Title: Africa Geographical and Historical Map of Africa
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00004814/00001
 Material Information
Title: Africa Geographical and Historical Map of Africa
Alternate Title: Africa Drawn from the best Authorities for the Illustration of lavoisne's Genealogical, Historical, Chronological, and Geographical Atlas
Physical Description: 1 map : col. ; 41.5 x 51.2 cm.
Language: French
Creator: Lavoisne, C.V
Publisher: Matthew Carey
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Publication Date: 1821
Subject: Maps -- Early works 1800 to 1900 -- Africa   ( lcsh )
Early maps -- 1821 -- Africa   ( local )
Early maps -- Africa -- 1821   ( local )
Genre: single map   ( marcgt )
Maps   ( lcsh )
Early works 1800 to 1900   ( lcsh )
Polygon: 35.993416 x -20.039063, 35.993416 x 52.03125, -37.337553 x 52.03125, -37.337553 x -20.039063 ( Map Coverage )
General Note: Based on Carey's London edition of 1817.
Funding: Funded in part by the University of Florida, the Florida Heritage Project of the State University Libraries of Florida, the Institute for Museum and Library Services.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00004814
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002557143
notis - AMS3390

Full Text


CoNsinERIre the peculiarly advantageous situation of this Continent, it is sir-
prising, that in all ages, ancient and modern, it has been so little known to t e
inhabitants of the rest of the world: for, standing as it were in a central point le-
tween the other three quarters, it affords a much more ready and easy conm.un -
cation with Europe, Asia, and America, than they have with each other. TlHUs
it stands, 1. Opposite to Europe, in the Mediterranean, for almost a thous id
miles, in a line from east to west, the distance seldom 100 miles, never so mnay
leagues, and in some places not above 20 leagues. 2. It is opposite to Asia, the
whole length of the Red Sea, the distance sometimes not exceeding 15 miles, 4el-
dom 150. 3.ts coasts, for thelength of about 2000 miles lies opposite to America,
at a distance of from 500 to 700 leagues, the islands included; whereas America
is nowhere nearer to Europe than 1000 leagues; nor to Asia, except in the in-
hospitable climate of Kamschatka, than 2500.
Africa lies South of Europe, East of America, and West of Asia. It is suround-
ed by the sea on all sides, except at the North-East point, where it is united to
Asia by a narrow neck of land, about 60 miles across, called the Isthmus of Suez,
which separates the Mediterranean from the Arabic Gulf, or Red Sea.
The boundaries of Africa are, on the North, the Mediterranean; on the East,
the isthmus just noticed, the Red Sea, and the main Ocean; which latter Iso
washes the southern and western shores. Though deemed a continent, Africa
is in reality an immense peninsula, nearly in the form of an inverted pyramid,
having its base towards the Mediterranean, and its apex, or head, at the Cape of
Good Hope. Its greatest length, from Cape Bon, in the Mediterranean, in lat. 37
N. to Point Aguillas, in lat. 34 7 S. is 5004 miles; and its greatest breadth, from
Cape Verd, in the West, long. 17 20' to Cape Guardafui, in the East, long. 51
20' is 4080 miles.
SEA.-On the North, the Mediterranean; on the East, the Arabic Gulf, or Red
Sea; on the South-East, the Indian Ocean, of which the portion running between
Madagascar and the main land receives the name of the Mozambique Channel;
on the South-West, the Ethiopic Sea; on the West, the Atlantic.
GULrs.-The Arabian, or Red Sea, already noticed, which is about 1300 miles
from South to North, and about 300 miles broad; Quiloa, on the East coast; La-
goa and Natal Bay, on the South-East; St. Sebastian's, in the South ; Table Bay,
and St. Helen's Bay, at the Cape of Good Hope; Angra Pequena, St. Thomas,
Walvisch, St. Ambrosia, Loango, the Gulf of Guinea, or of St. Thomas, on the
Western Coast; and the Gulf of Sidra, on the coast of Tripoli.
STRAITS.-Of Babelmandeb, in the Red Sea; of Gibraltar on the north.
RIVEas.-1. The Nile, which rises in the mountains of Abyssinia, called the
mountains of the Moon, and after various windings crosses the country of Nu-
bia, and enters Egypt, which it passes through in almost a direct line, and empties
itself by seven mouths into the Mediterranean. It is called by the Abyssinians,
Abanchi, a word signifying Father of Rivers. It overflows every year, from the
15th of June to the 17th of September, and then gradually decreases. This is
owing to the heavy periodical rains within the tropics in the beginning of sum-
mer, on which depends the fertility of Egypt; as this river, when it thus over-
flows, not only refreshes the parched earth by its waters, but also deposits a se-
diment or mud, which renders the soil highly fruitful. When this overflow rises
less than 14 cubits, or more than 18, the inhabitants anticipate a bad harvest; but
when it stands at about 16 cubits, they make public rejoicings, that being the
height which produces the most beneficial effects. While the river is contained
within its ordinary bounds, it is not wider than the Thames at London. In the
upper part, there are seven falls, over which the water rushes down in beautiful
cataracts, with a most tremendous noise ; but it glides through Lower Egypt with
a gentle stream. A little below Cairo, the Nile divides into two principal branch-
es, forming a triangle with the border of the Mediterranean: these branches are
known by the names Rosetta and Damietta; and the country included between
them, from its figure, which resembles the fourth letter of the Greek alphabetV, V
inverted, was called by the ancients the Delta.
2. The Niger, in Nigritia, of whose source, direction, and discharge, very little
is known with accuracy; the Senegal and Gambia were supposed to be branch-
es of it, till Mr. Parke disproved that opinion.
3. The Senegal, with its branches, Falome, Red River, &c. all whose sources
have not yet been accurately described, empties itself into the Western Ocean,
just above Cape Verd.
4. The Gambia is supposed to rise among the mountains of the Soosoo country,
and runs Westward into the ocean, at James's Fort.
All these rivers are subject to periodical overflowing.
5. The Zaire, or Barbel river, washes the Northern part of the kingdom of
Congo; receives in its course several others, of which the principal are the Ban-
caro and Coango; and falls into the Ethiopic Ocean.
The whole coast of Africa is watered with numerous rivers, but their sources
are scarcely, if at all, known to Europeans; their names appear on the Map.!
MOUNTAINS.-1. Atlas, a chain of hills, running from East to West, between
Barbary and Biledulgerid, and throwing out several branches on either side.-
2. The Mountains of the Moon, so called on account of their great height; sup-
posed to be the boundaries between Abyssinia and some of the interior kingdoms.
3. The Sierra Leone, or Mountains of Lions, so called from the number of t lose
animals lurking among them; they separate Guinea from Nigritia. Some arts
of this chain are called the mountains of God, on account of the heavy storris of
thunder and lightning to which they are subject. 4. The Mountains of Lupata,
called by the Negroes the Back-bone of the World, running down the East side
of the peninsula. 5. The Peak of Teneriffe, about two miles high, situated on
an island, in the Canary group, near the West coast. Besides these, there are
many others, of vast extent and height, of which little more is known than the
CAI',s.-In the Mediterranean, Ras Sem, or Razat, at the East entrance of the
Gulf of Sidra; Cape Bon, the most northerly point of Africa opposite to Sicily;
seven Capes, between Tunis and Algiers; Melila, and Ceuta, in the Strait of Gib-
raltar, In the Western Ocean, Cantin; Noon, considered by the ancients as the
boundary of the earth; Bojador, doubled by the Portuguese, in 1443; 31.-inio'.
discovered by them in 1441; Cape de Verd, the most Western point of the con-
tinent, and so called because the land is always covered with green trees'and
mossy ground; Verga, near Sierra Leone; Palmas, so called from its numerous
Palm trees; Cape Three Points, on the Gold Coast; Cape de Lopez Gonsalvo, on
the Coast of Lower Guinea. Good Hope, in the South of the Peninsula, was for-
merly called Tempest cape, from the stormy weather experienced there;. but
when the Portuguese doubled it, in 1489, in seeking a passage to the East Indies,
they gave it the name it now bears; Aguillas, the most Southern point of Africa.
On the East coast, St. Mary, at the entrance of Lagoa Bay; Corientes, opposite to
Madagascar; Orfui, and Guardafui, at the entrance of the Straits ofBabelmandeb.
ISTHMUS-of Suez, between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean.


THE equator divides this continent almost
in the middle, so that the greater portion is
in the torrid zone, between the tropics; the
heat is therefore intense, and almost insup-
portable to Europeans, which is still farther
increased by the vast deserts of sand, where-
by the rays of the sun are reflected; yet
such is the force of habit, that the natives
not only bear this heat without inconve-
nience, but were frequently seen by Mr.
Parke, to kindle large fires to warm them-
selves by, in the early part of the morning,
though, according to his estimation, the heat
of the atmosphere then exceeded by far
whatever lii 1i'd e.xpE. ri: nc. d in the South
of Europe. Ilie naili es.tr-: .altogetherunac-
quainted it;th ile phen,.ci:i of ice, hail,
orsnow, amid would .a_ r ltdI) creditthepos-
sibility of marble flowing in liquid streams,
as that water should lose its fluidity and be-
come a solid mass by the mere effect of
The great heat of the air in this country
induced the ancients to imagine it could not
be inhabited; but modern travellers have
discovered that the air is more temperate
under and about the equator than nearer to
the tropics; for under the line, there are
often heavy showers of rain, which, added to
the circumstance of the days and nights be-
ing always equal, very much cool the air.
The sun, moreover, passes lightly, stopping
but for a very short time perpendicularly
over the inhabitants under the line; whereas,
when it reaches the tropics, by staying long.

er above the horizon, it makes the days
longer than the nights, and causes a propor-
tional increase of heat. At particular sea-
sons, this country is subject to excessive
rains, which cause immense floods and tor-
rents that sweep away whole villages, with
their inhabitants, cattle, &c.
The soil is very dry, and so sandy, that in
several parts, in high winds, the inhabi-
tants are overwhelmed and smothered in
burning showers: the sea-coasts however,
are free from this inconvenience; whence
they are better peopled and more fruitful.
It has been asserted, that under proper
management the coast of Africa would pro-
duce not only the necessaries, but even the
luxuries of life, in abundance; and that the
sugars, ginger, cotton, rice, pepper, cacao,
indigo, &c. of the West Indies, as well as the
spices of the East, the tea of China and Ja-
pan, the coffee of Mocha, &c. would all
thrive in various parts of the coast, which
possesses the advantage of being free from
chilling colds, the climate being either very
warm or very temperate.
The produce of the country at large is
sugar, salt, gold-dust, ivory, sandal-wood,
many sorts of excellent fruits, admirable
drugs, rich gums,pearls of inestimable value,
and most common necessaries. The animals
are lions, leopards, panthers, elephants, rhi-
noceroses, camels, dromedaries, tigers, cro-
codiles, zebras, horses, monkeys, civet-cats,
ostriches, parrots, ani serpents of various
descriptions and dimensions.



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(For the Origin of the Population of J.frica, see Map, NJo. 6._)

AFRICA once contained several kingdoms and states,
in which the arts were cherished, science and com-
merce flourished, and power and riches were the con-
sequent results. Egypt and Ethiopia were particularly
celebrated on these accounts; and the republic of Car-
thage, that formidable rival of Rome, extended her
commerce to every part of the then known world. Yet
only a small portion of this extensive continent was
known to the ancient Greeks and Romans, viz. the
kingdom of Egypt, and the Northern coast, compre-
hending little more than what is now called Barbary.
What was known to the Romans was divided into
Africa Proper and I.frica Interior. (See Map, .No. 6._)
Africa Proper comprehended only the Carthaginian
territories. Africa Interior included Numidia, Mauri-
tania, and the nations to the South. The chief nations,
besides the Egyptians, with whom the Romans had any
connection, were the Numidians, the Mauritanians, and
the Gxetuli. There indeed appears to have been some
intercourse between them and the Ethiopians, but
these latter always preserved their liberty ; for we find
their Queen Candace spoken of, in the days of the
Apostles, when the Roman power was at its greatest
height, and when the nations above alluded to had be-
come provinces of the Empire.
The country between the tropic of cancer and the
equinoctial line, which bore the name of Lybia, was
supposed to contain a multitude of savage nations; but
that Africa was a continent seems to have been alto-
gether unascertained, either by Europeans or Asiatics,
for many ages. About 600 years before the Christian
2era, some Phaenicians, by command of Pharaoh Necho,
King of Egypt, sailed from a port of the Red Sea, and

after three years returned by the Mediterranean; but
so incredulous was the age in which they lived, that
their relation of the voyage was considered as fabulous,
particularly when they stated that as they sailed, the
sun became more and more vertical, and at last ap-
peared to them in the North, and seemed to recede
from them : that as they returned, he gradually moved
Southward, and after becoming once more vertical,
appeared again in the South, as before they set out.
This phenomenon, with which modern navigators are
familiar, was at that time deemed incredible, and those
who told the tale were regarded as impostors.
The Romans maintained their power in Africa till
about A. D. 426, when Bonifacius, governor of their
dominions in this quarter, being compelled to revolt,
by the treachery of Aetius, called to his aid Genseric,
King of the Vandals in Spain, who accordingly passed
into Africa, in 427, and soon became master of all the
Roman provinces. About the year 534, the Vandals
were conquered by Belisarius, who re-annexed the
African provinces to the Eastern Empire. But in 647,
the Saracens, after having conquered Mesopotamia,
Phoenicia, Palestine, and Arabia, broke into Africa,.
like a torrent, and quickly subdued it. In 936, the.
vast Empire of the Califs was divided into seven king-
doms, and the African states retained their indepen-
dence long after the rest were subdued by the Turks;
whom, however, they invited to their assistance, in the
beginning of the 16th century, when they were afraid
of falling under the yoke of Spain. The allies, as is
usual in such cases, enslaved those to whose aid they
were invited.

THE Barbary States, though they
still continue in a state of dependence
on thne Ottoman Empire, are not so
much the subjects of the Grand Signor,
as under his protection, for which they
pay him an annual tribute. The na-
tives of these coasts are almost all
addicted to piracy; and so greatly
have they made themselves feared,
that the greatest powers in Europe,
not even excepting Great Britain, have
not scrupled to become their tribu-
taries, in order to secure liberty to
carry on their trade in the Mediterra-
nean. The Emperor Charles V. made
a noble attempt to reduce them; but
failed, when he had nearly accom-
plished it, his fleet being dispersed by
a storm.
What the Monarchs of Europe want.
ed either ability or inclination to effect,
was accomplished by the American re-
public. In 1815, immediately after the
peace with Great Britain, a squadron,
under Commodore Decatur, compelled
the Dey of Algiers to conclude a trea-
ty, which put an end to the piratical
system of pillage and slavery, so far as
regarded the citizens of the United
States. This example has since been
imitated by the British government.
According to the best accounts, such
as they are, Africa may be divided, in
] a general way, as follows :

In the NJorth:
Barbary, including Mo-
rocco, Fez, Algiers, Bi-
ledulgerid, Tunis, &c.
Tripoli and Barca.
On the NJorth-East:
Egypt, Nubia, Abyssinia.
On the South-East:
Caffraria, including Aza-
nia, Zanguebar, Mono-
motapa, Manicia, Biri.
In the South:
Country of Hottentots.
On the JNorth- West :
Senegal and Upper Gui-
On the South-. West:
Lower Guinea, including
Loango, Congo, Dem-
bo, Angola, Matambas,
Benguela, Bemba, &c.

In the Interior:
Sahara, or the Great De-
Nigritia, or Sudan, includ-
ing Tombuctoo, Toc-
rur, Bournou, Kaugha,
Bambara, Gotto, Bae-
doo, Maniana, Kong,
Kaffara, Gago, Wanga-
ra, &c.
Ethiopia, Up. and Low.

The modern population of Egypt and
the Northern coasts is derived from the
Saracens and Turks, who have introdu-
ced their language, religion, and man-
ners, into the provinces subject to them.
The Mahometans affect a great zeal for
making proselytes among the Negroes;
but when they have once prevailed on
themrto undergo the rite of circumcision,
and taught them a few prayers and le-
gal ceremonies out of the Koran,- they
abandon them.
The inhabitants of the interior are all
of a black complexion, except the Abys-
sinians, who are tawny. In many material
circumstances they all agree.
With respect to religion, the inhabi-
tants of this continent may be divided
into Pagans, Mahometans, and Chris-
tians. The first are the most numerous,
possessing the greatest part ofthe coun-
try, from the tropic of cancer to the
Cape of Good Hope. The Mahometans
possess Egypt and the Barbary coast.
The people of Abyssinia or Upper
Ethiopia, are denominated Christians,
but they retain many Pagan and Jewish
rites. In the North of Africa, are some
Jews, who manage what little trade that
part of the country is possessed of.
The form of government is every
where monarchical, or rather despotic ;
but few of the princes possess any exten-
sive jurisdiction ; for as the Africans are
destitute of all knowledge of the useful


No. 66.

ON the Guinea, or Western coast, the English trade to
Fort James and other settlements, near and up the river
Gambia; where, till very lately, they exchanged their
manufactures of linen, woollen, and hardware, as well as
spiritous liquors, for the persons of the natives, who were
brought down from the interior in flocks, consisting of
men, women, and children, perhaps 1000 miles from the
coast, and consigned to perpetual slavery: this abominable
commerce, after having been suffered to disgrace the
name of Britons, French, Spaniards, Americans, and other
nations, for upwards of two centuries, is now prohibited
by the United States, and nearly all the nations of Europe,
except the Spaniards and Portuguese. Gold and ivory
now form the chief branches of African commerce. The
river Senegal, with its dependencies, was given up to
France, by the peace of 1783.
At Sierra Leone, a factory has been established by a
company in London, whose humane endeavours to en-
lighten the minds of the ignorant natives, and inspire them
with a love for science and the useful arts of industry, de-
serve the highest praise. A settlement is formed on the
same coast by the colonization society of the United States.
The Portuguese are in possession of the East and West
coasts from the equator to the tropic of capricorn. From
the coast of Zanguebar, on the East side, they trade for
gold, ivory, senna, aloes, civet, ambergris, and frankin-
cense. Being sovereigns of such an extent of coast, the
Portuguese have a number of the African princes tributa-
ry to them.
The Dutch had settlements in the South, particularly
Cape Town; but this was captured by the British, in 1806,
and ceded to them by the general treaty of peace in 1814.
Third Philadelphia Edition, 1821-Printed on Gilpin's Machine Paper, by
T. ff. Palmer, for M. Carey, Son, from the London Edition of 1817,
with numerous corrections and additions.

and refined arts, they have little inter-
course with each other, and are found in
general united in small societies, each
governed by its own chief. In Abyssinia,
indeed, as well as in Congo, Loango, and
Angola, we have been told of powerful
monarchs; but, on examination, it appears
that their authority is of a very dubious
and precarious nature, each tribe, or se-
paratebodyoftheirsubjects,being under
the influence of a petty chieftain of its
own, styled Negus, to whose mandates,
however contrary to those of the .Negas-
cha NJegascht, or King of Kings, they
are always willing to submit.
Of arts and sciences they are almost
destitute: what theyknow of either, they
have learned from the Arabs, who live
among them; but even those most ne-
cessary amid a variety of hot and unheal-
thy climates, as pharmacy and surgery,
are so little understood, that in all disor-
ders,they have recourse to empirics, who,
instead of administering appropriate me-
dicines, pretend to cure their patients
by means of charms, which they vend at
enormous prices, and cheat their cus-
tomers of their money and their lives.
In manufactures and the mechanical
arts, they are equally deficient: they
have neither shuttle nor loom ; and in
making earthenware they know nothing
of the use of the wheel. Their manu-
factures of iron, copper, masonry, car-
pentry, &c. are no less rude.


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BABELMANDEB gives name to the strait in which it lies. It is barren and sandy,
not five miles round: before the discovery of the passage to the East Indies by
the Cape of Good Hope, it was warmly contended for by the )Ethiopians and
Arabians, as it commands the entrance of the Red Sea.
SOCOTOnA, which has two good harbours, where the Europeans used to put in,
when they lost their passage to India. The inhabitants are Mahometans, of Ara-
bian extraction.
CoXORO ISLES. These are five in number, of which Johanna, which exacts tri.
bute from the others, is the chief. It is about 30 miles long, and 15 broad. The
inhabitants are Mahometan Negroes, and entertain seamen, who touch there, with
great humanity.
MADAGASCAR, the largest of the African Islands, separated from the continent by
the Mozambique Channel. It is a pleasant fertile country, The inhabitants are
extremely mixed, whites and blacks, Mahometans and Pagans. It was discover-
ed by the Portuguese; and the French acquired possession of it in 1645, but the
natives expelled them in 1652, and have since that period kept the sole posses-
sion, under a number of petty princes.
IsLE or FRANCE, or MARITIUS ; the latter name was given it by the Dutch,
who first touched here in 1598, in honour of their Stadtholder, Prince Maurice.
From the Dutch it passed to the French, and was taken by the British in 1810,
who retained it at the treaty of peace in 1814. It is of an oval form, about 150
miles in circumference, and has a harbour capable of affording convenient an-
chorage for 50 large ships.
BOuRTON, discovered by the Portuguese, but taken possession of by the French,
in 1654, after they had been driven from Madagascar. It is about 90 miles round,
but has no good harbour. On the Southern extremity is a volcano. The climate
is healthy, but subject to violent hurricanes. In 1810, it was taken by the Bri-
tish, but restored to France in 1814.
Besides these, there are many small islands in the neighbourhood of Madagas-
car and the West coast of Africa, laid down in maps, but not described.
ST.HELENA is said to have been discovered by the Portuguese, but they never
had a settlement on it: and the English East-India Company took possession in
1600. It is about 21 miles in circumference, and abounds with rocks, but the plan.
stations are very productive. There re very productive. There ae about 200 families on the island, mostly
descended from English parents; and here the British East-India Company take
in water and fresh provisions on their homeward passage. This Island has re-
cently become celebrated as the prison of Napoleon.
AsCENsION is mountainous and barren, about 20 miles round, and uninhabited.
It has a good harbour, where the East-India ships resort to procure a supply of
turtle. It was discovered by the Portuguese.
ST. MATTHEW, discovered by the Portuguese, who at first established a colony
here, but afterwards deserted it.
ST. THOnAS, ANABOA, PRINCE'S ISLAND, and FEbNANDO Po, in the Gulf of Guinea,
were all discovered by the Portuguese, to whom they still belong, and furnish
shipping with fresh water and provisions.
GOREE, near Cape de Verd, on account of its situation, has frequently been an
object of contention among the Europeans, though in itself a small spot, not ex-
ceeding two miles in circumference. It now belongs to France.
CAPE D VERD ISLANDS, discovered by the Portuguese in 1460, are about
twenty in number, but some of them are mere rocks. They are inhabited by
Europeans, or their descendants, and negroes. At St. Jago, the Portuguese
viceroy resides. In Mayo, immense quantities of salt are made from the sea-wa-
ter by the heat of the sun, and here the English carry on an extensive trade in
that article. Fuego is remarkable as a volcano.
CANARIES, called by the ancients the Fortunate Islands, are seven in number,
and were first discovered and planted by the Carthaginians; but after the des-
truction of Carthage, they were neglected till A. D. 1405, when they were dis-
covered by the Spaniards, and are appendages to the Spanish monarchy. These
islands enjoy a pure and temperate air, and abound in delicious fruits, especial-
ly grapes, from which is produced the winecaedteecalled after the name of the place.
Grand Canary is 150, and Teneriffe about 120 miles in circumference. The lat-
ter is remarkable for the volcanic mountain, called the Peak, 13,265 feet in height.
From these islands come those beautiful little birds, known in Europe by the
n.dme of Canary birds.
MAnr ins are three in number, of which the largest is about 180 miles in cir-
cumference ; and the smallest only a rock: they are celebrated for their wines.
It is supposed that the ancients had some knowledge of those islands, but they
lay concealed formany gener.ttions, till re-discovered by the Portuguese in 1519;
though some insist that they had been previously visited by the English in 1344.
AzoEth, or W F.sT LnN ISLANeD, though usually classed among those of Africa,
lie almost mida% betucen Europe and America, between 250 and 32 W. longi-
tude, and 37' and 40 N. latitude, as may be seen in Map, VNo. 1. They are nine
in number, of u which St. Michall is the largest, being nearly 100 milesin circum-
ference, and containing~ .50001u inhabitants; but Tercera is the most important,
on account or its excellent harbour. These islands were discovered in the mid-
die of the fifteenth century, hy a merchant of Bruges, driven upon them by
stress of weather, I ho tiund them destitute of inhabitants; on hearing of the
discoverN, the Portuinese- took possession, and to them they still belong. The
air in these islbidi s i ry salubriuus, hut they are subject to violent earthquakes,
and oulcaric ,ruptioini. In Augnsi, 1811, a new island was thrown up from
the bottom 1,' the sea, ,r SI. cel's, by one of those of those convulsive throes of
nature, attended % tith a sho*% er ol' ashes and sulphureous steams.
THE firot attempt, after that spoki- of below, towards gaining a knowledge of
Afric.i, i. ismadeh by the Portugu. se in 1412, who, notwithstanding their vicinity,
had newir venitured Ifaithecr tha-n 'CapeNoon. This year they proceeded to Cape
Boiador. 160 miles to the southward; but returned without daring to pass it. In
a suhseujiii. t attempt to double this cape, they discovered the Madeira islands,
in 142U; hut it was not till 143; thAt they would venture beyond Cape Bojador,
and then they ).scovered the riyer Senegal, Cape de Verd, and the islands lying
offi that proniontory. In 1449, they discovered the Azores; and, in 1471, pene-
trated be.%oil the line, and Ibund, to their surprise, that the torrid zone was not
only habitable, hut in mran' ccase, I'-rtile and populous. In 1484, they proceeded
1.5uU miles -bmi..I the iu', and bu. in to entertain hopes of finding an easterly
pas-age to tIlle Fs-t.l'ies.- In 14.11, Bartholemew De Diaz discovered the Cape
of Good Hlope,. but it ,as V.,-4uez di Gama, who, in 1497, first doubled this
Cape, and discovered the true lhape of the continent.

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