Citation

## Material Information

Title:
Interview with Margaret Sampson, September 1, 1973
Creator:
Sampson, Margaret ( Interviewee )
Publication Date:
Language:
English

## Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Florida History ( local )
Lumbee Oral History Collection ( local )
Spatial Coverage:
Lumbee County (Fla.)

## Notes

Funding:
This text has been transcribed from an audio or video oral history. Digitization was funded by a gift from Caleb J. and Michele B. Grimes.

## Record Information

Source Institution:
Samuel Proctor Oral History Program, Department of History, University of Florida
Holding Location:
This interview is part of the 'Lumbee County' collection of interviews held by the Samuel Proctor Oral History Program of the Department of History at the University of Florida
Rights Management:
Resource Identifier:
LUM 132 ( SPOHP IDENTIFIER )

Full Text

LUM 132A
MRS. MARGARET SAMPSON
INTERVIEWER: BRUCE BARTON, September 1, 1973
Transcriber: DWS

B: My name is Bruce Barton, interviewer for the Lumbee Indian Oral History

P project. Day is September 1, 1973 and I am interviewing Mrs. Margaret

Sampson in her daughter's home in the Deep Branch Community, approximately

five miles east of Pembroke going toward Lumberton. I appreciate your
S: Thank you.
condescending to this interview, Mrs. Sampson. A Now, to get it right

because they have to transcribe this. on tape the Margaret is spelled

M-a-r-ga-r-e-t. Is that right? and Sampson is S-a-m-p-s-o-n.

S: Right.

B: Margaret Sampson.

Op Were you raised here in this, in the area that you are living in now?

S: No, I was raised in what ;S Ac c SiWt Creek, f l9J
A^ -fh Afo" c ab k& %4
1r 0 t>( eUQ /; < V 14(. j jr cA w I

B: Now I understand that you were teaching school for quite awhile, is this

right?

S: Right.

B: How long would that be?

1

LUM 132A

S: Thirty-seven years.

B: Now, let's begin in the beginning where we should, I suppose. Could

S: Yes, I started school in first grade at Magnoli school r.V 4eLg

-h Co *Ak44 7h^ t^ MVa
&r.k 6rck 4r -4 I

I started at Pembroke Elementary. in the fifth grade, went from there to

the sixth, and then moved over to the Normal, what was then the Normal

j 4Wl.A& lVornAJ,
SchoolEnd went from the sixth through college.
what they
B: You mean all the education was held in one building^called the Normal

School for Indians, is that right?

S: Right.

B: And that is what is now known as Pembroke State University?

S: That's right.

B: Now, what year did you first begin school there?

S: I believe it was 1928, I believe.

B: Now do you know when that building was first erected?

S: No, I don't know this, exactly.

2

LUM 132A

B: Well, let's see. It's supposed to go on the National Register in

1973. That's this year in a few months so that must have been around
in
1920, I suppose. So you might have been.one of the first few students

to go there.
uery
S: Well, there was not too many when I started, but I was one of the first .

B: Now, what I call the Normal School for Indians is now Pembroke State

University. Was this the only school you could attend in Rolbeei County

if you were an Indian?

Ys Yes), 7T C&t9L -* S >i 4ti

only school for Indians at that time.

B: And the Normal Schacl went from Sixth Grade to how far?

S: Well, when I started there, I believe they had a normal through high school.
then
When you finished high school,which was eleventh grade, you could teach,

but they added on first-year normal and second year normal and you had to

finish the year's normal work and my place was the last sixth grade that

they had at the normal. The next year, they moved it back to the

elementary school and we were the last seventh grade class- of the normal

3

LUM 132A

8: and they moved %Aback to the elementary school, and I went on

through high school at normal and we finished high school. I don't

remember the year. They built the junior high school what is the

junior high school now, and took the high school out of Normal.

B: Now,do you know anything about the history of this building?
S: The Normal here?
B: Yes.

S: No, we were not living around here when it was built.

I don't know just the year.

B: Is it the same building that's now what they call Old Main that was

recently burn ed?

Well, I J .
S: you know, before it was built, they had one of his -- iVM -
e- N$JSc Iicqa. C4 nu&-$ Aofl- --faw r fro $JomDl "-A:4Urr r^ rui. B: So does Old Main basically look the same as it did when it was a Normal School for Indians. S: Yes, except for s -y ifvf, * B: Right. 4 LUM 132A OK, B:.So you began teaching school with a sixth grade education, is that right? s: No11A1A5' ) B: I thought that you said that you could teach school with a sixth grade education. when the S: No, I said.l started in the sixth grade at.Normal, they were just) t&II) you could finish high school there and start teaching there when you finish high school. B: So you had to have the high school education to teach that it? 4$!5 !JQn A~tfKLvt9&~ ~"'& ILAnybody V
SAnd that was when I was down in the sixth grade. .could finish high

school at the Normal and start teaching.

B: Well, so you began teaching at which school? in the beginning the

first teaching job that you had?

s: 4I4w Cti4te.Q Ar Aofar

B: Highspo Center near R.aO-. Is that practically an Indian school?

S: Yes. You can tell by the name.

B: Do you remember who the principal was at that school at that time?

s: Nor .*m& So^

B: Norman who?

5

LUM 132A

B: He was an Indian?

S: Yes.

B: What grades did you teach?

B: Have you always taught elementary grades?

S: I taught first through V L O *

B: Now, have you ever had any feelings about our educational system as

compared to the White's education?

S: Well, I guess we're on the bottom.ha! --

began
B: When you first teaching school, did you notice there was a lack
kids
of things to teach.with? on the school grounds and buildings?

S: Yes, we t have. We had f buildings. e had no materials)

lbvY+4 y Jii'1 didn't finish any,
ot to say the word, A in the county or the stateor well, just

little paper, maybe a few pencils. Not very much.

B: So did you ever think about what caused all this?

Do you ve any adi-White feelings because of the way the school system

was when you began teaching? It hasn't improved a whole lot since then.

I could see
S: Well, the biggest.thing when I started teaching, we didn't have a

6

LUM 132A

CrA W istry
S: i -law. Most of the Indian families were tenant farmers.

perhaps
Some were.share cropers, getting paid for their crops. Others just not

earning you know what.kind of living that was. And Indian children

the,well,
stayed on.White man's plantation, you might say. And like I say, they

didn't have a compulsory education so when school first started, about

half our children wouldn't start. I had days, maybe, when I had

thirty children. Half of them would be there and half of them at home)

then,
picking cottonI because.their family was not able to hire someone else

to pick &m. They had to pick the children up in order for them to pick

their cotton to make enough money to buy clothes and food for the winter.

B: So you think the lack of having compulsory education hurt Indian people

in general as far as education is concerned?

S: I sure do because our children were falling behind by staying out half

the time and eventually some of them would just quit 4es

and- Men and women today that just maybe got a first or

7

LUM- 12A

SA: hey were not fortunate enough to go to school. Now, they say

sorry we didn't.
be
B: What prompted you to go in education? Cause I understand that during

that time, to get an education was a little exceptional. Most

people,as you said, were tenant farmers and what kind of family did you
an education.
come from with.an educational family? good educational background?
even though they could read and write.
S: No, my parents were not too well educated* T.lt lb l" lly :uoh.

We lived near that Normal. I guess that's \ why 7 LWt ii 0 *O

And I like school. And 4 people %he* I AL r e- ) 4

there were not very many jobs for them. I guess that I wanted to go in

order to get a job and work. To make a living.

B: Do you know much about what they call today the "Double Voting"?

S: I sure don't. Maybe you can explain it to me. I'd like to know

a little more about it. Would you explain it to me?

B: yes. Well,"double voting" is basically what we've come to call the practise

of having Whites cast two votes and Indians only one. ly that, I mean

that, a you know, there are six distinct city school systems in

of f4
Robinson County. Fiv1Aare city administrative units and,then, we have

the one county system where all the Indian children go.

8

LUM 132A

could
S: ,I ask you a question

B: Yeah.

S: What do you think of that? Do you think that we SVl all under

one system or have all these expensives- What do you think of it?

here SC6 O I
B: Well, I'll have you interviewing me.in a minute, but I think all sweet

children# should have the same opportunity and go to the same school

same. It should be the same for everybody. I don't think that you

should make exceptions and I think all should have one school system

for everybody.
S Well, that is that if we have just one big system,
I was going to say: Don' t you thinkAall this "dou ble voting" and all

this other stuff would be eliminated.

B: Right, but you asked me about"double voting" and I would digress just

for a moment and say about Souble voting". As I said, there are six

school systems in Robinson County. Now, there's the County School

System and, then, there are five county school systems. Now, six

school systems seem' tobe just too many school systems for one little

county. What happens if you live within city)within the confines of a

city administrative unit in Robinson County, you can vote for the

9

LUM -132A

B: School Board elections within your city unit and you can, also, vote

for county school board elections, but the people in he county can

vote only on te county school board elections. They can't vote on

city boards. So the people in the city vote twice and the people

in the county once. And we have as a result, people on the Robinson

County Board of Education who were put there by the people who live

in the city, who don't live within the county school system. Now,

I think that's criminal,

Aas why ;+- w A'4 P S cefL
S: 4 um Indian race)most of our children ..4 in the county

system.

B: Right. So a lot of times what happens is, you know, being a teacher

that we don't get the people on the county board of education that we

want. We vote for them and they get the most votes, but when you add

to the votes they get# from the people who live in the city, then our

people finish on the bottom most of the time.

S: Right.

B: Have you paid much attention over the years to what goes on you know,

other than in the classroom?

10
-IO

LUM 152A

B: Politics, for instance,

S: Well, not too much. t,*.* I'll tell you. We had a meeting in one

of these counties' school systems and we liked to burn up because

we attended the county system and do not have air conditioning.

Over in Lumberton, we have a big,fine high school and the city system

is air conditioned and has a gym, auditorium, lunchroomend this one

in the county1 tiey have to combine have the gym, auditorium, if we

es
have a meeting there or we go somewhere for a meeting so I think that

we have advantages over the county system.

B: Do you think that politics has anything to do with that?

S: Yes, I guess it does.

B: Well, I notice that & a lot of people like you. Incidentally,

you love to teach children, don't you?

8: Yes, I enjoy teaching 4IO fCA o1''

B: Do you feel like if you spoke out about things politically-

superintendent of the county school system, do you think that you might

get fired if they found out about it.

S: Do you mean if Superintendent Allen found out about it?

11

LUM 132A

B: Right. kI1 f l 4 tt
S: Well, I guess would because L i

afnomefY43 around here.

B: Well, I guess just the love you have for teaching children hasn't

been able to keep your mind off this. Is this more or less true?

Yes,
S:.I think when you're worried about anything when you keep it

on your mind, it's not too g ood. If you get down and work with the

children, they'll take your mind off other things. You don't have to

other things.

B: Right. Now, let's talk a little bit about what you think could be done

in the county school systems as far as education goes. because we'll leave

politics to the politicians if you want to, but what do you see that

they could do as far as education goes to help Indian children?

S: Well, I really tn't know right now. tt1a the Federal Government

has been in the school s I teacs, '., considered

in the poverty area, and the Federal Government, as you know, gave some

things and we do have quite a bit of equipment to work ith. Things that

I never heard of before until we did get aide from the Federal Government.

12

LUM 132A

Ike
S: And so we do have much more to work with now. And I -tink that when

I,first, started teaching school, if I had a record player, I bought it

myself. If I had anything else a& much to use, I had to buy it, We didn't.

AIl W4 suppers
Il1_i had maybe 'K V I at School-fund raising things like

I had a -- program or something like that and now we do have quite
a bit of help from the Federal Government. So it's much better than it has been.
here in the past.
B: Do you feel that teachers in Robinson County have any bargaining powers?

Do you foresee the day *
Su foresee the day when teachers might set up a union

for instance ?

S: Well, I don't know and I don't know much about iC-tCheaa mb. I believe

they have talked about it. One thing teachers have is the power, I think

UL ke have our organizations, teacher orga nizationa ( Cwc W V f Mr

National anizations and State. I think jA r& Stir pa-C oJC

B: L you think that teacher organizations statewide do they recognize that

things are a little bit behind the times in .Jkoing County? Do you ever

hear any talk from higher..upJ about it?

S: I don't know if Robinson County is behind the other counties or not?

B: I mean Indiqn Schools. I mean the buildings, the grounds, educational aides-
in

13

LUM 132 A

B: things to work with. We was talking about recently, they've been

getting tape recorders and things like that.

notw i 1r r*jS n q 44L4dJf4
S: Well, like I say t*il..lR-R .= Indian schools are as good as

anybody else's As far as the county is concerned
as far as that goes. "ut, no1 I bn't know

enough
S about the state you know, how it compares with other

state schools, but I know the city system. We have ..They have better

schools than we do.

B: Are you limnpt"to see integration come about or would you rather there'd

still be Indian schools?

S: Well, I haven't had enough of them. I don't really know.

I mean,
As far as I am concerned,,l believe, as a whole the children would enjoy
if they were
it better, in their own schools because they segregate themselves

here anyway
when they get.to school but like I say, I've not had enough

of it in high school, I teach predominately Indiah I've

a few Whites and a few Blacks, but as a whole I have no Indians so I don't

know 'much about it. Somebody else 44'.t4 14- t cou(
-ted y" 44au+ -I-&k.
B: But isn't it true the cause of integration in the 1965 Civil Rights Voting

Legislation It's only since then that we have been able to get some of

6tt t
the things that teachers need to teach.

14

LUM 132A

S: Oh, yes, before they had it, T know for a fact : our Indian

teachers when schools would start in the fall, well, they wouldn't getA.,.s

if there was any supplies, if there were any supplies, they'd be left

by the White 4hen it got to us, we didn't have very much.

%OfI f % F4e4 & overn *Auet
Well like I saylit didn't make any difference. You got from them

no matter hat you were. -

B: Do you have any feelings about the recent Education Act? We got

S: Yeah, I'm glad you did because I may get a little of it here. -

with my daildren.

B: Do you till think that you will get some of it?

S: And we are getting the benefit of it because we have a teacher in our school

a special reading teacher and she $IwS SOM r kso . Well, I'm supposed to get some. for my classroom. I'm hoping that I get some, B: Does most of the schools now have special teachers and special departments for special education for working for disadvantaged children? S: Well, that's not. You wouldn't say just "disadvantaged". children that need special help. They are a little behind in their classwork. 15 LUM 132A S: and they need some special help. nd you take) I11 take ten children and work with them. You can do more with ten children than you can with twenty or thirty? And that is why we are having thae special classes. B: Do you feel that your *es wnntmb by being an Indian teacher? S: That's a question, isn't it? B: A very big question. S: Well, I don't know, I guess I We're getting the same pay right now. B: DID WE use to not get the same pay? S: I don't know about that. I A.OL W heard that we 4*4. That's what I mean. Why, it would be no disadvantage to be- an Indian teacher regardless so because we get the same pay as the Whites didand in that respect, it's o\0 afT disadvantage. Is tat what you mean? B: Yeah. So S: -Wi, I am happy to an Indian teacher. B: In spite of all the injustices that have you have seen in the county, Robinson County Educational System would you do it over again if you had the chance to go back and say I'm going to be a teacher or I'm not going to be a teacher. Would you teach? 16 LUM 132A If,44 v1 4 S: I think I would. P e else benefits. We see the disadvantage and I think education helps you get on top. Up from the bottom, maybe, I should say. B: From pur association with other teachers how do they react toward the political things that have gone on lately? I mean here recently like the Taosei arah Movement and the movement to break double voting and the movement to save Old Main and this feeling that's in the air about going back to the old Indian ways. How do teachers generally react to these kinds of things? S: Nao do you want me to answer one at a time or all of them in one big problem. B: All in one one big answer. S:,I know most of them feel like we shouldia. resre 4 r -'' I'll take it one at a time. What was the other one now? T~tcarotrA B: The TsesuR-eava th ing. S: Well, I &n't know. What do you mean in respect of Tuscaroah? B: I mean how generally I know this is a broad question, but maybe I d&ould just say it's specifically: How do you feel about it, for instance? Are you upset thatv--t would march on Raleigh, for instance? Does it 17 LUM 132A B: bother you are chained to that kind of activity or are you proud of it or just how do you feel out it? don't S: Well, I.hardly know how I feel about it. S4 co ro / themrcped ?' What did they march for? What was the-."ww-:ma 1Jwhen they marched? B:I think basically they wanted some redress some of the grievances they have. lor instance, they wanted North Carolina Indiqn Commission do hear some grievances they had about general things .about poverty in Robinson County the name thing They want to be known as .TJassa k Indians. They wanted the North Carolina Indan Commission to hear them and to give them some help. Now, basically, I think that just wanted people to know that they were Indian. and that they would do whatever was necessary to address some oahe grievances that they feel are evident. :Wek f k ft 4olr wh a hashu) r. -, Aym What do you think about Should theY have been *1-t1 I UL er Cow-r #&, k At -S Y\ o 47 1I 18 ________________________ LUM 132A B: Well, I'm 4.aaC4ce interviewer. I'll say this that I thought they just ran into some Rednecks is what I think. You know, a lot of people "Mr. WVR4&" with skins a little darker than NtWhr te .QMW, they'll lock you up and hit you in the head. There are a lot of Rednecks around, but ed I think they overreactAis what I think. They should have let them march through, They weren't SO 4A "A A They were just going through. that S: Well, that's the feeling that I have about. now. I feel like they just could have showed their part if they Like you say, they were not stopping anyone. They just wanted to pass through. B: Well, do you feel that there is a chance for usas-i- future as far as @a 4Corn education goes? That is in .aeiana County. S: Like I say: We have come a long ways. I think there's a chance for us. Right now, we have about four lawyersr-l finished law school. We have doctors. We have people from almost any walk of life. Now, I think that that is helping us to get us over the poverty/feve, B: Now, we've heard a lot of tlk about Old Main. About Save Old Main. You know, this was the first Indian school. This was the whole total school at one time. The only In .dian conferrings, normal schooling in existence and in its time. And,you know, with a little background they decided 19 LUM 132A B: to tear down a building and to put up another building, and a lot of people got excited about it-mnd started a movement to save Old Main. Now, would you like to go on record as to how you feel about Old Main? S: I would because I would like to see it ery because I told you before, that went my class was the last sixth grade classthere in school. I went there from sixth grade through four years of college. So you know somebody that had went there from the sixth grqde through college at Old Main would like to teach there. B: So you do have very special feelings about Old Main? S: I sure do. B: OK. Good. Janie will be glad to hear that. S: Let me tell you something else about Old Main: Before I moved to Pembroke, when I went to Magnolia School, about two years before we moved from Pembroke, we'd have county commencements and the other schools in the county would come and march. We'd march through town' each school marched and that was a great event for us to come to Old Main and march on the county schools, county commencements, B: Now, as far as education goes,.with the college the way it is, there is not much rapport between college, the university, and the community. 20 LUM 132A B: Now, in the earlier days, the days you are talking about when you went Didn't to school there, the community use Old Main quite a bit for town meetings and that kind of thing. People getting together for one thing and another? Sike S: Yes, I think they did. AWhen I went to Old Main, that was a great event when commencement time came along, ad so many days and so many nights and people came from far and near to Pembroke here for our program and they enjoyed it. B: So you went from the sixth grade through four years of college.fa" Now, let me get my bearings. Is that right? S: That's right. B: You never ask a lady how old she is, but could you tell us what year you finished your fourth year of college there? S: If I tell you, you'll think that I am awful dumb, but what I did when I finished two years normal work, I started teaching. That was.. I believe that we just had two years normal We added on third and later fourth year. Well, I taught awhile before I went bacto get my degree. I decided then to go back and take well evening classes and went to aimmer school and 4 V4 J .Ffinished four years college) 21 LUM 152A S: going to evening classes and summer school& So you can see why it was such a long time before I started to teach even though I wasn't the smartest one in school. B: You were not the smartest one in school? S: No, not quite. B: Aw, your husband, what is his name? S: Edward Sampson. B: And what does he do for a living? S: He's a farmer. B: Now, he being a farmer and you decid ing to go back to school. Did he ever object to your going back to school or did he always encourage you? S: No, he didn't object. However, I was always ho'e at lunch time to fix his meals or after school and afternoons, when I didn't have classes, I'd work on the farm, too. B: OK. Let's see where our tape is. Well, we've been talking about things in general. What I'd like to do is begin when you went to school in the first grade and we'll bring it all the way up through high school n through Normal School, through college, and then, we'll tie that ie- with to your experiences at the end. Now, AW you remember when you entered the 22 LUM 132A B: first grade? S: Yes, I went to school in what is known as Magnolia School. B: Now, just a minute. Magnolia That's M-a-g-n-o-l-i-a. Could you tell us where that's at? Lumbe 0.f5 kfx#E ) S: It's about.. It's north of jt 's aoout six miles from here. B: Now, how many grades did they teach when you began at this school Magnolia? S: Well, there was two teachers and I believe that they had around t MA 3b*& the seventh grade when I started there. I stated in the first grade and this teacher I went to had first, second, end third. B: So seven grades is as far as you could go at that time. S: Right IIJ B: Now, how many Indian schools did they have at that time? that would teach through seventh grade? Do you know? but S: No, I don't. We had quite a few one teacher schools, but two teacher eahools- there were quite a few over tie community They were pretty close together because we didn't have any busses to ride in and like if I went to school and it started to rain, my dad had to come and pick me up in a wagon or buggey. B: OK now, I'm not going to ask you how old you are, but I am going to ask 23 LUM 132A B: you what year this was that you began in the first grqde. S: -- B: Was it in the thirties? S: In the thirties? You mean ha!? B: When you began in the first grade at school. S: - Bi What was it? B: 1919. S: I was born in 1913. You want my age, don't you? ha! Well, there it is. ha! B: ha! You were born in 1913. It would have been about 1919. OK. You went to Magnolia through the seventh grade. S: Yes. Do you want to know something our school what it was like? B: Yes, maM. I'd like to know something about the conditions and .. S: We had two rooms and the window panes were out in some of the rooms, and we had an old wooden heater and we used logs weedW, The boys would after iL go out n the evening. They'd generally go out and get our wood2 to put in the heater. So we got to school the next morning, they'll build a fire. And it would be so cold in the wintertime that we'd just get around 24 LUM 132A S: this heater and sit. as close as we could, to keep warm. B: Now, was all the teachers Indian? back then? S: Yes, in the schools where I was. B: And all the students wre Indian? S: Yes. B: There was no mixing of the races. No Blacks and no Whites. S: That's right. B: And the teachers that taught at that time, they were people who had gone through the seventh grade, is that right? J-^ isa / S: Yes. They could teach school if you 4 oW seventh grade and go to Lumberton and take a .. I don't know what kind of test. to take a test, but you could take a test and teach school, to the Indians. Test -- wasn't too hard -4t4 4 1l c 7 Ra s B: I know you didn't know that at the time, but looking back now you probably know, did the Whites were they the administrators? Were they the ones who set policy paid the salaries, and decided how much money people got and where the schools were going to be built and this kind of thing? S: Yes, we were and one thing-when they consolidated our schools, I think that was a bad mistake. To take say children six miles away from Lumberton - 25 LUM 132A S: First graders and carry them maybe farther tha-n that. carry them six miles$L4i LtM s'4 4d instead of moving our school )E4 pe

14n rfeI) they were going right by schools, but one thing they shouldn't have done

to my opinion, they shouldn't have consolidated, schools like that -
I think we've
toomany first graders and haul them too far on buses, had busing

all along. People has been fussing about busing, but we've had busing

from way back.

B: What you're saying i that Ind ian kids were taken on buses to Indian

schools and go right by a White school.

don't
S: That's zght. And what I'm saying, too, I.fell like we should have moved

some of our schools from one district to another and having to haul

children so far. when did finally eh Sihr kg.oh.

B: Right. So you went to Magnolia through the seventh grade and then you

can came. No, you didn't, through the fourth grade and then, your family

moved to Pembroke Now, were your parents farmers?

S: Yes. AftvLtw moved to my granddaddy's place, aid my dad took over the

farm andAe- wa. sharecropper a More. -Wa A4Frt

I guess that's why I got through school as much as I Cd.

B: Did your father encourage you to go to school?

26

LUM 132A

S: Yes.

S: Yes. Until we came to Pembroke, we were tenant farmers, when I went to
Magnolia School.
B: Now, did you have to stay out of school when crops were being gathered

the first few weeks of the season like a lot of Indian children have had

to do over the years? +

S: ell, I didn't have to i school -- but i when we went in

in the afternoon, I did work in the fields on the farms *

B: So fourth grade you came to Pembroke Elementary School, is that right?

rnd you went there through the seventh grade?

S: No, I went through the sixth grade there -' vAthe iSinhr Ae enA

grade was over at the Normal School.

Bi So the elementary Pembroke Elementary just went through the fifth grade?

S: Fifth grade, yeah. They were building on to the elementary school when I

started there. That's why my sixth grade class wanted over at Old Mainm

and they moved it back over to the elementary schod.

B: OK. We come up to .. What year would this be now? Let's say when

you began at what they call the Indian Normal School which is now Pembroke

State University?
27

LUM 132A

S: In 192'7 Lnemty 28 ),O A J rA e 7

B: 27? or 28? And this was a ... You were feeling the pinch of the

depression at that time, weren't you?

a I Iir :Ls + Si v osAC .ln1aA
"S: Ifl)) 1 r

B: Now,Aou +,

-44- knrvw 40 FN

B: Who were in charge of Pembroke the schoa at Pembroke Normal School?

Which is then the Old Main Building at that time it was.

s: -.4D ,, l M 4 i\4 W> W ',/4at i a ,

B: Right. And you don't feel that they gave us things that we needed

to teach our children properly?

B: Now, the principal at the Wite" School was he a White man or an Indian?

S: White M4 ,

B: What's his name? At the time you were there. .-.
S: U/*$-W t tz #aV WA* X a, of S0 ieeMf2 28 LUM 132A B: *mhrpiU L lpal s: 4I blebS qitkA 4n e44t ^44o cor or M iM J c.O 1A MJ4+er, B: Some people during this time didn't really concern themselves too much with politics and why people did things. They just went to school and taught and.. S: The majority of people that's the way they were. There was a few that mostly was concerned. That's one reason I think that we f-ft- have the Normal because we did have people concerned for oir school) 'J4LUAk A zt. 4 guc&t4jai1 -, 9Xtcr cJAks B: Now, did Indian people build that school? The n Normal School? I think they did. I'll put that down for the record. I think what is now called Old Main which.. donated money Not ohly that school, but our first school we had like Big Branch and Magnolia, Hopewell School, in the community different schools. I've been told. B: I've been told the same thing. 29 LUM 132A B: OK. Now, we're through? And the Normal School went through what grade? S: As I said the first half reth-e k-- ea--a- r hen, they added on, finally added on the school one year. Four year college. B: So, would that have been sent through the seventh grade and then, two additional years, is that the way it first began or allthe way through the high school? S: No, when they added on --- They moved the elementary school back to the Pembroke Elementary and then, for a good while, they had the high school at the Normal --- 0 OfV( An -n. and then they finally built a high school and moved the high school out so we had just --college there .*. four years college or AoroL 4) A/&4aleur.%1 B: So it did finally evolve into a regular college. It was the only all Indian college that I know of. S: Right. We ere the first .A A- COl **** B: So you began first grade in 1919. And taking time out to have babies. You have two daughters, right? S: Right? 30 LUM 132A S: S B: And you had the babies and you taught for awhile. Then you went back and kept upgrading your teacher's certificate and finally, in 1954, you finish four years of college. Is that correct? S: That's right. B: And what year did you begin teaching? Your first year of teaching? S: I believe it was ih 1934. Fall of 1934. B: So in the Fall of 1934, you began teaching with 1Bt seventh grade certificate, is that right? S: No, two years Normal work. B: Two years normal work. "S: -- NO ^A seventh gradi jut then I went on through high school and then finished Normal work. "be4rytLs4vries6 .vte B: OK. Now, we got it right. You went to regular high school and they offered two years what they called Normal School. S: Yes. B: OK. Did you have to take an examination to be certified as a teacher when you finished the two years Normal Work? S: 31 LUM 132A S: olYu t kcat If AISc d;ck A^, B: When you got a diploma, who would you go see about the job teaching? Would you have to go apply to the Robinson County Board of Education? S: No, we didn't even have to apply down there. We had what is known as a committee from each school. And we talked with -4 f rinczjs & 4 committee and we didn't have to go to the Board of Education. The sch ool principal and the.committee B: Seemed to have been the school committee. S: The principal and the school committee. B: How would you know who to go see? S: Well, you just have to know the committees (f Tf C fi j.a SIDE TWO INTERVIEW WITH MARGARET SAMPSON- BRUCE BARTON INTERVIEWER up B: Now, we got^to the point where you were getting your first job teaching school. Now what year was this and where was it at? ?cie Roland, S: It was the year 1934 and it was at Ask Center near A the little town of RalarndJ B: This was an Indian school. "Tn*;a4 s6oei S: r right. 32 LUM 132A B: Do you remember about hew many students were there? St Nte rihw off, d' S: Not right off, I don't. Afourl teachers and maybe about twenty-five or thirty students. B: This was the school taught through the seventh grqde? S: Yes. B: OK. Now, you taught at Ashpole Center for how many years? S: Two years. B: Two years. And you went from Ashpole Center where? S: To Pembroke Elementary. Known as the graded school. B: How many years did you teach there? in S: Six. I was ,the first grade at Ashton when- I taught at the Graded. I taught third and fourth grades. B: Why did you change schools? S: Well, I imagine it was the -fall And, The first year I boarded and had to walk about two miles to school every morning and evening on rain y so you can see how difficult it was for me especially A days g4id coLs Aayx B: Soi'' 33 LUM 132A B: Were you married at this time? S: No. B: How many years did you teach before you married? S: Five years. B: Five years. S: Yes. B: So you came to Pembroke after elementary and you taught there six years, S: Right. And got married while I was teaching there. B: Now, was there much difference in the schools? at Ashpole Center and Pembroke Elementary? Were they about the same or was one more advanced than the other? S: Well, I didn't see too much difference. I believe they'd like to see a larger school. More teachers. B: Now* all these schools. Is most of the principals now in the elementary school was there any Indians? S: What do you mean? When I started tere? B: Right. S: Yes. 34 LUM 132A S: Right. B: So you have always worked under Indian principals? S: Yes, I have. B: So you taught at Pembroke Elementary what is loown as the graded school for six years and, then, you went where? S: Then, I came to - B: You taught there how many years? S: About fifteen. B: Now, why did you decide to leave Pembroke tgofrd and go to - Elementary School? Branch S: Well, I didn't decide it. I think another lady was teaching at Deep and she wanted to move to the elementary Pembroke Elementary. And she asked me would I come to Deep Branch. You see, I lived in this community and she lived closer to Pembroke, but I came to Deep Branch and just let her exchange schools and just these reasons. B: So what year was this? that you came to Deep Branch Elementary? elementary and then came to Deep Branch. 35 LUM 132A B: Would this be in the forties? I -S -two S: Well, I subtract from .*,, I started in '34. B: Thirty-four so you s: ,' B: So that would be 1942. Now, 8 this time was the principals the schools committee still the ones who hired and fired teachers? and decided who taught where? S: Yes 'tiey were. And when I came to Deep Branch School, we had a school that looked more like a house than anything else. That's the best a big room with way to describe it )because the room I had -,just two windows in it. on r(Af Aar' A very darkened room You could hardly see0 on cloudy days. B: Didn't have brick building at that time? S: Yeah, but before I left that school, they built a new building a nice brick building. B: How long did you stay there? S: About fifteen years, I think. B: Fifteen years? That's quite a lengthy time to stay at one place. Do you remember what year the RoiabWf County Board of Education began .tihsia 36 LUM 132A B: teachers? S: for schools? B: Right. S: No, I really don't. B: OK. You stayed at Deep Branch Elementary and where you live now as we said earlier, about five mile east of Pembroke. Now, you left Deep Branch Elementary and you went where from there. S: To the school where was teaching when I married Union Elementary. B: Union Elementary. Where's Union Elementary? S: It's about eight miles north of Roland, I gess. -- B: Now, why what prompted you to leave Deep Branch and go to Union Elementary? Do you remember? S: Well, I guess it Apends on a man y the z committeesaid Icr ftSkcdke that he had an opening there, ai would I like to go to that schai. He S4 L4A/ Sampson anxhe said., he principal had talked with me and said he would be glad to have me if I took the job. B: Now, do you remember when the Robinson County Board of Education and the Superintendent and Associate Superintendent and do you remember when they 37 LUM 132A B: began assigning teachers? Do you have any.. S: No, e J S: I don't think there's been sy too long. And too, I believe, they let the principal have a little say so on hiring the teachers, but as far as committees and it's been several years, I think, that they've had ver much to do with it. They all have their A or board now, but still I don't think they advise it. They don't have too much to do with placing teachers. B: So you've been at Union Elementary up to now. S: Right. B: And most of your time has been agent teaching kids from the first through the fourth grade? And some special education classes? S: That's zight. B: Now, what do you think about educators in general? I mean, the Indian principals and theeople who are in charge of the School Committee? Do you think that they did a good job considering the circumstances? S: Well, in what way do you mean? Did a good job in what? B: Selecting the teachers, running the school, educating the children, S: What do you mean? t ow' f-mt S e c B: Yeah, that and, too, they were kind of left to themselves as to how they "58 LUM 132A B: set up the curriculum and then, how they educated tie children then, weren't they? And how they scheduled classes and what they taught and that kind of thing? S: Well, as far as committees, sometimes maybe you'd have one that didn't have too much education and maybe they didn't know too much about (s/ J *j teach and hat have you.. Of course, I believe the principal had a could have been handling that,too, if they didn't-heae teacherA on the other hand, sometimes maybe, *J as e r l poICtA B: Right, and did you ever see any cases of family hiring family? S: Yes, I think that's worked, too. B: ha! ha! You can put that under the heading of politics. Now, about the children. We have kind of covered where you went and how you got this far in the classroom. How have you found Indian children to be as far as Do you think that they can be educated as well as the White for instance? and the Black? S: As far as I The way I see it) Yes. I think they're just as capable as any other race. I think they have some that's outstanding and we have some, that like so many other races, we have some that are slower I won't call them dumb.but slow learners.Just because of your rqce, I don't 59 LUM 132A S: think that you can consider that as far as learning because we have some restrictions in all races. B: Now, because of our being Indian, do you think that we ought to have a special curriculum different from the Indiqns and the Blacks? B: Right. I meant the White and the Black. S: No, I think we should have all the same because we all need to learn about the government, the world, history, and all that. B: You don't see any special need for us to go back and see how the old- al time tradition^Indians use to live? S: It would be fine to do that, but on the other hand I believe the Whites and the Blacks would enjoy learning about it,too. B: So you don't think that we ought to make exceptions as far as what we teach and how we teach it? I don't S: Well. the way I feel about it, I don't think we should, because if we are going to be integrated and going to teach them all "KC SaeL t 4 i1' B: Do you believe in integration? S: In some ways I do. B: What are some of the ways that you do believe in integration? 40 LUM 152A B: School? Would that be one of the areas? S: Well, oe thing about it- if we integrate then we know everybody's- what one school's getting and the other school's getting far as the Cow dy -e&a r is concerned. B: That would be one advantage. if S: Yes. because.then they couldn't say well, we're going to give all this to the Blacks and we're going to give all this to the Indians. That won't be I don't suppose anyway. Nor we'll give all of it to the Whites. Everybody's getting the same thing. B: But don't you think we've talked a bit about that we didn't have the proper equipment to teach and didn't have proper buildings and a lot of other things. Don't you think maybe the reason we didn't have some of these things was because we were segregated and Indian taught Indian and we didn't have any relationships with other races. S: Well, that is it because natural the Whites were the ones that give out this advice and natural they were going to give out if there was any "-if there were any advice been give to their people. Maybe the Indians would have been it Then we'd had got first choice. 41 LUM 152A S: So - B: Do you think since approximately sixty percent and at one time itwas almost a hundred percent of the students in the county school system were Indian? Would you like to see before you a,.teaching, an Indian superintendent of the county school system? S: fr..h coumntf? B;gh*. I ? S: Well, it depends. B: Right. S: Well, it might help. I don't know. B: How..? S: I don't know too much about that. I don't know. B: What do you think personally of Superintendent Allen? Have you ever had..? Have you ever had an opportunity to talk to him at length about anything in particular? Like you said, S: No, I mean, I haven't talked with him. I spoke to him and had a few words in with him when he'd come ^the classroom. And I think that he has had a hard way to go since all tese problems have come about. B: Do you think that he has done a good job under the circumstances? give it to him S: I think he has. I'll have to there. I think he has. W\d's 6lal .4Mml&l4 up well under all tese problems 42 LUM 132A S: we've had to face. the B: but going back to, I'd say: Do you have any idea what.percentage of Indian children are that's in the county school system? Would you say right now that it's about sixty-five? Anywhere from sixty to ii' ninety percent considering which school you're in? Would that be right? S: You mean wer Indian schools? B: S: Yes, in the one I'm in now. it's up in the ninety percent. B: Well, doesn't it seem kinda of out of place with that kind of representation in the school-anywhere from sixty- five to ninety percent of the Indians'students making up the membership in the Indians' and the county's schools? Doesn't it seem kind of ironic that we would have a White school superintendent? Did you ever think about how he got in that position and why he's there and is it right? S: Well, I think, I know why because up until the last few years the Whites runned the business and everything. We didn't have anybody down at the Board of Education or anything. Not a even a secretary. So they run it and that's why hets head of it. I guess it pays more than these other jobs. 43 LUM 132A B: I would think so. Well, some of the principals that you have taught under and some of the educators that you've met- Do you frankly think at this time that they would be capable of being a superintendent of the county school system? S: Well, I guess they would because we have an assistant superintendent down there an Indian man. If one could be assistant, he might could move up to .*** B: For instance, the principal that the school where you teach is an Indian man. Right? S: Right. B: His name is Martin Brooks? 8: No, he was my principal last year. have a new one this time. Mr. Grady Oxedine. B: Now, you think either of these men would be capable of being honest? Do you think that either of them.could do the job that the White.,s, t.. Superintendent Alien is doing? S: I guess they could if they could stand the pressure that's been put on right now. 4nD B: Do you think there's a lot of pressure on the job? Do you think that 44 LUM 132A B: this might hamper an Indian? S: Not anymore than it would any other race, I don't think. B: You just have to know what you are doing if you are going to be the #aQJAe* Superintendent offA16Eon County. Education County system. S: And as you know, the principal I have now was founder of the Board of Education and I think that they asked him to take this job as Principal of the *.** His job was terminated, I think, That's why they have him. B: Now, getting into the thing about attitudes. Do you think Indian students feel inferior as a rule to White students? S: Well, I guess that I need to be in a sfool where there was a lot of Whites. There are a few Whites in ours, but they don't feel inferior to Whites, but they're all where I work. Maybe I'd have to be in a school in a different situation. other B: You just haven't had that much experience with races other than Indian. S: Oh, well, like I say. We have a few Whites in our school and a few Blacks, but the ones there it don't seem like the children felt any t e t different towards them. There's just morBof them. 45 LUM 132A B: So do you think that you would have any problem for instance, teaching in a White school, being an Indian? S: According to where it is located, I do. B: How do you feel about White people in general? C: Well, a good deal of parents I had this summer in summer school. up at the university. We had three races and then, there was among the three races twenty-four in class and I believe it was equally divcbdand to me k or Black I felt no different iA tbIea to White ,than I did to Indian. They all ed seem like one big family so when you get together to me, a color I'm color blind in some situations. -- k K Y I f lt I *a a B: So considering so even though you agree that we have been neglected as weren't far as education goes in the past and we ^given our fair share Still when you you don't hold that against any particular White that you might meet. Whether you are going to summer school or teaching) or going down to the Board of Education to a workshop or anything you these don't let that bother your relationship with kind of people. S: No, I don't ever. I feel like we should like somebody else h-tter than the paper a write-up in the paper. 45 LUM 132A S: We can't help what somebody else did, and we do have. I know we have to talk to people and-" names places. When 4 names places. When you run across people like that, the best thing to do is ignore them or and go on. Not let them give you a heart attack worry you. B: It will give you a heart attack, ha! ha! S: Good for you. B: OK. Let's talk about the Indian children. You said, We'll talk about them some more. We had already begun earlier. You said that basically you don't feel that they are inferior to other races and that they can do just as well. Now would you like to digress on that a bit about Indians' students in general. How you found them. Are they teachable? How do their parents feel about the schools? Do parents participate? something S: vl I tell you a little.about the group I taught when I first went to Union. like B: Right. Yeah. I'd you to do that. S: T had the first graders three first graHd teachers and I think I got the group of the lower income families.We had a lunch room. 46 LUM 132A 8: which is true and we were not receiving our federal aide then, and to me, I think, that I had a pitiful situation because my pay for my children didn't not include the lunch room. They didn't have money. There's nothing provided for them. They just couldn't get even a nickel. to get lunch. Some of them came without any lunch at all. Others- t an a summer lunch. ght an -------< They later brou a biscuit, egg They stayed in the room- the ones that brought lunch and ate while the others went to the lunch room to eat. We did try to feed them and brought them something else. Some children did come out &IA spent all day without lunch, but that doesn't happen now because we see that all the children eat breakfast Like I said, we did try to feed them. We got a cup of mrak nothing else when they didn't have the money. That was fine, but we had to buy it for them. or get it some ways because the lunch paid.the federal government - was not furnished. They wfurnishing anything, but it wasn't a lunch. for all these children. Now, it's4ot that bad a situation now selected as a MOS since we were, A poverty area 'he of the children were .., parents and we have more factories now. The are working more. We could feed ourselves and if they can't pay for a full meal, maybe they can P4& half or what they can. 47 LUM 132A S: and most of our children are eating. I don't 1ink that they are hungry. I think the whole schal is eating in the lunchroom now, but it wasn't like that when I first started teaching. B: So that, so you see that things are getting better and the only thing that we can do is look at the past and you don't feel like we ought to spend too much time feeling sorry for ourselves and saying "poor me and we got cheated". We ought to go from where wOaO now. S: All right and like you say, the It is better, but no just because the government is helping. We have more plants to keep them working taxes, and places, and the people are they're getting jobs and they're providing more things for their family. B: Now, what role do you see Pembroke State University playing? Is this where most of our teachers come from? Pembroke State University? S: Right. Most of them are from there. We have a few that we let come in from other places. 4ke one teacher, br instance, in the school where I work, her husband works at a store berton and she came from another state with him" he applied for a job. ko ot only her a few more f on 0 A8 48 LUM 132A S: AP like that. I guess I'm not r- B: Now, I hear a lot of talk about some Indian teachers are afraid to speak out about things, politics, if they have a grievance against the Robinson County Board of Education. They're kind of reluctant to say anything about it, and, of course, being in the newspaper business I sometimes the only thing I hear is the bad side and the people who are anti-everything, but do you think that there is grounds for this kind of feeling. I know it's prevelant among young people who are involved in politics that they are the teachers are afraid of their jobs and they won't speak out on things. Have you found this to be true? too S: Well, I don't know ^ much about that. We have a grievance committee and an organization, our teachers' organization. And the last meeting we had, the Grievance Committee got up and vote on some things they were displeased with and they had quite an argument over it. In fact, I had to leave the meeting before it was over with. This argument lasted so long so I think that they are beginning to speak up for things they want. I e Cneda B: So you think tZme ..o a srlim even in education. 49 LUM 132A S: Yes, I B: Now, do you think that the Robinson County Board of Education has always done the best they could under the circumstances? S: Well, from my thinking, I don't think they have. B: Do you take very much interest in elections, for instance, when people are elected to the Robinson County Board of Education? Do you kind of notice who's running and teacher's politic very much about getting people elected? S: Well, I don't think the policy too much about it, but most teachers do vote on it. Maybe, they discuss it a little bit, but they do vote, most of the teachers. B: I could ask you a question that might raise some -A but have you ever seen- I know that this is private that you don't have to divulge this if you don't want to, but at election time when we have most of the times Indian people running, do you generally vote for straight Indian ticket or do you kind of or have you seen occas ions where you'd vote for a White who was running for a Board of Eduation? S: Best I can remember I believe I voted for mostly Indians. Of course, we have a few Indians that I ..L .. L.u fi .u a...., I think, so 50 Lum 132A we S: and like everybody else, our people.have some just like other that I wouldn't go along with. B: Do you think that we might have an Uncle Tom or two? Ci + Af ) S: Yes. B: Now, we've covered a lot of ground, but one area I think would be helpful if you'd talk a little bit about things that you think we could do to improve school system. B: First of all, integration is here to stay, don't you think? S: Well, I guess it is. B: So we might as well forget about all-Indian schools, going back to the ways of our forefathers Now, in teaching did you ever hear of the theory of *t4k-rf the Lost Colony taught in our school system? S: No, not espedally so. f -9 ME '# 1 t " B: Do you think that we ought to teach our children something about their history and where they came from? Because historically there's a theory that we are descendants of John White's Lost Colony,that we intermarried, intermingled with Indians, and that we are the by-product Do you hold to this theory? 51 LUM 132A S: Yes, I think*... Now, we do have that in history, dbn't we? `11A just c 2' to S(Cpeople right here, but they r say that they think that we are descendants of t4" **. B: Do you think that there ought to be a special supplement to teach our children about their heritage and where they came from? S: You mean, just to teach it to the Indian children or everybody? B: Well, not that we're integrated, but teach it to everybody? Still we are the predominate ace in the county school system. S: Yes, I think that it would be right if we startedteaching itgiM c eTs rvw - B: So you think that this would be one way that you think we should improve the educational system in Robinson County? School system. S: Yes. B: Now, other than the supplement, teach our childrenabout being an Indian and where they came from? &iztat other areas do you think we mculd work on to improve education? in Robinson County for Indian children? S: Well, I think it would be nice for us to have kindergarten in" all we don't have it iL our schools. 'ven though, we're startingall the schools. It would be nice to have it. for all the children. They have music special teachers for music, ad- special readig- teacher, special edj aik 52 LUM- 132A S: pe-C teachers forte different classes. B: Yeah, I think that if we could do that, education would improve considerably, and I appreciate your taking time to give me this interview. We've been interviewing Mrs. Margaret Sampson, a teacher with thirty-seven years experience in the Robinson County School System. Thirty-seven years -. of teaching that has given some of us an opportunity to get out and find out about ourselves and again, "thank you very much, Mrs. Sampson." 53 Full Text PAGE 1 LUM 132A MRS. MAIDAREI' SAMPSON INTERVIEWER: BRUCE BARTON, September 1, 1973 Transcriber: DWS B: My name is Bruce Barton, interviewer for the LWllbee Indian Oral History Project. Day is September 1, 1973 and I am interviewing Mrs. Margaret Sampson in her ,daughter's home in the Deep Branch Community, approximately five miles east of Pembroke going toward LWllberton. I appreciate your S: Thank you. condescending to this interview, Mrs. Sampson. 4 Now, to get it right because they have to transcribe this. on tape the Margaret is spelled M-a-r-ga-r-e-t, Is that right? and Sampson is S-a-m-p-s-o-n. S: Right. B: Margaret Sampson. Cl! Were you raised here in this, in the area that you are living in' now? B: Now I understand that you were teaching school for quite awhile, is this right? S: Right. B: How long would that be? 1 PAGE 2 LUM 132A S: Thirty-seven years. B: Now, let's begin in the beginning where we should, I suppose. Could you tell us something about your education where you were educated S: Yes, I started school in first grade at Magnolia,~chool ,>V1> ./e."'-.1 \.v~ c.l. , d ii'\ -f1..,.,f I'4.. D' ' N(N.I n> So -t~111c.k.A..1, 1ft Molld. S ... "-ti l.. t-t-c., k +. -/>~lo â€¢f) . Y' I started at Pembroke Elementary. in the fifth grade, went from there to the sixth, and then moved over to the Normal, what was then the Normal J~!nkL /Vornt,._J, Schoo1Jf'1d went from the sixth through college, what they B: You mean all the education was held in one buildingAcalled the Normal School for Indians, is that right? S: Right. B: And that is what is now known as Pembroke State University? S: That's right. B: Now, what year did you first begin school there? S: I believe it was 1928, I believe. B: Now do you know when that building was first erected?$: No, I don't know this, exactly. 2

PAGE 3

LUM l32A B: Well, let's see. It's supposed to go on the National Register in 1973. That's this year in a few months so that must have been around in 1920, I suppose. So you might have beenAone of the first few students to go there. S: Well, there was not too many when I started, but I was one of 1F2U!l'!"â€¢ B: Now, what I call the Normal School for Indians is now Pembroke State R.o 1-e .S"1'\ University. Was this the only school you could attend it. Ilobiussn County if you were an Indian? only school for Indians at that time. B: And the Normal Schail. went from Sixth Grade to how far? S: Well, when I started there, I believe they had a llormal through high school. then When you finished hi.gh school,which was eleventh grad<1., you could teach, but they added on first-year normal and second year normal and you bad to finish the year's normal work and my place was the last sixth grade that they had at the normal.. The next year, they moved it back to the elementary school and we were the last seventh grade classof the normal 3

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LUM 132A S: and tb.ey moved t! .. .fback to the elementary school. and I went on through high school at normal and we finished high school. I don't remember,the year. They built the junior high school what is the junior high school now, and took the high school out of Normal. B: Now,do you know anything about the history of this building? S: The Normal here? B: Yes. S: No, we were not living around here when it was built. I don't know just the year. B: Is it the same building that's now what they call Old Main that was recently burned? Ql,i B: So does Old Main basically look the same as it did when it was a Normal School for Indians. s: Yes, except for -t'~ 11.1 rtf1 flj. B: Right. 4

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LUM 132A OK, B:.So you began teaching school with a sixth grade education, is that right? B: I thought that you said that you could teach school with a sixth grade education. when the S: No, I said.I started in the sixth grade at.Normal, they were just) wit1r, you could finish high school there and start teaching there when you finish high school. B: So :)IOU had to have t~e high school education to teach,~ that it? $. ~i !jtNr A.~, "'"l\.'1-(.. ., \{l-1 t e,l,it!!bo~A.+i'11'\ -t,..... r And that was when I was down in the sixth grade. .could finish high school at the Normal and start teaching. B: Well, so you began teaching at which school? in the beginning the first teaching job' that you had? S: l+~-;to Cla.M-ft;... /\fe.r l?ot~ Ro!o...J .? B: Highspo Center near I'&] V Is that practically an Indian school? S: Yes. You can tell by the name. B: Do you remember , who the principal was at that school at that time? B: Norman who? PAGE 6 LUM 132A B: He was an Indian? S: Yes. B: What grades did you teach? S: First grade. B: Have you always taught elementary grades? S: I taught first through {i>w jfAb B; Now, have you ever had any feelings about our educational system as compared to the White's education? S: Well, I guess we're on the bottom.ha! began B: When you first teaching school, did you notice there was a lack kids of things to teach.with? on the school grounds and buildings? e(.)U ,c or(y .. ,t,11;.;ft"/ S: Yes, we 'ltmhave. We had ~I I\ buildings. We had no materials) + b\.t+--#e Y, ,,,~+-, didn't finish any, l"' () to say the word, A in the county or the state.or well, just alittle paper, maybe a few pencils. Not very much. , B: So did you ever think about what caused all this? Do youllllve any am-White feelings because of the way the school system was when you began teaching? It hasn't improved a whole lot since then. I could see S: Well, the biggest.thing when I started teaching, we didn't have a 6 PAGE 7 LUM 132A S: ~:,~a~:! Most of the Indian families were tenant farmers. perhaps Som& were.share cropers, getting, paid for their crops. Others just not r+ 1 , a earning you know what.kind of living that was. And Indian children the,well, stayed on.White man's plantation, you might say. And like I say, they didn't have a compulsory education so when school first started, about half our children wouldn't start. I had days, maybe, when I had thirty children. Half of them would be there and half of them at home.) then, picking cotton 1 because.their family was not able to hire someone else to pick l!rn. They had to pick the children up in order for them to pick their cotton to make enough mon&y to buy clothes and food for the winter. B: So you think the lack of having compulsory education hurt Indian people in general as far as education is concerned? S: I sure do because our children were falling behind by staying out half the time and eventually some of them would just quit -5 t ho J, j..Att f le"+y Pf and .I! Men and women today ' that just maybe got a first or , ' second grade educatipn, 7 PAGE 8 LUM 132A r, A.11/!J$:~hey were not fortunate enough to go to school. Now, they say sorry we didn't. be B: What prompted you to go in education? Cause I understand that during that time, to get an education was a little exceptional. Most people,as you said, were tenant farmers and what kind of family did you an education. come from with~an educational family? good educational background? even though they could read and write. S: No, my parents were not too well educatedâ€¢ T!l!tb dSalccs lb I eaa.a.:, , Hgh. We lived near that Normal. I guess that's GY\e, c-e({0fl I\ why J: w,e,-,+ O'YI And I likel school. ~~dl IU\ And~ people I It> 'f Ok ~) A(~ ..,.,.he-n) there were not very many jobs for them. , I guess that I wanted to go in order to get a job and work. To make a living. B: Do you know much about what they call today the "Double Voting"? S: I sure don't. Maybe you can explain it to me. I'd like to know a little more about it. Would you explain it to me? B: yes. Well, 11 double voting" is basically what we've come to call the practise of having Whites cast two votes and Indians only one. 1:J that, I mean that, 11 you know, there are six distinct city school systems in of~ Robinson County. F:iv,iare city administrative units and,then, we ha'l(e the one county system where all the Indian children go. 8

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LUM 132A could S: .... I ESk you a question B: Yeah. .t /,.olA Iii S: What do you think of that? Do you think that we ""91!
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LUM -l32A B; School Board elections within your city unit and you can, also, vote !or county school board elections, but the people in ihe county can vote only on 1he county school board elections. They canâ€¢ t vote on city bolilrds. So the people in tb:e cit:, vote twice and the people in the county once. .And we have as a result, people on the Robinson County Board of Education who were put there by the people who live in the city, who don't live within the county school system. Now, I think thatâ€¢ s eriminal. . Aul lciky ,i h1.tff.( Ut a r rli
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LUM 132A B~ Politics, for instance, S: Well, not too much. f'/l .... I'll tell you. Ire had a meeting in one of these countiesâ€¢ school systems and we liked to burn up because we attended the county system and do not have air conditioning. Over in Lumberton, we have a big,fine high school and the city system is air conditioned and has a gym, auditorium, lunchroomâ€¢,.ind this one in the county') $ey have to combine have the gym, auditorium, if we es have a meeting there or we go somewher for a meeting so I think that we have advantages over the coun...,ty system. B: Do you think that politics has anything to do with that? S: Yes, I guess it does. B: Well, I notice that a lot of people like you. Incidentally, you love to teach children, don't you? S: Yes, I enjoy teachingc.-~,I~ 1 .fe,~110/â€¢ B: Do you feel like" if you spoke out about things politically.J IJ V'7~J about ~C>IA-!1 for instance, or about Superintendent Allen, the superintendent of the county school system, do you think that you might get fired if they found out about it. S: Do you mean if Superintendent Allen found out about it? 11 PAGE 12 LUM 132A B: Right. L' L~, .... ,l)f/1,Jl;MI S: Well, I guess 'fl,{ would because I 1 t'.b i ' pâ€¢ 0 w J eIJ ii Ag around here. B: Well, I guess just the love you have for teaching children hasn't been able to keep your mind off this. Is this more or less true? Yes, S:AI think when you're worried about anything when you keep it on your mind, it's not too gâ€¢ood. If you get down and work with the children, they'll take your mind off other things. You don't have to keep your mind on something else, and your work helps you forget about other things. B: Right. Now, let's talk a little bit about what you think could be done in the county school systems as far as education goes. because we'll leave politics to the politicians if you want to, but what do you see that they could do as far as education goes to help Indian children? S111CAs: Well, I really cbn't know right now. t:lrhlk the Federal Government has been in t.lle schoolâ€¢ I teaC~ijj~IISl:l:74,:=iii_,.,,..,,.ee' 1 ":i1~e considered in the poverty area, and the Federal Government, as you know, gave some things and we do have quite a bit of equipment to work 11..th. Things that I never heard of before until we did get aide from the Federal Government. 12 PAGE 13 LUM 132A S: And so we do have much more to work with now. And I ~hii,iw. that when !,first, started teaching school, if I had a record player, I bought it myself. If I had anything else ,& much to use, I had to buy it. We didn't. fr I I .,..... suppers I 111il::, had maybe b~ V at School-fund raising things like I had a -program or something like that and now we do have quite a bit of help from the Federal Government. So it's much better than it has been. here in the past. B: Do you feel that teachers in Robinson County have any bargaining powers? Do you foresee the day-----..}. when teachers might set up a union for illtance ? t>... IA "\on S: Well, I don't know and I don't know much about ;i,â€¢ ~he esw,~y. I believe they have talked about it. One thing teachers have is the power, I think.ti, 1 s W~t.f(. " ..,_ W have our organizations, teacher orga nizationsL CJ.1.!.f. l"Pl>W\ f,,t~te. National or)la:1izations and State. .t -tr~ B: , you think that teacher organizations statewide do they recognize that things are a little bit behind l?ok.hl'\ the times in JIQb;i,11.1;;:r;i County? Do you ever hear any talk from highe:r..up,I' about it? S: I don't know if Robinson County is behind the other counties or not? 1.JlJ-~ !JllYl ~b-t.C..~ ,'11 WkA-t ?' B: I mean Indi!pl Schools. I mean the buildings, the grounds, educational aides in 13 PAGE 14 LUM 132 A B: things to work with. We was talking about recently, they've been getting tape recorders and things like that, now S: Well, like I say, w I I w.lr ,e 'f trl-~ !i r,..,/,t I. â€¢lt:tl!I. I d: A ) Indian schools are as good as anybody else's As far as the county is concerned as far as that goes. '"-ut, now-, I dm't know enough about the state, you know, how it compares with other state schools, but I know the city system, We have,,.They llave better schools than we do, ~, .. ct B: Are you ~lwi11g to see integration come about or would you rather there'd still be Indian schools? S: Well, I haven't had enough of them, I don't really know. I mean, As far as I am concerned,AI believe, as a whole the children would enjoy if they were it betterA in their own schools because they segregateâ€¢ themselves anyway here when they getAto school but like I say, I've not had enough children of it in high school, I teach predoâ€¢inately Indiah I've had a few Whites and a few Blacks, but as a whole I have no Indians so I don't know _'much about it. Somebody else lt1tv.._ fr:t~ CCw (/) -t.e.. PAGE 15 LUM l.32A S: Oh, yes, before they had it, T know for a fact :: our Indian teachers when school.a would start in the fall., well, they wouldn't get.,,,, if there was any supplies, if there were any supplies, they'd be left by the White when it got to us, we didn't have very much. wit" -iu-F~5011..,-n~ Wel.l. like I sayw\it didn't make any difference, You got from them no matter 'llhat you were. B: Do you have any feelings about the recent Education Act? S: Yeah, I'm glad you did because I may get a l.ittl.e of it here. with my children, B: Do you sill think that you will. get some of it? S: And we are getting the benefit of it because we have a teacher in our school a special reading teacher and she ~-s a. W..,til l,N..), !~ _,-e:~SOINL.. Well, I'm supposed to get some. for my classroom. I'm hoping that I get some. B: Does most of the schools now have special.eachers and special. departments for special education for working for disadvantaged children? S: Wel.l, that's not. You wouldn't say just "disadvantaged". that need special. help, They are a little behind in their classwork. 15 PAGE 16 LUM 132A S: and they need some special help. /;nd you ten children and work with them, You can do more with ten children than you can with twenty or thirty? And that is why we are having ,l;J;i,a. special classes. .t...,,,.,,, a.r-e.e..+ t.. dtsâ€¢c:lvâ€¢t\~ B: Do you feel that your _l!esl :.Ii â€¢!,tby being an Indian teacher? S: That's a~ question, isn't it? B: A very big question. S: Well, I don't know. I guess I We're getting the same pay right now. B: DID WE use to not get the same pay? S: I don't know about that. I -J;Jt+that we "9:!i!li. That's what I mean. Why, it would be no disadvantage to be-an Indian teacher regardless so because we get the same pay as the Whites did~and in that respect, it's t\O itftf't disadvantage. Is ihat what you mean? B: Yeah .so S: -M, I am happy to an Indian teacher. B: In spite of all the injustices that have you have seen in the county, Robinson County Educational System would you do it over again if you had the chance to go back and say I'm going to be a teacher or I'm not going to be a teacher. Would you teach? 16 PAGE 17 LUM 132A S: I think I would. see the disadvantage and I think education helps you get on top. Up from the bottom, maybe, I . should say. B: From;iour association with other teadhers how do they react toward the political things that have gone on lately? I mean here recently, like l<.t ..1 n:>iA the 'llusenâ€¢uwail Movement and the movement to break double voting and the movement to save Old Main and this feeling that's in the air about going back to the old Indian ways. How do teachers generally react to these kinds of things? S: Na,,; do you want me to answer one at a time or all of them in one problem? B: All in one one big answer. Well, S:.I know most of them feel like we shouln't know. What do you mean in respect of Tuscaroah? big B: I mean how generally I know this is a broad question, but maybe I mould just say it's specifically: How do you feel about it, for instance? Are you T"" .s e.o. I"'" upset that~cec,r rob would march on Raleigh, for instance? Does it 17 PAGE 18 LUM 132A B: bother you are chained to that kind of activity or are you proud of it or just how do you feel a,out it? don't S: Well, IAhardly know how I feel about it ~~c"n,r~111lwâ€¢,.tf II.% What did they march for? What was the they marched? ;s: 1 11 A!! l~ .. '!!-! j}4.PS1i'l1)1,,,. ( :0~~1;s:J~0 ofB: VJ. think basically they wanted some redress/\some of the grievances they have, l'or instance, they wanted North Carolina Indi411 Commission do hear some grievances they had about general things .about poverty in "'i .t ,. r,,.,. Robinson County , the name thing They want to be known as " J'i1 : -0: s:A, Indians, They wanted the North Carolina In PAGE 19 LUM 132A 1/f'~\fliO'tofA+.J B: Well, I'D', rn'l!i.e interviewer. I' 11 say this, that I thought they just ran into some Rednecks is what I think. You know, a lot of people 11 Mr, W 1,, ;~ 11 with slins a little darker thall. lilt. 'Jttte',e , they'll lock you up and hit you in the head. There are a lot of Rednecks around, but ed I think they overreac~is what I think. They should have let them march throughâ€¢ They weren't r . -1-1.f;ell &:J , L .>l"I' 0 I J\,l -,. I\ They were just going through. that S: Well, that's the feeling that I have aboutA , now. I feel like they just could have showed 1heir part if they Like you say, they were not stopping anyone. They just wanted to pass through. ~Jo,.:,w. St>~ 7V\ B: Well, do you feel that there is a chance for us.rs. ,1'uture as far as fto be~o"' education goes? That is in-Robinso& County. S: Like I say: We have come a long ways. I think there's a chance for us. I Right now, we have about four lawyers~; finished law school. We have doctors. We have people from almost any walk of life. Now, I think that that is helping us to get us over the poverty/t~I,,/ 1 ,1 ,, B: Now, we've heard a lot of 1alk about Old Main. About$ave Old -!Main. You know, this was the first Indian school. This was the whole total school at one time. The only In .dian conferrings, normal schooling in existence and in its time. And,you know, with a little background they decided 19

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LUM 132A B: to tear down a building and to put up another building. and a lot of people got excited about it,qnd started a movement to save Old Main. Now, would you like to go on record as to how you feel about Old Main? '><>-"J S: I would because I would like to see it~ because I told you before, that went my class was the last sixth grade classAthere in school. I went there from sixth grade through four years of college. So you know somebody that ba.d went there from the sixth gr~de through college at Old Main would like to teack there. B: So you do have very special feelings about Old Main? S: I sure do. B: OK. Good. Janie will be glad to hear that. S: Let me tell you something else about Old Main: Before I moved to Pembroke, when I went to Magnolia School, about two years before we moved from Pembroke, we'd have county commencements and the other schools in the county would come and marca. We'd march through townjeach school marched and that was a great event for us to come to Old Main and march on the county schools, county commencements, ;.-. in1â€¢w 1 B: Now, as far as education goes,,with the college the way it is, there is not much rapport between college, the university, and the community. 20

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LUM 132A B: Now, in the earlier days, the days you are talking about when you went Didn't to school there. the community use Old Main quite a bit for town meetings and that kind of thing. People getting together for one thing and another? ~jke S: Yes, I think they did.J1When I went to Old Main, that was a great event when commencement time came along, a.d so many days and so many nights and people came from far and near to Pembroke here for our program and they enjoyed it. B: So you went from the sixth grade through four years of college D Qi:. Now, let me get DfT bearings. Is that right? S: That's right. B: You never ask a lady how old she is, but could you tell us what year you finished your fourth year of college there? S: If I tell you, you'll think that I am awful dumb, but what I did when I finished two years normal work, I started teaching. That Wl!Sâ€¢â€¢ I believe that we just had two years normal We added on third and later fourth year. "'""U'L Well, I taught awhile before I went baciy\to get my degree. I decided then to go back and ..:::C:finished four takeJ wellJ erening classes and went to IUllllller school and -M hl)t) years college_) 21

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LUM 132A S: going to evening classes and summer schoolâ€¢ 'o you can see why it was such a long time before 1 started to teach even though I wasn't the smartest one in school. B: You were not the smartest one in school? S: No, not quite. B: '11,w, your husband, what is his name? C~Rw"' ?) S: lild'ilard Sampson. B: And what does he do for a living? S: He's a farmer. B: Now, he being a farmer and you deciding to go back to school. Did he ever object to your going back to school or did he always encourage you? S: No, he didn't object. However, I was always ho''i. at lunch time to filE his meals or after school and afternoons, when I didn't have classes, I'd work on the farm, too. B: OK, Let's see where our tape is, Well, we've been talking aboutihings in general, What I'd like to do is begin when you went to school in the first grade and we'll bring it all the way up througb high school , through Normal School, through college, ,n and then, we' 11 tie that :i,s,with ,k, your experiences at the end. Now, ..-you remember when you entered the 22

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LUM 132A B: you what year this was that you began in the first gr~de. S: -B: Was it in the thirties? S: In the thirties? You mean ha!? B: When you began in the first grade at school. S: m What was it? B: 1919. S: I was born in 1913. You want my age, don't you? ha! Well, there it is. ha! B: ha! You were born in 1913. It would have been about 1919. OK. You went to Magnolia through the seventh grade. S: Yes. Do you want to know something our school what it was like? B: Yes, maH. I'd like to know something about the conditions and S: We had two rooms and the window panes were out in some of the rooms, and wo,J in ; .,., we had an old wooden heatePand we used logs, weoaca, The boys would after L~ go out(-11 the evening. They'd generally go out and get our wood) to put in the heater. St, ~e got to school the next morning, they' 11 build a fire. And it would be so cold in the wintertime that we'd just get around 24

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LUM l32A S: this heater and sit. as close as we could. to keep warm. B: Now, was all the teachers Indian? back then? S: Yes, in the schools where I was. B: And all the students ,ere Indian? S: Yes. B: There was no mixing of the races. No Blacks and no Whites. S: That's right. B: And the teachers that taught at that time, they were people who had gone through the seventh grade, is that right? IS: .t,,,.i.s/J-lk, Yes. They could teach school if you 1;; a is: Ilks seventh grade and go to Lumberton and take a I don't know what kind of test. to take a test, but you could take a test and teach school. to the Indians. Test -B: I know you didn't know that at the time, but looking back now you probably know, did the Whites were they the administrators? Were they the ones who set policy, paid the salaries, and decided how much money people got and where the schools were going to be built and this kind of thing? S: Yes, we were and one thing-when they consolidated our schools, I think that was a bad mistake. To take say children six miles away from Lumberton 25

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r LUM 132A S: Yes. B: Your mother, too. S: Yes. Until we came to Pembroke, we were tenant farmers. when I went to Magnolia School. B: Now, did you have tos:ay out of school when crops were being gathered the first few weeks of the season like a lot of Indian children have had to do over the years? l tfl"''" tf'\u S: Well, I didn't have to,9 -,t..-chool -, but , when we went in in the afternoon, I did work in the fields on the farms B: So fourth grade you came to Pembroke Elementary School, is that right? "'nd you went there through the seventh grade? S: No, I went through the ,, sixth grade there -h' Y.:i ~-./f,vffl+/. grade was over at the Normal School. H: So the elementary Pembroke Elementary just went through the fifth grade? S: Fifth grade, yeah. They were building on to the elementary school when I started there. That's why my sixth grade class wanted over at Old Main, and they moved it back over to the elementary schoo.. B: OK. We come up to What year would this be now? Let's say when you began at what they call the Indian Normal School which is now Pembroke State University? 2? ,

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LUM 132A S: In 191.tJ,Fe~:UmJ, ~8 I ,t,.~ '" ~tre,, ..â€¢ B: 27? or 28? And this was You were feeling the pinch of the depression at that time, weren't you? B: Who were in charge of Pembroke the ached at Pembroke Normal School? Which is then the Old Main Building at that time it was. B: Right. And you don't feel that they gave us things that we needed D p 1 t. 3 Se MS B: Now, ~, . the principal at the Wldte School was he a White man or an Indian? s: WhiteN\c II\,

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B: Some people during this time didn't really concern themselves too much with politics and why people did things. They just went to school and te .. ight and S: The majority of people that's the way they were. There was a few that mostly was concerned. That's one reason I think that we A-tJ,..J have the Normal because we did have,-ocpl~ concerned for olir achoo:, _':f1.J-~...J.d e.. k-LtkA.. ~'",.:,tM -f,.., -M..,.'ir' c,: I~ . B: Now, did Indian people build that school? The.n ~ormal School? I think they did. I'll put that down for the record. I think what is now called Old Main which S: donated money Not ohly that school, but our first school we had like Big Branch and Magnolia, Hopewell School, in the community different schools. I've been told. B: I've been told . the same thing. 29

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LUM 132A B: OK. Now, we're through? And the Normal School went through what grade? S: As I said the first half al1!,s ae~ n ?::,-'"' ,; /'t.rhlâ€¢ I uor/e, ttMII +t~,t w. ' 1 1/'c,e,Hif;,~. Jben, they added on, finally added on the school one year. Four year college. B: So, would that have been sent through the seventh grade and then, two additional years, is that the way it first began or allthe way through the high school? S: No, when they added on --They moved the elementary school back to the Pembroke Elementary and then, for a good while, they had the high school at the N11rmal ---oY' Ofl /f Ain and then they finally built a high school and moved the high school out so we had just --college there r .. four years college or B: So it did finally evolve into a regular college. It was the only all Indian college that I know of. S: Right. We 11ere the first ;i:;..J";-11-1,. &I~ B: So you began first grade in 1919. And taking time out to have babies. You have two ~ughters, right? S: Right? 30

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B: .!ind you had the babies and you taught for awhile. Then you went back and kept upgrading your teacher's certificate and finally, in 1954, you finish four years of college. Is that correct? S: That's right. B: And what year did you begin teaching? Your first year of teaching? S: I believe it was ih, 1934. Fall of 1934. p. B: So in the Fall of 1934, you began teaching with tw seventh grade certificate, is that right? S: No, two years Normal work. B: Two years normal work. S: -J/~ ) qut then I went on throu~h lgh :,Clool and then, finished Normal work. be~~ -1-#Q.r-~ -t'~~ B: OK. Now, we got it right. You went to regular high school and they offerred two years what they called Normal School. S: Yes. B: OK. Did you hae to take an examination to be certified as a teacher when you finished the two years Normal Work? S: 31

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LUM 132A S: Would you have to go apply to the Robinson County Board of Education? S: No, we didn't even have to appJ.y dawn there. We had what is known as a committee from each school. And we talked with -,JI..., f ri11.e,tJ o,r~ committee and we didn't have to go to the Board of Education. The school principal and the.committee B: Seemed to have been the school committee. S: The principal and the school committee. B: How would you know who to go see? S: Well, you SIDE TWO INTERVIEW WITH MARGARET SAMPSONBRUCE BARTON INTERVIEWER up B: Now, we got.to the paint where you were getting your first job teaching school. Now what ye~r was this and where was it at? rcle S: It was the year l9Y+ and it was at Ash ... of Râ€¢ l;znJ, s B: This was an Indian chool. j:n,/ia" s,:ho,1, S: fl right. 32 Rofa.,J, Center near A the little town

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LUM 132A B: Do you remember about hâ€¢w many students were there? s 1,-er;ei>e -#-w t,1)#,S . S: Not right off, I don't. Af01 eachers and maybe about twenty-five or thirty studerJB. B: This was the school taught through the seventh gr~de? S: Yes. B: OK. Now, you taught at Ashpole Center for how many years? S: Two years. B: Two years. And you went from Ashpole Center where? S: To Pembroke Elementary. Known as the graded school. B: How many years did you teach there? in S: Six. I was Athe first grade at Ashton whenI taught at the Graded. I taught third and fourth grades. B: Why did you change schools? S: Well, I imagine it was the -fall lind, The first year I boarded and had to walk about two miles to schbol every morning so you can see how difficult it was for me especially B: So' 'I and evening on rainy 1 days s: .J:'.'.j1,e,S'k-J ""~-/-. f,d-c lo~ I:,"( h~33

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LUM 132A B: WEn-e you married at this time? S: No. B: How many years did you teach before you married? S: Five years. B: Five years. S: Yes. B: So you came to Pembroke after elementary and you taught there six years~ S: Right. And got married while I was teaching there. B: Now, was there much difference in the schools? at Ashpole Center and Pembroke Elementary? Were they about the same or was one more advanced than the other? S: well, I didn't see too much difference. I believe they'd like to see a larger school. More teachers. B: Now+ all these schllols. Is most of the principals now in the elementary schllol was there any Indians? S: What do you mean? When I started1here? B: Right. S: Yes. 34

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LUM 132A S: Right. B: So you have al~s worked under Indian principals1 S: Yes, I have. B: So you taught at Pembroke Elementary what is lnown as the graded school for six years and, then, you went where? S: Then, I came to .P!~r .~~tic-It B: You taught there how many years? S: About fifteen. B: Now, why did you decide to leave Gr-P-JJ Pembroke, c if a and go to Elementary School? Branch S: Well, I didn't decide it. I think another lady was teaching at Deep and she wanted to move to the elementary Pembroke Elementary. And she asked me would I come to Deep Branch. You see, I lived in this community and she lived closer to Pembroke, but I came to Deep Branch and just let herAexchange schools and just these reasons. B: So what year was this? that you came to Deep Branch Elementary? elementary and then came to Deep Branch. 35

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LUM 1321 B: Would this be in the forties? lef'J two S: Well, subtracte~:ll-om .,,., I started in . B: Thirty-four so you S: B: So that would be 1942. uâ€¢d Now, ,t this time was the principals the schools committee still the ones who hired and fired teachers? and decided who taught where? S: Yesl -fney were. And when I came to Deep Branch School, we had a school that looked more "'welh->~ like house than anything else. That's the best a big room with way to describe it J because the room I had -Ajust two windows in it. ot\ r1tâ€¢"Y lr..7.1 . A very darkened roo')\ , You could hardly see. on cloudy days. B: Didn't have .brick building at that time? S: Yeah, but before I left that school, they built a new building a nice brick building. B: How long did you stay there? S: About fifteen years, I think. B: Fifteen years? That's quite a lengthy time to stay at one place. Do you remember what year the Rvks""' n.blfiS"n County Board of Education 36

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LUM 132A B: teachers? S: for schools? B: Right. S: No, I really don't. B: OK. You stayed at Deep Branch Elementary and where you live now as we said earlier, about five mile east of Pembroke. Now, you left Deep Branch Elementary and you went where from there. S: To the school where~ was teaching when I married Union Elementary. B: Union Elementary. Where's Union Elementary? S: It's about eight miles north of Roland, Igiess. B: Now, why what prompted you to leave Deep Branch and go to Union Elementary? Do you remember? O'Yl S: Well, I guess it epends on a man , committe1aid .vu that he had an opening/I there, ai~ would I like to go to that schail.. He ' I I r-1,,-J S:-4. IAI W-tJ. Sampson an~he said.u iite principal had talked with me and said he would be glad to have me if I took the job. B: Now, do you remember when the Robinson County Board of Education and the Superintendent and Associate Superintendent and do you remember when they 37

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LUM 132A B: began assigning te~chers? Do you have any S: No, IAt;t S: I don't think there' s been .-,, too long. And too, I believe, they let the principal have a little say so on hiring the teachers, but as far as committees)and it's been several years, I think, that they've had ver,;r much to do with it. They all have their ()i/.lAto,-7 board now, but still I don't think they advise it. They don't have too much to do with placing teachers. B: So you've been at Union Elementary up to now. S: Right. B: And most of your time has been,pent teaching kids from the first through the fourth grade? And some special education classes? S: That's light. B: Now, what do you think about educators in general? I mean, the Indian principals and th~eople who are in charge of the School Committee? Do you think that they did a good job considering the circumstances? S: Well, in what way do you mean? Did a good job in what? B: Selecting the teachers, running the school, educating the children, S: What do you mean? B: Yeah, that and, too, they were kind of left to themselves as to how they 38

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LUM 132A B: set up the curriculum and, then, how they educated1he children, then, weren't they? And how they scheduled classes and what they taught and that kind of thing? S: Well, as far as committees, sometimes maybe you'd have one that didn't have too much education and maybe they didn't know too much about ~h,, S ~o.,_f/ teac~ and lhat have you... Of course, I believe the principal had a 1,1/(,f'\t .. could have been handling that,too, if they didn't~ teacheri,. on the other band, sometimes, maybe, ,114 S" 1* B: Right, and did you ever see any cases of family hiring family? S: Yes, I think that's worked, too. B: ha! ha! You can put that under the heading of politics. Now, about the children. We have kind of covered where you went and how you got this far in the classroom. How have you found Indian children to be as far as Do you think that they can be educated as well as the White for instance? and the Black? S: As far as I The way I see it) Yes. I think they're just as capable as any other race. I think they have some that's outstanding and we have kill<".._,s some, that like so many other races, we have some that are slowe5,1. I won't call them dumb 4 but slow learners.Just because of your r~ce, I don't 39

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LUM 132A S: think that you can consider that as far as learning because we have some restrictions in all races. B: Now, because of our being Indian, do you think that we ought to have a special curriculum different from the Indi~s and the Blacks? S: B: Right. I meant the White and the Black. S: No, I think we should have all the same because we all need to learn about the goverllment, the world, history, and all that. B: You don't see any special need for us to go back and see how the oldal time traditionAindians use to live? S: It would be fine to do that, but on the other hand I believe the Whites and the Blacks would enjoy learning about it,too. B: So you don't think that we ought to make exceptions as far as what we teach and how we teach it? I don't S: Well,. the way I feel about it, I don't think we should. because if we are going to be integrated and going to teach them all~ .Cttfl/llt -/1' 1 B: Do you believe in integration? S: In some ways I do. B: What are some of the ways that you do believe in integration? 40

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LUM 132A B: School? Would that be one of the areas? S: Well, onething about itif we integrate then we know everybody's what one school's getting and the other school's getti~ far as the Co~~ty s+l@;:" is concerned. B: That would be one advantage. if S: Yes. because.then they coullin't say well, we're going to give all this to the Blacks and we're going to give all this to the Indians. That won't be I don't suppose anyway. Nor we'll give all of it to the Whites. Everybody's getting the same thing. B: But don't you think we've talked a bit about that we didn't have the proper equipment to teach and didn't have proper buildings and a lot of other things. Don't you think maybe the reason we didn't have some of these things was because we were segregated and Indian taught Indian and we didn't have any relationships with other races. S: Well, that is it because natural)the Whites were the ones that give out this advice and natural they were going to give out if there was any -if there were any advice been give to their people. Maybe the Indians would have been itJ Then we'd had got first choice. 41

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LUM 132A S: So B: Do you think since approximately sixty percent and at one time itwas almost a hundred percent of the students in the county school system were Indian? ~\A i-iWould you like to see before you ~teaching, an Indian superintendent of the cop;i.ty school system? s: .,__ '11Cotel\f 7 ? &: a:,i.t-. S: Well, it depends. B: Right. S: Well, it might help. I don't know. B: How ? S: I don't know too much about that. I don't know. B: What do you think personally of Superintendent Allen? Have you ever had ? Have you ever bad an opportunity to talk to him at length about anything in particular? S: No, I mean, I haven't hke you talked with him.I\ I spoke in said, to him and had a few words with him when he'd come Athe classroom. And I think that he has had a hard way to go since allihese problems have come about. B: Do you think that he has done a good job under the circumstances? give it to him S: I think he has. I'll have to there. I think he has. \-16 '-' e.\,t heidc up well under all ihese problems~ 42

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LUM 132A S: -we've had to face. the B: but going back to, I'd say: Do you have any idea whatApercentage of Indian children are that's in the county school system? Would you say right now that it's about sixty-five? Anywhere from sixty to 11â€¢ ninety percent considering which school you're in? Would that be right? ","+f.e S: You mean -llfflMI' Indian schools? \ t B: R~: S: Yes, in the one I'm in now. it's up in the ninety percent. B: Well, doesn't it seem kinda of out of place with that kind of representation in the school-anywhere from sixtyfive to ninety percent of the Indiansâ€¢students making up the membership in the Indians' and the county's schools? Doesn't it seem kind of ironic that we would have a White school superintendent? Did you ever think about how he got in that position and why he's there and is it right? S: Well, I think, I know why because up until the last few years the Whites runned the business and everything. We didn't have anybody down at the Board of Education or anything, Not a even a secretary, So they run it and that's why heâ€¢s head of it. I guess it pays more than these other jobs.

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LUM 132A B: I would think so. Well, some of the principals that you have taught under and some of the educators that you've metDo you frankly think at this time that they would be capable of being a superintendent of the county school system? S: Well, I guess they would because we have an assistant superintendent down there an Indian man. If one could be assistant, he might could move up B: For instance, the principal that the school where you teach is an Indian man. Right? S: Right. B: His name is Martin Brooks? S: No, he was my principal last year. ,Lhave a new one this time. Mr. Grady Oxedine. B: Now, you think either of these men would be capable of being Do you think that either of them.could do the job that the Superintendent Allen is doing? S: I guess they could if they could stand the pressure that's been put on right now. J111J B: Do you think there's a lot of pressure on the job?~ Do you think that 44

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LUM 132A B: this might hamper an Indian? S: Not anymore than it would any other race, I don't think. B: You just have to know what you are doing if you are going to be the l(i)L,s ., Superintendent of 4 Jltb!IIBOU County, Education County system. S: And as you know, the principal I have now was founder of the Board of Education and I think that they asked him to take this job as Principal of the His job was terminated, I think, That's why they have him. B: Now, getting into the thing about attitudes. Do you think Indian students feel inferior as a rule to White students? S: Well, I guess that I need to be in a snool where there was a lot of Whites. There are a few Whites in ours, but they don't feel inferior to Whites, but they're all where I work. Maybe I'd have to be in a school in a different situation. other B: You just haven't had that much experience with races other than Indian. S: Oh, well, like I say. We have a few Whites in our school and a few Blacks, but the ones there it don't seem like the children felt any #MP, different towards them. Tbere' s just -of them.

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LUM :. 132A B: So do you think that you would have a:ny problem , for instance, 11laching in a White school, being an Iaclia&I? S: According to where it is located, I do. B: How do you feel about White people in general? C: Well, a good deal of' parents I had this summer in summer school. up at the university. We had three races and then, there was among the three races twenty-four in class and I believe it was equally div:idad_and to me .\-tJ \1-titd I felt no different in'.~ to or Black White _than I did to Indian. They all ed seem like one big family so when you get together to me, a color I'm color blind in some B: So considering so even though you agree that we have been neglected as weren't far as education goes in the past and we ,..given our fair share Still when you you don't hold that against any particular White that you might meet. Whether you are going to summer school or teaching) or going down to the Board of Education to a workshop or anything you these don't let that bother your relationship with kind of people. S: No, I don't ever. I feel like we should like somebody else !letter than the paper a write-up in the paper.

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LUM 132A S: We can't help what somebody else did, and we do have. I know we have to talk to peo1-le and When you run across people like that, the best thing to do is ignore them or and go on. Not let them give you a heart attack worry you. B: It will give you a heart attack. ha! ha! S: Good for you. B: OK. Let's talk about the Indian children. You said, We'll talk about them some more. We had already begun earlier. You said that basically you don't feel that they are inferior to other races and that they can do just as well. Now would you like to digress on that a bit about Indians' students in general. How you found them. Are they teachable? How do their parents feel about the schools? Do parents participate? /'_.II something S: ~I tell you a littleAabout the group I taught when I first went to Union. like B: Right. Yeah. I 1 d, you to do that. S: T b.!id the first graders three first graoP teachers and I think I got the group of the lower income families.we had a lunch room. 46

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LUM 132A S:: which is true and we were not receiving our federal aide then, and to me, I think, that I had a pitiful situation because my pay for my children didn't not include the lunch room. They didn't have money. There's nothing provided for them. They just couldn't get even a nickel. to get lunch. Some of them came without any lunch at all. Othersght They later brou a the ones that ! a summer lunch. an biscuitâ€¢ egg They stayed in the roombrought lunch and ate while the others went to the lunch room to eat. We did try to feed them and brought thems,mething else. Some children did come out W. spent all day without lunch, but that doesn't happen now because we see that all the children eat breakfast Like I said, we did try to feed them. We got a cup of Dil.k nothing else when they didn't have the money. That was fine, but we had to buy it for them. the lunch paia...the federal governmentft"t~.j, ~furnishing anything, but it wasn't a lunch. for all1hese children. Now, it's~ot that bad a situation now a selected as since we were. I\ poverty area ~~tr of the children were.,,.,.â€¢ parents and we have more factories now. The are working more. We could feed ourselves and if they can't pay for a full meal, maybe they can ~f.-7 half or what they can. 47

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LUM 132A S: and most of our children are eating. I don't1hink that they are huhgry. I think the whole schai. is eating in the lunchroom now, but it wasn't like that when I first started teaching. B: So that, so you see that things are getting better and the only thing that we can do is look at the past and you don't feel like we ought to spend too much time feeling sorry for ouselves and saying "poor me and we got cheated". We ought to go from wt',et.t' where--â€¢ now. S: All right and like you say, the It is better, but no just because the government is helping. We have more plants to keep them working truces, and places, and the people are they're getting jobs and they're providing more things for their family. B: Now, what role do you see Pembroke State University playing? Is this where most of our teachers come from? Pembroke State University? S: Right. Most of them are from there. We have a few that we let come in from other places. bke one teacher, f>r instance, in the school I Pi""""1 .s '~ where I work, her husband works at a store J /1 Lumberton and she s#} ,., came from another state with him,.'l\'3he applied for a job. ~,J'flot &_ S0tt-e.. o~ l.{n ;ve-r:1~ 111\ _, ...J....._ ...1J . fl ~e. ;T,Q.~-~~Covf.r) 48

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LUM 132A .... S: ._,, like that. I guess I'm not rB: Now, I hear a lot of talk about some Indian teachers are afraid to speak out about things, politics,. if they have a grievance against the Robinson County Board of Education. They're kind of reluctant to say anything about it, and, of course, being in the newspaper business I sometimes the only thing I hear is the bad side and the people who are anti-everything, but do you think that there is grounds for this kind of feeling. I know it's prevelant among young people who are involved in politics that they are the teachers are afraid of their jobs and they won't speak out on things. Have you found this to be true? too S: Well, I don't know A much about that. We have a grievance committee and an organization, our teachers' organization. And the last meeting we had, the Grievance Committee got up and vote on some things they were displeased with and they had quite an arguement over it. In fact, I had to leave the meeting before it was over with. This arguement lasted so long so I think that they are beginning to speak up for things they want. "~ -fiN..e~ I f1,.J..J t((C B: So you think iiimce Me ehmgi&gl\ even in education.

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LUM 132A S: Yes, I B: Now, do you think that the Robinson County Board of Education has always done the best they could' under the circumstances? S: Well, from my thinking, I don't think they have. B: Do you talce very much interest in elections, for instance, when people are elected to the Robinson County Board of Education? Do you kind of notice whoâ€¢s running and teacher's politic very much about getting pedple elected? S: Well, I don't think the policy too much about it, but most teachers do vote on it. Maybe, they discuss it a little bit, but they do vote, most of the teachers. h-.r..kf~5 B: I could ask you a question that might raise some 71 , but have you ever seenI know that this is private that you don't have to divulge this if you don't want to, but at election time when we have most of the times Indian peo~le running, do you generally vote for straight Indian ticket or do you kind of or have you seen occasions where you'd vote for a White who was running for a Board of Eduation? S: Best I can remember I believe I voted for mostly Indians. Of course, r wo,,d 1 r~/ ,.,,,J. we have a few Indians that i teat ail!h as &1 as ftti!mt, I think, so 50

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Lum 132A we S: and like everybody else, our people.have some just like other that l wouldn't go along with. B: Do you think that we might have an Uncle Tom or two? {f "-"jh tt/1.) S: Yes. B: Now, we've covered a lot of ground, but one area I think would be helpful if you'd talk a little bit about things that you think we could do to improve school system. B: First of all, integration is here to stay, don't you think? S: Well, I guess it is. B: so we might as well forget about all-Indian schools, going back to the ways of our forefathers. Now, in teaching did you ever hear of the theory of 1e~lâ€¢-â€¢l--~â€¢ the Lost Colony taught in our school system? S: No, not espechlly so. ::C:-ff,..;11k 1'. 1 /;\t/llfiwt ~ B: Do you think that we ought to teach our children something about their history and where they came from? Because historically there's a theory that we are descendants of John White's Lost Colony,that we intermarr:Led, intermingled with Indians, and that we are the by-product Do you hold to this theory? 51

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LUM 132A [;Ji /.j S4Y S: Yes, I think .... Now, we do have that in history, dm't we? ~just r:.1-.,&0 OU,("people right here, but they liP' say that they think that we are descendants B: Do you think that there ought to be a special supplement to teach our children about their heritage and where they came from? S: You mean, just to teach it to the Indian children or everybody? B: Well, not ~t ,we're integrated, but tea teachers for music, a&
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LUM 132A S: Jq).-t,1~ teachers forthe different classes. B: Yeah, I think that if we could do that, education would improve considerably, and I appreciate your taking time to give me this interview. We've been interviewing Mrs. Margaret Sampson, a teacher with thirty-seven years experience in the Robinson County School System. Thirty-seven years of teaching that has given some of us~~pportunity to get out and find out about ourselves and again, "thank you very much, Mrs. Sampson." 53