Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Letter of transmittal
 Board of control and station...

Group Title: Florida Agricultural Experiment station, report for the fiscal year ending June 30th.
Title: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00005173/00021
 Material Information
Title: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Physical Description: 40 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1922
Copyright Date: 1905
Frequency: annual
Subject: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1905-1930.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00005173
Volume ID: VID00021
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AMF8112
oclc - 12029638
alephbibnum - 002452807
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for financial year ending June 30th
Succeeded by: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 5
    Board of control and station staff
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Index 1
        Index 2
        Index 3
        Index 4
        Index 5
        Index 6
Full Text



ENDING JUNE 30, 1922

Fig. 1.-Superintendent's cottage, Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred


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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TO GOVERNOR OF FLORIDA .................................. 5R
BOARD OF CONTROL AND STATION STAFF ..................................... .......... 6R
REPORT OF DIRECTOR .......................................................................................... 7R
Introduction, 7R; Comparative Resources, 7R; Animal Industry
and Dairying, 8R; Grass and Forage Crop Investigations, 9R;
Chemistry, 10R; Plant Pathology, 11R; Entomology, 11R; Library,
13R; Citrus Experiment Station, 13R; Tobacco Experiment Sta-
tion, 16R; Everglades Experiment Station, 18R; Changes in
Staff, 21R; Publications, 21R; Bulletins and Summary of Bulletins,
22R; Press Bulletins, 24R.
REPORT OF AUDITOR ...................................... ........................ 25R
REPORT OF ANIMAL INDUSTRIALIST ............................................ 26R
Soft-Pork Investigations, 26R; Dairy Work, 33R.
Outline of Projects, 37R; Lawn Grass Studies, 38R; Sorghum
Variety Test, 38R; Breeding Studies, 38R; Pasture and Hay
Crops, 39R.
REPORT OF CHEMIST ........ ................................. 42R
Citrus Problems, 42R; Sugar Cane, 43R; Pecans, 43R; Soft Pork,
44R; Miscellaneous, 44R.
REPORT OF PLANT PATHOLOGIST ................................................................... 45R
Citrus Diseases Studied, 45R; Pineapple Diseases Studied, 46R;
Plant Diseases of the Year, 46R; Diseases of Citrus, 46R; Dis-
eases of Orchard and Shade Trees and Ornamentals, 48R; Dis-
eases of Field Crops and Grasses, 51R; Diseases of Truck Crops,
REPORT OF ENTOMOLOGIST ........................................................... .................. 56R
Citrus and Sub-Tropical Pests, 56R; Farm Crop Insect Work,
57R; Truck Pest Investigations, 57R.
REPORT OF LIBRARIAN ................................................................................... 60R
Construction Work and Improvements, 62R; Quarantine Cage,
63R; Improvements, 63R; Experimental Work, 64R; Variety
Grove, 65R; Progeny Grove Work, 66R; Dieback Experiments,
66R; Fertilizer Experiments, 66R; Propagation of Nursery Stock,
DISEASES ........................................................................................ 68R
Diseases Occurring in Seedbeds, 68R; Diseases in the Field, 70R.

Hon. Cary A. Hardee,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report
of the director of the University of Florida Agricultural Exper-
iment Stations for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1922.
Chairman, Board of Control.


P. K. YONGE, Chairman..-...........-..--...---....................---Pensacola
E. L. WARTMANN....-------. .----.-...............-..........Citra
J. B.- SUTTON----.........-- ..- -------...... ... ...... --...................-Tampa
W L. W EAVER....-..........-- ---..... ..-.... ...- .................... Perry
JOHN C. COOPER, JR.............-- .........------ ....--....................Jacksonville
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary.........-................................Tallahassee

WILMON NEWELL, M.S., D.Sc., Director
JOHN MARCUS SCOTT, B.S., Vice Director and Animal Industri-
JOSEPH R. WATSON, A.B., M.A., Entomologist
OWEN FRANCIS BURGER, A.B., D.Sc., Plant Pathologist
ADOLPH H. BEYER, A.B., B.S., M.S., Assistant Entomologist
JOHN M. COLEMAN, B.S., Assistant Chemist
CHARLES E. BELL, B.S., Assistant Chemist
WLLIAM E. STOKES, B.S., M.S., Grass and Forage Crop Spe-
GEORGE F. WEBER, B.S., M.S., Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
WILLIAM B. TISDALE, B.S., Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
JOHN H. JEFFERIES, Superintendent, Citrus Experiment Station
JESSE REEVES, Foreman, Tobacco Experiment Station

Report for the Fiscal Year

Ending June 30, 1922

Hon. P. K. Yonge,
Chairman, Board of Control.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith my report on the
work and investigations of the University of Florida Agricultu-
ral Experiment Stations, together with the reports of the heads
of the several departments, for the fiscal year ending June 30,
1922; and I request that you transmit the same, in accordance
with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.

The action of the legislature of 1921 in appropriating $30,000
a year for the support and maintenance of the University of
Florida Experiment Station has made possible a very material
enlargement of the Station's activities and has permitted the re-
pair of much equipment, improvement of grounds and the addi-
tion of some assistance for the Station investigators. The com-
parative financial resources of the main station during the two
fiscal years just passed is shown below:

Fiscal Year Fiscal Year
ending ending
June 30, 1921 June 30, 1922
Adams Fund --------------..... ... ......---- $15,000.00 $15,000.00
Hatch Fund -----..~.................. ....................... 15,000.00 15,000.00
State Appropriation .....----................................... 5,000.00 30,000.00
Sales Fund ------ ---.................................. 5,891.83 6,503.00
Less amount expended account Citrus
Experiment Station ........................................... 5,114.85
Totals........-.,........................... .................$40,891.83 $61,388.15
With the increase in resources just mentioned, it has been pos-
sible to give such attention to Station property as to at least pre-
vent further deterioration, to fill most of the vacancies with com-

8R k Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

petent men, to provide a reasonable amount of assistance to the
department heads, to add needed equipment and to get under
way again a number of important research projects which had
been temporarily abandoned for lack of funds. New projects
have also been added and a spirit of confidence and enthusiasm
now pervades the Station staff.
Despite the marked improvement during the year, it is never-
theless true that the Experiment Station is not yet functioning
in as broad a way, nor in as many fields, as it should. Altho more
than 50 lines of experimental work are under way at the pres-
ent time, there remain many vital problems which are pressing
for attention. Chief among these may be mentioned problems
connected with the horticultural industries of the state, forestry
problems, livestock diseases, needed soil surveys, cotton inves-
tigations, control of the boll weevil and pecan and sugar-cane
Work at the Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Alfred and
at the Tobacco Experiment Station at Quincy has developed as
rapidly as resources permitted. These are discussed on a sub-
sequent page.
Attention should be called to the problem of meeting the de-
mands for bulletins and other information. This problem has
become an acute one. Not only has the number of letters ask-
ing for information on agricultural subjects increased beyond
the point where it is possible to handle them expeditiously and
satisfactorily, but the demands for literature, both from citi-
zens and prospective settlers, have become so great that it has
been entirely impossible to meet them with the funds that have
been available for printing. Not only is every citizen of the
state entitled to literature upon any agricultural subject, but
under the Smith-Hughes Act of Congress it is incumbent upon
the Station to supply all agricultural literature needed by stu-
dents taking agricultural courses in the Smith-Hughes schools of
the state. At present there are 25 of these schools and more are
about to be established. During the last four years, in spite of
the most earnest efforts at economy, the distribution of bulletins
has been far in excess of the number printed. Of 164 bulletins
published by the Station to date, 129 are out of print.
Investigation of the soft-pork problem has continued during
the year. The results of feeding tests, which showed that the feed-

Annual Report, 1922

ing of peanuts will lower the melting point of the fat and that the
feeding of corn, shorts and cottonseed meal will raise it, are of
particular value as they corroborate the experiments of previous
years. Breeding experiments have been commenced which are
intended to show whether or not the low melting point of fat in
hogs is hereditary. These experiments, involving as they must
a study of at least several generations of animals, have not pro-
gressed sufficiently to warrant any conclusions. Examination
of fat samples from northern states has indicated that the soft-
pork problem is not restricted to the South.
Experiments have been conducted during the year to ascer-
tain the value of fish meal as a protein feed for dairy cows. Feed-
ing of the meal did not, apparently, affect the taste or quality of
the milk, but it was found that cows would not consume more
than a small quantity of the meal daily. An experiment was
also made to determine whether or not the feeding of velvet-bean
meal in large quantities would affect the melting point of but-
terfat from the cows thus fed. The results indicated that the
melting point of the butterfat was not affected. A comparative
test was made of two rations for dairy cows, one consisting of
ground corn, oats, velvet beans and peanut meal and the other of
wheat bran, cornmeal, beet pulp and.cottonseed meal. The for-
mer was found to be the most profitable.
A detailed report on the foregoing experiments will be found
in the report of the animal industrialist on a subsequent page.
J. B. Thompson, grass and forage crop specialist, resigned on
August 15, 1921. W. E. Stokes, a graduate of Clemson College
and of the University of Wisconsin, was appointed assistant
grass and forage crop specialist and commenced his duties Octo-
ber 1, 1921.
The work of introducing and testing grasses and forage crops
is carried on in cooperation with the Bureau of Plant Industry,
United States Department of Agriculture, and the majority of
the plants tested are those introduced by that Department. By
this means it has been possible to bring together at the Experi-
ment Station a very large and fine collection of grasses and for-
age plants from all parts of the world. Study of these has been
prosecuted vigorously during the year, the tests being confined
mostly to small plots. Many of the grasses are very promising
for Florida pasturage, hay and range purposes, but before they

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

can be recommended it will be necessary to try them out on a
larger scale under actual field conditions and under pasture.
Excellent progress has been made in the improvement of pea.
nuts, notably in increasing their oil content.
In addition to the above, the following lines of work are undei
way in this department: Testing bush velvet beans, mung beans,
soy beans and cowpeas for hay; testing Napier grass for graz-
ing, testing the varieties of saccharine sorghums; testing varie-
ties of grain sorghums; peanut fertilizer tests; Merker grass im-
provement; pasture and lawn grass tests; testing Kudzu as a
hay and pasture plant; variety tests of millets and experiments
with winter grazing crops.
The study of the disease of citrus trees known as dieback has
been continued during the year as one of the Adams-Fund pro-
jects. The field aspects of the problem are being studied in a
10-acre grove at the Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Alfred
and also in a small grove of bearing citrus trees at Gainesville.
Some of the latter are growing in soil tanks from which all
drainage water is collected and analyzed. Analyses of soils from
groves affected with dieback and from those which were not,
failed to show any marked or uniform differences. Rough lemon
seedlings, grown in sterile sand as a medium and supplied with
nutrient solutions lacking in one essential plant food element,
have also failed in every instance to develop dieback.
An experiment, which will be carried on thru a period of years,
to determine the effect of high and low potash fertilization on
the quality of oranges and grapefruit, has been inaugurated at
the Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Alfred, bearing Tardiff
orange and Duncan grapefruit trees being used in the experi-
ment. A similar experiment is being carried on at Agricola.
Study of the availability of phosphoric acid in various forms for
citrus trees, mentioned in the last report, has been continued.
Two fertilizer experiments with sugar cane, one at Canal
Point on the east shore of Lake Okeechobee and one at Gaines-
ville, have been instituted. These have as their object deter-
mination of the fertilizers best suited to increase both the yield
and sugar content of the cane.
In cooperation with the Bureau of Plant Industry, United
States Department of Agriculture, two experiments in the fer-
tilization of pecan trees have been started. One of these is lo-


Annual Report, 1922

cated on the property of H. H. Simmons of Jacksonville and
the other on the property of H. G. Wells at Baldwin, both gen-
tlemen permitting the use of their groves for this work.

An intensive study of melanose and stem-end rot, citrus dis-
eases caused by the same organism, has been the leading work of
the plant pathologist during the year. Spraying experiments
are being conducted during the present calendar year, for the
control- of melanose, in citrus groves in Manatee, Brevard, Hills-
borough, Lake and Marion Counties. Spraying last year gave
most satisfactory results and further improvement in the spray
schedule and practice for this disease is anticipated as a result
of the present season's work. The plant pathologist has deter-
mined that stem-end rot affects only the ripe, or nearly ripe, fruit
and infection of the fruit is coincident with certain physiological
changes which take place in the fruit at time of ripening.
Because'of mysterious circumstances surrounding the appear-
ance of citrus canker at Davie, in May, 1922, it appears advisa-
ble to again resume the study of the citrus canker organism
from the cultural and laboratory standpoints as it is evident that
the available knowledge of this disease is not all that it should be
in order to prevent or eradicate outbreaks with certainty. In
cooperation with the State Plant Board, therefore, equipment
has been secured for this investigation and to it the plant path-
ologist will devote considerable time from now on.
The study of pineapple wilt has been continued but has not
brought to light any definite information as to the cause of the
disease or satisfactory methods of controlling it.
A very large number of plant disease specimens are constantly
being referred to the plant pathologist by growers, inspectors for
the State Plant Board and others. The identification of these
requires considerable work but affords, at the same time, an
opportunity for accumulating practical information concerning
the plant diseases occurring in the state. In the report of the
plant pathologist, on a subsequent page, will be found mention of
the more important plant diseases noted during the fiscal year.

Insects, like plant diseases, take annual tolls of many thous-
ands of dollars from Florida farmers. Damage to individual


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

crops frequently ranges from 25 to 100 percent. The work ol
the Station's entomologists in the past has resulted in satisfac-
tory control measures for many of the common citrus insects,
including the whitefly, and in successful methods of avoiding
damage to sweet potatoes, field crops, velvet beans and subtrop-
ical fruits.
One of the principal lines of investigation pursued by the ento-
mologist during the past year has been in connection with thrips,
small insects which infest a large variety of plants, including
citrus. The year's work has shown that among the main points
to be considered in connection with control measures are: Spray-
ing during the height of bloom, the importance of weeds as a
source of infestation, that oranges are more severely injured
than grapefruit and that the results secured from spraying with
nicotine sulphate as a combination spray will be found profita-
ble when as many as ten thrips to the bloom are present. It
was found that a dust of lime impregnated with nicotine sul-
phate gave promising results altho great care was necessary in
its application.
In connection with the study of thrips on peanuts it was found
that the insects have marked preferences for certain varieties.
Study of the Sicilian mealy-bug parasite, Paraleptomastix
abnormus Giralt, has been continued by the entomologist. The
insects have been successfully reared in large numbers in the
laboratory and have been distributed to a large number of citrus
growers in the state.
Other investigations have been conducted in connection with
the velvet-bean caterpillar, bean jassid and the larger plant bugs.
Particular attention has been given to the nematode investiga-
tions, which have been under way for a number of years. The
most noteworthy result of the year's work was the striking suc-
cess which followed the use of the bush velvet bean, a nematode-
resistant plant, under constant cultivation. The beans were
planted in rows, no grass or weeds were allowed to grow and the
ground was kept well cultivated. The nematodes were reduced
to such small numbers by this treatment that it was possible to
grow crops, susceptible to root-knot, on the same ground during
the winter and spring following. More details concerning this
work are given in the report of the entomologist, on a subse-
quent page, as well as in the bulletins of the Station.


Annual Report, 1922

A comprehensive library upon scientific and agricultural sub-
jects is an absolute necessity to a research institution such as the
Experiment Station. As a matter of efficiency and economy, a
research worker must ascertain what has been done by others
on his particular problem. To make this possible, the necessary
books and publications must not only be available but they must
be systematically arranged, cataloged and indexed.
The Station's library, owing to inadequate funds, has received
during the last few years practically no acquisitions except such
government and state publications as are distributed free of
charge. It has not been possible to employ a librarian for more
than half time, despite the fact that the library is extensively
used, not only by the Station's investigators, but also by the staff
of the Agricultural Extension Division, and the faculty and stu-
dents of the College of Agriculture.
During the year it has been possible to bind a few volumes of
the many requiring it. There are now in the library 3,687 bound
volumes and about 75 journals and periodicals. The amount of
shelf room is totally inadequate to accommodate the publications
already possessed, and unless increased library facilities are
provided in the near future the work of the Station will inevi-
tably suffer.
The last annual report gave a history of the establishment of
this station, quoted the act of the legislature authorizing its
establishment, and itemized the expenditures made to June 30,
1921, out of the funds which had been donated for the use of
this station by Polk County and its citizens.
On June 30, 1921, there remained on hand of these donations
a balance of $3,343.21. During the fiscal year ending June 30,
1922, this sum was expended as follows:
On superintendent's cottage:
Lumber .................................... $ 151.75
Electrical supplies .................................. 42.00
Cement and tile........................................ 45.35
Lumber and hardware............................ 2,057.73
Plumbing and plumbing supplies ....... 73.45
Labor in construction..................... 782.72
Labor on grounds........................... ......... 112.50
Fertilizer ...................................... ........... 73.50
Postage and telegrams....... ---------....................... 2.21
Advertising for bids........................................ 2.00
Total........................................................... $3,343.21

. 13R

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

In addition to the above sum, there was expended on the Citrus
Experiment Station during the fiscal year, out of the appropria-
tion of $30,000 made by the legislature for the main station at
Gainesville, the sum of $5,114.85, making the total year's expen-
ditures on that station, including buildings, $8,458.06.
The $5,114.85 from the state appropriation has been expend-
ed as follows:
Salary, superintendent .......................................................$2,233.33
Labor ..................................................................... 575.45
Fertilizer ...................................... 271.84
Mule ........................................ 150.00
F eed ...... ....................... ....... .............. ................. 145.82
Spraying ................. .......................... 60.25
On superintendent's cottage ....................................... 586.23
On barn and tool house ........ ---........................ ....... 3.93
Well and water works.................... ......... .. 767.48
Plows, harness, etc .................................... ...................... 154.05
Administrative expenses, Gainesville office.................... 6.68
Miscellaneous .................................... 159.79
Total................................... ................. ........$5,114.85
The most noteworthy additions to the equipment at the Citrus
Experiment Station during the year have been the well and
water tower and a "quarantine cage." The latter is 44 by 33
feet and 10 feet high. The expense of constructing this cage was
borne by the State Plant Board, as a part of its work in safe-
guarding introductions of plants and trees into the state, and
amounted to $1,348.45. The walls of the cage rest upon a con-
crete base or wall which extends 18 inches below the soil surface
and the walls are protected on both outer and inner sides by a
2 by 2-inch moat or ditch. The moats can be kept filled with oil
or other substance to prevent the passage of crawling insects
which might be carriers of disease organisms. The walls and
top are covered on the inside with copper screening, 16 meshes
to the inch, and the outside with galvanized sand screening, all
securely fastened to creosoted, 2 by 4-inch studding and rafters.
In this cage are planted all citrus plants brought from outside
the state. It may be added, parenthetically, that no citrus plants
have thus far been brought into the state by the Station except
such as have previously been grown for a year or more in the
quarantine houses of the United States Department of Agri-
culture at Washington. Thus the introduction of new varieties
or forms of citrus is doubly safeguarded.
A splendid collection of citrus varieties and hybrids has been
received from the Bureau of Plant Industry, United States De-


Annual Report, 1922

apartment of Agriculture, and planted in the cage. A list of these
is given in the report of Superintendent Jefferies on a succeeding
A four-inch well has been drilled 247 feet deep. Drilling had
to be stopped at this depth on account of a lack of funds with
which to continue. A pump, operated by a small Aermotor en-
gine, has been installed and as much as 500 gallons of water an
hour can be secured from the well. This meets present needs
but will be totally inadequate for future needs. A cypress water
tank of 1,050 gallons capacity, mounted on a wooden tower 20
feet in height, has been installed, together with 200 feet of irri-
gating pipe for the seedbeds.


Fig. 2 -View of Citrus Experiment Station lands immediately after

The field experiments under way at the Citrus Experiment
Station embrace the following:
1. A study to determine the effects of high and low potash
fertilization on the quality of citrus fruits, for which purpose use
is being made of the bearing grove of Tardiff oranges and Dun-
can grapefruit.
2. A study of conditions favorable to or productive of die-
back. These experiments are being conducted in the young 10-
acre grove of Lue Gim Gong and Pineapple oranges, Marsh-Seed-
less and Silver Cluster grapefruit and Dancy tangerines. This
and the foregoing lines of experimentation are under the super-


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

vision of the chemist of the main Station at Gainesville, as ex-
plained on a previous page.
3. Variety tests of several common varieties of citrus on sour
orange, rough lemon and grapefruit rootstocks.
Work has been.commenced on the development of a "progeny
grove" in cooperation with the Bureau of Plant Industry, United
States Department of Agriculture. The object of this work is
to establish at the Station a source of supply of budwood of the
standard commercial varieties, propagated from bearing trees of
record performance in productivity and quality of fruit. In
preparation for this work 550 rough lemon stocks, supplied by
the main Station at Gainesville, were planted out in grove form
last winter. Selection of the best parent trees as sources of bud-
wood for this work, is being made by T. Ralph Robinson of the
Bureau of Plant Industry and some of the buds thus secured
have already been inserted.
In preparation for future work very choice rough lemon seed
have been secured and planted, together with seed of the Cleo-
patra mandarin and other stocks.
The establishment of a tobacco experiment station in the vi-
cinity of Quincy, Gadsden County, was authorized by an act of
the legislature (Chapter 8424) approved May 10, 1921. A ,copy
of this Act was published in the last .annual report, page 15R.
It carried an annual appropriation of $15,000 for the purposes
of the Tobacco Station, but as no part of the money became
available until July 1, 1921, no steps could be taken toward es-
tablishing the station until that time.
During the summer and autumn of 1921 the Board of Control
and the director made several trips to Gadsden County for the
purpose of examining various tracts of land as to their suita-
bility for such a station, but title to the land selected did not
pass to the state until December 15, 1921, nor did actual work on
the physical property begin until after that date. The station
property consists of about twenty-three acres of rolling land lo-
cated about half a mile south of Quincy. Of this area six and
a half acres were cleared and had been in cultivation, and the re-
mainder was uncleared. The soil type is predominantly Nor-
folk sandy loam with a little Orangeburg sandy loam showing
on hillsides and in the lower areas. The tract in question was
purchased by the tobacco growers and business men of Quincy


Annual Report, 1922

and adjoining territory and deeded to the state for the use of
the Station.
On January 9, 1922, the Board of Control instructed its archi-
tect to prepare plans and specifications for a two-story brick
laboratory building and directed that the land be surveyed, boun-
daries located and the property fenced. On this date also, W. B.
Tisdale was elected assistant plant pathologist of the University
of Florida Experiment Station and assigned to the study of to-
bacco diseases in the vicinity of Quincy, this work being inaug-
urated without waiting for the laboratory building to be con-
structed and equipped.
Dr. Tisdale has been able, during the period elapsing between
February 15, the date he commenced his duties, and June 30,
to make a rather comprehensive survey of the principal tobacco
diseases occurring in this area. A summary of his preliminary
investigations during this period will be found in his report on
a subsequent page.
Jesse Reeves on March 1, 1922, assumed the duties of foreman
of the Tobacco Experiment Station. In this capacity he has
the general care and supervision of the property, care of fences
and equipment, supervision of labor and field experiments, care
of grounds and building, etc.
On March 13, 1922, the Board of Control awarded contract for
construction of the two-story laboratory building. Work was
commenced shortly afterward by the contractor and is now
progressing satisfactorily.
The property has been fenced, some roads laid out and con-
structed, boundaries and corners of property located and
marked, underbrush removed from the vicinity of the building,
a shallow well drilled to furnish a temporary water supply and
about three acres of land cleared and planted to cowpeas prepar-
atory to being used for shade tobacco in 1923.
The expenditures out of the annual appropriation of $15,000
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1922, have been as follows:
Appropriation (Chapter 8424) .................................:...$15,000.00
Expended on laboratory building..................$6,661.18
Salaries, asst. pathologist and foreman...... 1,525.00
Fencing .......................................................... 287.87
Small tools .................... ................ .......... 53.09
Labor, surveying, pumps, piping, etc........ 334.46
Traveling expenses .................................:..... 238.25


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Minute book, records, gasoline, oil, photo-
graphic material, freight, telegrams, etc. 57.65
Total ............................................................ $9,166.26
Balance unexpended, June 30, 1922...... 5,833.74*
Out of the $15,000 appropriation available during the fiscal
year beginning July 1, 1922, it is anticipated that the Board of
Control will find it possible to complete the laboratory building
and its accessories; such as sewerage system, water supply, fur-
nace, electric lights, etc.; equip one laboratory room for work on
tobacco diseases; plot the area devoted to field experiments; con-
struct about three acres of shade and a small tobacco barn; and
grow a limited amount of shade tobacco.

The Everglades Experiment Station was provided for by
Chapter 8442, Laws of Florida, which was approved June 14,
1921. A copy of this act was published in the last annual re-
port, page 16R. The Act provides that the Everglades Station,
while subsidiary to the Experiment Station at Gainesville, "shall
be under the direction of the State Board of Education of Flor-
ida and the Board of Control, who shall at all times advise with
the Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund in the manage-
ment and conduct of the same." The Act also provided annual
appropriations aggregating $20,000 for the two years commenc-
ing July 1, 1921, with continuing appropriations thereafter total-
ing $10,000 a year. The appropriations for the first two years
consist of $10,000 a year out of the general revenues of the state
and $10,000 a year authorized to be set aside out of funds in the
hands of the Board of Commissioners of the Everglades drain-
age district. The Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund
were authorized by the same Act to set aside lands, owed br
the state, for the purposes of the Everglades Experiment Sta-
tion. - -
On: Augusta24, 1921,'the trustees of the Internal -Improvement
Fund set aside 160 acres of Everglade land located in Section 3,
Township,44 South, Range 37 East,;on the Hillsborough Canal,
about three miles from Belle Glade. :This land had but recently
been covered with saw grass and at that time the saw grass was
being rapidly replaced by weeds.
*Against this balance there are outstanding contracts for completion of
the laboratory building, amounting to about $4,750.


Annual Report, 1922

-On September 12, 1921, the Board of Control and the State
Board of Education met in joint session at Tallahassee to con-
sider the provisions of the Everglades Station Act and plans
for carrying out its provisions. At this meeting a committee,
consisting of F. C. Elliott, chief drainage engineer of the Ever-
glades drainage district, and Wilmon Newell, director of the

Fig. 3.-Drainage ditch on the property of the Everglades Experiment
Station, Belle Glade (photographed in May, 1922)

University of Florida Experiment Station, was appointed and
instructed to visit the site set aside for the station and to pre-
pare recommendations as to procedure, this committee to report
at the next joint meeting of the Board of Control and the Board
of Education.
During October, the -committee visited the site of the pro-
posed station, examined the land and vegetation thereon and pre-
pared definite recommendations as to the construction of ditches,
dock, buildings, etc; This report was submitted to the Bo'ard
of Education, Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund ind
Board of Control at a joint meeting in Tallahassee :on'November
14, 1921. The recommendations of the committee were approQw
ed and the committee continued, with- the addition of Governoi
Cary A. Hardee. The committee was authorized-to proceed with
the construction of ditches, dock and% buildings in accordance
with the plans submitted, as the first step toward preparation of
the property for experimental work.


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Inasmuch as the Board of Commissioners of the Everglades
drainage district had at its disposal launches, barges, boats, pile
driver and other equipment useful in construction work and
transportation of materials, it was agreed that the construction
work could best be handled by the chief engineer of the Ever-
glades drainage district and that after dock and buildings were
ready for use the agricultural and experimental work could be
taken up by the director of the University of Florida Experi-
ment Station. The preparation of specifications, advertising for
bids and letting of contracts was, accordingly, left to the Board
of Commissioners and chief drainage engineer of the Everglades
drainage district. Various contingencies between November,
1921, and June 30, 1922, operated to.delay the letting of con-
tracts for the construction work.

Fig. 4.-"Hungarian millet" on the property of the Everglades Experiment
Station. The millet has replaced the saw grass (photographed in May, 1922)

At the end of the period covered by this report (June 30,
1922) ditches have been made on the property under the super-
vision of the chief drainage engineer and a preliminary soil sur-
vey has been made under supervision of the director. Records
have also been made of the character of vegetation upon the land
and its distribution.
Following is a statement of expenditures from the appropria-
tion of $10,000 out of the general revenues of the state, for the
fiscal year ending June 30, 1922:


Annual Report, 1922

Appropriation (Chapter 8442) ...................................$10,000.00
Traveling expenses of director..................... $ 29.67
Telegrams .-- .. ..... ........ .......... 82
Minute book for secretary of Boards.......... 4.00
Total disbursements ............................ $ 34.49
Balance unexpended, June 30, 1922.......... 9,965.51
Vouchers drawn against the annual $10,000 appropriation,
authorized to be set aside by the Board of Commissioners of the
Everglades drainage district, are presented to that Board for
approval and the director of the University of Florida Experi-
ment Station has, as yet, no record of the expenditures, if any,
from that fund.

Changes in the personnel of the Experiment Station staff have
not been as numerous during the fiscal year now closing as dur-
ing the preceding year. Due to increased facilities and better
working conditions which followed slightly increased resources,
there is a greater tendency toward stability on the part of the
organization. The changes and additions during the year have
been as follows:
A. H. Beyer was appointed assistant entomologist on July 1,
.J. M. Coleman commenced, work as assistant chemist, soft-
pork investigations, on July 15, 1921.
W. G. Wells began his duties as assistant plant pathologist on
August 13, 1921, and resigned on May 1, 1922.
J. B. Thompson, grass and forage crop specialist, resigned on
August 15, 1921.
/W. E. Stokes, assistant grass and forage crop specialist, be-
gan work on October 1, 1921.
AV. B. Tisdale, assistant plant pathologist, tobacco investiga-
tions, commenced work on February 15, 1922.
Jesse Reeves commenced work as foreman of the Tobacco Ex-
periment Station on March 1, 1922.

Following is a list of the publications issued by the Experi-
ment Station during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1922:


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

No. Title Edition
161 Avocado Diseases --........................... 8,186
162 The Flower Thrips --......----.........-.... 8,220
163 Bunch Velvet Beans to Control
Root-Knot -------..... -....---.. -............. 8,207
164 The Bean Leaf-Hopper and Hop-
perburn, etc. ---..... .--... ...............-- -.. 6,089



8 65,656


Totals ------- --------........ ....................30,702 88



No. 161, Avocado Diseases: (H. E. Stevens), pp. 24, figs. 6.
A summary of the available information on the diseases affecting
the avocado in Florida, most of the information having been se-
cured thru the personal investigations of the author. Avocado
scab and avocado fruit spot are described and the appearance of
affected fruit is illustrated. Avocado scab is caused by a form
of the organism known as Cladosporium citri (pro tem) Masse
and fruit spot by a species of Colletotrichum. Spraying experi-
ments have shown that both diseases can be controlled by the
proper use of bordeaux mixture. Avocado blotch, due to a
Cercospora, affects the rind of the fruit and can also be con-
trolled with bordeaux. Rusty blight, due to a Gloeosporium, is
a troublesome disease of the avocado in Hawaii and may be pres-

Fig. 5.-Scene on the grounds of the Everglades Experiment Station, show-
ing displacement of saw grass by weeds (photographed in May, 1922)


Annual Report, 1922

ent to some extent in Florida. Powdery mildew and russeting
of the fruit are also discussed.
No. 162, The Flower Thrips: (J. R. Watson), pp. 28, figs. 4,
Over eighty species of thrips have been found in Florida, of
which only about half a dozen do serious damage to crops. The
most common species in Florida is the flower thrips, Franklin-
iella bispinosa Morgan, which takes the place held in most other
sections of the United States by the grain thrips, F. tritici. The
appearance of the flower thrips and its characteristic work are
described. It has many host plants, including roses, plums,
peaches, citrus, etc. In the case of citrus the damage is two-
fold, dropping of bloom and disfigurement of the fruit. Typical
thrips injury to grapefruit is illustrated. One spraying at the
proper time has usually reduced the seriously marked fruit by
50 percent. In the experiments of 1921, two sprayings gave
better results than one. One pint of nicotine sulphate to 100
gallons of lime-sulphur (in the proportion of 1 to 70) has given
maximum results when applied under good pressure, the spray
being turned directly into the bloom. Destruction of weeds in
the vicinity of the grove is of importance as a preventive meas-
ure. Character of the work done by the flower thrips on toma-
toes, strawberries and other plants is described and control
measures indicated. Only 12 days is required for the develop-
ment of a generation of the flower thrips under favorable condi-
tions. Mention is made of other species known, respectively, as
the Cuban Citrus, Tobacco, Camphor, Composite, Onion, Black
Garden, Magnolia and Buckeye thrips.
No. 163, Bunch Velvet Beans to Control Root-Knot: (J. R.
Watson), pp. 8, figs. 2. The summer fallow method of control-
ling nematodes grew out of the experiments conducted at this
Station for several years past. By keeping land free from veg-
etation during the summer and keeping it constantly stirred to
prevent the formation of a crust, the nematodes-which are re-
sponsible for root-knot-can be greatly reduced. These results
were recorded in Bulletin 159. However, the summer fallow
method is objectionable because it impoverishes the soil. It is
desirable to have the land covered with vegetation during the
summer. Velvet beans are resistant to nematode attack but
when the runner varieties are used the soil .cannot be kept
stirred and host plants of the nematode, such as weeds, are likely
to creep in. Experiments with the bunch velvet bean under con-
stant cultivation have resulted in the nematodes' being so great-


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

ly reduced that crops susceptible to root-knot were successfully
grown on the land during the following winter and spring.
No. 164, The Bean Leaf-Hopper and Hopperburn, with Meth-
ods of Control: (A. H. Beyer), pp. 28, figs. 16. The bean leaf-
hopper is a sucking insect, the adults and nymphs of which feed
on the mid-vein and its branches, sucking the sap therefrom.
As a result of this injury the bean plants turn yellow and the
leaves curl. A distinct form of injury, known as "hopperburn,"
due to activities of the leaf-hopper, causes the leaves to turn
brown and wither. Destructive outbreaks of the leaf-hopper
occur in late summer and fall. The insect passes the winter in
the adult stage and there are from five to six generations a year.
A special apparatus has been devised which is successfully used
in applying a combination spray of bordeaux mixture and nico-
tine sulphate to control the hopperburn and at the same time
destroy the leaf hoppers. From four to six applications are
No. Title Author
324. Gassing the Corn Weevil ..............................J. R. Watson
325. The Velvet Bean Caterpillar .....................-..J. R. Watson
326. Spraying for Citrus Whitefly .--...-...............-- R. Watson
327. How to Poison Ants.........................................J. R. Watson
328. Gas the Ants .....---.......-..............................J. R. Watson
329. Sweet Potato Root-Weevils ...........................J. R. Watson
330. Collecting Pumpkin Bugs in Citrus Groves J. R. Watson
331. The San Jose Scale ..........--......-.......-...........--J. R. Watson
332. The Melon Aphis .-....-.........................--------J. R. Watson
333. Poisoning Grasshoppers .................................J. R. Watson
334. Red Rot of Sugar Cane ....................................0. F. Burger
335. Spraying to Control Melanose ...............O. F. Burger and
E. F. DeBusk
336. Spray Schedule for Peaches....................J. R. Watson and
O. F. Burger
337. Red Scale Controlled by Soap and Oil Emulsion............
J. R. Watson
338. Use Sulphur for Red Spiders ........................J. R. Watson
339. Controlling the Mealy Bug ............................J. R. Watson
340. "Salamanders" and "Gophers" --......-.............J. R. Watson



Annual Report, 1922



Wilmon Newell, Director.
SIR: I respectfully submit the following report of the credits
received and expenditures vouchered out of funds as specified
during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1922:


Adams Fund ..............................................--..-----.
Hatch Fund .................................... .. .......---------
State Appropriation,
Main Station .............................. .........
Substations ........................... ...........-----
Winter Haven Sub-Experiment
Station .................................... 3,343.21
Sales Fund ............................................ 396.11


Salaries ................... ...... ............ $11,769.14
Labor ........................ ... .............. 382.01
Publications .................-------.. ...-- ---------
Postage and stationery .-................ 5.18
Freight and express .............................. 26.85
Heat, light, water, power..... :........ 17.02
Chemicals and laboratory supplies.... 145.31
Seed, plants, sundry supplies.............. 210.84
Fertilizers ................... 220.88
Feeding stuffs ..............-...---.--..... 468.00
Library ..........................----- 626.96
Tools, machinery, appliances ......... 170.87
Furniture and fixtures ............------- 21.75
Scientific apparatus and spec............ 113.98
Livestock ............ ..............
Traveling expenses ............................. 490.96
Contingent expenses ...................... 4.65
Buildings and land ............................ 325.60
Balance ...................................... .....











$ 9,021.66



Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Wilmon Newell, Director.
SIR: I submit the following report of the animal industrialist
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1922:

The soft-pork problem received a good deal of attention dur-
ing the year. Two feeding experiments, duplications of experi-
ments of last year, were conducted. They were a check on for-
mer work, and the results obtained are particularly valuable,
because they coincide with the work of previous years.
Two feeding experiments were conducted. The first was
started August 9, 1921, and closed November 5, 1921. In this
experiment ten hogs were used and were divided into two lots of
five each. The feeding period was divided into two periods of
44 days each, the first of which the hogs in Lot I were fed corn,
and shorts, equal parts by weight, and bright cottonseed meal,
equal to one-eighth of the weight of corn and shorts. The hogs
in Lot II were fed Spanish peanuts only during the first 44 days.
At the close of the 44-day period the feeds of the two lots of hogs
were reversed.
Each pig was weighed on three consecutive days at the begin-
ning of the experiment and at the close of each period. The av-
erage of the three weighing was taken as the beginning and
closing weights.
Samples of fat were taken from each hog at the beginning and
at the close of each feeding period. From these samples of fat
the melting point and, the "iodine number" were determined.
For detailed results see Tables 1 and 2.
These results indicate that to a certain extent the feed has a
marked effect on the melting point of the fat. The data also
show that the feeding of Spanish peanuts lowers the melting
point of fat. One other very important point that should not be
overlooked is that the melting point of fat was raised when the
hogs were fed a ration of corn, shorts and cottonseed meal.
The second feeding experiment began December 14, 1921, and
closed April 18, 1922. In this experiment 24 hogs were used
and were divided into two lots of 12 hogs each.


_Lot I, Fed corn, shorts and cottonseed meal

Date Aug. 9, 1921 Date Sept. 2,

_o __ ___

8............ ....
12.... ...........




Lot II, Fed peanuts only

2................ 133.3
3............-....... 158.3
.-.. 106.6
9..... .... 100.0
11.............. 83.3

Male 24.0 72.64 170.0 36.7 24.0 89.35 000 +16.71
Female 23.7 85.50 203.3 45.0 23.6 90.79 -0.1 + 5.29
Female 25.8 80.50 160.0 53.4 23.4 92.02 -2.4 +11.52
Male 23.9 72.60 150.0 50.0 23.0 93.20 -0.9 +20.60
Male 25.2 73.82 125.0 41.7 23.9 89.54 -1.3 +15.72

Lot I, Fed peanuts only

Date Sept. 22, 1921 Date Nov. 5, 1921

o -a .o
_4.__ bo z 4. bo z U

5--.................... 150.0 Male 35.8 74.03 170.0 20.0 35.0 84.80 -0.8 +10.77
7............... 148.3 Female 36.0 78.04 160.0 11.7 35.8 81.84 -0.2 + 3.80
8................. 158.3 Male 36.2 74.25 193.3 35.0 34.2 79.00 -2.0 + 4.75
10.................. 128.3 Female 34.3 80.53 173.3 45.0 35.6 82.50 +1.3 + 1.97
12................. 141.6 Female 35.2 76.60 153.3 11.7 34.0 78.54 -1.2 + 1.94

Lot II, Fed corn, shorts and cottonseed meal
2.............. 170.0 Male 24.0 89.35 210.0 40.0 28.0 86.70 +4.0 -2.65
3............... 203.3 Female 23.6 90.79 235.0 31.7 27.5 88.10 +3.9 -2.69
6................. 160.0 Female 23.4 92.02 183.3 23.3 27.9 88.00 +4.5 -4.02
9................. 150.0 Male 23.0 93.20 180.0 30.0 27.7 85.67 +4.7 -7.53
11 ................... 125.0 Male 23.9 89.54 147.5 22.5 27.2 88.30 +3.3 -1.24

Lot I. Fed corn, shorts and cottonseed meal (63 days)

December 14, 1921 February 15, 1922

g __ ._ Difference in

.d 0---
4 A to o g

1................ 60.0 Female 28.5 83.74 1.4630 76.6 16.6 28.0 87.12 1.4640 -0.5 + 3.38 +.0010
2 ......... 90.0 Female 30.4 80.65 1.4630 116.6 26.6 35.3 82.24 1.4623 +4.9 + 1.59 +.0007
3................ 121.6 Male 29.7 76.56 1.4640 178.3 56.7 36.8 72.60 1.4620 +7.1 3.96 +.0020
4................ 131.6 Female 32.2 81.50 1.4620 191.6 60.0 37.0 72.26 1.4620 +4.8 -9.24 .0000
5............ 101.6 Female 35.7 81.15 1.4627 148.3 46.7 36.0 76.53 1.4620 +0.3 4.62 -.0007
6 .......... 121.6 Female 32.6 82.10 1.4626 180.0 58.4 33.0 78.00 1.4626 +0.4 4.10 .0000
11................ 110.0 Female 29.0 81.78 1.4622 180.0 70.0 35.3 77.13 1.4620 +6.3 4.65 -.0002
12........... 131.6 Female 30.5 84.19 1.4623 203.3 71.7 38.0 70.10 1.4625 +7.5 -14.09 -10002
13................ 130.0 Female 28.6 80.52 1.4626 201.6 71.6 35.0 73.95 1.4650 +6.4 6.57 +.0024
16 ..........126.6 Male 33.1 78.54 1.4644 161.6 35.0 37,0 73.64 1.4628 +3.9 4.90 -.0016
19 .......... 103.3 Male 32.0 80.45 1.4630 161.6 58.3 37.00 73.00 1.4610 +5.0 7.45 -.0020

Lot II. Fed peanuts (63 days)

S December 14, 1921




7 --......-------........ 966 Female
8:' ............... 95.0 Male
9.............. 13.3 Female
10 ............... 115.0 Female
14.............. 101.6 Male
17...:............ 101.6 Male
18............ 108.3 Female
20................ 106.6 Male
21................ 81.6 Female
22. ... 86.6 Male -- .
23-.......-..... 86.6 Female
24.......-..-... 68.3 Male


't' : a

o -

30.4 83.69
32.6 82.82
31.0 85.80
33.6 80.89
32.0 77.15
31.0 80.70
35.0 78.80
33.6 86.46
35.3 78.86
33.8 82.45
36.2 72.70
29,2 79.20



February 15, 1922



a. 0



o a










Difference in


.N 1 l ..
.2'" Sa :El

- 7.3 + .8.71
- 8.8 + 9.34
- 6.0 + 4.49
- 8.5 + 7.81
- 5.9 + 8.12
- 7.4 + 9.58
- 8.6 +10.17
- 9.0 + 3.54
-10.3 + 6.94
- 8.0 + 4.55
- 8.8 +13.70
- 3.2 + 8.24


. .. . i ,


Annual Report, 1922

Lot I. Fed peanuts (63 days)


1 February 15, 1922 [ April 18,1922 I
g5 Difference in
4 r 400 r
P,0 OW m P,

1.... 76.6 Female. .28.0 1.4640 100.0 23.4 25.0 1.4625 -3.0 -.0015
2.... 116.6 Female 35.3 1.4623 146.6 30.0 31.0 1.4618 -4.3 -.0005
4.... 191.6 Female 37.0 1.4620 211.6 20.0 33.0 1.4632 -4.0 +.0012
5...: 148.3 Female 36.0 1.4620 168.3 20.0 33.2 1.4650 -2.8 +.0030
6.... 1800 Female 33.0 1.4626 205.0 25.0 29.7 1.4642 -3.3 +.0016
11.... 180.0 Female 35.3 1.4620 211.6 31.6 28.3 1.4640 -7.0 +.0020
12.... 203.3 Female 38.0 .1.4625 251.6 48.3 .33.0 1.4640 -5.0 +.0015
13.... 201.6 Female 35.0 1.4650 246.6 45.0 27.3 1.4622 -7.7 -.0028
16.... 161.6 Male 37.0 1.4628 190.0 28.4 33.0 1.4617 -4.0 -.0011
19.... 161.6 Male 37.0 1.4610 195.0 33.4 31.6 1.4630 .-5.4 +.0020

Lot II. Fed corn, shorts and cottonseed meal (63 days)
| 1 February 15, 1922. April 18, 1922
4A Difference in

to IO . r. .-

&i 3 3 g o 3- 30 '.

17.. .






+ 8.0
+ 8.9
+ 9.4
+ 6.8
+ 8.7
+ 8.3
+ 6.4
+ 5.3


-. The feeding experiment was divided into two periods of 63
days .eaci. .During the first 63 days the hogs in Lot I were fed
corn, shorts and cottonseed meal, and the hogs in Lot II were
fed Spanish peanuts only. _During the second 63 days.;the hogs
in Lot I were fed peanuts only, and the hogs in Lot II were fed
corn, shorts and cottonseed meal, .
Each hog was weighed on three consecutive days at the be-
ginning and at the close of each feeding period.; Theaverage-qf

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

the three weighing was taken as the beginning and closing
Samples of fat were taken from each hog at the beginning of
the experiment and at the close of each feeding period. From
these samples of fat, the melting point and iodine number were
For detailed results see Tables 3, 4, 5 and 6.
In addition to the soft-pork-feeding experiments a soft-pork-
breeding experiment was started, the purpose being to deter-
mine, if possible, whether heredity has anything to do with the
melting point of fat of hogs. Three sows and one boar are being
used in this work. The sows had pigs during the year. These
pigs will be used to continue the breeding work.
TAKEN JUNE 28, 1922


0 ~"

o s

1.... Female 73.3 3/8 29.5 75.79 1.4610 Thin Pigs to 6, inclu
2.... Female 53.3 3/8 31.9 72.20 1.4612 Thin sive, from sow with
3.... Male 48.3 3/8 28.9 70.00 1.4608 Thin hole in right ear.
4... Female 50.0 7/16 28.6 70.15 1.4618 Heavy Melting point of fat,
5 .... Female 53.3 1/2 28.0 75.50 1.4612 Heavy 38.8C.; of boar
6.... Male 50.0 3/8 29.3 72.16 1.4620 Heavy 28C.
7.... Female 53.3 7/16 31.1 73.00 1.4624 Heavy Pigs 7 to 13, inclu-
8.... Female 18.3 1/8 32.0 71.75 1.4618 Ex. H'vy sive, out of sow with
9.... Female 51.6 1/4 31.8 70.50 1.4628 Medium hole in both ears.
10.. Female 55.0 1/2 33.9 66.75 1.4620 Medium Melting point of fat,
11.... Female 43.3 3/8 30.3 75.20 1.4635 Medium 37.60C.; of boar,
12.... Male 48.3 3/8 29.6 74.38 1.4626 Heavy 28'C.
13... Female 58.3 3/8 35.3 66.87 1.4620 Medium
14.... Female 46.6 1/4 31.0 72.50 1.4622 Medium Pigs 14 to 18, inclu-
15.... Male 55.0 7/16 30.7 74.58 1.4620 Medium sive, out of sow 12a.
16.... Male 53.3 3/8 29.5 73.34 1.4620 Medium Melting point of fat
17... Female 55.0 3/8 29.6 78.40 1.4610 Medium 34*C.; of boar,
18.. Female 36.6 3/16 32.0 70.00 1.4616 Medium 28C.
Pigs 1 to 6, inclusive were farrowed Feb. 5, 1922; 7 to 13, Jan. 25, 1922;
14 to 18, Feb. 26, 1922.
The three sows and the boar used in this experiment were
raised on the Experiment Station farm, and for a year or more
previous to starting the experiment, had been fed and cared for


Annual Report, 1922

exactly alike. Samples of fat were taken from the boar and
each of the three sows on March 28, 1922, and tested as follows:
Boar, 280C; the sows, 38.80, 37.60 and 34.80C., respectively. (See
Table 7.)
Additional studies were made in regard to the variation in
the melting point of fat of pigs from the same litter. These
studies show a marked difference in the melting point of fat
of such pigs, even when cared for and fed identically. In one
litter of six the difference was from 28.50C. to 35.70C. In two
other litters the difference was just about the same.
Arrangements have been made with Armour and Company of
Chicago, Illinois, for samples of fat to be sent here from car-
casses in the cooler at Chicago. Samples will be received every
two or three months during the year. One lot has already been
received. The results of the melting point of the fat of these
samples indicate that the soft-pork problem is not limited to
the South.

An experiment was conducted with fish meal as a protein feed
for dairy cows. Due to the fact that it has such a strong pene-
trating odor, there are some doubts as to its value as a dairy
feed. The idea was to determine, if possible, whether or not the
feeding of fish meal would taint the milk. Samples of milk were
taken from that of two cows, each day for a week, before the
feeding of fish meal was begun. Samples also were taken twice
each week for six weeks during the time the fish meal was being
fed. The amount of fish meal in the ration was gradually in-
creased until the maximum amount the cows would eat was
The feeding of fish meal had no effect on the flavor of the milk,
but the cows did not seem to relish it. The result was that they
ate but little of it, not more than one and a quarter pounds a
day. When a larger amount was placed in the feed, the feed
was refused. Judging from the results of this test, it is not
likely that fish meal will cause any bad flavor in the milk, for
cows eat too little of it.
Another experiment was conducted to see if the feeding in
large quantities of velvet-bean meal has any effect in raising' or
lowering the melting point of butterfat.
Two cows were selected from the herd. They had been receiv-
ing for a month a ration composed of the following mixture:


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

100 pounds of bran, 100 of cornmeal, 50 of peanut meal, 50 of
cottonseed meal, 50 of alfalfa meal and 75 of ground oats. In
addition to this ration the cows had access to pasture.
The experiment was started on the evening of July 25. Sam-
ples of milk were taken from each of the two cows night and
morning for four days. Butter was made from each sample of
milk. Each sample of butter was then tested for the melting
point of fat, iodine number, saponification number, and Reich-
ert Meissl number. (See Tables 8 and 9.)
On August 3, the grain ration was changed to one of velvet-
bean meal. Beginning on the evening of August 8, samples of
milk were taken twice a week until September 13. Butter was
made and tested, for its melting point, iodine number, saponifi-
cation number and Reichert Meissl'number, from each sample of
milk. (See Tables 10 and 11.)

When samples
were taken

P.M. IA.M. 9
July 25... 26 22.7 18-1 35.8 29.84 226.11 28.09
July 27.... 28 21.1 18-2 35.6 29.96 226.40 28.15
July 29.... 30 19.0 18-3 36.0 30.88 228.64
Aug. 2.... 3 17.8 18-4 35.7 32.30 227.61 28.00

Table 8 shows the amount of milk produced each day by cow
No. 18, July 25 to August 2, melting point of butterfat, iodine
number, saponification number, and Reichert Meissl number,
when cow was fed: Wheat bran 100 pounds, cornmeal 100, pea-
nut meal 50, cottonseed meal 50, alfalfa meal 50, and ground
oats 75.

When samples |
were taken o

P.M. IA.M. P, M o
July 25.... 26 20.7 83-1 35.8 29.88 227.24 34.00
July 27.... 28 21.3 83-2 35.8 29.84 232.01 32.25
July 29.... 30 21.8 83-3 36.0 31.08 232.01 31.00
Aug. 2.... 3 19.3 83-4 35.1 29.30 231.26 34.67


Annual Report, 1922

Table 9 shows the amount of milk produced each day by cow
No. 83, July 25 to August 2, melting point of butterfat, iodine
number, saponification number, and Reichert Meissl number,
when cow was fed: Wheat bran 100 pounds, peanut meal 50,
cornmeal 100, cottonseed meal 50, alfalfa meal 50, ground oats 75.


When samples 'r |
were taken d

P.M. I A. M. Q -_ 0 g_
Aug. 8 ... 9 13.9 18-5 37.5 34.38 224.80 26.00
Aug. 11.... 12 11.2 18-6 37.00 34.00 225.92 25.50
Aug. 15.... 16 4.5 18-7 37.0 36.28 217.00 22.50
Aug. 17.... 18 12.0 18-8 37.7 37.40 216.85 20.00
Aug. 19.... 20 11.4 18-9 37.3 36.42 218.73 21.50
Aug. 23.... 24 13.1 18-10 37.00 35.50 220.47 21.30
Aug. 25.... 26 6.6 18-11 36.3 35.50 218.83 22.00
Aug. 29.... 30 10.6 18-12 36.0 33.06 221.03 21.80
Sept. 1.... 2 9.6 18-13 36.0 31.20 221.30 22.00
Sept. 5.... 6 8.6 18-14 36.0 30.72 225.24 25.95
Sept. 8.... 9 8.1 18-15 36.4 31.88 224.40 28.33
Sept. 12.... 13 9.5 18-16 36.5 31.68 225.64 28.21
Sept. 15.... 16 9.0 18-17 36.3 35.40 222.00 27.80

Table 10 shows the amount of milk produced each day by cow
No. 18, August 8 to September 13, melting point of butterfat,
iodine number, saponification number, and Reichert Meissl num-
ber when cow was fed velvet-bean meal.

When samples '
were taken .

P.M. IA.M. (g a __ _3 _g
Aug. 8.... 9 17.3 83-5 37.0 33.32 224.80 29.10
Aug. 11.... 12 17.7 83-6 36.4 33.46 224.80 28.90
Aug. 15.... 16 16.0 83-7 36.7 33.80 224.20 29.90
Aug. 17.... 18 17.2 83-8 37.3 35.42 223.90 28.00
Aug. 19.... 20 16.9 83-9 35.6 31.08 227.60 31.20
Aug. 23.... 24 17.2 83-10 35.9 30.88 227.80 30.80
Aug. 25.... 26 16.4 83-11 35.3 31.24 226.08 30.75
Aug. 29.... 30 17.4 83-12 35.9 30.40 224.40 27.60
Sept. 1.... 2 16.3 83-13 36.2 30.84 228.33 27.00
Sept. 5.... 6 17.3 83-14 36.0 31.80 226.64 27.23
Sept. 8.... 9 16.3 83-15 35.9 32.20 225.08 27.00
Sept. 12.... 13 18.2 83-16 35.5 31.68 225.64 28.20


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Table 11 shows the amount of milk produced each day by cow
No. 83, August 8 to September 13, melting point of butterfat,
iodine number, saponification number, and Reichert Meissl num-
ber, when cow was fed velvet-bean meal.
A comparison of the value of the two following rations for
milk production was made during the year.

Ration No. 1
Ground corn, cob and shuck.................... ..... 100 pounds
Ground oats ................... ......------. 100 pounds
Ground velvet beans and pods................................-- 100 pounds
Peanut meal without hulls.............................. ..... 50 pounds
Ration No. 2
Wheat bran .............................................. 100 pounds
Cornmeal ...................-----....------100 pounds
Beet pulp ................. ................ 100 pounds
Cottonseed meal, bright-------........ .................................. 75 pounds

The feeding experiment was divided into four periods of 28
days each as follows: First period, November 2-29, 1921; sec-
ond period, December 4-31, 1921; third period, January 4-31,
1922; fourth period, February 5-March 4, 1922.
The results of this test were: The ration made up of corn, cob
and shucks, ground oats, ground velvet beans and pods and pea-
nut meal, produced 160.4 pounds more milk than the ration made
up of wheat bran, cornmeal, beet pulp and cottonseed meal.
There was a material difference in the cost of the two rations.
The ration made from corn, cob and shuck, ground oats, ground
velvet beans and pods cost $32 a ton and the ration made from
wheat bran, cornmeal, beet pulp and cottonseed meal cost $38 a
Animal Industrialist.


Annual Report, 1922

Wimon Newell, Director.
SIR I submit the following report of the assistant grass and
forage crop specialist for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1922:
The investigational work of the department has been carried
on in cooperation with the Bureau of Plant Industry of the
United States Department of Agriculture, the assistant grass
and forage crop specialist being a joint employee of the Florida
Experiment Station and of the Bureau of Plant Industry. The
investigational work formerly handled by the assistant agrono-
mist of the Experiment Station has been taken over by this de-
All of the investigational work is being carried out on the Ex-
periment Station farm at Gainesville, and in order to present a
clear idea of the nature and progress of the work, each project
is listed as follows:
Testing of bush velvet beans, Mung beans, soybeans and cow-
peas as hay crops.
Testing Napier grass as a grazing and silage crop.
Testing Napier grass and Japanese cane, irrigated and not
irrigated, using overflow from the University of Florida septic
A variety test of millet.
A variety test of sorghum.
A variety test of peanuts.
A variety test of velvet beans.
Peanut breeding work.
Inheritance studies with peanuts.
A peanut-fertilizer test and the residual effect of the ferti-
lizer on a corn crop.
A sweet potato-fertilizer test and residual effect of the ferti-
lizer on a peanut crop.
Napier and Merker grass improvement.
Pasture grass studies.
Lawn grass studies.
Kudzu as a hay and pasture plant.
Fertilizing pastures.
Testing rye, oats, barley and vetch for winter grazing and
hay crops.


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

A continuous fertilizer test with peanuts, using two forms of
nitrogen from three sources, two forms of sulphur from three
sources, and determining the effect of land plaster alone and in
combination with all plant food materials used.
Most of these experiments have been planned and put into ex-
ecution during the year; hence, no definite conclusion can be
drawn at this time. However, a few general remarks will show
the object and ultimate value of this work.


The following lawn grasses were set out in plots in the spring
of 1922: Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), Giant carpet grass
(Axonopus furcatus), Centipede grass (Eremochloa ophiuroi-
des), St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), Bermu-
da grass (Capriola dactylon), Giant Bermuda grass (Capriola
dactylon var. maritimus), St. Lucie grass (Capriola dactylon
var. St. Lucie), Blue couch grass (Digitaria didactyla Fundi),
Carpet grass (Axonopus compressus), and Atlanta Bermuda
(Capriola dactylon). With a view of determining the best all-
round lawn grasses, these plots were first put in proper lawn
condition, and ample provision made for mowing and watering.
Some have shown immunity to disease and insect attacks, and
one introduced species (Eremochloa ophiuroides) appears very
promising from the standpoints of color, fineness of leaf and ab-
sence of underground rootstalks.


Over twenty varieties of both the saccharine and non-sacchar-
ine, or grain, sorghums were put under test during part of the
period covered by this report. None of these has been harvest-
ed but, as in previous tests, the later-maturing saccharine sorgh-
ums yield heavier than the earlier varieties. Apparently some
of the non-saccharine, or grain, sorghums yield more grain than
corn on some types of Florida soil.

Three years ago breeding work was begun with Spanish pea-
nuts. The primary object was to develop a high-yielding strain
of this variety, with secondary consideration to high and low
oil content.


Annual Report, 1922

Thus far, some very gratifying results have been obtained,
particularly as regards yields. At present 20 high-yielding se-
lections are growing in the peanut-breeding nursery. These se-
lections will be tested for a number of years in comparison with
one another, and with the best known strains of Spanish pea-
nuts, in order to eliminate all but the consistently high-yielding
strain or strains.
Napier* and Merker grasses show quite a variation in indi-
vidual plants, particularly in plants grown from seed. In order
to take advantage of this variation and thereby develop a high-
yielding strain, a nursery of 500 single-eye cuttings and 500
seedling plants has been established. The plants in this nur-
sery are set one plant to a hill in rows, allowing each plant plenty
of room to develop. This also permits a careful study of the in-
dividual plants, some of which appear promising.


The following pasture grasses, Bermuda (Capriola dactylon),
Giant Bermuda (Capriola dactylon var. maritimus), St. Lucie
grass (Capriola dactylon var. St. Lucie), Carpet grass (Axono-
pus compressus), Giant carpet grass (Axonopus furcatus), Dal-
lis grass (Paspalum dilatatum), Blue couch grass (Digitaria
didactyla Fundi), St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secunda-
tum), Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), Golden plume grass
(Andropogon monticola) and Centipede grass (Eremochloa oph-
iuroides), were set out in the pasture in the spring of 1922 and
all have been under close observation during the year. These
grasses show marked differences in their sod-forming habits as
well as in the quality and quantity of grazing furnished.
In addition, seedings of Bahia grass, Carpet grass and Dallis
grass were made at different times and under varying methods
of soil preparation, to determine when and how to plant them
for best results. Results so far seem to indicate success from
early summer seeding on thoroly prepared land.
Fulghum oats, Texas oats, Florida rye, Abruzzi rye, Rosen
rye, Manchuria barley, Tennessee No. 5 and Tennessee No. 6
barley, were tested as winter-grazing crops during the year.
Lespedeza, or Japan clover, gives good results in the perma-
nent pastures of northern Florida. This legume is being tested

*Pefnisetum purpurem


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

as a pasture plant on the Experiment Station pasture. Where
sown on prepared land it shows a much better stand than where
the land was unprepared.
An experimental grass garden, containing over three acres, is
maintained for the testing of new species of forage plants. Dur-
ing the year, thru the cooperation of the Bureau of Plant Indus-
try, quite a number of new grasses were received and tested.
Among the grasses showing special promise are: Bahia grass
(Paspalum notatum) S. P. I. 37996, Centipede grass (Eremoch-
loa ophiuroides) S. P. I. 02810, Molasses grass (Melinis minuti-
flora) S. P. I. 54448, Jaragua grass (Andropogon rufus) S. P. I.
54679, Brown Top millet (Panicum fasciculatum). The first two
grasses mentioned, the former a native of South America and
the latter -of Asia, show promise as good permanent pasture
grasses. The next two grasses, both native to South America,
give promise as pasture and hay plants. The Molasses grass,
(Melinis minutiflora) S. P. I. 54448, when sowed- broadcast on
well-prepared land, March 29, 1922, was ready to graze, or cut
for hay on June 14, 1922. Brown Top millet (Panicum fascicu-
latum) sowed broadcast yielded two tons of cured hay to the
acre 40 days after planting. A second cutting of this grass was
prevented by excessive rains which drowned out the field.
Subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum) S. P. I. 53914,
a new clover, native to southern Asia, which has the peculiar
habit of setting seed underground like the peanut, was tested
this year on the Florida Experiment Station farm. The habit
of growth of this plant is similar to that of Bur clover, with the
exception of its seeding. On low hammock land this plant made
an excellent spring growth from seed sown, without inocula-
tion, November 25, 1921, maturing a heavy crop of seed by May
25, 1922. On high pine land the crop was a complete failure.
Hubam clover (Melilotus alba), an annual white sweet clover
of rather recent origin and discovery, was planted for the first
time on the Florida Experiment Station farm. On good ham-
mock land after inoculation the plant made a good growth,
reaching a height of from five to six feet. On high pine land
the growth was unsatisfactory, even where the seed were inoc-
ulated, and 4,000 pounds of ground limestone and 200 pounds of
16-percent acid phosphate to the acre were used.
The Mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) shows some promise as a
summer legume, but does not seem to grow off and make the yield


Annual Report, 1922 41R

on poor sandy soils that the cowpea does. The plantings in the
experimental grass garden were severely injured by nematodes,
or root-knot.
Hairy, Sand, or Winter vetch (Vicia villosa), Augusta vetch
(Vicia augustifolia), and Oregon vetch (Vicia sativa), were
planted with and without inoculation. The Hairy vetch made a
fair growth where inoculated, but the Augusta and Oregon vari-
eties were failures, both on the inoculated and uninoculated plots.
Asst. Grass and Forage Crop Specialist.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Wilmon Newell, Director.
SIR: I submit the following report of the chemist for the
fiscal year ending June 30, 1922.
The work of the department during the year was devoted to
citrus problems, sugar cane, pecan and soft-pork investigations.

Of the citrus problems studied the citrus disease known as die-
back received the largest amount of attention. The work on this
project was carried on along three lines. First, by means of a
questionnaire to growers, endeavoring to find out under what
conditions or after what treatment dieback developed. As most
grove owners did not keep any records of how they had handled
their groves for even a year back, it was impossible to draw any
conclusions from the questionnaire submitted.
The second line was by grove experiments. As described in
last year's report this was carried out on a 10-acre grove at
the Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Alfred and with 20 trees
at Gainesville. Eight of these trees at Gainesville are growing
in soil tanks from which all drainage water can be collected.
These trees received the fertilizer as outlined in last year's re-
port. All made a good growth and are in a healthy condition
with no indication of dieback. The drainage water from the
eight soil tanks was collected and analyzed. Due to the exces-
sive rains in July, a larger number of samples than usual were
The third line was by laboratory and greenhouse experiments.
Several soils from dieback-affected and healthy trees were ana-
lyzed without finding any very marked or uniform differences
which might cause the disease. Young rough lemon seedlings
were grown in pure sand that had been ignited and boiled with
hydrochloric acid to remove all plant foods. These were then
fed various nutrient solutions with one essential element lack-
ing in each set, in order to determine whether the lack of an
essential element caused dieback. However, all grew normally
until killed by hot weather. This experiment will be repeated
on a larger scale next winter. A study was also made of the
effect of copper sulphate on nitrification in the soil. Some rather
interesting results were obtained which, however, need further
checking before publication.


Annual Report, 1922

A second citrus problem was begun during the year to study
the effect of high versus low potash fertilization on the quality
of oranges and grapefruit. Two groves are being used in this
experiment. One at the Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Al-
fred consists of about five acres, half Tardiff oranges and half
Duncan grapefruit. This has been divided into six plots, three
of which are receiving a fertilizer containing 3 percent of potash
and three receiving 10 percent of potash. The sources and
amounts of ammonia and phosphoric acid are the same on all
of the plots. The second grove is located at Agricola and is being
conducted in cooperation with H. J. Wheeler of Boston, Mass.
The fruit from both of these groves was examined and analyzed.
As the experiment has just been begun no results can be reported
as yet.
The study on the availability of the various forms of phos-
phoric acid for citrus trees was continued in part (see 1918 An-
nual Report, p. 39R, for description of experiment). Nine rows
of trees had to be cut out of the experiment as the management
of this part of the grove changed hands and the new manager
did not care to have the experiment continued. As yet no mark-
ed difference in yield has occurred. The fruit from each plot was
sampled and analyzed during the year.


In addition to the citrus experiments two fertilizer exper-
iments on sugar cane were begun. One was at Canal Point on the
east shore of Lake Okeechobee in cooperation with the Florida
Sugar and Food Products Company. In this experiment various
fertilizer materials and soil amendments are being used to de-
termine whether or not they will increase the yield and sugar
content of the cane.
The second experiment was begun at Gainesville to determine
whether sulphate or muriate of potash is the best source of pot-
ash for cane. Owing to a prolonged drought just after planting
the cane, the stand was so poor that the experiment was discon-
tinued. This experiment will be repeated this year on more
suitable land.
During the spring two fertilizer experiments with pecans
were begun in cooperation with the Bureau of Plant Industry,
United States Department of Agriculture. One was started at


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Jacksonville in cooperation with H. H. Simmons and the second
at Baldwin in cooperation with H. G. Wells. In both of these
experiments various combinations of ammonia, phosphoric acid,
and potash are being used to determine the best proportions oi
these materials for maximum yields and the best quality of nuts.

The chemical side of the soft-pork investigations of the Ex-
periment Station, carried on in cooperation with the animal in-
dustrialist, received more attention than heretofore. J. M. Cole-
man, a graduate of Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical Col-
lege, devoted most of his time to this problem from the time of
his appointment as assistant chemist on July 17, 1921.
In addition to making melting point determinations on all
samples, the iodine number and refractive index were also de-
termined. Considerable time was also devoted to a microscopic
examination of the fatty tissues from hard and soft hogs in an
attempt to determine any difference in the structure of these
tissues in hard or soft hogs.

In addition to the work on the above problems a large number
of analyses of grasses, forage crops, and peanuts were made
for the forage crop specialist in connection with experiments in
that department.
A number of rocks and other materials were tested, qualita-
tively, for persons in the state. As stated in a previous report,
due to the lack of funds and the press of other work, no quanti-
tative analyses were made. The successful carrying on of the
work of the various problems was due in a large measure to the
hearty cooperation of Assistant Chemists C. E. Bell and J. M.


Annual Report, 1922


Wilmon Newell, Director.
SIR: I submit the following report of the Plant Pathologist
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1922:
W. G. Wells was appointed assistant plant pathologist on
August 15, 1921, which position he held until May 1, 1922, when
he resigned.
W. B. Tisdale was appointed assistant plant pathologist on
February 15, 1922. He was placed in charge of tobacco disease
investigations with headquarters at Quincy.


About the first of May the pathologist received some canker-
infected citrus leaves from Davie, Florida. The State Plant
Board asked him to accompany the chief citrus canker inspector
to Davie where a severe canker outbreak was found. In the in-
fected grove, and in all other groves in the vicinity, so far no
canker was found except on the young spring growth. The great
mystery surrounding this outbreak is that the original source
has not been found.
Practically all research work of this department this year was
devoted to melanose. Inoculation work on fruit and young trees
has been carried on. The fungus Phomopsis citri Faw. has been
studied in culture. These studies were in the nature of physiolo-
gical research, concerning the cultural characteristics of the
During the year it was clearly brought out that stem-end rot,
caused by. the same fungus that causes melanose, was accom-
panied by a physiological change in the fruit. This disease only
effects ripe or nearly ripe fruit.
Spraying experiments were begun in the spring of the year to
determine the best means to control melanose. Experiments
were begun in Manatee, Hillsborough, Brevard, Lake and Marion
Counties. The spray mixture used was bordeaux-oil, 3-3-50-1
formula. The spraying last year gave such good results that
it was thought advisable to get more data on the control of this
Spraying experiments were carried on in the Station nur-
sery, in cooperation with the State Plant Board, for the. control
of citrus scab, caused by Cladosporium citri Mass.


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

An organism was isolated from a nursery badly infected
with foot rot. This organism was grown in pure cultures anc
young citrus trees were inoculated and became infected. Th(
infected trees in the nursery look much like trees infected in the
field, and the diseases on both were pronounced as being identical.
Two fungi have been isolated from gumming citrus trees
When these fungi were grown in pure cultures and inoculated
into healthy trees they produced gumming. The areas, how-
ever, are not exactly typical with the field type. It is believed:
however, that after the etiology of the disease has been suffi-
ciently studied that typical gummosis can be produced.

The work on pineapple wilt has been continued but no striking
results have shown up. This work has been receiving atten-
tion and it is believed that results will be gotten. Seed have beer
imported from several places and new plants are being grown
for this work.
Much of the pathologist's time was taken up in examining
specimens and writing letters giving advice in the control ol
plant diseases. Several new or little-known diseases have been
received during the year. Following is a list of diseases found
during the year.
BLOSSOM-END ROT (Alternaria citri Ellis & Pierce) was re-
ported as being serious in one citrus grove last year.
BLIGHT (cause unknown) was reported as serious in the state,
probably most serious along the East Coast. The growers while
losing 1 to 2 percent of their trees annually, have become so ac-
customed to the disease that they think little of its seriousness,
From all quarters of the state reports continually come in, show-
ing that blight is present and growers are sustaining a constant
loss from it. Blight attacks only bearing trees.
DIEBACK is a very serious disease of citrus in the state. The
specimens sent to this office for identification came from old as
well as young trees. It was also found in the nurseries. Black
melanose was reported from several districts. The damage was
not severe at any one place.
WITHERTIP (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz.) was severe
last spring. During the fall there was a severe storm lasting


Annual Report, 1922

several days and it is the opinion of many growers that the
withertip was caused primarily by the storm. This disease was
also reported from several nurseries during the summer before
the storm.
SCAB (Cladosporium citri (pro tem) Mass): This disease was
quite prevalent on grapefruit, Satsuma oranges, rough lemon
and sour orange stock. It is very serious in the nurseries, af-
fecting the stock. Last spring (1922) was hot and dry, so very
little, scab showed up. However, during the last of May and the
first of June when the summer rains began, it became serious.
During the rainy season the temperature at night is rather low,
falling down to from 650 to 680F. It seems, therefore, that scab
is correlated with low temperature and humidity as recently
pointed out by H. S. Fawcett.
FOOT ROT was reported as serious in several old groves as well
as nurseries. From one nursery specimens were collected and
the fungus Phytophthora terrestria Sherb. was isolated. In the
nursery it occurred during the rainy season and in poorly
drained soil.
DAMPING-OFF (Fusarium sp.) was reported from several cit-
rus seedbeds where the soil had been kept too wet. After the
amount of water was controlled the disease disappeared.
GUMMOSIS was reported from many old groves in the state.
Cultures were made of the material sent in and two fungi were
isolated, Phomopsis citri Fawcett and Diplodia sp.
MELANOSE and STEM-END ROT (Phomopsis citri Fawcett)
were prevalent last season. This spring very little melanose
showed up. However, when the rains began the June fruit and
the June flush of growth were badly affected with the disease.
SCALY BARK (Cladosporium herbarum (Pers.) Lk. var. citri-
colum Faw.) seems to be worst on the West Coast. However,
it was reported from other districts and the nursery inspectors
have reported it from several nurseries.
SALT SPRAY: Along the West Coast many groves were se-
verely damaged by the storm last fall. Most of the damage was
the result of the wind tho some was due to salt spray. Leaves
and fruit were blown off the trees, in many groves as much as 80
percent of the fruit.
Septobasidium pedicellata (Schw.) Pat. is a fungus which
makes its appearance as a soft felty mat on the stems of citrus.
Specimens were received from several localities. There is no
special damage reported from this fungus.


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

LICHENS: There are many kinds of lichens found on old
trees. In old neglected groves the tree trunks are covered with
ALGAE: From Bradentown considerable damage has been re-
ported as due to Cephaleuros virescens Kunze. This alga is
closely related to the organism producing the disease on tea. The
limbs are reported to be killed. Spraying with lime sulphur is
the only way this can be kept in check. It not only occurs on
the twigs but also on the leaves.
Hypochnus sp. is a fungus that was sent in from Bluefield. It
is said to occur on citrus fruit, twigs, branches and leaves. It
makes its appearance as dark brown strands, the largest strands
look about the size of a flattened cord-string. It is most easily
found in the hammocks and groves during rainy seasons.
CITRUS CANKER: In May an outbreak of citrus canker (Pseu-
domonas citri Hasse) occurred at Davie, a small town on the edge
of the Everglades about eight miles west of Ft. Lauderdale. Ten
acres of groves were completely destroyed and also many trees
in adjoining properties.

AVOCADO: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. is a common
trouble on the leaves and fruit of the avocado. The leaves af-
fected are brownish yellow at the tip.
Avocado scab is caused by a fungus which cannot be distin-
guished morphologically from the fungus causing citrus scab.
The fungus causing citrus scab has gone under the name of
Cladosporium citri Mass. This fungus is not a Cladosporium,
but on account of its inability to produce good fruiting bodies it
cannot be classified. Some diseased leaves were sent in which
were badly infected with a Pestalozzia sp.
APPLE: Some apples growing on the Experiment Station
grounds were found affected with fire blight, Bacillus amylovorus
(Burrill) Trev., and the fly-speck fungus, Leptothyrium pomi
(Mont. and Fr.) Sacc.
BANANAS: Stalks of bananas were sent in from Winter Hav-
en and the only fungus found was a species of the genus Fusa-
rium. It was reported that the plants were growing on the edge
of a lake and were beginning to die from some disease.
FIG: Limb blight (Corticium sp.) was quite prevalent; sev-
eral specimens were sent into the office indicating that the dis-
ease exists all over the state. Rust (Physopella fici (Cast.)


Annual Report, 1922

Arth.) was a common disease of the fig this last season. Leaf
blight (Rhizoctonia microsclerotia Matz) was quite common in
the state and in some places did considerable damage.
GRAPE: Anthracnose (Gloeosporium ampelophagum Sacc.)
was reported from several places in the state. With the present
interest in grape culture and the large plantings being made it
is probable that this disease will increase. Black rot (Guignar-
dia bidwellii (Ell.) V. & R.) was quite common in grape vine-
yards this year. Rust (Physopella sp.) was reported from only
one place. The infection was slight but the different varieties
showed differences in susceptibility.
GUAVA: Anthracnose (Gloeosporium psidii (G. Del.) Shel-
don) was reported from several places, from many of which con-
siderable losses were sustained. Soft rot (Rhizopus sp.) was
found on shipped guavas during the summer.
LOQUAT: Blight (Bacillus amylovorus (Burr.) Trev.) was
the most serious of all diseases of the loquat in many cases this
year. Scab (Fusicladium dendriticum (Wal.) Fcl. var eriobo-
tryae Scalia) is very common in the state. The damage, how-
ever, is not very great.
MANGO: Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz.)
is common wherever the mango is grown. Sometimes the dis-
ease is so severe that the skin cracks, letting in decay fungi
which destroy the fruit.
There were many inquiries concerning the means to prevent
mango blossoms from dropping. Specimens were sent into the
laboratory but no one fungus could be found which was thought
to be responsible for this. It is believed that it is a physiologi-
cal trouble.
Dieback is another trouble of the mango, the cause of which is
unknown. The young twigs die back and give the appearance of
citrus dieback.
MULBERRY: Blight (Cercospora sp.) affects the leaves and
the twigs of the mulberry, and in one case noted the tree was
almost killed. This fungus was found on the young leaves.
PEACH: Brown rot (Sclerotinia cinerea (Bon.) Schrot.) was
reported as doing considerable damage in some sections. How-
ever, on the whole the loss was rather slight. One specimen of
crown gall (Bacterium tumefaciens Smith & Towns.) was re-
ceived from the southern part of the state. This also was re-
ported as occurring in some of the nurseries but not doing much
harm. Scab (Cladosporium carpophilum Thum.) was quite


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

prevalent in the state. Gumming (Diplodia sp.) specimens were
received from one or two places in the state but it was not gen-
eral. One specimen of rust (Transchelia punctata (Pers.)
Arth.) was sent in from the East Coast last season. This, how-
ever, is generally present in most peach-growing sections of the
PEAR: Blight (Bacillus amylovorus (Burr.) Trev.) is the
most common and the most destructive disease of the pear in this
state. It is the cause of the orchards' being abandoned. It is
reported from every section where the pear is grown. Leaf spot
(Mycosphaerella sentina (Fr.) Schr.) was prevalent in the
western part of the state. It was reported also from central
PECAN:" Anthracnose (Glomerella cingulata (Storem) S. &
V. S.) was present in some sections in small amounts. Hypochnus
sp. was found affecting the pecans near Bluefield. There was
slight damage last season. Dieback (Botryosphaeria berenger-
iana DeNot.) specimens were sent in from one locality last year.
Powdery mildew (Microsphaeria alni Wallr.) was sent in from
four localities. This disease seemed to be worse in West Florida.
Of rosette (physiological) one specimen was' received from
North Florida. Scab (Fusicladium effusum Wint.) specimens
were sent in from nine localities. This is one of the common-
est diseases of the pecan.
PERSIMMON: Alternaria spot (Alternaria sp.) was found
on a browned area of persimmon leaf. One specimen of leaf
spot (Phyllosticta sp.) was received in the laboratory.
PLUM: Shot hole (Bacterium pruni E. F. S.) was received
from western Florida. It was reported as quite severe this spring.
OAK: Oak blister (Taphrina coerulescens (D. & M.) Tul.)
was sent in from St. Augustine and was reported as serious on
the water oaks of that city.
BAMBOO: The nursery inspector sent in some specimens of
bamboo from Jacksonville, which were badly infected with the
rust. Dicaeoma melancephalum (Sydow) Arthur & Fromme.
Later, an investigation revealed several places where the bam-
boo was thus affected. This disease had been reported from
the state only once before.
ASPARAGUS FERN: A number of specimens were sent into
the laboratory which showed a dying of the plant. Fusarium sp.
was found in the roots; on the stems was found a Phoma sp.


Annual Report, 1922

One specimen was received which was nearly covered with the
myxomycete Physarium sp.
ASTER: An aster plant was received from Tampa which was
badly affected with a disease. The leaves had small brown spots
in them. On examination the fungus Phleospora sp. was found
in the spots. The correspondent wrote that his whole stock was
badly affected with this disease.
CARNATIONS: Specimens were received from Pensacola which
were badly infected with the fungus Fusarium sp., causing a
wilting of the plants.
LARKSPUR: Wilt (Fusarium sp.) was reported from Duval
County where it was said to be serious on a certain estate.
OXALIS: Rust (Uredo oxalis) was reported from two com-
munities, Palm Beach and Bradentown..
PALMS: Various specimens of palm diseases were received
but, as there were no means of identifying them, it is impossi-
ble to name them.
Graphiola phoenicis (Moug.) Poit.) was quite abundant. Al-
ternaria sp. was found on some palms. A Gloeosporium sp. was
found on the fish-tail palm and was said to be doing considerable
damage. A Pestalozzia sp. was common on some specimens.
There was a Phyllachera sp. quite common on specimens sent
into the laboratory.
POINSETTIA: Leaf spot (Actinonema sp.) was sent to the
laboratory_ from only one locality.
ROSE: Powdery mildew (Sphaerothea pannosa (Wallr.)
Lev.) was sent in from several localities this year. Leaf spot
(Actinonema rosae (Lib.) Fr.) was quite common in the state.
SNAPDRAGON: Wilt (Fusarium sp.) was sent into the lab-
oratory from only one locality where it was said to be doing much
damage. Rust (Puccinia antirrhini Diet. & Holw.) was reported
from only one locality.
SSUGAR CANE: Red rot (Colletotrichum falcatum Went.) of
sugar cane was prevalent in all the sugar cane districts this
year. In several cases the origin of the disease was traced to
badly infested localities where the cane was being sold for seed.
Mosaic disease of sugar cane was prevalent in the western
part of the state. On account of its prevalence the State Plant
Board quarantined this region. A reddening of the cane was
found to be due to the fungus Schlerotium rolfsii Sacc. The


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

disease was sent in from several localities. In an old cane field
stocks were found attacked by the fungus Schizophyllum sp.
"White band" of sugar cane was reported from several dis-
tricts. This is a condition represented by a white band about
two inches wide extending across the leaf. The cause for this is
not known. Some express the opinion that it is frost.
Leaf spot (Cercospora vaginae Kr.) was reported as occurring
quite generally over the state.
CORN:. The brown spot of corn (Physoderma zeae-maydis
Shaw) was prevalent this year. This disease was more serious
in the northern areas of the state.
White blast (Helminthosporium inconspicuum C. & E.) was
reported from several places. In two places it was reported as
doing much damage. Ear rot (Diplodia zeae (Schw.) Lev.)
was found in the state but its damage was slight. Smut (Usti-
lago zeae (Beckm.) Unger.) was present in the state, however,
it occurred in such small amounts that no severe loss was sus-
tained. Rust (Puccinia sorghi Schw.) was reported from sev-
eral places in the state and at some places the damage was se-
vere. Root rot of corn (Fusarium sp.) was reported from the
western part of the state as doing considerable damage.
COTTON: Bacterial blight (Bact. malvacearum E. F. S.) was
sent in from the western part of the state where it was said to
be quite abundant. Anthracnose of cotton (Glomerella gossypii
(South W.) Edg.) was sent in from several places in the state,
but did little damage.
PEANUT: Leaf spot (Cercospora personata (B. & C.) Ell.)
was quite common in the state and on some varieties considera-
ble damage was done. Bacterial wilt was found-in only one place
last year, a small patch of ten acres being nearly destroyed by it.
SORGHUM: Red rot (Colletotrichum falcatum Went.) was re-
ported from only one locality.
ST. AUGUSTINE GRASS: Rust (Cynodon dactylon (Pers.) Ar-
thur) of St. Augustine grass was found in a test plot on the
grounds of the University of Florida. The grass was badly af-
fected early in the spring. None of the other varieties of this
genus was infected. Later, however, the other varieties became
Smut of grass (Helminthosporium ravenelii Curt.-Berk.) was
very severe. Fields and roadside plants are badly affected.


Annual Report, 1922


BEAN: Anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc.
& Magn.) Bri. & Cav.) was reported from several sections of
the state as doing severe damage. Specimens of hollow stem,
Rhizoctonia sp., were sent in from one section. It was reported
to be severe in several fields. Damping-off was also reported;
from specimens received it was found to be due to Fusarium sp.
Bacterial wilt, caused by Bacterium phaseoli (E. F. S.,) was
reported to be doing considerable damage to beans in several
localities. Powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni DeC.) was re-
ported from only one area.
BEET: Leaf spot (Cercospora beticola Sacc.) was commonly
found on beets this year.
CABBAGE: Black rot (Bacterium campestre (Pam.) E. F. S.)
was severe over the entire state last season. Black spot (Alter-
naria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc.) was also present in all growing
CUCUMBER: Downy mildew of cucumber (Pseudoperonospora
cubensis (B. & C.) Rostow) was quite prevalent. Where syste-
matic spraying with bordeaux mixture was carried on the vines
remained green two weeks longer than where the vines were not
Angular leaf spot (Bacterium lachrymans E. F. S. & Bry.)
was present in several cucumber-growing regions. The disease,
however, was reported from the markets, showing that consid-
erable damage was sustained during the shipping of the pro-
EGGPLANT: Damping-off (Rhizoctonia sp.) was present in
the state but no great loss was sustained on its account. Fruit
spot of this plant (Phomopsis vexans (Sacc. & Syd.) Harter) was
quite prevalent and did much damage in the state during the
MUSTARD:. Mildew (Oidium sp.) was reported from a few
places. The damage, however, was slight. White rust (Albugo
bliti (Biv.) Kze.) was quite common on this host.
PEAS: Mildew (Erysiphe polygoni D. C.) was reported from
one area of the state and was said to be the cause of many fail-
ures. Many young plants were reported to be damping off,
brought about by Fusarium sp. Cultures were made and only
one Fusarium was found.


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

POTATO: Bacterial wilt (Bacterium solanacearum E. F. S.)
was reported from several places and was said to be doing con-
siderable damage. Black leg (Bacillus phytophthorus Appel.)
was sent in from Hastings where it did considerable damage.
Mosaic (cause unknown) was sent into the office from one lo-
cality. Fusarium wilt (Fusarium sp.) was reported from sev-
eral localities.
STRAWBERRY: There was a disease of strawberries sent to
the laboratory from several localities. The leaves were dried
and the stems were dead. On one specimen which looked like all
previous specimens, there was found the fungus Sclerotium
rolfsii Sacc. This disease was reported to cause much loss to
strawberry growers.
Specimens of gray-mold (Botrytis sp.) were sent in. This dis-
ease was reported from only one locality. Leaf spot (Mycos-
phaerella fragariae (Tul.) Lin.) was reported from several lo-
calities where the disease caused considerable loss to the grow-
SWEET POTATO: Specimens of black rot (Sphaeromema fim-
briatum (E. & H.) Sacc.) were sent to the laboratory from sev-
eral localities. It was reported to be quite serious.
Wilt (Fusarium sp.) was prevalent in some parts of the state.
Scurf (Monilochaetes infuscans Hals.) was sent in from several
localities. Java dry rot (Diplodia tubericola (E. & E.) Taub.)
was found in several localities, but no data as to its severity
could be obtained. Leaf blight (Phyllosticta batatas Cke.) was
quite common. White rust (Albugo ipomoeae-panduranae
Schw.) was very common. Several specimens of Rhizopus rot
(Rhizopus sp.) were sent to the laboratory. In several locali-
ties it caused heavy losses.
TOMATO: Early blight (Alternaria solani (E. & M.) J. & G.)
was reported from several areas but no data were received as
to its damage. Wilt (Fusarium sp.) was prevalent all over the
state last season. Bacterial wilt (Bacterium solanacearum (E.
F. S.) was sent to the laboratory from several localities. Leaf
mold (Cladosporium fulvum Cke.) was reported from only one
place in the state this year.
WATERMELON: Anthracnose (Colletotrichum lagenarium
(Pers.) E. & H.) was very prevalent in the state especially after
the rains began. Wilt (Fusarium vasinfectum Atk.) was very


Annual Report, 1922 55R

prevalent this year. Stem-end rot (Diplodia sp.) was report-
ed from several sections. The fungus was also found causing a
wilting of the vines, attacking them at the ground.
Plant Pathologist.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Wilmon Newell, Director,
SIR: I submit the following report of the entomologist for
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1922:
THRIPS: The work on this project was conducted along essen-
tially the same lines as during previous years. The main new
points established by this year's work are:
1. Spraying should be in the height of the bloom.
2. Weeds are important as a source of infestation.
3. The results will more than repay the cost of the nicotine
sulphate in a combination spray when there are present as many
as ten thrips to the bloom.
4. Oranges are more seriously injured than are grapefruit.
It was shown that a dust composed of lime impregnated with
nicotine sulphate will kill all thrips hit, altho it is necessary to
hit a blossom squarely and with considerable force to get the
dust into the interior of the blossom where the thrips work.
Further observations were made on the effect of thrips on
peanuts during which it was demonstrated that there is a
marked preference for certain varieties.
Investigations have been started to determine if thrips are
responsible for a very prevalent deformation of eggplants.
A bulletin has been published on the Florida flower thrips.
The work with thrips has been extended further to the south
and to the north than heretofore, experiments having been start-
ed at Ft. Myers, and among the satsuma groves of Escambia
County. At Ft. Myers a number of other species of thrips were
collected. Several of these had not previously been reported in
Florida, but all are well-known in the West Indies. It seems
that the Thysanoptera of the southern end of Florida agree with
the other orders in their close relationship with the West Indian
Thrips do not seem to be as important pests of the satsuma
as of the round oranges. This seems to be due largely to the fact
that the satsuma blooms about a month later than the round,
after the maximum infestation of thrips has passed. On the
other hand, the larger plant bugs are very injurious to this fruit,
especially in groves where beggarweed or cowpeas have been


Annual Report, 1922

used as a cover crop. It has been recommended to the growers
that, where the soil is suitable, the bush velvet bean be substi-
tuted for the beggarweed or cowpea, as velvet beans are not pre-
ferred host plants of the bugs.
mus, the mealy-bug parasite which has done efficient work
against mealy bugs in California, was raised in numbers in the
laboratory and distributed to a number of growers over the
state. It is too early to determine whether or not they have be-
come established.
ON ARTIFICIAL MEDIA: The assistant entomologist, A. H. Beyer,
"succeeded in raising this fungus on artificial media. This is the
most efficient of all the fungi which parasitize the common white-
fly, Dialeurodes citri (Ash). This work will be pushed vigorously
during the coming year.
The main work along this line was with the velvet-bean cat-
erpillar (Anticarsia gemmatilis Hon.). Further observations
on the correlation between the severity of the winter frosts and
abundance of the insects the following summer were recorded.
The mild winters of the last two years resulted in a heavy infes-
tation of the caterpillar.
Studies 'of the preferences of the moths for different varieties
of velvet beans have shown that the new bush bean suffers more
severely than any other variety. This seems to be due to the
dense shade produced by the bunch velvet bean, the shade being
very attractive to the moths.
Studies of the parasites and predators of the insect were con-
tinued. The insect parasites are of little importance, but the
predators and the fungous parasites are of great value.
ROOT-KNOT INVESTIGATIONS: These investigations have com-
posed one of the major activities of the department. The most
noteworthy result of the year's work was the striking success of
the use of bush velvet bean under constant cultivation. The
beans were planted in rows. and kept absolutely free of weeds
and grass, and the soil was never allowed to retain a crust. It
was cultivated at least once each week and after every heavy
rain. The nematodes were reduced to such small numbers that


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

it was possible to grow susceptible crops on the land all winter
and spring. By this means as great a reduction of the nematodes
as with the summer fallow was obtained, with none of the dele-
terious effects on the soil fertility which attends the summer
fallow. A bulletin was published on this subject.
These experiments are being continued on a larger scale at
the present time, at both Gainesville and Sanford. The non-vin-
ing habit of the bush velvet bean is well-adapted to this work, as
it renders continuous cultivation possible. Unfortunately, the
bush velvet bean is this year showing a tendency to revert to the
running type. This is true not only in many cases where the seed
were purchased from seedsmen, but also among home-grown
seed where there could be no question of purity.
The comparative efficiency of covering the beds during treat-
ment with the sodium cyanide-ammonium sulphate fumigation
was given a thoro test this year. As was to be expected, covering
the beds greatly increased the efficiency of the fumigation as
it confined the gas. In the experiments a sheet of "balloon cloth"
obtained from California was used. This is the cloth out of which
are made the gas-proof tents used for fumigating citrus trees.
It is a cloth impregnated with rubber and is quite similar to the
material used for army raincoats. Tarred paper does nearly as
well, if the joints where the sheets overlap are made tight. This
can be done quickly by throwing dirt over them. When 400 pounds
or more to the acre of cyanide was used the Bermuda grass was
completely killed out on the covered plots. This was not the case
on treated plots left uncovered.
Experiments have been started to test the value of "inoculated
sulphur" as a vermicide. This is sulphur inoculated with the sul-
phur-oxidizing bacteria. It was originated by Dr. J. G. Lipman
of the New Jersey Experiment Station.
BEAN JAssm: Of the insects affecting truck crops, the bean
jassid (Empoasca maliLe Baron) has received the most atten-
tion. This work has been entirely in the hands of Mr. Beyer. He
has, for the first time, worked out the life history of the insect
in Florida, and its natural enemies. He devised a new type of
spraying apparatus which was very successful in controlling
this insect. In fact, the only beans that matured a good crop in
the vicinity of Gainesville in the fall of 1921 were those sprayed
with this machine. A bulletin was published on this insect. This
jassid has long been the determining factor in the production of
a fall crop of beans in Florida, a crop which would otherwise be


Annual Report, 1922 59R

highly profitable to truckers of the state. The results of this
work should put the industry on its feet and be of great value to
LARGER PLANT BUGS: The work on the larger plant bugs, in-
cluding Nezara viridula (Linn.), Acanthocephalus femorata
(Fabr.) and Leptoglossus phyllopus (Linn.), has been continued,
and Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dall.) added to the list. The lat-
ter was found severely damaging eggplants at Sanford. Here-
tofore it was found in numbers only in the more southern parts
of the state. The same internal parasites which keep the other
three in check, of which Trichopoda pennipes Wd. is the most
important, were found to be the chief parasites of this species.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Wilmon Newell, Director,
SIR: I submit the following report of the librarian for the
fiscal year ending June 30, 1922:
The activities of this department for the year have been prin-
cipally routine; distributing and shelving the publications as
they come in and serving patrons. Being very limited in funds,
a number of necessary items pertinent to an experiment station
library could not be purchased; nor could proper cataloging, the
purchasing of needed publications, subscriptions, binding, shelv-
ing, etc. be done.
By the utmost economy it has been possible, however, to bind
a portion of the material accumulated, and to partially catalog
the bound volumes in the main library. This cataloging is being
done by the numerical system, giving each bound volume a
catalog number and filing a typewritten card with the corre-
sponding number. This system is for the convenience of the
librarian and the-persons who use the library. By following it a
record of the volumes in the library may be had, and it is more
expedient to make out loan cards, simply recording the catalog
number of a volume instead of the title, author, publisher, etc.
In this way one can almost instantly hand out the publication
desired, and retain a record of it. This system when completed
will at once show all publications received from their respective
publishers, and be a means of knowing whether a publication has
been received or not.
It is desired that this system be carried out in the library sec-
tions of the various departments of the Station. The various
systems used at present in the different departmental libraries
lead to much confusion, both as regards publications and sub-
scription bills to same. It is urged that the librarian have charge
of all publications belonging to the Station, attend to all library
purchasing and subscriptions, and catalog everything, so that he
might keep all in order in their respective places. Often there
are calls for publications that are in some departmental office
and of which the librarian has no record.
With the sum available for help for the present year it is hoped
that all cataloging and the major portion of the binding may
be finished. However, until shelves and space can be had it will
be difficult to make immediately accessible many of the publi-


Annual Report, 1922 61R

For reference indexes, it should be stated that the printed
subject, author cards, and the indexes of the Experiment Station
Record of the United States Department of Agriculture are re-
lied upon altogether. The latter is the librarian's "bible" for
quick and complete reference.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

(Lake Alfred)
Wilmon Newell, Director,
SIR: I submit the following report of the superintendent of
the Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Alfred for the fiscal
year ending June 30, 1922.
On October 1, 1920, the development of the Citrus Experiment
Station property, preparatory to carrying out experimental
work, was commenced under the superintendent's direction.

Work on the superintendent's dwelling was started October 3,
1921. It is a very creditable building, being 51 by 33 feet in
dimensions, with four large rooms and kitchen downstairs and
space for four rooms upstairs. The downstairs is plastered and
wired for electric lights.
A four-inch well was drilled. It is 247 feet deep. The fund
for this work was exhausted before drilling thru the artesian
rock. In its present condition the well furnishes 500 gallons
of water an hour. The cylinder is 50 feet deep and is operated
by an Aermotor pumping engine. Over this engine there has
been built a substantial shelter, 10 by 10 feet.
On November 24, 1921, work of installing a water tank and
tower was commenced. The latter is built of good heart pine, 20

Fig. 6.-Quarantine cage, used to safeguard the introduction of citrus
plants, at the Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred


Annual Report, 1922

feet high, and it is well painted. The tank is made of 11/2-inch
cypress and holds 1,050 gallons of water. A 11/-inch main pipe
was laid from the tank to furnish water for domestic use and
irrigating purposes. A line of 200 feet of Skinner irrigation
pipe was installed for irrigating seedbeds.


A quarantine cage, 44 by 33 feet, was built under the super-
vision of Frank Stirling of the State Plant Board. The concrete
base for the walls was made to extend 18 inches below the soil
surface. The concrete base has a 2 by 2-inch moat on the inside
of the cage for oil and one the same size on the outside for water.
These moats are protected by covers, on hinges, to prevent
leaves and trash from getting into the moats and to keep rain
from overflowing the oil in them.
Pieces of iron, 1/2 by 4 by 12 inches, were buried in the cement
every 4 feet to receive every other studding. This makes the
building very rigid. The studdings are of heart cypress and are
bolted to the iron pieces, thus making it possible to renew any
wood-work when the occasion calls for it; all the wood is thoroly
The interior of this cage is covered with copper wire screen,
16 meshes to the inch, and the exterior is covered with galvanized
sand screen. The front of the cage is provided with an ante-room,
4 by 4 feet, for disinfection before entering the cage. The floor
is concrete with moats inside and out. There are two screen
doors, the outside one being provided with a Yale lock.


A clay road has been made from the main highway along the
south side of the superintendent's house, and a road cleared ready
for claying to the tool shed a distance of 500 feet.
St. Lucie grass has been planted around the superintendent's
house for a lawn.
The ground allotted to ornamental work and laboratory has
been plowed and sown to cowpeas.
All the pine stumps have been burned out of the land west of
the superintendent's house and back of the quarantine cage
preparatory to using the ground for horticultural purposes,


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

The soil in the quarantine cage was sterilized with formalde-
hyde solution, proportion 1 to 19. On January 25, 1921, 70
rough lemon trees were planted in the cage to be used as stock
on which to bud desirable material.

Fig. 7.-Interior view of the quarantine cage at the Citrus Experiment
Station, taken immediately after completion
On June 12, 1921, the Experiment Station received a splendid
collection of citrus from the United States Department of Agri-
culture, Washington. These were collected from many citrus
growing countries, and are supposed to constitute the second
best collection in the world. They were planted in the quarantine
cage, 2 by 4 feet apart, and are all growing well. They will be
kept under quarantine for about two years when, if no disease
develops, they will be set out in grove form.
The names of these various plants follow:
Aeglopsis chevalieri Balsamocitrus gabonensis
Atalantia citroides Balsamocitrus paniculata
Aegle marmelos Chaetospermum glutinosa
Balsamocitrus dawei Chalcas exotica


Annual Report, 1922

Citropsis schweinfurthii
Claucena lansium
Eremocitrus glauca
Feronia limonia
Feroiella lucida
Feroniella oblata
Fortunella crassifolia
Fortunella hindsii
Hesperethusa crenulata
Lavanga lata
Microcitrus australis
Microcitrus australasica
Microcitrus, hybrid virgata
Merrillia caloxylon
Poncirus trifoliata
Severinia buxifolia
Triphasia trifolia
Pink-fleshed pummelo
Sampson tangelo

Thornton tangelo
Williams tangelo
Eustis limequat

Kansu orange
Morton citrange
Thomasville citrangequat
Citron of commerce
Citrus hystrix
Citrus mitis
Citrus webberi

Ponderosa lemon
Cleopatra orange
Owari satsuma

Various specimens of citrus, representing commercial varie-
ties, were set out on January 18. The higher land was used for
rough lemon stock, the intermediate for sour lemon and the low
land for grapefruit. The varieties of stocks run north and south
while the varieties run east and west. The trees were set 121/2
feet apart north and south and 25 feet apart east and west. The
varieties are as follows:
12 Silver Cluster grapefruit 4 Limequats, No. 787
12 Walters grapefruit 4 Limequats, No. 798
12 Excelsior grapefruit 4 King oranges
12 Bowen grapefruit 5 Sampson tangelos
12 McCarty grapefruit 6 Triumph grapefruit
11 Wales grapefruit 6 Thornton tangelos
10 Inman grapefruit 5 Pink tangelos
5 Foster Pink grapefruit 8 Pineapple oranges
4 Owari Satsuma oranges 8 Valencia oranges
4 Ikeda Satsuma oranges 8 Parson Brown oranges
4 Marsh Seedless grapefruit 8 Tangerines
8 Lue Gim Gong oranges


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

These trees received one pound of bone meal at planting and
one pound Mapes. fertilizer in May.

.This work is in cooperation with the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture. The object of the experiment is to produce
a grove with buds from record trees that have borne typical fruit
and been heavy producers of commercial varieties. The budwood
was collected by T. Ralph Robinson of the Bureau of Plant In-
dustry and was- put in cold storage for budding in the spring.
The purpose of the progeny grove is to supply growers and nur-
serymeni ~Wih budwood of tested strains of the standard varie-
This work is under the direction of R. W. Ruprecht, chemist.
The object of the work is to see whether any of the different
forms of fertilizer cause dieback. ..
This experiment is conducted on a ten-acre grove set out in
the winter of 191,9-20 and consists of the following trees:
200 Lue Gim Gong oranges on sour stock ,,
200 Pineapple oranges on rough lemon stock
125 Marsh Seedless grapefruit on rough lemon stock
.42 Silver Cluster grapefruit on rough lemon stock
58 Dancy tangerines on rough lemon stock.

An experiment has been conducted. on a four and a half acre
grove, under the direction of Dr. Ruprecht and consisted of 150
Duncan grapefruit on rough lemon and 153 Tardiff oranges on
rough lemon stock. The grove was divided into six plots. Num-
bers 1, 3 and 5 received 3 percent of potash, while numbers 2,
4 and 6 received 10 percent of potash. The source and amount
of ammonia and phosphoric acid on all plots were the same.
All the trees of this experiment were numbered with aluminum
tags. The fruit from each tree will be weighed and recorded.
For this work it was desirable to obtain the best rough lemons
that could be bought. Finally a tree was found in a grove at
Lake Eloise, Polk County, belonging to Mrs. J. G. Lane. This
tree is vigorous and has regularly borne good crops. Three


Annual Report, 1922 67R

cents was paid for each of 100 lemons with the privilege of
selection. The seed were sterilized with bichloride of mercury,
and all small and defective ones were discarded. The seed were
sown on November 15, 1921. They were set out in nursery form
on June 3.
About half a pint of Cleopatra mandarin seed were received
from Reasoner Bros. of Oneco and were sown on January 26.
These seedlings are not so vigorous as rough lemons and require
some shade during the hot summer months.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Wilmon Newell, Director.
Sm: I submit the following report of the investigations made
of tobacco diseases in Gadsden County, Florida, in connection
with the activities of the Tobacco Experiment Station, during
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1922.
As I did not assume the duties of assistant plant pathologist
until February 15, 1922, my investigations thus far have been
largely limited to ascertaining what diseases of tobacco are prev-
alent or destructive in Gadsden County. The results of this sur-
vey are given below:
LEAF SPOT (Phyllosticta nicotiana E. & E.) was found in two
different beds. The spotting was observed only after the plants
were ready for transplanting and never caused any loss. No
subsequent development of the disease was observed in the fields
planted from these two beds. The spots are characterized by
concentric markings with a grayish white center. Dark brown
pycnidia develop in the gray center, especially when the infected
leaves are kept in a moist chamber for 24 hours. It was observed
that the older spots break out after they attain a diameter of a
quarter of an inch.
ROOT-KNOT, caused by the nematode, Heterodera radicicola
(Atkinson), was found in only one plant bed. This bed had been
steamed but either it was done poorly or the organism was washed
in from the outside.
ROOT-ROT (Thielavia basicola (B. & Br.) Zopf.): One bed
about a fourth of an acre in size was found almost completely
infected with root-rot. This bed was on low land and had been
used as a seedbed the two previous years without being sterilized.
The plants were very badly stunted when seen on April 19 and
were not transplanted into the field.
WILDFIRE (Bacterium tabacum Wolf & Foster) : During the
year two small beds on low land were found infected with wild-
fire. The first one of these was discovered on April 17 after
more than half of the plants had been pulled and transplanted.
The second one was free from the disease at that time but de-
veloped the disease later in the season, as was indicated by the
plants that came from it about two weeks later. At the time the


Annual Report, 1922

first bed was found infected practically every plant on half of
the bed was severely infected, while the other half of the bed
was only slightly infected. This indicated that the original cen-
ter of infection was on one side of the bed. The seed was said to
have come from a lot grown in the county last year, and no in-
fection developed in other beds planted from the same lot. The
bed in question was covered with second-hand cheese cloth
brought from Connecticut last year and was possibly the source
of infection.
The bed was thoroly drenched with formaldehyde solution
(1:50 formula) which completely killed down all of the plants.

I '

1 ./

Fig. 8.--Blac

k shank of tobacco, showing three stages of
root system. About two-fifths of natural size

destruction of


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Two weeks later 50 plants were set in that part of the bed which
was most severely infected. No signs of the wildfire developed.:
The second bed belonged to the same grower but was planted
from a different lot of seed and was covered with new cheese
cloth. It was located about half a mile from the first bed. Plants
drawn from this bed prior to April 20 remained free from the
disease, while the plants drawn from it and set about May 1,
developed heavy infection, as will be shown later. The owner
passed from one bed to the other, so it seems quite probable that
he carried the inoculum from the first to the second bed.

"DROWNING :" During the first two weeks of June heavy rains
fell daily. Almost thruout this period the soil of the more poorly
drained fields was completely saturated. During the last few
days of the period the tobacco wilted very rapidly in the middle
of the day but, in most cases, recovered at night for the first
night or two, after which it failed to regain its turgidity. The
lower leaves then began to dry out and turn brown so that within
ten days or two weeks the affected fields appeared quite brown.
The root system of such plants was brown, even in the early
stages of wilting, and the cortex later sloughed off. In some
fields most of the plants which wilted recovered but the quality
was said to be poor. The total loss for the county from drowning
was estimated at from 5 to 10 percent. The growth of most of
the crop was checked so that the total damage done by the rains
amounted to much more.
ROOT-KNOT is caused by the nematode, Heterodera radicicola
(Atkinson). A high percentage of the tobacco fields are infested
with nematodes in various degrees, but the infestations are
severe on the older lighter soils. In cases where the root system
was only slightly infested little or no stunting was evident. On
the other hand, on the old sandy soils the plants were badly
stunted, so that on three fields having a total of from 50 to 60
acres the yield was reduced by at least a half.
ROOT-ROT (Thielavia basicola (B. & Br.) Zopf.) is very preva-
lent thruout the county and with the present system of manage-
ment practically every farmer plans to move his shade after
three or four years, because of the effects of the disease. This
disease is more severe during cool wet seasons. It kills off the
smaller roots and thereby checks the growth of the plants, but
with favorable weather conditions later in the season a fair


Annual Report, 1922

yield may be har-
vested. However,
as was the case
this year, heavy
rains followed by
hot weather has-
ten maturity so
that the yield on
infested soil is
much less than
that on clean new
soil. The quality
is usually infe-
rior on infested
(Cercospora nico-
tianae E. & E.)
is ordinarily con-
sidered a minor
disease and the
causal organism
a weak parasite
in most tobacco
growing commu- Fig. 9.-Shade tobacco affected by black shank. Il-
lustration shows the different stages of wilting
cities, inasmuch caused by the disease
as it attacks the
plants only when they are in a weak abnormal physiological
condition. Even so, the disease was quite widespread and serious
this season. Prior to the heavy rains during early June only
occasionally infected plants were noted. This infection was
limited to the lowest leaves which would not have been primed.
During the rainy season the disease became quite generally
distributed thruout the county in practically every field. It
progressed from the bottom leaves upward and at such a rate
the farmers had to prime the leaves in a premature condition in
order to minimize the loss. The disease was worse in fields in-
fested with root-rot. In several such fields it was noted that three
or four lower leaves, amounting to about 20 percent of the crop,
was lost.
WILDFIRE (Bacterium tabacum Wolf & Foster): The tobacco
of three fields, totaling five acres, was found infected with wild-


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

fire. All of this tobacco was Connecticut Round Tip grown in
the sun, and the plants came from the two beds previously men-
tioned. One of these fields was discovered on April 17, about
ten days after the plants were set. At this time about 60 percent
of the plants were badly infected. All of the plants were pulled
and burned and on May 1 and 2, two weeks later, the field was
reset with clean plants. These plants grew off very vigorously
without any indication of the disease until June 2. Two centers
of infection were discovered during the rainy season at one end
of the field. In each case a single plant had the older infection
while light secondary infection had appeared on the adjacent
plants for a distance of about twelve feet on all sides. All in-
fected plants were pulled and burned. On June 7 a few more
slightly infected plants were found nearest to the old center of
infection. These were also pulled and burned. After this no sub-
sequent infection was found.
The other two fields were not discovered until June 5. On
this date the plants in one field were about three feet high and
in the other about four feet. In both cases there was 100 percent
infection and the leaves of many plants were practically de-
stroyed. No plants were available at this time for resetting the
field, so destruction of the plants seemed the only thing to do.
However, inasmuch as one of the fields was well isolated from all


Fig. 10-Black shank infection in tobacco field. Some plants are apparently
immune or resistant to the disease


Annual Report, 1922

other tobacco
fields and the
grower was anx-
ious to grow some
tobacco it seemed
to be a good op-
portunity for ex-
p e r i m entation.
Accordingly, on
June 9 the plants
were cut back low
and the remain-
ing leaves broken
off and all car-
ried out of the
field and burned.
Because of the
large size of the
plants many of
the buds failed to
start, so that only
about half a
stand was ob-
tained. On June
19 an occasional-
ly infected leaf
was noted, but
these were pulled
these were pulled Fig. 11.-Leaf blight caused by black shank
off and burned
and the suckers thinned to one to each plant. On July 11 the
plants were about three feet high and growing vigorously. A
few more infected plants were found on this date and they were
also broken off and carried out. The crop will be harvested within
three weeks and promises to be a very good yield for the number
of plants on the land. The third field consisted of half an acre
and was between two closely adjoining fields, so the plants were
BLACK SHANK, according to the most reliable information,
first appeared in the southern part of Decatur County, Georgia,
in 1915. Since that date the disease has spread very rapidly so


74R Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

that it is now present in some fields thruout Gadsden County.
The total acreage involved in this county has not been ascertained,
but 10 percent is probably a fair estimate. During the last two
years it spread very rapidly from one plantation to another so
that the situation has grown quite alarming. Indeed it is so de-
structive that not even a single farmer has attempted to grow
tobacco in a field after the disease appeared therein. The disease
appeared this year about April 15, three weeks after some of the
plants were set. This was said to be much earlier than it ever
appeared before, due probably to the warm weather early in the
season. It appeared about this date in two fields where it was
not known last year. And what is more surprising, it was gen-
erally distributed over a 38-acre field from the first.
Black shank causes a typical damping-off in young plants, but
on plants eight or more inches high the decay is more of the

Fig. 12-lack shank as it affects both the leaf and stem of tobacco plants

Annual Report, 1922

nature of a dry rot with a black discoloration (fig. 8). This black
lesion generally girdles the stem and may advance up the stem
for several inches above the surface of the soil. The portion of
the stem at the ground line seems to be the first point of attack
in the young plants, but with many older plants the roots are the
first parts attacked. Affected plants wilt very rapidly (fig. 9),
generally from the top down, but dry out and turn brown more
slowly. In many cases, where the stem is completely girdled and
apparently dried out, the upper leaves retain a vestige of green
color and the stem slightly elongates. Plants less severely af-
fected develop small leaves and blossom prematurely (fig. 10)'.
Plants seem equally susceptible at all ages, and once infection be-
comes manifest old plants die almost as quickly as young ones.
During or immediately after a rainy period spots appear on the
lower leaves of diseased plants and adjacent ones which have
previously shown no signs of the disease (fig 11). These spots
enlarge very rapidly and in some cases have been observed to
involve the entire leaf. When infected leaves are placed between
blotters the spots enlarge to involve the whole leaf within 24
hours. Leaves harvested in an apparently healthy condition from
diseased fields have been known to develop the spots when hung
in the barns. Occasionally large lesions appear on the stems
above the surface of the soil (fig. 12).
Black shank is at present the most serious disease of tobacco
in Gadsden County. Once introduced into a field, the disease
spreads very rapidly. In a few fields the disease did not appear
until about May, and by the end of the season it was pretty well
distributed over a five- or ten-acre field. Observations so far
indicate that the disease may be more severe on the lighter soils.
In one case a badly diseased crop of big Cuba was plowed up and
five acres reset with Connecticut Round Tip on May 3 and 4.
Assistant Plant Pathologist.



Acanthocephalus femorata (Fabr.),
Acer drummondii (Red maple), 65
Actinonema rosae (Lib.), Fr., 51R
sp., 51R
Aeolothrips bicolor, 44
Aesculus pavia, 48
Albugo bliti (Biv.) Kze., 53R
ipomoeae-panduranae Schw., 54R
Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dall.),
Algae, 48R
Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc.,
citri Ellis & Pierce, 46R
solani J. & G., 54R
sp., 50R
Althaea rosae (hollyhock), 65
Ambrosia artemisiaefolia (rag-
weed), 65
Amygdalus persica (peach), 65
Andropogon halepensis (Johnson
grass), 65
rufus, 40R
sorgum (sorghum), 65
Angular leaf spot of cucumber, 53R
Animal industrialist, report of, 26R
Animal industry and dairying, 8R
Anthracnose of beans, 53R, 50R
of watermelons, 54R.
Anticarsia gemmatilis, PB 325, 57R
Ants, to gas, PB-328
how to poison, PB 327
protecting plant lice, PB 328
to keep out of trees, PB 328
Aphis, melon, to control, PB 332
Apple, diseases of, 48R
Appropriations, 7R, 18R
Asparagus fern, diseases of, 50R
Assistant plant pathologist, report
of, 68R
Aster, diseases of, 51R
Atlanta Bermuda grass, 38R, 39R
Augusta vetch, 41R
Avena sativa (oats), 65
Avocado blotch, 17
diseases, 22R, 48R, Bul. 161, 1
scab, 3, 48R
Axonopus compressus, 38R, 39R
furcatus, 38R, 39R
Azalea nudiflora, 48
Bacillus amylovorus (Burr.) Trev.
50R, 48R, 49R
phytophthorus Appel., 54R
Bahia grass, 38R, 39R, 40R
Bamboo, diseases of, 50R

Bacterial wilt of beans, 53R
wilt of potatoes, 54R
wilt of tomatoes, 54R
Bacterium campestre (Paml.), 53R
lachrymans (E. F. S. & Bry), 53R
malvacearum E. F. S., 52R
phaseoli (E. F. S), 53R
pruni, E. F. S., 50R
solanacearum (E. F. S.), 54R
tabacum Wolf & Foster, 68R, 71R
tumefaciens, Smith & Towns., 49R
Bean, diseases of, 53R
jassid, 58R
jassid, study of, 12R
leaf-hopper and hopperburn af-
fected by weather, 67
leaf-hopper and hopperburn, re-
lation of, 78
leaf-hopper and hopperburn with
methods of control, Bul. 164,
24R, 61, 82
leaf-hopper, description and hab-
its of, 69
leaf-hopper, distribution of, 63
leaf-hopper, economic importance
of, 66
leaf-hopper, effect on different
beans, 77
leaf-hopper, life history of, 73, 86
leaf-hopper, natural enemies of,
leaf-hopper, new spraying device
for, 84
leaf-hopper, winter host plants of,
Beets, diseases of, 53R
Bermuda grass, 38R, 39R
Beta vulgaris (beets), 65
Beyer, A. H., appointment of, 21R
bulletin by, Bul. 164, 24R, 61
work with bean jassid, 58R
Black leg of potato, 54R
Black rot of cabbage, 53R
of sweet potato, 54R
Blackberries, thrips on, 42
Black shank of tobacco, 73R
Black spot of avocado, 10
of cabbage, 53R
Blight, 46R
Blossom-end rot, 46R
Blue couch grass, 38R, 39R
Bidens leucantha (L.) Wild., 37
Bordeaux mixture, preparation of,
applying to control bean leaf-hop-
per, 83
Botryosphaeria berengeriana De-
Not., 50R


Botrytis sp., 54R
Breeding experiments with pigs, 32R
studies, 38R
Brown fungus raised on artificial
media, 57R
Brown Top millet, 40R
Bulletins, farm, demands for, 8R
issued, 22R
summarized, 22R
Bunch velvet bean to control root-
knot, 23R
to control root-knot, bulletin on,
Bul. 163, 53
Burger, O. F., press bulletins by,
PB 334, PB 335, PB 336
report of, 45R

Capriola dactylon, 38R, 39R
dactylon var. Atlanta Bermuda,
dactylon var. maritimus, 38R, 39R
dactylon var. St. Lucie, 38R, 39R
Carnation, diseases of, 51R
Carpet grass, 38R, 39R
Centipede grass, 38R, 39R, 40R
Cephaleuros virescens Kunze, 48R
Cercospora beticola Sace, 53R
nicotianae E. & E., 71R
personata (B. & C.) Ell., 52R
sp., 49R
vaginae Kr., 52R
Chemical work, 10R
Chemist, report of, 42R
Citrus canker, 48R
outbreak and study of, 11R
Citrus diseases studied, 45R
Exp. Sta., 8R
Exp. Sta., construction work and
improvements at, 62R
Exp. Sta., report of, 62R
Exp. Sta., summary of report of,
fertilizer studies, 10R, 15R -
groves, collecting pumpkin bugs
in, PB 330
problems, 42R
spray schedule for, 50
subtropical pests of, 56R
thrips on, 29
thrips on, control of, 33
varieties, Citrus Exp. Sta., 65R
varieties received from U. S. D. A.
for Citrus Exp. Sta., 64R
variety tests, 16R
Cladosporium carpophilum Thum.,
citri Mass., 22R, 45R, 47R, 48R,
3, 7
fulvum Cke., 54R
herbarum (Pers.) Lk. var. citri-
colum Faw., 47R
Coleman, J. M., appointment of, 21R

Colletotrichum, 22R
falcatum Went., 52R, 51R
gloeosporioides, Penz., 46R, 48R,
49R, 13
lagenarium (Pers.) E. & H., 54R
lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magn.)
Bri. & Cav., 53R
sp., 10, 12, 13, 19
Convolvulus arvensis, (wild morn-
ing glory), 65
Cooperation, Exp. Sta. with U. S.
D. A., 9R
with State Plant Board, 3
Corn, diseases of, 52R
weevil, life history of, PB 324
weevil, gassing, PB 324
Corticium sp., 48R
Cotton, diseases of, 52R
Cucumis sativus (cucumber), 65
Cucumber, diseases of, 52R
Cercospora sp., 17
Cynodon dactylon (Pers.) Arthur,

Dairy experiments, 33R
feed, fish meal as, 9R
feeding experiments, 33R
feed, velvet-bean meal as, 9R
Dairying and animal industry, 8R
Damping-off, 47R
of beans, 53R
DeBusk, E. F.. press bulletin by, PB
Deciduous fruits, thrips on, 40
Dewberries, thrips on, 42
Dieback, 42R, 46R
experiments, 66R
study of, 10R, 15R
Dicaeoma melancephalum (Sydow)
Arthur & Fromme, 50R
Diplodia sp., 55R
tubericola Taub., 54R
Digitaria didactyla Fundi., 38R, 39R
Dialeurodes citri (Ash), 57R
Diplodia sp., 47R, 50R
zeae (Schw.) Lev., 52R
Diseases of citrus, 46R
of field crops and grasses, 51R
of orchard and shade trees and or
namentals, 48R
of truck crops, 53R
Dorymyrmex pyramicus (Roger
subsp. flavus, McCook), 81
Downy mildew of cucumbers, 53R
Drowning of tobacco, 70R
Early blight of tomato, 54R
Eggplant, diseases of, 53R
Empoa albopicta, 87
Empoasca alboptica, 87
mali, 58R, 62, 87, 88, 86


Entomological work, 11R
Entomologist, report of, 56R
Entomophthora sphaerosperma, Fre-
senius, 81, 88
Eremochloa ophiuroides, 38R, 39R
ophiuroides, 40R
Erysiphe polygonia DeC., 53R
Euthrips tritici var. bispinosa, 43
Everglades Exp. Sta., creation of,
digging of ditches and soil sur-
veys, 20R
financial report of, 21R
selection of site for, 19R
summary report of, 18R
Experimental work, Citrus Exp.
Sta., 64R
Experiments in pig feeding, 26R, 32R
Experiment Station, financial report
of, 25R
functioning of, 8R

Farm crop insect work, 57R
Feeding, dairy experiments, 33R
experiments with hogs, 26R
Fertilizer-citrus studies, 15R, 10R
Fertilizer experiments, 66R
Fertilizer-pecan experiments, 10R
Fertilizer-sugar cane experiments,
Field crops and grasses, diseases of,
Fig, diseases of, 48R
Financial report of Citrus Exp. Sta.,
13R, 14R
report of Exp. Sta., 25R
report of Everglades Exp. Sta.,
report of Tobacco Exp. Sta., 17R
resources of Exp. Sta., 7R
Fish meal as dairy feed, 9R
Florida flower thrips, 27, 23R
flower thrips, bulletin on, Bul. 162,
flower thrips, distribution of, 44
flower thrips, history of, 43
Foot rot, 47R
Forage crop investigations, 9R
Fragaria sp. (strawberry), 65
Frankliniella bispinosa Morgan, 23R,
27, 43, 44
cephalica var. mason Watson, 27,
fusca, 44, 47
insularis, 47
tritici, 23R, 27, 44
Frog-eye spot of tobacco, 71R
Fruit spot on eggplant, 53R
Fungus, brown, raised on artificial
media, 57R

Fusarium sp., 47R, 50R, 51R, 52R,
53R, 54R
vasinfectum Atk., 54R
Fusarium wilt of potatoes, 54R
Fusicladium dendriticum (Wal.)
Fcl. var. eriobotryae Scalia, 49R
effusum Wint., 50R
Gassing the corn weevil, PB 324
Giant Bermuda grass, 38R, 39R
Giant Carpet grass, 38R, 39R
Gloeosporium, 22R
ampelophagum Sacc., 49R
psidii (G. Del.) Sheldon, 49R
sp. 21, 51R
Glomerella cingulata (Storem) S. &
V. S., 50R
gossypii (South W.) Edg., 52R
"Gophers" and "salamanders," con-
trol of, PB 340
Graham, K. H., report of, 25R
Grape, diseases of, 49R
Graphiola phoenicis (Moug.) Poit.,
Grass and forage crop investigation,
Grass and forage crop specialist, re-
port of, 37R
Grass, lawn, studies, 38R
Grasses and field crops, diseases of,
Grasshoppers, poisoning, press bul-
letin on, PB 333
Gray-mold of strawberry, 54R
Guava, diseases of, 49R
Guignardia bidwellii (Ell.) V. & R.,
Gummosis, 47R
Hairy vetch, 41R
Haplothrips graminis, 44
Helianthus sp. (sunflower), 65
Helminthosporium ravenelii Curt.-
Berk., 52R
inconspicuum, C. & E. 52R
Heterodera radicicola (Atkinson),
68R, 70R
Heterothrips aesculi, 48
Hicoria pecan (pecan), 65
Hopperburn and bean leaf-hoper
with methods of control, 24R,
Bul. 164, 61
and bean leaf-hopper, relation of,
Hordeum vulgare (barley), 65
Hubam clover, 40R
Hypochnus sp., 48R, 50R

Insect work, farm crop, 57R
Investigations in soft pork, 26R
Ipomoes batatas (sweet potato), 65
Jaragua grass, 40R


Java dry rot of sweet potato, 54R
Jefferies, John H., report of, 62R

"Kansas bait," to make, PB 333

Lactuca sativa (lettuce), 65
Lawn grass studies, 38R
Leaf blight of sweet potato, 54R
Leaf mold of tomato, 54R
Leaf spot of beets, 53R
of strawberry, 54R
of tobacco, 68R
Leptoglossus phyllopus (Linn.), 59R
Leptothrips mali, 48
Leptothyrium pomi (Mont. & Fr.)
Sacc., 48R
Librarian, report of, 60R
Library, 13R
Lice, plant, protected by ants, PB
Lichens, 48R
Loquat, diseases of, 49R
Mango, diseases of, 49R
Mealy bug, sicilian parasite of, 12R,
57R, PB 339
Melanose' experiments, 11R, 45R,
47R, PB 335
Melilotus alba, 40R
Melinis minutiflora, 40R
Melon aphis, press bulletin on, PB
Meibomia tortuosa beggarweedd),
Microsphaeria alni Wallr., 50R
Mildew of mustard, 53R
of peas, 53R
Molasses grass, 40R
Monilochaetes infuscans Hals., 54R
Morus rubra (mulberry), 65
Mosaic disease of sugar cane, 51R
Mulberry, diseases of, 49R
thrips on, 42
Mung bean, 40R
Mustard, diseases of, 53R
Mycosphaerella fragariae (Tul.)
Linn., 54R
sentina (Fr.) Schr., 50R
Napier grass, 39R
Nematode, study of, 12R
Xoot-knot, control investigations,
Newell, Wilmon, report of, 7R
Nezara viridula (Linn.), 59R
Oak, diseases of, 50R
Oidium sp., 22, 53R
Oregon vetch, 41R
Oxalis, diseases of, 51R
Palms, diseases of, 51R
Panicum fasciculatum, 40R

Paraleptomastix abnormus, Giralt,
study of, 12R, 57R
Paspalum notatum, 38R, 39R, 40R
Pasture and hay crops, 39R
crop investigations, 9R
Peach, diseases of, 49R
spray schedule for, PB 336
Peanuts, diseases of, 52R
thrips on, 42
Pear, thrips on, 41
diseases of, 50R
Peas, diseases of, 53R
Pecans, 43R
diseases of, 50R
fertilizer experiments, 10R
Persimmon, diseases of, 50R
Pestalozzia sp., 48R, 51R
Phaseolus aureus, 40R
sp. (wild bean), 65
Phleospora sp., 51R
Phoma sp., 50R
Phomopsis citri Faw., 45R, 47R
vexans (Sacc. and Syd.) Harter,
Phyllachera sp., 51R
Phyllosticta batatas Cke., 54R
nicotiana E. & E., 68R
sp., 50R
Physalis pubescenes (ground cher-
ry), 65
Physarium sp., 51R
Physoderma zeae-maydis Shaw, 52R
Physopella fici (Cast.) Arth., 48R
sp., 49R
Phytolacca decandra (poke weed),
Phytophthona terrestria Sherb., 47R
Pineapple wilt, study of, 11R
diseases studied, 46R
Plant bugs, 59R
diseases of the year, 46R
lice protected by ants, PB 328
pathologist, report of, 45R
pathology work, 11R
Plum, diseases of, 50R
Poinsettia, diseases of, 51R
Poisoning ants, PB 327
Powdery mildew of avocado, 22
of bean, 53R
Potato, diseases of, 54R
Press bulletins of Exp. Sta., 24R
Progeny grove work, 66R
Propagation of nursery stock, 66R
Prunus sp. (plum), 65
Pseudomonas citri Hasse, 48R
Pseudoperonospora cubensis (B. &
C.) Rostow, 53R
Publications of Exp. Station, 21R
Puccinia antirrhini Dict. & Holw.,
sorghi Schw., 52R


Pumpkin bugs in citrus groves, col-
lecting, PB 330
Quarantine provisions at Citrus
Exp. Sta., 14R
Red rot of sugar cane, 51R
press bulletin on, PB 334
Red scale, control of, PB 337
Red spider, control of, PB 338
Reeves, Jesse, appointment of, 17R,
Report of chemist, 42R
plant pathologist, 45R
Rhizoctonia microsclerotia Matz, 49R
sp., 53R
Rhizopus sp., 49R, 54R
Rhizopus rot of sweet potato, 54R
Ricinus sp. (castor bean), 65
Robinson, T. Ralph, assistance of,
Root-knot, control of by summer fal-
low, 55
control of by bunch velvet bean,
bulletin on, Bul. 163, 53, 23R
of tobacco, 68R, 70R
investigations, 57R
study of, 12R
Root rot of tobacco, 68R, 70R
Root-weevils of sweet potato, PB
Rosa. sp. (rose), 65
Rose, diseases of, 51R
Roses, thrips on, 43
Rubus sp. (blackberry), 65
Ruprecht, R. W., report of, 42R
Russeting of avocado, 21
Sand vetch, 41R
"Salamanders" & "gophers," control
of, PB 340
San jose scale, PB 331
control of, PB 331
Scab, 45R, 47R
Scale, San jose, PB 331
red, control of, PB 337
Scaly bark, 47R
Schizophyllum sp., 52R
Schlerotium rolfsii Sacc., 51R, 54R
Sclerotinia cinerea (Bon.) Schrat.,
Scott, John M., report of, 26R
Scurf of sweet potato, 54R
Secale cereal (rye), 65
Septobasidium pedicellata (Schw.)
Pat., 47R
Snapdragon, diseases of, 51R
Soft-pork investigations, 8R, 26R,
Solanum tuberosum (Irish potato),
melongena (eggplant), 65

Sorghum, diseases of, 52R
variety test, 33R
Spanish needles, 37
peanuts, 38R
Sphaeromema fimbriatum (E. & H.)
Sacc., 54R
Spider, red, control of, PB 338
Sphaerothea pannosa (Wallr.) Lev.,
Spraying for citrus whitefly, PB 326
Spray schedule for citrus, 50
schedule for peaches, PB 336
Staff changes, 21R
State Plant Board, cooperation with,
St. Augustine grass, 38R, 39R
diseases of, 52R
Stem-end rot, 47R
experiments, 11R
of watermelon, 55R
Stenotaphrum secundatum, 38R, 39R
Stevens, H. E., bulletin by, Bul. 161,
1, 22R
Stirling, Frank, assistance of, 63R
St. Lucie grass, 38R, 39R
Stocks, Cleopatra, 67R
Stokes, W. E., appointment of, 9R,
report of, 37R
Strawberries, thrips on, 39
diseases of, 54R
Subterranean clover, 40R
Sugar cane, 43R
diseases of, 51R
'fertilizer experiments, 10R
Sulphur to control red spider, PB
Summer fallow to control root-knot,
Sweet potato, diseases of, 54R
Sweet potato root-weevils, PB 329
control of, PB 329
life history of, PB 329
Syntherisma sanguinale (crab
grass), 65
Taeniothrips inconsequens (Euthrips
pyri), 41
Taphrina coerulescens (D. & M.)
Tul., 50R
Tettigonia mali, 86
Thilavia basicola (B. & Br.) Zopf.,
68R, 70R
Thompson, J. B., investigations of,
Thrips abdominalis, 48
Thrips, as project of study, 56R
black garden, 48
buckeye, 48
composite, 48


Cuban citrus, 47
enemies of, 48
Florida flower, 27
magnolia, 48
mason's, 47
on citrus, 29
on citrus, control of, 33
onion, 48
on deciduous fruits, 40
on tomatoes, 38
on strawberries, 39
study of, 12R, 56R
tobacco, 47
Thrips spinosus, 48
tabaci, 48
Tisdale, W. B., appointment of, 17R,
21R, 45R
report of, 68R
Tobacco diseases, 68R
Tobacco Exp. Station, 8R
establishment of, 16R
financial report of, 17R
report of, 68R
summary report of, 16R
Tomato, diseases of, 54R
thrips on, 38
Trichopoda pennipes Wd., 59R
Trifolium subterraneum, 40R
Tripheps insiduosus, 47
Typhlocyba phytophila, 86
Uredo oxalis, 51R
Van Hyning, T., report of, 60R
Variety grove, Citrus Exp. Sta., 65R
Velvet-bean caterpillar, 57R, PB 325
control of, 59
study of, 12R
Velvet-bean meal as dairy feed, 9R
varieties, PB 325

Vicia augustifolia, 41R
sativa, 41R
villosa, 41R
Vigna simensis cowpeaa), 65
Vitis sp. (grape), 65

Watermelon, diseases of, 54R
Watson, J. R., bulletins by, Bul. 16M
25, Bul. 163, 53
press bulletins by, PB 324, P1
325, PB 326, PB 327, PB 32E
PB 329, PB 330, PB 331, PB 33M
PB 333, PB 336, PB 337, P]
338, PB 339, PB 340.
report of, 56R
Weevil, corn, gassing, PB 324
corn, life history, PB 324
Wells, W. G., appointment and res
ignation of, 21R, 45R
Whitefly, citrus, spraying for, P1
White rust of mustard, 53R
of sweet potatoes, 54R
Wildfire of tobacco, 68R, 71R
Wilt of sweet potato, 54R
of watermelon, 54R
of tomato, 54R
Winter vetch, 41R
Withertip, 46R

Others, W. W., cooperation of, 37
Others' formulas for scale an
whitefly control, PB 337

Zea mays (corn), 65

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