Vol. III, No. 3
H. E. SCHWEYER
Associate Professor of
Bulletin Series No 27
C. H. EDWARDS
Published monih-y by the
FLORIDA ENGINEERING AND INDUSTRIAL EXPERIMENT STATION
College of Engineering * University of Florida * Gainesville
Application for antry ais scond-class matter a Gaine .ille, Florida, pending
The Florida Engineering and Industrial
The Engineering Experiment Station was first approved by the
Board of Control at its meeting on May 13. 1929. Funds for the
Florida Engineering and industrial .xprriment Statian were applr
priated by the Legislature of the State of Florida in 14WI. The Station
is a Division of the College of Engineering of the Unirersity of
hlorida tinder the supervision of the Statel Board of Control of Florita.
'the functions of the Florida Engineering and Industrial ixperimeat
a) To develop the industries of Florida by organizing and pm-
moting research in those fields of engineering, and the related sciences,
bearing on the industrial welfare of the State.
b) To survey and evaluate the natural resources of the State that
may be susceptible to sound development.
c) To contract with governmental bodies, technical societies, asro-
i]ations, or industrial organizations in aiding them to solve their
technical problems. Provision is made for these organizations to avail
themselves of the facilities of the Engineering and Industrial Ex-
periment Station on a co-operative financial basis. It is the basic
philosophy of the Station that the industrial progress of Florida can
best be furthered by carrying on research in those fields in which
Florida, by virtue of its location, climate, and raw materials, ifts
d) To publish and disseminate information on the results of
experimental and research projects. Three series of pamphlets are
issued: Bulletins. covering the results of research and investigations
by staff members; Technical Papers, reprinting papers or reports
bv staff members which have been published elsewhere; and Leaflets.
reprinting articles by staff members which have been published in tie
more popular periodicals.
For copies of Bulletins, Technical Papers, Leaflets or information
on how dio Station can be of service, address:
The Florida Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station
College of Engineering
University of Florida
RALPH A. MORGEN, Direasr
AN EVALUATION OF
/,'I H I S 0 I\\ I \ F I,
\%" ,I k(I L'kil'Ilrl s, ( 1 ITT11l \ FJ qlNIX I T1\,
C I II 1IM\\ \RI
L I . 11 -MlAl' I, I\<111 u -I11(. o I [I N11II
[ I I I I 1 I Nt,[' M in I \ 1 1) [ \l/ n t ll ~| [<1i' i nI ' II,| 1\\ IN
CuiIt-,a rif l. lnlt I ill, * I1 iit' 1 k'0 linda * Gi nLk illtnl
j/ild> (-. .u \, '7
Ua, 1) I"
'jhe authors wish to exp~ies their appreciation to Dr, Herman
Guntcr and Mr. Nalls Ilerrymab for their assistance in this work to
Humble Oil and Refinig Conmpany fdr supplying the crude petrol-
cmu, The assistance of Mr. A Wakefield, who tLLetd the samples.
and of other staff menenis of the Engineering and Industrial Experi-
ment Station is gratefully acknowledged.
A portion of this work was conducted by the junior author in
submitting a thesis to the Graduate Ctpncil, University of Florida, in
partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of
Science in Engineering.
Cover photo showing Sunniland field operations. courtesy Tanmpi
Permission ix given to reproduce or
quote any portion of tis blraliaon pro-
viding a credit linw ir gi en aewowledging
thL sote of iuformaoton.
"llack Cold" is a term sometimes used by writers to dewribe
crude petroleum. The reason for using that ternm i evident from
tie prosperity that comes to an area in which oil wells are highly pro-
ductive. Florida crude uil certainly is black, but oil production in the
state is sill rather stall. I'his mn! .~eCll discouraging until it is
realized that prior to 1943 no petroleaun at all was produced in the
state. DeIinite progress has therefore been made. and we hope that
meen greater progress will be made in the near future,
A large productiin of crude oil in Florida would not only make
possible the manufacture of fuels, lubricants wax and asphalt in the
state. but it might also supply the raw materials for a wide variety
of so-called petrochemicals, derived from petroleum hydrocarbons,
which are becoming of ever greater importance. These petrocheni-
iMals include iiumerous trgianic chemicals which industry uses in
making syB3,ttllt rubber, paint solvents. synthetic resins and many
rather comntercial products.
That Florida has oil wells that are producing is well known The
nature of the oil produced and what products the oil may be expected
to yield on refining are not generally known. The experimental work
described in this bulletin wus carried out to furnish thai information
for tile public.
1V. 11. JiEISLERt
eircd, CtmiCial Ewg ineerng Seciaon
Enginweering and ndusi!rial ex-erimsn. Station
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGMENT _ _ ___
FOREWORD _-- _-- - 3
LIST OF ILL ST RATIONS - 5
ABSTRACT -- 7
I. INTROI1 CTION . 8
II. SMALL-SCALE EN AL ACTION 10
A. Procedure 10
B. Results -- 10
IlL LARGE-SCALE LABORATORY EVALUATION 13
A. Procedure 17
B. Results 18
IV. QUALITY OF PRODUCTS 18
A. Light Distillates 21
B. Lubricating Distillntes 21
C. Aphalt Manufacture _ _- 24
V. SOUMAnRY _... - 30
TV. TABLES __ _ . - 31
VII. BIBLIOGRAPHY _ 43
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure I Fest-drilling for Oil in Florida 6
Figure 2 Schematic Diagram of Snmal-;cale Equipment 9
Figure 3 Small-scale Evaluation Apparatus .. 11
Figure 4 1 mall-scale Equipment for Close Fractionatlon 12
Figure 5 Ipilot Plant Still and Converter 14
Figure 6 Control Board for Pilot Plant Still 15
Figure 7 Small-scale Evaluation of Sunniland Crude
Petroleum (Modified ASTM Method- )285f 16
figure 8 Pilot Still Run on Sunniland Crude e'rtnleum 19
figure 9 Graphul Rrpreentatidon of Alternativ
Fractionations of Sunniland Crude Oil 20
Figure II) Distillation Curves in Varinus Distillates 22
Figure 11 Steani-refined Asphalis from Sunnland Crude
I gure 12 Small-scale Air-blowing Apparatus -. 27
Figure 13 Air-blowing Processing Data fol Asphalts fimn
Sunmilald' Crtde Pettoleum 28
Figure 14 Air-blown Asiphall.s nile frinj 87-Seotold
qaybnti Furil VisTkoity at 210''' Residue
frin Sunniland Crude Petroleumn 29
Table I Alternative I'raciiiatimatian of Suntiland Crudt Oil 31
Table 2 Inspection Tests on Various Raw and Blended
Distillates frrm Sunniland Crude Oil -..... 32
Tabhl 3 Compari~snm of Tests on Gasoline with Specificatins
for a Commercial Product . _..... 33
Table 4 C.omparisun of Tests on Certain D)istilltes and
One Residue with Specifications for Fuel Oils - 34
Table 5 Inspection Tests on Lubricating Distillates 35
Table 6 Comparison of Tests on Light Lubricating Oil
ilth Specifications for a Commercial Product 36
Table 7 In.pectin "1 ests on Steam-refined Residues 37
Table 8 Compari-on of Tests on Certain Steam-refined
Asphalts with Specifications for Commercial Products 38
Table Q inspection Tests on Experimental Road Oils 39
Tablte I- Ctniparvisoan of Tcsth on Certain Road Oils with
Specifications for Commercial Products 40
1 able II Inspection Tests on Air-blown A)phalti from
87-sec SF 210 F Residue IS-101-() 41
1 able 12 CoGmparisnm of T'ests on Certain Air-hlowi Asphalts
with Specificatins for Cmamercial Products 42
FIG. 1: TEST-DRILLING FOR OIL IN FLORIDA HAS BEEN CARRIED ON AT
EACH LOCATION SHOWN BY DOTS ON MApP. SO FAR ONLY SLNNILAND
InrFr i Inrrjin F Gun ri "' AplQmattigon fur Ojl .I d 1 l r ill * ida"- ]fl uroinal�,i (IrIular
Cn 1. Jan. . 14 .
An Evaluation of
Sunniland (Florida) Crude Petroleum
This paper presents a preliminary report on the investigation of
the crude petroleum being produced in the Smnmiland held in Collier
The crude oil was analyzed in a small scale by the (". Bureau
of Mines method front which it was determined that I was a high
sulfur. highly asphaltic crude oil containing wax. It was classified
as an "mlnterledlae" chase oil and may be considerTd similar to many
California crude oils.
Complete fractionation of tie crude oil in a pilot batch sill was
carried out ill order it iobtain suf-icienit quantities s of ithe various frac-
tions for their uvuluation as to suitability for the manufacture of coil-
Ilercial products. 'lie straight run distillat1es and residues from thil
pilot plant scale fractionation were prrocesed further where necessary
in order to produce finished materials.
The results indicate that the crude petroletum yields a fair amount
(21 per cent) iof 44 octane number gasoline which could be marketed
readily by blending with other stocks. It was hrhown that good yields
(up to 44 per cent of fuel oil distillate. could be produced readily
but tha they were high in sulfur. Tlle waxyv lubricating distillates
were acid treated and clay contacted without appreciable reduction
in their high sulfur contents, but after dewasing in methyl isobutyl
solution their poui points were all liowered to below 15F'. The data
indicated that thtse fractions were probably more suitable as charge
stocks for cracking operatidbt because if the eclinonucs involved
A study was made of the asphaltic residues as a source material
for commercial asphalls. It was shown that paving asphalt and road
oils meeting Asphalt Institute specification could be manufactured
readily. Air-blown asphalts made from the residues were shown to
meet Federal Specifications for Troting and waterproofing applications.
It was concluded that Sunniland crude oil is a suitable source
ol gasoline fuel til and asphaltic material.
Crude petroleum has piroin lu bt e a it il la i. in the cwonnsoii
of any state in which it has been discovered. The magnitude if this
economic effect depends principally upon the voliume available, and
to a lesser extent upon ilii comp.atioin of the crude oil. The puten-
tialities of the State of Florida as a producer of crude oil have been
discussed by Gunter I6l and McCaslin I8l. and it is the purpose of
this bulletin to report the results if a study on the tumposition aspLct
of crude oil now bhinc produced in the State ol Florida.
The coanpletitin if tile Ni. 1 Gulf (.oia. Realty's nil well in Col-
lier County by the Humblie Oil and Refiniog Coinnpany tin Septenmbcr
26. 1043 marked the firt. discovery if crude petrrilumn in the State
o.f Florida. Since that tlin itlher well haIeve lbeen drilled in the same
field which has been named SunnilIand .mld up it January 1. 1948.
six producing wetll had been discovered. Of these five are prodl--
ing and one has been plugged as reported by Guinter 61. The same
source reported that 359.740 barrels of oil had been produced ince
the discovery date, and it has been reported by I)eegan (31 that 290.-
000 barrels were prloduterd in 1948 anid that il lat teserves in Florida
arT 2.000.000 barrels based on available data. During 1948. four
additional wells were drilled of which one was a dry hole, and in
March , 1 l49, one if Ith larg-si producing wells discovered tm date was
brought in. The pre.ntl producing wells are all greater than 11.000
ft. deep and although approiiinatelh 200 other wells have been drilled
for oil or gas, at the locations shown in Figure 1, no other producing
field has been discovered toi date in Fl'rida.
Since the coipolsition of crude oils from different wells and field-
mnay vary considerably. i is necessary, to make a detailed analysis of
an individual il in order to determine what clnunercial products and
how much of eadch tma be derived from it. This analysis has been
completed for Sunniland crude oil using standard prnoedures em-
ployed in the petroleum industry. It should be pointed out that the
analysis of a crude petroleum is not one of simple chemical analysis.
but instead. invilveb the separation of the crude oil into several frac-
tions of gradually increasing boiling point (or decreasing volatility).
Tlhese fractions are entirely arbitrary and vary from one manufacturer
to another, depending upon the type of crude petroleum and the equip-
ment available for processing it IFor purposes of discussion the fol-
lowing simplified analysis shows ihe fractions rhat might be ohiainedr
(;asline Kerosene or Gas Oils Lubricating Oils Residues
Each of the fractions is usually treated or processed in some
manner to produce finished products that must meet certain specifica-
tions before they can be sold in commercial quantities. The petroleum
A - HEATING JACKET F-AIR CONDENSER
6-3000 ML. FLASK C-VACUUM RECEIVER
C-CLAISSEN HEAD H-FRIEDRICHS (WATER) CONDENSER
0 - THERMOMETER I -ADAPTER
E-THERMOMETER J-GRADUATED CYLINDER
PIG. 2: SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF SMALL-SCALE EQIQIPMENT
technoulgiut e\ aluiiae tlie pocntial value oif Ithe facttIn, from ilhe
crude pitroleum by iinn if certain specialied test which provide
the necesiiari formation.
Laboratory evaluation of petroleum lil usually, involved two
steps. Fih't, prelimm;niry fiactionlation of the crude oil i .llade using
small-,-ale glassware la;abr;tory equipment. The type of equipment
used for this purpose may vary from a simple ~rill, illustrated in Fig.
ure, 2 and 3. to a miore elaborate apparatus. such ;. hwrn in in Figur
4. The latter tnpe is used where close fractionation is desired. The
purpose of the siai- -cale evaluation is it obtaii :oii iner-all analysis
for teteirminiu thu upproxillimtl; qcjimnltiei each fraction present;
however, the q,;iant iLs of aich fraction lht;iined are nt ,sulficient
for complete testing. In order tIo ci Iple tilt c( \aluatii n, a second
distillation procediurn i nercessiary wherein the r.ult� obtained in the
small evaluation pflvlicd an Lstnlmnie ll th qiuaiiatiie s of selected
fractions that may be oblained and the apprixihmate teimp)eratu'res
required for their separation. 'IThee fraictins in.y thtn bi cona.
pletely tested and subjected to additional proriesing where required.
For this second step. pilot plant etuipmenit i1 necessary in order to
handle larger volumes of material A 10-gal batch still uI*d for this
purpios is Illustrated in Figures 5 and 6.
The proi cdure followed in this investigation consisted f frac-
tlnnating the crude petroleum in the small equipmienl illustrated in
Iiguies 2 and 3, followed by a hlrger scale fractionation in the pilot
still illustrated in Figure 5. The separated fractions were then tested
,lnd iic ces td further where necessary to obtain petroleunlU products
v.whwh could be compared with commercial products oif the stina gen-
The Sunmnl]and rude oil studied was niom i uil f C(oast Realty
Ci'rpmation's well Nl , 6; it was furnished by the Humble Oil and
Retfiing C'omptnyv. Eierglades. FBlida. As received, the crude
oil contained Lrnsiderablr water, and it w.as pnrinrly dehydrated by
allowing to sitilnd undisturled for several week., Results of lypical
test, in tile crude oil are as follows:
AP,I, glavitl (D60F) 25 6
Viscosity, Saybolt Universal Seconds (100-F) 88
Flash Point, 'F (Tag Closed Cup) Relow 65
Bottom Sediment and Water, l 0.2
Sulfur, ' 32.66
Sc:llbilitl in nC,-H,I. / 90.7
11. SM \IL-SCALE EV.ALL'ATION
The pr tcdurc used in this part of the evaluation followed in a
teniral way the ASTM Standard Mlthhod rof Test No. 1)-28 (2) using
he apparatus ishiow In i Figure< 2 and 3 The distillation was cnn-
ducted at atntm plu hril pru~sure up to liquid telllpelatluire of 400"'F,
ind at 40 niin. of im rcliry absolute prissuit' albve that temperature.
since there was some indication of cracking it 400"F and the higher
re-sure'. 'Th dat. obtained (4) are pitted in figuree 7 using the
pe of curves suggested h- Nelson (9). (Note' All imthods of
,st used throughout this bifllein are standardized procedues of the
An u rican Sociely for Testing Mateilals unless otherwise noted.
Nelson (9) gives a detailed djsgussion fi the significance of these tests.
Irom the data in I"igure 7 it is possible to obliin a preliminary
estimate of the quanlities of the major fractions in the crude oil. These
nlay be sumniaiized as follows:
Volume API Sperifr
Fracion fr cent Gravily @ 60*F Gravilt @ 607
400"F End Point Gasoline 18.7 66.4 0 71
500'F End Point Kerosene 8.3 46.5 0 75
(00I F Diesel Oil or Gas Oil 5 38.0 0815
1 ibe Stockll 29,2 24.8 0q05
Residuum ra 343 5.2 I,0,
To 600 ' vapor temperature at 40 mnu. Hg pressure.
In addition to the above data. the sliall-scale evaluation provided
FIG. 1: SMA.I,-SKALF. EIHIIPMENT FOK fI.Ol C FRACTIONATION
information I, establish the nature of the crude oil by means of the
U. S. Bureau of Min ies Key Fration \Method 171. In this method
two key fractions are separated: No. I is the material hboiling be-
tween 250'C andi 275 C at .anmoslphric prc~ure and N'I 2 is the por-
tion boiling between 275 0 and 3h11) C it 410 inll. iif mercury absolute
pressure. The A.l' gravirio of the frtatitn are cinidercd repre-
sentative of the lighter (lower boiling and heavier fractions respec-
tively. The Sunniland crude oil is arbitrarily classified as an "inter-
mediate" crude according to this system as Aihown by the following
API Gravily "lnlermnrdiae" Crude
key fraction No. I 38.2 33 to 40
Key fraction No. 2 22 2 20 to 30
As will be shown later, the iclae number of the raw gasoline
from this crude oil was 44.5. and the clihracterization factor. estimated
by a chart (9) using the AI'I gravity and the 50 per cent boiling
point (700'F). is 11.7. The characterization factors for the key ftac-
lions estimated ill tie same i.mnller were 11.9 and 11.2 for key
fractions No.. 1 and 2 respectively. These data generally confirm
the classificatiiln f .'nitermediate" for thie .rude oil (except for the
nctane number if the gasline which is 5 poliLs low based in similar
data for various crude types as have been published by Nelson 19,10)
The crude nil alsi exlhibilt propertieC r f a "mixed" bai crrude oil as
estimated from charts by Nelson 19). Blbh terms inmixed base and
intermediate base) are applied to crude petroleum ihat possess prop-
erties intermediate between thaoe of the "paratffiic" base oils of Penn-
sylvania and those of the "naphthenic" base oils of Texas. Many of
the petroleum nils from the Mid-Contment area and California are
considered mixed base mils 13,; thus the Sunniland crude ,il might
be considered to be comparable to the high sulfur asphallati crude oil-
111. I.ARGE-'c- LE LABORAT ORNV E-.\L A 'AlION
It should be noted that. olhereas the comllnmerel friationation of
any crude petroleum into lower boilng fractions gasoline and kero-
sene) follows a lather definite pmlict dure, tie fracllionatin of the
higher boling portion of the (Hude into dtsuliate fuel oils, lubricat-
ing oils and asphalts is determined arbitrarily and is controlled by
many factors. Among these are the type of crude, the specific con-
tent of each fraction being considered, the type of cinunercial ctquip-
nmenl available for processing the crude oil, the amount of subsequent
processing required after the initial fractionation, and the economics
involved. The latter includes consideration of the market for each
product, the relative values of the different products and the quan-
tities of each available from the crude petroleum .- well a- the cost
FIt PIrLLr IPIANT STIILI. AND) C(NVERTEIR
* I 1
I I.. h* II)NTiROI BOARD FOR PILOT 'PLANT STILl
1 -- -r ----;-~
FIG. ;: SILLALLCA ELVAL-ATION OF SUNNILANI CRDE PETROLEUIM
iModlRed ASTM Method-D-25)
Thou, iny prupuosed fractionation of Sunniland crude ail must
be considered in view of the preceding dircusion. The general plan
followed in this study was to con-ider first a separating into products
having the greatest cnnmercial \alue followed by alternative plans.
thereby prrtlliting ce niilic Lllsideratiion, IIn deterllinie whith of
the allrnartLe prot'idures would give the best return in prisre*ing tll
crude oil. The three plans corsiderid were as follows:
Plan ./* --.uLbriatig dil mpd Jsphald Mn/fiacture:
In this plan after removal of die glsoline. kerosnne and distillate
fuel dils. a wax di tillate cut was taken for rewover oI wax and low
viscosity lubricating iils. Tl'hi was followed by separating a heavier
viscrsily lubricating il fraction leaving a residue of steam refined
asphalt. An alternate to his method is in permit the wax distillaic to
he combined with the lube oil fraction. tbh latter including additional
volatile material from the asphalts. -.ither of theie two alternates
might not prove feasible because of probletts ind costs rtf procesing.
but they werv elected a' a starting point in exploring the possibilities
inr ciinrtrcial refining if the crude oil.
P/'la B-A4 phllu and Fuel Oil Iihu art/re .
Since Sutnitlald crude was shown Lua have a high asphalt content,
the second plin was polindl twarlnld utihing the resitlies frrim the
crude as at soure of asphalt pio'mucBt. In this plaI all fritCLims be-
tween the giasouli cut and the asphliiic ieidciies were used as noad
oil cutters (softeners for hard asphalt ir r foruel nil. .n alternate
to this plan is to produce a lotw viacA-itv asphaltic residue (by per-
mitting a portion of the higher boiling Fractins to remain in the
Iesiduel suitable as a raw material for making nir-blown aspI lts.
Plan C-F -wl Oil Janafntur -
The third plan followed was the simplest and would consist es-
sentially of topping removal of the lighter fractionst of the crude
and utilizing the residue for fuel. In this can, as with the other
l:ians, the fuel ails or any other suitable fractions might he: utilized
directly, or they could bt used for cracking stocks (gas oilst to ob-
tain increased yields of thi lower boiling fraction-. This phase of
the study was not nvehtigated.
All if tlhe three above plans are entirely ilrbitrary, since Coml
binations oi them rir others dioeieni nily in detail cmuld ihve been
selected, However. based )o the slnll scale evnlulatlirn if the crudes.
it was believed that they wruld be suficiently diverse to indicate the
lotentiIli.es of the crude oil from the Simniland Vield without pri-
A : Pr'v.dur'
Two runs were made in the pilot plant apparatus shown in Figure
5 to obtain the data necessary for a quantitative breakdown according
to tlhe proposed plans. The details mav be found in reference 4. In
some cases blends of certain fractions were made to obtain sufficient
quantities for making the inspection tests on the products reported here.
Both runs were made 1 4 in a similar manner and consisted es-
wentially of charging the still with 7 gaL of crude oil and removing
the gasoline fraction with heat only, all higher boiling fractions were
distilled with heat in the presence of steam. \When the liquid tem-
perature reached 650 F. the still was allowed to cool to 250F and
then the distillation continued (with heat and live steam) at 25 in.
(f mercury vacuum until the .till again reached a maximum tempera-
ture of 6501I' The cut points during the distillation operation were
controlled by the end points on the light fractions and the viscosities
on the heavier fractions using the data in Figure 7 from the small-
scale evaluation as a guide.
The composite results for the pilot runs are shown in Figure 8.
and the quantitative results for each of the proposed plans and alter-
nates are shown in Table I* and Figure 9. The losses which amounted
to about 2. per cent. were apportioned to each fraction in proportion
to production; it is probable that these losses represent butane gas
and lighter hydrocarbons. It was observed that good agreement in
the pilot equipment and small-scale apparatus was obtained
IV. QUALITY' OF PROD CTBS
Commercial products obtained from the fractination of crude
petroleum are required to meet certain specification tests, the limits
of which have been established through co-operative action of the
producers and consumers. Thus, for many products the Federal Gov-
ernm ent issues standard specifications employed in their purchases.
Although other agencies or constuners may have dillerent require-
ments or special tests, the Federal specifications usually include the
limits for the tests that are considered to be the major criteria in
determinng the commercial utility of a petroleum product. For this
reason, Federal specifications have been selected in this study as a
basis for evaluating the quality of most commercial products ob-
tained from Sunniland crude petroleum.
In some cases the raw stocks as obtained in the initial fraction-
ation of any one crude pettrleum may be utilized directly, but in
general all raw stocks must be blended with similar stocks from other
i,ources or processed after fractionation to produce finished products.
Where it was possible to evaluate the quality rof the raw stocks obtained
in this study without recuse to fishing treatments the latter were
not carried out. However, in other cases it was necessary to process
'Tables I through 1 ill be found on pages 31-42.
a y _ - -- a - - - 0oon
3 ------ --- -- ---f --------- DAOO 4002
RUN NOS. S-o.100 o
S REFERENCE 4)00
0 20 40 60 80
PERCENTAGE DISTILLED (VOLUME)
FIG. 8; PILOT STILL BRN ON SINNILAND CRUDE PETROLEUM
PLAN A - LUBRICATING OIL AND ASPHALT MANUFACTURE
DIESEL WAX LUBE
GASOLINE KERONE E FUEL DISTLLATE DISTILLATE STEAM REFINED ASPHALT
S-101- BB %8o0-8 S-o01-D S-101 -F -10I-01 S-101-1
GASOLINE KEROSENE GAS OIL LUBE DISTILLATE STEAM REFINED ASPHALT
S-101-BB S-101-C S-113-B S-1OO-F S-102-A
PLAN B - ASPHALT AND FUEL OIL MANUFACTURE
GASOLINE ROAD OIL CUTTER HEAVY ROAD OIL CUTTER STEAM REFINED ASPHALT
-S-- S-l0S06-A - 1S-A3-A S-102-A
ROAD OIL HEAVY ROA BLOWING FLUX
GASOLINE CUTTER OI .TT , FOR AIRBLON ASPHALTS
S-101- B 3 -10 - A -1- E 3 .--K
PLAN C - FUEL OIL MANUFACTURE
GASOLINE KEROSENE DIEL RESIDUAL FUEL OIL
S-1o0i-B �-101- Fs00-D S-113- D
PER CENT DISTILLED
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
FI(I. U: (iltAI HII- C KPIHFP RNRNTA'lI 'N (1 i AI'RTI VE 'wAN'TIONAM' INSll (It N IHIUM .ANI2) (RtI) thi,
tilh 1i:l Stlo k in Irdern to ,wtlmatl tlh quality of the piocdut. , uih
pIOCI�sil steps ai e cl i 'u missed in iC.on1nLtcioln wilh rAchl prochuct.
.I--/iifhi! /;/.,,//a/h .
r.trillo nlspleltioin tlu lI' 11 thl ral g oline lnd l thil diltillate
fractim4is and l blend ate' give' in l ,bl[ 2, ,nl their .\STM distilla-
tion cul 's ai sh[liiown in I lttre 1ii, N ne of these raw distillateI
%wals 111bjected to aidditiolnlI prict]inIg aiI will b)( lic�uIsc. below.
A cCnipIIllU l)I ln 1r iille Ii n1t I ! i'll ||l n l g lo iin friclltiol with a Feld-
ral] Sprcilkcation I for snuh pilduic s is givie in] 'i'able 3
.-- hlioh ntl I) ll, diu l i l Ii ibl 3. tII'I .III l liti?.iy oiiraitiins
illVm l hl l inI 0, [|iII ri]% gn ;iimiii .,,ld I il"n lilTig wiith iiHir 4l[I t ki
,Itlkin d l it-iluL li iIaiketin iof . *.i lLniniLti l ii 1.11linI .
Tile lilig lr ilistldl tll is iifnlt nl 1 it11 I.irtt* il 111cu , hu11 boiling
above gailiiin, ima Ib tull li/cd for prloductlioln f s],ecia l sllvcnts
(drn citei ing, paiitl n1i 1iit il ivm1in a [i blil ii l bui thle iajor ttil-
ziLuiIi ii P f1 furl - lii il ii)l1LLth t 111 1 .11111d l111u1iinl I , 1, .1 a WidL
:rily or spicil |pll.iiu lll ulls c, h \l, krr'ine nlltd diesel luel
having "n'r, ri id ..pcc rfrlii [, ]hi' h, prc'-,t -IT(!T- li, d,,i!lhti -
lesi volatile llau gaY in hl bae b(i Vi',ItlL(ld ai fuet-l oil accrorditl
In Federal Spe it . tion \ '\'- )-326 fIn sldi ll nitil1 aIS show in
I'able 4 iinisp i iirl t �ts [fr ili1-' " dlilllliti fralncl iirn iarl given in
'Table 2 and fm'r tie onr T' idui;l llul l 11 I able> 7.
The rt.'ilta ill T' ble 4 hio, thnl a kerliseln fi .t(l n tl r .i.l 'tritg
thi lejuiremienits fir I -NI I tfl 11 c:i lic i plduiced readily By
additional rnessilig ii r-'cliuce thr high sulfur ptili'lt) the kern-
tmne t aitin probab) ci11ld1 be iprnducI d to yiild a prodCIct meeting
tie ninre stlilgent s*iii ili(,itil rll II] ciiJiiii.tIV l kel'l sem lle uic tl T'
F'cderal Speciiiciation Nl , \\ - K-21 ll. but h trcealllenit ,;i niot
\ coimparis in f lie dlata . in abl witl i' riiquirelicn't in
Table 4. (,iadi 2. 3, 1. or 5 shli~m tii hlouglh piIx r stilling Op-
elatinl s nl it uld be |ile ]blt I illtt the s1ieilC ir i s foi allny n l!
Of thlelln ;h i) plodil' Ifillro Suinniland 1|),irtinll \ tl pical exilple
is Th..wn fin N.], glade. A riduial p)rodici S-I 13-1)) is shown
o0 I1TELfiht, ll.1 e reqilttilellt ,nit Fri (;rat e 6 lIink(,r C I.
It -ilul d be noted LI I ll of l the )li'nLial fltl oils in I bible
2 ii'e aiul, d t n lil 'lt LI-r liclnlt 1hich timight lcndcr tIhlli unsuitable
fr terttin il pirp s es It hlls sulfr Cllnl'Lnt sliillld i)bviite their use
fs e fuels, these interied;ile dislllatiu cldl ul e tIe, d ral lfacoiily fior
clarging ,stVcks to clacking stills
P- L r.c..../,,g 1% /// ,
iJ'hiln luhlilcalln ioil fjr.lions wele sp. Uiald (lmi thie cldci
charged ti the pI1t rtill Thise ei: 1 v;i.ax djiiltlae (S-II-FI
iich \.is separated in stud, he , ax present, :1 light lubiiic.atin
finition (8-1(1-1 ) boiling aive the- wax tliL]late, anId healiier
lublikting i t.itillate' S-10(0-1' miade in anl ler run Ilc latter in-
ilud'd a pmtion if the wi.\ distillate frtiiiin, but. 11 aldditiin. as
40 � K- eT:OSENE
10 20 40 60 80
FIG. 10 DISTILLATION CURVES ON VARIOUS DISTILLATES
made by cutting deeper into the aaphalt residue. Ihe yield relations
among these three fractins are qt shwin in Table I and Figure 9, and
inspection data on them are given in Table 5. I'lT initial inspection
data indicated that extensive treatment if iherse raw stocks would be
required (because if the high sulfur ontlient .min high pour points if
salisfactory produ ts were in lr made. Therefore, they were givrn
extensive acid treatments ;and dewaxed acotrdiing to tile procedure
below. The cnaudlions of eacd treatrmlent and inspection- 'in the
treated oils are sho un in Table 5.
PROCEDURE FOR TREATING ND) DUEWAXING THE
Acid und Clay Tra.ilnilnl:
lOna hiundrd to 300 ml (lrpndling upon the quantitv available 1i Ilf ie t
fraction were placed in a flask with one-half the amount of 98 per cent ul-
furi acid selected for treatlomn (Table f) andl tihe flask and contents shaken
for 15 min The ternmperatlre srelcted was maintained II sich heating or coal-
in as was necessary. The contents of the flask were poured into a graduate and
the sludge allowed to settle for . to 4 hr. with a small quantity of water being
added 1to "condition the sludge ii order 0o ohbtam gcoo settling. After do-
cantation of the sludge-free oil, a second similar treatment with the remaining
acid was made.
The decanted oil was then mixed with the selected amount o 100-mesh
natural active Fullers Earth, heated to the contacting temprature and agitated
for five minutes. The oil was filtered at the contacting tenmperaure with saclion
and the moisrur riemved by hubblina dry air through the nil at 120-F for 5 min.
The yield of reovred nil was determined.
Dre'naig Treat.,ni n
Fifty to 100 ml. of the Ireatlte oils wer dicnirled in methyl-isobutyl ketone
a; a 5:1 ratio of solvnt to oil by volume. This solution nas cooled slowly to
minus 20OF, filtered at that temperature. and washed with approximately 100 mi.
of chilled solvent added in small portions. The wax was extracted from the
titer aid by means of hbt lrnzene. The major portion of the latter was re-
moned from the wax b3 dithstillnn, and the lat Iraces of benrone and ketone
were removed by eri ing i an oven at 30"F. The wr was de-oiled by dis-
solving in 10t volumes f the keLton solvent t1 one of crude wax, cooling the
mixture to 30 and filtering. The dv-oilcd wan was dried at 200P to remove
the last traces of ailvent. The original filtrate containing the dewaxed oil in
solution and solven used for washing the was was distilled under 20 mm. of
mercury vacuum to remove the solvent and the dislilladion continued to recover
the lubricating oil leaving a small quantity of residue. The yield of distilled
oil was determined. iand it was then subjected to inspection test
'The results shown in l'able 5 indicate that; the manufacture or
high-grade lubricating oils front Sunniland petroleuin would require
expensive treatments and produce low yields principally because of
the high sulifr content which is nat readily, amnllenble to reduction by
acid treatment The influence I( sulfur im tle quality of lubricating
cils is not well understood because of the 'aridle of fnrms in which
the sulfur may be present. Accordingly, few specifications show a
limit for sulfur content although it is generally recognized that a high
sulfur content is undesirable. As shown in Table 6. a lubricating oil
probably could be processe.d to meet Federal Specification VV-0-496,
and probably would be satisfactory if the sulfur content could be re-
duced. However, it i unlikely that such processing would prove eco-
nlonical over the more simple utilization of such fractions from the
crude oil as charging stocks for cracking operations or for fuel iils.
Data ale given in Table 5 for the de-oiled wax recovered as a
matter of reo rd only. since recovery of the wax would depend pri-
marily on processing of the lube stocks fir lubricating oil manufacture.
C-.-1sphalt .1 .Int fa tr,"
As with the other petroleum products, the manufacture of asphalt
consists of processing of raw materials to certain consistency limits
and then testing those products against certain specifications. If
the products are unsuitable, or because 'if other reasons the manu-
lacture of asphalt is not carried out, the asphaltic residues are util-
ized for fuel or as charge astcki for cracking operations. There are
two general types of asphalt: steam-refined--made by removing
the mnre volatile fracrio.n in the residues from asphaltic crume oils:
and air-blown asphalts-mnadL by subjecting the residues to the action
of air at elevated temperatures. In general, the steam-refined asphalts
are not amenable to alteration of their properties by processmg and
thus the raw stacks are the finished stocks. In the ca-e if air-blown
asphalts h,,ever. considerable variatim in the linal products can be
obtained by varying the charge stock used in the air-blowing opera-
ition. thereby permitting the refiner to meet a wide variety of 9peci-
1. Steam-refined .Asphalts:
A summary of the principal tests on steal-relined asphalts from
Suimiland crude is *hiwn in Figure II. Mire detailed tests in the
materials obtained are given in Table 7. One of the major uses for
steam-refined asphallt is for road-building purposes A comparison
of typicd aspihltl, unnputitd \iitlh Iecificatims ior road ,phali
has been reported previously (11. These data are reproduced in
Table 8 which indicates that Sunnilind stcam-relined asphalts meet all
2. Road Oils:
A considerable proportion of asphaltic materials is used in road
building in the form of "cutbacks" or road oils which are sufficiently
fluid to be applied at atmospheric temperatures. 'These are made by
softening the hard asphalts wiih various proportions of the distillates
obtained during the refining of the crude oil. When the gasoline
fractions are used the oils are "rapid" curing (RC) since the solvent
evaporates quickly. For "medium" curing (MC) oils a less volatile
solvent is used. and for "slow" curing (SC) oils the heavier distillates
are used as the softening agent. In some cases the lower viscosity
residues may be used directly as SC oils.
A number of road-oil mixtures were made up from the steam-
100 11 120 130 140 150
RING BALL -'F
STEAM-REFINED ASPIALTS FROM SLNNILAND CRUDE PETROLEUM
refined asphalts and the distillates obtained from Sunniland crude
oil. Several of these mixtures and their inspection data are given
in able 9. 1 esu. on typical examples of dillerent rad oils compared
to specifications published by the Asphalt Institute for such ma-
terials are shown in [able 10. These data show that all specifications
can be met. Tniret are numerous specificationsi for paring materials
depending upon the individual state requirements for such materials,
but the foregoing data on asphalts and road oils indicate that it Ahwiuld
be possible to prepare arphalts and mad oils from Sunniland crude
oil that are Nuitable fri paving purposes. It should be noted that
a final recommendation in this respect would require testing under
aLlual senrice conditirls. but the available data show no reaion to
exjpet Ltihel L be unhatisfactor-.
3. Emulsified Asphalts:
The asphalts from Sunniland petroleum may be considered dif-
ficult to emulsify. However, a low viscosity quick-breaking emulsion
containing about 62 per cent of a blended asphalt base of 215 pene-
tratio (S-109-B) wai made using oleic acid and triethanolomine as
the emulsifying agents. Sufficient asphaltic base material was not
available for complete testing, but the preliminary results indicated
that proper formulation, employing suitable stabilizing agents to
Regulate tire viuisit} and Lt control the denrulsiying proiprtihs.
should permit the nlanufact;ur ofi satisfactory asphalt emulsion.
4. Air-blown Asphalts;
The manufacture of air-blown asphalts is somewhat more com-
plicated than the production of steam-reduced asphalts. Air-blown
asphalts possess certain desirable prtpertie not found in the steam-
refined produces; among these are higher softening points for a given
penetration. less change in viscosity with change in temperature, and
considerable plasticity. Asphaltic materials used for roofing products
are general int.ule honl Lii-blot.n asphalll.
Air-blown asphalts are made by blowing the distillation residues
with air at 500F in a suitable converter. Since the products ub-
tained vary with the charge stock it is necessary to obtain preliminary
experimental data in order to select a residue of the proper consistency
for making commercial products. These preliminary data can be
obtained in a simple apparatus such as illustrated in Figure 12. A
200-gram charge at 500't is blown with air at a rate of about 200
CF of air per minute at standard conditions per ton of charge. At
suitable intervals a sample of the product is removed and tested for
Ring and Ball softening point and penetration. These data are
plotted and the softening points for 20, 50 and 200 penetration are
obtained by interpolation. Results for a series of such experiments
using charge stocks having different starting consistencies are shown
in Figure 13. From these results, it was estimated that a residue of
75 to 85 sec. viscosity (Saypolt Furol) at 212"F would produce air-
blown asphalts having the desired physical characteristics.
B-L00 ML. FLASK
C -OFF GAS
PIC. 12: SMAL,.-SCAIE AIRIll.OWING APPARA'TUS
.A saple having a viscosity of 87 seconds (SF 2121 I), available
hi .nm ihl large-scale distillatintn rsxpri encts, was used as the charge
Mtlock for air-bliwmg in the ilotl Still (Figure 5) At 50n"F at an air
rate of 100 CF per nun. per ton.
T''le tets on asphalts made in this run are give in Table I and
certain properties are illustrated n Figure 14. A comparison if il-
spectinn tests in1 these materials with specifications for commercial
waterp)rouling products is given in Table 12. These data indieine
that stiiable air-blown asphalts can be made from the a;phaltic re'i-
dues in Sunniland crude petroleum. Additional tests on the dura-
bility of Iht's materials when exposed to atmospheric weatlnering are
under way and up to the present time the indications are that rm ing
]atlerials malde from these products lre as >atlifaltory as phalts
lor thel same purposes made f]-inm ilher sources.
100 PEN PRODU
200 PEN PRODUCTS
RESIDUA USED FOR AIR BLOW NG
SS 50 45 40 ,5 30 25
45 50 55 80 65 70 75
FIG. 13t AIRl-BLOWIG PROCESSING DATA FOR ASPALTS FROM
SiN'ILAND CRfDE PETROLEUMZ
W ILU 14v io U 200 220
RING & BALL-�F
FIG. 14d AIR-RtLOWN ASPHALT MADE FROM 97 SECOND SAYBOLT FUROL
VESC'OSIT' AT 210F RESIDrE FROM SUNXILAND CRUDE PETROLEUM
Summarizing the results on crude petroleum from No, 6 well in
the Sunniland Field. Collier County, Florida:
1. The petroleum is an intermediate base crude of high sulfur
content carrying considerable wax and is highly asphaltic.
2 A fair yield 21.2 per cent) of raw gasoline with a 44.5
octane number is available.
3. Good yields (45 per cent) of fuel oils of high sulfur content
can be obtained.
4. High sulfur lubricating oil fractions are present which are
not readily amenable to normal acid-treating operations to produce
high-grade lubricating oils.
5. The asphaltic residues present should produce satisfactory
steam-refined asphalts for paving purposes and satisfactory air-blown
asphalts for industrial and roofing applications
6. A suggested product-yield analysis is:
Gasoline 21 per cent
Distillate Fuels 30 - 44 per cent
Asphaltic Products 49 - 35 per cent
ALTERA.TITI'E FRACTION.ITIONS OF SL.AIL.AN CRUDE OIL
IAt r A-tVI--al tis ilbt A.O ASPluALT MAn' FACTud R
Alternate ,-W~s Distillate. iule. Stack and 25l0 Pnetration A.-phal,
400 EP. Gasoline S-Ilo-BH
300 E.P. Kerosene. 5-101-C
675 E.P. Gas Oil r Diesel Fuel. S- 01-D
50/60 SU'/10 F Wax Distillate. S-o10-F
m0 SU 100lF Lule Distillate. S-101-H
20 Pen, Stam Refined Asphnlt, S-101-I
Alternat 2- Lube Stock and 125 Penetration Asphalt
400 E.P. Gasoline, S-101-RH
S0o EP. Krrsene. $-101-C
40 � St:I00'F Uas Oil. S-11.i-B
200 � SUtIO&'F Lule Distillate. S-oI-F
123 Pen. Steam Refinre Asphalt. S-102-A
PLAS B--ASKPAILT AN FTUr. IL MANIPAlT-RE
irltrnaler -Steam Rlined Asphllts and Road O(M
400 E.P Gaisoline, S-101-BB
600 EP, Rad Oil Cutter. S-106-A
73/85 SUL/100F Heav Rolad Oil Cutter
(or distillate luel nil), S-11I-A
12M Pen, Stram-refined Asphalt, S-I02-A
Altermirn 2-Atr-bllown A-phaits ant Road OilN
400 E.P. Gasoline. S-101-BB
600 E.P. Road Oil Cutter. S-106.A
50'60 St'l00F HRavy Road Oil Cutter
(or disnilale ude oil). S-10-E
75i'5 SF,2IO"F blowing dux for Air.blorn
PJAN 1-Lt LL I0IL IIAN-FACTRE
400 "-P. Gasoline, S-101-BB
E00 EP. Kerosene, S-10-C
600 E.P. Diesel Fuel. S-I00-D
100 - SF 122'F Rtsidua! Fuel Oil. S-IJ-I)
INSPECTION TESTS ON F.IRHIOU. R111 .AIND BLENDED DISTILLATES FROM St NXIL.1ND (' RIhD OIL
Rull Oil Road Oil Road Oil
Culler Cut1rr Culler
S-t06-A S-IOO-K S-I1d-A
15[ 10 101
40,7 29.1 14.3
3.I6 41. 417
.91 516 570
406 SS 6O10
444 fl0 674
Sill i157 >
Yielt, Vol, %
API Gravity, 607F
S Raecovery %
Reid Vapor pvreurr, .psia
Octane No. (D-357-17)a
Oxidation Stability (D-525-46)
Gum, Existenl (D-381-46)�
Flash Point. TCC, 'F
Aniline Point, �F
(Saybhli Universal, t00"F)
Pour Polnl, "F
Ash, % (FS-VV-O-326)
Water and Sediment, %
(a1 T1mlic reuls furalished by Mr Nails Herrynlmn.,
(i" On 10 pr cent residue
.tl 1'.1a 1,1r 2,01
136 141 142 14.1
31 ,38 to 37 46 a
-2.... to 15 -0 .I5 60
Iuct Iracr traco Lrac
Assistant Stale hrmisl. Sltae O)1 I aboitlory
COMPARISON OF TESTS ON GA
SPECIFICATIONS FOR A COMMIJ
% Evap, at ISS'F, minimum
Rcsidue- , maximum
Vapor Pres. 10"F, psi, imximum.
Octane No., minimum
Oum-~g/IOO mi. m.aimnum
() Fdral Specifinations desinution-A-70.
(b) Not rn. extent sum by ASTMf-D-s-lK46
was 1 mw per 100 ml.
OUiP4iRISO( F I
SFperrifirili or S.'iall Nol . No II
Flash Print - ' 10I0 165
Pour Point- ", max. 0
ilaer and Sedlument-1- . aniix. truce
Cnarbon rfidur-"A , tn.i. Oii00
Viacosity st cnds-
Sl' al 100"K
SF an 122 F'
WA/r PoIni-"'F, Kna. 410
End Point. .mn. 5oo
i*n Similar t. keurosenr
II . On lO irt cent reslidu
('1 Raw product from Sunnilandl Perolrlum
TESTn ON CERTAIN DISTil.LATES AIND ONIE RIIDI'IE
i171 W'.i:cIFIC'\TIONAh FOR OFFIu oI1.S
S-101-' No. 2 No I S-o101 )* No. 1i, No. 5
12.I 11(0. O 110-2.0I 170 130 1DUii
-25 5 in in to
No. 6 S-II.3-IW
.D Inrie 1,0 1.0 2 tratce
-15 4Z: 0-i0 n +50
-10 45-S3 107
INSPlCTIf) TESTS ON LUHRIC.1ATI. D)IS7L.iTE. ,
R Wasl Dr illa
S-101-F S101-FT S
D idlallle 1,tt Ditllate
rlt nitt D - r lla;. Troa'dt Dan.u
S-10ot-lTX S-lo-F S-Io.-FT S.-oo-rtX
2.9 I0.3 12.1 V.I
20,7 23.7 20.7
VolumIi ", Yikl
API Gruvity rF0 F
,aylolt 'tivrniir l li0 V 003Y
.10 V 35A L
Pirt Poinl, COC-, I- 360
Sulflr. 2* L.aZ
Acid Nutsl r (il).l.I46T) 0.11
Sliih Oidultion (FS-.-44i))
C.orrasiUo (m'S-V\ I.-7)iC)
Dr-nllLd.r Wa. No,
Mtl, Poiil. h"I'
Acid Tretalatwn -.W.r 1.SO.
IlsiulT e, 11. 'lti
f'la) Treatmentl- 100 miesh
Dostle, llih Tld
"*1 Capilliary luhl
t'' 'inf ii-[inllli for pr'dipilation nIphlh
0.0-4 o �r
COMPARISON OF TESTS ON1 LIGHT LUBRICATING OIL
WITH SPECIFICATIONS FOR A COMMERCIAL PRODUCT
SAE 20 S-I0-FTX
SU-1301F 120-L85 110
TIlah Point-COC "F, minimum 340 42V0
Pour Point--F. maximum 40 0o
Color, darkest 7% 35%
Carbon Reidue-ds r. maOrmAm 0. 0.S
Skgh O(idati n No., maxriimum 50 13s
Neataliztion No., aslinum 0.30 0.09"
Corrion Pas Pass
Minimum CredUts 4 4
iNSI(TC'ION' 7tESS .OA XTEAM.-RiEFINYD RBauIr'ES
Voatume 'A Yield
Ring and Ball. F
Specific Gravity, 60
Pemngmttilns, 77 'F
IS . /. . ' ,
S5oluhililt In CPH12, '4
Loss TEI. 5
s0 i/ 3 hrt.) 3-F
RSiduc Pent.lraion, 77 F
," i T. (1)
. .." . ,..-biv (12)
. .; i CArbon
Bnur Point "F
Waitr andl S dlmhnt
.S-$, .S-10-� S-0n-K S-i-u -,101-1 5H1-.S l s-102- I S-l'-2 L S 0-1
63.3 2.1 48.31 l4 A. 31 30l. 21.6 23
75 97 404
COMPARiSON OF TESTS
ON CERTAIN STEA.IM-R'INID ,ISPfAT.S [WITH .' Fi'l CIIATIOVNS FOR 'OMIIIMERLIAL PRODUCTS
(AsphIl inr Use in Road and PNvement Comnsrucltn)
Fish Pnintl "F, nin,
Soft Pointl, "
Ducity--77 'F, min.
LOSS Ttst-%,, max.
a o[ original min.
Bitunlen Sol, In mCS.-'i mln,
(W lFedrtl Spodclik on SS-A-7R6-.
l, n Sampls from Sunntland Crude Oil
50 - 60
(fl - ISO
2SO L0 127
200 - lG,
INSPiCTION TESTS ON EXPRLC.I1NTAL ROAD OILS
5 10.3 B S 10). I 5 101-A S-104-C S-I04-D S-J1O-1
S-102-A 5-102I -
Road Oil Road Oil
Road Oil Type
S, Graviv, 60 F
Flsh Point TOC, F
Solw lity in CC[,-,/
Viscoty, Saybolt Furol
i us L.O,6
IS 254 72
- - 494
% of Total to 680�F
to 437T 27.1 25.0
to 500'F 66.0 66,0
to 600'F 89.5 "8.6
R&iJdue, Vol. % 76.0 78.0
Pnot ratiom--77�I 151 104
Ductlity--7 F 150+
Sol. in CCI'-- % 99.7
Loss TeSt-% -
Asphalt Rlsid.--00 Pen
Dufility of Residue
() Estimated nce bate asphalt wars a ilend
tb) Duplicate of S-106-A
COMPARISON OF IESTS
ON CERTAIN RO.Il OILS t 117T SPrECt FCITIUONS FOR COMMEIRTCI,tL PRODUCTS
'"Phaln Si.WIulf Nia.
Ftslth Pem (TOCIO `. in.
'5 of Total nl 680-F
ulr~llity, ITF. ninl
CCI, sol--', nia.
so 4s/5 r/ 3125F. max
Asphitl ReiJdui--lOo Pen. min %1
DuCility of Residue, min.
Sol in CCI,, min. Il
(fl Snmpl firom Srnniland crrud nta
(I n Esimnau
.-103 -' IW -2 S-0I4OC SC S-104-la
V. 99 U 3 09.7
INSPECTION TESTS ON E AIR-BOWN ASPHALTS
FROM r8 SEC. SF/2IO'F RESIDOU (5-1OI-.G
Volutte % Veild
Ring and IBll, �F
Sped Cranity;, 17F
PemntiSe , 77FF
Flash Point, CO
Solubity in CSj. %
Soltbility in CiHj, %/
Stnin Mtiber (12)
RaEaidu Pientratin, 77'F
% of oQrigia!- Pei.
S-tI2-E S-112-G S-14-1
98.8 983 90
146 142 Z16
S 1.04 10510
48 24 it
- 15 9
92 39 24
S 3.5 2.
- - SI-
. 6.5 57.7
- . 4.41
__ 002 -
COMPARI.QON OF TESTS
Ol CERTAIN AIR-BLOWIN ASPHALTS WITH SPECIFICATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL PRODUCT/
(Avphilt for Iluilt-up Roolinig W;ttiurnoling and Damp-pronfing)
Soft Ploini "F
32*F, 200/60, mm.
115"F, 50/5, max.
SDuctility, 77"F. min.
Loss Tst, , % mx..
50 g/ 5 hr/ 325�F
%/ Decrease in Pen., max
Ash, ', max.
a1 Federral Specification SS-A-666
S-1 2-C Ill
40 10 40 0 40 16
1 0.1 1 0.1 I 0.1
Type I-for surfaced bliltl-up roong.
Tyip II-for unsurfaced built-ip roofina.
Grade 1-sope of in. per ft. on boards and 15 in per it. on concrete.
Crade 2-Slope of 6 in. per it. on boards and I in. per It. on ccncrele.
Ty.pe l-for waterproofmn and cIalp-profting.
(1b) Intelmrpolitd from smooth curvs, for Sunnilmnd cruin pnrIlucts,
1r) Da�.a estimated from curves ior steam-rfinad produuts a ilighlly aill-blown product would reartily meet the speclficatiun.
1. American Association of State Highway Officials, "Standard
Specificatlis and Methods nf SThnlling and Tevging," Sitmndard
Method lf Test T-102-42.
2. American Society for Testing Materials Standard Merthd of
Test for DiLtillation of Crude Petroleum, D-283-41. ASTM
Standards oi Pemrrleum I'Pr4ucts and Lub ica;t-,, 211 19471.
3. Deegan. C. J.. "Provvn Reservws Increase Despite Reaord-Btreak-
ing Withdrilywnas," Oil ad Ga /.. January 27. 194l'. . 187.
4. Edwards. C. 11., "Preliminary Evaluition of Floridla Crudc Pie-
troletun." Master The-~l, Univurlity f Florida 19481.
3. Gruse, WV A., and D. R. Stevens, "Tlhe Checnical T'Ichnolfgy
of Petnoleum," McGraw Hill BUnk Company, Inc. (19421.
6. Gunter. H., "'Exploration fiur (ri and Ga( in I'l, dna."' nf8rmna-
tion Circular No. 1. Florida Geolgtcal Survey. January . 1 48.
7. Lane, E. C. and Garton. E. I.. "lase of n Crude Oil." U. S.
Bureau if Mines R.I. 3279. (1935).
8. McCaslin, L. S.. Jr.. "Oil Posibilitik in Florind." Oil raid Gas
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McGraw-Hil] hlik Company, Inc. (11'41.
10, Nelson, V. L., "Characterlzatioi n Factor," Oil7 .in Gs /., June
24, 1948, p. 325.
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12. Schveyer, H. E. and Howell. H. C., "Determination of the
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PUBLICATIONS OF THE
FLORIDA ENGINEERING AND INDUSTRIAL
AS long as the supply is adequate, copire ul available publications are free
for general distribution Address all requests to: The Director, Florida Engineer
ing and Industrial Experiment Sation, University of Florida, Gainesville, lorida.
No 1. "The Mapping Situatioh in Monda," by William L. Sawyer.
No. 2. "The electrical Industry i Florida," by John W. Wilson.
Noi "The Lucatng ol Tropical Storms by Means of Associated Static," by
Joseph Wed and Wayne Mason.
\n. 4. "Stunly nl Beach CondtUurs at Daytona Beach, Florida, and Vicinity,"
by W. W. Fineren.
No. 5. "Climatic Data tor the Design and Operation of Air Conditioning
Systems Florida,' by N C. Ebaugh and S. P. Goethe.
No. 6. "On Static Emanating from Six Tropical Stonms and its Use in Locating
the Posiion of the DisturanLe," by S. F. Saslhol and Joseph Wed.
No 7 ' Linm Rock Concrete-Part I," by Harry H Houston and Ralph A
No, 8. "An Industrial Survey of Hide and Skins in Florida," by William D
No. '. "Studies on Intermttent Sand Filation of Sewage-Part 1," by D.
L. Emerson, Jr.
No 0. 10"Flonda Spray Gun for Pine Tree Gum Flow Stimulaton," by Norman
Bourke and Keith W. Dorman.
No. 11. "Development of Ceramic Compositions Suitable for the Production of
Porcetin Type Artware," by B. W. Thorngate.
No. 12. "Mold and Mildew Control lor industry and the Home," by S. S. Block.
No. 13. "Engineenng and Indtusrial Research at the University of Florida."
No. 14. "Reverse Cycle Refrigeration for Heating in the South," by S. P. Goethe.
No. 15. "Analysis of the Two Span Rigid Flame Highway Bridge," by C. D.
No, 16. "Beach Erosion Studies in Flotida," by H, J. Hansen.
No. 17. "Corrosion Studies," by A. L. Kimmel.
No. 18 "Domestic Solar Water Heating in Florida," by Harold M. Hawkins,
No. 19. "Proceedings of the Firt Annual Florida Highway Comerence," May
12-13, 1947, sponsored by the Civil Engineering Section.
No. 20. "The Sanitary Research Lalbratulm) of tl University of Florida," by
D. L. Emerson, Jr., and Earle B. Phelps
No. 21. 'Investigation on Dehydration of Tung Nuts," by James T. Leggett
and Seymour G. Gilbert.
No. 22. "Pioceeding, of the Second Annual Florida Highway Conference," May
31-June 1, 1948, sponsored by the Civil Engineering Section.*
Nou 23. "S.bsuriace Sewage Disposal," by John E. Kiker, Jr
No. 24. "Proceeding~ of the First Surveying and Mapping Conference," October
2 23 1$,4S. sponsored by tile Civil Enginecrm Section.
No. . 2. "Reur n Limerock Research-I-I41-194," by C. D. Williams and
No. 26. "Proceedings of the First Annual Public Health Conference," Nov. 12-
13, 1948, sponsored by the Civil Engineering Section
No. 27. "An Evaluation of Sunniland Crude Petroleum." by H t. Schwe>er and
C. IL Edwards.
*Co.ies ol Baulem No. 22 are $1,00 coch,
TECHNICAL PAPER SERIES
No. . "Heats of Solution of the System Sullur Trionxde-Watcr," by Ralph
No. 2. "The Useful Life of Pyro., Meta-, and Tet'ratihosphates," by Ralph
A. Morgn and Robert L. Swoope.
No. 3 "Florida Lime Rock as an Aumlixure in Mortar and Cuoncrcte" bty
Harry H. Houston and Ralph A. Morwn,
No. 4. "Country Hide and bkins." by William D. May.
No. S. "Emprincal Correction lor Comprensiblity Factor and Activity Coul-
ficent Curves," by R. A. Morgen and J. U. Childs.
No. 6. "Crate Closing Device," by William T. affin.
No. 7. "The System Sodium Acetate-Sodium Hydrodide-Water," by R. A.
Morgeen and R. D. Walker, Jr.
No. 8. "Palent Policies for Sponsured Research," by Ralph A. Morgen.
No. 9. Conservation of Municipal Water Supplis in Air-Conditionnmg Sys
items " by N, C Ebaugh.
No. 10-. lorida Scrub Oak-New Source of Vegetble Tannin," b H N. Calder-
wood and W. U. May.
No. 1. "Protein Feed from bulflte Waste Liquor," by Ralph A. Morgen and
Robert D. Walker, Jr.
No. 12. "Effect of Moisture on Thermal Conductivity of Limerock Conrete,"
by Mack Tyner.
No. 3. "Insect Tests of Wire Screening Effectiveness," by S. 5. Buck.
No 14. . "Properties o Limerock Concrnee," by Mack Tyaer.
No. I., "Scrub Oak as a Potential Replacement for Chstnut," by H. N, Calder
wood and William D. May.
No. 16. "Yeast from Florida Sillite Waste Liquor," by Robert D. Walker, Jr.
No. 17. "Mildew-proofin Compounds," by S. S. Block.
No. 18, "Florida Limstone as a Paint Extender," by A. L. Kimmel and Mack
No. 19. "Insecticidal Surface Coatings," b) S. S. Block.
No . 0. "Residual Toxicity Tests on lunsctiddal Protective Coatings." by S. S.
No. 21. "Direction Finder for Locating Storms," by William J. Kessler and
Harold L. Knowles.
No. 22. "Itpedance Matching Techniques," by William J. KssTlr.
No, 23. "The Engineering Experiment Station as a Stimulus to the Graduate
Program," by Ralph A. Morgen.
No 24. "Sewage Treatment Research at the University of Florida," by John
E. Kiker, and "New Sewage Plant Provides for Treatment, Research,
Instruction,' by Charks E. Richheimer and Walter J. Parks, Jr.
No. I, "Diroc-A New Insecticide Diluent," by Mack Tyner
No. 2. "The Heat Pump-The Choice and Cost of Various Systems." by S.
No3. "New Use tor Florida Limrock," by Mack Tyner.
No. 4. "Chemurgic Research for Industries in Florida," by Robert D. Walker, Jr.
No. 5. "School Tests Sewerage for Florida Towns." by D L. Emerson, Jr.
No. 5. "Tests of Screening Effectiveness Against Insects," by S. S. Block.
No. 7. "Advancement in Timber Mecharncs and Design Calls for Specially
Trained Engineers. by Howard J. Hansen
No R "Design of Plywood I-Beams," by Howard J. Hansen.
No, 9 "Lightweight Concrete Aggreate from Phophate Waste," by A. F.
Greaves-Walker and P. P. Turner.