Citation
Interview with Bonnie Gail Sampson November 18 1973

Material Information

Title:
Interview with Bonnie Gail Sampson November 18 1973
Creator:
Sampson, Bonnie Gail ( Interviewee )
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Florida History ( local )
Lumbee Oral History Collection ( local )
Spatial Coverage:
Lumbee County (Fla.)

Notes

Funding:
This text has been transcribed from an audio or video oral history. Digitization was funded by a gift from Caleb J. and Michele B. Grimes.

Record Information

Source Institution:
Samuel Proctor Oral History Program, Department of History, University of Florida
Holding Location:
This interview is part of the 'Lumbee County' collection of interviews held by the Samuel Proctor Oral History Program of the Department of History at the University of Florida
Rights Management:
Made available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 International license: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text



LUM 130A
Date: November 18, 1973
Subject: Bonnie Gail Sampson
Interviewer: Bruce Barton
Typist: Josephine Suslowicz

SIDE I


B: This is Side I. I'm interviewing Bonnie Gail Sampson at the office of The

Carolina Indian Voice in Pembroke, North Carolina. This is November 18, 1973.

Interviewer is, uh, Bruce Barton. Bonnie we appreciate you giving us this

interview. As you know, it's part of the Oral History Program--Oral Indian

History Program from the University of Florida, and hopefully, one day we'll

have the transcript of this for our Old Main Museum. So you might be being

recorded for posterity's sake. Now would you tell us to--just to get it off

because you're nervous and your hand's trembling, what your name is?

S: Bonnie Sampson.

B: That's B-O-N-N-I-E?

S: Yes.

B: Alright, good. Now, could you just give us a brief history of Bonnie? Is it

Bonnie, or Bonnie Gail?

S: Bonnie Gail.

B: That's QA-I-L?

S: Yes.

B: (Laughs) You are nervous, aren't you? Well, could you just tell us a little bit

about yourself?

s: Couldn't rI 0 F n:art7 xe.

B: Okay, Bonnie. No need to be nervous, now. Just tell me a little bit about

yourself. How old you are, where you go to school, your parents, where you live,

that kind of thing. 3v .ik

S: Well, I was ..t "_____ My mother's name, Margaret Sampson; my father's

Ave. I'm seventeen. I'm now at Pembroke Senior High, and going to my grade

school I went to Union Elementary near Rolard, and then I went to Pembroke Junior

High in eighth and ninth.









LUM 130A 2


B: You're a senior at Pembroke High this year?

S: That's right.

B: Well, you're very pretty. Too bad we can't get your prettiness on tape, and

you--were you born in Deep Branch?

S: I was born in Lumberton Hospital.

B: Right, but your--your parents live at Deep Branch, right?

S: Right.

B: How far is that from Pembroke?

S: Four miles.

B: Alright, good. Now you say you're seventeen and we wanted to tell--talk a little

bit on this tape about what teenagers do in Pembroke. Now to talk about your

heritage a little bit, you are a Lumbee Indian, are you not?

S: Yes.

B: Alright now, one thing I'm interested in in getting in this tape so that we will

have it as part of the history, we're interested a little bit about what does a

teenage Lumbee Indian do in Robeson County when you're not going to school?

S: Well, considering I live in a very small communittee, that the recreation is very

limited so, uh, I usually go to baseball, basketball, football games, and the

extra school activities like the dances, and that's about it. AThere's not really

that many things to do.

B: Just ride around a lot? I noticed that a lot of kids ride around in cars on the

weekends Are you part of that migration?

S: Yes, sir. That's only because we don't have any other things to do.

B: Well, what kind of things can you think of that the community t could do for the

young?

S: Uh, have places like where we could socialize, like folk dances, aqd more dances.

B: Do you think not having anything to do is one of the reasons we have such a

high mortality rate in Robeson County among young people? You know, young people








LUM 130A 3


--young guys going out drinking, killing each other, and that kind of thing.

S: Yes.

B: And you say that the young go nowhere in particular except to high school dances.

They don't have a recreation center where you can go?

S: No.

B: No recreation center. Alright, well, let's talk a little bit about school. You

say you go to Pembroke High. Now, do you remember going to, uh, where you still

in high school when integration began?

S: I was in grammar grade school.

B: You were in grammar grade school? Well, another thing I'm interested in in

developing--doing this interview, is how Indian kids get along with Black and

White kids. Do they have any problem adjusting?

S: Yes, they do.

B: What kind of problem?

S: Um, well, everybody's going to be prejudiced against the people that are not of

their race, and in Robeson County there's a big friction between the White people

and the Indian people. I don't think it's so much the kids. I think that their

parents put it into them--put it in them that they are better than we are, and

they--they--I think the kids would be willing to treat us human or equal with them,

but they realize, you know, that maybe their parents will find out, and they'll get

a big hassle from them. Now with the Black kids--I mean I find less prejudice

among them and the Indians, but still there's a friction in them.

B: There's still a--still a friction between Black and Indian, anyway, but not as

much as between Indian and White.

S: Right, because, you see, the Indian and Black had been treated about the same, so,

you know, they both know what it's like to be discriminated against, and they--I

guess they think about this.

B: Right. Uh, both of us know that the--where I went to school and where you went

until you were in grammar school, it was an all Indian affair, and we really didn't









LUM 130A 4


have any, uh, way of comparing ourselves against Indian and Black--against White

and Black. How do Indian kids, uh, measure up to Whites and Blacks as far as

scholastic go, start-eas far as their grade and leadership ability, holding

classes, uh, offices for classes and that kind of thing?

S: Well, at our school the majority of the kids are Indian and there're very few

White people, and then, I guess, the second largest is the Black group, and I

find that the Indian kids are just as capable, if not better, perhaps I'm being

prejudiced, and they seem to not really run our school, but they are voted in the

most offices, and I think they're just--right when the awards are handed out,

they're in the top ranks, too.

B: It's the Indian children--students?

S: Yeah, Indian.

B: Well, you proved a point, as far as I'm concerned, that Indian girls are prettier

than any other race. I'm not prejudiced....No comment on that?

S: What am I supposed to say?

B: (Laughs) Alright, but because, you know, there are a couple of things, too. I

wonder how high school students and teenagers feel about politics. Are they

interested in politics in general?

S: I think so, and I'ld really like to getinvilved and learn more about it, and I

think a lot of other kids would too, and I think it would, like, help them when

they get older, or, I guess most of the kids my age are now getting--oh, next

year they'll be able to vote, and if they could learn more about this, if there's

only some kind of project, or something offered so we could learn more about

this--politics, or politicians or whatever.

B: Why, that's interesting. Now, do you know there are six separate school systems

in Robeson County, and a lot of people can't believe that we have six separate

school systems, and the largest, of course, is the Robeson County Board of

Education where Indians--most of the Indians go. Do you think, just from your








LUM 130A 5


second-hand knowledge, maybe, of the situation, do you think that a student--an

Indian student at Pembroke Senior High gets as good an education as the kid--a

White kid from Lumberton High?

S: Of course not, 'cause our school--I don't think our school is as well equipped.

We don't have the facilities to work with and our main, like, I think Lumberton

High is just a better built school then ours, and I think that's because of

people being prejudiced. Maybe not, I mean I know that our school was built on

a state thing, and there's the city. .

B: Right. Our--Pembroke Senior High is in the Robeson County School system, and

Lumberton High is in the Lumberton City School system. Well, let's talk a little

bit about why. Why do you think we have such a poor school? I know at--at the

college here in town, which was once an all Indian college, Pembroke State Univer-

sity, I notice out of between two and three thousand enrollment there are only

about two hundred Indian students enrolled at Pembroke Senior High, and do you

think this is part of the reason that we just don't have as good an education as

they do in the other school systems, for instance?

S: Yeah, I think that, um, like they're not--it's not their fault that they're not

as educated. I'm not saying that we're dumber than anybody. I'm saying that

the majority of our kids don't get the education that they are worthy of, I don't

know.

B: I think that's well put. bt
right now about double voting. Do you know what double voting is?

S: Yes, it's where the people who--like the city systems get to vote on, uh, county

system representatives.

B: And the county people don't get to vote on the city.

S: Right.

B: So the people living in the--within the city school administrative unit vote twice,

and residents within the county administrative units only vote once, right?

S: That's right.










LUM 130A 6


B: We want to be sure and mention that. Well, how--how do you think that young

teenagers feel about Old Main? You know that we've had--Old Main is the first

building on the P.S.U. campus--Pembroke State University campus, and it was once

an all Indian College, and the Old Main was the college for a long time until they

began to add buildings, and, you know, there was a move a couple of years ago to

tear down Old Main and replace it with another building, and since then it's been

burned, and I wonder if the teenagers feel as strongly about preserving Old Main as

some of the elder people do?

S: Uh, the Indian teenagers I think do, because this is really their only symbol of

being an Indian college, or once being an Indian college because now the, like you

said, the major part of the college is mostly White, and there's very few Indians,

and, also, that if the Indian--if Pembroke was more-and-te "Iri ndi mbulL

school, or whatever, you know, was just--that more of our kids would want to go

there, if it was made--like there's a lot of out of state kids coming there. If it

was made, uh, like, harder for them to get in and more--and, you know, made it

popular because it was an Indian school that more--more of our kids would want to

go there, because we're not--when you're out looking for a job, you know, society

shouldn't recall the fact that, you know, you graduated from Pembroke and, uh, the

person who-s competing against you graduated from Chapel Hill, but they are, even

if you are just as well qualified. They're going to take the person who went to

the better school.

B: Right. Now, let me ask you a very pointed question and see how you feel about

this. Have you ever been discriminated against because you are a Lumbee Indian of

Robeson County?

S: Yes, I have.

B: Can you remember a particular instance?

S: Well, it's not just like one particular instance. It's, um, okay, Lumberton is a










LUM 130A 7


predominantly White city, and I feel a friction when I go there, because I--I

think they're looking down on me, or discriminating me because I'm an Indian.

B: We all have the same problem. (Laughs) How many Blacks are there at Pembroke

Senior High now? Do you have any idea at all?

S: About maybe eighty. Between eighty and a hundred. I'm not sure.

B: Do you know how many--what the total enrollment is at--in round figures?

S: Between seven hundred and 850.

B: So there's about eighty Black students there. About how many Whites would you say?

S: Maybe forty, if that many.

B: And the rest are Indian.

S: Right.

B: So, how do you feel about--I know one thing that disturbs me a lot, and maybe this

is prejudice in reverse, but I've always been alarmed because a lot--a lot of our

pretty Indian girls go off and marry, uh, right now mostly White. How do you feel

about intermarriage like, uh, Indian marrying White? Would you consider, uh,

marrying a White guy?

S: Well that's if I was really in love with him, but, you know, I don't think it's

that much in m age now that Indian girls want a White guy, I think it was more

like before--like maybe ten years ago when the White people were really, really

thought they were tops, you know, and so, I guess to feel tops, an Indian girl

wanted to marry a White guy, but I think our Indian girls now really feel proud

about their Indian heritage, and I guess they want to keep it within their race,

or at least I do.

B: Right. Let's see, you know the voting age has been lowered to eighteen, now, and

a lot of people feel like this is going to make a difference in Robeson County

among Indian voters--have a lot of young Indian people. Do you plan to register

to vote just as soon as you're eighteen, or have you given it any thought?









LUM 130A 8


S: Yeah, I want to be able to voice my opinion, or vote my opinion in, or whatever.

B: Uh, and you also know that, uh, Robeson County has been predominantly democratic

since time immemorial, and right now there's a movement on among a lot of young

Indians to change registration to Republican. Do you know anything about the

difference in the two parties?

S: I don't know as much as I'ld like to know. That's where I'ld like to be educated

in politics.

B: Well, do they have any kind of course at, uh, Pembroke Senior High telling you

about the difference in the political parties, for instance?

S: Well, not like a after-school course, they don't. I think like in our history

courses it's about--there's a section, maybe nine weeks, it's on politics, or

something like that.

B: Right. Do they have, uh, a particular course that tells about the history of

the Lumbee Indians, per se?

S: Well again, in that same history course I'm not sure if they're going to do some-

thing on local history, and I--they, they might have a course on local history,

and I guess it would be--there would be something about Indians, and some about

Blacks and Whites too.

B: Okay, but do you--you do feel that there's a need for this.

S: For educational. p^Os ,, %

B: A course on the history of the Lumbee Indian of Robeson County, for instance.

S: Yes, I think our Indian people should be, uh, shown, taught, how--what--how we

were really discriminated against.

B: Do they have any kind of course, for instance, that tells about double voting, and

explains why there's six schools--separate school systems in Robeson County?

S: I don't think so.

B: They never mention why all the Indians go to Robeson County School System, for

instance?








LUM 130A 9


S: No.

B: Hmm, I wonder about that. Okay Bonnie, now another interesting question I have for

you is what do you plan to do after you finish school?

S: College you mean?

B: Yeah, are you planning to go on to college?

S: Yes, and I want to go away.

B: You don't want to go to Pembroke State University?

S: No, because I feel that when I go to look for a job that it--who I'm competing

against, if they've gone to a better school, that, um, they'll look at, you know,

our two different schools and that will be the basic thing they use to decide

whose going to get the job even if I am as well qualified, or better than that

person. I want to go--I want to be an accountant, and I'ld like to major in--

have two majors; biological sciences, and business, and I'ld like to be able to

help my Indian people, like be an accountant for youth or people rt f( Y

Carolina Indian Voice.

B: Do you think the Indian people will let you help them?

S: Uh, well, at least I hope they will. I'm not sure whether they'll accept me or not,

but I'm willing Ito.

B: How do you think you could help your people, for instance, as an accountant? Can

you see any ways that you might help them? For instance, VA or FHA, helping them

process loans, and this kind of thing?

8: Yeah, those who are less fortunate to be able to Ld o* -C-IS f

B: Yeah, that's fine. Okay, now, if I understand you correctly, you would not want

to go to P.S.U. because it doesn't seem to be, uh, on equity with U.N.C. or Duke,

or some of these schools, is that right?

S: That's right, because Pembroke is just, um, too easy to get in. I--I mean not

really--not, you know, a breeze. You can't just walk through college, but

what I mean to say, you know, too easy to get into, people who, like, failed out









LUM 130A 10


at other schools, or are not, you know, well qualified to go to a bigger school.

Like out of state kids who just come here, like it could be a breeze for them.

B: What do you think P.S.U. could do to make it more, uh, of a challenge to Indian

kids, and something that they would be proud to say, I went to P.S.U. How--what

could they do?

S: Okay, for instance, most of the out of state kids are White kids. Make it harder

for them to come, and, and to let, like, you know, kids around the communittee

get in, and make it more like a--not a predominantly Indian school. You know,

not have just Indian kids, but have it an Indian, something about the Indian

heritage. Make it famous for that.

B: So you don't think P.S.U. has really gone out and looked hard for good Indian

students?

S: No, 'cause other states--they let the White kids and Indian kids come to them.

B: Yeah, I think they've fallen down there, but that's just the interviewer's opinion.

I'm supposed to be interviewing. Okay, well, you've got it pretty well figured

out about what you want to do in the future, and if you can follow through, it

seems like it would be a pretty good thing. Let's talk a little bit about your

home life. Uh, what did you say your parents' names were?

S: My mother is Margaret Sampson, and my father is Edwin Sampson.

B: How do you spell that Edwin?

S: E-D-W-I-N.

B: What does your mother do for a living, or does she work?

S: She's a school teacher at Union Elementary.

B: That's a school about, uh, five miles outside Indian--predominantly Indian school

about five mile outside Pembroke, is that right?

S: That's right, and I may add that they don't have any Black kids at their school

even now. I mean it's--was integrated when I was in seventh grade over there, and

that's the highest grade, and we only had one Black girl, and she only stayed for








LUM 130A 11


about a month, and they don't have any Black students now.

B: Wonder why?

S: Well, maybe--there's a Black school right near this school, but, like, I guess

that Black school has some Indian students enrolled in it.

B: How do you think most of the Indian people, talking about, and we'll get back to

your parents in just a minute, how do you think most Indian people feel about

Blacks? Do you think there are any Indians who are prejudiced against Blacks, for

instance?

S: Well, of course, you're going to find that, but, like I said, I think they feel that

the Blacks and themselves have been treated about the same by the White people, and

I guess they, sort of like, have sympathy for each other, you know, and, you know,

they were--both realize that they had to go through something tough, and I guess

this is why there's less friction between them.

B: Right. Okay, and let's get back to your back--family background. Now, what did

you say your father did for a living?

S: He's a farmer..

B: A farmer?

S: Right.

B: Okay, your mother's a school teacher, your father's a farmer, and, uh, you have any

sisters or brothers?

S: I have one older sister, and a neice and a nephew.

B: And that's a small family for a Indian.

S: Yeah, I guess so.

B: (Laughs) Now here's an interesting question I'ld like to put to each interviewee.

Are you proud to be a Lumbee Indian of Robeson County?

S: Of course, I am. Um, I think everybody's proud of their Indian heritage. Maybe,

like, some of them don't really let it be known because they're afraid. Like if,

um, you know, somebody they just met, or something, finds out that, you know, I'm









LUM 130A 12


a Lumbee Indian, well, they're going to treat them bad. I mean, because they're

going to be prejudiced to--to them, and I guess they've had enough of this, but

still, I think they're--there are those who, you know, let you know they're Lumbee

Indians no matter what it puts them through.

B: So, in this day and time people do take pride in being a Lumbee Indian.

S: Right.

B: Now, about--there's some of our brothers and sisters who want to be called Tuscarora

Indians. How do you feel about that? Do you feel that they have the right to

name themselves?

S: Okay, for our people, the Lumbee people--the Lumbee Indians we're not really all

Indian. I mean, and they knew that, and all of us are part Tuscarora, Cherokee,

White, unfortunately, but I think that we were given the name Lumbee Indians, which--

it's a name that really says we're part of--of all these different tribes, and

I don't really think that they have the right to say that, you know, I'm a--you know,

you're saying you're a Tuscarora, it's like saying I'm a full-blooded Tuscarora

Indian, and I think they ought to take in consideration how the other Tuscarora

tribes will feel about this, you know, without going--going ahead, you know, giving

themselves the authority to name themselves Tuscaroras, but. .

B: You'ld just as soon be a Lumbee?

S: Right.

B: Okay, Bonnie, do you know where the name Lumbee Indian came from?

S: Well, some of the Tuscaroras would say it was taken out of the river, but I guess--

no I'm not really--I really don't know, but I--if I was going to assume, I would

say that things and people are named from surroundings, or, and I guess since we

have lived on the Lumber River, it would be from the Lumber River.

B: Right. I think that's right because they used to call the Lumber River the Lumbee

River, so I think that's where the name came from. Do you think it's an appropriate

name?









LUM 130A 13


S: Yes, I mean as appropriate as any other name that we've been given. I mean we--we

were once called Cherokees, but we're not really Cherokees, so we don't have the

authority to say I'm a Cherokee, just like the Tuscaroras don't have the authority

to say I'm a Tuscarora.

B: Right. We'll continue this on Side II.

SIDE II


B: This is Side II continuing the interview with Bonnie Gail Sampson. Interviewer:

Bruce Barton. Okay, Bonnie, we've covered most of the specifics, now. Let's talk

a little bit about generalities. What do you see is the future for the Lumbee

Indian of Robeson County? Do you think we'll eventually be--intermarry ourselves

out of existence, or do you think people will take a look at what we have, and try

to maintain our culture, and get to work, and try to get some things together so

that we won't be extinct in the future, like some of our brothers and sisters have--

has happened to them?

S: Well, yeah, I think that we'll--that our Indian people will try to keep our culture,

and our tribe together. I think that now that the people have taken a greater inter-

est in our inheritance and our background, and I think they want to, uh, make

better what we are.

B: What do you think's the difference, uh, with your generation say with your parents

generation. Do you think kids are more aware today, then, say your mother and

father's generation? I mean, are they more interested--the young today, are they

more interested in heritage and being an Indian, and taking part in politics, and

that kind of thing?

S: Yeah, and the reason, or at least the reason I feel, is because, okay, if you--you

want to be an individual, and being an Indian is being unique, and being an Indian

now is not so much--there's not so much prejudice, and there's not as much discri-

mination against us, as it was like in my mother and father's day, you know, Barry

Lowry's day, and I--I just think they want to find themselves, you know--impove









LUM 130A 14


themselves.

B: Uh, you think--there's a story going around that most everyone you meet has, uh,

his grandmother, or grandfather, as this guy put it onetime, a Cherokee (pronounced

Sherokee). Is that the way you feel most people feel about being an Indian now?

It's something that they--they're proud of. That's a little pun. You never say

Cherokee.

S: Uh, okay, I--yeah. Everybody wants to be recognized, you know. Especially like,

okay, I meet somebody, and you know, they find out I'm an Indian, and they go, now

you know, my grandmamma was part Cherokee, but they never feel like, I--they never

think about I can reply, well, my grandmamma was a White lady too, you know, but

I don't really find that many who want to say my father and my grandfather was an

Indian.

B: That's interesting, 'cause I--not so much in Robeson County, but among the full-

bloods they run into that quite a bit. Well, how do you think things are going to

go politically in the future? Do you think, um, with a little background I might

say that, you know, that in Robeson County, it's a tri-racial county--three races.

We have the Black, we have the Indian, and we have the White; and that the--it's

almost equal in population--somewhere around thirty thousand for each. That's in

round figures with give or take a couple of thousand, but it's always been interesting

to me that Whites have always held all the offices, been superintendent of the

schools, and this kind of thing. Why do you think Indians and Blacks haven't been

able to take over Robeson County politically?

S: Okay, you got to go back real far and think about--they really never had that--an

opportunity to vote. They weren't allowed to vote, and I guess, some of them may

have the attitude that, uh, you know, the White people have already--always run

this county, they've always run over me, so, you know, why should I try to change

it now, when, um, I mean, it's always been done to me, but I feel, like now, our

Indian people and the Black people will try to have some togetherness, and bring









LUM 130A 15


about a change. I mean, even now I can see that they're trying awful hard, and I--

I feel that, ur, in years to come, with my generation, that they're really going to

try to have equalism in Robeson County, so that--so it'll be a fair opportunity to

all ot 4 -

B: Seems kind of easy to do, though, if you--if just the Blacks and Indians would get

together, but it seems to me there's something we haven't put our finger on as why

can't the Indian and Black get together politically. Are they jealous of each other

or, or is there prejudice on either side?

S: Well, okay, for instance, among the Indian people, at least this is the way I feel,

and, uh, I'm entitled to my opinion, but so is everybody else, I feel that among

our Indian race there is, uh, the prejudice, or jealousy towards your brother. I

think that, alright, our people--Indian people hate to see somebody really moving

up, you know, benefitting themselves, even if they really, really worked hard for

a long time. You got your different societies in our Indian race, too, and I feel,

okay, my mamma and father, they're not wealthy people, but they're not poverty

stricken, and I feel that I'm not in the big society, and I feel like I've been

rejected because I'm not, you know, I don't got a lot of money, and all that stuff,

but still, I mean that I feel that way, but still I can see a change where the

young people are starting to accept each other for being a person and not for having

a whole bunch of money, and stuff.

B: But now, have you ever heard a Indian call another Indian a--in a derogatory sense,

a nigger?

S: Yeah.

B: Do you think maybe this has something to do with the reason Indians and Blacks don't

control things politically, and socially, and economically in Robeson County? I

think we're on to something here, because when I was a boy, I don't know how it was

when you were growing up, but when we'ld be out playing, and one of us would be

angry with the other, we'ld say, you Black nigger, or something like that, you know,









LUM 130A 16


and use it in a very derogatory sort of way, and I--can you account for why, uh,

there might be prejudice, uh, on the Indians part toward a Black, or vice versa?

S: Okay, um, the--the Black person being in Robeson County being, or, as a matter of

fact, all over the United States, for a long time they were really, really looked

down on, and I guess we got a--as Indian people we--we are looked down on to, but

we got to find somebody to pick on so, you know, we all--we already know that the

White people control everything, so, I guess, the next thing we could go to is be
it 1i
nigger--call somebody a nigger, but maybe now no--in this thing of trying to get

aqn L____ and I've heard people call other people honkies, you know, and

that's really putting them down, too.

B: That sounds a little bit better than nigger, doesn't it?

S: Yeah.

B: Well, this used to be prevalent, I think, among the older people, but you think

that the young are getting away from this?

S: Yes.

B: Well, I certainly hope so. That ought to be our salvation. Do you have any Black

friends in school?

S: Yes, um, as a matter of fact, one of my better friends is a Black guy, and we both--

we've gotten some real pretty good conversations about our racism here in Robeson

County, and how we're both been looked down on, and how in elementary school there

was a lot of prejudice.

B: I think one thing, uh, a lot of our people like a lot of the Whites, are afraid

of Blacks sexually, but we won't get into that. They're always afraid they're

going to run off with their woman, or something, and I think probably the Indians

might feel the same way. We won't get into that. That's too volatile, but do you

plan to live in Robeson County, for instance, after you finish school? I know

we have a migration out of Robeson County. A lot of our talented Indian youth,

when they finish school, they all go somewhere else, you know, especially if they're









LUM 130A 17


a little above the norm, and, uh, do you think you'll come back here and live

when you finish college?

S: Well, looking at it from a--a standpoint of wanting a good job, no, I really don't

want to, but being here to help my people, I want to, but, you know, having a bit

of selfishness about me, I'ld want to better myself, and I'ld want to go away and--

for better opportunity.

B: Yeah, I think there aren't very many opportunities here, unless you teach school,

right?

S: Right, and who wants to teach school. I mean teachers have to be very talented

people. I mean, patient people who give their time to--for your benefit, to help

you learn, but still that's their job.

B: Do you think an Indian teacher, from what you've been able to see from the students'

viewpoint, do you think they are--they have certain restrictions about what they

can teach and what they can't teach?

S: Uh, their ability to do things, do you mean?

B: No. Do you think the Robeson County Board of Education puts any restrictions on them

as far as teaching them about Indian history, and, uh, how the political system works

in Robeson County, and this kind of thing?

S: Well, this would most likely come under history courses, and, well, in the history

courses I've taken--one was world history, and one was U.S. history--American

history, and believe it or not, I had a White -tf teacher who wanted to get

on our local Indian history, and we--last year we learnt some things, or I didn't

learn anything because I had already read these books, but we went over some things

that were about our people, about my hero Henry Barry Lowry.

B: And then it was a White tiracu teacher who had to tell the kids about these

kind of things.

S: Yes, and, I mean, I feel that's pretty bad when, like when our own Indian people

won't offer us this information, but maybe this is something we got to go out and

get for ourself if we really want it, and we will, if we really want it.









LUM 130A 18


B- Right, now talking about--I--I'm kind of interested in this subject of double

voting. You know, there's a movement on to break double voting, and I'm all

for it, and try to helping it every way I can, but do you--do you think the majority

of Indian students on the--in the high schools know exactly what double voting is?

The fact that, uh, some people in the county can vote twice on school board

elections, and some can only vote once, and those that can only vote once, more

than likely, ninety-five percent of the time are Indian people? Do you think

they've been made aware of this?

S: I think they know from listening to radio, reading newspapers. They've got a

kind of an overall view of it, but they really don't know details about it.

B: That's kind of sad, and I guess I have to take some of the blame for that 'cause

I ought to be telling them more about it, and hope to. Well, I think there's

one thing that all of us can agree on, and that's Henry Barry Lowry. Do you know

very much about him?

S: Well, I--I've read some books about him, or, and I've done some other research,

but as knowing as much as I want to know, I just know he's my hero.

B: Could you tell us just a little bit about Henry Barry Lowry? What you know.

S: Okay, like, uh, in the Civil War the Indian people--during this time the Indian

people people of re- COlo I and the Black people and Indian people

had no right to vote, had no right to bear arms, and, but yet, they were--the

Indian young, able bodied Indian boys were taken down to this camp where--that was

embedded with a bad disease, and they were made to work there for no salary, or

very little, if any..... &eSh i A Af k C

B: Henry Barry Lowry's father's name? Allen.

S: Okay, and these Indian boys j people, came out into these, um, wooded

areas, and, um, they, like, bought food from them--brought food to them, and, um,

they were people--rumors were started that Henry Barry Lowry's people were the

ones who were--they were going around to White people's homes and stealing their








LUM 130A 19


foods and stealing their ammunition, and so, this--this group of White men went

out to Allen Lowry's house and found ammunition on his land, and he was punished,

and some people say that Henry Barry Lowry saw the--saw him being killed. He was

punished by being--they shot him, and they locked-- 1 s 2 a.,his momma up, and they

said that Henry Barry Lowry saw his father shot, saw him dig his own grave, and

he was shot like in--in his grave, and so they say that he went out to get revenge-

which I think was right.

B: You think it was justified.

S: Yes. Yeah, I do, because I don't think that you're, um, that these men who done

this would have been given any punishment, and I feel that the only way that they

would have--to get justice--justice was for Henry Barry Lowry to do it this way,

even if that means killing somebody, which is wrong, I know, but this was a start

for the--for the Indian people, and it's saying you can't run over me all my

life. I will take a chance and do something for myself.

B: You're saying this was during the Civil War, and these people that killed Henry

Barry Lowry's dad must be the militia that was the Home Guard they called.

S: Right.

B: You remember from reading and from legend how many people Henry Barry Lowry is

supposed to have killed?

S: No, I don't remember exactly the number, but I know he killed like--he was supposed

to be killed all the people in this Home Guard, and what was so rotten about it,

this guy, he was a Uarrf; guy, and his--we had some Indian people who their

last name was Harris. He was, um, having affairs, or whatever, with some Indian

women, which was--I think he should have been squashed to death, really killed,

'cause he could go out and have an Indian lady for a mistress, but he could treat

our other Indian people rotten, and I think he shouldn't have had any satisfaction

with our Indian women.

B: I think Henry Barry got him.

S: Yeah.









LUM 130A 20


B: (Laughs) Do you know anything, uh, have you heard anything from talking to old

people and from reading what little bit of historical record we have on anything

about his personality of Henry Barry Lowry?

S: I can't--I remember reading about him, but I don't remember reading that much

about his--his personality. I do know that he was a very handsome Indian, but, uh,

as--maybe I did read about his personality, but, you know, real--knowing what he

done, I realize that he was the one who wanted justice.

B: What are some of the things you heard about--like what did he--how he treated

other Indian people, and so forth? Have you heard any legends about him from the

old people?

S: Well, I hadn't really talked to that many old people about him, but, um, .

B: Where do you get your information about Henry Barry Lowry?

S: Um, from the books that I 45 V)A and then, um, ,i i_ what kind of books?

I know there's a Lowry History Book in Pembroke State University Library, and,

you know, just hearsay from other people.

B: Well you do feel very strongly about Henry Barry LowryV.

S: Yes, all, uh, he's just my hero, and when I think about what the people done to--what

the White people done to his people, and how we were treated, it makes me angered.

B: Did you ever hear about, uh, what happened to him?

S: They really don't know. They say he went away. Some say he may have committed

suicide, but I don't think he would have, 'cause I don't think, you know, like,

maybe he committed suicide because that was bothering his--on his conscience what

he done, but I don't--it wouldn't have been on my conscience .$ 4I4 rk l ,.**

I know they were out to get him.

B: Everybody needs a hero, don't they?

S: Right.

B: One theory is that he went away to Georgia and worked in a turpentine mine and

lived to be a hundred and five. Would you like to think that's what might have

happened?









LUM 130A 21


S: I just like to think that he was--spent the rest of his life being--you know,

financially okay, and being able to sit around and think about the revenge he

got.

B: Alright, so if somebody, you know, in one history book I've read that there said

something about him shooting his brother and stuff. You don't want to talk about

that, do you? You'ld know he was a--he--you think he is a good man no matter

what you might hear.

S: A good man for his people. I mean, anyrWhite person who would feel Henry Barry

Lowry was their hero, I'ld think there was something wrong with him, 'cause I think

all people should feel--work, I mean, you know, want to work for their people.

B: Right, that's interesting, 'cause I kind of feel the same way about Henry Barry

Lowry. He's just a hero and, uh, historical facts aside, I'ld just as soon leave

it at that, wouldn't you?

S: Yes.

B: Alright, Henry Barry Lowryja hero of the people. Now, would you like to see the

Indian communittee do something to memorialize Henry Barry Lowry, like maybe--what

would you think of them naming Pembroke State University after Henry Barry Lowry?

S: Yeah, that would be fine too, because, well what--I mean I really don't know what

the name Pembroke means or where it came from. I mean, if it has any Indian back-

ground that's fine, but everybody, or at least all Indian people, Lumbee Indian

people should know who Henry Barry Lowry is.

B: The only thing I ever heard about Pembroke is the legend that there was a breakman

on the--on the railroad that--that used to come through here. His name was Pembroke

Jones. (Laughs)

S: Was he a Honkee? rnky

B: He was a Honkee (sp?) yeah. (Laughs)

S: Well, who wants to name an Ind--supposed to be Indian college after a Honkee?

B: Well, let's look into that. I--I really don't know why--where Pembroke came from,









LUM 130A 22


but, uh, Henry Barry Lowryville probably would sound a little bit better.

S: Yeah, a lot better.

B: Okay, what do you see ahead for us in the years to come as a people?. Will we get

stronger or weaker, or do you think we'll have some kind of working relationship

with the Blacks? Do you think we'll ever just intermarry until there's none of us

left? Overall view, what do you think?

S: Well, seeing what I see now, and seeing how the people are trying to face COWYIn

within theirself, I think it--it will just ip!TP4 Cf and make it better for all

of us.

B: Is Pembroke's Senior High School--what--what is the name of--I know Pembroke State

University, the name of their athletic team is--is the Braves. Do the senior high

school try to play up the fact that they're an Indian community?

S: We're the Warriors.

B: Warriors.

S: That's right.

B: Uh, I guess somehow, that that could be construed as having a Indian thought behind

it. During homecoming and celebrations and this kind of thing, do they play up the

fact of being a predominantly Indian school?

S: Right, we got our symbol is an Indian head, and during homecoming game our foot-

ball players, including the Blacks and Whites, all wore war paint.

B: Blacks and Whites too?

S: Right.

B: Well that's interesting. Uh, we certainly appreciate you taking the time to do--

sit still for a moment and give us this interview. Can you think of anything else

that you'd like to add to this interview, maybe that, uh, hasn't been said that

you'd like to say?

S: Uh, I was thinking about looking at how our Indian people are doing, and to stop

putting a name, like Indian people on them. Looking at them as their humans, and








LUM 130A 23


I was thinking about the teenage problem with the drugs and stuff like this. I

think it's our communittee should find some means of recreation and some enjoyment

for our young people. This bit about the drug thing would--would not--it probably

wouldn't be solved, but it would be decreased, and I--I want, like the older

people accepting their, you know, their being a generation gap, and they're not

accepting any young people because they got long hair, and all this stuff. Because

I got this one friend who has blond curly hair even though he's an Indian, and

he is really, really a smart guy, but well, he's not accepted as much as the other

students because he has this long hair, and he don't give a reck about a lot

of things that everybody else thinks are fantastic, and like his financial stand-

ings are not really super great, and I just think that he isn't given a fair

chance because of who he is. I think he could be valedictorian of our school--

all Robeson County as far as that goes, 'cause he is really smart, but I don't think

that he's given a fair opportunity 'cause of who he is. I just want to see people

accepted for what they are.

B: So you're proud to be an Indian, but you don't think it's enough to make you a

negative kind of person, and that, uh, humanity comes first.

S: Yeah.

B: Well I think you're pretty smart to be seventeen, and pretty, and we thank you

very much for allowing us to interview you, and, uh, what more can I say except

thank you very much.

S: And you're welcome.





Full Text

PAGE 1

LUM 13OA Date: November 18, 1973 Subject: Bonnie Gail Sampson Interviewer: Bruce Barton Typist: Josephine Suslowicz SIDE I B: This is Side I. I'm interviewing Bonnie Gail Sampson at the office of The Carolina Indian Voice in Pembroke, North Carolina. This is November 18, 1973. Interviewer is, uh, Bruce Barton. Bonnie we appreciate you giving us this interview. As you know, it's part of the Oral History Program--Oral Indian History Program from the University of Florida, and hopefully, one day we'll have the transcript of this for our Old Main Museum. So you might be being recorded for posterity's sake. Now would you tell us to--just to get it off because you're nervous and your hand's trembling, what your name _is? S: Bonnie Sampson. B: That's B-O-N-N-I-E? S: Yes. B: Alright, good. Now, could you just give us a brief history of Bonnie? Is it Bonnie, or Bonnie Gail? S: B: S: Bonnie Gail. That's G:A-I-L? Yes. B: (Laughs) You are nervous, aren't you? Well, could you just tell us a little bit S: about yourself? Couldn't =,::::: k.lltl'lf B: Okay, Bonnie. No need to be nervous, now. Just tell me a little bit about yourself. How old you are, where you go to school, your parents, where you live, S: that kind of Well, I was thing. fDe..ef 13-a~ [,v..J My mother's name, Margaret Sampson; my father's et,{1u ~'"" .__ I'm seventeen. I'm now at Pembroke Senior High, and going to my grade school I went to Union Elementary near Rolard, and then I went to Pembroke Junior High in eighth and ninth.

PAGE 2

LUM 130A B: You're a senior at Pembroke High this year? S: That's right. B: Well, you're very pretty. Too bad we can't get your prettiness on tape, and you--were you born in Deep Branch? S: I was born in Ltmtberton Hospital. B: Right, but your--your parents live at Deep Branch, right? S: Right. B: How far is that from Pembroke? S: Four miles. 2 B: Alright, good. Now you say you're seventeen and we wanted to tell--talk a little bit on this tape about what teenagers do in Pembroke. Now to talk about your heritage a little bit, you are a Lumbee Indian, are you not? S: Yes. B: Alright now, one thing I'm interested in in getting in this tape so that we will have it as part of the history, we're interested a little bit about what does a teenage Lumbee Indian do in Robeson County when you're not going to school? S: Well, considering I live in a very small communittee, that the recreation is very limited so, uh, I usually go to baseball, basketball, football games, and the extra school activities like the dances, and that's about it. ,There's not really that many things to do. B: Just ride around a lot? I noticed that a lot of kids ride around in cars on the weekend. Are you part of that migration? S: Yes, sir. That's only because we don't have any other things to do. B: Well, what kind of things can you think of that the communit}"could do for the young? S: Uh, have places like where we could socialize, like folk dances, a~d more dances. B: Do you think not having anything to do is one of the reasons we have such a high mortality rate in Robeson County among young people? You know, young people

PAGE 3

LUM 130A 3 --young guys going out drinking, killing each other, and that kind of thing. S: Yes. B: And you say that the young go nowhere in particular except to high school dances. They don't have a recreation center where you can go? S: No. B: No recreation center. Alright, well, let's talk a little bit about school. You say you go to Pembroke High. Now, do you remember going to, uh, where you still in high school when integration began? S: I was in grallllll8r grade school. B: You were in grallllll8r grade school? Well, another thing I'm interested in in developing--doing this interview, is how Indian kids get along with Black and White kids. Do they have any problem adjusting? S: Yes, they do. B: What kind of problem? S: Um, well, everybody's going to be prejudiced against the people that are not of their race, and in Robeson County there's a big friction between the White people and the Indian people. I don't think it's so much the kids. I think that their parents put it into them--put it in them that they are better than we are, and they--they--I think the kids would be willing to treat us human or equal with them, but they realize, you know, that maybe their parents will find out, and they'll get a big hassle from them. Now with the Black kids--I mean I find less prejudice among them and the Indians, but still there's a friction in them. B: There's still a--still a friction between Black and Indian, anyway, but not as much as between Indian and White. S: Right, because, you see, the Indian and Black had been treated about the same, so, you know, they both know what it's like to be discriminated against, and they--I guess they think about this. B: Right. Uh, both of us know that the--where I went to school and where you went until you were in grallllll8r school, it was an all Indian affair, and we really didn't

PAGE 4

LUM 130A 4 have any, uh, way of comparing ourselves against Indian and Black--against White and Black. How do Indian kids, uh, measure up to Whites and Blacks as far as scholastics go, start~~~sfar as their grade and leadership ability, holding classes, uh, offices for classes and that kind of thing? S: Well, at our school the majority of the kids are Indian and there're very few White people, and then, I guess, the second largest is the Black group, and I find that the Indian kids are just as capable, if not better, perhaps I'm being prejudiced, and they seem to not really run our school, but they are voted in the most offices, and I think they're just--right when the awards are handed out, they're in the top ranks, too. B: It's the Indian children--students? S: Yeah, Indian. B: Well, you proved a point, as far as I'm concerned, that Indian girls are prettier than any other race. I'm not prejudiced ,. No comment on that? S: What am I supposed to say? B: (Laughs) Alright, but because, you know, there are a couple of things, too. I wonder how high school students and teenagers feel about politics. Are they interested in politics in general? S: I think so, and I 'ld really like to getiim,i:rlved and learn more about it, and I think a lot of other kids would too, and I think it would, like, help them when they get older, or, I guess most of the kids my age are nowgetting--oh, next year they'll be able to vote, and if they could learn more about this, if there's only some kind of project, or something offerred so we could learn more about this--politics, or politicians or whatever. B: Why, that's interesting. Now, do you know there are six separate school systems in Robeson County, and a lot of people can't believe that we have six separate school systems, and the largest, of course, is the Robeson County Board of Education where Indians--most of the Indians go. Do you think, just from your

PAGE 5

LUM 130A second-hand knowledge, maybe, of the situation, do you think that a student--an Indian student at Pembroke Senior High gets as good an education as the kid--a White kid from Lumberton High? 5 S: Of course not, 'cause our school--I don't think our school is as well equipped. We don't have the facilities to work with and our main, like, I think Lumberton High is just a better built school then ours, and I think that's because of people being prejudiced. Maybe not, I mean I know that our school was built on a state thing, and there's the city. B: Right. Our--Pembroke Senior High is in the Robeson County School system, and Lumberton High is in the Lumberton City School system. Well, let's talk a little bit about why. Why do you think we have such a poor school? I know at--at the college here in town, which was once an all Indian college, Pembroke State Univer sity, I notice out of between two and three thousand enrollment there are only about two hundred Indian students enrolled at Pembroke Senior High, and do you think this is part of the reason that we just don't have as good an education as they do in the other school systems, for instance? S: Yeah, I think that, um, like they're not--it 1 s not their fault that they're not as educated. I'm not saying that we're dumber than anybody. I'm saying that the majority of our kids don't get the education that they are worthy of. I don't know. B: I think that's well put. , do you know, uh, you know, there's a lot of talk right now about double voting. Do you know what double voting is? S: Yes, it's where the people who--like the city systems get to vote on, uh, county system representatives. B: And the county people don't get to vote on the city. S: Right. B: So the people living in the--within the city school administrative unit vote twice, and residents within the county administrative units only vote once, right? S: That's right.

PAGE 6

LUM 130A 6 B: We want to be sure and mention that. Well, how--how do you think that young teenagers feel about Old Main? You know that we've had--Old Main is the first building on the P.S.U. campus--Pembroke State University campus, and it was once an all Indian College, and the Old Main was the college for a long time until they began to add buildings, and, you know, there was a move a couple of years ago to tear down Old Main and replace it with another building, and since then it's been burned, and I wonder if the teenagers feel as strongly about preserving Old Main as some of the elder people do? S: Uh, the Indian teenagers I think do, because this is really their only symbol of being an Indian college, or once being an Indian college because now the, like you said, the major part of the college is mostly White, and there's very few Inpians, ..:::r:;...,1 i AM $~ I"' h, Jo t .J and, also, that if the Indian--if Pembroke was more--a.:ttd Ute laQii.:Mts s;mtoiizcd school, or whatever, you know, was just--that more of our kids would want to go there, if it was made--like there's a lot of out of state kids coming there. If it was made, uh, like, harder for them to get in and more--and, you know, made it popular because it was an Indian school that more--more of our kids would want to go there, because we're not--when you're out looking for a job, you know, society shouldn't recall the fact that, you know, you graduated from Pembroke and, uh, the person whols comp,eting against you graduated from Chapel Hill, but they are, even if you are just as well qualified. They're going to take the person who went to the better school. B: Right. Now, let me ask you a very pointed question and see how you feel about this. Have you ever been discriminated against because you are a Lumbee Indian of Robeson County? S: Yes, I have. B: Can you remember a particular instance? S: Well, it's not just like one particular instance. It's, um, okay, Lumberton is a

PAGE 7

LUM 130A predominantly White city, and I feel a friction when I go there, because I--I think they're looking down on me, or discriminating me because I'm an Indian. B: We all have the same problem. (Laughs) How many Blacks are there at Pembroke Senior High now? Do you have any idea at all? S: About maybe eighty. Between eighty and a hundred. I'm not sure. B: Do you know how many--what the total enrollment is at--in round figures? S: Between seven hundred and 850. 7 B: So there's about eighty Black students there. About how many Whites would you say? S: Maybe forty, if that many. B: And the rest are Indian. S: Right. B: So, how do you feel about--I know one thing that disturbs me~ lot, and maybe this is prejudice in reverse, but I've always been alarmed because a lot--a lot of our pretty Indian girls go off and marry, uh, right now mostly White. How do you feel about intermarriage like, uh, Indian marrying White? Would you consider, uh, marrying a White guy? S: Well that's if I was really in love with him, but, you know, I don't think it's that much in my age now that Indian girls want a White guy, I think it was more like before--like maybe ten years ago when the White people were really, really thought they were tops, you know, and so, I guess to feel tops, an Indian girl wanted to marry a White guy, but I think our Indian girls now really feel proud about their Indian heritage, and I guess they want to keep it within their race, or at least I do. B: Right. Let's see, you know the voting age has been lowered to eighteen, now, and a lot of people feel like this is going to make a difference in Robeson County among Indian voters--have a lot of young Indian people. Do you plan to register to vote just as soon as you're eighteen, or have you given it any thought?

PAGE 8

LUM 130A 8 S: Yeah, I want to be able to voice my opinion, or vote my opinion in, or whatever. B: Uh, and you also know that, uh, Robeson County has been predominantly ~mocratic since time itmDemorial, and right now there's a movement on among a lot of young Indians to change registration to Republican. Do you know anything about the difference in the two parties? S: I don't know as much as I'ld like to know. That's where I'ld like to be educated in politics. B: Well, do they have any kind of course at, uh, Pembroke Senior High telling you about the difference in the political parties, for instance? S: Well, not like a after-school course, they don't. I think like in our history courses it's about--there's a section, maybe nine weeks, it's on politics, or something like that. B: Right. Do they have, uh, a particular course that tells about the history of the Lumbee Indians, per se? S: Well again, in that same history course I'm not sure if they're going to do some thing on local history, and I--they, they might have a course on local history, and I guess it would be--there would be something about Indians, and some about Blacks and Whites too. B: S: B: S: Okay, but do you--you do feel that there's a need for this. For educational. r.e,.50hS., .... ? A course on the history of the Lumbee Indian of Robeson County, for instance. Yes, I think our Indian people should be, uh, shown, taught, how--what--how we were really discriminated against. B: Do they have any kind of course, for instance, that tells about double voting, and explains why there's six schools--separate school systems in Robeson County? S: I don't think so. B: They never mention why all the Indians go to Robeson County School System, for instance?

PAGE 9

LUM 130A 9 S: No. B: Hnnn, I wonder about that. Okay Bonnie, now another interesting question I have for you is what do you plan to do after you finish school? S: College you mean? B: Yeah, are you planning to go on to college? S: Yes, and I want to go away. B: You don't want to go to Pembroke State University? S: No, because I feel that when I go to look for a job that it--who I'm competing against, if they've gone to a better school, that, um, they'll look at, you know, our two different schools and that will be the basic thing they use to decide whose going to get the job even if I am as well qualified, or better than that person. I want to go--I want to be an accountant, and I'ld like to major inhave two majors; bilogical sciences, and business, and I'ld like to be able to help my Indian people, like be an accountant for youth or people -::pr((/OIA'f~ 1 ()-{ ,h,,, Carolina Indian Voice, B: Do you think the Indian people will let you help them? S: Uh, well, at least I hope they will. I'm not sure whether they'll accept me or not, but I'm willing ito. B: How do you think you could help your people, for instance, as an accountant? Can you see any ways that you might help them? For instance, VA or FHA, helping them process loans, and this kind of thing? S: Yeah, those who are less fortunate to be able to B: Yeah, that's fine. Okay, now, if I understand you correctly, you would not want to go to P.S.U. because it doesn't seem to be, uh, on equity with U.N.C. or Duke, or some of these schools, is that right? S: That's right, because Pembroke is just, um, too easy to get in. I--I mean not really--not, you know, a breeze. You can I t just walk through 1:#' college, but what I mean to say, you know, too easy to get into, people who, like, failed out

PAGE 10

LUM 130A 10 at other schools, or are not, you know, well qualified to go to a bigger school. Like out of state kids who just come here, like it could be a breeze for them. B: What do you think P.S.U. could do to make it more, uh, of a challenge to Indian kids, and something that they would be proud to say, I went to P.S.U. How--what could they do? S: Okay, for instance, most of the out of state kids are White kids. Make it harder for them to come, and, and to let, like, you know, kids around the communittee get in, and make it more like a--not a predominantly Indian school. You know, no~ have just Indian kids, but have it an Indian, something about the Indian heritage. Make it famous for that. B: So you don't think P.S.U, has really gone out and looked hard for good Indian students? S: No, 'cause other states--they let the White kids and Indian kids come to them. B: Yeah, I think they've fallen down there, but that's just the interviewer's opinion. I'm supposed to be interviewing. Okay, well, you've got it pretty well figured out about what you want to do in the future, and if you can follow through, it seems like it would be a pretty good thing. Let's talk a little bi~ about your home life. Uh, what did you say your parents' names were? S: My mother is Margaret Sampson, and my father is Edwin Sampson. B: How do you spell that Edwin? S: E-D-W-I-N. B: What does your mother do for a living, or does she work? S: She's a school teacher at Union Elementary. B: That's .a school about, uh, five miles outside Indian--predominantly Indian school about five mile outside Pembroke, is that right? S: That's right, and I may add that they don't have any Black kids at their school even now. I mean it's--was integrated when I was in seventh grade over there, and that's the highest grade, and we only had one Black girl, and she only stayed for

PAGE 11

LUM 130A about a month, and they don't have any Black students now. B: Wonder why? S: Well, maybe--there's a Black school right near this school, but, like, I guess that Black school has some Indian students enrolled in it. 11 B: How do you think most of the Indian people, talking about, and we'll get back to your parents in just a minute, how do you think most Indian people feel about Blacks? Do you think there are any Indians who are prejudiced against Blacks, for instance? S: Well, of course, you're going to find that, but, like I said, I think they feel that the Blacks and themselves have been treated about the same by the White people, and I guess they, sort of like, have sympathy for each other, you know, and, you know, they were--both realize that they had to go through something tough, and I guess this is why there's less friction between them. B: Right. Okay, and let's get back to your back--family background. Now, what did you say your father did for a living? S: He's a farmer._ B: A farmer? S: Right. B: Okay, your mother's a school teacher, your father's a farmer, and, uh, you have any sisters or brothers? S: I have one older sister, and a neice and a nephew. B: And that's a small family for a Indian. S: Yeah, I guess so. B: (Laughs) Now here's an interesting question I'ld like to put to each interviewee. Are you proud to be a Lumbee Indian of Robeson County? S: Of course, I am. Um, I think everybody's proud of their Indian heritage. Maybe, like, some of them don't really let it be known because they're afraid. Like if, um, you know, somebody they just met, or something, finds out that, you know, I'm

PAGE 12

LUM 130A 12 a Lumbee Indian, well, they're going to treat them bad. I mean, because they're going to be prejudiced to--to them, and I guess they've had enough of this, but still, I think they're--there are those who, you know, let you know they're Lumbee Indians no matter what it puts them through. B: So, in this day and time people do take pride in being a Lumbee Indian. S: Right. B: Now, about--there's some of our brothers and sisters who want to be called Tuscarora Indians. How do you feel about that? Do you feel that they have the right to name themselves? S: Okay, for our people, the Lumbee people--the Lumbee Indians we're not really all Indian. I mean, and they knew that, and all of us are part Tuscarora, Cherokee, _White, unfortunately, but I think that we were given the name Lumbee Indians, whichit's a name that really says we're part of--of all these different tribes, and I don't really think that they have the right to say that, you know, I'm a--you know, you're saying you're a Tuscarora, it's like saying I'm a full-blooded Tuscarora Indian, and I think they ought to take in consideration how the other Tuscarora tribes will feel about this, you know, without going--going ahead, you know, giving themselves the authority to name themselves Tuscaroras, but ... B: You'ld just as soon be a Lumbee? S: Right. B: Okay, Bonnie, do you know where the name Lumbee Indian came from? S: Well, some of the Tuscaroras would say it was taken out of the river, but I guessno I'm not really--I really don't know, but I--if I was going to assume, I would say that things and people are named from surroundings, or, and I guess since we have lived on the Lumber River, it would be from the Lumber River. B: Right. I think that's right because they used to call the Lumber River the Lumbee River, so I think that's where the name came from. Do you think it's an appropriate name?

PAGE 13

LUM 130A 13 S: Yes, I mean as appropriate as any other name that we've been given. I mean we--we were once called Cherokees, but we're not really Cherokees, so we don't have the authority to say I'm a Cherokee, just like the Tuscaroras don't have the authority to say I'm a Tuscarora. B: Right. We'll continue this on Side II. SIDE II B: This is Side II continuing the interview with Bonnie Gail Sampson. Interviewer: Bruce Barton. Okay, Bonnie, we've covered most of the specifics, now. Let's talk a little bit about generalities. What do you see is the future for the Lumbee Indian of Robeson County? Do you think we'll eventually be--intermarry ourselves out of existance, or do you think people will take a look at what we have, and try to maintain our culture, and get to work, and try to get some things together so that we won't be extinct in the future, like some of our brothers and sisters havehas happened to them? S: Well, yeah, I think that we'll--that our Indian people will try to keep our culture, and our tribe together. I think that now that the people have taken a greater inter est in our inheritance and our background, and I think they want to, uh, make qetter what we are. B: What do you think's the difference, uh, with your generation say with your parents generation. Do you think kids are more aware today, then, say your mother and father's generation? I mean, are they more interested--the young today, are they more interested in heritage and being an Indian, and taking part in politics, and that kind of thing? S: Yeah, and the reason, or at least the reason I feel, is because, okay, if you--you want to be an individual, and being an Indian is being unique, and being an Indian now is not so much--there's not so much prejudice, and there's not as much discri mination against us, as it was like in my mother and father's day, you know, Ba=y Lowry's day, and I--I just think they want to find themselves, you know--impove

PAGE 14

LUM 130A 14 themselves. B: Uh, you think--there's a story going around that most everyone you meet has, uh, his grandmother, or grandfather, as this guy put it onetime, a Cherokee (pronounced Sherokee). Is that the way you feel most people feel about being an Indian now? It's something that they--they're proud of. That's a little pun. You never say Cherokee. S: Uh, okay, I--yeah. Everybody wants to be recognized, you know. Especially like, okay, I meet somebody, and you know, they find out I'm an Indian, and they go, now you know, my grandmamma was part Cherokee, but they never feel like, I--they never think about I can reply, well, my grandmamma was a White lady too, you know, but I don't really find that many who want to say my father and my grandfather was an Indian. B: That's interesting, 'cause I--not so much in Robeson County, but among the full bloods they run into that quite a bit. Well, how do you think things are going to go politically in the future? Do you think, um, with a little background I might say that, you know, that in Robeson County, it's a tri-racial county--three races. We have the Black, we have the Indian, and we have the White; and that the--it 1 s almost equal in population--somewhere around thirty thousand for each. That's in round figures with give or take a couple of thousand, but it's always been interesting to me that Whites have always held all the offices, been superintendant of the schools, and this kind of thing. Why do you think Indians and Blacks haven't been able to take over Robeson County politically? S: Okay, you got to go back real far and think about--they really never had that--an opportunity to vote. They weren't allowed to vote, and I guess, some of them may have the attitude that, uh, you know, the White people have already--always run this county, they've always run over me, so, you know, why should I try to change it now, when, um, I mean, it's always been done to me, but I feel, like now, our Indian people and the Black people will try to have some togetherness, and bring

PAGE 15

LUM 130A 15 about a change. I mean, even now I can see that they're trying awful hard, and II feel that, um, in years to come, with my generation, that they're really going to try to have equalism in Robeson County, so that--so it'll be a fair opportunity to all of I,( ,. B: Seems kind of easy to do, though, if you--if just the Blacks and Indians would get together, but it seems to me there's something we haven't put our finger on as why can't the Indian and Black get together politically. Are they jealous of each other or, or is there prejudice on either side? S: Well, okay, for instance, among the Indian people, at least this is the way I feel, and, uh, I'm entitled to my opinion, but so is everybody else, I feel that among our Indian race there is, uh,_ the --prejudice, or jealousy towards your brother. I think that, alright, our people--Indian people hate to see somebody really moving up, you know, benefitting themselves, even if they really, really worked hard for a long time. You got your different societies in our Indian race, too, and I feel, okay, my mamma and father, they're not wealthy people, but they're not poverty stricken, and I feel that I'm not in the big society, and I feel like I've been rejected because I'm not, you knoW, I don't got a lot of money, and all that stuff, but still, I mean that I feel that way, but still I can see a change where the young people are starting to accept each other for being a person and not for having a whole bunch of money, and stuff. B: But now, have you ever heard a Indian call another Indian a--in a derogatory sense, a nigger? S: Yeah. B: Do you think maybe this has something to do with the reason Indians and Blacks don't control things politically, and socially, and economically in Robeson County? I think we're on to something here, because when I was a boy, I don't know haw it was when you were growing up, but when we'ld be out playing, and one of us would be angry with the other, we'ld say, you Black nigger, or something like that, you know,

PAGE 16

LUM 130A 16 and use it in a very derogatory sort of way, and I--can you account for why, uh, there might be prejudice, uh, on the Indians part toward a Black, or vice versa? S: Okay, um, the--the Black person being in Robeson County being, or, as a matter of fact, all over the United States, for a long time they were really, really looked down on, and I guess we got a--as Indian people we--we are looked down on to, but we got to find somebody to pick on so, you know, we all--we already know that the White people control everything, so, I guess, the next thing we could go to is be \I I I nigger--call somebody a nigger, but maybe now no--in this thing of trying to get 42 e. i.t " I i s""' e~ nlJy/ and I've heard people call other people honkies, you know, and that's really putting them down, too. B: That sounds a little bit better than nigger, doesn't it? S: Yeah. B: Well, this used to be prevalent, I think, among the older people, but you think that the young are getting away from this? S: Yes. B: Well, I certainly hope so. That ought to be our salvation. Do you have any Black friends in school? S: Yes, um, as a matter of fact, one of my better friends is a Black guy, and we bothwe've gotten some real pretty good conversations about our racism here in Robeson County, and how we're both been looked down on, and how in elementary school there was a lot of prejudice. B: I think one thing, uh, a lot of our people like a lot of the Whites, are afraid of Blacks sexually, but we won't get into that. They're always afraid they're going to run off with their woman, or something, and I think probably the Indians might feel the same way. We won't get into that. That's too volatile, but do you plan to live in Robeson County, for instance, after you finish school? I know we have a migration out of Robeson County. A lot of our talented Indian youth, when they finish school, they all go somewhere else, you know, especially if they're

PAGE 17

LUM 130A a little above the norm, and, uh, do you think you'll come back here and live' when you finish college? 17 S: Well, looking at it from a--a standpoint of wanting a good job, no, I really don't want to, but being here to help my people, I want to, but, you know, having a bit of selfishness about me, I'ld want to better myself, and I'ld want to go away andfor better opportunity. B: Yeah, I think there aren't very many opportunities here, unless you teach school, right? S: Right, and who wants to teach school. I mean teachers have to be very talented people. I mean, patient people who give their time to--for your benefit, to help you learn, but still that's their job. B: Do you think an Indian teacher, from what you've been able to see from the students' viewpoint, do you think they are--they have certain restrictions about what they can teach and what they can't teach? S: Uh, their ability to do things, do you mean? B: No. Do you think the Robeson County Board of Education puts any restrictions on them as far as teaching them about Indian history, and, uh, how the political system works in Robeson County, and this kind of thing? S: Well, this would most likely come under history courses, and, well, in the history courses I've taken--one was world history, and one was U.S. history--American history, and believe it or not, I had a White ff"-vf-1<1/ ~--teacher who wanted to get on our local Indian history, and we--last year we learnt some things, or I didn't learn anything because I had already read these books, but we went over some things that were about our people, about my hero Henry Barry Lowry. B: And then it was a White f fO.e,~<,e, teacher who had to tell the kids about these kind of things. S: Yes, and, I mean, I feel that's pretty bad when, like when our own Indian people won't offer us this information, but maybe this is something we got to go out and get for ourself if we really want it, and we will, if we really want it.

PAGE 18

LUM 13OA 18 B, Right, now talking about--I--I'm kind of interested in this subject of double voting. You know, there's a movement on to break double voting, and I'm all for it, and try to helping it every way I can, but do you--do you think the majority of Indian students on the--in the high schools know exactly what double voting is? The fact that, uh, some people in the county can vote twice on school board elections, and some can only vote once, and those that can only vote once, more than likely, ninety-five percent of the time are Indian people? Do you think they've been made aware of this? S: I think they know from listening to radio, reading newspapers. lhey've got a kind of an overall view of it, but they really don't know details about it. B: That's kind of sad, and I guess I have to take some of the blame for that 'cause I ought to be telling them more about it, and hope to. Well, I think there's one thing that all of us can agree on, and that's Henry Barry Lowry. Do you know very much about him? S: Well, I--I've read some books about him, or, and I've done some other research, but as knowing as much as I want to know, I just know he's my hero. B: Could you tell us just a little bit about Henry Barry Lowry? What you know. S: Okay, like, uh, in the Civil War the Indian people--during this time the Indian B: S: people,4eople of ~Ce, Colo< 11 ) and the Black people and Indian people had no right to vote, had no right to bear arms, and, but yet, they were-~the Indian young, able bodied Indian boys were taken down to this camp where--that was embedded with a bad disease, and they were made to work there for no salary, or very little, if any., [i1AtSti0>i I of( -#rt,~( J Henry Barry Lowry's father's name? Allen. Okay, and these Indian boys ~Vpeople, came out into these, um, wooded . ' areas, and, um, they, like, bought food from them--brought food to them, and, um, they were people--rumors were started that Henry Barry Lowry's people were the ones who were--they were going around to White people's homes and stealing their

PAGE 19

LUM 130A 19 foods and stealing their anununition, and so, this--this group of White men went out to Allen Lowry's house and found ammunition on his land, and he was punished, and some people say that Henry Barry Lowry saw the--saw him being killed. He was punished by being--they shot him, and they locked--~,his momma up, and they said that Henry Barry Lowry saw his father shot, saw him dig his own grave, and he was shot like in--in his grave, and so they say that he went out to get revenge which I think was right. B: You think it was justified. S: Yes. Yeah, I do, because I don't think that you're, um, that these men who done this would have been given any punishment, and I feel that the only way that they would have--to get justice--justice was for Henry Barry Lowry to do it this way, even if that means killing somebody, which is wrong, I know, but this was a start for the--for the Indian people, and it's saying you can't run over me all my life. I will take a chance and do something for myself. B: You're saying this was during the Civil War, and these people that killed Henry Barry Lowry's dad must be the militia that was the Home Guard they called. S: Right. B: You remember from reading and from legend how many people Henry Barry Lowry is supposed to have killed? S: No, I don't remember exactly the number, but I know he killed like--he was supposed to be killed all the people in this Home Guard, and what was so rotten about it, this guy, he was a Harr-is guy, and his--we had some Indian people who their last name was Harris. He was, um, having affairs, or whatever, with some Indian woman, which was--I think he should have been squashed to death, really killed, 'cause he could go out and have an Indian lady for a mistress, but he could treat our other Indian people rotten, and I think he shouldn't have had any satisfaction with our Indian women. B: I think Henry Barry got him. S: Yeah.

PAGE 20

LUM 130A 20 B: (Laughs) Do you know anything, uh, have you heard anything from talking to old people and from reading what little bit of historical record we have on anything about his personality of Henry Barry Lowry? S: I can't--I remember reading about him, but I don't remember reading that much about his--his personality. I do know that he was a very handsome Indian, but, uh, as--maybe I did read about his personalit~, but, you know, real--knowing what he done, I realize that he was the one who wanted justice. B: What are some of the things you heard about--like what did he--how he treated other Indian people, and so forth? Have you heard any legends about him from the old people? S: Well, I hadn't really talked to that many old people about him, but, um, ..• B: Where do you get your information about Henry Barry Lowry? S: Um, from the books that I jDI• 'l')J and then, um, ", 1 what kind of books? I know there's a Lowry History Book in Pembroke State University Library, and, you know, just hearsay from other people. B: Well you do feel very strongly about Henry Barry Lowry•• S: Yes, all, uh, he's just my hero, and when I think about what the people done to--what the White people done to his people, and how we were treated, it makes me angered. B: Did you ever hear about, uh, what happened to him? S: They really don't know. They say he went away. Some say he may have committed suicide, but I don't think he would have, 'cause I don't think, you know, like, maybe he committed suicide because that was he done, but I don't--it wouldn't have been I know they were out to get him. B: Everybody needs a hero, don't they? S: Right. bothering his--on his conscience what on my conscience _r:W D &.l ,i ltA vL lee11 , , , , B: One theory is that he went away to Georgia and worked in a turpentine mine and lived to be a hundred and five. Would you like to think that's what might have happened?

PAGE 21

LUM 130A S: I just like to think that he was--spent the rest of his life being--you know, financially okay, and being able to sit around and think about the revenge he got. 21 B: Alright, so if somebody, you know, in one history book I've read that there said something about him shooting his brother and stuff. You don't want to talk about that, do you? You'ld know he was a--he--you think he is a good man no matter what you might hear. S: A good man for his people. I mean, anyrWhite person who would eel Henry Barry Lowry was their hero, I'ld think there was someth 1 ng wrong with him, 'cause I think all people should feel--work, I mean, you know, want to work for their people. B: Right, that's interesting, 'cause I kind of feel the same way about Henry Barry Lowry. He's just a hero and, uh, historical facts aside, I'ld just as soon leave it at that, wouldn't you? S: Yes. B: Alright, Henry Barry Lowry 1 a hero of the people. Now, would you like to see the Indian communittee do something to memorialize Henry Barry Lowry, like maybe--what would you think of them naming Pembroke State University after Henry Barry Lowry? S: Yeah, that would be fine too, because, well what--I mean I really don't know what the name Pembroke means or where it came from. I mean, if it has any Indian back ground that's fine, but everybody, or at least all Indian people, Lumbee Indian people should know who Henry Barry Lowry is. B: The only thing I ever heard about Pembroke is the legend that there was a breakman on the--on the railroad that--that used to come through here. His name was Pembroke Jones. S: Was he (Laughs) a Honkee? ~r1ky 1J B: He was a Honkee (sp?) yeah. (Laughs) S: Well, who wants to name an Ind--supposed to be Indian college after a Honkee? B: Well, let's look into that. I--I really don't know why--where Pembroke came from,

PAGE 22

LUM 130A 22 but, uh, Henry Barry Lowryville probably would sound a little bit better. S: Yeah, a lot better. B: Okay, what do you see ahead for us in the years to come as-.a pepple?, Will we get stronger or weaker, or do you think we'll have some kind of working relationship with the Blacks? Do you think we'll ever just intermarry until there's none of us left? Overall view, what do you think? S: Well, seeing what I see now, and seeing how the people are trying to face CoWIMUn within theirself, I think it--it will just prv!.j)e<' and make it better for all of us. B: Is Pembroke's Senior High School--what--what is the name of--I know Pembroke State University, the name of their athletic team is--is the Braves. Do the senior high school try to play up the fact that they're an Indian community? S: We' re the Warriors. B: Warriors. S: That's right. B: Uh, I guess somehow, that that could be construed as having a Indian thought behind it. During homecoming and celebrations and this kind of thing, do they play up the fact of being a predominantly Indian school? S: Right, we got our symbol is an Indian head, and during homecoming game our foot ball players, including the Blacks and Whites, all wore war paint. B: Blacks and Whites too? S: Right. B: Well that's interesting. Uh, we certainly appreciate you taking the time to dosit still for a moment and give us this interview. Can you think of anything else that you'ld like to add to this interview, maybe that, uh, hasn't been said that you'ld like to say? S: Uh, I was thinking about looking at how our-Indian people are doing, and to stop putting a name, like Indian people on them. Looking at them as their humans, and

PAGE 23

LUM 130A 23 I was thinking about the teenage problem with the drugs and stuff like this. I think it'sJour collllllunittee should find some means of recreation and some enjoyment for our young people. This bit about the drug thing would--would not--it probably wouldn't be solved, but it would be decreased, and r--r want, like the older people accepting their, you know, their being a generation gap, and they're not accepting any young people because they got long hair, and all this stuff. Because I got this one friend who has blond curly hair even though he's an Indian, and he is really, really a smart guy, but well, he's not accepted as much as the other students because he has this long hair, and he don't give a he~k about a lot of things that everybody else thinks are fantastic, and like his financial stand ings are not really super great, and I just think that he isn't given a fair chance because of who he is. I think he could be valedictorian of our school-all Robeson County as far as that goes, 'cause he is really smart, but I don't think that he's given a fair opportunity 'cause of who he is. I just want to see people accepted for what they are. B: So you're proud to be an Indian, but you don't think it's enough to make you a negative kind of person, and that, uh, humanity comes first. S: Yeah. B: Well I think you're pretty smart to be seventeen, and pretty, and we thank you very much for allowing us to interview you, and, uh, what more can I say except thank you very much. S: And you're welcome.


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
fcla fda yes
!-- Interview with Bonnie Gail Sampson November 18 1973 ( Book ) --
METS:mets OBJID UF00007117_00001
xmlns:METS http:www.loc.govMETS
xmlns:xlink http:www.w3.org1999xlink
xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance
xmlns:daitss http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss
xmlns:mods http:www.loc.govmodsv3
xmlns:sobekcm http:digital.uflib.ufl.edumetadatasobekcm
xmlns:oral http:digital.uflib.ufl.edumetadataoral
xmlns:lom http:digital.uflib.ufl.edumetadatasobekcm_lom
xsi:schemaLocation
http:www.loc.govstandardsmetsmets.xsd
http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitss.xsd
http:www.loc.govmodsv3mods-3-4.xsd
http:digital.uflib.ufl.edumetadatasobekcmsobekcm.xsd
http:digital.uflib.ufl.edumetadataoraloral.xsd
METS:metsHdr CREATEDATE 2020-08-13T22:29:39Z ID LASTMODDATE 2020-08-13T08:22:47Z RECORDSTATUS COMPLETE
METS:agent ROLE CREATOR TYPE ORGANIZATION
METS:name UF,Samuel Proctor Oral History Program, Department of History, University of Florida
OTHERTYPE SOFTWARE OTHER
Go UFDC - FDA Preparation Tool
INDIVIDUAL
UFAD\renner
METS:dmdSec DMD1
METS:mdWrap MDTYPE MODS MIMETYPE textxml LABEL Metadata
METS:xmlData
mods:mods
mods:accessCondition Made available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 International license: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.
mods:language
mods:languageTerm type text English
code authority iso639-2b eng
mods:location
mods:physicalLocation This interview is part of the 'Lumbee County' collection of interviews held by the Samuel Proctor Oral History Program of the Department of History at the University of Florida
UFSPOHP
mods:url access object in context https://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00007117/00001
mods:name personal
mods:namePart Sampson, Bonnie Gail
mods:role
mods:roleTerm marcrelator ive
Interviewee
mods:note funding This text has been transcribed from an audio or video oral history. Digitization was funded by a gift from Caleb J. and Michele B. Grimes.
mods:originInfo
mods:dateIssued November 18, 1973
mods:recordInfo
mods:recordIdentifier source sobekcm UF00007117_00001
mods:recordContentSource Samuel Proctor Oral History Program, Department of History, University of Florida
mods:subject local
mods:topic Florida History
Lumbee Oral History Collection
SUBJ662
mods:hierarchicalGeographic
mods:area Lumbee County (Fla.)
mods:titleInfo
mods:title Interview with Bonnie Gail Sampson November 18 1973
mods:typeOfResource text
DMD2
OTHERMDTYPE SOBEKCM SobekCM Custom
sobekcm:procParam
sobekcm:Aggregation ALL
ORAL
OH4
IUF
IUFSPOHP
sobekcm:MainThumbnail 00001thm.jpg
sobekcm:Wordmark SPOHP
UFCLASHIST
GRIMES
sobekcm:bibDesc
sobekcm:BibID UF00007117
sobekcm:VID 00001
sobekcm:Source
sobekcm:statement UF Samuel Proctor Oral History Program, Department of History, University of Florida
sobekcm:SortDate 720579
oral:interview
oral:Interviewee Bonnie Gail Sampson
oral:Interviewer Bruce Barton
METS:amdSec
METS:digiprovMD DIGIPROV1
DAITSS Archiving Information
daitss:daitss
daitss:AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT PROJECT UFDC
METS:techMD TECH1
File Technical Details
sobekcm:FileInfo
sobekcm:File fileid JPEG1 width 630 height 817
JP21 1696 2199
JPEG2
JP22
JPEG3
JP23
JPEG4
JP24
JPEG5
JP25
JPEG6
JP26
JPEG7
JP27
JPEG8
JP28
JPEG9
JP29
JPEG10
JP210
JPEG11
JP211
JPEG12
JP212
JPEG13
JP213
JPEG14
JP214
JPEG15
JP215
JPEG16
JP216
JPEG17
JP217
JPEG18
JP218
JPEG19
JP219
JPEG20
JP220
JPEG21
JP221
JPEG22
JP222
JPEG23
JP223
METS:fileSec
METS:fileGrp USE reference
METS:file GROUPID G1 imagejpeg CHECKSUM 4af59603427b07386896c82907f067c2 CHECKSUMTYPE MD5 SIZE 144359
METS:FLocat LOCTYPE OTHERLOCTYPE SYSTEM xlink:href 00001.jpg
JPEG1.2 a9343f20123e6fd4c6b84aae9e30c307 60042
00001.QC.jpg
G2 0d39826deaf5f201b152e2c9dc18cca9 149792
00002.jpg
JPEG2.2 e588f1dc8bfacb9fc573d0ef30b3b1b3 62109
00002.QC.jpg
G3 1aa1aa6796156b099d2527313b4ba14c 166733
00003.jpg
JPEG3.2 82e7022d5b834f9c6b694ee18ca59b6f 66232
00003.QC.jpg
G4 cdd671b6abef6b9622a7da47ec4e7ce1 172360
00004.jpg
JPEG4.2 d0a9abaf43d1ccdac3dc18dfdae83db3 69317
00004.QC.jpg
G5 649ac5f8e47c729b855b8ab706b4c01e 168925
00005.jpg
JPEG5.2 852f39645d31d276ef4c9cec1b6082e3 67234
00005.QC.jpg
G6 f3bac4df3c76c998cbc5784f68bfb01d 170649
00006.jpg
JPEG6.2 e28b59a71d5a7394166d47289c3c7e60 67769
00006.QC.jpg
G7 f76240983e291f449fd303efd0bd3130 157036
00007.jpg
JPEG7.2 8e7cd512afb29d749534c27c333f4af2 63566
00007.QC.jpg
G8 ac1988c3245b93bbb3f3266263a1cb4f 153748
00008.jpg
JPEG8.2 2215c44783b1a6ac983c8db8ec2a48fb 64018
00008.QC.jpg
G9 2572e843299c081006d2c80c522b0027 161506
00009.jpg
JPEG9.2 87a1a7ff35a7f1876008d995ce5babdb 65405
00009.QC.jpg
G10 ecdcf483c03a6a13fd8ab93cf1920b4e 166110
00010.jpg
JPEG10.2 7721badb94d2e6c23c118f5bed05a2a9 68602
00010.QC.jpg
G11 5d0b1153951cafcf35b2b4f4229cd871 147065
00011.jpg
JPEG11.2 7ae34058ee07d7951bab7cda2c059e21 61739
00011.QC.jpg
G12 3a3fa323175103ff2b74c42a65f65283 173883
00012.jpg
JPEG12.2 371c2c357ce32a3d6e99989a2fdf99a2 67742
00012.QC.jpg
G13 828658865267a8eace1f0033d06309d3 174370
00013.jpg
JPEG13.2 11e3f1a10605e28029205f48a000e6e5 69016
00013.QC.jpg
G14 c769a0ff4cc4082a996bc99019c41978 181462
00014.jpg
JPEG14.2 aaca1ce8cf66b8a6241bf71816a7fb89 71438
00014.QC.jpg
G15 16421fe7c128abb1f026aac4b53eb502 178879
00015.jpg
JPEG15.2 2ef715ef4ef4bd772fbf715e28d66c0a 70733
00015.QC.jpg
G16 d231d44181eda58ef3bee19d8e7ee622 175473
00016.jpg
JPEG16.2 fc14d9fed9d81dd96335fa77a2bb2a4a 69306
00016.QC.jpg
G17 8d7551846d8d64e66454d65e36d7808b 173610
00017.jpg
JPEG17.2 5c862a6a4a3e3d7034d88482b3bb3dc8 65832
00017.QC.jpg
G18 fa8f5c88dd135ffcc79adaa048e912fe 186334
00018.jpg
JPEG18.2 4abf1c7de9ac6a5039f3f31a48c6388b 73244
00018.QC.jpg
G19 77b9120d28bad17e25a988074dedad29 167141
00019.jpg
JPEG19.2 c121b3dea95231234d58513e6dc9cdef 68131
00019.QC.jpg
G20 b2cdb907efb572d17616627d1e88b468 170020
00020.jpg
JPEG20.2 06a6c40492eb275cefeb6f9c73d13c27 68969
00020.QC.jpg
G21 e1adfbdab911805f41722fb2003457ba 165454
00021.jpg
JPEG21.2 6d30186676d11f6a42d43f5e14e1b330 66838
00021.QC.jpg
G22 b548adbc860de365920638d3b32a7bf0 157605
00022.jpg
JPEG22.2 0b81a81eb6d5ee0fffe80b239d4023e9 63154
00022.QC.jpg
G23 f00f0423894fe4af85c634e73eae0501 138242
00023.jpg
JPEG23.2 c7d44aec76545cb21c476a485c24efc8 57807
00023.QC.jpg
THUMB1 imagejpeg-thumbnails 1bfc5328521bf062936f3d32e97b618b 33122
00001thm.jpg
THUMB2 db4fc96f3e33234a1e20ac05b6f811fc 34103
00002thm.jpg
THUMB3 ec536e65ed8aa64b4c58b5d7c008ac6c 34901
00003thm.jpg
THUMB4 e87719bffda8f78815361fe951eee329 35342
00004thm.jpg
THUMB5 ee63c747fed00a8fdf0b15711a8634fc 35703
00005thm.jpg
THUMB6 4a0c083d214cac6d1ce0eecc736fc2e5 34924
00006thm.jpg
THUMB7 94b8f640a83a1c802eaf0b10d07ecb1c 34084
00007thm.jpg
THUMB8 bd2d64775a6a040af96782fb3d8090eb 34987
00008thm.jpg
THUMB9 297469c6a892c05f3479e85929fadc61 35153
00009thm.jpg
THUMB10 497e3895baf5f4c5a5ef08cf3f999b9c 35615
00010thm.jpg
THUMB11 a3947359575edd9dbb67f7c81092fe3b 34262
00011thm.jpg
THUMB12 71cb274fa2c7faf11acbb02ce546bc70 35839
00012thm.jpg
THUMB13 180d5701ae076533f6db73de999e6670 36342
00013thm.jpg
THUMB14 16eb8a0237c69963468ac0aa5366bae8 35937
00014thm.jpg
THUMB15 d29b6de63f91f3d71dd6d7933a510621 36549
00015thm.jpg
THUMB16 ec29113975e8b8f64963326a7881a818 36166
00016thm.jpg
THUMB17 6f00f857eb75ddb39307d6b1a3d66fe6 34823
00017thm.jpg
THUMB18 df39e6d06a73028ac251d40a2ea92ef3 36472
00018thm.jpg
THUMB19 3bbdbc563aecf09bcf923a7ec82a64ad 35715
00019thm.jpg
THUMB20 26e0546e1d7a54e0e0ddbbacbbbaeaaf 35314
00020thm.jpg
THUMB21 09a6eae6f4c29698d9480943838099c7 34497
00021thm.jpg
THUMB22 7aee142ab77dd5922eb6602898f16564 34623
00022thm.jpg
THUMB23 6a2a04e83772f86cfcf6dffac8ba4f35 32224
00023thm.jpg
imagejp2 52c87e7f17b7b18cfbb2ac278102d370 466275
00001.jp2
0a8ffea614dc8c12769937e9fe71085f 466254
00002.jp2
a98d12ef63140f92821f1fa8e1638e49 466293
00003.jp2
c9411aeee1e124c747b88786027b9fad 466294
00004.jp2
97043d12689858f5dbc24b1fd1c298e4 466247
00005.jp2
92fbbbe79e6449da4a0567cbc712dcd6 466281
00006.jp2
15ed8c2ded1a3eba7d6c6e161bd2f062
00007.jp2
f0cc66ab368cd8971f140323558c30f5 466273
00008.jp2
68d29be2f025fa2899c4068b25c02fae 466268
00009.jp2
ab722283557a6ebbdf64b2c8f9bc361e 466241
00010.jp2
ff29a5860fabc86d394bf1b22610c962
00011.jp2
433fe6301e107c0e0043a4def3ec3163 466299
00012.jp2
3bca6f673b6b69acd67dedfe7c58a1c8 466295
00013.jp2
a22886ef3cb6c3edf62f60d6fee1262e 466285
00014.jp2
5120e298241249d41ba68062ce32a61e 466288
00015.jp2
4735c82f61fb2be7cb9082b6b71b84e2 466297
00016.jp2
24f19e3b2f398d8e740ac2039fca690a 466272
00017.jp2
d13633a607b287414cf76f3c32dd12e9 466298
00018.jp2
b76c06399f3cc36628a4a56c2d9f41d8 466253
00019.jp2
ebde9e21434a6416dd352a48e8bdd32e 466279
00020.jp2
485c44fa579a430845d57ee9dfc6d445
00021.jp2
82c15a3004d1f8deb2be01f259581fb2 466287
00022.jp2
13ea762720602bf3663bc0bd57c4fe3d 466280
00023.jp2
archive
TIF1 imagetiff c3c00f3f23b652f7c1ca7f8a530cdadf 3752592
00001.tif
TIF2 3db880d52983f3ba00a1ab9ddebd4dd5 3753048
00002.tif
TIF3 c6f564ce90b3873456ea5c42a10f30a7 3753396
00003.tif
TIF4 003563401875b39c62df78adf658de7a 3753524
00004.tif
TIF5 ea2edff3c5151a826c3270c74a92a6b7 3753604
00005.tif
TIF6 0f6b9bb90f54ab17fb45c8caa1375406 3753208
00006.tif
TIF7 24d2a11a935d952f79057e91ff535454 3753024
00007.tif
TIF8 6d11efb1a832ee2661f83db96480541e 3753312
00008.tif
TIF9 85c12544a7d415a4ff723c41e8565e16 3753432
00009.tif
TIF10 87d261d54b3fce572c66a7a2d372d62a 3753460
00010.tif
TIF11 8d7b64f4737e12c908d637ff17d53a15 3753112
00011.tif
TIF12 ca1ffcf149905ad0d3321c4d231aadc0 3753320
00012.tif
TIF13 cad2ea3210a75be432870ca066fa4a1a 3753660
00013.tif
TIF14 a6cde9c46f29b30a2665c0495edf5c07 3753372
00014.tif
TIF15 a8540405c2dffe5ec0db34c1079fc1b4 3753704
00015.tif
TIF16 a2611d291f485e5b7cd9c47ecfc54d42 3753556
00016.tif
TIF17 f85ec5a5104cd51fc0d662d98084c29a 3752856
00017.tif
TIF18 b934c912eea51ea7c4ad096f3c94f819 3753792
00018.tif
TIF19 974b9d74052a9e52ea2a856ca4f420fc 3753592
00019.tif
TIF20 db510c7622bdf79e59025d4493d90b02 3753400
00020.tif
TIF21 c25df3e5c92ef2bddfdf6ee112c59474 3753248
00021.tif
TIF22 1d5eebf01e1f9aef4a288d0930fd85be 3752980
00022.tif
TIF23 969a64fc15b2570759de7c17ca548c9d 3752232
00023.tif
TXT1 textplain abaf5f5d99659447d73e57234eb6e458 1604
00001.txt
TXT2 5d2a1b37c4a0e0193797841c1ad42dc7 1728
00002.txt
TXT3 e7ea20a481b2d5844575887fbeaeb474 1955
00003.txt
TXT4 e805819b40fb551396cd87aa22db7498 2038
00004.txt
TXT5 fa41dbcf8d9801c77b9e02e08a4d6ea6 2043
00005.txt
TXT6 ddbdb98950c8b7ff13adf2c9ad6ce6c1 2045
00006.txt
TXT7 1393f191788b644f1f11961842a3c3dd 1907
00007.txt
TXT8 dafef760917094c3791f03aa8a6b8dd2 1845
00008.txt
TXT9 99f63ddec78b9087029e0c4ca83ce1d4 1880
00009.txt
TXT10 663b30aaffd1ef49fd594fd255e69b68 1975
00010.txt
TXT11 c887f0590957405ed742fbab71b7f633 1752
00011.txt
TXT12 b80021192b1879bd88842a1f06c62aa0 2015
00012.txt
TXT13 2e99e175cc0cf60f32a3af324acae0f9 2086
00013.txt
TXT14 21e4f0b6d6b6f69501c64f92a2b527e0 2182
00014.txt
TXT15 37e84a0ffcb146c9ab95c0fbfc960bcc 2153
00015.txt
TXT16 020d3507773567b9fd5b157bdf58c2a6 2055
00016.txt
TXT17 76a0311f188893ef9a0c48ac59399e0e 2081
00017.txt
TXT18 58cb28514f824fc3083de8517f6821f9 2165
00018.txt
TXT19 60b1df85ed4be0db2ef326481c4be953 2051
00019.txt
TXT20 6bbc3446df8b725f09867c859ec700d3 2011
00020.txt
TXT21 bc08ac9391e8b9f2ce072885b7e36453 1956
00021.txt
TXT22 9ff72ef161ea27ce90fea1178dbddb11 1801
00022.txt
TXT23 285ad218f54e6e719010bc197a4a551e 1625
00023.txt
TXT1.2
TXT2.2
TXT3.2
TXT4.2
TXT5.2
TXT6.2
TXT7.2
TXT8.2
TXT9.2
TXT10.2
TXT11.2
TXT12.2
TXT13.2
TXT14.2
TXT15.2
TXT16.2
TXT17.2
TXT18.2
TXT19.2
TXT20.2
TXT21.2
TXT22.2
TXT23.2
G25 TXT25 10d2d73a220fb6f553efb8e78268920f 42744
UF00007117_pdf.txt
G24 PDF24 applicationpdf db813c445ec8b8465b10d1bbb6e15144 630349
UF00007117.pdf
G26 METS26 unknownx-mets d12e9db01b47e62e3d58a522d2651bc1 34335
UF00007117_00001.mets
METS:structMap STRUCT1 physical
METS:div DMDID ADMID ORDER 0 main
PDIV1 1 Chapter
PAGE1 Page
METS:fptr FILEID
PAGE2 2
PAGE3 3
PAGE4 4
PAGE5 5
PAGE6 6
PAGE7 7
PAGE8 8
PAGE9 9
PAGE10 10
PAGE11 11
PAGE12 12
PAGE13 13
PAGE14 14
PAGE15 15
PAGE16 16
PAGE17 17
PAGE18
PAGE19 19
PAGE20 20
PAGE21 21
PAGE22 22
PAGE23 23
STRUCT2 other
ODIV1 Main
FILES1 00001
FILES2 00002
FILES3 00003
FILES4 00004
FILES5 00005
FILES6 00006
FILES7 00007
FILES8 00008
FILES9 00009
FILES10 00010
FILES11 00011
FILES12 00012
FILES13 00013
FILES14 00014
FILES15 00015
FILES16 00016
FILES17 00017
FILES18 00018
FILES19 00019
FILES20 00020
FILES21 00021
FILES22 00022
FILES23 00023
FILES24 UF00007117 24
FILES25 UF00007117_pdf 25
FILES26 26