Citation
Interview with Carl G. Lambert, July 1, 1975

Material Information

Title:
Interview with Carl G. Lambert, July 1, 1975
Creator:
Lambert, Carl G. ( Interviewee )
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Cherokee Indians -- Florida
Absahrokee -- Absaroka -- Apsaalooke -- Apsaroke
Cherokee Oral History Collection ( local )

Notes

Funding:
This text has been transcribed from an audio or video oral history. Digitization was funded by a gift from Caleb J. and Michele B. Grimes.

Record Information

Source Institution:
Samuel Proctor Oral History Program, Department of History, University of Florida
Holding Location:
This interview is part of the 'Cherokee' collection of interviews held by the Samuel Proctor Oral History Program of the Department of History at the University of Florida
Rights Management:
Made available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 International license: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.
Resource Identifier:
CHER 11 ( SPOHP IDENTIFIER )

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ORAL HISTORY PROJECT


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


MONOLOGUE: Carl G. Lambert


DATE: July, 1975




















L: My name is Carl G. Lambert. I was born in Cherokee County, North
Carolina at Tomotla. I was born June 11, 1911. I was raised at
Cherokee in North Carolina. Many changes have gone on in the area since
I was a boy. Many of the old buildings and people are gone, but stories
and memories linger on.
One of my fond memories is the old Appalachian Railroad that ran
up and down the valley and the old depot at Cherokee. The late Roy
Bowman had a barber shop in the old depot. In the late twenties a law was
passed to prohibit barbers from barbering without a barber's license.
Roy moved his operation to the river bank on a stump down there, which
had been cut off about the height of a barber chair. A board was
nailed on top of it with a hinge so that if a person wanted a shave they
would lean the board back and prop it up with a stick. Roy would go
down to the river bank, dip the shaving mug in the river, make up a
lather, and shave the customer. Of course, the customer couldn't complain
much about the cold water because he wasn't paying much for it. A shave
cost fifteen cents and a haircut cost twenty-five. If you took the com-
bination, you got them for thirty-five cents. Every once in a while a
prankster would come down and announce that the law was coming, and Roy
and the customer both would hit the bushes until the all-clear was
sounded. There was some advantages to having an outdoor barber shop
because he didn't have to sweep the hair up off the floor. The-hair
had accumulated around this stump for several inches deep. It was like
walking on a thick carpet. Poor old Roy's gone now, but these stories
still continue to be told.
Across from the depot there in Cherokee there used to be a huge
pile of telephone poles awaiting shipment. One summer day a group of
fellows were out drinking moonshine on this pile of poles and a heavy
thunderstorm came up. Everybody scrambled for the depot. All of them
made it up the steps into the depot but one character who was too looped
to get up the steps crawled underneath the depot. Back in those days
there wasn't any storm drains in Cherokee, so when a heavy rain came a
lot of the runoff ran under the depot. Well, this character crawled
under the depot. When he collapsed under there, his head lay in a low
place. Some of the fellows who had taken shelter out of the rain across
the road over on John Burgess's store porch looked over there and they saw
what they thought was a leak in a waterpipe or a small geyser. Upon
investigation, they found this drunk over there nearly drowned under the
depot and had they not gotten him out, I guess he would have drowned.
The character who didn't make it up the steps and nearly drowned under
the depot was the late Willis Enloe.
On another occasion Willis went with some fellow bear hunters up on
Black Rock Creek on a bear hunting expedition. Willis wasn't much of
a hunter, so he was leading the dogs and leaving the bear killing to some
of his partners. They had one lead dog turned loose who finally struck









2





a track, so Willis turned the other dogs loose. Willis wandered around
a logging road. The dogs finally treed the bear under an overhanging
rock, so Willis made his way down the mountain to see where the dogs
were. Coming down on this moss-covered rock, he walked and crawled out
to the edge of it to see if he could see what the dogs were doing. Well,
he could see the dogs jumping back once in awhile and the bear running
out after them. All at once the moss on the rock turned loose and Willis
fell right square down on top of the bear's back. And Willis told me
this story himself. He said that had the dogs not thought that they were
getting some help from him and really attacked the bear in all earnest-
ness, the bear might have killed him. He said he disengaged himself
from the bear's back as quickly as possible and made tracks as fast as
possible, leaving the scene to the dogs. Stories about people and their
exploits here are many. A lot of them are about hunting.
Once Monty Young, some years ago, went up in the Soco Mountains to
bear hunt with some companions. Monty was put in the stand to wait the
arrival of a bear coming through. It was a real cold, windy day and
nothing didn't come through, so Monty got impatient and not knowing
much about the terrain, he kind of surveyed the situation and decided
that the main highway was off in a certain direction. He thought that
he would take a shortcut and go through the mountains and try to inter-
cept the main highway and catch a ride back to town. Well, he was armed
with a double-barrel shotgun with double-ought [oo] buckshots. Suddenly
he heard a noise in a laurel thicket. He approached with caution with
his gun drawn and he saw something black through the laurel. Without
seeing what it was, he just cut down on it with both barrels and whatever
it was he saw it fall and start kicking. He threw a couple more shells
into the gun and approached a few steps further and banged away and
didn't see any more movement. He approached the thing and saw that it
had shoes on. So he ran down the hill some distance and then he thought
that his mind was playing tricks on him, so he came back up to where it
was and sure enough there lay a dead horse in that thicket. And of
course he knew that his mind wasn't playing tricks on him, so he beat a
hasty retreat as fast as he could and he never told anybody this story
for several years. One time some years after that he asked me if I ever
heard of anybody losing horse up on the Soco Creek.
I will stop these hunting stories here and go on with a little
history. I'm the official historian of the Eastern Band of Cherokee
Indians. Cherokees were tilling the soil and hunting and fishing along
the Ocona Luftee, Tuckasegee, and Little Tennessee rivers long before
white men came to America. No true history of the county could be complete
without showing how the Cherokee Indians participated in events leading
up to the formation of Swain County and the part they have played as
citizens of the county. The first white settlers in Swain County settled
on the head of the Ocona Luftee River. The first grist mill was at the
falls on Mingo Creek. The creek was first called Mingus Mill Creek.
The oldest tombstones of white settlers date back to 1816 and are located
in the cemetery opposite the mouth of Mingo Creek.









3






The reason for white settlers settling on the head of the Ocona
Luftee River was that the treaty line of 1802 ran from a point on top
of the Smokey Mountains about three miles east of New Found Gap near
the top of Mount Kepheart. This line was known as the Meigs Line,
running fifty-two degrees and thirty minutes east, passing near Penrose,
North Carolina, to the southeastern boundary of the Indian land in
Henderson County, North Carolina. Hewed locust posts were used in those
days to mark corners. Someone moved the post marking the Meigs Line
to a point several miles west of the New Found Gap, this incident giving
rise to thename of a prong of Little River in Tennessee as the Meigs
Post Prong. It wasn't until 1819 that another treaty was negotiated with
the Cherokees. By the terms of this treaty the line ran the watershed
ridge between the Nantahala and the Little Tennessee River falling down
the Little Tennessee to the state line. Tsali, the Cherokee Indian
martyr,lived just across the treaty line of the New Echota Treaty. This
accounted for his involvement in the removal. Indians living in Swain
County north of the treaty line weren't involved in the removal of 1838.
Swain County came into being during the hectic years of reconstruction
following the Civil War. This was a time when carpetbaggers and the Ku
Klux Klan ran rampant over the state. President Andrew Johnson appointed
William W. Holden as governor of North Carolina following the close of
the Civil War. Holden had previously ran twice for governor against Zeb
Vance, being defeated both times. Things go so bad that the state uni-
versity was closed. Martial law was declared in some counties and many
influential people were thrown into jail. Holden appointed the notorious
George W. Kirk head of the state militia. Kirk, being from Tennessee,
brought along a bunch of his carpetbaggers as part of the militia. This
touched off a howl of protest from the tarheels. Kirk and his militia
plundered, robbed and burned. There was more unrest during this period than
there was during the Civil War. This period was known as the Kirk-Holden
wars. Things came to a climax on December 14, 1870, when the North Carolina
House of Representatives met and charged Governor Holden with eight counts
of malfeasance and set a time for an impeachment hearing. The trial
commenced February 2, 1871. Holden was convicted of six of the eight
charges on February 22, 1871. Holden was dismissed from office. Swain
County was formed from parts of Jackson and Macon County. The county was
named for a former governor, D. L. Swain. Governor Swain had visited
this area in 1833. At this time it was Haywood County.
On his visit here in 1833, he met with Chief Yonagusta on the island
in the Tuckasegee River about three miles upstream from Bryson City.
This incident gave the area its name today, Governor's Island. Chief
Yonagusta moved from Governor's Island to Soco Creek. He died there in
April of 1839. Yonagusta is buried in the cemetery near Israel Hornbuckle's
house on Old Mission Road. Governor's Island is the site of the ancient
Cherokee town of Katua. Bryson City is built where the ancient Cherokee
town of Tecqualese once stood. There were two towns on the Ocona Luftee









4





River: Egwanulti, located at Bird Town in Swain County, and Nunoyui,
located in the old highland fields near Cherokee. The remains of a
mound can be seen near Richard Crow's house. The Cherokees had lost
about half their land in North Carolina to a colonial government of the
British. Following the Revolutionary War, pioneers started really
pouring across the Blue Ridge. Treaty lines were usually imaginary. Most
of the time encroachment had gone far beyond the boundaries before a sur-
veyor ever set foot on the spot mentioned in the treaty. The Indians always
got the short end of the deal.
Out of all this turmoil something wonderful happened. Sequoyah in-
vented the Cherokee alphabet. The timing of this event was of great sig-
nificance. At least three-fourths of the Cherokees learned to read and
write before the removal in 1838. The first known printing of the
Sequoyah alphabet was the first five verses of Genesis as they appeared
in the Missionary Herald, Volume 23, Page 382, dated December, 1827. The
first issue of the Cherokee Phoenix was printed at New Echota, Georgia,
on February 21, 1828. By the time of his death, more than seven million
pages had been printed in the Sequoyah alphabet. On June 6, 1917, the
state of Oklahoma placed a statue of Sequoyah in the statuary hall at
the capitol of the United State, a tribute to a great genius.
On June 26, 1829, three chiefs and fifty-six other Cherokees put their
mark on a document declaring that they were separating themselves from
the Cherokee nation and becoming citizens of the United States in the county
of Haywood, North Carolina, also giving power of attorney to one John L.
Dillard. The three chiefs were Yonagusta, Longblanket, and Wilnota.
This document is recorded in the registered deeds office in Waynesville,
North Carolina, Book B, Page 547. Yonagusta lived at Governor's Island.
Longblanket lived at Cherokee near the present elementary school. Records
in the Cherokee Council House show that Longblanket was still living in
1851, age 100. Wilnota lived on Soco near the mouth of Wright's Creek.
I am a person of many interests. While driving along the Blue
Ridge Parkway from Raven's Ford to Soco Gap, I noticed a white flowering
plant growing in abundance along the road banks and the edge of the road.
This interesting-looking plant is white snake root (Eupatorium urticae-
folium), and is deadly poison. The plant grows to three feet with com-
pound umbels of plume-like white flowers that resemble ageratum. Another
distinguishing feature of this plant is the opposite serrate leaves. My
late father, J. B. Lambert, collected data on this plant and its effects
for many years. This is the plant that causes milk sickness. The Depart-
ment of Agriculture says that the plant contains trematol, a yellowish, oily
substance. It will kill cattle, horses, sheep and man. When eaten by a
cow giving milk, the poison is passed into the milkstream with the cow
suffering no ill effects, but the person or animal drinking the milk
being subject to poisoning. If the cow is dry and not giving milk, the
cow will be poisoned. Since white men started colonizing America, people
have died from this mysterious disease and it wasn't until recent years
that the cause was known. Many old-timers thought it was some substance
in the ground that the cattle ate; others thought that the dew deposited









5





some kind of fungus or mold on the fodder or hay. Cattle or horses will
seldom eat this plant when it's green. They will eat it when it's cut
and cured out and then mixed with other hay. This makes milk sickness
nearly always a fall and winter disease. The symptoms are nausea and
vomiting with the stomach throwing off everything that enters it, thus
causing starvation and dehydration. The breath of a person afflicted with
this disease smells like acetone. One of the remedies used in the old
days was whisky poured down the person even to the point of getting him
completely stoned. Following this was quantities of strained honey.
Nancy Hanks, the mother of Abraham Lincoln, died in the fall of 1818 from
this disease. On November 8, 1946, a boy died from this disease in Avery
County, North Carolina. Dr. B. B. McGuire, M.D., of Burnsville, North
Carolina, wrote in the paper following the death of this boy, stating that
he knew of no antitoxin or antidote for this poison. Anyone suspected of
milk sickness should see a doctor immediately. Many are the stories about
milk sickness and its causes. Some people became quite adept at spotting
the poison globules in the cream. These globules would tend to fluoresce
when a light was brought in contact with them. The housewife would proceed
to skim off these with a spoon and serve the milk to the family. Sometimes
they'd drink skim milk only. The cream skimmed off poison milk will kill
a dog but not a hog. If the milk is churned the poison will be in the
butter and not in the buttermilk. Many farms were abandoned in the old
days because of milk sickness. Many a thrifty pioneer rang his own death
knell when he picked up his scythe and mowed a little extra hay around
the edge of the field and fence corners. This is where white snake root
likes to grow. I'm reluctant to buy local hay. This plant grows in
abundance around the edges of most fields. Farmers are taking a big risk
when they cut their backswath along the edge of the hay fields. It is
said that white snake root has killed more people and animals than any
other plant in America. This plant grows in abundance from the southern
Appalachians into Canada.
One of the many outstanding projects of the tribe is the Cherokee
Boys Club. The club was originally started at the old Cherokee boarding
school in 1932 and was incorporated under the tribe as a non-profit cor-
poration in 1964. The club provides training, employment and recreation
for Cherokee youth. During the ten years that theclub has been in opera-
tion, it has had to borrow over $2 million for buildings and equipment.
Half of this amount has already been repaid. The club supports itself
by providing valuable and much-needed services for the tribe, the Bureau
of Indian Affairs, the U. S. Public Health Service, the Great Smokey
Mountains National Park, and the public. These jobs provide full-time
employment for club employees who are all tribal members and part-time
employment and training for club members. Any young man who is a student
or former student of Cherokee High School may join the club. The members
elect from their membership a board of directors who govern the club.
Club officers work closely with the tribal council and tribal officials.
Jarrett Blythe, who served as prinicpal chief for twenty-four years, has









6





helped the club from its beginning. Noah Powell, who was principal
chief until his death in April of 1973, was a former employee of the
club, and he helped the club in many ways. The present principal chief,
John Crow, was also a former club employee and has helped the club a
great deal. The club contracts the school bus system for the Cherokee
Indian School. We now have thirty-four buses, all in excellent condition.
Club drivers recently received awards from the National Safety Council
for driving school buses a total of 315 years without an accident.
These drivers transport over 1400 students daily. Altogether the club
buses last year operated over 1 million miles. The club provides charter
service for Cherokee and many other schools. The club also provides bus
service for Unto These Hills [outdoor drama]. The club operates a
garage which maintains all club vehicles, government vehicles, and ve-
hicles for the public. The garage has a front end and brake shop, a
general shop, and a paint and body shop. Each mechanic has been trained
in school and has a great deal of experience. The club provides many
other services such as lawn mowing. The club contracts the garbage
collection for the Great Smokey Mountains National Park. The club con-
tracts the laundry for the school hospital and several motels. The club
has contracted the operation of the Youth Conservation Corps Program for
the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the tribe for the pastfour summers. The
club has built almost a $1 million worth of modern buildings for itself.
The club makes every effort to keep.all of its facilities neat and clean.
The club operates a building contracting business. Boys and men have
received training in carpentry, masonry, painting, plumbing, and electrical
work. Club members receive training in the operation of vehicles and
equipment. The club has provided training and supervision for hundreds of
neighborhood Youth Corps enrollees and on-the-job training for many
Cherokee youth. Detailed records are kept and audited by certified public
accountants. Records are available to anyone upon request. The club
provides many educational opportunities for Cherokee youth. The club has
an office building which they lease to organizations needing office space.
Some club employees live on club grounds and are available for full-time
duty.
The newest project is the development and operation of the Home
for Youth. The youth live in modern homes with a set of houseparents
in each cottage. This project has given many young people with unfor-
tunate home conditions a new chance at life. The John Birges Cottage
for Boys was named for Sergeant John Birges, a member of the Cherokee
Boys Club, who gave his life for his country heroically in Vietnam. The
Pointing Cottage is operated for girls. The Ponting Foundation, operated
by Mrs. Elsa Ponting in memory of her husband, has helped our club tre-
mendously. The third cottage, the Jackson Cottage for Boys, was named
in memory of Chief Walter Jackson. Chief Jackson, who is shown at right
here, helped to organize the Cherokee Boys Club. Each cottage costs over
$100,000 to complete with furnishings. The club has raised over half the
cost of the cottages. However, we still need donations to pay off indebt-
edness on the cottages and to help operate the homes. The club is very
proud of the youth living in the homes and of those who are working with
the youth.









7





Many activities are planned for the youth, both recreational and
educational. The club has completed and operates the recreation park for
Cherokee and other youth groups. The park includes a large swimming
pool and a lake for the enjoyment of all. Cherokee Enterprises, a sep-
arate corporation, is now operating a cafeteria for the public located
on club grounds. Chapel services held for the children's home have now
grown into a church with a full-time pastor. The church services are
held in the North Powell Memorial Chapel Building which is located on
club grounds. The chapel operation and.finance is completely separate
from the club and the children's home operations. As the Cherokee Boy's
Club provides jobs for its members and employees, as it trains young
people and helps Cherokee young people to remain in school and to continue
their education, as it provides services for the public and it supports
itself through hard work and community cooperation, it has proven its
faith in our young people and its faith in our Cherokee people. It is
proving its faith in our American system and most of all its faith in
God. It is proving that today's young people, with the help of today's
adults, are very interested in improving themselves and are therefore
interested in improving America for a better tomorrow.





Full Text

PAGE 1

ORAL HISTORY PROJECT UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA MONOLOGUE: Carl G. Lambert DATE: July, 1975

PAGE 2

L: My name is Carl G. Lambert. I was born in Chet . okee County, North Carolina at Tomotla. I was born June 11, 1911. I was raised at Cherokee in North Carolina. Many changes have gone on in the area since I was a boy. Many of the old buildings and people are gone, but stories and memories linger on. One of my fond memories is the old Appalachian Railroad that ran up and down the valley and the old depot at Cherokee. The late Roy Bowman had a barber shop in the old depot. In the latet~enties a law was passed to prohibit barbers from barbering without a barber's license. Roy moved his operation to the river bank on a stump down there, which had been cut off about the height of a barber chair. A board was nailed on top of it with a hinge so that if a person wanted a shave they would lean the board back and prop it up with a stick. Roy would go down to the river bank, dip the shaving mug in the river, make up a lather, and shave the customer. Of course, the customer couldn't complain much about the cold water because he wasn ' . t paying much for it. A shave cost fifteen cents and a haircut cost twenty-five. If you took the com bination, you got them for thirty-five cents. Every once in . a while a prankster would come down and announce that the law was coming, and Roy and the customer both would hit the bushes until the all-clear was sounded. There was some advantages to having an outdoor barber shop because he didn't have to sweep the hair up off the floor. The ~ hair had accumulated around this stump for several inches deep. It was like walking on a thick carpet. Poor old Roy's gone now, but these stories still continue to be told. Across from the depot there in Cherokee there used to be a huge pile of telephone poles awaiting shipment. One sunnner day a group of fellows were out drinking moonshine on this pile of poles and a heavy thunderstorm came up. Everybody scrambled for the depot. AlL of them made it up the steps into the depot but one character who was too looped to get up the steps crawled underneath the depot. Back in those days there wasn't any storm drains in Cherokee, so when a heavy rain came a lot of the runoff ran under the depot. Well, this character crawled under the depot. When he collapsed under there, his head lay in a low place. Some of the fellows who had taken shelter out of the rain across the road over on John Burgess'astore porch looked over there and they saw what they thought was a leak in a waterpipe or a small geyser. Upon investigation, they found this drunk over there nearly drowned under the depot and had they not gotten him out, I guess he would have drowned. The character who didn't make it up the steps and nearly drowned under the depot was the late Willis Enloe. On another occasion Willis went with some fellow bear hunters up on Black Rock Creek on a bear hunting expedition. Willis wasn't much of a hunter, so he was leading the dogs and leaving the bear killing to some of his partners. They had one lead dog turned loose who finally struck

PAGE 3

2 a track, so Willis turned the other dogs loose. Willis wandered around a logging road. The dogs finally treed the bear under an overhanging rock, so Willis made his way down the mountain to see where the dogs were. Coming down on this moss-covered rock, he walked and crawled out to the edge of it to see if he could see what the dogs were doing. Well, he could see the dogs jumping back once in awhile and the bear running out after them. All at once the moss on the rock turned loose and Willis fell right square down on top of the bear's back. And Willis told me this story himself. He said that had the dogs not thought that they were getting some help from him and really attacked the bear in all earnest ness, the bear might have killed him. He said he disengaged himself from the bear's back as quickly as possible and made tracks as fast as possible, leaving the scene to the dogs. Stories about people and their exploits here are many. A lot of them are about hunting. Once Monty Young, some years ago, went up in the Soco Mountains to bear hunt with some companions. Monty was put in the stand to wait the arrival of a bear coming through. It was a real cold, windy day and nothing didn't come through, so Monty got impatient and not knowing much about the terrain, he kind of surveyed the situation and decided that the main highway was off in a certain direction. He thought that he would take a shortcut and go through the mountains and try to inter cept the main highway and catch a ride back to town. Well, he was armed with a double-barrel shotgun with double-ought [ooJ buckshots. Suddenly he heard a noise in a laurel thicket. He approached with caution with his gun drawn and he saw something black thr6ugh the laurel. Without seeing what it was, he just cut down on it with both barrels and whatever it was he saw it fall and start kicking. He threw a couple more shells into the gun and approached a few steps further and banged away and didn't see any more movement. He approached the'thing and saw that it had shoes on. So he ran down the hill some distance and then he thought that his mind was playing tricks on him, so he came back up to where it was and sure enough there lay a dead horse in that thicket. And of course he knew that his mind wasn't playing tricks on him, so he beat a hasty retreat as fast as he could and he never told anybody this story for several years. One time some years after that he asked me if I ever heard of anybody losing a horse up on the Soco Creek. I will stop these hunting stories here and go on with a little history. I'm the official historian of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. Cherokees were tilling the soil and hunting and fishing along the Ocona Luftee, Tuckasegee, and Little Tennessee rivers long before white men came to America. No true history of the county could be complete without showing how the Cherokee Indians participated in events leading up to the formation of Swain County and the part they have played as citizens of the county. The first white settlers in Swain County settled on the head of the Ocona Luftee River. The first grist mill was at the falls on Mingo Creek. The creek was first called Mingus Mill Creek. The oldest tombstones of white settlers date back to 1816 and are located in the cemetery opposite the mouth of Mingo Creek.

PAGE 4

3 The reason for white settlers settling on the head of the Ocona Luftee River was that the treaty line of 1802 ran from a point on top of the Smokey Mountains about three miles east of New Found Gap near the top of Mount Kepheart. This line was known as the Meigs Line, running fifty-two degrees and thirty minutes east, passing near Penrose, North Carolina, to the southeastern boundary of the Indian land in Henderson County, North Carolina. Hewed locust posts were used in those days to mark corners. Someone moved the post marking the Meigs Line to a point several miles west of the New Found Gap, this incident giving rise to the name of a prong of Little River in Tennessee as the Meigs Post Prong. It wasn't until 1819 that another treaty was negotiated with the Cherokees. By the terms of this treaty the line ran the watershed ridge between the Nantahala and the Little Tennessee River falling down the Little Tennessee to the state line. Tsali, the Cherokee Indian martyr,lived just across the treaty line of the New Echota Treaty. This accounted for his involvement in the removal. Indians living in Swain County north of the treaty line weren't involved in the removal of 1838. Swain County came into being during the hectic years of reconstruction following the Civil War. This was a time when carpetbaggers and the Ku Klux Klan ran rampant over the state. President Andrew Johnson appointed William W. Holden as governor of North Carolina following the close of the Civil War. Holden had previously ran twice for governor against Zeb Vance, being defeated both times. Things go so bad that the state uni versity was closed. Martial law was declared in some counties and many influential people were thrown into jail. Holden appointed the notorious George W. Kirk head of the state militia. Kirk, being from Tennessee, brought along a bunch of his carpetbaggers as part of the militia. This touched off a howl of protest from the tarheels. Kirk and his militia plundered, robbed and burned. There was more unrest during this period than there was during the Civil War. This period was known as the Kirk-Holden wars. Things came to a climax on December 14., 1870, when the North Carolina House of Representatives met and charged Governor Holden with eight counts of malfeasance and set a time for an impeachment hearing. The trial commenced February 2, 1871. Holden was convicted of six of the eight charges on February 22, 1871. Holden was dismissed from office. Swain County was formed from parts of Jackson and Macon County. The county was named for a former governor, D. L. Swain. Governor Swain had visited this area in 1833. At this time it was Haywood County. On his visit here in 1833, he met with Chief Yonagusta on the island in the Tuckasegee River about three miles upstream from Bryson City. This incident gave the area its name today, Governor's Island. Chief Yonagusta moved from Governor's Island to Soco Creek. He died there in April of 1839. Yonagusta is buried in the cemetery near Israel Hornbuckle's house on Old Mission Road. Governor's Island is the site of the ancient Cherokee town of Katua. Bryson City is built where the ancient Cherokee town of Tecqualese once stood. There were two towns on the Ocona Luftee

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4 River: Egwanulti, located at Bird Town in Swain County, and Nunoyui, located in the old highland fields near Cherokee. The remains of a mound can be seen near Richard Crow's house. The Cherokees had lost about half their land in North Carolina to a colonial government of the British. Following the Revolutionary War, pioneers started really pouring across the Blue Ridge. Treaty lines were usually imaginary. Most of the time encroachment had gone far beyond the boundaries before a sur veyor ever set foot on the spot mentioned in the treaty. The Indians always got the short end of the deaL Out of all this turmoil something wonderful happened. Sequoyah in vented the Cherokee alphabet. The timing of this event was of great sig nificance. At least three-fourths of the Cherokees learned to read and write before the removal ill 1838. The first known printing of the Sequoyah alphabet was the first five verses of Genesis as they appeared in the Missionary Herald, Volume 23, Page 382, dated December, 1827. The first issue of the Cherokee Phoenix was printed at New Echota, Georgia, on February 21, 1828. By the time of his death, more than seven million pages had been printed in the Sequoyah alphabet. On June 6, 1917, the state of Oklahoma placed a statue of Sequoyah in the statuary hall at the capitol of the United State, a tribute to a great genius. On June 26, 1829, three chiefs and fifty-six other Cherokees put their mark on a document declaring that they were separating themselves from the Cherokee nation . and becoming citizens of the United States in the county of Haywood, NorthCarolina, also giving power of attorney to one John L. Dillard. The three chiefs were Yonagusta, Longblanket, and Wilnota. This document is recorded in the registered deeds office in Waynesville, North Carolina, Book B, Page 547. Yonagusta lived at Governor's Island. Longblanket lived at Cherokee near the present elementary school. Records in the Cherokee Council House show that Longblanket was still living in 1851, age 100. Wilnota lived on Soco near the mouth of Wright's Creek. I am a person of many interests. While driving along the Blue Ridge Parkway from Raven's Ford to Soco Gap, I noticed a white flowering plant growing in abundance along the road banks and the edge of the road. This interesting-looking plant is white snake . root (Eupatorium urticae folium), and is deadly poison. The plant grows to three . feet with com pound umbels of plume-like white flowers that resemble ageratum. Another distinguishing feature of this plant is the opposite serrate leaves. My late father, J.B. Lambert, collected data on this plant and its effects for many years. This is the plant that causes milk sickness. The Depart ment of Agriculture says that the plant contains trematol, a yellowish, oily substance. It will kill cattle, horses, sheep and man. When eaten by a cow giving milk, the poison is passed into the milkstream with the cow suffering no ill effects, but the person or animal drinking the milk being subject to poisoning. If the cow is dry and not giving milk, the cow will be poisoned . Since white men started colonizing America, people have died from this mysterious disease and it wasn't until recent years that the cause was known. Many old-timers thought it was some substance in the ground that the cattle ate; others thought .: that . the dew deposited

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5 some kind of fungus or mold on the fodder or hay. Cattle or horses will seldom eat this plant when it's green. They will eat it when it's cut and cured out and then mixed with other hay. This makes milk sickness nearly always a fall and winter disease. The symptoms are nausea and vomiting with the stomach throwing off everything that enters it, thus causing starvation and dehydration. The breath of a person afflicted with this disease smells like acetone. One of the remedies used in the old days was whisky poured down the person even to the point of getting him completely stoned. Following this was quantities of strained honey. Nancy Hanks, the mother of Abraham Lincoln, died in the fall of 1818 from this disease. On November 8, , a boy died from this disease in Avery County, North Carolina. Dr. B. B. McGuire, M.D., of Burnsville, North Carolina, wrote in the paper following the death of this boy, stating that he knew of no antitoxin or antidote for this poison. Anyone suspected of milk sickness should see a doctor immediately. Many are the stories about milk sickness and its causes. Some people became quite adept at spotting the poison globules in the cream. These globules would tend to fluoresce when a light was broughtin contact with them. The housewife would proceed to skim off these with a spoon and serve the milk to the family. Sometimes they'd drink skim milk only. The cream skimmed off poison milk will kill a dog but not a hog. If the milk is churned the poison will be in the butter and not in the buttermilk. Many farms were abandoned in the old days because of milk sickness. Many a thrifty pioneer rang his own death knell when he picked up his scythe and mowed a little extra hay around the edge of the field and fence corners. This is where white snake root likes to grow. I'm reluctant to buy local hay. This plant grows. in abundance around the edges of most fields. Farmers are taking a big risk when they cut their backswath along the edge of the hay fields. It is said that white snake root has killed more people and animals than any other plant in America. This plant grows in abundance from the southern Appalachians into Canada. One of the many outstanding projects of the tribe is the Cherokee Boys Club. The club was originally started at the old Cherokee boarding school in 1932 and was incorporated under the tribe as a non-profit cor poration in 1964. The club provides training, employment and recreation for Cherokee youth. During the ten years that the club has been in opera tion, it has had to borrow over $2 million for buildings and equipment. Half of this amount has already been repaid. The club supports itself by providing valuable and much-needed services for the tribe, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the U. S. Public Health Service, the Great Smokey Mountains National Park, and the public. These jobs provide full-time employment for club employees who are all tribal members and part-time employment and training for club members. Any young man who is a student or former student of Cherokee High School may join the club. The members elect from their membership a board of directors who govern the club. Club officers work closely with the tribal council and tribal officials. Jarrett Blythe, who served as prinicpal chief for twenty-four years, has

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6 helped the club from its beginning. Noah Powell, who was principal chief until his death in April of 1973, was a former employee of the club, and he helped the club in many ways. The present principal chief, John Crow, was also a former club employee and has helped the club a great deal. The club contracts the school bus system for the Cherokee Indian School. We now have thirty-four buses, all in excellent condition. Club drivers recently received awards from the National Safety Council for driving school buses a total of 315 years without an accident. These drivers transport over 1400 students daily. Altogether the club buses last year operated over 1 million miles. The club provides charter service for Cherokee and many other schools. The club also provides bus service for Unto These Hills [outdoor drama]. The club operates a garage which maintains all club vehicles, government vehicles, and ve hicles for the public. The garage has a front end and brake shop, a general shop, and a paint and body shop. Each mechanic has been trained in school and has a great deal of experience. The club provides many other services such as lawn mowing. The club contracts the garbage collection for the Great Smokey Mountains National Park. The club con tracts the laundry for the school hospital and several motels. The club has contracted the operation of the Youth Conservation Corps Program for the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the tribe for the past four sunnners. The club has built almost a $1 million worth of modern buildings for itself. The club makes every effort to keep, all of its facilities neat and clean. The club operates a building contracting business. Boys and men have received training in carpentry, masonry, painting, plumbing, and electrical work. Club members receive training in the operation of vehicles and equipment. The club has provided training and supervision for hundreds of neighborhood Youth Corps enrollees and on-the-job training for many Cherokee youth. Detailed records are kept and audited by certified public accountants. Records are available to anyone upon request. The club provides many educational opportunities for Cherokee youth. The club has an office building which they lease to organizations needing office space. Some club employees live on club grounds and are available for full-time duty. The newest project is the development and operation of the Home for Youth. The youth live in modern homes with a set of houseparents in each cottage. This project has given many young people with unfor tunate home conditions a new chance at life. The John Birges Cottage for Boys was named for Sergeant John Birges, a member of the Cherokee Boys Club, who gave his life for his country heroically in Vietnam. The Ponting Cottage is operated for girls. The Ponting Foundation, operated by Mrs. Elsa Ponting in memory of her husband, has helped our club tre mendously. The third cottage, the Jackson Cottage for Boys, was named in memory of Chief Walter Jackson. Chief Jackson, who is shown at right here, helped to organize the Cherokee Boys Club. Each cottage costs over $100,000 to complete with furnishings. The club has raised over half the cost of the cottages. However, we still need donations to pay off indebt edness on the cottages and to help operate the homes. The club is very proud of the youth living in the homes and of those who are working with the youth.

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7 Many activities are planned for the youth, both recreational and educational. The club has completed and operates the recreation park for Cherokee and other youth groups. The park includes a large swimming pool and a lake for the enjoyment of all. Cherokee Enterprises, a sep arate corporation, is now operating a cafeteria for the public located on club grounds. Chapel services held for the children's home have now grown into a church with a full-time pastor. The church services are held in the North Powell Memorial Chapel Building which is located on club grounds. The chapel operation and : finance is completely separate from the club and the children's home operations. As the Cherokee Boy's Club provides jobs for its members and employees, as it trains young people and helps Cherokee young people to remain in school and to continue their education, as it provides services for the public and it supports itself through hard work and connnunity cooperation, it has proven its faith in our young people and its faith in , our Cherokee people. It is proving its faith in our American system and most of all its faith in God. It is proving that today's young people, with the help of today's adults, are very interested in improving themselves and are therefore interested in improving America for a better tomorrow.