Front Cover
 Back Cover

Digitization of this item is currently in progress.
Fruit and Vegetable Growing in Manatee County, Florida (924)
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00008455/00001
 Material Information
Title: Fruit and Vegetable Growing in Manatee County, Florida (924)
Physical Description: Book
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA6722
System ID: UF00008455:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

ait aa geftae

6rowinac i

- =~ -




5lrh Ch 1 r.0 1E P.L ,2~''2j ,A
., I L- F.'.AE.

OR PALM KEY ..I *--NlrIr.' I
7f y



ZiatU Sartasota P4u,

Cassys~j Pass

o p

20 21 22


"-- : ..-> *,- .V i - -_ L ; V ..-.. --- .,,

" ,' i ... - ^ '" '


.. OMETIME ago we issued a booklet entitled
S'' Fruit and Vegetable Growing in Manatee
County." This booklet embodied a series
"... of articles written by the editor of the Fruit
Grower," a well known publication of St.
..*. '- Joseph, M o., after a personal ini >--i.,ti,,.
L- and were published in serial form in that
// magazine.
'" ---- I The issue has been exhausted through
,; i distribution, and the demand continuing
compels us to re-issue. We have made a
few changes in the statistics in order to bring
them up to date, but in other respects the
: 1 matter submitted is substantially the same as
-" )I that originally published.
At the time the above booklet was issued
we published one in connection with Sara-
iS h ia Ahz tC l il ;1, 1) fti n--

-' -I'
''.9 I

sota. ince t ali tt llll e 111 i a "a a UtexeI-
ing to Venice and we have included the
description of the Sarasota-Venice country
in this issue and thereby present herein an

epitome of the fruit and vegetable growing regions of Manatee

For of properties for sale and other

f lCJ.l Industrial Agent


I Page 2]

Fruit anb N rgcttable t'rotuint inll ttj

A4lanatee Countrn', in floriba

1 ,..,,, II,,. ,,, ., .. ..t I,, ,,.
r i J'', i '1 ll I i ll \ .l in r nJ n, I n, I, r i h M lnl,
,r ] 'i, t pr I n I I , I ,. r l eilln I i nl i i i .n n a, I
II iI. I/Iin n.i.iII .' I I l l i il Il i I -. ii [I I 11 I ll. I

N I1- Ih 'I,II, 1l. ln I'. I ii. Ill i'i .r I i '..
I *Ii ,l lh..J I, Iri ..l_ i (If ..I I II -l i* il i lh.
l i ll.n llh .. ..i- I J l- .i 'I IIi." l...l I .'III i ,L h'l.
I,,..pu I I1 Flr.. . .. ,I .. .. .I.'I' h I | ... ,I I I Il ..l ih .., i'~ i.
l~ ll ], i l,, l il lii i, .1 i .i I -, l, ,lI-I e I rh il . .,
I F l , n l n. [ . .-ni . n lnn , nn ln l I ll ia ,I I I l.
ll ,b I. n .ll,, ii'n r l nl l l. I, I I Imll. I .II . Il ~ r .11 1, i| a ll r li l l l 1. i, I I.l. l -
Ih , In I I l I .1 1_ . , ll i l l l l ll. J l '' l I I I. ,I . ,
r lh ] i . 1i, Jl l l [ilu .1 | i. , ll r l l '. rl ill I' II illl ln .I 1 l1
1 1" ' ".. .- .. I I I,, .. ll i i l 1 ). I I li I ii I. si I .ll i l ll l i lh l l ii 1 ) l..
Ir,. ll , l sisi Hi , I II,, li al l ll, I , Ilh l l, II. I, I,1 rr,, In l~ i~ i ,I I I l I f'
l,l li. l I 1 ., I ,, l~ l r, , I , II i t I, I 1 1 ,l ] ,. i -
m r h lr I I I I i i, .i l1 h 1.l l, 1 ,
|.. 1 1 ..I, h ., , l. I, 1. I 'I .l ,L .ll, ll I l .. ,.l ., I ., .1
I r I, I ,, l. I r I I i I I I i li li i l l I I li I t ,i I l l i r l 1 1 r l i ii I -
I h I 1i 1',l i II I I I -. i I. d,
l I ,t i1. r l,, r, i i r i g . i 'l n .' ] . I i, l~ l, , "" l J l [ I I, Ii i i
I i r i I It i n I I. l l l~ i l! I J ,, ,e il l l i, I n r.l .1 ji, .ll l
=" i i I 1.1J.i i I 1 I l l ,i l,, .|i ~ i 1 g .I, . I. .. I I I r l- 1 1 I [i, i t f
I I ,I lII u , n n, n ln . ,,. r i n. ,l l na ll a nII. i n t I,, , I, I- I, I I l r
n 'l i' I l I I I iI' . .ll l [ .r il i 1 1 l I I il l I i .., i ,t l 1 nl~ ,i
1\ I I,, .,I .l 1 J 1 1i i f i 1,.IJ ,i, ,t, i,. i, i i I 9 .1.l i J1 l 1 1, l l h i
' n I ii ,l l li 1 - .1 J i J I i t 1, I l i 1 i r J l , i hi ., i i l i i-
i~ i 1 i' I I l I i i I I . ..i i Ira i .l, r j. I,, i i li 1 [. il t ,
l il J, t .l i l. 1 1, ,, ,, l , I r t i. I J, ,J r ,, h i .isij L ) i I."l l 1, i l
i ll r J,. l 1 .e I FI I It I i l ,..i i I l .illl qi tin ', Is rl i If it,
I,, I ll i [ i. 1 1. I .I. ln I, e. l l h ,. ,r [ i,. I'Ii IllI iT'I

I Page ;]



I '. I lI l.- I lh I il I h *. ,, l.l i. .I, .I 'l. ,l i.l I ,, -. i ,. I. I , i l ,1
I. [I 1 1 .h i ll. l .. . .,i .I it - ,Jal h li h, . ,I ,h, l ,. ., ,. l,, ~ _
S I' I. II I II .. ll I fi l I.. II .. I -I ,, ii [1. ... I' .' i
iiII [. II II.. I liii-, ll-ll l I, i-1, I- 1I h,.i h -1.4 W 1
i .. . I ,.... ..I I I I r i, l, ,, I I ..' ., I ,
, . I I,, l .I.I ,l ll. 1 L . i 1l .l ,.. 1 1h l . 1,ll i l ll r I i l h rll .[ II, 1 i il l ,(
r l.. ,.' i Iil. I. h,1,. I ... .. -.. .. ll. I... .. . .. 11- 1 .. *i i i, I*r, ili_ l.

l 1 -1. r .1 I .A ii ...i rI I i.. i 1 I r . .
,. -[ , i ,[ ,. o f I ] I. .,,I ,. , 1., .- I .- i I .I, . l h .

[ .1 i'I qIn lI l.,i _I .I I , r I 11 i h ll- ,II ,'ii ,l- .I I.I[ I[ ,
II, I I I". 11i ii. I i* i I .. Ill. Ii I,, II i. rl, i i. -i l li. II I ,l t
S .1.1.1 I II ii l ll 1i lII Il. ,, iii, ,ihIII. I" i lI '. : 1 .I ll.

II : li I h -. %1 1, 1. I ~l II. .. I, H a. ''I I II 'l 11- I" I l .
Ar III- I I 1 l i 1 .1I I I In In g .
I h II I 1. L I i- -, , 1 ,I 11 i l il l I II, . .I Ill. I -.. I I h I ,.11 1 1 1 I

I I...I i i i I Ii i i. Ih 1I.h I -,, I ,. l11 I ll- -. Ill I I
l. i i I l .1 I I. l i i h i. .1 1 ,l ,I. ii i rliI II I,, i i ,Ii H. I I I
I ll. ,. i.l. l , [ .I i l h.,. .,, I l .' I II, . l ,, .h I,, "., ', ,,. l, ,,
S 1I I II [I I IIl . I TL L Is -i .r [ | l t 11 ,. I Ii I i
. .s I ll I '1 1 .1 .., ,I I . I,, I iii I. i i 1i r il l i I . r .. i i. ,1 n
I' l. ,I.1 .1 ll- I I . I , 1 I, h . I.I1 h, ,. . I i h i i
I . .ilr .. + I ria i irl 1 11. lh i .! 1 *' I I .' Ih . i 1 1l. It I +rl r, I I
I., I,. Ii . ,t. .il II f l [ ..I It I~ i 11 1 1.. l h 1 1 r i lI ,T I li -'I 11I, 1 [ il ,ll lh ll -
,I,, t ., t s, r .ll t .! ( ,'. ll l .i, ,, h1.l I Ih F[, l l l hl ll I I
II I ,' I ,, lh I 'I 1 | I ,, I 1I ri .
Mi~ r.l" II 11 1 ~ , ill- r iI I. liB ,r iI l II:- -,. 1.lh { ", Jl Ii
l l l1.1 'I | I lI i lJ ,t il I ,, ". . , J i ,. I II. I .,I I il n ,l l ( I'I I l l'l I ,
*II '-. i . i f a l II -, f1 l l.. l. ): -. l .. i .I h li al i I II1 1L ., T h .


[ 1 I I ,I h .. .. .Lj ii i illl l i .I I I,. I i. I I h ia s I1. I Ih ..i i i1 . i ii..,i l i .
I I [l. ..n ih r .. - r l , | ,I .I i. i.. 1 , a I h ., I .. h. - !In l. II
r .- .,I ,\11 .h ll. I ',.a ul l u s.IIl, Il ., ,I I ll .i -, i .0[ iI allll ll i
IIIl Iia ni I I,. .".Ir < 4" 1 1 I,.. . .I ., n un - h n l.j, .,I 1 l .1tn 1 1L. :, I nn $ I i t.
re,. I Ihr II l . .l ~ I.. ,r, it, n . 1 ,i. I11 n n IIII I .. . ] I h1 ,.1 l ,
l . t . l I I l. I ,nl. l n i l | 1 1i 1 n h I I, i ,, I, I i ii l n 1 1, 1 I I l I l !.
, ril r ]I ,.. l h Ilh I h .l l., r, I, a l ln n1 ', Il ln. 1 l ,
] r[ ,, I. I '. 1.1l l i .,, l h.. . I . ., i i .I j ..,l J] r I h. l h , ..l l 1
i l l ,,I I I,, r. ~ I. li t,... l' lh I.. .. ll l [ i ]...,il ,l ,I ,h [ h ll,.rll I,
I II Il L**.. -... h .,.I Ih l in h. J, I i1111 i il .... .. il~ ii ii11 I,
' a l, .l' 1 .,. .rs I i ,. I iI I I., .nal h l, i= I t l] l 1 .i .' r i -. .[ i 1 i
llh l r h .- l .li1T ..I 1 I I . hi It if -., L" i. Is. ..ilh .1 I II. I I II, .I **,il l
III I ., ,ll l l, ,ll. It. I Ii . . ilh l i .r[ I Ih ,. III li 'i Is. ,.. ii |I I i l i
1,,l1,i, I ,h l h 1 1 l,1 h ,I,,l ( e .' .. .h ''Z I I,. h [,,- I r,, li l illill I t , ,
.'1 11 .I* I I. I I'. . ill II ll,. ,,i l lh h I I I ,,,lp l t. I1ii . I ,., lll , I , li l -
I l .r,, .h.. rh..l I !i 1f l I ',, in Ill pl .I t ll ], I ; l g a [ Iin. ,l ,11 h I ":
h i ,l ,I l l ...i l lI I l. a l l i ii ].I ,1 .. i i lh .r i ii I I 1 i .. ],i ] [ r ] *i ,..u l ls
, .I tl I Ii. i, .l li,. rl h ,. l l l llj l I I. ,I i I |i i I I I ) ,. ,i iI ).. s /1 ,
..I Il h l.l ..r. lI ..h: In r. rt ir .l .l I Ih I n i _. ) .,, ..I .1I ii. [ .
[ hII . .. rll I [ I hll- {if ial l . .f I I l,,,r, lar Il h i l[ li i i ,,h
r h ia nin n h .It l i lli t ii. \ i.a ri ,r, |I I I lI il il l!._ I L' ih 1 1..,r lI -
.I,,. I.. I I. l 1.. r l I l,i . hI l I ,I ,. I ..,,h l h -. I,], h +,. h '. !.,,,l ..I
- III il. I l ll,il ili . ., ir r i ( -.,+ h I -.. l d, h [ ill al,_ rh.. Illii' .' -. 1 I'
LI.. ..* ; Il~i, J. h t'. iJ( r.1 ...) Ith li _s .,'t|'L ., H lh : .i,iiii + +I .' lh,. 1 l. -'It)

[Page 51




[Page 71

I si. I I. ,all ,Ih l..,I, h ,I II pI ngilll, Ih l I,. ri, .II. I.., r h I l r,,, h ,. .,f r ,. -
l. .. .I I l I Ih ..I .. . l I I I,, .I ll I I I 1 1
. In lh._ I II I I lh .. l,lli ll I I. n ,, .., i alh r ,rL, ., [ ., l I l .
I I . e .. ,! l h H II III i k I ..I sllll l I 1 1:iii i I i ll I ". I --i. 1 I I
r l1 I. I l. I IIII ., i I iI I I


l I- II. i i. It. Ili I, III II Ir l I. Il ,rl. llll *l I. 1 I. L .
I '.. ,, l I ,11 II ll *" I ', 11" Iii. I,..ii l. I II. 1 ..1i_,_ I

. FI-II .h .I Ih ,. lii I- l l i l .. 1I...Ih -h I.. 1. Ill. I I i ii ,,
" I .in. l..ii -lii i ,,r ** i *l I IlI I ,.ll. I i iI r Isil il I' .i l IlI.
I 1 r ,i i I I,, r i ll, I i i _l ll. i i i I J l i I ,,. Ii I, , . i gi l l i I .i
In l n lnll ,I .. I I.I. 1 1. n.. -1 .I .1. 1 . .1 .i r nI J II- .1 Ii l n.
. ll.I h i I.i II i. . I I I Ii . II I, .. l

I h .. I I . I lhs. .r ...i1- il I h,. 4 llli. r .i l l. i 1 1 i~ I All -, e l
l. i i I .lll l. . .l h ] .i .l .i .. .3 ,I ...", .i = l ..l l 'J h ,I I., I II. I l JsII I 111
I. I. ,I I h I fli l, I,.h I ii ll . ,' I ..i.ii,, I, I I ll In l.
hI I .. I i_ .i -..il i ... .'.l II I .I. i -i I .,I Ii .. li lI

b ril-h IlI. .I.Ii -" l,,1 Iii i .i I 'I.l. h i 1 Il- l ..1- ii I llii. 1.l 1. h
.I l -l i i 1 11 11i J l ,i . I i. ,1 I i, -, I,,,, ,,! b, { 1
_ I.. ia ll h Ii .. .i ill, {. i .. ,J.ll ,,, i,,,i, p i lllsl hl l. | h i ,1 .. l.,il

.. . r I~. m .. .I.I I .I .,- I, r.I .. I I, I I 1. I I. I1,, r. .Ih .I ,,Z, ... I | .1 .. I

I l.1 ,i l li. .[. . 1 ,II i l h I. 'ii Ii -. I. I.I l e -I., sI l, 'i lii alh I IA l ..
-I ,..i. ,l l I l s,. -l., III, l h .. L .. n. I i l .1 '. lill* -l i [ I llf i I t s I t [* *II
_**i. ,. I. iir.l i. I l Ii I. ,I lh o .1 1. I i . il i l .

* z t..1 .I. -. .11 in'-. 1 -1 -u n .. i..
. 1i l l l lI i- a ii i. I ri li .Lll I ri n. .i I ..ii ii l_ ,_ . iiin l h .g. Hi l l .T I I ,
- 1' hl fill l l l ,! _iII h ,a , I., I,. ,I l'II. : 'I '_ In ( "h lh I l 1 h lll 1a~l l -

l int 'l "II r l h l._ I I,. h, .l- I LJ. l it.. I "cn 1 4 ,l l ll- .. l ,4 ,i i. Ill -
I f ' a r' i h '] 'tl I I.. I .I . i ll .. fla' i I I s, .il i n l a . . I II .I lI

i i' I.' I -I J I I t I I Jl I I. .. . -.I, I .II..n i n s i h. i i [,l l u ll il- i i .
,In ui .. = ill ii 1 -==r l ll L* l J. . l h.I t i rll _i 1. .- a l I I . I
lil -I "II r I l ,i l .. i h ll l r .. .I iiii l i i i, ,. -,I .l I lil l- Ah ,11 I. P I .

1I n ,l *" l"! In I r n i ' n l m l. ll i I .*lh l I I'I II if .l{ i nh ll
l' ,11 l i' l ", nI I nl l lln, lr II..nll,"l'J n 1 it I Inn I. h .l I .. I h, a '.. 1. g
.ii .. iiJ ll. I ,I -. .. I ll I I


i di n, h r [ i ih il. i ll l i, I , i iii ',| . .I 1 ',1 ,I r .. IL.
-i,, ll :.I ] I l I ..1. I.a. ,- i, ". II 'I.. 1. ,l l r ll. I '., i,L r L i n l! i
1' '. I I .I .I 1 l l.l11 Ilk . _1 II l Il l, l h.II ,.I l h Io T I-

I It h l ,| h. 1.l I .i i 1.i ., I I I -l l.lr. -
I. I. ", Ifh' l.' II .. i II ]' . r n _I IIl '/ h i 11 t i ." fIll"
I ,, I h ,l I r- ,, ,I i. F.L ". \ II 1. I-. h l.. . .fl .. I'I h ] I i,. r l1| ig .|'
1 I .. s .1 if _i I hI I .. -I.,-. ,,[ Il.. ,rt. ..

1. I 1 I J .q I .. I ,.I I I I. I r i l 1 1 1 1 1 1 . I I t 1 1

[Page 61

9- 1 1 1 1 1 1 - _. -, .... .........

'J h I ;a 1 I '' I II,, ,lil rie i I ll I .if l ll i ll. I.il .,l I. I i l .- iI n il ,
i i lq l ir ', , h.I IIl f. l h ,* .- ', II, _ I ', [ [ .I. f la III .. [ 1 1iLI
l .iirl J l ii . il. .Fi il. i i,. I.. I.i. F i I ,IFF. ..iF.I F, I. r I i FII. -. .

rlis. ill, 1 I I. i !' i [ I., I' i It,, Iii. l i hin I lli_ ,i I J I li. g c 0 .I

SI F i l- .. ."l I I I1 ill ..I I I ll- l 1
I .l. I i l ii.I I ,.I ll I ..-I I ..-_ .i I .I I Ih, I I.l ill
l i. l i l, ,.i l h i l. In i l,. ll. .I I~ i- -. i .. .i rII -Il. I- 1iI 1i*r I i l| I 1. I il


I1 I,. Ih ,H ers ,,, I 1., h .s I ,I .I-. ,, .il .. r, f f .,i i.i i ,h ,I ,[ r- ': H
I'L I hiF FF I lF 1' iF' .' .'" IF I, F i ,, ,1 I. il' F FFI '1 F iI

,l .lln l n- ,n Fnn nh i.] lI Fn.. i"F -- I tln i Flln ,nl., .n,,, h ni .1 .,i IIi
.. l n n I r , ,. .n, h .- .I I.-. L iI . I I .

,I, l l i_ ..I ilF n I .. n I ,F n l, ,.. _.FI F l i I 'l ,, n . i .F '

l I r r -I 1 1 1,- i n .., .I ll l l. . I. I I t i
.. ..I h .l I,.I, i .l uII ,I I l" i .F I. ( ii .I. I i l.. F ,,h ,1 I
r l F ,.,l -l,, I iu ...IF, I. .F l lh rit 11 .1F I Ii .,. ',a .- I. ,

0 1l l-. 1'11 I -. i F.I .l.i, . i l. J.i F i l l rF I .I l l It i F. .F ii i.
.Ill i Ii..!ll..l. ... .. h FI I Ii Fii Ili ll .. hi 1ii l i = 1p*+ I -
. .Il [. .iI l h , ,I I I LI l [ ,( ih4 I s. 1. ...i, i ,i !,,| . ,.I '. 1 ,alh .I rI ll ri l l ,|

iti I'.FI F, l, I ,i l. Ii .lh.I -tl* I . i. li* -1F F ...1 ,.r.,, I.1I l n IF FII F -

F.F } h l I i i 1 i il .i -,ll .F ,, .i ill I i .l F F-_ 1 F Fh l 1 i-r t ,
i.I l l-I F il. I 1i.i I *F F F. IiF' l r ,,h III II F IF. I.,1 .
1 .1 I l .l i . I l. l I. 1. I I I ,. I l lF F L 1 FI I 1 F Fi l l . iF l I l i l I I i .
IF i i,. i -i l It iL li Ii I .. i i -lilii I h II!. 1, -. I r lllil. .11
l ),.., ul .i I h i. i I ., I I1i I ,I ..i. .i. Ii .i t I .t i y i l l ,, I I .I . I l

F-. ri Fi. ..i ll.Ii .FFF F l F F F..I IF'. .. ii iF, i LFF 1iF
F.[ i, I i . F .F IF II. ,. it il F i I. I I i ll F "i i l. i i l Ii I. I. FiF.
. i.r iiF.. -I i i 1, 1 i F lF I IF I iF, F- Ii FI 1 F.., F. l FI
I i n ll~ l ,r I. -- l III .I tl.i ,i.l. !I II I -- II I , I '. "' l iIl I Il. L'. l l 1 l il I
F- h l h I...,I l F.lF r I,, i I .... Fr Ji .ill' i l I II. i . a F
i I. I- l I iln .I l l...., I I,. t . li ..r i ll. iiiI iii il lh .. I T h I.. J , I "
o rl. .I I' 'I ..I II ,I. II .I mr i lli J,. lsi ll s llh .l. i I.. Ltd .l I- .Lil r I. i
Ilj r FI F -FFII F


"\i'h l, In ." alT, r r ,, ),,! i 1." , , r, I,, II 1llll allZ.slh i l l- E l 1 i
i.F. I I.F ,ili In ..I I F ir r i lll lr, .,l In. r F r Fi n l lll .- Fi -IF .F i l l .I

rt. I il .l *. F i. I F. nn ni nF.F. F F ,F IF lFiFIl F.FI 1 1n IliF n _- at, 1FF [1F I
I . lI .li l!. | [i I 1 -I ,I I. I I , .I I, l l l.1, [ al l. i .* Ill i .IJ 1i ,,L .
1 1 I I I .l l' F I I l Fl l i a, i s rl r i n i .F I, j l l ,l- -, I. I- F l iF F I I l l l

' I l0 | Ii~l.r.
i 'i i i l- F I i i I- l I.. F I ilL J.F l ilI il 11 ,,iFF ,F'F ] = i '

H'l l r.r i +It lh I ,1 I,.. i . i h r lI -, (, L. I.1 I l lin ll Il h -.,t .i l i .1 l l .
Is --i-.. .i-. i I F F .1 I iI -- .1 I.. I lFlF lh l. .I Ill,. F . ; -
F!*lil .II. I I I i h .. 1. ., ,.. II,. IF I -F l i .f--i llFF 1 I F i .I l ll 1 .I

Ili. i ill i.F...l Fl. i ..I l ,I F i-F I. F h iF -F-- IF l t I.
llii I F F1ll- liF.. I, ',.i I, 1, i I, ,,I, I I. I i t -F FF.. l. i ll .1 ,L
lI I, .I lF l..hi .I I l.F ,IIiiiF II I.I F lh F h IF- ii It iFF iFis i ..iF ,III. I, LJ
I [I i i i i i I i .I ,I l I l l l l l l I ,l .=** Ii t I L l il.l r i. r L i K I lL.
-..l IFrm l In in r,,, F ,, i n. .i I 'F l i r,.l,'Fill. FI ,ii F..,Ill. .I F I i lll l' I

iII .. i n. F I. I ,I. I,,i IiI iii. F FFFlFI. I -. "F lli Illi- l' .lliF IF F-I
Il. t .F.I IlF, -l, ...r, Fal1 l -..I '. FF111 F- F..h_ .F ,lF IFi FFiFl-1J..] I
F I ..- I F .. ii. .FI.,F F I' .,*' ihF. ...F i..l FF l F'- .il l I I,. IF \',, i .t r. I JFI l I -
FL ,, ,,. "F FF1 F1 .1 I, F. ', ,.1 Fr. IFF.I .F I h F i ll F ll- n.iln] t1.)'. I J.rif l

[Page 81

* ~


li t i. Ir. I ,a II. n Ill . I ri. i 1' II, ., r. i n ., .ri 1 r I hi ,r h a rr


S r l, ,fl. ,l 1,,, r , 1 i 11.- 1,,,r1 T11 '" I, ,. r r h *, , ,*', \ s,
l .11. i ,,1 a l . l ,r, I, r i l, h i, , h I I,. . .. i l. 1 II I Il, i 1 i,

1, ,h ; l. 1I' I iI i ,,,,,i ih d l i I,, .l, ltl.rl, I r h .

power plant of the Manatee Li eight and Traction Company, which fur-
nishes Bradentown and Manatre with light and power. Bradentown
and Manatee are located close to each othlier, and can be considered as
almost the same comuninnity.
Manatee is the oldest place in the county, its history dating back to
1841. 11, too, has excellent church and school facilities, electric lights,
water works, and all that goes to make up a live little city. It is only
about a mile from Bradentown. In the center of one of the lrineipal
streets of Alanatee is a large mineral spring, the waters of which con-
lain curative properties which are valuable in many diseases. Manatee
has a number of beautiful homes, and adjoining it are some profitable
plantations and some spots rich in historic interest.
Imniiediaotely contiguous to Bradeniown and Manatee are large
bodies of hammock and pine land, a quantity of which is in handsome
groves, while quite a portion is also devoted to the culture of early
vegetables. The river here is a mile wide, and offers unusual facilities
for boating and fishing.
Across the river from liraldentown is Palmetto, a thriving town, ad-
joining which are immense bodies of haummoc land, a, large portion
of which is devoted to th(e cllure of oranges and grapefruit, as well
as all kinds of early vegetables. Just a few miles northeast of Pal-
metllto is Terra Coia Island, an unusually fertile spot, containing about
two thousand acres, nearly all of which is under cullivation. Palmetto
is a thriving little city of about 1000 people, and the place is up-to-dalo
in every respect, wiih good banks, splendid schools, electric lights, etc.,
and its religious institutions have always been of a high order. From
Palmetto the shipments of vegetables are heaviest of any of the towns
along tle Seaboard Air ,ine Railway. Shipments begin in December,
consisting of ltlnce i and peas, and continue iir.h i,.,,,r the year. The
various crops come on in succession, ahead of the Nort hern grown
vegetables, and they are again on the Northern markets after the home-
grown supply lhas been exhausted. It is this continual use of ithe land
which makes voeelable aild trucrik-growing in lthe Manatee country so
profitable to the growers.
At On(co is located the Royal Palm Nurseries, perhaps the largest
nurseries in Florida. This business ihas been carried on over a period
of almost iwenty-five years, and the grounds furnish abundant evidence
of what canri he accomplished in this soil and climate. All kinds of
tropical and suib-tropical trees and plants have been produced in the
greatest abundance, and a great industry has been created because of
the favorable location.
SarasoIa is one of the most attractive places in the county, being
noted as a summer and winter resort. It occupies a high loation,
overlooking a most alltroai ve and almost land-locked bay, bearing the

IPi e 10l

-pIIII Ih lli, i 1: I ,- i. hi .riI, ,, '- ,..' illI r I. IT i .. j. miii -

,,i jir i.ts ,, [, I I, ,,I 1 'I, .l i .. 1 I. I.,-- 'Illl .0 I
11. l, l 1 ,I ,h F, it h I. i.-il ,i- I ,i, mI h Iir i ,, i , .1 ii,, 1 i, , Il .,

IIIIII 11- *I in ia I- 11 i ii- h i -l ,-I1 f I . I 1 1 1 1 f I
[,I,,, a , -, ,r , ,,i,i l r.,,,I , i t ,,,, ,. t1 I t h ,, I ., ,it ,l iT b I lr r

ii- I I it i, I i, I h , I I, - ., I .i i I I I .,
. il llI e iIi,? [.. lI I I . ,I l I ilu l. .LL -- Ill, Il h ,JR 1.. .u li[

r, i .I i . i, i ,l I I. F i,.. i. ,i r, li, l i,. I H., i ih l i *', I 1 .. i r
I 1 ,l l .- HI l tr i l. ...il 1.. ,I. r r .t i Il i 'i .I ri hi r, _ l IiI i r .,i 1,] h ,
h I L I . li I. I i i I 1. li . .. ,i '. i| l.I I l. l l . l l i, i n a i, tin l i -
L. l,. I ,, ., I .., ,, , , i,, 1 ,,h1 II.. ht : 1 I I,. ] I i. 1 h
e: 1 1 1 i i l I -I I. l l ,, I, I I , I l i i i i, 1 i .I hI i l l i
l i lr l i l I. .
i 'i i1I 1 1 Il l. l I II [ rl , , r .I 1 i l i lI i lli I i~ l I rl. r i ll.I I I 11 ,.eli jh r .

..ilih ii.l. l h '.. II .1, I,,,I ,, Il,,, 'h,,l, 'II'd]' ..r
Ill. .. I rli. I1 _I., l l .i I ll l i l: I I h. ,.li liI I
I ,' i l i I. l .. i i, { i ll. i i l li .* lI i. I i r i. h e ,. It ili all
I. l- r F.. I I r.l .h III ,,i 1,. I..ii. Ill. h rr ,,1.. i i.-


i II. .11,. F, I.-, 11 all li, ., I, t ,lH. II h ,- ,,hI ..I II,, IiI IlI 1 I..h
,I f ,iti- t h ,h ,, -. h i, I 1,, I ., ,I, , i ,h I I I , Il ,i I m, I

l h ,. s ,il i. l i i ' I l 'l i. 1 I I, ,. lI 1 I , ,II r r I I I l,. t 1 1i 1 I, .

L [I lll~i 1, f r'' Ill. "l ulh.ir,.Ii' ..I ill,, ,Iris. I i- I ,r,. 1, ,if ,Ill.,
li1 .' r II. I, l h1 i i h i ii ill .1I i i Ilh ,I ,. iI It,. lill r h.h .
1 1 i' I l l 1 ll l rir l I I I I I' . I . 1 I . I I , l 'i ,. 1 .% r i :, ii
1 i el rs h ei l l i ) ,l ,, r.h r .i liIB. I i'l i ir t i . i .I, Fi 1 I Il -' I l... I [ .
\ sr I a l. t, i l. l ,.. .!.l ., I F,.. . .., rd l l,,, li, 1 . 1,. I I T , .I ,I
Ii l l ii I . I 1 I i t l l ls I I,. ni li l i. I I ia. r I I l ll p.. i 1, !i 1i i l . .
l 1 : 1 l I- i n t r ir i i i i i i .i f I I, . i l l i I I I,. i I l ,, .. I I ,l I ,iI i l l l, . ,
i lh i ', i l l I ., .1 I i r r i I 1 I . i . i 1 ] i l , 1 I I,. "., la r Ia. ii ,
n I [ I r i l .. 1t. 1 4 ,. I r .l I l. I it ih. l iI . I !i .1 * i* i r,. 1 Itl .h. 1h i, HI
I I.. '. rt ., p .. I i r .rll liI il ? l,. l l i I h ,,I.. .r 1 li. '. l. i.
li.. l iih ,T i i i i .r [. I1 ,. i .h l l l l il in lr 1 .1 i1 i.1. ., ,
I lI I l illi )I r. .. .,l r. . rH e .., . il i.i 1 1 i i ii i 1h .l I l i iii .i = L

till 1 . .I 1 1 i ... - .i l l i i t t l I ?, I Ii nm .f,, i1 .1,
. .T t );. I Ih l ,. ,I I I i' i It I . l I ll, . i . lI I. I ll, I Y F a ti l T ,
' 1 I l .,, -l II . 1 r I. I i r i l i l ll i i .I i i i s nl r I '


l'- ij i ] si1 I 1 1, r i r i I I, h i l.. I I 'r ar i l ,. ., I ,II ,. rI I I,. '_ i ,
I .1 1 .II t 'I " i n- I |r l I, I l ll ll I 'I .1 1 l I I I I Il li, ,t r i l, h
.Il i I I l ,l,.. l l l i. l/ l l ,1 I l I .' ] ' .II I I I I .I, 1! I F r l.
,.. 'l . f r l,. ,ii t i i I li r. l 1 I i l i ii, t o.
i l h ,is Ir i ,h. i t,. l,, ,, 1 1, l,. h , .I li l, \ I I. i Is l l .Il l 'I I
Sl lh T [ ,.III HI. I I l, I I I Ih I1si. I l ',li ,,t l ,i I I r. h .,
t i ll 1I a- f lli li b i .l i i li l lis.( I I lI. r i i i, . I i . ,. l .h l1 I ll tir I ll, 1 1 i
I r h. l* *' .l" l l ,. rl li e r .i,. .h lI. i,, r F,. I. . l .h , I. I ,
[ i 1,ll lll j IrI T I. Ill. I I . .. . l.h i l l L.. I I ,I ..I' .I 1 I,, I I I I lL ,
l oii l l l . i,. r. Jl .I lit ii h rir. ri ,iI I t .I l ii i,...l) I h 11 I H i i il

] l .1 l l I . re i l i h I i l l, . , i r l. I I. 1 I i I rl i I i .I I ril.h
ei ..I jr h l..llh I r

[Page 11]

.\X r f~r a -, ,,-,ii ill r lt .-'.i d, : h T. ,, t H ,r r ir .- ,,r! sil! -l p .- .[ ' I" 1
f l' 'll -- I 'I r l I1 , l ilL r i i ii, 1 1 1 1 !1,1 1 11. i r I ,i 'r l -

I l. t i i r. 1 i i f I l lj l. i i r i t .. l 'iI I .l .li. -. '. ir
I tL I I I 1 1 1[. 1 1 fl,, I ,i h IL Ill I , I, i i l 1l h 1I I if all ll r ll,
1i ,h l ii_. ,I -. II.h.. II.1, Tll.j. I I, ji. I... -... i I llrr. .[._- ,h.
II,, [ Clh I ll rl I -Ij li I F, , 1 1,, I r lll l I r. ,I I -
I,, ,J, In 1 ,n" l h I i r lln, n 1. n , I n l l I. I n n IIl rn. nl lnl nnl, I I .,, - i nI
*, .1.i T I, n h ,Isi, I , ,, I. il l nI. -.I -, 1 il r ,I. 1.! pr .n l l h t r
h L n II In' 1. I s'i lan .l .l 1 '
l h ,I I a l I l l i n .-1,, I IT l h I,. l! I r rl, Ii ] l l lii, l l i 11 t" i 'r ii.. it.
l lh l I Il= r I..I -" t Ii '..I 1,. .,I h I, -ri. r. ..[ II I 11
, , , 1 1 - : . r l I I , 1'
I rI l Il ,I ,, i i I h I I I l _[ I l III l .h. |,. I,,I .,I i nll. f '- l Il lh ,e t I
l I l' .' l'i' r, r,, ,il .. I, l It I I I I,, ..: I I I.. I 1 I [ [ III' [ I ll I
u s11 1 l irll l l I Ih i, l l l I II, h i r l l, I )i, I,,i ll ,t I ll, I t alll rIfl | s. _

'iT. .1 Ii,.

fI ll II I. .1 .1 I, II I.. I I1
I ,I F, l i,, r,, ii_
I II I. l. .IJl I h i I..
L' I ..I.h I i,i ill_ Ii.
I 1,.i i1 nI ,, I I,
II. I ,, ''1 ii I I .
I I. . I.. I I' I 1 ih I

I I,, l '' .1 n' I ,I I l~ l n ,[
,, I I I I I, I I~ l , l i .I I -

Il l. I, I 1. .. .. I 1 1, I I ,I l h ,

I. I i .l il 1 1
1 1I lr i l, .l ] .I t. . I, I'

', I 1. r.. 1 f ,1. ,

,I lli t h I_ I l l I .r I r,..r i i

ll I,, IIr, ... II 1, iii Ih i ll' r I- 1
S J h. 1 1,. I. 111 11 I. ] ',il l +. I I. I j.. [I!' ' l lI
I II I l i I I I I I I r i, r t ., r ,, ,! I I ,, ,

l, ii I Tiilh, ii.. .. i, h 1il- ,i I l ,
I PI IIi, -, ,, I i r ., I. l l l I II 1 1_ .ii
,1" I IL 1 ,1 1, III, I10 1 11.11 \ I si II, .1 l ,llllII i "
I ,. I I, .l Ilh | ,L ll
I n. 1 1l il l I ' r It n i i n l n 1I I 1 i [ 1 1 l l l I I ,,
,I III '- I il i l il il I I,, ,Il~ l III I Il I l h I..
llli1 I , r, I,, 1 , l e, ,h 14. l o .. lh ll 'i1 ..
", 1, .Ir, | ,I \ rfll I I,. l I 'r , .L, i 1- .r I Ii, . i 1. a
i r .., i i i 1 I i, ,i r l ,I II ii I, l, .l, l ., I 1
. . .( I l11, i l I It, 1 1 -. i l .. h l, l l, ,!" I I,,
, iT 1H 1 is ,Iill' I b. r 1 1 . I lll l, II ,

,, lst, , r i i,, , 1 f l I i i :, iII,, J ,J lt l ,I ,l ll , r 1 , l 1 1 ,,il
I 1, r, I I. t r. I
.. ., ,T ,I -_ i ll i 1 1 , i l , I, h l i

1. 1 . I 'I ''. 1 Fr 1. i. p... I i i 1 ? 1 1 I 1. I . I
i,, ,,i i ,,I ,,I I ,,ll i, ,,,,I I I, ,l I ,I 1,, ,, I , il l, i ,

, ii ,i i i i i l i i i i r I l, i l l r ,, I i i , i I

'a 1 1 I ,, rI ll r I ,, 'V I I

I i. I Il l , I ,, -I .nit l Iil l ,I Ii II l h i. ii, II. .
II, .iii. 1 ii, i ll ii. l l.., n I. ii ii til- i _i. I. ,I l .i I ..
i ,11 i I il I ..14[ lli.,,li_ I I ..i lh._ lh I ) ,l al f i t I i . ,.I t h .
I h , IJ ill, rl.. ll P il i ll i', ll I:, l,1 t 11, l h l T h.. I nI I s II I :I ll,1 "
' Il I .. . I i l , I f l l ll r i f i ),*i i .1 ? , i l l r r l, i r lu r l r lll l ,


'I ,, ,,, 1 1 h .1 h1 ,,l t t inl ,,i ill_ .il i ,,i,. Il' lll l I I , I, In larh r li

I, I ,, i,, ,r if,, ,l t '_ h ,Is - r ,* l In f l l I .. II, I, l h L, r i..

i , ,, I l I, 1 i, 1 t u r i -. . 1 I , , I I1 Il h h. 1 lll 1 ,. .. '. ,, I
I i i I I, ,, i , . r is I l lI i h ,. 1 1 1 1, r ,T r 1 ,l I , 1 1 ,. I .i ,
, i i i , s r I I 1 i I - , i i I I ,, , I I , i i , i i
I Ii . . I, i l I , I ii I I I Ii i ~ , '
r h -, .i ,i l I, , i ,iI ,iII, r I 11, I ~i Li i I I, I , I,, i i l,, | il, ir1
ll rl L r t l l I I I .i1, I ., I" l I I I il l +,1 i. 1 1 f l i I l l' ,i lI I h I , Il l I 1 .

[ Page 121

I 1 .1 I . I I ,. . I I I. ... Ir l I I


~. .~



11111' liii '. Hiis Ian .'s -''I' Ti *1 11 sl Lil1 i ll, a[
".1 I0 I 1 ,'l .t .,] 1 II, -lin t I ( ,, 1' '1 ", al lt ,tl il ll s .il1.1 *,, II

Il l 11 I, I I III III I .II I I1 I I I I [ I I I III 1.111* I I I
- i' 11' rh. Ii -I I -ill i.. ], 1. I .- I Il li I i.. I I, Ih. l u. I iii i.i 11,

il s 1 .. o l.II. l' II. liii Ii -liii Iiji, l Iii I iiii- |.1 ii ii Ii. l
l Ii I i I-.'1 l.,I I .1 II. 1 I 1.. i1_ i1 i I.. ... i1 i. I hli i i 1.11

_ I1. i l iII ., I li I I. I. 1 iI 1 I*- iI h Ih

Iiiii I.lll, l r- _,1l' ,IiIi. .,i'.J.. i_
} l rar l. .I lI til ll Is I ii, t tL 1. 1 t. I Ih i I- .t l l.lllAt Ih l I *i.. q l itl 1, 'l

I Il I t.,! I . II Is. I I, I I I . I I,- l h -

li i i- I ..i .. I I. ILIIi l 1. . I I, . l i
i', I. II hll. I II I lli i Ii.1.l Ii' I I.i . '' I _1 ,I,| I ll alls-
I ~ Il_ II. -. I~l, I. I" ,11 ',I ,I 1. I. I hiI Ih II ll It.I 1. e . ,

iI. 1 ll '.h Ib ." l li. i I h.' ii H' i i l. Ih.. h 1 ,- '1 I h Il. I
1 .' .I 1 .I', I,, l ", h I ).! Ih l 1 I., I IIh I 1.. -. ",, I la .I I. I IZ'

I111. I ,.. 11. -1 h'." l' '... .. .I I.. ll ._ .. I 1i.. Ii '1 ll 1 1 I0 1
I,L I t ,th1 I1" ''1 li '. ill,- ''' I" '* I ' i'- 11* ,ll-.. [,. ,h._ h ,[li'ihs '
I iL I '- i I il i' .i- I, ii. (, Ip' , .I I i IIll, I h II '-* I i l ii, .11 I
I.. -i. II. L f IhII, l I l. I i. .11 I p- u i, . I 1 1 II' h ui 1 I' II.,L --
1 .1 (. iL,, Il ll I 1. I.,. h i.1 I, .. 1 ,,1 1, l illu t. iI I ,, .i ', i1'- j a.., l !. l. [lti
[Ih ,ll [,l ej. i. l l I I. lh ar I, I.. il .,I l..., I it I.. .ir ji l'.lh r,al l..
,''l' 1 | i . ', I i, l II .Il ll _'1 \ '., I i, I !!, 1 1 I ,.1 1 .1 1" '
T 1 nlII I t ],* ,illl, 1 l' I'J ] i, el, I t, I, 1 .] I, Inh 1.1, .I ,.- l[ a, l ,l r lnlg
,, .,_ I I . [ I I llh I," n1 0 l_ 'n 1,ln.lll,n. n. . . n .I 1 , 1 i s .l l .1 -"
.', I . I I !III I l I .. in. .,, . *. 1.. *, L I. ' Il . i n' t l ll .
i l. ..[ f lII" '1 1111 -.. I~l our s s e. ~ ll "_' I t 10 I' .I 1 HI li it II ll l I ., i IIII'_ g i r l ..
al.. 0.,r hi l l l *.,il trh -.a ,il l s i- ,i lI I i. is lh l '" ilh If. Ill
i ,. I. I I,. 1 lli I ,11 ,li li lall [= .l I \. II' I nf l ail IniI I 1 l
]' 1 I,, **l l il d h Pllh **l 1. 11. 1i l . I.l .il l_ l ,I I I f, l l l I .. ..- h*.*il l

I ,.,!. I I!. - ,i.. .- .I I sh ,ti l II.l,, .it 1 .. .h .illl... I l .[ l- -I 1. .
1.. I I l h ,.. l lh I.; 'I r lll i **= l h I I. .I]I! e--sa Ill I I [.I l all I .1 1 l i ill
.t .'.'I' I ,h h ,. l, h it I .I. I..,. l., hI l. h 1'., lh i'l . lJ I "
.I l li ls lll ,I I ![. Elil ltllill lH I 1 i hl. I ,. | .i~ l l ill lll il ', Ih I I1 I l .1 l itiall
la. .'|h .I, -I 1., ,, 1.I l ..- I .. I IT h I i .l ..U s, wi | lI ..[" I I1.* ." I,l II.

ill I ,,'1


,\'IIII L I ia ( .- I" ( i I i iIll lll **ii T -_ 'i . , I I' I ,I I h l.ih
h ',. It I .'1"' h "' ', .i
i hl hI -I .,-I ..I t h i lh .I .l I.. I '[*( i. l il, I h _'- I.. !h _" l. ll
': ., ,,, 1 "I ,: l \ ". ill i ,li ,, r h<.11 t ),, IIi ,, ,l,,i ... I l 1511
.= l 1 e1 ,1 I lI 1. I I I h l I I. I 'l 1 1,, ,'i a l -, I rL use I I l i l II I I 1h Ill

..1 '" I" I I } Ill i h ,ill ,II ,, I h I !,, ,, II -I , l I I, ,,h 1 1,, l' I El
I,, ,i ll,_ I ,,,I,- "F i,- I- ,I -IIr,,lu I ,th LI ,, I,, ll e[ ., 1I IIh ,,1 1 ,i1 11,I
lh .l lI ii u,II sI . gllh r .. flil .i I ',I, .[' l i h ,. l II. I, _..- '. I I II. I 4 1''l'
I.. I . II I lI. I I I, I II. 1 I. III *F *l-r, l ll '., el i lh .. -
I| ..h ,. - ,1 .1 1 I. .) .i I Ih I i ll .h 1 us J .lit 1.. I..', II I.. I . ll l h .
Ill I I I lu! It li [ ? -,h I.. I .s I -I I II '- I 1 1..- ..l1 . . a 4' s. Il
I . I n.ll I ,. .,.. II ,I ['' l ,II 11 ,I I" "'1 hla~ lh l, i a .,hl ,l .. llwi ,il;. I II,
I st ,.I !,.. h ' I1). r. "' ) I i I f I I,,L, I, *. 1, h I I , I. *, 11 *, .l1l lh -

[ 1, I .- l lil t.ll I ([ g.I I I' I,, '.. I 1h I = i I .i l,. l' 'in -
u |.. l 1r l .1l I ', l e l ll l I l l .11h I I,, I I ,,. I I, l 1 .1 . Il,., 1II 1 r L il I 1l Ill l
.L II,| I ,, it,,, ll l I1 r I. I I I l- i~lo lls f ll _i ,, -
l l.. l.l..r!I I, i , .. 1I r Il-'i i L il I 1 -.. M aill il -in I ]. lt ,. 'Il l11 "
,i. .., I ', i ell. ...IlI. .] .iI ,I- h lit al II i" IIIII' ll .h I' sti II. ilh I., -

I Page 151

-..'1 iT, ,I h I h I -lIh | lH ,. ,,r II,, -,- !1, I I ,- -.1 1[ I I

II i 1 *, I Ii* I1 **I ,Ii 1, ?*. .Ii.

,Ii 'l '* -1 ii .. t IIiI ,*,i ii ii, I .1 I ih h 1,,1 11 .
I I..,, l. r h i, i i 1', 1. iI i. ll fl. I- I .' I .,r .II ll II .. h -. h I I I
1 '. I. II II I. i II l I I I I

h .1. iL J r I .I l 11 l h t ~ I ill i i.* ,, li lr I i.. 1 i l.. _1. l ll1

a gg~ lin ll I aies III .Il il' 4 ill 0 f liii_ .jlIl i ;1 ..l.Fi.
i I I h i II I I i, i 11.1 h i l
h ,l .l .il, / ... I I ..i' I' I III. I. I1 liIIh l I i. rli i I I

i, ll I ,* ... lh i .i .1, 1, .h 'II l. i. ,i I -, I ..iI" I .1 -" h ..,r
I. ..1 h** l ,l* . I I I** I. ll il l "h l'l.. i b.. l rh .. . I1hl I 1 *
I ... ..i '' I _1.l' ll i n il 1 d .ll l I -l l .. j, ,III~ b a. ,. I I '.I .- i ,lh '.

\\ h I I. I, ).. h I I I I ,, **ill.l I II I . i II. I 'h r ** lI I*
I alrll, 1 1, ,l~ lp l . lu II , I] u 1 I ll, i l ', l i,, , _* h l h ,l.i i .
l'la r L I" i l L l. ll 'l n t,..n h r I I J ul.'l s li l i l lit nnl I r i, i
I II ia] I...I [I I I l ,i 1.- H ll. *, I !,. I hI il.- ..l I hI..,i ih ,I .' r I s ar ll .il, ,
I w lii I illi Illl il li "* il ,ill Ih ih l ill ',.. lih I .1 I I .il III .l l I l li i he i J
1 t. I I..I,.I i h h ,= I ili lii li I1 i ill ., ii I Ih Ih 'lliil.elt I. .irl I. I I .- u i,.i- ,.l1
, [,Il r, 1 I ,i ,. h.I l l luri- .11h ,1 i I. i 1 il i .,I I hl. I ,i, I I l, II .illl l il t l. I ih,.I i -
l' ,iill..l,|. '. h I h I- 1 Il ,. iL .,u -.1 h 11. i. il.., 1 I l.|,, -. 11 1. I 1i al li !.. i .r, 1
ili,1 I I 0 .i .,,ll I.. il '_ I. 1 I *I' a u lll ;11 1..11 .,h. r h o l hr i "1
I h .Ill -_ ,ili.I l.il,.* H u ll IT rl.i, h i .. I ,i lIi I Ill, h i liaiI lllI li ll
P lh 1 I. liil i' .II .i.. ,l ll,, .' ,I,. rd .\ ,i l .,i.. J ni h I ,i alli I ,..
l.l l l. *I n- . l. I. l i rol.
r h l r l .I I ,. lit I' I. I .J..,' Il,, h l .I. ,ih dl l b -... I i- i~ 1 1
., II .i ll lp r l. I ,I Iil ,ll I n In h ,i r I ll l / .llln ill _" l ) l l l ln. l
l hl i l il l ha r 1 ri n ill i l .l Ilh i ii lii ii -lli i[l I~ i Ilii r ls .
I I i ,, . i ,li in. .. .i I .. l .i r b ar Il .,r I li. . i l. I ,1 l h ,. i' I ha ilh
il I I I .' ." I lli i . I ii .% 1 i l .. I I 'iill l I, i I 1.l i.l' .1 r. *I,
li I I ll I hI t_..... I -. hI....] ,h .[, .I ..,, i I.,ill ..Ii 1i1.l .il 1..i Ih ." I., h 1 h
,I I t1. I ii iiii I Ih ..) I Ih 1 iI I lu ln lh -


I~ n in n nl l , i .i t in I ., in,, l ai l, ,. n .n n - I lli I. l,a p H l i ll Illil I .1
.i I i i. l l l l ll Ill l .l I l lll. .lh n h i.i ,.. 1 n I .I l h ,. -, I I. .TI ir
h ..,il 1 h .l I, 1. .. . l I I il l iI I h ..I I II. - h i.,. r i iii

Si r. I II. ,hI l s i i i, ..I, ,Ii. i r i u si i 1 i .llll i i'" I 1 I si ll
I I I I ,. _. I. ,I I .I , l 1 l. i i. l l *[ ,. ,I r . 's .r l l l. l i l l. 11 I. I 1 'I I. .r
I .I II . Il 'l l l ' I I i I l ir .Ie I Ih I ri.i I . .'l, I h li li, ,I i'l ,..Li | '.1 1
i I. l l ,1. I, I i i i I I I l l l i . i , I I I ,. I I I i i l l i l . i l I.. I l i i i ,' I I !
11, I h I I., ., ., I I iii. I, rl~ li ii1.. I Ih . . iiii i I I ,.. h) * i l '* .I
I hI. a .j.. i I h. a r1 I I,, ,1 ,, u I ,' ,1 , 'l 'i ll ,' . ..,I .', II I lIII

).1 rlh ,. ,! '. i i,a lil,I lli, r It" I ti i a. l li .ill ill .=1 = |i ill-1 ha. lI* r
.. i1 ,1 h I II. h II. I h. l'. h I 1. II. I a rri.. I ill I I -. I I .. h1 '1 1.. .. l '. I -
.1 1 ili l. ,.= I I I. Ini I hI. II i In, i h ,I i n lln l .1' ,iiil + r* ii. II ji nl.,. ll, + I -
lil! -l 111 [ .. .I

[Page 16]

*I' -- v I, ii II l i- i 1 I I I i. l ilh \ 1 '- I . I II- t t i l i i I I i.
I i Ii, -( Ili i t- I ,,r |-l.illt, I 1-1 ,,];Ir1 't IJr InI I'l l lr IhI. -, I il,
SI .ili , I 1I .I - ,,f ., rlii, i -- ri I i I 1 I Ii, 11 I I r
S l 1 ,ii .1. I. i III ii. i I I R I I I I . I l, .

I, .. l .. .l | l J i -1 . iti 1 i ,' I. ,, I. I, 1 ,
Si.i n 1 I .' i. I ,i l .. I

(in l 'I .1 .i i1 i, I i I Fl I t I t l l I '_ II I I

. h l. l I. I , l i l _I I \ |i 1 .- I,,I

, . I .. I. .I I.i. -. I'I li I I h I 1 l i I 1
I il. r M1 li 1 r1 l.1 1 1 I1 1 1. I I 1

iIh .lll Ii- ,h 11 ,I,- .ll- u.. Il 'n, -tnl. hi, l- -l llI f- i. i I, T i f. i r i
', ill. I ii ii. lii I -. T li | il, Ii 1Ti. II .1- Ihll 1l 1-
iil '. J' i. l. I .. I i I I ,. 1 ini l .i s f l l..i .I i l._ 1 t I t.. -.,1, h| r l
S h. ,l i l T !.. i ,,r.,l rrl l I. i l.l. -i ii ,i l[,. v,, l l,,i . ii l .'i I
* 11 1- I n i I ,r ,, l ,,I I, nl,, l t i hr ., li h r 1.1 |. f ,], h \I, l r li= .l II _,- ,1hii-


,, rh .ill 1 ill il o I h h i.,-I jir', l llla l, ,, .1 NI, Ih %,r- ,%' pI, l lu ,

H .ll I', I-l. ,II'41h 1 I Itlr. I II,' i l .LI -i l'- I Ii, .L .. I t- l lt iZ -

I*. i .LDll 1a I",I 1 Do.l, 1"iv 1
I r-i. 1 ", I 1 1 t, t ',1.,M I

q',,!r,,I- IH i% I I", I.- lV hIv I

11 'lll. I -..,Ih I I" I \p l Il 1-- 1,l, I
M .- I'lL, r [i I- Il, \-I. l" -- 11lh,. ]"

I1. l,,r,- l.,h 1-.-- I', I 11. 1---1InAv t
1 II.I., .\ lh 1 1 lr "1 T .-- I *. I
S lt,, ,- i r 1 h \ l~lil I_--- 1.1.1 I
I',.,; -- [il,-10 i ll. ---I t, 1

,i l-' Ih Ivt l I--- I' I'. 1 1m a n _. v .-- I l ,t 1
'i. r,,r ,,,r,.* lh _.-,--- I "r ]", \ [,l h I .- il 1- a

T h, s.' ,) .. ,,I I t- ,,ll1, ,_l.'-,' r. .sf L i m -ev tl .'' -,in 'rivt "

I.,,.L I l, ,I Ill!, t,,ll, ',lh ',+ _. ?.,l l. ,- I s= r l erlt ., ( ,ff [,l.ln r: s illll nl i "

[Page 171




these, there re e planted fields of the f, 11.. ..t _. not ready to market:
Celery, cabbage, lettuce, cauliflower. And other crops of lettuce, pep-
pers, eggplant, etc., had just been planted and were coming on for
later markets.
Growers count on securing from $500 to $1000 worth of vegetables
per acre at least. Many of the growers make their lands net them
even more than this. From one acre of land seen by the writer the
grower sold his crop of lettuce to a local buyer. The grower got be-
tween $400 and $500 for his crop, and the lman who bought it shipped
it North and made a -..'.-ii of $900 on the acre of lettuce. It is not an
uncommon thing for growers to raise vegetable crops which net them
as much as $1000 per acre.


To secure the Ibest returns the growers harvest several crops from
ilhe sane land in one season. Take a crop of lettuce, for instance.
Late in lithe summer a seed bed will be prepared and( planted in Big
Boston lettuce. Very likely preparations will be made to shade the
bed with a muslin screen, for the sun is hot at that season. In
October and November the first of the lettuce will be transplanted
to the field, and other pilntiing follow along until the first of January.
This crop of lettuce begins to mature in Deemober, and shipments
from later planlinzs continue until about May.
..... i l IE -I I lDlI i I I.E GA B IIG I .

S 11. I I I,, 1I'I ... i1, li ill1-I Il f. I ,I ...
illl' - II l 1 I If .i ii lI llf, I lllP f n iI lii,
h ,I. If' l ii i I n.r. I, !. 'I1 ri ,i il l I ,Jlll-l fl h lit, i, i Is

l. i n. I i l il II.. ii f I III I..I il Il. I i. 'i
i funli ,i I i Ii ,.,i,,, l .i, Ir ,,. ,I fl ,I I i,i- fin ifn., r i -f- ,,

1 ,, lll I | l ,- -. i ii li i, r- i ti I i, _, i, I. l h fii r ili.

i, nl l l i ,[ Ir .. i ,I i f i i Ia lo i- l .f If I- I *1
h* in ,l i In n f I. 1 i ,in I .-[i i i ifi in I 1ii, fin l- i ii i fi I h ,_rfhI ff ri-.
i,. rl I, I lh , i rl, ,[ II,, -,,rl r- ln ifl f u l uli,,_ h .n r u h Ill -l l 1.i, l h -
h hill, ,- i lI-i ,,i, if if i. Inf .. I 1, li, ,l ff i i, 1, ,lill t I i llf
If11, ). Ih I I,, I, n- ,, if if In n- i I ., II i *ll, -. I .-- i I -h I l lln, I f,
i IfiIi-. i, i" ,I- i n lln ., i i .il ii 1-, in I- I i i *. 1, n ,. ii, rn i f i,
f Lf[ rn-n [ *I .l. i,, n,, hn i lliinn l t li, lu l i -lfii l i I T-, fi, t ,--t. I'll.

Il l-, | I, i l 1 1I ., ..ll,[ It I,i l ,', I I lI .11ii i- \ '-. i ii -I Il I

. I i ll inn ,iiIi i_ i f lhi, -, I, ,- i I- i I i I rh tI 1if 1ff. i iri,.. ill I i- -f it.. ri.mr f1
lh ,. 11.l hI -. .,h ., 1, ,, . Ih. It ill, -. [ e u l _l-, r J. i. 1.i p I .L' i,

[Page 19]

S.I Ilnl a -l" IIl -r l Ill. ,I -n .Il. 1ii rln ,I. 1 In't.ii ,' Ii..r- I,.
l .ll t t I- i I. li I. I Il I I 1 Ii i. l- I ,l l, PI I III III I I'.-. I
"L +Is .It l. | In* l, sh a i" I l ~ i il l. .ll Llh ). -.II .. t l II It I1 llll i .[ l tr .. !

IT I ,[l I l r I i I .1 ill I 1 1 I 1 .1 l .11 ... .' 1 I
I l.l l III T. . 'il. I I -l nI Ii. . I I IiI llll i II I

Ii t I I
h .I ., i l I rill I 2l, f .. ..I I" ti a 1 'ii r In -, I, r .., ,' lt i. '. i- ,' r ',
.1 1 J,. III I Il l ,lll.f |.I .l r, _+ l. .. l,it hu l.lt , ,a. .l II [, [ 11 .Il l lI ,s II. r
I lh 1 i T i. i Ib II IIil I I I h I I i I
r I i I I I r I


"'- il rl, i ll''l l. . ,- 1 i".ll ll ir a l .it ,, l lll. i i 'll 2l- l T il. l
I Ir lll .t I I I .I 1 I l* I r ll[l I ,I l l A I l l I lr I I. I. Ir 1

it i ill-r r._h li l lli li it Tn[ it -.rlI
,I.1 i l. h I tr I I I I r ..i.I r. I i lr l I III IN r -- iI I i "

-, r I i -I ri r. Tii' r I 1 II. I I I '- r', 1, \ r I. i t t |
I l r 1 Il, il lj I, 1 I r- i . I l1 1 l1 lll j I I Il l II. l
j I ', i [ Il l[Ll l l- Ill I l -* l ".' I : 1 1 1 I Il ,a I r I
, r ,I .lI' I h l l l r i I l I r l

I J. 11 l1 1 : r 1. 1 .1 1 i l o . 1 =1 = : 1 1 1 .. l .
.lr'. k aI I .. ,ll (.I .I', h j I l ,I hl l1 I -l ./ ,i L l
Lit1 ..I ,, I fl. l ;; .. 1 'I ll- I. I "i.,.,

r ,, la ar H Q I I Ind N11 11 t il ti li n n II~ Ia- I .
,' i, (' II I .= I 'lla 0 .' l lh r = ;i *ll., ill ,I -. II t H i I ll .
rlij ls 1 :.l ll -.l rl* I a L' I. II. r ,I" rl ll (: I ll, I: I f l-', lllll .I ll l ]l l lisl ', u p

" ,1. I, I p Ii II I-, '1 I, f l !. l l .l; 1, .H Il. II. l I ";I- ,,f Iri, 'r V l. .L h f ll - L h r .r -

A I I II.L I llt ll I' ll l l 1. = III ll a ll I tr .. .ir .l Il I I I. /i ll l l r lll 1 ll r l l '
iI I .tl :llll

ilp . Ill .- .]s I.,, 1I ,ll1 .j1,i l,4 h ill0|h ., -. Ill, l I
lIt. '- r, ,11 l ..| .- iI lI -. lib .1.i T h i. -f fl, I1 I,_ l, l f ,,i f., r ib .
.,,t l h .. 1 ..r I. ,1', I I IJ. II '_' ll.. .. I ,...l !{ l- n n't' I ll,. II '- :-L1 '1' ilith ; ',. lll l.

Il ;-l III t I I Il I I Il ,t r ll .. I I II s -- l ,l llil ", [l l l l. I. ,I1- !f 1.'
I Ii i- h I l ,I l ," s l ill. II l ,'t1 I.l- ..1.'l l l. .1:ll'll -
1.tI .' I l f. l l l,, ," I l . I. in :lll .1 I ', l l I l, ,
.I lll r I I l ". h r j l II. ,I I Il I I

] 1 1.'1' h l l l' l llI 11 l -l l '.I: I, II l I .,] l l l
( II I{ .' l ** h l h ne l* I , lhia 1'. r, la t ,l l -,,h .. .s. ,I lh , rl,,.r o ,. .
11,, i t !,1:il l, I llt i 1 .1 -** ',. n I ],,,t l, n T -ll II,, l h I I. h l l. ,ll '= [ t r .l

I,, I' h1 h : III,Il l I ,i a I, ,h l Hl is l.l .ll 1 :ll 1p ll' i .i l ." ,' It -la,T h ] :ll,. l

,..r lI l; [ l lll' J, I .l ,, llll I 'l l li-l I I h I l I l . . l l h
l,,,l ir ,l l..'h I I *, Ii l" llll'l- ,In hh l u l* I I ,s I I~ s t

I ll t l h I [ .. l l .l l .'I | llih :Il .l,: .- i tll ll H i l llJ. l ''. 1 l.1 "r ,,! l ll. .. th1 ..
,lh .l -l a L' ,i. I i l I i. + li' I" I ;.l lll .lit lll l iIt = II I\ Il lI. III |ll, ,t '.
-l i dl, I 1*- r i lll ll ',IIIIII :l l I i -l~ l l lillll l l I 1 [ l l LII I ,I I .. 1llI l '
t *rl l l- l Il l l'i lll : l l [" I n.l'lhte lII i = III I. '.s II l ' l dlll I.I rl' ,l h rll

-U 1.1 1.h 1 ..* ,, 'q = lit' iI I =f Ill" a sIll* I'I,, I lil. g, lI ,'\" I \ .it [,,
rid III* hal* l' I. 1h~ ,," Ila, T ill ,, ,,,l,- ,,* Il il ,,,illl 'Sl l l ,,t e tr,- I,,'-II,
l-,h ll rI] I. I" |.rl!,. ,] ,,l.. l. lhI l hII,r 1 . 1 ,* ,,hi t LI iilT,, lh 'lh -. , h ll'.I
II.i I, .. L l, l, lh li, ri n, l !1,11.. lh.. N ,,l lhI

rPage 20j


s H I grs .III [I ra 1. all .. I g a d i 0 I ll 1 1 1 .. 11 t s tp g ,

hi- I ...i'
I '1', -I" Ir, l .I l , .. ..-tI. i, ,i"I I,..I 1, .i'I i. Il l' lii

I t' 'I.,I. I' r. .1 I i i I', 1 jiii I ''rriii. Iii..I b .1 Ii..| f
I.ih l i, I l l i 11 i .l-. .. I ',,i lh h* I. *!,[, l IV.1 I....

ii tI'i II', ,l il *ii lr. I.' *- I i l'-ii I '' l,, 111r, I ,,r ih h li "'I I (I,"
lh,.[ "[,Jll l.-.I
I I,, | , ,, I '. L I ,- 1 I,, ,- I ,I ,,[ I , il h I i' I,,l .t .: e -

p 1. 1 Ii. I. l 1 1 1 n . I 1 I : s 1 I . I .

II-. i 1, i lI l, i. I ,i i,, l is, i ,' 1 i l ,- it, ,, Itt J' iT II

i . . i, I -1 [, I I In -I- h h i ill 'i l,, .n I. Ir i li, t,.. l III
[ IW illlI I-.[ I..Il Ili
l II i I,' I .l r t li I I I i ( I l ,I I l l l III, I I I lh
, , 1 ii i t h l I .I. I II l.. .... I : I h l,. h .I II'I I'II iI .. l.I , I '.'

I -" I [ III 1 1 I II, I I I I I I II. I n i r ,, I i I, II I I I 1 1 i ,,

l. I I II t it Il1,, i -. '| - -l l. i- i l lI, . I .
It I -tlt... I ( l.i lii .. Jl -ll. i It it i, I i-i- -t i' i I ii.:tl I' I

I I .. , l1,1
"I 1 1' r .1 I ,I ,* H.1 * I 'I I l l li l l .il I, ii l- i I 'I ,. .

',I I, I I I I I. i ,l .l I. I r I I Ir I III .. I il. ' .I l Ih i l .

SI lld I n I I.. h I il -- Ill- I ,w n .. 1 j ,
"I h 1 I I, .. II l l .. I ,r l I a l ,, l. ,I ,, I I i ., I l l ,l.n r . . . i I i. .l l h .[ I i.. 1

l h,, (,,, ,,i. i .. ,l r ,l ,, ,1 ,.,,l ,,H ~ :. h..l .r,: ,1 .. I **i, I. r h
rl ,la in l- ,,II i i ,1 1 ,, 1 , h ,I, Ija , I , ,,l r ,, ,i, ,,,i [ i

..li l I- l. h "li I ,- l i i ,il~l- I II t ,h ,I.,,, rI ,I 1 I1 1 li 1.ilr ll, i 1 1- -. h '
11l llh -i, h ,', i . Ii i I ni, .lh l I ., I- I.. I, ,1 11-- 1, I )I

I-. F. ri l I h i. I, f il ,, ,rI t ,,* re s I I i 1 1 f r 1t -v l. l ls.
Ih _" l lT -.r I-,, I I, ,' I -I 1 l l q 1.0 t f" ,l I I i. h , ,,= t~ l I, I l l i l- l

J r- i i I l l I I l Il r. I .
I 1,, 11 ,1t. IL , I ,'!'*( 'I I, l rll+ .q I I, h L, iil,, C IIII',
,,t 1 h a i-rLIJ ,li r I .l l h. I ,l ,,..r i ll_ 1 1,1 l~ I lL lh 1 1 , .l !, I, r I,,1I
i li, l ', ill h i.+" I ill, in .l r ', ,, i,' ,r, i. h I I, ll ,, r ,. ,I ,h
i , , i i" lI ,r ,P 1. i l gli,, . ,ia ii ,I i . l , ,l i , , i i l i l'i I l -
i, j' h l, II [ i". ., r e i ,i ji l ,lin ,i l [, i .1 1. 10 i- i .


I II ,I, hei.. t. ,I i, insi d ual lill ll, ? o,1 .ll..5.lr I I 1 .. f in,. l -,iri.) IhII li l
T Illi i ,.. ,I. .) .is ,I Il a h l Ilb ll| ,. i i,.. ) .h _" I hl. 11,,l i I. . I 1' ? il -

. a- I.. 1 I I,, 1 1, I.i, I Ir ,h iI i i "l i*'I,.h l I l l ,.Inn p l. Hl f.i~ !
'l.' I., I h II, I I" 11. ih ? .I il .. ,l ... t t. l. lh. 1. ln I .I .i Ill'
I 1. -. 1 ,l.*! l ,h . .I | a I. li .i .- t ,l it hi. l i ( il1 ., rs..il h li ,' ,, I +

i t I 11h *I, I Ih I li. i[ . I i s I-i I. ii Hil l ; l h,. I i r Il ~. ,. [lr
.i (ri .,- I i l l l. lI i . ih , I b -. i I- I l i B. i Il l h ..I -
"' s ,r h l, .i i - ht l, I, I,,, ,, l l ii l l I I i ll f., 1~ lII 11 pl l lh l ',
i i I I 1 l lll.. i I i - i, 1 il l It ii i I *i i, i ii I Il i iI I i, ii 'i, ,I i. I" I, I I r]
rnl i. l". 1 II !" I ,I.I. I.. I.i,,. i .. h l .,f lia. -. I...ril ,ir .-
. .. ..I I. .1! I hl . it . i , re, I i ,,.1 h il I,, i tl I I,. I, .h, 1. I -. .11 ;
1. h si i .il i . hl I 1 I. Ii li. il!I, I ,i. ill
] I fr. h il,. I' i I Ih . .. g r ..11 .1 -, ,r ,. l,, .t.., I' ..ilh l i ., i I. hi i ihl7
1 f,, -, II ,, fI t, i _l .. l h ri,:, il sil , I I,,. 0 l h it l li I Il -, h ,,,'l ih .|
I I ii l(. i i h ali li i l ill i ,I I, .' } ,la i ,I i I I I, : .,., i,
. H ill i h .... I l. I.. li, - li ..l -, ,iliI I h l'.' P .ili -[i il il, . I" '' %T ,' li ."

[Page 211

- a'- *.* * .. . .. ..- , ' -_ .
,,. ,, __ .. ... . .. . ..C '.. ... -


,,I II, i,.' i'[' I, l,.. ', ,r ,. \1 ,t'1- ,,,11r1 '. Ir-I II i i.- I I 1,', ,Ii I L
.it i,. i.. i.. n.. *a Il '* -* II i it *lsW III l ,,- I ill ii. iln i 11

'T.l t' -it l '. I i,' , lhl i nt I na nIIn.ll t'1 Ii. l" ii, 1ln, I r. Il ,*
l .il nie l , I I ll Ilh nl t l in ,i .I I ,I t I I I I I 1 n i 1l 1 ,,, l L
II In "_i H ,it, II ln ll' llt ) i lll' l.I711l h n1. l, All {f It* l llh ... n

l ~, ii I-, i i I l l" l .... i I.. I Iri ii i I I I.. t I l I'

i i i i l ..1 I l i, l 11 1 Lil I1 .111


S I I i I I T'.i' Ii l I I ii | Ii I ii iT l III T -'' |1 1.1 '1-
ii, 11111 1*1. ''I-liT i Ii l Ii. -1 1 I I, ii r Sh*. 1111 *i1 1 [ II .i iii ..

l ,,', I, ,i I,, "I" I,,r 'I I ,I ii i I'- ill II ,. II I II l.

ii, l it l I1 lli- i i I l2 l 1,.. i

i, l i' h l, ,ii .h lI I I i lII, 'I r -l Ti,.ll ,tl r -i ii h i nl ,

', l, Ill- 1 hI, l l, I I. 11.1, 1 I- I t, r.I I I I Il t. Ill. i

1lii l lll i I li ll i I I , I I i l l I II i II h I .
I I, it, I l l- l II I,, ha n , ll [ 1 ,I. I h i- "- I r I' . 1. 1.'h 1 1. lh lJ s .. r ~ r ,
,,, .il I, .,i l 1,, i t ,il I I ', I i" *. ',, il I, +I I ,I l~lh II- Ir[ f i 1* I,,' I,

I iii l h i- l ,,il,,II, lI f II ,h I i t I h i, t" l'r, ,- ,. i i

h. l . ..r I .l i, i ,I I,, II i I ,l i"_fI. '' H lI ' '. .l C h
II I I,.I I"h it h .i I ,I I I T,, 'II I huIi t II, Il -

i ll in, n l Ii l it,, I In h i, In I1 i 'l 1i l l ll i I II I il 'I i ..
, I , l ln, .= I ri b n, II I r .. .. I I', ,,l r,, llu l. l i .l' h 1 1 l + I
.I rI l .I, II l t I ll i i ,, l I y "* 1. Il II I' il l. II ,,llr l I 1 1 I' Il. I

j r, t ,, il ,, I tI[ .] ,h I l l . ',I lI I :l .l. -'I,' -III-" i .,,~ II , I,
1 1 , i, .~ ,,I.,,, u ,I i ] 1 Il 1 L ,, h -1 1 h 1 11 l l0 / I ,'II i [ I,,1 I,' 1,~ ~

-,lh 1., 1. 1 .1 h I IIt , .lh ,, h I lh i ir, ,I 1 ,] ,,l! ,,,I .t!! 1 1~ _i ,
1 1. i l i r :. . .. ,, ri L l I ti l 1 1 l, n l In, lI 'h I [Il H i s I i ,' I I I h il L lTl
II.lh . Id r_. l~ l n ~ i i l l .r ... n I T" .. I r,,, h '. l *nn h Il I | f it, 1 n ',
S t, [ i,h tll l ,Ji , ll. In "I' I. I'- i l lh .I _I '11h + I" hin ill, n llld ,i I l !
,i I r Is ,I a i I. 11 "J' l rl l lip h II T lih h ,, li ,,I t r h 1 l 1., 1,,, t
.I 'l I all i i I ill, ,111, I r h ,h l, li, n I s .II ri l in I I l..T I f lr , ,.=

l h .II, .i , l h , In, 1 It l , nl l )- In, n , I nl Ih I n, ;I I , l
l L iL' , .1 n n. ,l. --I I I I 1 I s ', ,' I .h h n lln 1 - lh I ....- .Ir I ,
.'n, n Inr 1 1 ll lit, ,I t i .l .. ,. I I LI _' ,II. l l -i l. I "a rl' l. ~ l I LL' l.. . : bl~ ll
I -, i I l i ,- I I) i i l l, II I- I. h, '1 . h '. ,,: 1 in ,l { li, t l' I I, h.. l h .i -
I h iI ll ,' II Il i I I. I l I I i l, 1 ,. I l I I, r, h i d III i ll l ' '
I I, n ,.I lill.ll ll .
I |I 1 .iil iI I II I III I l,. h i u I i hl l i. l i lII l li l 1 i I ,II. I I l l. i li I
1,l , II, l i ii I, ,,i ,,I ,, i .i I, i1 I ,. ,h~ i l. 1 I, I,, ,1 ,, i~ ll i*
L , I l, I I,. = , I I I .i d, r i ,: ,, ,I , ,ti I ,,, L h l, l I,, I I I *
,, ,. ,. l l . h f , ,, ,. . 1 I I l ' 'l I r II r ,, 1 t , ,I

l l'. l" ,I I ": 0 II L l i' 1 I 1n n : I i !. *h1 Il n. lI ,I n I 'I*' t ' I
i I ,' l l i i l l L l a t i l" +l r l , i I 1 ,- *i I ,I I, t -i, I
l I, I .~i I I. ,1 L i -I lil. h l i ill I, I II r I "l lt,.l I ..) i*ll l~ i ,I I .
I .. h .. i ., ll I I, I . h l [ l I all ia.I I' I .\iI |, ,I i ll. EI I. -
..II 1 I,- I I. .. l. I ,I I n i llt ,I . II I Ii, ~ l l I II In h h ''l l i 1 + I

Ih L I 1 1i ,,11 I F, I I,, I I r~ I -I, ', I lin .. r n II , I t. I, 1~i ,

1 J,,,- h. I I , h Il .. ,] d rh ',1 ,h .... . i ,, t I ,
iI. r- II I T i, II h I I I1 **Ih I r I h l IIIIII Ilh lh ', t l 1 ,, 1 1 .r

,I I, I 4 L, s ,h i l,, ,, ,,, I s i. |-, l .l, i I 1 l i , , l i

[Page 231



I Pa'e 241

til l i I [1 111 ,,.- r ii, I I il . I h 1 l. I I I 1 -

1 I I -I M [ I i I 1 ..ii I . I I 'i I 1,t -,' i I II I .1 I I

S Ilr ,l ,1 .1. i ii. .' Ii 1 I1, ., . II 1,, l .I .h Ipil. li i I ll l I

I . II. h Ih l 'I t I i I l 1. ill, I-, I ir,. l r .I I! 1 i ll I.. It. .. I
I I~ i- ", I II. 1 I h i I I., LL I.1... I r -.' I lh -'% 1 1

S II ,, I ll l it I. _ 11
I I. il I, l I I ,r j li iii h I .i 1 T I i ll it 'I i I, -h tIi, [l l
i,, i l II II l i l ,I i il la I I H l l i ,ir 11 1 tII. ,i Ith i .

l..~~~~~ ~ ~~ Ii Ia.. II I' -1an I 1 1. r1.1 1 1 II . i a 1 i i 1
iL i ll I. I II l II -I l I I. I it' I I I ih I Il I ii I I it ,
',h L, I I I' ,.I- 1l ". ll ri ,, it lh ,; ,. I ii. I. I- i h i | i t [
, l i~l 1 1,, h lis i l h In lh , I ,l,,ihI l I ,T,


titl I ] n rlllt I!, I in -i, l. in nnn t.1 hlt. It, i- I 1 In.11 l tl i tI, .nl,, t ,inlhI
- I nl ., L - nnl .. r l'.n t l,,I [ [ ..[is r1 1, I, ilud ,n, ,,h -, ,, -,,h1 |!I. ll 1 1"n,.
|h ,, nl1,l. I I ,l.,I n Inl I ,, ,1 I,, l,,,,r,,1 ,,I ll n, 1. II, h I i, t I I I I, lJ lir l h
, I* Ia il l I.l" i I.- _1 I 1 I , h i [ I I II .1l[ I1 f 1 r P-,,h -
[ li'[ !J ,ill r llI ,,1 I- IP,, l l It IL liZ V Il.lJ, tl 1 lI I I I , I II. r

I[ h | ,. Ii, .I h i I ', t i , i Illl I, lih i. If 'i' l h ll 1 I 1 h li
,III l. lI h i, ll h ,t- [n. i ,ill-, I e, , L 1,11, i :11-.1 -III .IrIih ,,,I'
i,..I1 i I, I, ,, ,Il~ ,.4 . h is iI! i, i !I, f r,,ll. I ll . . I . 1. I ] ,I I, I l ,I .
Irii.1 h1 1,i I, ,i ial a si ll ll -' |, ,!,I ** IlL' j ] it, if.' ll ll,. dl 'i i,, If ill,
li ,t hli ll .. 1 1ll1 1I 1, I'

3 l I' ''t'* ,,t I II .1 -' I ..1 ,r s' h "1 I. 1 1 .1+ lli le la s ,* hi ,'.., ,I p III ll -

T li l. I- -,, lIhl I t h J,,I, Ill hs,.- 1 1=o .11 I. H il l i l.. .' 1- I,,. ",
1:1l j,,,li,,1 I ll.,I l I I,,In h i h I1,, .1l1 I } I' I~ll, h I .i, ,li .IT ,,ll ,,

It. aI r, , II I,,I.|* fa l I .. tl Ill.1 I1, 1 lli II -l *h .1 1 ,. I .i lt,, LI .[ 1 .' 11. I
II!, II l l I Il 1 1, ,lu ll r h1 Il, it[ [LI-' ill h II., I'Z 'I ,r l l h -1. fil rI

I l i till I I I 11L 11,, I. a i l, rII -, h I '' 1 h {" II tI I" f .1 l ',I l III h lf ,s

!ti ,r- 1 I = = *,,, I \, ,], I1,I 1,1 . 1 ,] i,tro l" ,_ l l ,, i ,l ,- I I ,n 1 1, r" ,
I n I I.,, Itl L I lr l I'l l I I ,,r t ,, 1t, ,,[" .h l lll a ti', I l 1 In i1 :111 -.
[ I l. I.. '1 u .. :.'l i f, ] li~ l l, -, 1. l ', .h Ig ... I- I, .il l ,I I I I', 1 I
h| rr l, 1 ,, .1 1 li a -ii h i *l l s I ,, f~, ,i l, l I,, 11 -,I, I Ii,~ .1 iii I I .ii -
,11i, r l I,- .I i I ,! ll , ", il- , nl ""I , i I, .I~i' -, ...- 1 I, ii l ,- r i h
l I ,i ii ( I Il, l -1 .1 h I, , - I I, T, ,i I,l o fh ,, lli, ,lll I I I i1' 11 i I i
l i. I I. I, !II. i Il l I [ _" .1 l i l1 * I, l l lil r .l i i l l ,I ill l .. I I' I
1.''I I,, I, I, I''I t, h l. al' ., I i'd i ..*I I I '! h. ,l l.. | 1 l

[ s r. ,, [ .,- l,, ,l 1 i i . -.1 1 ,ii,, !,1 -i i l. h i- I I i ,. I l l i rII. .e l. 1 -,
., I Ir ,i '- l ll I ''l l t I I.. ?, 1ll ll 1-II I-" HlIl ,, I I ,ili i, I, I -, i . ..'l ~ ll
l*h Il I,,, 1 l~ i b" 1:,lh I ., I r h tii. }1 ...i ] 0II' I I,, 1. tI t l ,i i l

"1 I, 1 I .,,I ..r It h . I f, i,, .. i I i I ll.ii h r. ,iT i, ,I l
I I.I, i , It, I l,, 1,1111] I" lll l1 '.1 l. .1 1,, II I I It .'l l ,, .ll [ ,-
i ,.. ( I I,, ,,r,,, '.,. iI l, ,t "''(I! ,'[ -h l,, r" shl,, il B Y :l';l 11s.!i i, ,
.- lh ''l ,il l, bILI *' IL 1= I,, I ill l 1 lll,,11 1 I'" ".,Itsl" \' l l i ll f II" T t h -I r l l',
? 1 [ li~ l ,I h hs. Ii, I. l i, ,, I. l il 1 I' i i I I ,1 I[, sIl t', I t, .. '.i ,. ll. iiiii
l,, ;-I r h Ih r ..,, .,,, r,, I *I, ,, ', I I hi l ( ',i, ,li hlul i Ih ,t II" ih ,
I,,I,- I,,,I i, t,h 1, a,l lh .. -.. I'I , ila. Iral ,l' i. ihh11? "r | h -l 1,1 -, i ,* .l, -
IIh, iI h,lig |, lp t 1| .-n Ih, I r l i ]1 iI lL i ".- r 1! Ih ll i I, [h th I I, I
I, I l ,,l ... . h 1. I. l II. ,, ,I ,, I il .lh. 1. r 1. i IIi i .I,, i ,ii, T.,ri .lt, .llld1 h ,
-,i,,l iI, as -- H IlI ,,l 1.lr | ..l ,_ II r l r el i t I III I' !,'I, l,, .ilr l, I' lh I tlh ~

(Page 25]

The seeds are drilled in rows about four feet apart; when the plants
have become well established they are thinned so that they stand
about two feet apart-and the yield of cucumbers is so great that it
is a task to keep them picked. And cucumbers are profitable, too.
They carry well to market, are usually in good demand, because they
are not so perishable, and altogether they are one of the safest crops,
especially for the beginner. Tomatoes or eggplant can go very well
with cucumbers, and these vegetables are excellent to follow lettuce
and early cabbage.


As one drives out from Bradentown, it is found that the soil varies ,
greatly, just as it does on the north side of the river; there is the rich
hammock land, the sandy pine land, and again there are tracts which :
seem underlaid with hardpan, which are not suitable for growing either ,
fruits or vegetables.
Up to a short time ago there were tracts of land about Bradentown
which could not be farmed at all; the lands were not well drained.
The soil here, as might be expected, is unusually rich, and in order that
this land might be made available a drainage ditch was dug to carry
off the surplus water from this tract and to make possible the drainage
of part of the land by use of tiles. As a result of this work some of .
the richest and best hammock land in all Florida is now available for
planting, this land stretching in a semi-circle to the south of Braden-
town and Manatee and adding thousands of acres to the fruit and vege-
table area.
On some of the land which was drained in this way there is orange
soil and vegetable soil, too, so that the owner of a ten-acre tract may
have part of it planted to vegetables and part to oranges and grape-
fruit, and know that both the fruits and vegetables are planted in con-
genial soil. This condition has led to the cutting up of some of the ,
land in ten-acre tracts, and they have been divided with this end in
view; some of these tracts now have two to five acres planted to
oranges and grapefruit, leaving the remainder for growing vegetables,
and this land is in demand by those who appreciate its possibilities.


We explained last month that irrigation of truck patches is advis-
able, on account of the fact that during January and February, when
the vegetable crops are growing, there is often a deficiency of rainfall.
And, again, drainage is advisable, though not always provided, on
account of the fact that during the summer season there is too much
rainfall, and the surplus water should be carried away.
Truck growers about Bradentown, therefore, are providing irriga-
tion plants, water for which is available by digging artesian wells. An
abundant flow of water is secured, which is piped to the place where
wanted, and enough pressure is usually obtained to carry the water to
the highest point in the field.
Various systems of irrigation are in use-irrigation by means of
furrows, sub-irrigation through tile drains, and also by sprinkler sys-
tems. The latter plan is rather new, and is likely to become the most
popular method.
About three miles from Bradentown Mr. A. F. Wyman has a tract of
land, part planted to orange and grapefruit trees, and part devoted
to truck crops. The latter is all under the Skinner system of irriga-
tion, so called because a man named Skinner originated it. This sys-

[Page 26]


*I I'I

'. : .1'

v -i
-!'.: *:' * .
,' i* -...... ., " -} ( < j ,.,r '* "** i

;.l1 i !.jZ :. ,- )j! Z r. : i N ..
.. - *, .. .. s-. t r o *,.V . -A- S-.- - . ....
V.: ". . .. .- *,__= < *. ; .. . -, I -- ; -;* .--. ^ < -J -__- ..-. ,, : -_ * ...... .1

'1 *^ ^ -^ ^- ^ J -'- :;.;,^ .tc s^- :
:. ;=. _'. .. ... .t' -. ^ -::-.-_...^ -- ,. .. ..- ,-- _: .A ; _- .- _;, .. '=% ; . ,i *- * .-
. ,- ,. .... : > :.. _.-| f t .. --', .._ .. *"- ,-. . 'S-, ?.t ,

,i > ^ --. -,' '' n -'' ^ ^ .. =. *". ... -* *' ** ^_ ,- .- -" ~ : >j. . . ; '^_ -: -' '

.At -,.t . ... ..- -"- -,
., -. - .. - .-.... -:. ... --- -_ :. -.- .. .. --- =- -

'i! THE SKINNER SYSTEMI-In operation on Farm of Wyman & Hazard, near Bradeuitown

temn consists of overhead pipes which are punctured at intervals, and
v ater is distributed over the field in the form of a fine spray. The
system installed by Mr. Wyman is divided into three sections, each
eing supplied with water from two artesian wells. The three plants
S cover thirty-five acres, and it is believed that about ten acres to one
pumping plant is sufficient.
4, The water is pumped from the two wells by a centrifugal pump,
operated by a 15-horsepower gasoline engine-for under this system
ower pressure is needed to force the water through the mains and
laterals. A main runs down the center of the field, supported on posts
7 feet above the ground, and from this main laterals extend out to the
S rignt and the left. Each lateral is provided with a cut-off valve, so
;hat any part of the field may be supplied with water without -inter-
I ering with the other part. These laterals are 50 feet apart, and they
-'xtend parallel with each other to the edge of the field. At intervals
*.f 4 feet in each lateral are small caps or nozzles, and the water is
directed over the field in the form of a very fine. spray. Sufficient force
is provided to force the water from one lateral half way to the next
ne, and each lateral is provided with a lever, so that one lateral can
.pray in one direction for a time, and then be turned to spray in the
S .pposite. In this way the entire field is covered with the mist. The
.hanging of the direction of the spray can be done from the center of
i he field, where the pump is located, and all laterals can be changed
.it one operation.
As these pipes are all 7 feet from the ground, cultivation is not
terfered with. The plant is a permanent one, of course, but the
i'elds can be plowed and cultivated and the crops harvested without
She pipes being in the way.


This system is claimed to be the ideal irrigation system for truck
. rops, although the most careful growers will supplement it by putting
,n tile drainage. The advantages of this method of irrigation are set
!orth by one of the growers as follows:
"When we use furrow irrigation we always have to get parts of the
tield too wet in order to wet the other parts at all; as a result we are
delayed in our work of cultivation following the application of water;
ve can use the tile drains for sub-irrigation, and this works well, ex-
'-ept that it is impossible to moisten the clods on the surface, which
-re always a serious drawback in planting small seedling vegetables.
-Vith the overhead system, however, we can water any part of the
fieldd we desire, and the surface soil can be moistened so that the clods
an be pulverized very easily. The vegetable crops, as a rule, are
-hallow-rooted, and what they need is a light sprinkling, rather than
heavy application of water, and this is supplied with the overhead
"The sprinkling system, however, should be supplemented by tile
Drainage, for there are times when we need drainage even more than
ve need irrigation at other seasons. It is the part of wisdom, there-
lore, to provide means of disposing of the surplus water as well as to
provide for an additional supply when needed."
Another claim made for the overhead system is that in case frost
threatened, the pumps can be started and the entire field covered
.rith a mist which will serve the purpose of a fog and protect the
-rowing vegetables. By continually shifting the laterals from one
-ide to the other the entire field can be kept covered in this way, and
S his fog-like mist will protect against injury by frost.


[Page 28]

Thus far this article has had little to say about the fruits grown
around Bradentown and Manatee-but they are extensively grown
nevertheless. In going out to visit the groves we pass through Mana-
tee, for the oldest and best groves are nearer Manatee than they are
to Bradentown.
Manatee is not so large as Bradentown, although it is older, and to
all intents and purposes the towns might be considered as one. They
join, and the eastern line of Bradentown forms the western boundary
of Manatee. Manatee has good stores, a newspaper and a nice class of
homes. It, too, is served by the Seaboard Air Line Railway, and the
Tampa boats stop at the wharf daily. This place is only a little more
than a mile from the center of Bradentown, a good road connecting
the two towns.
About Manatee are some of the best vegetable farms in the country,
but they do not differ materially from those we have described; the
same crops are grown in very much the same way.
The orange and grapefruit groves are, as a rule, well kept and very
profitable. Some of the trees are old and bear enormous crops. These
old trees are very interesting, for they show that the freeze which de-
stroyed so many of the trees in other parts of the State had no effect
upon this section. Perhaps we can do no better than to quote from
Captain S. Frank Perkins of Manatee, who said:
"I have growing in my grove a grapefruit tree that I am informed
by old citizens was planted in the year 1843, now over 60 years old,
and as healthy and thriving as any young tree on my place. Last sea-
son thirty-six boxes of fruit gathered from this tree sold for $162.50;
this season I have gathered -'i ir boxes, and there are two or
three boxes still on the tree. I have realized about $170 from the
sale of the same. This tree during this long period has never been in-
jured by the cold, which proves beyond question that Manatee County
is exempt from the cold weather that in years past has injured the
orange trees in the northern part of the State. There are many orange
and grapefruit groves in this county from 25 to 30 years of age."
About Manatee are being planted some of the best orange groves in
the country, and the growth-of these young trees shows what vigor the
trees have. The orange and grapefruit groves of Mr. Wyman, whose
vegetable lands are west of Bradentown, are near Manatee, and this
season they have had a nice crop of fruit. Mr. Wyman has planted a
number of groves for non-residents and cares for them until bearing
age-or afterward if desired.
"Which is the more profitable, oranges or grapefruit?" was asked
this gentleman.
"We do not know yet which will be the more profitable in the long
run, although grapefruit is more profitable now. However, in my
young groves I am providing a way to have the kind of fruit which
promises the best returns. I am planting orange trees thirty feet
apart in rows thirty feet apart. Then I plant a grapefruit tree be-
tween the orange trees in every row. This leaves the trees fifteen feet
apart. The grapefruit trees will begin bearing the third year, and
will yield a handsome profit before they will crowd the oranges. Even
after the latter begin to bear the grapefruit trees will still not crowd,
and I will have harvested a number of profitable crops.
"By the time the trees begin to crowd in the row I can tell which
will be the more profitable, and the other trees will be removed, leav-
ing the permanent trees thirty feet apart each way. If the oranges ars
more profitable, I will have an orange grove, and if grapefruit pays
best, then I shall leave the trees of this fruit."

[Page 291

Remembering the experience of Northern apple growers, who plant
orchards close and then have not the nerve to cut out the surplus trees,
we asked Mr. Wyman if he were sure he would have the nerve to do
"Sure," was the reply, "for it will not be such a serious matter with
us, for the trees which are removed will be transplanted to another
tract of land, and their usefulness will not be impaired."
And then he told how old orange and grapefruit trees are trans-
planted with the best of results.
"Do you see those trees over there?" he asked, pointing to a grove
of orange trees along the road, which looked very much like top-worked
apple trees. "Well, they were formerly in the adjoining grove, which
was bought by my brother and myself. The trees were so thick that
sunlight did not enter, cultivation could not be kept up, and the trees
were growing taller and the lower limbs were dying. The first thing
we did was to cut back every alternate tree; these trees were cut back
severely, so that they were mere trunks about ten feet high, with all
the limbs cut back proportionately. These cut-back trees were then
moved over to this land, and there you see them, with not one missing."
This seems to be a peculiarity of orange trees, that they can be cut
back in this way, the wounds painted with white lead, and they will
form a new top, without any sign of decay at the wound. Many grow-
ers have taken advantage of this, and where trees were too thick have
moved trees twenty years old, or even older, and in their new loca-
tions, with their new tops, these trees are bearing large crops of
splendid fruit.
To the person from the North it is a great privilege to get out
among orange and grapefruit trees loaded with fruit. Most persons
think of only two kinds of oranges-those with seeds and those without.
But out among the trees, in charge of an experienced grower, one will
become acquainted with more varieties of oranges than he has dreamed
were in the catalogue. The Tardiff is one of the best oranges of this
section, ripening late, when prices are high; another good one is the
Pineapple, which always brings a premium on markets where it is
known. As these better quality oranges become better known on the
Northern markets there is a greater demand for them, for their quality
is such that they will give satisfaction.
Some of the best groves about Manatee and Bradentown are very
profitable, and cannot be bought at any price. One of the growers, a
year or so ago, when his grapefruit grove had a very heavy crop,
made the following report of his holdings:
"I own a ten-acre grapefruit grove containing about 700 trees. I
received from the sale of fruit from these ten acres $9000, being $900
per acre, f. o. b. I value my grove at not less than $2500 per acre-
in fact, I would not care to sell at that price, for it pays me a large
income on a much larger valuation."
Other growers make similar reports, and the fact that the planting
of oranges and grapefruit is on the increase, especially by those who
already have groves, is evidence that those with experience in the in-
dustry are most hopeful as to its future.


As at Palmetto, the price of land varies greatly. Good land can
be had for $35 per acre, and from that price on upward. Location,
soil, drainage, environment-all these have a bearing upon the price of
the land.
"But what difference does it make about the cost of the land?"
asked one man to whom the subject was mentioned. "When one buys
only a few acres, and when the first crop can be made to pay for the

[Page 30]

The flow is of sufficient force to enable an entire
without using any other power

[Page 31]

field to be irrigated

cost of the land, it makes little difference whether one pays $50 per
acre or $150 per acre. The first cost of the land is not material."
All through the country about Manatee and Bradentown good roads
have been constructed, and the mileage of "hard roads," as they are
called, is being continually extended. One proposed road will doubtless
become famous as a drive, namely, one which is proposed from Braden-
town to Sarasota, along the shores of the river and the bay. The tele-
phone system extends into the country, so that every farm house and
packing shed can be in touch with the outside world, and the farmer
who lives in town can direct operations from there without visiting
the farm at all if he so desires.
Nothing has been said in this article about the climate, for it is
practically the same as described for Palmetto last month.
Bradentown and Manatee both receive many winter residents from
the North. Good hotel accommodations are provided, Bradentown hav-
ing a splendid hotel, which was built through the liberality of public-
spirited citizens. Fishing is good, hunting is excellent, and the tourist
can find plenty of diversion. Not only is salt-water fishing good, but
back in the interior only a few miles are lakes in which black bass and
other fresh-water fish abound. Indeed, some of these lakes are said to
be the best field for bass fishing in America; one gentleman with whom
the writer talked told of having been fishing a few days before and
caught ten black bass which weighed a total of 35 pounds.
Quail are plentiful, and jacksnipe are found in abundance. And
back in the interior wild turkey abound, and the patient hunter is re-
warded with an occasional deer and bear. The interior is thinly settled,
so that it remains the hunter's paradise.


Since the beginning of these articles regarding the Manatee country
began, readers of "The Fruit Grower" have been interested in knowing
more of the country, and questions have occurred to them, and some
of them will be answered here.
"Does the writer mean, by the article in January, that onion seeds
are planted in a seed-bed and transplanted to the field?"
That's exactly what is meant. The transplanting of onions is a
tedious process-but so is the thinning of the plants where they were
drilled, and so is the weeding of the soil at a time when the young
seedling are just coming up. Onions, lettuce, celery, tomatoes, cab-
bage, cauliflower, peppers-all these are planted in seed-beds and then
transplanted to the field.
"Are navel oranges grown in the Manatee country?"
Yes, they grow there, and they are mighty fine, too. They are not
generally planted, however, on account of being a shy bearer Florida
growers believe that their soil is not rich enough in potash to grow this
orange well. Florida orange trees get much larger than the trees in
California, due to the fact that the soil is very rich in nitrogen, but
the trees of the navel orange do not bear so heavily.
"Do the growers plant seedling or budded trees?"
Both, although the new groves consist largely of budded trees. The
latter can be kept nearer the ground, planted more closely together,
and come into bearing earlier. Seedling trees, however, are the ones
generally found in the older orchards, and, unlike seedling apples or
seedling peaches, the fruit is of fine quality. Oranges reproduce from
seed, practically, it is said. There will be slight variation in flavor,
acidity, etc., but this variation is not great, as a rule, and seedling fruit
is good fruit. But budded trees are generally planted now.
"How is farm labor down in that country? Is it possible to get
plenty of good help?"

[Page 321

The labor question is not yet so serious a problem as it is in the
North. Wages are from $1.00 to $1.50 per day.
"How about negro population? Is it objectionable?"
At Manatee, Bradentown and Palmetto the negro population is all
grouped in a separate part of town, and they do not live in the portion
of the town occupied by white people. The negroes are well behaved,
as a rule, and cause no trouble, and being to themselves in this way,
they are not much in evidence. The negro population, anyway, is not
"How about saloons in Manatee County?"
Not a saloon in the county. And, from the attitude of the people,
there will not be any. As a result, there is little lawlessness. and the
jail is unoccupied.
"In the January number of 'The Fruit Grower' appeared a picture
of a live stock farm. Does live stock do well there?"
Very well, indeed. In early days this part of Florida was a great
live stock country, and great quantities of cattle were exported to Cuba.
Later the Spaniards put a duty on American cattle, thus shutting the
doors against the Florida growers. This industry is reviving now, how-
ever, and cattle raising is becoming an important industry. Splendid
pasturage is provided by Bermuda grass, which grows wonderfully in
this section. This grass, by the way, ripens its seeds here, when it
was at first supposed it would not ripen its seeds anywhere in the
United States. Bermuda grass pasture, with velvet beans and cow-
peas, make excellent feed for all kinds of stock, and much of the land
not adapted to fruit and vegetable growing could well be devoted to
raising live stock.
"Are low rates made to Manatee County by the railroads?"
Tourist tickets are now on sale. One can buy a ticket through to
one of the Manatee River points by rail, via the Seaboard Air Line
Railway, or if desired the ticket can be purchased to Tampa by rail,
and from there proceed by steamer to Manatee River. This is a de-
lightful ride down Tampa Bay, the steamer leaving Tampa early in the
morning and arriving at Palmetto and Bradentown about noon.
"Do the people of Manatee County really want new-comers from the
North, or are they opposed to this immigration?"
They welcome good citizens with open arms. The Southern States,
as a rule, have never received many immigrants from European coun-
tries, and the Anglo-Saxon race is most largely represented. A great
many of the residents of Manatee County are from the North, perhaps
more than half of them, so that new-comers from Northern States will
find no appreciable difference between their new neighbors and the
ones they left in their old homes.

SHE article in the February "Fruit Grower" left off with a descrip-
tion of the country about Bradentown and Manatee. A very
rich country stretches to the south, and to this section brief
attention will be paid in this article.
Just south of Manatee is Oneco, where is located one of the largest
nurseries in Florida. If additional proof were needed of the produc-
tiveness of the soil of this section, it would be found at this place.
The wonderful range of plants which can be safely grown here is
shown in the products of this nursery, for the list of plants grown is
very extensive, and includes tropical fruits and flowers of all kinds.
There are good groves of grapefruit and orange trees around Oneco,
and some of the choicest fruits of the county are grown. The same
general character of soil is found here as at the other places farther
up the line of the Seaboard Air Line Railway.

[Page 331


Indian Beach, located about half way between Bradentown and
Sarasota, is perhaps one of the most beautiful locations on either
coast of Florida, and it is appreciated by many persons who have
erected handsome homes along the beach. "The Palms" is quite a
noted resort, beautifully located in a natural palm grove. Mention
was made last month of a proposed beach drive from Bradentown to
Indian Beach, and when this is constructed one of the most beautiful
locations in all Florida will become better known to the world at
large, as it certainly deserves to be. The "show place" of this lo-
cality is the home of Mr. C. N. Thompson, formerly of Illinois. It is
beautifully located, has well laid out grounds and contains every mod-
ern convenience.
The entire country has wonderful possibilities, which at present
have only been touched upon. Where one acre is now cultivated,
there are fifty more untouched by the hand of man. New settlers are
coming into the country, however, every year, as the possibilities of
the Manatee country become better known. This section is advertised
in many ways. Its products on the Northern markets are a very
effective advertisement among those who appreciate good fruits and
vegetables. Then there are those who come down to spend the winter
months and fall in love with the country; they either return to make
their permanent home or they tell others of the country, and in either
case new settlers are secured. There is room for many thousands,
and all good citizens are being made welcome.


The series of articles regarding the Manatee country began in the
December number of "The Fruit Grower." At the time the first article
appeared the vegetable crops were just being planted; now the market-
ing of these crops is on in full blast, and it may be well to take a look
back and see what is being done by the growers at this time.
Everything is going with a rush now. A visitor from the North
would suppose that it is June, rather than late in February, for the
garden crops which are now maturing are such as will be gathered in
the month of flowers in the North-although in some years, it must be
confessed, we do not harvest until later the vegetables which are now
being gathered by the truck-grower in the Manatee country.
Lettuce and celery are the principal crops now being sent North.
The crop that we saw planted in December and January is now mature,
and it is as fine as could be desired. The crop is not only large, but
the quality is very fine indeed. One who eats of this crisp, sweet
lettuce and celery with its rich, nutty flavor, now appreciates the
wisdom of the growers in pushing their crops to the utmost. It
seemed like a waste of fertilizer to apply it on the rich soil, full of
decaying vegetable matter and rich in nitrogen content-but we now
realize that the growers knew what they were about. Of course the
crop would have grown in this rich soil without fertilizer, but it would
not have matured so early, nor would the quality have been so good.
It is the quality of the vegetables sent from Manatee County, not
less than the earliness of the crop, which makes the product so pop-
ular on the Northern markets. Certainly no better lettuce or celery
is grown anywhere than that which is being marketed in such great
quantities now.
As fast as a field of lettuce or celery is cleaned up, another crop is
planted. Indeed, heads of lettuce have been removed at regular inter-
vals through the fields, and here have been planted tomatoes, eggplant,

[Page 34]






L ^ if

,. i,

- _- -
-.- '--i,, :

DA 1^

I !f' !',11 ,',1 :, I t I, !, ,' [ *E .I -, .., !A h ,I i ,1 |l,... ,j F.,J I,, !, i i .

-. .,', - i "t I W II Ii, I -. I t. I l,,I..,.

\. rF Ii I j "l -i '' . it l i,. I i,, i ".. ,,C .11. 1 .1 l
7,. 1 I . I H I W . . ..I I
1 .1. I !l. ... 1,1.. if 7o -- n .ll

* li ii, un I- i.r F r. i. .ii F1iii- F.. I iii Fi..
iI l iii ,i I,, l,- n l',.i ,, I l- l,- n .i l'" -.I l l,-_,- ,n l ii I.

i, r- n
I1! ( 1 . I .1 r Ili 1. j I
i ,i f I. -i ,' I t I I I-.i 1i ii I i .. F 1, '1t 1

i l.' .Fu r I, Inl l, "i i ... i I "i- i I,', .". ,
I .- ..' ni, -, ..i r , i i .. W I ` Il I 1 i
,- n .n Ii ,. Ir I ," .I i 1 i l l
h r i,. I I-,, i, .. F -i ,- r, F.- i,,r ,,- i .i.i . .h ir-
I I . I IL A. ,, I ,- ,.11 1 1 r I I I .- I I 0 : I

II I _ r . .I I I. 0 I .I f l
t I I. [ I f I i i
P ', s Ft l ,. ,, h r,,,,, ab. I, _, t .1 . ., --i1, i , , t t ,~

w C i I I I t I I.
.i ,-. 'hI, ... ,, i I, l,. .. t I ,I ,
.,- ,, , I In I C I t -I _
I,. ,. t I'+ I"

r I I
II I l I Irl n I !t .r I ,I

S i, _I n I I .., r r- .... i nlil r
lh .- ,- .h i''t l ,I t,' 1 i, 1, I J. -, l J t " ' t. , ' l l + .] .. .

I t !t . .rl' r ii ,l t " ,i i ,, r I,, I t.,

1n nl . . i. ,I l n, ,I III h I, r l n," ,',, I

r. I iu lIn 1 1 . 1 I I i ... l d
_- i 1, I' tt nl "', ,l l ,- +,,| in ,. , t I~' ~ t -" n t I ,. ' [H !' I ,I ,s [ l' l I

,V F nnI I l, li

0 1l 1. I .I.. I.
I nl p l ,-n in ,I ,," I n, t in . .ffl"- n t I l I t' "" ('

l .. I .. h '' l' 'l I'' I ., ', I ' .

rj, I I
s '.H I 'i h n L I,, I I t it , I +I I r 1 I a- I 1" h .l I r, : I I I I,

_'iI t, r ll.. 1 I I,, .- I I, l, I l ,' ,"

D II II'" 1 ._ 1 hI ', H r! i- "' i l II t I l slt l" I t- P '"
,,H l .1 1 I, t' I -r" - l, l I',I ,- !I as -, I I 1 1
"J 1 ,, Itt it l.. ", t I- l , -t ,,, i ,1 .. ", : t l

Ih I Ih r ,, r,, ' ,- I I. 1 I,,I I ,t ,. .! ,'!,,. I h h h .l "
l bI.i l r h ,,t' It. , ,I II, h I.h ,, II , l. ., t.l ,I ,, ,- , ,,!t llh ,, I, ,,
lI, 1 .- ) I l t I ,1 r I f, ., t It ,I. 1 i II "" ,l
|_ I [\ ll t, : l,! .1l,-, [, ,! l lt r t "' II h , ,, ., 1 ,l t ,: tt ,,, Il
I, ,,,t I e rsi ', !',' a,, l, l ,. t 1t ,' I.. . I , .. I, I l ?t~ t ,.

r.l ll 'i I l l + l l. ,,I I " ''I i .l 1, I I I I , , t l t l' "I iii II , I ,
'., I', IL, ,' l l 4 ,l i ,,, Ill' 't t ' '-I !' l. i l h Ir I li , : 1,-, ,, l ',

[Page 361

vice to the native, as well as to those who expect to make this county
their future home.
"The soil is here, splendid climatic conditions exist, but do not ex-
pect perfection without effort; apply your intelligence and labor to
Nature's gifts and your reward will be a pleasant and profitable abid-
ing place."
In the foregoing paragraphs there is summed up the things which
are essential for success in this country. The country is comparatively
new, but it has been thoroughly tested. One can confidently expect re-
sults from what has been accomplished. To the one who, considering
all these things, is willing to work with Nature, the Manatee Country
offers almost unlimited possibilities, not only in making money, but in
establishing a home which will be pleasantly located, in a delightful
climate, among as fine a lot of people as can be found anywhere.


The offer in the February number of "The Fruit Grower" to answer
questions regarding this country seems to have awakened an interest
among "Fruit Grower" readers, and more questions are answered in the
following paragraphs:
"Nothing is said about growing corn in the Manatee Country. Will
not this crop grow there?"
Yes, corn will grow there, and has been grown to some extent, and
yet corn is not a crop to be recommended. It makes its growth, of
course, during the summer, which is the rainy season, and the growers
avoid, so far as possible, producing any crops .which need attention at
that time. It would be a hard matter to keep grass out of cornfields
when rains are so frequent, and the corn could not be cultivated when
it needed attention. And, anyway, corn grows during the farmer's
vacation season, and they don't want to be bothered with caring for
any kind of a crop then.
"But what takes the place of corn for stock food?"
Velvet beans grow to perfection and make excellent stock food.
The vines make splendid hay and the beans themselves have great
feeding value. Oats can be grown, if desired; indeed, oats yield
abundantly, the crop being planted in fall and carried over, similar to
winter wheat in the North. There is no lack of stock food, even though
corn is not grown to any extent.
"Nothing has been said about sugar cane in the articles in 'The
Fruit Grower.' Does this crop grow there, and is it profitable?"
Surely, sugar cane grows here-indeed, this is one place where
sugar cane matures its seed crop. The authorities of the United States
Department of Agriculture would not believe that the seed matures
here until they sent a man down to make a personal investigation, and
he found the facts as stated. Sugar cane is not extensively grown,
however, simply because other crops pay better. Some of the best
land in Manatee County was formerly planted to sugar cane. This
was before the war. In the old ante-bellum days great quantities of
sugar were made, but when the negroes were freed and mode of living
changed, the sugar plantations were given over to other crops. Many
farmers now have a small field of cane for their own use, the crop
being utilized chiefly in making molasses. But the growing of sugar
cane on a large scale has been abandoned, simply because other things
pay better.
"Why is not more attention given to pineapple growing?"
Same reasons as given above. Other crops pay better. Pineapples
grow here as fine as anywhere, but they are not as profitable as other
crops, for the reason, perhaps, that pineapples can be grown in other
sections where the soil is not rich enough for vegetable crops. For

[Page 37]

best results pineries must be protected with a lath shade, making the
expense of equipment rather heavy, and as a result few pineapples are
grown in Manatee County. A few growers produce enough fruit of
very fine quality to supply the home demand and some for shipment,
but the total output is not large.
"How is the climate of Manatee County during the summer
That's a good question, for while the summer is the vacation period,
and everyone has opportunity of going away from home, not everyone
desires to do this, and it is essential that the climate be such that one
can remain at home if he so desires. The climate during the summer
is not unpleasant at all. Located so near the gulf, there is usually a
good breeze blowing. Rain falls nearly every day, but since the coun-
try has been drained the water is carried away promptly, and the
showers serve to maintain the temperature at a lower point than is
experienced by other localities hundreds of miles to the north. While
the sun is warm during the day, the houses are built for comfort, and,
with the breezes from the gulf, which blow almost continually, the
temperature is not unpleasant at any time.
"Where are the products of the farms and gardens of Manatee
County marketed?"
Mostly along the Atlantic seaboard, for the reason that shipping
facilities to those markets are better than in other directions, and the
best markets of the country are found in the larger cities of the East.
However, vegetables and grapefruit from this section are being intro-
duced into the markets of the Middle West, and there is a bright
future in that section. Steamers carry the produce across to Mobile,
and from that place the fruits and vegetables are shipped North by
rail, and reach the markets of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers in
good condition. The grapefruit from Manatee County, especially, is
in demand on these markets, for it is perhaps the finest quality fruit
grown in the United States. When once the grapefruit from this
country gets established in a market the demand increases on account
of the high quality of the fruit.
"When is the best time to visit the Manatee Country in order to
see the development of that section and the crops which are pro-
Come down now, for the vegetable season is at its height. This is
not only a good time to visit this country, but it is a mighty good time
to get away from the trying climate of the Northern States. The gar-
deners of this section are in the midst of their season now, and every
statement which has been made in the articles in "The Fruit Grower"
can be substantiated at this time. Now is the time for the home-
seeker to come. The tourists usually come much earlier. Shortly after
the holidays they arrive in greatest numbers, although many persons
come in November with the approach of winter in the Northern States.
"What are the o .'i i , for a man who has lived in -town, but
who wants to establish a home of his own where he can grow garden
truck for market?"
The opportunities offered in this section will appeal to this class
particularly. It will be found that many of the best gardeners in this
section are men who have never followed general farming, but have
always had gardens which were given careful attention. Of course,
one must have experience in handling vegetable crops, preparing soil,
etc., but one who has worked at a trade in the city. is more likely to
give attention to the little details of vegetable gardening than is the
careless farmer who has been used to doing things on a large scale.
"Are the growers organized into shipping associations, that they
may ship their products together in car lots?"

[Page 38]


frigerator car company maintains men in this part of the country,
who look after shipments, and put the products of the different grow-
ers into one car, so that the car lot shipments are made. This can be
done very easily, since most of the stuff goes to the large cities of
the Atlantic coast. There has been no trouble on this score. Of course,
early in the season, before the real harvest begins, shipments are
made by express. In shipping oranges and grapefruit it is very easy
to get car lots. In many cases, however, these crops are sold on the
trees, the buyer attending to picking, packing and shipping the fruit.
Some of the readers of "The Fruit Grower" have doubted the accu-
racy of one of the illustrations published in the January number, show-
ing a three-year-old grapefruit tree loaded with fruit. Well, the pic-
ture was true, nevertheless. These persons have wondered how so
small a tree could support such a load of fruit. It must be remembered,
however, that orange and grapefruit wood is very tough. These trees
will support loads of fruit which would be beyond the capacity of trees
with ordinary wood. An apple tree, for instance, would break all to
pieces with a load of fruit which hardly tests the capacity of an orange
or grapefruit tree.
There may be other points regarding the Manatee Country which
have not been covered by the articles in "The Fruit Grower;" if so,
questions regarding these points are solicited, and effort will be made
to answer them honestly and fairly.

About ten miles below Manatee and Bradentown is Sarasota, situ-
ated on beautiful Sarasota Bay.

The bay, twelve miles long and about three miles wide, is sep-
arated from the Gulf of Mexico by a chain of keys or narrow islands.
It is nearly land locked, thereby affording perfect safety for boating;
its waters abound in fish of every variety, from the tarpon to the min-
now. Oysters, clams, stone crabs and other shell fish are there in
quantities and surpassing flavors. On the southern edge is the town
and on either side of this the shores are dotted with bungalows, cot-
tages and even mansions. The shore line, as a rule, is a series of
bluffs, in some instances heightened by shell mounds built by the
Indians. The outlying keys are crescent shaped, and the beaches on
both Gulf and bay are of pure white sand hard enough to drive over.
The keys have a growth of palms, palmettoes and small trees, some
of which bear fruits indigenous to the keys. Some of these keys are
inhabited and agricultural pursuits followed successfully. The sun-
sets are magnificent and the sky tints are said by globe trotters to be
as beautiful as those of foreign countries noted for this feature.

Sarasota's location, its superb climate and the fertility of the
lands in its outlying districts will be the agencies through which a
city of importance will eventually be builded. Twenty years ago a
Scotch company, foreseeing the possibilities, purchased thousands of
acres of land in the immediate vicinity and endeavored to create a
town. The only means of access was through a small steamboat ply-
ing between the village and Tampa, and, under these conditions, growth

[Page 401

I, __________________________________________________________________________


was almost impossible. In 1903 the Seaboard completed a railroad
thereto, and as a result the place has steadily grown into a town of
about one thousand permanent residents, augmented during the winter
months by many visitors. The town is supplied with some of the
modern conveniences, such as electric lights, waterworks and street
improvements. Sarasota has hotels, a number of progressive mercan-
tile establishments, a new ice plant, an artificial stone office building,
a golf course, schools, churches, low tax rate and good social conditions,
while the sale of intoxicants is prohibited. The culture of early vege-
tables, the growing of citrus fruits and the shipping of fish are the
principal pursuits engaged in.


The Seaboard's extension from Sarasota to Venice opens one of
the most productive and attractive sections of Florida. The line will
serve about one hundred and twenty square miles, and the map in this
booklet will serve to show the area of contiguous territory. There is
a ridge beginning at Sarasota and extending southward to Venice and
eastward for a distance of about four miles. The railroad in leaving
Sarasota is carried through Fruitville and then follows the eastern
slope of the ridge for eighteen miles, terminating on the south side
of the Bay of Venice. In locating the railroad care has been used to
select for it a position that would enable the country to be developed
as a whole under the most advantageous plans. On its eastern side
are immense bodies of muck and saw grass lands. Plans for their
complete drainage are being formed, and when finished will be the
means of bringing into use an area of productive land which cannot
be surpassed in fertility. The territory on the western side of the
railroad is a mixture of pine and hammock, and within it are conceded
to be some of the finest orange and grapefruit lands to be found in
the State. They are not only suitable from a soil standpoint, but the
protection afforded by Little Sarasota Bay and Gulf Stream is an asset
of considerable value. Already sufficient quantities of this land have
been applied to groves and fields to enable our assertion to be proved
without relying solely upon our belief. Scattered along the coast and
throughout the interior are homes of permanent and winter residents,
each of whom have a vegetable garden, orange and grapefruit grove.
By reason of the absence of transportation facilities-which have just
been supplied-the proportion of development to the whole is small,
and there remains room in an almost virgin country for thousands of
persons who, with energy and well-directed efforts, could create pleas-
ant and profitable homes.
In considering a location one naturally has in mind those features
which serve to produce a revenue, but at the same time the attractive-
ness of surrounding conditions are of equal importance. In this respect
the territory under discussion is especially favored. Little Sarasota
Bay, on its east coast, while narrower than Sarasota Bay, is, neverthe-
less, a beautiful sheet of water, and the small islands filled with semi-
tropical growth form a very pleasing picture. Narrowness of the bay
enables the Gulf and its attractions to be within easy reach. The bay
is navigable for light draft boats its entire length. One of the most
picturesque spots in this section is the region surrounding the Bay of
Venice. In this vicinity there is an entire absence of keys, the main-
land jutting into the Gulf of Mexico, which is a distinction not shared
in by any other place on the west coast reached by a railroad. From
the beach the land rises to an unusual elevation, from which fascinating
views of the Gulf are obtainable. The railroad will terminate here,
and in addition to the commercial town a resort of considerable mag-
nitude will be established.

[Page 42]

Ti,(: lanic o b i i-I ni' .I ar- ..,f fo. lr iliriher Xliricili,-_ : pine, prairie,
hammock and muck. The pine predominates and a large proportion
of this is especially suited for oranges, grapefruit, strawberries, sugar
cane and vegetables.
The prairie lands have not heretofore been considered valuable for
farming purposes, but have been used almost exclusively as cattle
ranges. In their natural state they have been productive of great
wealth from the raising of live stock, and if properly handled could
be made just as valuable as the recognized grazing lands of the West
and Southwest. They abound in native grasses and are largely cov-
ered with palmetto. They are easily cleared, however, and could be
applied to cultivation, producing Bermuda, para and crab grasses, cow
peas, velvet beans, rice, sugar cane and nearly all farm crops.
Hammock is a local name applied to rich bodies'of land on which
are found live oak, hickory, cedar, magnolia, palms, cabbage palmetto
and a dense undergrowth. The soil is largely composed of vegetable
mold, phosphates, carbonate of lime, sand and clay. The high ham-
mocks are light, the low hammocks black; the soil of each kind varies
in depth from two to ten feet. These lands are capable of producing
any form of plant life, and are particularly desirable by reason of rich-
ness of soil for the culture of celery, lettuce and other vegetables.
The muck area, while small compared with the whole, is extensive;
it is twenty-two feet above sea-level, contiguous to creeks and easily
drained. Celery, lettuce and all other vegetables produce abundantly
after the soil is in condition for cultivation. The climate is sub-tropi-
cal. The period from June to October is known as the rainy season;
the down-pour is not continuous, however, but rain falls nearly every
day, usually in the afternoon. There is no regularity about this, and
in some years the rainfall is similar to that of other sections having an
average precipitation. The rainy season is not objectionable, because
the character of the country requires it; besides, the cooling influences
of these showers are largely responsible for the temperature being
kept at a reasonable degree during the summer months.
From a comfort standpoint the climate is delightful, practically
retaining an evenness of temperature the year 'round. From a farm-
ing standpoint, however, its nature is the essential consideration in
its handling for agricultural and horticultural purposes. There is
little or no rain from October to May, and while plant life under the
influences of such a climate produces abundantly, it must have water.
Nature provided this in the shape of an artesian basin underlying the
entire section, from which a fine quality of white sulphur water is
easily obtainable through wells. The depth of these wells varies-
some are about 400 feet, others less. There are wells in this country
driven to a depth of 405 feet, producing a natural flow of 32 feet above
sea-level. They have been in use several years and show no signs
of diminution in flow. It is only necessary to attach ordinary fire hose
to as many joints as are needed or desired, and groves and fields can
then be watered when necessary. In watering truck fields through
the furrow method, the late afternoon is usually selected to prevent
the effects of a hot sun on a saturated earth. Through the medium
of this same well, another form or irrigation has been adopted, and it
answers the purpose so well that its use is becoming universal. A
main is laid on one side of a field. This is water-tight and contains
pockets about thirty feet apart. From these pockets three-inch tile
are laid across the field, just deep enough not to interfere with culti-
vation, and into pockets on the opposite or extreme side of the field.
The joints of these tile are not connected, but laid upon hard sur-
faces especially prepared. Into the main is turned the flow and by
plugging the pockets on the opposite side of the field the water seeps
and thereby saturates the earth from beneath. By this means any

[Page 43]




[Page 44]
"; -.j+:-------..-.-.-.-.-.--- _ --;- o

_-- Pag 44] '

portion of the land may be irrigated without affecting the remainder.
This system not only furnishes a very satisfactory and economical
method of irrigation, but it provides a perfect drainage. This entire
outfit is expensive, but practically eliminates the hazard of drouth and
excess rainfall so dangerous in vegetable culture.
In order to supply this essential feature to the arid lands of the
West, the United States Government and private concerns have been
and are spending fortunes in creating artificial avenues through which
water may be obtained. The initial expense is great, that of main-
tenance large, while the annual fee is in many instances perpetual.
In Manatee County the mere driving of a well at a cost of about one
dollar per lineal foot gives perpetual water rights, and the installa-
tion of the porous drain tile described above serves to complete an
arrangement through which elemental conditions are overcome.
There is still another method of irrigation that can be used in
this country. It is known as the Skinner system and preferred by
some. This system consists of a series of overhead pipes supported
by posts seven feet above the ground. There is a four-inch main
extending through the center of the field and attached to this, fifty
feet apart, are laterals of one inch pipe. On each lateral, four feet
apart, are brass caps or nozzles, punctured so as to permit the passage
of water in rain or spray form. The deep wells are not used in con-
nection with this method, but water obtained at a depth of sixty feet
without flow is brought to the surface through a centrifugal pump, the
power for which is furnished by a small gasoline engine.
The initial cost of either method of irrigation is about the same, the
small engine, pump and shallow well about equaling the expense of
driving a well to the artesian basin. Persons who have never been
accustomed to this manner of cultivation will probably gain the im-
pression that farming in this country is an expensive proposition, but
such is not the case. The initial cost in equipping a farm under this
system is somewhat greater than is necessary in other sections, but
this is easily offset by the fact that early vegetables are matured at
a season when they are luxuries, and in consequence bring high prices,
ihe ability to work the year 'round and thereby rotate crops, and the
further consideration that irrigation once installed is permanent. We
have record of instances where one acre has produced in one year
five crops and netted the grower a sum which, if we were to name,
would seem fabulous. We do not mean to imply that unheard of sums
are made on each acre, but we are prepared to prove that proper
equipment and intelligent application will produce results very far
in excess of the average agricultural districts.


The soil and climatic conditions of Manatee County are such as
to produce the finest fruits in the world. The oranges surpass in
flavor those grown in Cuba, Porto Rico, the Bahamas, Mexico or Cali-
fornia. There are several varieties grown, but the principal one is
the common Florida seedling, brought to its present state of excellence
by budding sour or wild stocks on lemon stocks. Others grown ex-
tensively are the Tangerine, Parson Brown, Centennial, Satsuma and
Tardiffs. The latter is a late variety, very hardy and of fine flavor,
but is not at its best until March or April, and will hang on the trees
until June.
Oranges are set out in rows about 20x30 feet apart. A five or six
months old budded tree will bear in three years. The first crop will
run from one-fourth to a box, and each year thereafter for five years
the increase is about double. They blossom in spring and begin

[Page 45]

ripening in October, but most varieties are not at their best until
December. It is a common sight to see an orange tree laden with
blossom, green and ripe fruit at the same time, and during the blos-
soming period the traveler's approach to an orange grove is heralded
by the delicious perfume-laden atmosphere.


Lemons are set out in a manner similar to oranges. The lemon
is much more susceptible to cold than the orange, but is grown here
successfully. The trees are produced from Sicilian cuttings.


The pomelo or grapefruit was originally introduced into the West
Indies from China early in the eighteenth century, and was brought
into Florida about twenty-five years ago. It has rapidly grown in
favor in Northern markets. It is delicious, succulent and pleasing
and eaten before breakfast is one of the best appetizers known. The
grapefruit tree is very prolific and one of the most profitable of the
many citrus fruits. As many as a thousand fine grapefruit are fre-
quently gathered from a single tree ten or twelve years old. It is
essentially a tropical fruit, but grows to perfection in the Manatee

On the pine lands in the upper part of the State, strawberries pro-
duce abundantly. They are not grown in this section to any great
extent, because there is not sufficient labor to pick them. The maturity
in this section would begin in November and extend through the
monthl of December, January, February and March.


Grapes are not grown extensively in this section for commercial
purposes, but the wild entanglement of grape vines and the arbors to
be found at the homes of the natives prove conclusively the possibili-
ties offered.

Before the Civil War the Manatee section possessed the largest
sugar .I lt.-i,-'i. in the world, and the largest and most expensive
sugar-making plant in the world was located on the Manatee River,
the ruins of which can yet be seen. The land once used by these im-
mense sugar plantations has since grown up with wild vegetation, but
ihe rows where the cane grew are still plainly visible. It is a well-
nown fact, clearly demonstrated by actual tests, that sugar cane
i' -rown here possesses a much greater percentage of saccharine than
I hat grown in any other part of the country. Sugar cane is planted
i n furrows six feet apart, the cane being laid both single and double
in the rows. It is planted in February on either pine or hammock
land and rattoons, or grows for six years without replanting. The
'! i'ibbon cane is the principal variety grown for making sugar and
yrup, attains an average height of about six feet, and produces an
average of 30 tons per acre. A fair yield is 30 gallons per ton, and
retails, when packed in glass or cans, at from 80 cents to $1.00 per
S allon.
p j

[Page 461

A (
Clubhouse of Corte



7i r y' F~I w



a- or


[Page 47]


Celery, lettuce, eggplants, beets, onion
cauliflowers, turnips, sweet and Irish p
every known vegetable can be successful
handsome profit. A very line grade of v
could also be produced.


s, cucumbers, tomatoes, peas,
potatoes, beans, and in fact,
ly grown and marketed at a
watermelons and cantaloupes




The following letter, written by a former Pennsylvania man, speaks
for itself. (The name has been withheld by request.)
We are anxious to have you follow his example and make an in-
vestigation. We know you will be greatly pleased. We are ready
to aid and direct and want you to call on us.

[Page 481

Is almost impossible of belief, even when related in the plainest
and most positive language, to the people who have been overcrowding
and developing the great Northwest during the last thirty years. It is
true that the land being timbered must be cleared for crops, unless
one buys an improved place. But in every other respect there is no
point in which the comparison is not immensely in favor of this section,
and this has its partial advantage. The timber which is removed fur-
nishes materials for the houses, fences, outbuildings, sheds, fuel and
other essentials. When the prairies of the West were settled the
immigrants were almost wholly men of small means; they home-
steaded free land, and underwent extreme privations before they made
good. They constructed sod houses or dugouts of limited capacity,
into which they huddled from sheer necessity, being unable to provide
room enough for health and comfort. They hauled their fuel many
miles, paying for it an extravagant price.
The winter was a season of perpetual dread. They suffered severely
from the lack of comforts and conveniences; but those sturdy people
overcame all those difficulties and established an empire based on
industry, perseverance and hardihood.
To the same kind of people-who are now overcrowding the East
and North-the State of Florida offers a field of opportunity which is a
[,:,.,li--.- in comparison with the section the Northwestern pioneers
conquered. The crowded and discontented people in the Eastern
States are now seeking new homes where they may have space and
opportunity at their command. There is no room for them in the
West, and their migration must take a new channel. They are invited
to come to Florida and avail themselves of its advantages. They
would not have to contend with any of the dangers nor endure any
of the privations which have usually accompanied pioneering from
the early days of the country. They would find railroads, telegraph,
roads, neighbors and all the essential accessories of civilization and
convenience awaiting them.
The lands in this territory have been held in large bodies by com-
panies which did not care to dispose of them, but arrangements have
now been made whereby five and ten-acre farms may be purchased
at a very reasonable cost and at a very much lower figure than proper-
ties have ever been offered for in this section.


[ "Bradentown, Florida, November 15, 1909.
Mr. J. W. White,
General Industrial Agent,
S. A. L. Ry., Norfolk, Va.
Dear Sir-I have often wondered if those who advertise realize just
how much good a small "ad" sometimes does them or the company
they represent, so thought you might be interested in hearing what
4 one of your "ads" did in my case. Last February I was reading a
1, Sunday paper, and in the magazine that came with it noticed your
"ad" in regard to the "Land of Manatee." I was very tired of the
Pennsylvania weather I was enduring at that time, and as I had been
thinking of locating in the South, wrote to you for particulars, and,
acting on your advice, came to Bradentown. I was so much pleased
with the town and surroundings that I decided to locate here and
engage in the celery business. 1 now have my family here and my
father, mother and sister are coming soon. Now all this may not
interest you, but what I am driving at is the fact that through my
reading your "ad" and coming here, your company will handle quite a
little freight that would not otherwise have been hauled. For instance,
I will ship about 10,000 crates of celery, and your road will haul it
and the materials for crating it. You will haul forty tons of fertilizer
and about five carloads of celery boards. Also vegetables, other than
celery, amounting to several thousand crates, and the material for
crating same. You have already hauled a number of tons of material
required for my irrigation plant, and when you add to the above the
amount of fares of my family and such guests as we will have this
winter (and you may be sure that I will see that they come by the
Seaboard), I think you will agree with me that the small "ad" is some-
times very far-reaching in its effects.
The longer I stay here the more pleased I am with the country, and
the more certain I am that its future is assured and that development
will come rapidly. It has so many advantages over the East Coast that
people are bound to come here after it becomes thoroughly known.
1' Yours very truly,


Alexander J. Peet, M. D.,
*. 1101 Cortelyou Road,
Brooklyn, N. Y.
Ji .Brooklyn, N. Y., April 20, 1910.
:. Mr. J. W. White,
Gen. Ind. Agt., S. A. L. Ry.,
Norfolk, Va.
Dear Sir-Replying to yours of recent date, would say I made the
trip to Manatee County, and am so well pleased with the country that
I leave New York the first of May to make Bradentown my future home.
Any service that I may be able to render you will be a pleasure.,
Thanking you for all your kindness and courtesies, I am,
Very truly yours,

[Page 49]

Statement based on land being set in best varieties of budded stock,
one hundred trees to the acre, cultivated and fertilized to the best
Cost of grove, estimating the price of land cleared at $70.00
per acre, 500 each of the one-year-old budded orange and
grapefruit trees at 50c. each, setting, fertilizer, cultivation,
etc. ................... ............................ $1,340.00
(No Income.)
Fertilizer and labor on grove .................... $ 350.00
Interest on $1,340.00 at 6 per cent .................. 80.40 $ 430.40
THIRD YEAR. (No Income.)
Fertilizer and labor on grove. .................... .$ 400.00
Interest on $1,770.40 at 6 per cent.................. 106.22 $ 506.22
Net income from grapefruit, one-half box per tree..$ 625.00 625.00
Cost of grove at end of third year .................. $1,651.62

Fertilizer and labor on grove...................... $ 500.00
Interest on $1,651.62 at 6 per cent.................. 99.10 $ 599.10
Net income from oranges, one box per tree. ........ $ 500.00
Net income from grapefruit, two boxes per tree.... 2,500.00 $3,000.00
Surplus at end of fourth year. ..................... $ 749.28

Surplus at beginning of fifth year .................. $ 749.28
Net income from oranges, one and one-quarter boxes
per tree....................................... $ 625.00
Net income from grapefruit, two and one-half boxes
per tree....................................... $3,125.00
Interest on surplus ($749.28) at 6 per cent. ......... 44.96 $3,794.96
Fertilizer and labor on grove. ..................... 600.00
Surplus at end of fifth year ........................ $3,944.24

Net income from oranges, one and one-half boxes per
tree .......................................... $ 750.00
Net income from grapefruit, three boxes per tree. 3,750.00
Interest on surplus ($3,944.24) at 6 per cent........ 236.65 $4,736.65
Fertilizer and labor on grove ...................... 600.00
Surplus at end of sixth year....................... $8,080.89

[Page 50]


;EABL 00

Tliee yeais old. .iown on pine land. Man tee County. Flo,,d.. i



[Page 51]

Elsewhere in this pamphlet is a fac-simile of a letter from Capt. Frank
Perkins of Manatee, in which he states that he has a sixty-year old
grape fruit tree in his yard which now produces about 40 boxes per
Many of the growers each year realize very much higher prices
than we have shown, and in view of the recent organization of the
Florida Citrus Exchange, fashioned after the California Exchange, it
is believed that good prices will be maintained.
There is an illustration in this pamphlet made from a photograph
of an (-!-li- .-- i i..iii .1i ..1i grapefruit tree with fruit.
The grapefruit is very prolific and commands a much higher price
than the orange. High prices rule, as the demand is greater than the
supply, Southern Florida being the only section of the United States
where this fruit can be grown to perfection.
Budded grapefruit trees begin to bear the second year, and yield
a good crop each year thereafter. When four years old (if well cared
for) should yield from two to four boxes per tree, the yield rapidly
increasing each year as the tree grows older. The value of a full
bearing grapefruit grove is estimated at from $1000 to $2500 per acre,
according to the age of the trees. Grapefruit trees are, as a rule,
healthy and vigorous, and will live and bear large crops of fruit for
50 to 75 years or even longer. Late varieties of grapefruit command
high prices; some have brought as high as $10.00 per box during April.

Bureau of Plant Industry. Pomological Investigations.
G. B. Brackett, Pomologist.
Washington, D. C., April 4, 1904.
Mr. S. L. HARRIS, Washington, D. C.
Dear Sir-In reply to yours of the 29th inst. in regard to grape-
fruit, I will say that the southern half of Florida produces the best
grapefruit that comes into the market. It is far superior to California
grown grapefruit. The further you get south the better it is so as
to avoid frost. The price of the fruit varies according to quality and
supply. It ranges from $4.00 to $6.00 per box.
Yours truly,
G. B. BRACKETT, Pomologist.

Parish, Manatee County, Fla.
This is to irf i hat I have been a resident of this section of
Florida for f.r.i; ..!, years, during which time I have been largely
engaged in raising oranges and grapefruit. I have a 45-acre grove
which I value at not less than $100,000; in r.,.:l i, not for sale at that
price, as it pays me a good income and I am p.: r... i satisfied with
my investment.
Grapefruit trees come into bearing ti.- --, ond year and begin to
pay handsomely the third year. I have 1.'. i. I as many as 90 grape-
fruit from a two-year-old tree. To prove that this section is the home
of the orange and the grapefruit, will state that on my mother's place,
a few miles from here, there is now a tree in full bearing that was in
bearing at the time of the Seminole war, arn I I .-. i.:i, told by old
soldiers who fought in that war that they at- I..i,,nr tiom this tree
during the time they were fighting Indians in i- -.:..
Grapefruit is more hardy and prolific thoi. fh,. ."..hie, and will
carry its fruit longer on the tree, as I have seen grapefruit on trees
as late as July. I have this season set out another grapefruit grove
which demonstrates my faith in the business.
Respectfully, JOHN PARRISH.

[Page 52]

40 Boxes of Grapefruit From a 60-Year-Old Tree.


Manatee, Manatee County, Fla.

This is to certify that I have growing in my grove a grapefruit
tree that I am informed by old citizens was planted in the year 1843,
is now over CO years old, and is as healthy and thriving as any young
tree on my place.
Last season 38 boxes of fruit were gathered from this tree and sold
for $162.50, and there were two or three boxes still on the tree.
This tree during this long period has never been injured by the
cold, and proves beyond question that Manatee County, Florida, is
exempt from the cold weather that in years past has injured the
orange trees in the northern part of the State.
There are many orange and grapefruit groves in this county 25 to
30 years old.

The following table has been compiled from written statements of
various growers in the Manatee district only with a view to arriving
at a fair general average, and the most unusual profits have been

Acres Product

Per Acre

Per Acre Total

A. G. Liles.
R. R. Bevell,

F. C. Armstrong,

G. C. Roberts,

G. B. Wilder,

Howard & Kennedy,

R. T. White,

.i S. W. Richards,

D. F. Richards,
S. L. Tf !.:r,

W. G. Cloyette,

Egg Plants,
Egg Plants,
Egg Plants,
Egg Plants,
f Egg Plants,
acre Cauliflower,
crops L Cucumbers,

[Page 53]



$ 675.00
$ 425.00
$ 503.75

After three vegetable crop hIive beei n aiketed Froam Erne F eli
I-----"------------ ---"-------------------------. --------'. ------- --------_ : ",( :-_= _'_:='-.--_.--= -:'. - -__::''-

,. 1


SUGAR CANE grown on Pine land nea' Bradentowri. Floriaa

[Page 54]

il I,

Florida Summers Are Not So Hot After All

-- 11 i 11 .-- -- -- l _--

19 4
I i.l I. 1" I i 1 1

9. 1.9 1 I I .. .1 I
S I I I I .

I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ r1.....1 11 1 1 1 0 1 ...
'9 l94 lL9 I ,.999 _lll9 I ] 4, 1 1 -I9 9 = II II I" '9 911 9 I I9 I
i. . I 1 .I

i.I . hI ...

., r9Ii, 9t. i i iii l ii n i9 .. i ,I9 i .1ih II r. .I I [ I

..Il ih L ... I .l .IT r II-I iIIIIIn" I I I II I l..I n. . .I
.1 1 7 r h ,- !l i[ =- ...i i ii i ii. . .Iill. 1.. Ih h I I I. II I .. I r. .1 ..1 i t .1 I l
I I, I l1 'i i: ..r I h .I .i..il Iii l .l .n Ill i I I ll 1 I .I i l .il ..I r 1i. I h ii1l. h iI... ", i[] .
I I ] i I I I l 1. . I [I iI I. i. i I I ri ii 1 Ii l I . I I [ .i I . .. il I I I Ii [ I, I I I
"i. l,.i i. I I I-.. i I l I .- r ..r I I .i I i .
.-.i ri,.. .l ...999. 9 .9 1 I 9 9 I .9 I... 1 ..- h .. h II ,.l.9.. 9.9
9 9 I ... .i.i ... II.. ...... l. . l, 9 9. I IIn .l .. .. ii.i .i i ni n Ii .. r n
9. iI~ii. e. 999 i 99 i i ..9 .. i 999 I9 i ll._ I, I hii .. 1. ... .99 . l ..II 1. .,
I r Ir .. i." .* 9 I .. I l. I I 99 .. I ii l 1I I. 9 .* i

I. I.. 1 1 1 . I .. i I. I-I I .ii I. i I ,hi .l.' ..
M I. i ['- I i I Ii.I ... IV Ill
II. 9 9IJ .l, 9i99 .....l 1I .l I l' I I 1 .h I . 9_ II . I 1 .... I ... I

I[ i l n I I l I .I I .. .... n l | \ Il l I I9 I I l II I

Ii.II... .. I r lli I I ii I .i, i99.I il
I i r l : I r I h ll h I n " I i Illl I' I r h I ll i i i in ll[ i [ I 1, J ll I I
I .. i l .- n i rl i I il i i h i. i I Ii I l i .I-Il i i I i r .
,lh r. .. i. ,., .. -. 9.1 _. I, 9, 1 h l , lh . h ,I ,. II ,
Ii, ,,. 1 99. 9....9.1 9 . 1.. .. 'i i 9 9.999. .1 9 9.

9 I9 .I 9 I9. 9 .9I ."ItnlI 9 r 9i I I I Il lh. I. .1' l .lh l l .. 9 Il n I. '
. .. I i I 9III il I I l l I I. . .. I I9 n' r h 9 n I I .1, 9.i i ,
I h.9 I .., ,,i i mini ,., I.9 l l. I I I II .I I.l.. .i .. . i I. I I.

I.9.9I... r, 1 .
II [ i n I i i I i n I i i a ll I iIiin i 1ii i i i l

i n ii "1 1 f j Ih r I i i.1 i I n. I l i i l I i h n h

.,r ii i i . i h i I .i a .l .l ,_ I 1. I 1.. . I ll. i 1 I r I I. i .
I.l ..h h I l ,, i, ,i, 9i i. 1". 9 ...,,,,_ ,i i i i
1, ,," I 1.. .I .... ..1 99. 9..i'. ., .ii.. 9 i 99l9 .,, h9. I i. .. . h ... ,
9 l Iii Iii [ i l ..9 9 I .... 9 .I '9 II ,,,i .. ..I
I I I I, [- [I Il l .i I h ... . iu

I ] i ii[ i il i [ Ii i h i h I .- I i i . ... . = 1 I . I ... I.I p... " .
I. I. I I .. Ii I i- 'l I r 9i i i ,,,,i ii [ ll i illm i 1 9 i il

. I n.. 1 ni I i i i I II.I. In. I .. 9 I 9- I I IInII n _. 9. I 11. i ., ..r .9I

l, I *. ., l .. i . .. in. 99 .9 I' .. ...... ... I h99119 lli. 1i-I 9I 1I
i I i .. 9.I I,, I 99 9 .I l r 9 , I , ,, i. ,
,., ,9,,.I'9.I...h9.9n~iii ,rlii

99,.i _.99[. 99 .. il, i I l9-. I Ii-..ll,, I9 .9 4 l i i ii iillli ie.I..i hl i" i .
.I I -I I. IIl..I Ill r i .IIii9i[ .9. .. ,,. i il- 9 9i 9 .9lll l 9 h9 9i9 ..l 9999ill I .i

III9I9999 ii9 I ii~ ii Ii i i. 9.. ....9 .i9 9 i9 r i~, i ii lh ii9. tn i i i ii .i -
i, i [ [II r[. L 9l' .9n.l j I I n niI. I, Ili 9 *I II n I 99 II99~ 9 .9 Il9 l r I il l i i i I

[Page 55]




66(1F Vt Aft V/CO




floriba anb outf)tet
.Direct Route to all Florida Resorts, as well as Nassau, Havana and
Birmingham, Ala. 4.Direct Connections from New England Points
at New York, Washington and Portsmouth, Va. ::: ::: ::: :::

Connections With all Lines from the West

Chas. B. Ryan, General Passenger Agent .. .......... Portsmouth, Va.
Chas. L. Longsdorf, N. E. P. A....... No. 256 Washington St., Boston
W. E. Conklyn, G. E. P. A.............. 1183 Broadway, Cor. 28th St.,
New York City
J. T. West, P. A.............. No. 1433 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa.
W. E. Whitemore, C. A.....Room No. 503 Park Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa.
0. M. Chilton, C. P. A........ Continental Trust Bldg., Baltimore, Md.
G. Z. Phillips, D. P. A.... 1418 New York Ave., N. W., Washington, D. C.
R. Vaughan Lloyd, T. P. A. No. 830 East Main Street, Richmond, Va.
P. E. Thomas, C. A............ No. 306 Marquette Bldg., Chicago, Ill.
E. R. Vazielle, C. A... .Room 604 Mercantile Library Bldg., Cincinnati, 0.
J. G. Cantrell, G. W. A..........No. 804 Laclede Bldg., St. Louis, Mo.
J. W. Cantrell, S. P. A....... No. 811 Stahlman Bldg., Nashville, Tenn.
Fred Geissler, T. P. A..........Memphis Trust Bldg, Memphis, Tenn.
D. W. Morrah, T. P. A...........English-American Bldg., Atlanta, Ga.
H. S. Leard, D. P. A........... No. 4 West Martin St., Raleigh, N. C.
W. P. Scruggs, T. P. A................. No. 7 Bull St., Savannah, Ga.
M. O'Connor, S. W. P. A......No. 311 Hibernia Bank Bldg., New Orleans
0. G. Humphrey, C. A ......No. 104 Mqntgomery St., Exchange Hotel,
Montgomery, Ala.
W. R. McIntyre, C. P. C&. T. A.......................Jacksonville, Fla.
C. M. Dickerson, T. P. A................................ Tampa, Fla.
S. C. Boylston, Jr., A. G. P. A.......................Jacksonville, Fla.
C. D. Wayne, A. G. P. A................ ............. Atlanta, Ga.
R. H. Stansell, A. G. P. A........................... Savannah, Ga.
Walter G. Coleman, G. T. P. A..................... Washington, D. C.

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2011 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated May 24, 2011 - Version 3.0.0 - mvs