions include: a) blood
formation; b) yolk digestion; c) yolk
absorption; d) food provision after
hatching. Mesoderm appears;
embryo oriented at 90 angle to
egg's long axis; mesonephros begins.
18 h Primitive gut begins; primordial
germ cells appear in germinal
crescent.


20 h -
21 h-


Vertebral column begins.
Appearance of neural groove,
nervous system.


22 h Appearance of first pair of somites
(block-like segments) and head.
23 to 24 h- Blood islands, vitelline (yolk sac)
circulation, blood, heart, blood ves-
sels begin (2 to 4 somites).


Day 2:
25 h Appearance of eye; vertebral column
visible; embryo begins to turn on left
side (6 somites).
28 h Ear begins (7 somites).
30 h Amnion (embryonic membrane
around embryo) begins. Primary
function is to protect embryo against
shock and sticking; also responsible
for some albumen absorption.
Chorion (embryonic membrane that
fuses with allantois) begins; heart-
beat begins (10 somites).
38 h Cranial flexure and torsion evident;
heartbeat moves blood (16 to 17
somites).
42 h Thyroid begins.
48 h Anterior pituitary and pineal glands
begin to develop.

Day 3:
50 h Embryo turns on left side; allantois
(embryonic membrane that fuses
with chorion) begins. Functions of
chorioallantois are: a) respiration;
b) albumen absorption; c) absorption
of calcium from shell; d) storage of
kidney excretions.
60 h Nasal pits, pharynx, lungs, anterior
limb buds begin.
62 h Posterior limb buds begin.
72 h Middle and outer ear, trachea begin;
amnion completes growth around
embryo.

Day 4:
Tongue and esophagus begin; embryo separates
from yolk sac; allantois grows through amnion;
contractions occur in amnion wall; adrenal
development begins; pronephros (nonfunctional
kidney) disappears; metanephros (definitive or
final kidney) begins; proven-triculus, gizzard,
ceca, large intestine begin. Pigment visible in
eye (dark eye).

Day 5:
Reproductive system and differentiation of sex
appear; thymus, bursa of Fabricius, duodenal
loop begin; chorion and allantois begin to fuse;
mesonephros begins to function; first cartilage
present.








Day 6:
Beak appears; voluntary movement begins;
chorioallantois (chorion fused with allantois)
lies against shell near large end of egg.

Day 7:
Digits appear; comb growth begins; egg tooth
begins; melanin produced; absorption of min-
eral from shell begins. Chorioallantois is
attached to inner shell membrane and growth
around the inner surface is progressing.

Day 8:
Father tracts appear; parathyroid begins; bone
calcification begins.

Day 9:
Growth of chorioallantois about 80% complete
(still open at small end); mouth opening
appears.

Day 10:
Beak begins to harden; digits completely
separated.

Day 11:
Abdominal walls established; loops of intestine
begin to protrude into the yolk sac; down feath-
ers visible; comb and wattles visible; claws and
scales appear on toes; mesonephros reaches
maximum level of function, then begins to
degenerate; metanephros begins to function.

Day 12:
Chorioallantois completes enclosure of egg con-
tents; embryo water content begins to decrease.

Day 13:
Cartilaginous skeleton is relatively complete;
embryo heat production and oxygen consump-
tion begin to increase rapidly.

Day 14:
Embryo begins to turn head toward large end
of egg; long bone ossification becomes rapid.
Turning of egg no longer essential.

Day 15:
Intestinal loops easily seen in yolk sac;
contraction of amnion ceases.


Day 16:
Beak, claws, and scales relatively cornified;
albumen is practically gone and yolk increas-
ingly important as food source; down feathers
cover body; intestinal loops begin to retract
into body.

Day 17:
Amniotic fluid decreases; embryo positioning
head toward large end, toward right wing with
beak toward air cell; definitive feathers begin.

Day 18:
Blood volume decreases, total blood hemoglobin
decreases. Embryo should be in proper position
to hatch: embryo's long axis the same as long
axis of egg; head in large end of egg; head to
right and under right wing; beak pointed
toward air cell; feet toward head.

Day 19:
Intestinal loop retraction complete; yolk sac
begins to enter body cavity; amniotic fluid
(swallowed by embryo) disappears; beak may
pierce air cell and lungs begin to function
(pulmonary respiration).

Day 20:
Yolk sac completely drawn into body; air cell
pierced, followed by functioning of pulmonary
respiration; embryo makes sounds; chorioallan-
toic circulation, respiration, and absorption
decrease; embryo may pip shell.

Day 21:
Hatching process: chorioallantoic circulation
ceases; embryo breaks shell over air cell
with egg tooth; embryo slowly rotates in egg
counterclockwise, chipping and breaking
shell as it does; embryo kicks and attempts
to straighten neck, pushes shell open; kicks
free of shell, rests, straightens, dries.

>Day 21:
Some embryos are unable to hatch but survive
beyond the normal hatching time.

Developmental stages of other avian species
can be estimated by comparing with those of
the chicken on the basis of percentage of incubc-
tion time.









Hatching egg breakout


A breakout analysis of hatching eggs must be
done to evaluate the breeder flock's progress with
respect to fertility and hatchability. It is an abso-
lutely essential diagnostic tool for identifying the
causes) of problems in hatchability. Three types
of breakout are advantageous in evaluation and
problem analysis. These are: (1) breakout of fresh,
nonincubated hatching eggs; (2) candling of eggs
incubated for 5 to 12 days, breakout of nonviable
eggs, and recording of eggs set small end up; and
(3) breakout of eggs that did not hatch (hatch
residue).

Breakout of fresh eggs is used to provide an
immediate evaluation of flock fertility and to
confirm fertility estimated from hatch residue
breakout and candling between 5 and 12 days of
incubation. The breakout following candling will
include eggs determined to be infertile, eggs con-
taining early dead, and cracked eggs. The hatch
residue breakout includes all eggs that did not
hatch. Candle breakout and residue breakout
should be done weekly or at least every 3 weeks.
Regular, consistent analysis of these breakouts
will result in flock histories that can be used to
diagnose hatchability problems, minimize losses,
and compare strains, flocks, farms, hatcheries,
and many other variables.

Sample selection and size are important
for obtaining valid results from the breakouts.
Samples should be selected to include eggs from
representative locations in setters and hatchers for
each flock at each sampling time. Suggested mini-
mums for sample size include: (1) 10 unhatched
eggs from 5 hatcher trays; (2) all unhatched eggs
from 4 hatcher trays per setter or hatcher; (3) all
unhatched eggs from 1,000 set eggs; as well as
many others.

Records should include, but not be limited to,
the following variables: flock, strain, farm, date set,
machines) used, location of eggs in machine, num-
ber of eggs set, number of fertile eggs, number of
early dead (0 to 7 days), number of middle dead
(8 to 14 days), number of late dead (embryos 15
days or older), age of each embryo, malpositions
(in embryos 19 days or older), number pipping,
malformations, number of eggs contaminated (rots),
number of cracked eggs (transfer cracks and
others), unusual egg traits (size, shape, shell qual-
ity, cleanliness), number of dead and culled chicks,


and number of live chicks. Clear, accurate records
are essential for useful egg breakout analysis.

Eggs should be removed from the hatcher tray,
placed on egg flats, and identified as to flock, loca-
tion, etc. The exterior of the egg is examined first
for egg traits, pipping, and location of the air cell.
The shell is cracked at the large end, over the air
cell, and a hole opened in the shell and membranes
to observe the interior of the egg. If the egg ap-
pears to be infertile or contains a very early dead
embryo, the germinal disc must be located to make
a definitive identification of fertility. If the embryo
is relatively small, the egg can be broken into a
dish for further examination. Eggs with late-stage
embryos should be observed for pipping into the
air cell, then opened with tweezers or scissors
from large end to small end without disturbing the
position of the embryo. The embryo's position (see
earlier discussion on positions), the embryo's age
(see section on development stages), malformations,
contamination, and other factors should be ob-
served and recorded. Comparisons with live
embryos of various ages can be used to train those
developing experience in the breakout technique.


References

Abbott, U. K. 1975. Identifying causes of prob-
lems in hatchability. Poultry Digest
(November): 446-47.

Anonymous. 1971. Incubation trouble shoot-
ing. Denver: Robbins Incubator
Company.

Anonymous. 1991. Hatchery trouble shooting
guide. Glastonbury, Conn.: Arbor Acres,
Inc.

Coleman, M. A. 1986. Solving hatchability
problems. Poultry International (Decem-
ber): 12-15.

Hodgetts, B. 1988. Why do your embryos die?
Internat. Hatchery Practice 2 (3): 4, 5,
7,9.

Hodgetts, B. Solving hatchability problems.
Information for flock farms and hatcher-
ies. ADAS Ministry of Agriculture, Fish-
eries and Food. Wolverhampton, UK.









Landauer, W. 1967. The hatchability of
chicken eggs as influenced by environ-
ment and heredity. Monograph I (Re-
vised). Storrs Agricultural Experiment
Station, Conn.

McDaniel, G. R. 1990. Hatchability: Many
factors affect results. Poultry Digest 49
(9): 20, 22, 24, 28, 30.

North, M. 0., and D. D. Bell. 1990. Commer-
cial chicken production manual, 103-34.
New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Patten, B. M. 1964. Foundations of embryol-
ogy. 2d ed. New York: McGraw-Hill,
Inc.

Romanoff, A. L. 1960. The avian embryo.
New York: The MacMillan Company.

Romanoff, A. L., and A. J. Romanoff. 1972.
Pathogenesis of the avian embryo.
New York: Wiley-Interscience.


Tullett, S. G., and R. C. Noble. 1989. Under-
standing the chick embryo (III). Low
hatchability problems in young parent
stock. Misset International Poultry
(January): 8-9.

Wilson, H. R. 1991. "Physiological require-
ments of the developing embryo:
Temperature and turning." In Avian in-
cubation, ed. S.G. Tullett, 145-56. Devel-
oped from Poultry Science Symposium
Number Twenty-Two. London:
Butterworth-Heinemann.

Wilson, J. L. 1991. Hatching egg breakout
methods are explained. Poultry Digest
50 (9): 20, 22, 24, 25.

Wineland, M. J., and J. T. Brake. 1984.
Trouble-shooting fertility and hatchabil-
ity problems. PS&T Guide No. 34.
North Carolina Agricultural Extension
Service.


Summers, J. D., and S. Leeson. 1985. Poultry
nutrition handbook, 119-24. University
of Guelph, Canada: Department of
Animal and Poultry Science.
























COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOODAND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, John T. Woeste,
Director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the May 8 and June
30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that
function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin. Single copies of extension publications (excluding 4-H and youth
publications) are available free to Florida residents from county extension offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers
is available from C.M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing
this publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability. Printed 9/93.




Full Text

PAGE 1

g. Excess body weight, especially in broiler 3. Sign: Eggs candle clear; broken out eggs breeder males (>4,800 g, 10.6 lb). show blood ring or small embryo that died h. Nutritional deficiencies or excesses; severe before 3 days of incubation; no dark eye feed restriction. visible. i. Feet and leg problems, especially in males of heavy breeds. Causes: j. Certain drugs, pesticides, chemicals, toxins, a. Eggs stored too long or under improper or mycotoxins. temperature. k. Parasites, such as mites. b. Fumigation improper -too severe or done between 12 and 96 h of incubation. 1. Inadequate floor space. 1. Inadequate floor space c. High temperature in early incubation. m. Decreased mating frequency, or no mating, is commonly seen in many of the conditions d. Low temperature in early incubation. listed above; this may often be the direct e. Eggs damaged during transport by jarring, cause of infertility. etc. n. Inadequate lighting (intensity or daylength). f. Breeder flock diseases. o. Improper artificial insemination procedures g. Old breeders. (if artificial insemination is used), h. Embryological development accidents. i. Inbreeding, chromosome abnormalities. 2. Sign: Eggs candle clear; broken out eggs j. Severe nutritional deficiencies, e.g., biotin, show enlarged germinal disc; no blood, vitamin A, copper, vitamin E, boron, or Fertile. Some are termed "blastoderm pantothenic acid. without embryo." k. Frequently associated with a high incidence of infertility. Causes: 1. Drugs, toxins, or pesticides. a. Eggs stored too long. They should be stored m. Contamination. <7 days. <7 days. n. Embryos less developed at oviposition, b. Eggs held under poor conditions, temperai.e., pre-endoderm or very early endoderm ture too high or too low. Fluctuating temformation. peratures. Temperature should be 60° to 65°F (15.60 to 18.30C). 4. Sign: Dead embryos; 3 to 6 days of incubac. Fumigation improper -too severe or done between 12 and 96 h of incubation. tion; yolk sac circulatory system present, Sh o i. embryo on left side, no egg tooth. Incorrectly spraying or foaming eggs with disinfectant. Causes: Causes: d. Eggs damaged during handling and transa. See causes 3.a-n. port by jarring, temperature shock (tempera.. port by jarring, temperature shock (temperab. Lack of ventilation, or sealed shells, carbon ture increased or decreased too rapidly), etc. dioxide >1%. dioxide >1%. e. Eggshell sealed -respiration inhibited. c. Improper turning -6/h; improper f. High temperature in early incubation, turning angle. g. Very young or very old breeders. d. Vitamin deficiencies -vitamin E, riboflavin, h. Heredity, inbreeding, chromosome abnorbiotin, pantothenic acid, or linoleic acid. malities, or parthenogenesis. i. Breeder flock diseases. 5. Sign: Dead embryos; 7 to 17 days of j. Failure of a basic organ system to develop incubation; each embryo has egg tooth, normally, toenails, feather follicles (8 days), feathers k. Egg wash temperature too high. (11 days). 1. Egg-borne infections (e.g., salmonella). m. Drugs, toxins, pesticides, etc. Causes: n. nr n r in ia. Improper incubator temperature, humidity, n. Infrequent or incomplete egg collection. vti. ice turning, ventilation. Low humidity increases / Of abnormalities of aortic arches (13 days). Fe3 < SCIECE 2 LIBRAPy



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Landmarks of embryonic Day 2: d elopm nt 25 h -Appearance of eye; vertebral column deelopm t visible; embryo begins to turn on left side (6 somites). Before oviposition: 28 h -Ear begins (7 somites). 30 h -Amnion (embryonic membrane Ovulation -First meiotic division of around embryo) begins. Primary oogenesis. function is to protect embryo against 30 min. post-ovulation -Second meiotic shock and sticking; also responsible division and fertilization. for some albumen absorption. 4 h post-ovulation -First embryonic Chorion (embryonic membrane that division. fuses with allantois) begins; heart4.3 h post-ovulation -Second embryonic beat begins (10 somites). division. 38 h -Cranial flexure and torsion evident; 5.5 h post-ovulation -Third division, heartbeat moves blood (16 to 17 6.3 h post-ovulation -Fourth division. somites). 6.4 to about 25.5 h post-ovulation (oviposition) e 42 h -Thyroid begins. -Continued division and growth; cells segregate into groups for special functions. Several 48 h -Anterior pituitary and pineal glands hundred cells at oviposition. begin to develop. Between oviposition and incubation No growth; embryo is inactive (if embryo is Day 3: held below 76°F or 25.50C, which is physiologi50 h -Embryo turns on left side; allantois cal zero); normal storage temperature is 550 (embryonic membrane that fuses to 650F or 130 to 180C. with chorion) begins. Functions of chorioallantois are: a) respiration; During incubation: b) albumen absorption; c) absorption of calcium from shell; d) storage of Day 1: kidney excretions. 6 to 10 hFirst kidney-like cells (pronephros) 60 h -Nasal pits, pharynx, lungs, anterior begin to form. limb buds begin. 8 hAppearance of primitive streak. 62 h -Posterior limb buds begin. 10 h -Yolk sac (embryonic membrane) 72 h -Middle and outer ear, trachea begin; begins. Functions include: a) blood amnion completes growth around formation; b) yolk digestion; c) yolk embryo. absorption; d) food provision after hatching. Mesoderm appears; embryo oriented at 90° angle to Day 4: egg's long axis; mesonephros begins. Tongue and esophagus begin; embryo separates from yolk sac; allantois grows through amnion; 18 h -Primitive gut begins; primordial contractions occur in amnion wall; adrenal germ cells appear in germinal development begins; pronephros (nonfunctional crescent. kidney) disappears; metanephros (definitive or 20 h -Vertebral column begins, final kidney) begins; proven-triculus, gizzard, 21 h -Appearance of neural groove, ceca, large intestine begin. Pigment visible in nervous system. eye (dark eye). 22 h -Appearance of first pair of somites (block-like segments) and head. Day 5: 23 to 24 hBlood islands, vitelline (yolk sac) Reproductive system and differentiation of sex circulation, blood, heart, blood vesappear; thymus, bursa of Fabricius, duodenal sels begin (2 to 4 somites). loop begin; chorion and allantois begin to fuse; mesonephros begins to function; first cartilage present. 9



PAGE 1

Magnesium: to the embryo is reduced in the first few eggs Nervous tremor, gasping, and convulsions at produced by young pullets; this appears to hatching, result in increased embryonic mortality. Phosphorus: 39. Miscellaneous substances: Abnormal bone formation, stunting; mortality peaks during days 14 to 16. Tetracyclines: Inhibition of skeletal mineralization, erosion of Copper: long-bone cartilage, skeleton malformation. Blood and circulatory system defects. Mortality peaks during days <3. Sulfanilamides: Retarded growth, shortened long bones, Iodine: extreme micromelia, parrot beak, rumplessness. Affects thyroid activity. Deficiency or excess causes increased incubation time, decreased Penicillin: growth, and increased mortality. Thyroid Edema and hemorrhage in wings, legs, and head. may be enlarged. Aflatoxin BI: Selenium: Stunting (beginning at day 12), small liver, high Exudative diathesis; selenium will spare vitamortality. min E. Very high levels of selenium are toxic: edema of head and neck, twisted legs, necrosis Ammonia (in incubators): in brain and spinal cord, short upper beak, No closure of neural tube, mortality. missing eyes, protruding eyes, an increase in malpositions. 40. Microorganisms: Molybdenum: Infectious bronchitis: >17 ppm in the egg results in 100% mortality by Stunting, retarded lung development, small day 12. heart, enlarged spleen. Small chick resulting Lithium: from thin, porous shell and excessive water loss. Lithium: Excess causes high embryonic mortality associNewcastle disease: ated with inhibited development, eye defects, Reduced growth, small amnion, abnormalities enlarged aorta, abnormal neural tube. in neural and sensory tissues in early embryo. Boron: Botulism: Excess boron in egg (44 ppm) causes embryonic Muscle atrophy, fat accumulation, joint probmortality in early development and at day 13. lems, short upper beak. Abnormalities similar to those ofriboflavin deficiency. Face, beak, and appendicular skelStaphylococcus: eton abnormalities. Extensive hemorrhages and tissue damage. Protein, amino acids: Streptococcus: Deficiency, excess, or imbalance of some amino Destruction of the synovial lining of the joints. acids can cause embryonic abnormalities and mortality. Abnormalities include small or E. coli: abnormal upper and/or lower beak, disorganized Rots. protrusions in the brain, exposed viscera, twisted and shortened limbs, twisted spine, Aspergillus: short body, degeneration of the eye. Black or dark green rots. Embryo red or dark, dwarfed. Fat, fatty acids: Linoleic acid deficiency: slow development, S. pullorum, S. gallinarum, and 75% of embryos in the head-over-right-wing S. typhimurium: malposition; mortality peaks during days 1 to 4, Egg transmitted. Embryonic septicemia, high 8 to 14, and >21. Lipid transfer from the yolk embryonic mortality, high chick mortality. 8



PAGE 1

Day 6: Day 16: Beak appears; voluntary movement begins; Beak, claws, and scales relatively cornified; chorioallantois (chorion fused with allantois) albumen is practically gone and yolk increaslies against shell near large end of egg. ingly important as food source; down feathers cover body; intestinal loops begin to retract Day 7: into body. Digits appear; comb growth begins; egg tooth begins; melanin produced; absorption of minDay 17: eral from shell begins. Chorioallantois is Amniotic fluid decreases; embryo positioning attached to inner shell membrane and growth head toward large end, toward right wing with around the inner surface is progressing. beak toward air cell; definitive feathers begin. Day 8: Day 18: Father tracts appear; parathyroid begins; bone Blood volume decreases, total blood hemoglobin calcification begins. decreases. Embryo should be in proper position to hatch: embryo's long axis the same as long Day 9: axis of egg; head in large end of egg; head to Growth of chorioallantois about 80% complete right and under right wing; beak pointed (still open at small end); mouth opening toward air cell; feet toward head. appears. Day 19: Day 10: Intestinal loop retraction complete; yolk sac Beak begins to harden; digits completely begins to enter body cavity; amniotic fluid separated. (swallowed by embryo) disappears; beak may pierce air cell and lungs begin to function Day 11: (pulmonary respiration). Abdominal walls established; loops of intestine begin to protrude into the yolk sac; down feathDay 20: ers visible; comb and wattles visible; claws and Yolk sac completely drawn into body; air cell scales appear on toes; mesonephros reaches pierced, followed by functioning of pulmonary maximum level of function, then begins to respiration; embryo makes sounds; chorioallandegenerate; metanephros begins to function. toic circulation, respiration, and absorption decrease; embryo may pip shell. Day 12: Chorioallantois completes enclosure of egg conDay 21: tents; embryo water content begins to decrease. Hatching process: chorioallantoic circulation ceases; embryo breaks shell over air cell Day 13: with egg tooth; embryo slowly rotates in egg skeleton is relatively complete; counterclockwise, chipping and breaking Cartilaginous skeleton is relatively complete; rt g s a ' shell as it does; embryo kicks and attempts embryo heat production and oxygen consumpembryo heat ction iand o n c -to straighten neck, pushes shell open; kicks tion begin to increase rapidly. free of shell, rests, straightens, dries. Day 14: Day 14: >Day 21: Embryo begins to turn head toward large end >Day 21: Some embryos are unable to hatch but survive of egg; long bone ossification becomes rapid. b d t n h beyond the normal hatching time. Turning of egg no longer essential. Developmental stages of other avian species Day 15: can be estimated by comparing with those of Intestinal loops easily seen in yolk sac; the chicken on the basis of percentage ofincubccontraction of amnion ceases tion time. 10



PAGE 1

Hatching egg breakout and number of live chicks. Clear, accurate records are essential for useful egg breakout analysis. A breakout analysis of hatching eggs must be Eggs should be removed from the hatcher tray, done to evaluate the breeder flock's progress with placed on egg flats, and identified as to flock, locarespect to fertility and hatchability. It is an absotion, etc. The exterior of the egg is examined first lutely essential diagnostic tool for identifying the for egg traits, pipping, and location of the air cell. cause(s) of problems in hatchability. Three types The shell is cracked at the large end, over the air of breakout are advantageous in evaluation and cell, and a hole opened in the shell and membranes problem analysis. These are: (1) breakout of fresh, to observe the interior of the egg. If the egg apnonincubated hatching eggs; (2) candling of eggs pears to be infertile or contains a very early dead incubated for 5 to 12 days, breakout of nonviable embryo, the germinal disc must be located to make eggs, and recording of eggs set small end up; and a definitive identification of fertility. If the embryo (3) breakout of eggs that did not hatch (hatch is relatively small, the egg can be broken into a residue). dish for further examination. Eggs with late-stage embryos should be observed for pipping into the Breakout of fresh eggs is used to provide an air cell, then opened with tweezers or scissors immediate evaluation of flock fertility and to from large end to small end without disturbing the confirm fertility estimated from hatch residue position of the embryo. The embryo's position (see breakout and candling between 5 and 12 days of earlier discussion on positions), the embryo's age incubation. The breakout following candling will (see section on development stages), malformations, include eggs determined to be infertile, eggs concontamination, and other factors should be obtaining early dead, and cracked eggs. The hatch served and recorded. Comparisons with live residue breakout includes all eggs that did not embryos of various ages can be used to train those hatch. Candle breakout and residue breakout developing experience in the breakout technique. should be done weekly or at least every 3 weeks. Regular, consistent analysis of these breakouts will result in flock histories that can be used to References diagnose hatchability problems, minimize losses, and compare strains, flocks, farms, hatcheries, Abbott, U. K. 1975. Identifying causes of proband many other variables. lems in hatchability. Poultry Digest Sample selection and size are important (November): 446-47. for obtaining valid results from the breakouts. Anonymous. 1971. Incubation trouble shoot Samples should be selected to include eggs from nubtor ing. Denver: Robbins Incubator representative locations in setters and hatchers for Company. each flock at each sampling time. Suggested minimums for sample size include: (1) 10 unhatched Anonymous. 1991. Hatchery trouble shooting eggs from 5 hatcher trays; (2) all unhatched eggs guide. Glastonbury, Conn.: Arbor Acres, from 4 hatcher trays per setter or hatcher; (3) all Inc. unhatched eggs from 1,000 set eggs; as well as many others. Coleman, M. A. 1986. Solving hatchability ..problems. Poultry International (DecemRecords should include, but not be limited to, p .P y Il ( -the following variables: flock, strain, farm, date set, machine(s) used, location of eggs in machine, numHodgetts, B. 1988. Why do your embryos die? ber of eggs set, number of fertile eggs, number of Internat. Hatchery Practice 2 (3): 4, 5 early dead (0 to 7 days), number of middle dead 7, (8 to 14 days), number of late dead (embryos 15 days or older), age of each embryo, malpositions Hodgetts, B. Solving hatchability problems. (in embryos 19 days or older), number pipping, Information for flock farms and hatchermalformations, number of eggs contaminated (rots), ies. ADAS Ministry of Agriculture, Fishnumber of cracked eggs (transfer cracks and eries and Food. Wolverhampton, UK. others), unusual egg traits (size, shape, shell quality, cleanliness), number of dead and culled chicks, 11



PAGE 1

b. Contamination. Causes: c. Nutritional deficiencies -riboflavin, a. Inadequate turning, resulting in decreased vitamin B12, biotin, niacin, pyridoxine, embryonic membrane development and pantothenic acid, phosphorus, boron, or nutrient absorption. linoleic acid. b. Humidity too high during incubation or d. Lethal genes (>30 have been described), after transfer. c. Incubator temperature too low. 6. Sign: Dead embryos; >18 days of d. Hatcher temperature too high. incubation. e. Eggs chilled (e.g., at transfer). f. Nutritional deficiencies. Causes: g. Heredity. a. Improper incubator temperature, humidity, .i turning, ventilation. h. Embryological development accident. turning, ventilation. i. Breeder diseases. b. Improper hatcher temperature, humidity, ventilation. j. Inadequate ventilation. c. Contamination, especially from molds k. Prolonged egg storage. (aspergillis, etc.). d. Fumigation too severe or too prolonged. 8. Sign: Pipped. Full-term embryo, dead in e. Eggs chilled in transfer, or transferred too shell. late. f. Broken shell -pre-set, during incubation, Causes: Sa t a. Low humidity or temperature for a proor at transfer. p . longed period. g. Nutritional deficiencies -vitamin D, o i b. Low humidity during hatching. vitamin A, folic acid, or pantothenic acid, riboflavin, vitamin E, selenium, vitamin K, c. High temperature during hatching. biotin, thiamin, vitamin B12, calcium, d. Nutritional deficiencies. phosphorus, manganese, or linoleic acid. e. Breeder diseases. h. Embryonic malposition; embryo fails to move f. Poor ventilation. into proper hatching position (see #21). g. Inadequate turning during first 12 days. i. Embryological development accident, h. Injury during transfer. Failure to change to lung respiration and all i. Prolonged egg storage. intra-embryonic circulation, and/or to retract the intestinal loops and yolk sac. These and other changes are critical at this time. 9. Sign: Shell partially pipped, embryo alive or dead. j. Heredity -lethal genes, chromosome abnormalities. Causes: k. Twinning. a. See 8.a-i. 1. Hatcher opened too much during pipping b. Excessive fumigation during hatching. and hatching. and hatchingc. Eggs set small end up. m. Poor shell quality. n. Breeder diseases. 10. Sign: Chicks hatch early; tendency to be thin and noisy. Troubleshooting: Causes: Specific problems a. Small eggs. b. Differences among breeds. 7. Sign: Not pipped. Full-term embryo, large c. Incubator temperature too high. yolk sac; yolk sac may not be fully enclosed d. Incubator humidity too low. by abdominal wall, may have residual albumen. 3



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37. Sign: Swollen head and back of neck Vitamin B, (pyridoxine): (exudative diathesis -increased capillary Inhibition of early embryonic growth; mortality permeability). peaks during days 8 to 14. Causes: Pantothenic acid: a. Nutritional deficiencies -vitamin E or Subcutaneous hemorrhages, edema, selenium. hydrocephalus, poor feathering, twisted legs, fatty livers, opacities of the eye, pale, dilated 38. Nutritional deficiencies and toxicities; hearts; embryonic mortality peaks during days almost always a breeder flock problem. 2 to 4 and 11 to 15. Vitamin A: Biotin: Circulatory system development abnormal; Chondrodystrophy and micromela (deformed skeletal abnormalities, especially in the skull skeleton, shortened long bones, parrot beak), and spinal column; degenerative changes in syndactylism (webbing between toes); hemorthe brain, spinal cord, and nerves; embryonic rhages in the embryo and chorioallantois; peak mortality is early (during days 2 to 3). Chicks embryonic mortality during days 3 to 4 and 217. hatching may have watery discharge from The early mortality peak is greatest with severe eyes or have eyelids stuck together. A great deficiency, while the late peak is greatest with excess of vitamin A also will cause skeletal mild deficiency. abnormalities. F c Folic acid: Vitamin D3: Bent tibia, syndactylism (toe webbing), flattened Late embryonic mortality (>17 days); stunting; head, small eyes, exposed viscera, parrot beak, poor skeletal growth; rickets. other beak defects, stunting; peak embryonic mortality days >17. Vitamin E: Circulatory system problems, exudative Vitamin B1: diathesis, hemorrhages, stunting, encephaloEdema (especially around eyes), hemorrhages, malacia, eye abnormalities (e.g., cloudy lens curled toes, short beak, poor leg muscle developor hemorrhages), edema of neck and feet; ment, dwarfing, fatty liver, enlarged thyroid, embryonic mortality peaks during days 2 to 5. dlated, irregularly shaped heart, head-betweenMuscular weakness after hatching, thighs malposition; peak embryonic mortality during days 8 to 14 (small peak) and 16 to 18. Vitamin K: Hemorrhages in embryo and membranes, Manganese: especially at or near time of hatching. Chondrodystrophy, deformed skeleton, shortened especially at or near time of hatching. long bones, parrot beak, micromelia, edema, Thiamin: abnormal down feathers; peak embryonic mortalPolyneuritis; early mortality peak and late peak ity days >18. Chicks uncoordinated. 219 days; many dead chicks in hatching trays. Zinc: Riboflavin: Skeletal defects, especially in posterior vertebral Stunting, short legs, disorganization of the column (most common defect is rumplessness), circulatory system, edema, clubbed down, curled small eyes, exposed viscera, beak and head toes, micromelia, anemia, brown or dark green abnormalities, edema. Chicks are weak will liver; mortality peaks during days 3 to 5, 10 to not stand, eat, or drink. Embryonic mortality 15, and 21 to 22. Mortality peaks change from can be very high. late to early as breeder depletion of riboflavin proceeds. Calcium: Effects more indirect through poor shell quality, Niacin: increased egg weight loss, and increased conHypoplasia (decreased growth and development) tamination. Stunted growth, decreased bone of skeletal muscles, edema, short upper beak, development, and increased mortality tend to nervous and vascular system abnormalities. occur in later stages. A great excess of calcium Mortality peaks during days 8 to 14. also will cause embryonic abnormalities. 7



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19. Sign: Unhealed navel, wet, odorous; 22. Sign: Malformations. mushy, large, soft-bodied, and lethargic chick. Causes: a. Improper egg storage. Causes: b. Jarring of eggs or transporting large end a. Omphalitis (navel infection). Contamination down. from dirty trays, unsanitary machines or c. Heredity hatchery, dirty eggs, inadequate egg sanitat r, irt , in ut n -d. Nutritional deficiencies, e.g., biotin, riboflavin, tion or fumigation. zinc, or manganese. b. Low incubator temperature. Inaeae trning. e. Inadequate turning. c. High incubator or hatcher humidity. c. High incubator or hatcher humidityf. Improper egg orientation, e.g., small end up. d. Inadequate ventilation. g. High or low incubator temperature. h. Breeder diseases. 20. Sign: Weak chicks. . "2 i. Inadequate ventilation or shells with low Causes: porosity or permeability. a. High hatcher temperature. b. Poor hatcher ventilation. 23. Sign: Crooked toes, spraddled legs. c. Excessive fumigation. Causes: Causes: d. Contamination. a. High or low incubator temperature. b. Inadequate nutrition. 21. Sign: Chicks malpositioned. Normal c. Smooth bottom hatching trays. position after 19 days of incubation: embryo's long axis same as long axis of egg; head in large end of egg; head to the right 24. Sign: Short down, wiry down. and under right wing; beak toward air cell; feet toward head. Causes: a. Nutritional deficiencies, especially riboflavin. Causes: b. Mycotoxins and other toxic or inhibitory suba. Eggs set small end up or in horizontal stances, resulting in nutritional deficiencies. position. c. High incubation temperature during days b. Inadequate or improper turning. 1 to 14. c. High or low incubator temperature. d. High humidity. 25. Sign: Eyes closed, down stuck to eyes. e. Old breeders. Causes: f. Round-shaped eggs or very large eggs. a T in hatc "a. Temperature too high in hatcher. g. Nutritional deficiencies, especially vitamin A .um t too low in hatcher. "and viti B b. Humidity too low in hatcher. and vitamin B2 . ,2 _c. Down collectors inadequate. h. Eggs handled or stored improperly. c. Down collectors inadequate. i. Retarded development. d. Chicks remain in hatcher too long after i. Retarded development. hatching. e. Excessive air movement in hatcher. Embryos <18 days old may be in a position different from that for hatching but one normal for their age (for example, the head26. Sign: Exploders. between-thighs position). The feet-over-head position is hard to distinguish and may be Causes: normal. The beak-over-wing position is proba. Dirty eggs from nest. Dirty nests. ably a normal variant. Some malpositions b. Floor eggs. are lethal; others are not. c. Eggs improperly washed; eggs wiped or cleaned with contaminated cloth or buffer. d. Dust from breeder house, cooler, transport, etc. e. Water condensation on eggs (sweating). 5



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UNIVERSITY OF Circular 1112 FLORIDA Hatchability problem analysis H. R. Wilson* University of Florida / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / Florida Cooperative Extension Service / John T. Woeste, Dean Introduction humidity, turning frequency, ventilation, and egg orientation) is a function of the severity of the When a problem occurs in hatchability, usually deviation, the length of time of the deviation, and it can be categorized as a hatchery, egg handling, the age of the embryo at the time of the deviation. or breeder flock problem. If the problem has origiThe manifestation of abnormalities and the embrynated within the breeder flock, it is probable that onic age at which mortality peaks occur due to it happened at least 4 weeks earlier, assuming 3 nutritional factors usually depend upon the severweeks of incubation and 1 week of egg storage. ity of the nutrient deficiency, how long the defiThis delay in identifying a problem is costly and ciency has existed, or how long an adequate diet may even make it impossible to determine the has been fed to the breeders following a deficiency. cause if the effect is of short duration. It is necesTherefore, depletion rate, repletion rate, egg deposary to identify the problem as early as possible, sition efficiency, interference from inhibitors, and using candling at 1 week of incubation and conyolk formation time are factors that contribute to stantly monitoring unhatched eggs, to minimize the effects manifested in embryonic abnormalities the delay in taking corrective measures. Analysis and mortality. of hatch debris does not yield definitive diagnoses; however, it is a useful tool for determining the most likely areas for further examination. Troubleshooting: It is of utmost importance for hatchery, egg hanGeneral problems dling, and breeder farm personnel to work together as a team to produce top quality chicks and to iden1. Sign: Eggs candle clear; broken out eggs tify problems when they occur. Very accurate and show small white-dot germinal disc; complete records of the breeder flock (including no blood. Infertile. egg production, mortality, morbidity, egg weight, shell quality, hatchability, feed consumption, and Causes: antibody titers) and the egg history from the nest a. Immature males. Males may need to be through the hatchery are essential in providing photostimulated 2 weeks earlier than clues to most hatchability problems. Personnel females. should be trained in recognizing problems, idenb. Males with abnormal sperm; females tifying causes, and implementing appropriate with abnormal egg (germinal disc). This corrective measures. occurs most often in very young or very old breeders. The objective of the following outline is to c. Too few males, resulting in infrequent matsuggest possible causes, and corrective measures ing; too many males, resulting in fighting or when appropriate, for some of the signs of trouble interference. Ratios of 1:12 to 1:15 for light observed when decreased hatchability occurs. breeds and 1:10 to 1:12 for heavy breeds are suggested. General comments d. Extreme weather conditions. e. Old breeders. Spiking with young males The magnitude of the effects of deviations from .. may help if the problem is with the male. recommended incubation conditions (temperature, f. Breeder flock disease. This is often indicated *Poultry Science Department, University of Florida, by rough, misshaped, or thin-shelled eggs. Gainesville, Florida 32611.


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Landauer, W. 1967. The hatchability of Tullett, S. G., and R. C. Noble. 1989. Underchicken eggs as influenced by environstanding the chick embryo (III). Low ment and heredity. Monograph I (Rehatchability problems in young parent vised). Storrs Agricultural Experiment stock. Misset International Poultry Station, Conn. (January): 8-9. McDaniel, G. R. 1990. Hatchability: Many Wilson, H. R. 1991. "Physiological requirefactors affect results. Poultry Digest 49 ments of the developing embryo: (9): 20, 22, 24, 28, 30. Temperature and turning." In Avian incubation, ed. S.G. Tullett, 145-56. DevelNorth, M. 0., and D. D. Bell. 1990. Commeroped from Poultry Science Symposium cial chicken production manual, 103-34. Number Twenty-Two. London: New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Butterworth-Heinemann. Patten, B. M. 1964. Foundations ofembryolWilson, J. L. 1991. Hatching egg breakout ogy. 2d ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, methods are explained. Poultry Digest Inc. 50 (9): 20, 22, 24, 25. Romanoff, A. L. 1960. The avian embryo. Wineland, M. J., and J. T. Brake. 1984. New York: The MacMillan Company. Trouble-shooting fertility and hatchability problems. PS&T Guide No. 34. Romanoff, A. L., and A. J. Romanoff. 1972. North Carolina Agricultural Extension Pathogenesis of the avian embryo. Service. New York: Wiley-Interscience. Summers, J. D., and S. Leeson. 1985. Poultry nutrition handbook, 119-24. University of Guelph, Canada: Department of Animal and Poultry Science. COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOODAND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, John T. Woeste, Director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin. Single copies of extension publications (excluding 4-H and youth publications) are available free to Florida residents from county extension offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers Is available from C.M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability. Printed 9/93. 3



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f. Water sprayed, fogged, or splashed on eggs; 32. Sign: Small air cell, broad pip area, eggs dipped in contaminated solutions, membrane incompletely cut, red hocks, g. Contamination from earlier exploders, edematous chick, unabsorbed albumen, leakers, or broken eggs. yolk incompletely retracted, egg weight h. Contamination from handling eggs with dirty loss <10%. hands or equipment. i. Contaminated setter flats, air filters, water. s (humidity) system, a. High incubator humidity. (humidity) system. b. Very thick shells, as in pullet flocks. ,. .c. Low incubator temperature. 27. Sign: Dwarf embryos: runts in growing c. Low incubator temperature. chicks. 33. Sign: Micromelia (shortened long bones, Causes: parrot beak, bent bones); chondrodystroa. Egg contamination. phy (similar to micromelia). b. Hatchery contamination, especially during hatching. Causes: S c .a. Heredity, lethal genes. c. Breeder diseases. d. Heredity. b. Nutritional deficiencies (biotin or mangad. Heredity. nese). e. Nutritional deficiencies. f. Thyroid abnormalities. f. Thyroid abnormalities. 34. Sign: Short beak, missing beak, face abnormalities. 28. Sign: Crossed beak, twisted beak. Causes: Causes: a. Incubator temperature too high during days a. Heredity. 1 to 5. b. Heredity, lethal genes. 29. Sign: Missing eye(s), other eye c. Developmental accidents. abnormalities, d. Nutritional deficiencies (niacin). Causes: a. High incubator temperature during days 35. Sign: Ectopic (exposed) viscera. 1 to 6. Causes: b. Low oxygen during days 1 to 6. I a. Incubator temperature too high. 30. Sign: Exposed brainb. Heredity, lethal genes. 30. Sign: Exposed brain. Causes: 36. Sign: Hemorrhage. a. High incubator temperature during days 1 to 3. Causes: a. Red skin -incubator or hatcher temperab. Low oxygen during days 1 to 3. ture too high. b. Bleeding in chorioallantois -rough 31. Sign: Red hocks in hated d chicks or handling at transfer. unhatched pips. c. Nutritional deficiencies (vitamin K or Causes: vitamin E). a. Prolonged pushing on shell during pipping and d. Embryos that died at days 11 to 15 and hatching. appear small and dark red -usually caused .Vitamin deficiencies. by molds or other contamination. b. Vitamin deficiencies. c. Thick shells, as in pullet flocks. d. High incubator humidity and/or low incubator temperature. 6


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'62255' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQXK' 'sip-files00004.pdf'
741b00f7c66e28ad28c602fc014da490
cfb6f9af10bc16b794f77867732968f1455ffc81
'2012-04-03T18:56:27-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQXK-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AADQXK-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
'2015-05-15T17:54:38-04:00'
describe
'2015-05-15T17:54:10-04:00'
normalize
'70066' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQXL' 'sip-files00004.pro'
54ba582f2535db79b6000469bc9d0658
c6f28d85704af9583f065fd0a44cfc360b1a60e8
'2012-04-03T18:56:40-04:00'
describe
'54857' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQXM' 'sip-files00004.QC.jpg'
10f2304848a022972ab45db4ea65d62f
74aa49e45fc3fdbd41f793b588e4b62c17a91cf7
describe
'1055996' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQXN' 'sip-files00004.tif'
a557f7c54ef3042ec99a49e85e78578d
12a4573b5a3c2e20c62006efe84896f6aeea2791
'2012-04-03T18:56:58-04:00'
describe
'3064' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQXO' 'sip-files00004.txt'
065dd51355018f5a93e2a9b7bc403a85
cd7ba4502ba4bde717f0b0087fd9c098f7510cc3
'2012-04-03T18:56:56-04:00'
describe
'32395' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQXP' 'sip-files00004thm.jpg'
cbec046404e1821a40bb622c917c338c
65ef3df97a5587a22163b365012ae590ffc25504
'2012-04-03T18:56:25-04:00'
describe
'151007' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQXQ' 'sip-files00005.jp2'
a3dd209e04cf2c9070ebbbe825aa9433
7c9236307ad2a85c32d411f00de0e67eec56bf6d
'2012-04-03T18:56:24-04:00'
describe
'136317' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQXR' 'sip-files00005.jpg'
59bb26b6699388d160113a24bddc5846
2b36dd11e45d73d42bd149c6bc872dbfb7ae1e6e
describe
'62947' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQXS' 'sip-files00005.pdf'
7418a01ee06e6e0566e3b31e9969f8a7
f937c1be57d8b323e9e20aaeb00fc138519088d0
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQXS-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AADQXS-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
describe
'2015-05-15T17:54:05-04:00'
normalize
'71749' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQXT' 'sip-files00005.pro'
4d3d8acce21c8059ab726d44102eb584
cec35e66eed773bd402307a32c0d5c556d4c762b
'2012-04-03T18:56:32-04:00'
describe
'56710' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQXU' 'sip-files00005.QC.jpg'
00517ed18caa291cab775061227e9324
09084967179308cc73f5a57a2220c0df7626992c
'2012-04-03T18:56:18-04:00'
describe
'1061960' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQXV' 'sip-files00005.tif'
d468af6b036186442d7416ef6d3e5b2b
931e7d8026f31e4995fa0b621049bbabccf741bb
'2012-04-03T18:56:41-04:00'
describe
'3122' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQXW' 'sip-files00005.txt'
63dce103db054b561826bd25057f50d7
3512cf539e67675dd12aa773f038506748e381eb
'2012-04-03T18:56:28-04:00'
describe
'33219' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQXX' 'sip-files00005thm.jpg'
82d7c7b04c3a59e3bf6031aac3cd86dd
54024927a095466b3ecae90ec4ec3dcf450f79a8
describe
'130498' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQXY' 'sip-files00006.jp2'
bc483a55302ca6799b0945f3616cb803
b4ada57bf2edb811eed308cb8e7ea1ed8fc73403
describe
'118360' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQXZ' 'sip-files00006.jpg'
bbc9e8b217ba0e76a16ef4f40b638589
8846fae7b04827b38973ee57ce8ae83d0367bdd7
describe
'53817' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQYA' 'sip-files00006.pdf'
527553d528ef11bca3ada6850ec8b290
e33a706b424c59185c6b6e83ea9bb5863e18340f
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQYA-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AADQYA-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
describe
'2015-05-15T17:54:22-04:00'
normalize
'59195' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQYB' 'sip-files00006.pro'
47aa2d9f99162f4690ce6cc15dc0c77b
77d69bfb0870ebc0a158de45555d6b20d4e18a38
describe
'51397' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQYC' 'sip-files00006.QC.jpg'
5339921978b258cb2ed73852267eb9e8
025c877fd20e8cb943fa9c248f3fb9585f22b85f
describe
'1060112' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQYD' 'sip-files00006.tif'
7df2af02b1a7f867b452d6035148a3f9
318d63036fa06c469b5c26b34b4ccbef694c2a52
'2012-04-03T18:56:46-04:00'
describe
'2602' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQYE' 'sip-files00006.txt'
1719f0f9b4da4a6168012a57fc93b150
3352cedea8e22ee51519e4055bd19130535186b2
describe
'30934' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQYF' 'sip-files00006thm.jpg'
92845281f966fe54b33a6d018aea2fd6
99e644a574d7e6025f30fb22c37ab6bd5d426ead
describe
'197068' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQYG' 'sip-files00007.jp2'
a1c1c36a63e01d3b076fd61bc9165de7
9a7cfc4f072715118d1f19fd47f2bd9e6f2f0e8b
describe
'166216' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQYH' 'sip-files00007.jpg'
01a26e552fbb257b915c0426c99ca4f3
d6dd8ed9b956364d9a43658293f22ff9ab15dca9
'2012-04-03T18:56:45-04:00'
describe
'84044' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQYI' 'sip-files00007.pdf'
e9c72f7f06f0c0bd397d0b6b78dde2a2
2155188e1aaa973eb5777437dcae6dd90139afef
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQYI-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AADQYI-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
describe
'2015-05-15T17:54:08-04:00'
normalize
'94227' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQYJ' 'sip-files00007.pro'
dfa8f80c438a514920faf83d1332dacf
4447500b57b52eb855f1bbca1bf490da33e9d4ea
'2012-04-03T18:56:34-04:00'
describe
'63476' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQYK' 'sip-files00007.QC.jpg'
8e773ae007b749e3c96842d2c1d3ac83
76404d298a972435a80315cad616c537eb2eb076
describe
'1063576' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQYL' 'sip-files00007.tif'
3e611bb2eadf3c5725bc3b3855cd40c0
f459e6dc58c90f5d067068da9e2f2a8f939a9412
'2012-04-03T18:56:49-04:00'
describe
'3837' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQYM' 'sip-files00007.txt'
0461f6a6a8d8e765e5782f646d5e8c35
cf32af065afdda241c0f850b178ffe4d8ef38455
describe
'36348' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQYN' 'sip-files00007thm.jpg'
9d06d4a027a109a081418004eb91d234
e25f78787ae810025cd96fb6bfa5713e52433119
describe
'165733' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQYO' 'sip-files00008.jp2'
14fd88927254f006eabecb965c85f502
a07e8e14edbaa8a852a8a03a75b3e0cc6d56c525
describe
'143422' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQYP' 'sip-files00008.jpg'
5cb8774fa16b0c624723f14057b085b2
247ffee115980b37af259abc89012aa11e2bf915
describe
'69425' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQYQ' 'sip-files00008.pdf'
34d820fda26a868972a8d45be2fd64c6
1feeb74efb89a94e564de79e4865f9b66c0f7c09
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQYQ-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AADQYQ-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
describe
'2015-05-15T17:54:25-04:00'
normalize
'77247' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQYR' 'sip-files00008.pro'
b0c2d02be8c5474f3a168001ae94a6dc
556e7118e4f2935ddf70e30ebaa6cc98b2940758
'2012-04-03T18:56:22-04:00'
describe
'58518' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQYS' 'sip-files00008.QC.jpg'
612c230e2f034e5a64682544866ceb9f
961bde7eef394f4b6e41f55d26bca70a346f7415
describe
'1062476' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQYT' 'sip-files00008.tif'
4549996a9c94f2cff1dd4021b08e5b2a
067ae0f1e1113f667c3c47aa2224bb6bba4d3ed3
describe
'3152' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQYU' 'sip-files00008.txt'
7775ea093fd03301d5d2d7f9d40a6c0b
135cbe64bde414019db744e1ab763d568da9316c
describe
'35022' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQYV' 'sip-files00008thm.jpg'
e3bfc96a9c9ecc898ab6eab0cd386f25
64df4a88d6024e94cc71a90f22a2bdfa518fde40
describe
'165528' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQYW' 'sip-files00009.jp2'
f3ff24dfc1d24ac70c3f6ec0bab39a19
d94edbb712b8578ac49483822849f9515b1ef85c
describe
'146346' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQYX' 'sip-files00009.jpg'
f3ba2bafd77de3eec394b4f5f8baadcb
48f80dbf5ac7893a1dae9b0350cc2ec32c9ab7a8
describe
'70613' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQYY' 'sip-files00009.pdf'
0439b8b5bb8a3f4e259982780bc74c8f
36da1252c679c42be86d338b08522b7cdb89a89e
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQYY-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AADQYY-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
describe
'2015-05-15T17:54:19-04:00'
normalize
'81238' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQYZ' 'sip-files00009.pro'
5601b9a1fb93d901374fd314d3632205
52a1bedbbc7f4d1260a439a2e3c9c4eedb7fbc4b
describe
'57261' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQZA' 'sip-files00009.QC.jpg'
5934727750b05aea52ad606487703c1b
05cf565a9f73df13a0ab1a93d24d4d5339b8be86
describe
'1058500' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQZB' 'sip-files00009.tif'
87543107571298e4f73b83b62a784c41
017fa82cff4bf23913fc500e3bd47dc03365243d
describe
'3647' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQZC' 'sip-files00009.txt'
a158e242ab462d420dd77c81f3300299
3cfbc17cf1d9083160246dccc2776d5c2f8dfe0a
describe
Invalid character
'32851' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQZD' 'sip-files00009thm.jpg'
240985de96b20b537ced6f55be9f629c
e999f0c63211b9873fb1d2564b837f12d7ee43a3
describe
'164232' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQZE' 'sip-files00010.jp2'
df0574027a14919ba12e87672a5665ee
1befd95267fb334f88379851e5c7b9dfbeec32ba
describe
'140206' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQZF' 'sip-files00010.jpg'
9356d455e703a6fac83d1e1c0c46e623
e224297ec30b06bb68b5e4efea0d7e6caeff6924
'2012-04-03T18:56:43-04:00'
describe
'70627' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQZG' 'sip-files00010.pdf'
46bc33c6bf466bb6256b312115ce38bd
7867bdbbf2a3e83ea94471941dc973ac09188b95
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQZG-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AADQZG-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
describe
'2015-05-15T17:54:35-04:00'
normalize
'78538' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQZH' 'sip-files00010.pro'
166db8bf4c08d7b315a9cd46cfcad547
532e725bb17c25f8c3bbd7cc2a640817093b505e
describe
'55473' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQZI' 'sip-files00010.QC.jpg'
f910493db4adef7b0561f4b12d8ade06
10becfcfad20924dfb50d01197e1a97c24e5220f
describe
'1058208' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQZJ' 'sip-files00010.tif'
5c2881eb0ac291b92279625b4ec6c217
91619efc04391a7b6faec50bc8aaa5175822b0a4
describe
'3070' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQZK' 'sip-files00010.txt'
3eccfc7a56fa78f8b49c5a8694945656
6501600a6657493036a4070bdf2b8163ebd15b55
describe
'32293' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQZL' 'sip-files00010thm.jpg'
26f9a299c164ed38a450161b53d3f795
8e986580576064b51811a9fa175cd3acfada9807
describe
'225483' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQZM' 'sip-files00011.jp2'
ecc33b5f4f99deb11127b2812fbfaf88
493690355c8c0d04f72abc0c0ecc26959f79f701
describe
'187222' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQZN' 'sip-files00011.jpg'
f38aa3051e86cacd01d498ab383ecc9b
ccdb70ab3be58876205c83ea73757c3dc4c7311c
describe
'97692' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQZO' 'sip-files00011.pdf'
c2c3fc1bd02fe4c2ee496109a9e01a02
4f5b5167143274a20db2652fbe394ada66e24aa3
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQZO-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AADQZO-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
describe
'2015-05-15T17:54:30-04:00'
normalize
'111286' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQZP' 'sip-files00011.pro'
742f5ccff016c370bf376cc46bfe3b8d
9979c4e48f071d6f9f008789e18426cbee3229a8
describe
'67798' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQZQ' 'sip-files00011.QC.jpg'
829fe830b10786959430d866def8460c
2c7a3a13f3f22f1c292902fb50eef11f5eea79ed
describe
'1062924' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQZR' 'sip-files00011.tif'
aaa00086afe5c70ba380f291c4d3995c
4e89a3e5e79c7043524018ffdeceeb35682a1c28
describe
'4473' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQZS' 'sip-files00011.txt'
01fcda5fb37f1bf2f76c26115caa8d94
17afa6203eafc3a2f181676ea5d48e26ea452c2e
describe
'38145' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQZT' 'sip-files00011thm.jpg'
b1e8ade78b04309986117d5058c0b912
5d7050f17d02bcc3fb5d7c6aba47d2ea345cfd82
describe
'124129' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQZU' 'sip-files00012.jp2'
2f128d8c3d890ac7e011b3a39d2f13f2
10c4c1cc8326cbe03aadaa2f954d06a521331646
describe
'100315' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQZV' 'sip-files00012.jpg'
3fbd9462360b0283966d1a8e8e5fbb67
0fc653e6cc9bfdbcba5d72a0506713c88c208466
describe
'54950' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQZW' 'sip-files00012.pdf'
37796dfa01e4935b69c01148ccb34cd7
054f8336a35d8dd04b9a76af121d2b835136fe39
'2012-04-03T18:56:21-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQZW-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20090919_AADQZW-norm-0.pdf'
48c279620392bcf49e367d81b9512286
1d5e440b611127d699bf9932b2b9060ff387b025
describe
'2015-05-15T17:54:03-04:00'
normalize
'67333' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQZX' 'sip-files00012.pro'
f899ba3fcb11960bda04f2d85c3c277f
055d833edaac586f40ee591a9eef0c700ce2878c
describe
'40237' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQZY' 'sip-files00012.QC.jpg'
9728c1c004f63f612e42216f8c95eab5
b8931b4fee93b485bc96a7db309aee5ac5dcfd90
describe
'1052484' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADQZZ' 'sip-files00012.tif'
f4689a567d2618716ef510f75b649fbf
6aa444eb5094f12d37551f49ace8b75cb631f04f
'2012-04-03T18:56:57-04:00'
describe
'2816' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADRAA' 'sip-files00012.txt'
f8cd66528a3fe9e1c6a4a69f6118a6d9
2f6c42207648cb01a62dc793a196e7d6781a225c
describe
'24165' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADRAB' 'sip-files00012thm.jpg'
6dfd0f1cccd5928cc3e4206d15a03a53
479ccaa20a83cf9de469af52b847f27f68886047
describe
'28685' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADRAC' 'sip-filesUF00008570_00001.mets'
89924ffcd91e90f7fb1d51621c8e3741
6d807c2031f503977c92552a532b88eae3a77110
'2012-04-03T18:56:59-04:00'
describe
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'2015-05-15T17:54:40-04:00' 'mixed'
xml resolution
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
BROKEN_LINK schema http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
The element type "div" must be terminated by the matching end-tag "
".
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'35012' 'info:fdaE20090919_AAABVNfileF20090919_AADRAF' 'sip-filesUF00008570_00001.xml'
02fa35374f48511022de05b2e011dcec
8514743d87f282151959e414c93bf39b2d3020a6
describe
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
xml resolution
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
The element type "div" must be terminated by the matching end-tag "".
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.



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11. Sign: Chicks hatch late. 14. Sign: Sticky chicks; chicks smeared with albumen. Causes: a. Large eggs. Causes: b. Old breeders, a. Low incubation temperature. c. Eggs stored too long (40 min. increase in b. High incubation humidity. incubation time/day of storage, .5% to 1.2% c. Improper turning. This results in reduced decrease in number hatched/day of storage). embryonic membrane growth and reduced d. Incubator temperature too low. nutrient absorption. e. Weak embryos. d. Old eggs. f. Inbreeding. e. Very large eggs. g. Incubator humidity too high. 15. Sign: Chicks stuck in shell, dry; chicks with 12. Sign: Slow, protracted (drawn-out) hatch. shell fragments stuck to down feathers. Causes: Causes: a. Mix in the incubator of eggs stored for long a. Humidity too low during egg storage, and short periods (1.2% loss of hatch/day of incubation, and/or hatching. storage when all eggs set at the same time; b. Improper egg turning. only .5% loss/day when eggs stored for long c. Cracked eggs or poor shell quality. periods are set earlier to allow a longer incubation period). 16. Sign: Premature hatching; bloody navels. b. Mix of eggs from young and old breeders. c. Mix of large and small eggs. Causes: d. Improper egg handling, a. Incubator and/or hatcher temperature e. Hot or cold spots in incubator or hatcher. too high. f. Incubator or hatcher temperature too high or too low. 17. Sign: Small chicks. g. Room ventilation system improper; high positive pressure or low negative pressure. Causes: Such pressures may alter incubator or a. Small eggs. hatcher ventilation. b. Low humidity during egg storage and/or incubation. 13. Sign: Trays not uniform in hatch or c. High incubation temperature. chick quality. d. High altitude. Hatcheries at high altitudes (>1,500 m or 4,920 ft) may need to adjust Causes: for low humidity, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. a. Mix of large and small eggs. Atmospheric pressure <600 mmHg (-1,830 m b. Mix of eggs from young and old breeders. or 6,004 ft) reduces growth and metabolic rate, increases loss of water from the egg. c. Mix of eggs from different strains or breeds. rate, increases loss of water from the egg. e. Thin, porous shells. d. Some eggs stored much longer. e. Thin, porous shells. e. Lack of uniform ventilation in setter or hatcher. 18. Sign: Unhealed navel; dry, rough down feathers. f. Disease or other stress in one or more breeder flocks. Causes: Causes: g. Variation in egg storage procedures among a. High incubator temperature or wide fluctuaflocks. tions in temperature. b. Low temperature in hatcher. c. Humidity too high in hatcher or not lowered when hatching complete. d. Inadequate breeder nutrition. 4