Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Letter of transmittal to governor...
 Board of control and station...
 Letter of transmittal to chairman,...
 Animal industry
 Grass and forage crop investig...
 Plant pathology
 Grounds and equipment
 Citrus experiment station
 Tobacco experiment station
 Act establishing
 Changes in station staff
 Report of auditor
 Report of animal industrialist
 Report of chemist
 Report of plant pathology
 Report of entomologist
 Report of entomologist

Group Title: Florida Agricultural Experiment station, report for the fiscal year ending June 30th.
Title: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th /
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00005173/00020
 Material Information
Title: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th /
Physical Description: 40 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla
Publication Date: 1921
Copyright Date: 1905
Frequency: annual
Subject: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1905-1930.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00005173
Volume ID: VID00020
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AMF8112
oclc - 12029638
alephbibnum - 002452807
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for financial year ending June 30th
Succeeded by: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Fron Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1R
    Table of Contents
        Page 2R
    Letter of transmittal to governor of Florida
    Board of control and station staff
        Page 4R
    Letter of transmittal to chairman, board of control
        Page 5R
    Animal industry
        Page 6R
    Grass and forage crop investigations
        Page 7R
        Page 8R
    Plant pathology
        Page 9R
        Page 10R
    Grounds and equipment
        Page 11R
    Citrus experiment station
        Page 12R
        Page 13R
        Page 14R
    Tobacco experiment station
        Page 15R
    Act establishing
        Page 16R
    Changes in station staff
        Page 17R
        Page 18R
    Report of auditor
        Page 19R
    Report of animal industrialist
        Page 20R
        Page 21R
    Report of chemist
        Page 22R
        Page 23R
        Page 24R
    Report of plant pathology
        Page 25R
        Page 26R
        Page 27R
        Page 28R
    Report of entomologist
        Page 29R
        Page 30R
        Page 31R
        Page 32R
        Page 33R
    Report of entomologist
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
Full Text



ENDING JUNE 30, 1921

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TO GOVERNOR OF FLORIDA...................................... 3R
BOARD OF CONTROL AND STATION STAFF--.....-....... ..-- .-................... 4R
REPORT OF DIRECTOR...- ---- :......:........ .........-...-... ........... '-5R
Curtailed Financial Resources During Biennium, 5R; Resignations,
5R; Buildings and Maintenance, 6R; Prospects, 6R; Animal In-
dustry, 6R; Grass and Forage Crop Investigations, 7R; Chemistry,
7R; Plant Pathology, 9R; Entomology, 10R; Grounds and Equip-
ment, 11R; Branch Experiment Stations, 11R; Citrus Experiment
Station, 12R, Act Establishing, 12R; History, Citrus Experiment
Station, 12R; Donations for Citrus Experiment Station, 12R; To-
bacco Experiment Station, 15R, Act Establishing, 15R; Everglades
Experiment Station, 15R, Act Establishing, 16R; Changes in Sta-
tion Staff, 17R; Publications, 18R; Summary of Bulletins, 18R;
Press Bulletins, 18R.-
REPORT OF AUDITOR ................. ...............-... .------ -..... 19R
REPORT OF ANIMAL INDUSTRIALIST................... ....................................... 20R
Dairy Herd, 20R; Register of Merit, 20R; Soft Pork Studies, 21R;
Fertilizer Experiments with Japanese Cane and Sweet Potatoes,
REPORT OF CHEMIST..-...-............. ..... .. -------......... .........----------------- 22R
Irish Potato Experiments, 22R; Soil Tanks, 23R; Dieback Studies,
23R; Experiments at Lake Alfred, 24R; Miscellaneous Work, 24R.
REPORT OF PLANT PATHOLOGIST.................... .. ..... ... .................... 25R
Citrus Diseases, 25R; Tobacco Diseases, 25R; Peronospora Dis-
ease, 26R; Potato Diseases, 27R; Pineapple Wilt, 28R.
REPORT OF ENTOMOLOGIST .................... -- -- ----............................. 29R
Root-Knot Experiments, 29R; Velvet-Bean Caterpillars, 30R;
Thrips, 31R; Plant Bugs, 32R; Delphastus, 33R.
BULLETIN 158.-FERTILIZING THE IRISH POTATO CROP................................ 1
Contents of Bulletin 158, 2.
BULLETIN 159.-CONTROL OF ROOT-KNOT, II.......................................... 29
BULLETIN 160.- SOFT PORK STUDIES, II............................. .............. 45
PRESS BULLETINS................. .... ............. ................ Last Pages of Report

Hon. Cary A. Hardee,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida,
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report
of the director of the University of Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Station for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1921.
Chairman, Board of Control.

J. B. HODGES, Chairman.......................................---Lake City
E. L. WARTMANN -----..............-...... .--------....... ..Citra
J. B. SUTTON---............------....... .-------------......... Tampa
HARRY B. MINIUM-...-.. ..------.----..-------...---..--.....- Jacksonville
P. K. YONGE..--..------............ -..~.~.........-----..----... Pensacola
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary------.............. ---............ Tallahassee

LWILMON NEWELL, B.S., M.S., D.Sc., Director.
JOHN M. SCOTT, B.S., Vice Director and Animal Industrialist.
J. R. WATSON, A.B., M.A., Entomologist.
/A. H. BEYER, A.B., B.S., M.S., Assistant Entomologist and Plant
kOWEN F. BURGER, A.B., M.S., D.Sc., Plant Pathologist.
aT. W. RUPRECHT, M.S., Ph.D., Physiological Chemist.
-C. E. BELL, B.S., Assistant Chemist.
T.VAN HYNING, Librarian.
,A.W. LELAND, Farm Foreman.
G. UMLAUF, Assistant Horticulturist.
. H. JEFFRIES, Superintendent, Citrus Experiment Station.

Report for the Fiscal Year
Ending June 30, 1921

Hon. J. B. Hodges,
Chairman, Board of Control.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith my report on the
work and investigations of the University of Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Station for the fiscal year ending June 30,
1921; and I request that you transmit the same, in accordance
with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.

The work of the Experiment Station during the last fiscal year
has been conducted in the face of handicaps and difficulties. The
reduction of the annual appropriation for the Station to $5,000,
by the 1919 Legislature, made necessary a severe curtailment of
staff and operating expenses during the biennium ending June
30, 1921. Lack of funds with which to compete with other insti-
tutions in retaining the services of experienced scientific workers,
coupled with unsatisfactory working conditions and inadequate
equipment, resulted in the resignation of many of the Station's
employes, including those holding the positions of secretary,
plant physiologist, chemist, plant pathologist, and associate plant
pathologist; and culminated in the resignation of Director P. H.
Rolfs, on January 1, 1921. In addition to the handicap of an
almost constantly changing personnel, the Station had to face
the difficulties arising from high costs of labor and materials
during the post-war period.
Under these conditions the only course that could be pursued
was that of devoting all resources, as far as possible, to the
experimental work, leaving to the future the upkeep and main-
tenance of buildings and property. The result has been that the
physical property of the Station has deteriorated during this

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

The action of the Legislature. of 1921 in providing an annual
state appropriation of $30,000 (including maintenance of the
Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Alfred) will materially re-
lieve the unfortunate situation in which the Station now finds
itself. Sufficient attention can now be given to the property of
the Station to at least insure its preservation: some improve-
ments may perhaps be possible. The increased appropriation
will provide assistants in the more important departments and
the scientific members of the staff can be provided with equip-
ment which is sorely needed and without which they cannot be
expected to secure valuable results.
The establishment, by the Legislature of 1921, of a branch
station for tobacco investigations at Quincy and of an experiment
station in the Everglades will no doubt greatly enlarge the field
of usefulness of the University of Florida Experiment Station by
permitting it to take up the study of problems of importance to
the tobacco industry, as well as those connected with the agri-
cultural development of the Everglades.

During the year the dairy herd has received as good care as
was possible with the limited financial resources of the Station.
Most of the cleared land belonging to the Station is, unfortu-
nately, of poor quality and sufficient feedstuffs for the dairy and
work animals cannot be produced on it except at a very high cost
for labor and fertilizer. It has not been possible to add any
blooded animals to the dairy herd during the year. Improvement
of the general average has, however, been made by the sale of
some of the poorest-producing cows. As funds for labor and
feed were limited, the only calves retained were the heifer calves
from the best-producing cows. A number of cases of contagious
abortion in the herd during the last two years has precluded the
making of any feeding experiments. It is thought that the
disease has now been brought under control. Two cows in the
herd have been put on test for the Register of Merit. Oxford Lad's
Jewel No. 271481 produced, in 365 days, a total of 9,006 pounds
of milk and 441 pounds of butterfat, while Creole's Lassie Sue,
during the eleven months ending June 30th, produced 8,805
pounds of milk and 433 pounds of butterfat.
The soft pork investigations have been continued without
interruption and some of the results of this work have been

Annual Report, 1921

published in Bulletin 160. It is evident that there is a wide dif-
ference in the melting point of the fat of individual hogs, even
when receiving the same feed. Some factor other than feeding
is evidently involved. Whether this is a hereditary factor or
whether due to differences in the ability of individuals to digest
and assimilate their food are points which will be taken into
consideration in the further pursuit of this project.
Fertilizer experiments with sweet potatoes and Japanese cane
have been continued along the lines described in previous reports.
The results indicate that, with Japanese cane, the larger yields
are obtained when ammonia is supplied in liberal quantity.
Potash appears to be the most essential plant food for insuring
large yields.

The limited finances of the Station during the last year have
precluded any expenditures upon forage crop and grass investi-
gations, a line of work which has been under way for a number
of years and which promises excellent results. However, thru
assistance received from the Bureau of Plant Industry, United
States Department of Agriculture, and by having J. B. Thomp-
son, forage crop specialist, divide his time between the Bureau
of Plant Industry and agricultural extension work it has been
possible to maintain the grass and forage plots intact and to
preserve the more valuable grasses and plants which have been
introduced and established thru the cooperation of the Bureau
of Plant Industry.
The work of the Chemical Department was considerably slowed
up thru the resignation, on March 1, 1920, of S. E. Collison.
This position remained unfilled until May 1, 1920, when R. W.
Ruprecht accepted the position of "physiological chemist"-a
combination of the positions of plant physiologist and chemist,
made necessary on account of the financial condition of the
Station. Dr. Ruprecht had, therefore, little more than com-
menced his duties at the opening of the year covered by this
report and for various reasons not under his control found it
very difficult to get under way the experimental projects which
had for a time been inactive and with which he had had no op-
portunity to familiarize himself thru conferences with his pre-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Fertilizer experiments with Irish potatoes, which had been
under way since 1917, had to be discontinued during the present
year as the concern which had supplied the fertilizers and labor
found it necessary to curtail its operations and the Station did
not have funds with which to purchase supplies necessary for
continuation of the experiments. During the three years that
the experiments were under way it was found that phosphoric
acid was very necessary in the earlier stages of the potato crop
to insure vigorous plants, that raw rock phosphate failed to
produce maximum growth of tops and that in the absence of
potash the tubers did not reach full size. These and other results
are given more in detail in the chemist's report, attached hereto,
as well as in Bulletin 158.
The lysimeter experiments with citrus trees, which were com-
menced in 1910 and which embraced a study of the drainage
water from the soil tanks in which the trees were growing, were
virtually completed in 1920 and the results published in Bulletin
154. At the end of the ten-year period soil from the tanks was
analyzed. The most striking facts developed were that during
the ten-year period the amounts of nitrogen and phosphoric acid
had not materially decreased while, on the other hand, the
amounts of lime and potash had decreased decidedly.
A new and definite project in the study of the causes of die-
back of citrus trees was inaugurated early in the year. For this
purpose 575 citrus trees on the grounds of the Citrus Experi-
ment Station at Lake Alfred are being used, various fertilizer
materials being applied to the different plots to ascertain whether
or not their application is followed by the appearance of dieback.
A parallel test of the same materials is being made in the soil
tanks and in the Station grounds at Gainesville.
The cooperative experiments to determine the comparative
availability of various forms of phosphoric acid for citrus trees,
being conducted on the property of the Florida Fruitlands Com-
pany at Lake Alfred, have been continued and it is believed that
very interesting results will be obtained in due time.
Miscellaneous work of the department has included the mak-
ing of about two hundred melting-point determinations in con-
nection with the soft pork investigation, the examination of
certain rock samples for lime and phosphoric acid and the making
of analyses of sugars, for the State Plant Board, to determine
the effect of fumigation with hydrocyanic-acid gas.

Annual Report, 1921

At the beginning of the fiscal year covered by this report,
H. E. Stevens was plant pathologist of the Station. During the
preceding two years Prof. Stevens had devoted his energies to a
study of the diseases of the avocado and had brought to light
much new information, particularly concerning the diseases
known as avocado scab, black spot and avocado blotch. This
information is now on hand awaiting opportunity for its publi-
cation. Prof. Stevens also pursued, as far as his time and
facilities permitted, investigations of two citrus diseases, mela-
nose and gummosis. This work was, however, greatly handi-
capped by the inability of the Station to provide him with
adequate assistance.
Prof. Stevens resigned on Sept. 1, 1920, to accept the position
of county agent in Lee County and on Nov. 1, 1920, 0. F. Burger
succeeded him.
Much of the pathologist's time has necessarily been given to
the identification of plant diseases sent to the Station by county
agents, inspectors of the State Plant Board and growers. This
work, while not primarily investigational, does serve, however,
to increase the Station's knowledge of the diseases and their
distribution within the state, affording an excellent basis upon
which to predicate control measures or to determine the necessity
for intensive investigations. Owing to the lack of an extension
pathologist in the Agricultural Extension Division, the Station
pathologist has found it necessary to render some assistance to
the county agents in holding meetings of various kinds thruout
the state.
The principal line of investigation pursued by the pathologist
since November 1, 1920, has been in connection with melanose,
a disease of citrus fruit. As this disease is caused by the same
fungus as that which causes stem-end rot of citrus, the investi-
gation has necessarily included the latter disease. Experiments
are also being conducted with citrus scab under nursery condi-
tions, the object of the experiments being to determine the prac-
ticability of commercial production of citrus nursery stock which
is, to all intents and purposes, free from this disease. The results
secured thus far are most encouraging.
During the spring months of the present year a preliminary
investigation of the principal tobacco diseases was made in
Gadsden County. This investigation included observations on

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

tobacco mosaic, root-rot, root-knot, Granville wilt and the Pero-
nospora disease. The latter trouble threatened for a time to
cause serious damage to the crop, but, fortunately, the advent of
warm weather checked the infection. Further details concerning
these diseases will be found in the report of the plant pathologist,
attached hereto.
Attention is also being given to pineapple wilt, a serious
disease of pineapples on the lower East Coast, as well -as to
several of the diseases of Irish potatoes.

The work of this department has been continued along the
same lines as during the last few years. The investigations have
embraced root-knot control, velvet-bean caterpillars, thrips,
plant bugs and the introduction and establishment of beneficial
The experiments in destroying soil-infesting nematodes which
are responsible for root-knot on a great variety of plants have
continued to give promising results. The application of 1200
pounds of sodium cyanide and 1800 pounds of ammonium sul-
phate to the acre, for example, apparently resulted in eradicating
the nematodes. At the -same time, smaller quantities of these
chemicals gave almost as good results. An interesting discovery
in connection with this method of treatment was that heavy
applications destroyed many other pests in the soil, such as
white grubs, ants, termites, mole-crickets and wireworms. At
the same time, the land was practically cleared of weeds and
crabgrass. Trials have been started to determine the effect of
using the chemicals at different seasons of the year, in order to
terminate at what season they are most effective against nema-
todes. Tests are also being inaugurated upon different types of
soil. Summer-fallowing treatments for nematodes have also
been continued. While quite effective in reducing the nematode
worms, more or less injury to the soil results from exposure to
the hot summer sun. Experiments are being made in combining
the summer-fallow method with that of growing Brabham cow-
peas or velvet beans-both being plants highly resistant to
nematodes-in rows and keeping them cultivated.
The velvet-bean caterpillar has been gradually increasing in
numbers since 1917 and this increase seems to be quite closely
correlated with winter climatic conditions. When severe frosts,

Annual Report, 1921

extending well down the Peninsula, occur it is noted that the
insects are comparatively scarce the following season. As the
velvet-bean caterpillar does not hibernate, it is evident that this
condition is the result of its winter host plants being killed out
for a long period. The length of time elapsing between the first
killing frost and the last, therefore, determines the number of
insects present in spring, and on the basis of frost occurrences
it is now possible to forecast with reasonable accuracy the ex-
tent of damage which may be expected from this insect during
the growing season.
Various species of thrips have been carefully studied, espe-
cially those infesting citrus, camphor and beans. For the details
of these investigations the reader is referred to the report of
the entomologist, which appears on a subsequent page of this
The lack of adequate finances during the year has made
it impossible to satisfactorily care for the physical property of
the Station. Under the circumstances it has been deemed ad-
visable to devote available resources, as far as possible, to actual
work of investigation, leaving such things as repairs, painting
of buildings, improvement of roadways and grounds to the
Three branch or sub-experiment stations have now been pro-
vided for by the Legislature; namely, the Citrus Experiment
Station, the Tobacco Experiment Station and the Everglades
Experiment Station. Each branch station is expected to afford
the opportunity to investigate along specific lines and to sup-
plement to a very marked extent the facilities for agricultural
research already existing at the main station at Gainesville. It
will be the policy of the Experiment Station authorities to
operate all four of these stations as a single system and to
bring together at each one the combined ability and efforts of
the entire Station staff. This appears to be at once the most
economical manner in which to conduct the work of the branch
stations and to secure the maximum amount of information with
the smallest possible technical staff. The plant pathologist of
the main station at Gainesville, for example, will be held re-
sponsible for the direction of pathological work at all the sta-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

tions and the same will apply in the case of the animal hus-
bandman, forage crop specialist, entomologist, etc.

The Branch Experiment Station for the investigation of citrus
problems was authorized by an act of the Legislature of 1917,
this act being as follows:

Chapter 7379, Laws of Florida
"Be It Enacted by the Legislature of the State of Florida:
"Section 1. That the Board of Control be authorized and directed
to locate, establish and maintain a Branch Experiment Station, in
or near Winter Haven, Polk County, in the citrus growing section of
the State, where insect pests, diseases and other agencies affecting
the production of citrus fruits and citrus trees shall be studied. I
"Sec. 2. That the supervision and direction of the research work of
such a laboratory shall be vested in the Board of Control.
"Sec. 3. That the Board of Control is hereby authorized to accept
donations of lands, groves, monies, or other things of value that may
be utilized in conducting the aforesaid investigations; provided, that
no branch station shall be established if such lands, groves, monies
and other things of value be of less than ten thousand dollars
($10,000.00) value.
"Sec. 4. That all laws and parts of laws inconsistent herewith are
hereby repealed.
"Sec. 5. That this Act shall go into effect immediately upon its
becoming a law."
"Approved June 4, 1917."
It will be noted from the foregoing act that the Board of
Control could not establish such a station until lands, moneys
etc. to the value of at least $10,000 had been donated. By the
summer of 1919 donations and subscriptions to this amount had
been secured by a committee of Polk County citizens, consisting
of S. F. Poole, J. A. Snively, J. H. Ross, H. W. Snell, L. L.
Davis, A. M. Tilden, C. H. Thompson and W. L. Drew.
On July 14, 1919, the Board of Control held its monthly meet-
ing at Winter Haven and, in connection therewith, visited and
inspected various proposed sites for the station, finally selecting
an 84-acre tract of land located on the Dixie Highway about a
mile northeast of the town of Lake Alfred. This tract of land
was donated for the purposes of the station by the Florida
Fruitlands Co., the Board of Control refunding to this company
out of the cash donations made, the actual cost of planting the
141/ acres of citrus grove on the property and bringing it to its
condition at the time the land was transferred to the Board.
This amounted to $5,900.
On March 8, 1921, the Florence Villa Packing Association
paid to the Board of Control, as a contribution for the purposes


Annual Report, 1921 13R

of the Citrus Station, the sum of $1282.15 and on April 6, 1921,
the Board of County Commissioners of Polk County paid to
the Board of Control the sum of $2500 as a further donation to
the station, making the total donations from all sources amount
to $13,782.15. After paying the Florida Fruitlands Co. $5,900
for the citrus upon the land, there remained $7,882.15 and this
sum constituted the sole resources of the station for improve-
ments, maintenance, etc. from the time it was established until
June 30, 1921. Following is a statement showing for what
purposes this money was used by the Board of Control during
this period:

Financial Statement, Branch Station Fund
July 1, 1919, to June 30, 1921
July, 1919, Donations collected by Committee................. .............$10,000.00
March 8, 1921, From Florence Villa Packing Association.............. 1,282.15
April 6, 1921, From Polk County Commissioners....................... 2,500.00
Total ........... .. ....--........- ........-.... $13,782.15
Reimbursement to Florida Fruitlands Co. for 14%
acres of citrus on property............................ $5,900.00
Care and supervision of property, salaries and labor.... 3,412.69
Tool and fertilizer shed.... ...... ..--- -............ ..... 351.74
Fencing ....................................... 86.57
Nursery stock and seed --............................ 52.34
Fertilizer ................ ....... ............... 408.85
Tools and implements .......--.......-..... .....-- .... ... 44.82
Postage and telegrams..........-.. ..-.. .............- 4.71
Traveling expenses ................-----.............. 54.23
Express and freight ...........-...........- .......... 38.25
Spraying materials ...................... ............ 26.18
Sundry hardware .................... ..... ............... 35.90
Sign for grounds ..................-.............---. 16.00
Miscellaneous ..........-- ................-.......- 6.66
Total disbursements.....-........... .............. $10,438.94
Balance on hand, June 30, 1921..................... .............. 3,343.21
From the time of receiving the property in July, 1919, until
December, 1920, it was necessary for the Board of Control to
have the citrus grove cared for under contract for fertilizing,
spraying, cultivating, etc. On October 1, 1920, John H. Jeffries
was appointed superintendent of the Citrus Station.
Of the 84 acres in the property, 141/2 are in citrus grove, about
12 more have been cleared for planting, about 171/2 are in marsh
and meadow and the remaining 40 are for the most part pine

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

upland citrus land still uncleared. At the present time the
finances of the Station do not permit of clearing this tract.
Since acquisition of the property by the Board of Control, 12
acres of land have been cleared, about half of the property placed
under substantial fence, seedbeds laid out and a small tool house
constructed. Thru the courtesy of the city council of Lake
Alfred, a road running the full length of the property, along its
east side, has been surfaced with clay. It may be remarked at
this point that the Station property is within the city limits of
Lake Alfred.
Of the 141/2 acres of citrus grove on the property when re-
ceived by the Board, about 41/2 acres had been planted on Feb-
ruary 5, 1915, and consisted of 150 Duncan grapefruit trees on
rough lemon stock, 145 Tardiff orange trees on rough lemon and
30 Tardiffs on sour orange. In this grove, at the present time, a
fertilizer experiment is being conducted by R. W. Ruprecht,
physiological chemist, the experiment being so planned as to
show the comparative results of fertilizers, high and low, re-
spectively, in potash. The remaining 10 acres consisted of one-
year-old Lue Gim Gong Pineapple orange trees, Marsh Seedless
and Silver Cluster grapefruit and Dancy tangerines, all one year
old. This grove is being utilized by Dr. Ruprecht in a study of
the trouble known as dieback. These are the only experiments
under way at the Station at the present time and additional
experiments cannot be undertaken until the citrus acreage is
The Board of Control, in its budget submitted to the 1921 Leg-
islature, requested that appropriations be made for the support
of the Citrus Experiment Station, for the two years commencing
July 1, 1921, as follows:
"Salary of superintendent, 2 years at $2,000.................................. .. $4,000.00
Current expenses, including labor, experiments, etc., 2 years
at $5,350 a year..... ................ .................... ....... .. 10,700.00
Permanent improvements, including laboratory building, water I
supply, fencing, clearing additional acreage, etc......................... 16,600.00
Total for the two years ending June 30, 1923..........................$31,300.00"
It was felt that these sums were necessary for equipping the
sub-station with reasonable dispatch and for making it pos-
sible to fulfill the purpose for which it was established. However,
no specific appropriation was made for the Citrus Experiment
Station by the 1921 Legislature and the only reference to this
station was included in the appropriation item for the University


Annual Report, 1921

of Florida Experiment Station at Gainesville. In this item the
Citrus Experiment Station was listed as one of many things to
be provided for out of the total annual appropriation of $30,000.
The Citrus Experiment Station, therefore, has no resources
at the present time other than the balance ($3,343.21) remaining
of the donated fund on June 30, 1921, together with whatever
sum the Board of Control may be able to allot to it during the
next fiscal year out of the appropriation of $30,000 made for the
main Station at Gainesville.
The branch experiment station for tobacco investigations was
established by the Legislature of 1921, this act being as follows:
Chapter 8424 Laws of Florida
"Be It Enacted by the Legislature of the State of Florida:
"Section 1. That the Board of Control is hereby authorized, and directed
to locate, establish and maintain a Branch Experiment Station in or near
Quincy, Gadsden County, in the tobacco growing section of the State of
Florida, where insect pests, diseases and other agencies affecting the pro-
duction of tobacco, may be studied and experiments shall be made.
"Section 2. That the supervision and direction of such laboratory and
experiments shall be vested in the Board of Control.
"Section 3. That the sum of Thirty Thousand ($30,000.00) Dollars or
so much thereof as may be necessary is hereby appropriated out of any
funds in the treasury not otherwise appropriated, which said sum shall
be credited to the Board of Control in the hands of the State Treasurer, to
be expended by the Board of Control for the purpose of establishing and
maintaining a Branch Experiment Station in or near Quincy, Gadsden
County, Florida, in the tobacco growing section of the State for the pur-
pose of studying insect pests, diseases and other agencies affecting the
production of tobacco, of which sum hereby appropriated, Fifteen Thou-
sand ($15,000.00) Dollars shall be available on the first day of July, 1921,
and the remaining Fifteen Thousand ($15,000.00) Dollars shall be available
on the first day of July, 1922.
"Section 4. The Board of Control is hereby authorized to accept dona-
tions of land, houses, moneys or other things of value that may be neces-
sary for the purposes of this Act. Provided, that the experiment station
contemplated by this Act shall not be established, and the appropriation
hereby made, shall not be available unless Gadsden County, Florida, or
the residents thereof, shall first donate the necessary land.
"Section 5. That all laws or parts of laws in conflict herewith are
hereby repealed.
"Section 6. This Act shall go into effect upon its passage and approval
by the Governor."
"Approved May 10, 1921."
Inasmuch as the appropriation for this station could not be-
come available until July 1, 1921, no steps looking to its estab-
lishment have been possible during the period covered by the
present report.
This experiment station was also provided for by the 1921
Legislature, thru passage of the following act:

16R Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Chapter 8442 Laws of Florida
"Be It Enacted by the Legislature of the State of Florida:
"Section 1. That there is hereby provided for and created on such land
or lands of the State in the Everglades of Florida as the Trustees of the
Internal Improvement Fund may direct, an Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion for the purpose of collecting information on, and studying agricul-
tural, horticultural and live stock conditions and possibilities, and the best
means of fostering and promulgating the same on the muck lands of
"Section 2. The Agricultural Experiment Station so created shall be
subsidiary to the Experiment Station at Gainesville, Florida, and shall be
under the direction of the State Board of Education of Florida and the
Board of Control, who shall at all times advise with the Trustees of the
Internal'Improvement Fund in the management and conduct of the same.
"Section 3. The Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund are hereby
authorized and directed to set aside and withdraw from sale, any lands
now or hereafter owned by the State, necessary for the use and conduct
of the said Agricultural Experiment Station, and to provide and construct
all canals, drains and other reclamation works that may be required to
completely protect and secure the said lands from overflow. The said lands
shall be as suitably and conveniently located as possible and shall not be
less than 160 acres, which may be added to as the needs demand.
"Section 4. The Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund are hereby
authorized to accept donations of lands, moneys, or other things of value
that may be utilized to effectively carry out the purposes of this Act,
and if in the judgment of the said Trustees and the Board of Control,
conditions warrant, in addition to the main station herein provided, they
may establish such branch or cooperative stations as they deem advisable.
"Section 5. The State Board of Education and the Board of Control
are hereby authorized to cooperate with the Federal Government, through
the Experiment Station at Gainesville, in collaborating the work of the
Experiment Station, or Stations, as herein provided for, with that at
Gainesville, and should Congress at any time pass an Act making an
appropriation of money, or other thing of value for the establishment of,
or for, the benefit of an Experiment Station in the Everglades, or elsewhere
in Florida, the Board of Control and the State Board of Education are
further authorized to cooperate with the proper Federal authorities in
establishing said station, or receiving and properly appropriations any
funds so appropriated.
"Section 6. The Board of Commissioners of Everglades Drainage Dis-
trict is hereby authorized and directed to appropriate annually, beginning
July 1st, 1921, for two years ending July 1st, 1923, the sum of Ten Thousand
Dollars ($10,000.00) and thereafter the sum of Five Thousand Dollars
($5,000.00) annually, all of said appropriations being from any funds in
the hands of the said Board and to be used exclusively for the establish-
ment and conduct of the said Agricultural Experiment Station, or Stations.
There is further hereby appropriated from any fund in the State Treasury,
not otherwise appropriated, annually, beginning, July 1st, 1921, for the two
years ending July 1st, 1923, the sum of Ten Thousand Dollars ($10,000.00)
and thereafter the sum of Five Thousand Dollars ($5,000.00) annually, all
of which funds shall be supplemental to the funds appropriated by the
Board of Commissioners of Everglades Drainage District and shall be
used for the same purpose. All moneys appropriated by this Act shall
be paid out in the same manner that other funds are disbursed by the State
Treasury and the Board of Commissioners of Everglades Drainage District.
"Section 7. The State Board of Education and the Board of Control
shall, with the advice of the Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund,
purchase all material, farming implements, live stock, and other acces-
sories necessary and needful to fully install and equip the Agricultural
Experiment Station, or Stations, herein provided for. The said Boards,

Annual Report, 1921

or either of them, are further authorized to construct all the necessary
buildings and out-houses, and to employ all labor and such other expert
help as may be needful to properly conduct the same.
"Section 8. The State Board of Education and the Board of Control
are hereby authorized to prescribe and promulgate all rules and regula-
tions necessary to carry out the purpose of this Act, and when so pre-
scribed such rules and regulations shall have the force and effect of law.
"Section 9. Sections 651 and 652 of the Revised General Statutes are
hereby repealed.
"Section 10. All laws and parts of laws in conflict herewith are hereby
"Section 11. This Act shall take effect on its passage and approval
by the Governor."
"Approved June 14, 1921." 4.
No steps have been taken, during the brief period elapsing
between the approval of the above act and the end of the present
fiscal year, to carry out its provisions.


The changes in the personnel of the staff during the fiscal
year have been numerous and these changes have necessarily
caused more or less interruption and slowing up of the Station
work. Most of the resignations were the direct result of either
inadequate compensation or unsatisfactory working conditions,
brought about by the cramped financial condition of the Station.
July 1, 1920, Lena Hunter resigned as assistant to the auditor
and was succeeded on the same date by Retta McQuarrie. On
the same date Ralph Stoutamire, B.S.A., was appointed editor.
September 1, 1920, H. E. Stevens, M.S., plant pathologist, and
J. R. Gunn, laboratory assistant in plant pathology, resigned.
September 6, 1920, C. D. Sherbakoff, M.S., Ph.D., associate
plant pathologist, resigned.
September 8, 1920, Avis Rockwell began work as stenographer.
November 1, 1920, O. F. Burger, A.B., M.S., D.Sc., was ap-
pointed plant pathologist.
January 1, 1921, P. H. Rolfs, M.S., D.Sc., director, resigned.
January 1 to 15, 1921, Vice Director J. M. Scott was acting
January 12, 1921, A. H. Beyer, A.B., B.S., M.S., was appointed
assistant in entomology and plant pathology.
January 15, 1921, Wilmon Newell, B. S., M.S., D.Sc., assumed
the duties of director.
April 17, 1921, Chas. E. Bell, B.S., was appointed assistant


18R Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Following is a list of the publications issued by the Experi-
ment Station during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1921:

No. Title Edition Pages Pages
158 Fertilizing the Irish Potato Crop........15,000 28 420,000
159 Control of Root-Knot, II.................... 5,000 16 80,000
160 Soft Pork Studies, II............................ 5,000 8 40,000

Totals..................................................25,000 52 540,000

No. 158, Fertilizing the Irish Potato Crop: (B. F. Floyd and R. W.
Ruprecht), pp. 28, figs. 1. Gives the results of fertilizer experiments con-
ducted thru a period of three years, 1918-20. Describes symptoms of potash
starvation. The results indicated that a fertilizer analyzing 4 to 5 percent
ammonia, 8 percent available phosphoric acid and 3 to 5 percent potash
is a balanced and economical fertilizer for Irish potatoes. The results
showed also that soluble phosphoric acid is necessary in the early stages
of growth to produce vigorous plants, that raw rock phosphate failed to
produce maximum top growth, that soft phosphate did not prove as good
as pebble phosphate and that in the absence of sufficient potash the tubers
did not reach full size, while in extreme scarcity of potash normal growth
of the tops was interfered with.
No. 159, Control of Root-Knot, II: (J. R. Watson), pp. 16, figs. 1. Dis-
cusses briefly the nature and cause of root-knot and lists the principal
host plants of the nematode. Distinction is made between "control" and
"eradication" and the various control measures briefly described. Results of
experiments with chemicals for destroying the nematodes in the soil are
given and particularly the results obtained with cyanamide and with
sodium cyanide and ammonium sulphate. Apparent eradication of the
nematodes was obtained with applications of 900 pounds of sodium cyanide
and 1350 pounds of ammonium sulphate to the acre.
No. 160, Soft Pork Studies, II: (J. M. Scott), pp. 7, figs. 1. A further
report on experiments commenced in 1920 and reported on in Bulletin 157.
The method of taking fat samples from live hogs is described, as are also
the feeds used. Ten hogs were fed for 44 days on peanuts only and another
lot of ten hogs was fed during the same period on a ration of corn, shorts
and bright cottonseed meal. At the conclusion of this feeding test the
feeds were reversed. The results showed that feeding with peanuts lowered
the melting point of the fat in nearly all cases, while feeding a ration
of corn, shorts and cottonseed meal raised the melting point; also that
a hog fed with peanuts until the melting point of its fat has been lowered
can afterward be so fed as to make the carcass chill hard.
No. Title Author
319-Cowpeas in Bearing Pecan Groves ...................................J. R. Watson
320-Bahia Grass .........................----------.......----. ........ .:.... ........J. M. Scott
321-Fertilizers for Pineapples .....-.......-- ...------------............. H. Rolfs
322- Decay of Citrus Fruits.............---............................ .......... 0. F. Burger
323-Bulletin List.'

Annual Report, 1921


Wilmon Newell, Director.

SIR: I respectfully submit the following report of the credits
received and expenditures vouchered out of funds as specified
during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1921:


Adams Fund...-...........-...- .... ........... .........-
H atch Fund ........... ...... .......--.... ..-..- ..........--
State Appropriation............-...... $ 166.31
Winter Haven Sub-Exp. Sta............... 3,592.79
Sales Fund.............. ............ ....... 220.84


Salaries .................. --.....-------....$8,697.50
Labor .................. --................... 2,147.53
Publications .................----- .........- 812.33
Postage and stationery.-........ ..-.....-- .- 758.30
Freight and express.............. ....... 347.79
Heat, light, water, power......................... 343.25
Chemicals and laboratory supplies--.......... 12.45
Seed, plants, sundry supplies.................. 76.52
Fertilizers .. ---- -----. 8.12
Feeding stuffs ...................... ......... 823.20
Library ...........-................. 531.43
Tools, machinery appliances-....-.............- 196.37
Furniture and fixtures....................... 100.92
Scientific apparatus and specimens........--................
Livestock -.............---- ....-----...... ------...
Traveling expenses ............................... 115.34
Contingent expenses .............----.-------- 10.15
Buildings and land................................ 18.80
Balance ...... ................... ........











Respectfully submitted,


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Wilmon Newell, Director.
SIR: I submit the following report of the Department of
Animal Industry for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1921.


No additions have been made to the dairy herd during the year,
Some of the poorest-producing cows in the herd have been sold
or butchered. Only the heifer calves from the best cows have
been retained; those not desirable to keep as dairy cows have
been disposed of.
There have been a number of cases of contagious abortion in
the herd during the last two years. As a result of this it has
not been possible to carry on feeding experiments with the
herd. During the last six months we have had very few or no
cases of abortion, hence we feel that we now have it well under
control so that it will be possible to carry on some feeding ex-
periments during the coming year.
During the year two of the best purebred Jersey cows were
put on Register of Merit test. Oxford Lad's Jewell No. 271481
began the yearly official test July 1, 1920, finishing it June 30,
1921. In 365 days she produced 9006.1 pounds of milk and 441.1
pounds of butterfat. The following table gives her production
of milk and butterfat by months:

Number Pounds Percentage Pounds
Date of days of milk of fat of fat

July 1-31, '20.................... 31 843.2 4.5 37.94
August .... ... ............ 31 842.2 4.1 34.53
September ........ ....... 30 833.3 4.3 35.83
October .................... 31 1013.2 4.1 41.54
November ...... ............. 30 842.0 5.1 42.94
December ............ ....... 31 776.9 5.7 44.28
January, 1921 ............... 31 792.6 5.2 41.21
February ............... ... 28 651.8 5.1 33.24
March ...................... 31 602.2 5.4 32.51
April ................ 30 573.6 5.4 30.97
May ............. ........ : ... 31 589.8 5.3 31.25
June ..... ...... .......... 30 645.3 5.4 34.84
Total ......... ................ 365 ] 9006.1 4.89 441.11

The other cow on test, Creole's Lassie Sue No. 306835, began
her yearly test August 1, 1920. Up to June 30, 1921, in eleven


Annual Report, 1921

months, she produced 8805.1 pounds of milk and 433.3 pounds
of butterfat.
The soft pork studies as conducted last year were continued
this year. The results obtained were published in Bulletin 160.
These results indicate that there is a marked difference in the
melting point of fat of individual hogs, even when fed on the
same feed.
There is evidently some other factor aside from the feed given
that affects the melting point of the fat. Heredity may play some
part and it is possible that the difference is due to digestion.
That is, some hogs may not be able to digest but a very small
percentage of the fat in the feed given, therefore, there would
be little or no change in the melting point of the fat. Other hogs
may be able to digest a large quantity of the fat in the feed which
would account for the change in the melting point of fat.


The fertilizer experiments with Japanese cane and with sweet
potatoes have been conducted during the year the same as in
previous years and as given in the reports of the last'six years.
The results obtained have been about the same. The indications
are that larger yields of Japanese cane are obtained when liberal
applications of ammonia are applied.
The sweet potato experiments indicate that potash is the es-
sential plant food element for maximum yields of sweet potatoes.
These experiments were discussed in Bulletin 156.
Animal Industrialist.


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Wilmon Newell, Director.
SIR: I submit the following report of the Department of
Chemistry for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1921:
The work of this department during the year has been
confined to closing up experiments which were discontinued
when Profs. Floyd and Collison left and in planning and starting
a new project. Owing to the writer's unfamiliarity with Florida
soils and crops the planning of a new project consumed more
time than otherwise would have been the case.
The field experiments with Irish potatoes, begun in 1917 by
B. F. Floyd in cooperation with the Wetumpka Fruit Company,
had to be discontinued. The entire expense of conducting this
experiment, with the exception of supervision at fertilizing and
harvesting time, was borne by the Wetumpka Fruit Company. In
view of the unsettled financial situation, this company curtailed
its operations and discontinued its support of the experiment.
As the Station was not in a position to assume any of the ex-
pense of continuing the experiment, it was discontinued. The
results of the three years that the experiment was in progress
have beei published in Bulletin 158 and may be summarized
as follows:
1. Soluble phosphoric acid was necessary in the early stages
of growth to produce vigorous plants.
2. Raw rock phosphate failed to produce maximum top
3. Pebble phosphate, in 1920, gave a yield that was nearly as
great as from acid phosphate.
4. Soft phosphate has not proven as good as the pebble phos-
5. In the absence of sufficient potash, tubers did not reach
full size; and in extreme scarcity of potash, the normal growth
of the tops was also interfered with and certain appearances de-
veloped which were characteristic of potash starvation.
While the above conclusions would seem to be warranted by
the results obtained, it must be borne in mind that most of
these conclusions are based on but two years' results and should,
therefore, not be considered as conclusive evidence of the superi-
ority of one form of phosphoric acid over another. The first


Annual Report, 1921

year's results could hardly be used as the yield on all the plots
was very low, due to the newness of the land. The above results
illustrate the unfortunate consequence of cooperative experi-
ments where the cooperator bears all the expenses of the ex-
periment. Had it been possible to continue these experiments for
from three to five years longer, definite information in regard
to the availability of the phosphoric acid in the various phos-
phates might have been obtained.
The study, begun in 1910, of the drainage water from the
soil tanks was virtually completed by Prof. Collison before he
left and the results published in Bulletin 154.
In order to determine what changes had taken place in the
soil, and also in what layer most of the fertilizer constituents
had accumulated during the ten years, samples of soil were
taken from each of the first four tanks and analyzed. The
analyses showed that most of the lime had been removed from
the soil, the amount dropping from an average of 3 percent in
1910 to .03 percent in 1920. This loss took place despite the
fact that some lime was applied yearly in the acid phosphate. Of
the three elements, nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash, the
latter was the only one to show a loss during the ten years.
The ammonia content remained about the same, while the phos-
phoric acid content increased slightly. The amount of organic
matter, or humus, decreased in the first 21 inches; which was
to be expected, as no humus had been added in any form. The
decrease in humus also decreased the percentage of ammonia
in the first two feet, but this was counteracted by an increase in
the third and fourth feet. The decreased humus content also
caused the percentage of iron and aluminum to increase in the
first 21 inches. While we have an increase in the percentage
of these two substances, the actual amount of iron and aluminum
did not increase, the decreased amount of humus simply increas-
ing the relative amounts of iron and aluminum. The sulphates
increased in all the layers, but much more in the lower layers
than near the surface. The tank receiving its ammonia from
sulphate of ammonia showed no more sulphates in the soil than
did the tank receiving its ammonia as dried blood. On the
whole, most of the plant food is found within nine inches of
the surface, the amount gradually decreasing with the depth.
The new project on which work was begun is a further study
of the citrus disease known as dieback. While Prof. Floyd did


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

much valuable work on this subject, he had to discontinue it be-
fore he had found either the cause or the remedy for the
disease. The work on this project includes experiments in a
grove of 575 trees .located on the grounds of the Citrus Experi-
ment Station at Lake Alfred. A study is being made of the
influence of various fertilizers in producing dieback. In this con-
nection a chemical study of the soil from this grove is also being
made. Frequent samples are taken and analyzed to determine
what changes take place, as this data would be especially de-
sirable should dieback develop in any of the plots. The following
varieties of trees are located in the grove: Pineapple orange on
sour stock and pineapple orange, Marsh Seedless grapefruit,
Silver Cluster grapefruit and Dancy tangerine on rough lemon
In addition to the grove at Lake Alfred, the trees in the eight
soil tanks at Gainesville, and 12 trees outside of the tanks, are
receiving fertilizer similar to that used in the Lake Alfred sta-
tion grove. No definite results have as yet been obtained. An-
other phase of the study of dieback is being conducted in the
greenhouse, where a study is being made of the action of blue-
stone on both the soil and the citrus plants.
The study of the availability of various forms of phosphoric
acid for citrus trees is being continued and has reached the
point where interesting results will be obtained shortly. This
study is being conducted at Lake Alfred in cooperation with the
Florida Fruitlands Company, as described in the 1918 Annual
Report, page 39-R.
In addition to work on the above projects, some 200 melting
point determinations on samples of fat were made for the De-
partment of Animal Industry.
A considerable number of samples of rock were tested for lime
and phosphoric acid for various individuals in the state and five
samples of fertilizer were tested for borax. Owing to the lack
of funds, only qualitative tests could be made of these samples.
During December several sugars were analyzed for the State
Plant Board to determine whether fumigation with hydrocyanic-
acid gas had caused any injurious effects.
Physiological Chemist.


Annual Report, 1921

Wilmon Newell, Director.
SIR: I submit the following report of the Department of
Plant Pathology for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1921.
I began my duties as plant pathologist on October 27, 1920.
A. H. Beyer was appointed half time assistant on January 10,
1921, and served in that capacity until June 30, 1921.
Considerable time has been devoted to the identification of
plant diseases sent to the office by the county agents, State
Plant Board inspectors and growers of the state. This work
has become rather heavy and requires the constant time of one
man. Considerable time has also been given to the Agricultural
Extension Division in holding meetings in various localities.

Most of the time left for investigation has been given to the
study of melanose'. This project is being pushed as rapidly as
possible. Lack of suitable temperature-control apparatus has
considerably handicapped the work. To do the best work we
should have refrigerating chambers, the temperature of which
can be regulated, as well as temperature-control chambers in the
greenhouse. While the infection period was being studied, grove
experiments were inaugurated for the control of melanose and
stem-end rot, these two troubles being closely related and due
to the same fungus.
The Station has a small citrus nursery where experiments are
being carried on forthe control of citrus scab'. Observations
are being made as to the time within which various citrus stocks
become affected with the disease.

The greater part of May, 1921, was spent in Gadsden County
studying tobacco diseases.
Tobacco mosaic, or "calico," was present in a great many
fields. One concern had at least 2 percent of this disease on all
of its plantations. It was ascertained that this company selected
its own seed; hence, the uniform percentage of the disease in
all the plantings.
'Cladosporium citri (pro ter), Masse.
'Phomopsis citri Fawcett.


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

The root-rot of tobacco, caused by Thielavia basicola (B. and
Br.), Zopt., is very severe in this section, making it necessary
for the growers to move their tobacco shades about every four
years. Soil sterilization by steam has been tried but this is so
expensive it is cheaper to practice rotation of crops on a four-
year plan.
Root-knot8 was also found in great abundance and is one of
the greatest drawbacks to the industry.
Granville wilt' was found on several plantations but never in
such abundance as to cause any great loss.
Leaf spots on tobacco were found. These are caused by bac-
teria and fungi and need to be investigated.


The most serious trouble this year was the Peronospora dis-
ease. This disease affected the leaves of the young plants in the
seedbed and also the crop after it had been transplanted to the
shades. Large brown spots, ranging from one-half to one inch
in diameter, would appear on the leaves. Sometimes these would
coalesce, forming a single large irregular spot. At first the
spots would be of a yellowish green color, afterward becoming
water-soaked in appearance. On the under side of the spot
would appear a grayish blue mold. This mold, Peronospora sp.,
would soon disappear, the spot becoming brown and papery.
After a few days these brown spots drop out, leaving a hole in
the leaf resembling a horn-worm injury. At no time were the
stalks of the plant affected, the trouble being apparently con-
fined to the leaves.
The large irregular spots look like spots which have been
called Paris-green burning. In fact, some growers this year
believe this to be Paris-green burning and accused their super-
intendents and workers of being too careless with the blow-guns.
In view of the fact that so many of the growers called this Paris-
green burning, and on account of the general infection of all
plantations in Gadsden County, we believe this disease has been
there in previous years.
During March the weather was very warm. This warm
weather caused the plants to grow very rapidly in the seedbeds
'Heterodera radicicola (Atkinson).
'Bacterium solanacearum, E. F. S.


Annual Report, 1921

and the growers began to set their fields very early. In April
the weather turned cool, furnishing, we believe, ideal condi-
tions for the spread of the disease.
When I arrived in Quincy on May 2, there had just been a
fresh outbreak of this disease. Growers told me that they had
had similar outbreaks on April 22 and 29. Thus it seemed that
the disease became worse every seven days; or, in other words,
it took seven days for the seed-like bodies to germinate and
cause the spot, after settling on the leaf.
On May 1 the weather began to get warmer and during the
succeeding days, until the eleventh of the month, was warm and
dry. In one combination shade the temperature went as high as
110 degrees F. There were no new signs of disease during this
On May 11 it began to rain and rain occurred in abundance
for ten days. During this ten-day period there were only a few
fields which showed any signs of the disease and these signs
were confined to only a few leaves. Were it not for the extreme
vigilance with which all were watching their shades, these would
not have been found. During the week of May 22, hot days
ensued and no recurrence of the disease was noticed. Many of
the old dried leaf-spots had fallen out and the damage looked
like worm injury.
Up to May 13, the tobacco did not make much growth, the
stalks having only four to six leaves. These leaves were the
ones damaged. After the rains commenced the tobacco began to
grow and the infected leaves became only the "sand leaves,"
many of which are discarded at harvest time anyway.

Early in April I visited the potato fields in the vicinity of
Hastings and found a number of diseases.
Bacterial wilt" was present in about 75 percent of the fields.
There was a considerable complaint from the markets on ac-
count of the slimy rot of potatoes coming from this section. I
believe that the bacterial wilt of potatoes is responsible for a
large percentage of the so-called slimy rot disease of potatoes on
the markets.
'Bacterium solanacearum, E. F. S,


28R Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Rosette' was present in some of the fields but did very little
Mosaic was found in one field of 27 acres, greatly reducing
the yield. This disease was also found in a few other fields.
The late blight' was present in most all of the fields but
caused only slight damage. In fields which were sprayed with
bordeaux mixture this disease, as well as bacterial wilt, was
noticeably less prominent.
Sclerotial blight, caused by Sclerotium rolfsii, Sacc., was pres-
ent in many fields, causing the plants to rot off at the ground.
The work on this project has been continued. New strains of
the Red Spanish variety of pineapple were secured from Porto
Rico, Cuba, and Costa Rica, and planted near Fort Pierce. Cul-
tures are being made from time to time from diseased plants
in the hope of finding the organism causing the disease. Pine-
apple slips have been planted in the greenhouses on the Station
grounds, such plants to be used for inoculation purposes.
Plant Pathologist.
'Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn.
'Alternaria solani (E. & M.), Jones & Grout.

Annual Report, 1921

Wilmon Newell, Director.
SIR: I submit the following report of the Department of
Entomology for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1921.

This work was continued along the same general lines as dur-
ing previous years. The most thoro eradication was obtained by
the combination of sodium cyanide at the rate of at least 1200
pounds to the acre and ammonium sulphate at the rate of 1800
pounds. A dosage of two-thirds of these amounts was nearly
as efficient and proportionally cheaper. Trials have been started
to test the comparative efficiency of this treatment when applied
at different times of the year. Plots are being treated each month
to ascertain if nematodes are more easily eradicated at any par-
ticular season. Some plots treated in March, 1920, still show
the effects of the treatment in the smaller number of nematodes
in the treated soil than in adjacent check plots.
The use of ammonium sulphate alone resulted in a considerable
reduction in the number of nematodes. The control was rather
better than on plots where sodium cyanide alone was used, but
neither was nearly as efficient as the combination.
Incidental to this work observations were made on the effect
of the chemicals on other animal life in the soil. A dose of 600
pounds of cyanide and 900 pounds of sulphate killed all animals
found in the soil. Among the pests killed were white grubs (Lach-
nosterna sp.), crickets, mole-crickets, ear-wigs, ants, white ants
or termites, wireworms and grasshoppers. Other animals killed
included burrowing lizards or "grass snakes," ground beetles,
and even wasps which happened to alight on the patch. Toads
which wandered into the patch shortly after treatment generally
:made a hasty retreat. Lizards usually remained and were killed.
The larger dosages were also very efficient in killing out grass
and weeds. On plots treated with 1800 pounds to the acre of
cyanide and 2700 pounds of the sulphate, even bermuda grass
was killed. Where two-thirds of this dosage was used crabgrass
and all other vegetation above ground were killed; but in the case
of heavy growths of bermuda grass all underground stems were
not killed.


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Plans have been completed for testing this material on different
types of soil for the purpose of investigating the influence of the
soil type upon the efficacy of the method and the dosage required.
Tests of the summer-fallow treatment have been continued. The
killing obtained was not as nearly complete as with the cyanide-
sulphate treatment and the soil was left in a very poor condition
with regard to humus and fertility. This method is, of course,
much cheaper than the cyanide-sulphate one. The results ob-
tained in the plots planted with Brabham cowpeas or velvet
beans in rows, so that frequent cultivation could be practiced,
were nearly as satisfactory from the standpoint of nematode
control as those from summer fallow and very much better from
the standpoint of soil fertility. The present season bush velvet
beans are being used. This plant permits cultivation to be con-
tinued thruout the entire season.

During the last year particular attention has been given to
the effect of winter weather on the abundance of this insect the
following summer. The caterpillar has been gradually increasing
in numbers since 1917. This seems to be correlated with the
nature of the winter weather. It seems that following a mild
winter the insect appears earlier and becomes more abundant.
On the other hand, a winter with severe frosts extending far
dcwn the peninsula kills the insects out to such an extent that
they are comparatively scarce the following season. The length
of the winter, i. e., the length of time between the first and last
killing frosts, seems to be of paramount importance. The in-
sects, which do not hibernate, are starved out by a long period
during which their food plants-all very sensitive to frost-are
lacking. It would appear that we are now in a position to
prophesy at planting time the probable abundance of this insect
the following season. Observations on the natural enemies of.
the velvet-bean caterpillar, both parasites and predators, were
continued. As in former years, insect parasites were very scarce,
only about 1 percent of the pupae showing parasites. However,
insect and other animal predators are very important. By far
the most effective check on the multiplication of this insect
continues to be the fungous disease called "cholera."
'Anticarsia gemmatilis Hbn.


Annual Report, 1921

Incidental to this work observations were continued on other
insect pests of velvet beans. It seems that several other insects
are gradually adapting themselves to the velvet bean and be-
coming more abundant each year. Among the more important
of these are several species of skippers (Hesperidae) and leaf-
hoppers or jassids (Jassidae).

A dry spring again supplied conditions favorable for rather
heavy infestations of thrips in citrus bloom. A number of ex-
periments were started in Lake, St. Lucie and Brevard Counties
to obtain further information on the improvement in both quan-
tity and quality of the fruit to be expected from one and two
sprayings and also the period most favorable for spraying. It
was,found that in order to insure a high percentage of killing
the tobacco solution (Black leaf 40) should be not weaker than
1 to 800 when used in combination with either lime-sulphur
solution (1:70) or with soap (4 or 5 pounds to 50 gallons of
water). Lime-sulphur alone does not give a satisfactory killing.
The camphor thrips received intensive study during the first
half of the year. The life history work was carried on in the
laboratory and the field work on distribution and control was
continued. Since January 1 this insect has received less atten-
tion, as the successful manufacture of synthetic camphor seems
likely to eliminate the commercial growing of trees for distilling
purposes. In view of the fact that the thrips does not ordinarily
severely injure untrimmed trees and becomes a serious pest only
on camphor grown in a trimmed hedge, it would seem that the
subject no longer deserves a major position among our projects.
As an experiment in control, a badly infested hedge was cut
close to the ground and all the trimmed-off material promptly
removed. The new sprouts that came up from the stumps re-
mained free of thrips for some months, until they were reinfested
from a neighboring hedge.. Another hedge which was also cut
to the ground, but less carefully, leaving a few small twigs and
leaves on the stumps, continued to show a light infestation altho
much improved as compared with its condition prior to trimming.
The bean thrips, found in the state but once before, was found
abundantly infesting a patch of kudzu, a new host. Since this
insect had previously been found on a wild Cassia, far removed
from cultivated fields, it seems probable that the insect is a


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

native species which only occasionally becomes abundant enough
to cause material damage.
The study of the larger plant bugs and their chief parasites
has been continued, special attention being paid to their wild
host plants and the seasonal abundance of both bugs and para-
sites. The pumpkin bug or Southern green stink bug, Nezarra
viridula (Linn.), caused considerably more damage than usual
in the tobacco fields about Madison in May. In every case of
severe damage the entomologist was able to trace the origin of
the infestation to nearby gardens where some of the favorite
winter and early spring host-plants, such as collards, turnips,
mustard, potatoes, and snap beans had been raised and allowed
to stand after harvest. These plants should be destroyed as
soon as they are of no further use. The chief parasites, Trichop-
odes pennipes, Wd., were present, but in small numbers only.
About 10 percent of the adult bugs were carrying the eggs of
this parasite. In the vicinity of Gainesville the above parasite
continued to be active as long as the bugs were active (late in
November) and reappeared in early spring (February), but in
greatly reduced numbers. Of the wild winter host plants of all
three of these bugs, thistles are the most important. Wherever
practical they should be eradicated from farms and especially
in the neighborhood of truck farms, gardens and tobacco fields.
Chinese cabbage is a favorite winter garden host plant of this
The leaf-footed plant-bug, Leptoglossus phyllopus (Linn.), col-
lects in swarms on the "pencil bush" (Baccharis) at blossoming
time in November. It does not trouble radishes, mustard, turnips,
etc,, as much as does the pumpkin bug. It hibernates more com-
pletely than does the pumpkin bug. As a spring and early sum-
mer catch-crop for these bugs, sunflowers is the most satisfac-
tory thus far found. It is very attractive to all three species'
but at different stages. The club-footed plant bug, Acanthoce-
phala femorata (Fabr.), attacks the young stalks; the pumpkin
bug attacks the leaves particularly just as the head begins to
form. The leaf-footed plant bug is very fond of the juices of
developing seed. A row of sunflowers planted around every
spring garden or tobacco field will catch most of the larger
plant bugs in the vicinity, and there they can be more quickly
gathered than when spread over the entire garden or field.


Annual Report, 1921

As a part of this project, active studies have been started
under the direct supervision of the assistant entomologist, A. H.
Beyer, of the bean jassid, Empoasca rnali, Le Baron. Its seasonal
history under Florida conditions will be studied and efforts made
to work out a practical means of control. This pest is usually
the limiting factor in the production of early fall beans.

The work of the whitefly-eating lady-beetle, Delphastus cata-
linae, Horn, introduced from California in 1917, has been fol-
lowed. It continues to do good work in the grove at Braden-
town, where it has kept the whitefly in check to such an extent
as to make spraying unnecessary so far as the whitefly is con-
cerned. The insect has been recovered from several other groves
where introduced. It is evident that it helps control the whitefly
in these groves but by itself does not suffice for practical control.
Its introduction should be regarded as a supplement to, rather
than as a substitute for, spraying. Its numbers seem to diminish
during the winter to such an extent that it does not again become
abundant until the following autumn.



Acanthocephala femorata, 32R
Alternaria solani, 28R
Ammonia for pineapples, PB 321
Analysis, fertilizers for Irish pota-
toes, 7
Analysis of soil, 23R
Analyzing rock, 24R
Animal industrialist, report of, 20R
Anticarsia gemmatilis, 30R
Appropriations, 5R, 6R
Auditor, report of, 19R
Avocado diseases, 9R

Bacterial wilt of potatoes, 27R
Bacterium solanacearum, 26R, 27R
Bahia grass, PB 320
Bean thrips, 31R
Bell, Chas. E., appointment of, 17R
Beyer, A. H., 25R, 33R; appoint-
ment of, 17R
Blue mold fungus, causing stem-end
rot, PB 322
Branch experiment station, 11R; for
citrus, 6R; for the Exerglades,
6R; for tobacco, 6R
Bugs, as plant pests, 32R
Bulletins of Experiment Station,
Burger, O. F., 9R
appointment of, 17R
report of, 25R
PB 322

Camphor thrips, 31R
Caterpillar, velvet bean, 30R
Changes in staff, 17R
Chemistry, summary report of, 7R
"Cholera," of velvet bean caterpil-
lar, 30R
Citrus, decay of, in transit, PB 322
diseases, 9R, 25R
experiment station for, 6R, 11R;
act creating, 12R; proposed
budget for, 14R
Cladosporium citri, 25R
Club-footed plant bug, 32R
Collison, S. E., 7R, 22R
Contagious abortion, 6R, 20R
Cooperation of Exp. Station and
Bureau of Plant Industry, 7R
Cowpeas as favorite of pumpkin bug,
PB 319
in bearing pecan groves, PB 319

Dairy herd, changes, 20R
of Exp. Station, 6R
Dairy cows, production of, 6R

Dairy herd records, 20R
Dallis grass, PB 320
Davis, L. L., 12R
Delphastus catalinae, 33R
Decay of citrus fruit in transit, PB
Dieback, as influenced by fertilizers,
Dieback, study of, 8R
Diseases of avocados, 9R
citrus, 9R, 25R
potatoes, 27R
tobacco, 9R, 25R
Drew, W. L., 12R

Empoasca mali, 33R
Entomologist, report of, 29R
Entomology, summary report of,
Exerglades Exp. Station, 6R, 11R,
Everglades Exp. Station, act creat-
ing, 16R
Experiment Station, deterioration
property of, 5R, 6R
Experiments, fertilizer, 7R
fertilizer, Irish potatoes, 8R
fertilizing Irish potatoes, 4
Irish potato, 22R
grass and forage crops, 7R
Japanese cane, 7R
lysimeter, with citrus trees, 8R
root-knot, 10R, 29R
soft pork, 6R
thrips, 31R

Fertilizers as factors in citrus die-
back, 8R
Fertilizer experiments, 7R, 21R,
Fertilizer experiments with Irish po-
tatoes, 8R
Fertilizers for citrus, 8R
for pineapples, PB 321
Fertilizers influencing dieback, 24R
Fertilizing the Irish potato crop,
Bul. 158
Financial handicaps, 5R, 22R
Financial statement, Citrus Exp.
Station, 13R
Florence Villa Packing Assn., 12R
Florida Fruitlands Co., 12R, 24R
Floyd, B. F., Bul. 158, 22R

Graham, K. H., report of, 19R
Granville wilt, 26R


Grass and forage crops investiga-
tions, 7R
Grounds and equipment, 11R
Gunn, J. R., resignation of, 17R

Heredity as factor in soft pork
study, 6R, 21R
Heterodera radicicola, 26R, 32
Hogs, taking fat samples from, 46
Hunter, Lena, resignation of, 17R

Investigations, production of dairy
herd, 20R
root-knot, 10R
soft pork, 21R
thrips, 11R
tobacco diseases, 9R
velvet bean caterpillar, 10R
Irish potato, acreage in Florida, 3
experiments, 22R
fertilizer experiments, 8R
fertilizing, Bul. 158
phosphate as fertilizer for, 9-15,
potash as fertilizer for, 15-21,
soil for, 3
where grown in Florida, 3

Jeffries, John H., 13R
Japanese cane experiments, 7R, 21R

"Kernel spot" of pecans, PB 319

Lachnosterna sp., 29R
Leaf-footed plant bug, 32R
Leonard, F. M., & Co., of Boston, 4
Leptoglossus phyllopus, 32R
Lime for pineapples, PB 321

McQuarrie, Retta, appointment of,
Melanose, 25R
Mosaic disease of potatoes, 28R
Mosaic, or "calico," disease of to-
bacco, 25R

Nematode, control of, Bul. 159, 34
experiments, 29R
investigations, 10R
its host plants, 32
Newell, Wilmon, appointment of,
report of, 5R
Nezarra viridula, 32R

Paspalum dilatatum, PB 320
Paspalum larranyagai, PB 320
Peronospora, 26R
Peronospora disease of tobacco, 26R
Phomopsis citri, 25R

Phosphate for Irish potatoes, 9-15,
Phosphate, pebble, 22R
Phosphate, raw rock, 22R
Phosphate, soft, 22R
Phosphoric acid for pineapples, PB
soluble, 22R
Physiological chemist, combining po-
sitions, 7R
report of, 22R
Pineapples, fertilizers for, PB 321
Pineapple wilt, 28R
Plant bugs, 32R
Plant pathologist, principal work of,
report of, 25R
Plant pathology, summary report of,
Polk County aid to Citrus Exp. Sta-
tion, 13R
Poole, S. F., 12R
Potash for Irish potatoes, 22R, 4,
15-21, 25-27
for pineapples, PB 321
Potato diseases, 27R
Publications of Exp. Station, 18R
Pumpkin bugs, 32R
control of, PB 319
Pumpkin or southern green stink
bug, host plants of, PB 319

Register of Merit, 20R
Report of animal industrialist, 20R
auditor, 19R
entomologist, 29R
physiological chemist, 22R
plant pathologist, 25R
Rhizoctonia solani, 28R
Rockwell, Avis, appointment of, 17R
Rolfs, P. H., PB 321
resignation of, 17R
Root knot, cause of, 31
control methods, 24-44, Bul. 159
experiments, 29R
investigations, 10R
of tobacco, 26R
Rosette disease of potatoes, 28R
Ross, J. H., 12R
Ruprecht, R. W., 7R, 14R, Bul. 158
report of, 22R

Scab of citrus, 25R
Sclerotial blight of potatoes, 28R
Sclerotium rolfsii, 28R
Scott, John M., acting director, 17R
report of, 20R
Bul. 160 (Soft Pork Studies, II)
PB 320
Shealy, A. L., 46


Sherbakoff, C. D., resignation of,
Slimy rot of potatoes, 27R
Snell, H. W., 12R
Snively, J. A., 12R
Soft pork investigations, 6R, 21R,
Bul. 160
Soft pork studies, II, Bul. 160
Soft Pork Studies, taking fat
samples for, 46
Soil analysis, 23R
Southern green stink bug, control
of, PB 319
or "Pumpkin bug" as causing
"kernel spot" of pecans, PB 319
Staff changes, 17R
reduction of, 5R
Station grounds and equipment, 11R
Stem-end rot, 25R
Stevens, H. E., 9R
resignation of, 9R, 17R
Stevens, J. A., of DeLand, 4
Stoutamire, Ralph, appointment of,
Summary of bulletins of 1920-21,
Sweet potato experiments, 21R

ex iii

Thietavia basicola, 26R
Thompson, C. H., 12R
Thompson, J. B., 7R
Thrips, bean, 31R
camphor, 31R
study of, 31R
investigation of, 11R
Tilden, A. M., 12R
Tobacco diseases, 25R
investigations of, 9R
Tobacco Exp. Station, 6R, 11R
act creating, 15R
Trichopodes pennipes, 32R

Vasey grass, PB 320
Velvet bean caterpillar, 30R
Velvet bean caterpillar investiga-
tions, 10R
Velvet beans, pests of, 30R, 31R

Watson, J. R., report of, 29R
Bul. 159 (Control of Root-Knot,
PB 319
Wetunipka Fruit Co., 22R
Wilt, bacterial, of potatoes, 27R
Wilt of pineapples, 28R

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