Everglades National Park, Florida

Material Information

Everglades National Park, Florida
United States -- National Park Service
Everglades Natural History Association
Place of Publication:
The Service
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
1 map : col. ; 39 x 43 cm., on sheet 60 x 43 cm., folded to 10 x 21 cm.
Scale [ca. 1:320,000].


Subjects / Keywords:
Phytogeography -- Maps -- Florida -- Everglades National Park ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Maps -- Florida -- Everglades National Park ( lcsh )
Maps -- Everglades National Park (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Phytogeography -- 1:320,000 -- Florida -- Everglades National Park -- 1990 ( local )
Natural history -- 1:320,000 -- Florida -- Everglades National Park -- 1990 ( local )
National parks and reserves -- 1:320,000 -- Florida -- Everglades National Park -- 1990 ( local )
1:320,000 -- Everglades National Park (Fla.) -- 1990 ( local )
1:320,000 -- Florida -- Everglades National Park -- 1990 ( local )
Phytogeography -- 1:320,000 -- Florida -- Everglades National Park -- 1990 ( local )
Phytogeography -- 1:320,000 -- Everglades National Park (Fla.) -- 1990 ( local )
Natural history -- 1:320,000 -- Florida -- Everglades National Park -- 1990 ( local )
Natural history -- 1:320,000 -- Everglades National Park (Fla.) -- 1990 ( local )
National parks and reserves -- 1:320,000 -- Florida -- Everglades National Park -- 1990 ( local )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
single map ( marcgt )


General Note:
Shows vegetation zones.
General Note:
Depths shown by gradient tints.
General Note:
Panel title.
General Note:
Title at upper left: Everglades.
General Note:
"Reprint 1987."
General Note:
Includes text, distance lists, and col. ill.
General Note:
Text, table of park facilities, and ill. (some col.) on verso.
Funded in part by the University of Florida, the Florida Heritage Project of the State University Libraries of Florida, the Institute for Museum and Library Services, and the U.S. Department of Education's TICFIA granting program.
Statement of Responsibility:
National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior ; map produced in cooperation with the Everglades Natural History Association.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier:
025126544 ( ALEPH )
24278724 ( OCLC )
AHV4155 ( NOTIS )

Full Text

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Points of Interest
Dwarf Cypress Forests can be found along the
main park road near Rock Reef Pass, a 1-meter-
(3-foot-) high limestone ridge that rises out of
the otherwise flat landscape. These open areas
of scattered, stunted bald cypresses develop
where marl or lime muds build up in solution
holes. Despite their small size, the cypresses
may be more than 100 years old. During the
winter months the bald cypress look dead, but
they are not; they have just lost their leaves for
the season.

The many ponds in the park, from Mrazek Pond
to Coot Bay Pond to Eco Pond, offer good
chances to view birds, Darticularly in the dry
winter months. Sometimes flocks of hundreds
of egrets, herons, wood storks, and other water
birds fly in to feed.

The shallow waters of Florida Bay are best
explored by boat. About a third of the park is
composed of the bay and its tiny islands, or
keys. Most are protected refuges for nesting
birds. White and brown pelicans, roseate spoon-
bills, ospreys, bald eagles, and many shore birds
share the warm waters with fish, porpoises,
sea turtles, sharks, and manatees. t

Walking Trails
The main park road begins at the main visitor
center and ends 61 kilometers (38 miles) later
at Flamingo. Many trails take off from this road,
and several more begin at Flamingo. Trails
marked by an asterisk (*) are accessible for the

The Anhinga Trail* (less than 800 meters/0.5
mile) offers one of the best opportunities to see
wildlife close-up. Alligators, turtles, fish, marsh
rabbits, and many birds, including anhingas,
herons, egrets, and purple gallinules, frequently
inhabit the area. Taylor Slough, a slow-moving,
freshwater, marshy river, acts as a reservoir,
supplying needed water for plants and animals
through the winter dry season.

The Gumbo Limbo Trail* (less than 800 meters/
0.5 mile) winds through a hardwood hammock,
a jungle-like grove of tropical trees and smaller
plants. Statuesque royal palms, gumbo limbo
trees, wild coffee, and lush aerial gardens of
ferns and orchids grow in this dense, moist
forest. Hardwood hammocks usually sit about a
meter (3 feet) higher than the surrounding
terrain. Floods, fires, and the invasion of saline
waters can threaten the survival of a hammock.

At Long Pine Key, a network of interconnecting
trails (11 kilometers/7 miles) runs through the
pinelands, an unusually diverse pine forest.
About 200 types of plants, including 30 found
nowhere else on Earth, grow under the slash
pine canopy. Without periodic fires to destroy
competing vegetation and expose mineral soils
for seedlings, the pines would not survive.
Whitetail deer, opossums, raccoons, and the
endangered Florida panther live in the pinelands.

The Pineland Trail* (less than 800 meters/0.5
mile) also circles through the pinelands. The
shallow bed of limestone that underlies the
oinelands, and in fact all of south Florida. can
be clearly seen along the trail. Solution holes,
formed when rainwater and acidic plant matter
mix and dissolve the rock away, dimple the

The Pa-hay-okee Overlook Trail (less than 400
meters/0.25 mile) leads to an observation tower
offering a view of part of the vast "river of
grass"-the true glades that gave the park its
name. Muhly grass, Everglades beardgrass, ar-
rowhead, and many other grasses that grow in
the glades are found here. Sawgrass, which is
G, Van Nimnwegen

not a true grass, but a sedge, grows here, too.
Patient observers may see red-shouldered hawks,
red-winged blackbirds, common yellowthroats,
vultures, pygmy rattlesnakes, indigo and king
snakes, and an occasional alligator along the

The Mahogany Hammock Trail* (less than 800
meters/0.5 mile) enters the cooler, damp envi-
ronment of a dark, jungle-like hardwood ham-
mock. Rare paurotis palms and massive
mahogany trees (including the largest living
specimen in the United States) thrive. Colorful
Liguus tree snails, tiny and jewel-like, and deli-
ocate webs of golden orb weaver spiders are
suspended overhead from tree branches. At
night, barred owls awaken to hunt.

The West Lake Trail* (less than 800 meters/0.5
mile) winds through mangrove trees along the
edge of the large, brackish lake. Four types of
mangroves-red, black, white mangrove and
buttonwood-grow in this region where the
southward-creeping glades meet saltwater. The
mangroves' unusual above-ground root systems
enable the trees to tolerate poorly oxygenated
soils and help anchor Florida's hurricane-ravaged

coastline. The mangrove region also is a nur-
sery for fish and crustaceans: mullet, snapper,
stone crabs, shrimp, and spiny lobsters.

Several longer trails near Flamingo lead into
southwestern parts of the Everglades. These
trails include the Christian Point Trail (6 kilo-
meters/4 miles), Snake Bight Trail (6 kilometers/
4 miles), Rowdy Bend Trail (8 kilometers/5
miles), and the Coastal Prairie Trail (21 kilo-
meters/13 miles). Many of these trails pass
through coastal prairie. Salt-tolerant plants
usually associated with deserts-cactus, agave,
yucca-grow here. Hardwood hammocks have
developed in some prairies.

Shark Valley* lies off U.S. 41, the Tamiami Trail.
Here, along the 24-kilometer (15-mile) loop
road you may see a variety of wildlife that
inhabits the wide shallow waterway that is the
headwaters for Shark River. Alligators, otters,
snakes, turtles, and birds, including rare wood
storks and snail kites, are native to this watery
expanse. Hardwood hammocks and other tree
islands dot the landscape. The loop road is
used for tram rides, bicycles, and walking. An
observation tower along the road provides a

spectacular bird's-eye view. Tram tours, which
are run by a concessioner, often include the
services of ranger-naturalists.

Canoe Trails
The Wilderness Waterway twists 160 kilome-
ters (99 miles) through the expansive marine
and estuarine areas of the park. These areas
harbor almost every type of marine organism
found in the Caribbean and serve as spawning
grounds and nurseries for many of them. Larger
creatures such as water birds, sea turtles, many
types of fish sought by fishermen, and the en-
dangered manatee are attracted to these waters
because of their abundant food supplies. Other
shorter trails offer opportunities to explore the
park's backcountry. These trails include the
Noble Hammock Trail (5 kilometers/3 miles),
the Hells Bay Trail (6 kilometers/4 miles), the
Nine Mile Pond Trail (8 kilometers/5 miles), the
West Lake Trail (13 kilometers/8 miles), and the
Bear Lake Trail (19 kilometers/12 miles), which
all begin near Flamingo. Rivers near Everglades
City are also popular canoeing spots. A BACK-
Map produced in cooperation with the Everglades Natural History Association

r1111m Shark Valley

care ws i Ranger "no^Infrmaton Ce ter I

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land1 ....sots u s o runNational Park ecosystems .

Royal Palm Visitor Center 4 mi. 6 km 7 4g f n
yLong Pine Key 6 ma 9dkm A I. t
Pinelands 7 mi' 11 km
Pa-hay-okee Overlook 13 mi 20 km Boundary

SPaurols Pond 24 mi- 39 "" >* ..
aNine Mile Pond 27 mi 43km a aabl E
rWestLake 31mi 49,kmP

Flamingo Visitor Center 38 mi. 61 km r
nKey Largo Ranger Station 38 mi' 61km B r6
Gulf Coast Ranger Station 92 m147 km e s

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Ocean Survey charts are ter route runs from Fla-T
indispensable Charts mango to Everglades City4 m E Lak
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are for sale at t he main markers guide you over
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beaches n and along cabins and win shields
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Tropical life from Caribbean islands blends with temperate species in the
Everglades. The result is a rich mixture of plants and animals in a unique
setting. The Everglades, never wholly known, invites you to explore its
mysteries. Give this park half a chance, take the time, and you will
discover wonder itself. You can drive through its skinny pine trees
and miss its forests, or drive through its sawgrass and miss the glades.
Many take such a hurried look. But try it another way. Talk and walk
with a ranger. Slow down. Be moved by the slow, sure movement of this
river of grass.

A freshwater river 15 centimeters (6 inches) deep and 80 kilome-
ters (50 miles) wide creeps seaward through the Everglades on a
riverbed that slopes ever so gradually. During the wet season the water
may seem to be still, but it is flowing. Along its long course, the water
drops 4.6 meters (15 feet), finally emptying into Florida Bay. Everglades
. the name suggests a boundless refreshment. It actually means a
marshy land covered with scattered tall grasses. The national park's
56u,uuu nectares (some 1.4 million acres) contain only part of the

watery expanse for which it is named. Despite the park's size, its environ-
ment is threatened by the disruptive activities of agriculture, industry,
and urban development around it. There is no guarantee that the
endangered species protected in the park since its establishment in
1947 will survive. The importance and uniqueness of the Everglades
ecosystem have been recognized by its designation as an International
Biosphere Reserve and a World Heritage Site. But it will take both human
concern and prudent management to preserve the park's natural treasures.
The Everglades' subtropical climate governs its life. The nearly uniform
warm, sunny weather makes the park a year-round attraction, but there
are two distinct seasons. Summer is wet; winter, dry. Heavy rains fall
during intense storms from late May through October. Warm, humid con-
ditions bring abundant insects, including mosquitoes, which are important
to intricate food webs. Precipitation can exceed 127 centimeters (50
inches) a year.

Life hangs by a thread in the Everglades. The problem? Water, fresh-
water, the life-blood of the Everglades. It appears to be everywhere but

man has drastically blocked its free flow through south Florida. Conflict-
ing demands compete for this precious water, leaving the Everglades, at
Florida's southernmost tip, struggling to survive. Life hangs in the
balance, a very delicate balance. Despite an apparent lush richness,
water supplies are critical and porous limestone underlies the entire
park. Rooting plants have only a thin mantle of marl and peat atop this
limestone for their support. If not protected the Everglades' fragile
richness would quickly vanish.

Problems persist. Agricultural development and the continued
mushrooming of metropolitan Miami demand increasing amounts of
water, depleting water supplies. This, in turn, increases the threat of fire,
which can destroy thin soils, inviting the invasion of exotic plants and
animals that upset natural habitats. Native vegetation critical to Ever-
glades ecology is depleted. The diversity and complexity protecting the
fabric of life are diminished. The problems are linked and mutually
reinforcing. The continued unchecked population growth of south Flor-
ida poses severe ecoiogicai problems. An aerial view of the region and

its canals looks today like a plumber's schematic diagram. Once the
benefactor of south Florida's naturally well-watered richness, the Ever-
glades now competes at the end of a man-controlled supply line. To the
north, flood prevention, agriculture, irrigation, frost protection, pest
control, drinking water, and sewage dilution systems siphon off shares.
Proper water delivery to the park in the summer wet season and winter
dry season is critical for the survival of wildlife. Man is as much a part of
the Everglades as the alligator, but our conflicting actions as consumers
and conservers have irrevocably changed south Florida and altered the
Everglades ecosystem. Concern for protecting rookeries of herons, ibis,
and other wading birds from commercial plume hunting and other human
impacts motivated the creation of the park. Ironically, millions of people
now seek sanctuary here. Ultimately places like the Everglades may be
the last refuge, not just of eagles, crocodiles, and wood storks, but of
people, too.

Widlf Traue in a Rie ofGrs

ureat vvnlie reron
G Van Nimwegen

Brown reluanl
G Van Nimwegen

ureen oea i unle

n '^

Florida Panther


Wood Stork
C Singletary

Southern Bald Eagle
A Sprunt IV

Summer's high water levels enable animals to range
throughout the park. You will not then see the con-
centrations of wildlife thet dre typical of winiei months.
Summer offers t'Iferent attractions mountainous cu-
mulis. !:udas, lush vegetation, spectacular sunsets,
calm waters. It means rebirth and replenishment for
the Everglades, and natural change. Violent winds
and torrential rains of hurricanes may sweep north-
ward from June to November. The Everglades winter
is mild. with inclement weather rare and insects less
bothersome. With winter's dry season, wildlife must
congregate in and around the waterholes. Many are
visible from nature trails. Birds change their feeding
habits as food grows scarce toward the end of the
dry season. They leave roadside ponds they frequent
early in the season, moving northward to more abun-
dant food supplies.

The Everglades is best known for its abundance and
variety of birdiife. At Flamingo you may be able to
watch roseate spoonbills, large pink birds often mis-
taken for flamingos. Reddish egrets and rare great
white herons live and breed in Florida Bay. About 50
pairs of southern bald eagles nest along the coast.
Some of the endangered birds can sometimes be
seen from the breezeway of the Flamingo Visitor
Center. Other rare and endangered species found in
the park include the Florida panther, manatee, Ever-
glades mink, green sea turtle, loggerhead turtle, Florida
sandhill crane, snail kite, short-tailed hawk, peregrine
falcon, Cape Sable sparrow, and crocodile. Other
species also require the special protection Everglades
National Park provides. These include the alligator,
reddish egret, spoonbill, Florida mangrove cuckoo,
osprty, brown pUlicanl, aid ruundtti TruuakTra. But Ur
this protected habitat, many would soon be threatened.

The continued survival of the Everglades now depends
on careful, complementary management programs
carried out by the National Park Service and other
agencies. These programs often promote positive
economic values. Recently new fishing regulations
have been adopted to limit the taking of fish to protect
against overharvesting. Research into the role of fire
in some plant communities, into the ecology of en-
dangered species, and into the ways in which exotic
plants might be controlled is continuing.


Large populations of Cape Sable sparrows once found
at Cape Sable and Big Cypress are almost gone.
Only widely scattered individuals remain. Taylor
Slough's muhly grass prairie supports an active popu-
lation, but exotic, non-native plants threaten to close
in the open prairie this sparrow needs for survival.
Short-tailed hawks prey on the sparrow. When abun-
dant habitat fostered an abundance of Cape Sable
sparrows this natural predation posed no great threat
to the species.

Crocodiles, much less common than alligators, are
distinguished by their narrower snouts and greenish-
gray color. You would be very lucky to see one of
these shy and secretive creatures. They are found
only in estuaries in extreme southern Florida, particu-
larly in northeast Florida Bay. Their survival hinges on
the preservation of their dwindling habitat. A croco-
dile sanctuary, closed to public access, nas Deen
established in Florida Bay for their protection.

The alligator is the best known Everglades citizen.
Unfortunately, its hide has been greatly prized for high
fashion shoes and handbags. The alligator once waged
a losing battle against poachers and habitat loss, but it
has now staged a comeback, aided by nation-wide
protection. Recently, 75 percent of the nation's alliga-
tors were removed from the endangered species list
and reclassified as threatened.

The rare, shy, harmless manatee weighs close to a
ton and measures more than 4.6 meters (15 feet) in
length. Also called a sea cow. the animal is entirely
herbivorous, feeding on aquatic plants. Man's motor-
boats and propellers kill many manatees yearly and
pose this easy-going creature s greatest threat. The
Florida panther, or cougar, is among North America's
raresi mammals. Tne major threat to the
these big cats is loss of the extensive habi
which they stealthily stalk their prey. They
seen, though rarely, in the pinelands and al,
main park road.

Tree Snail

The alligator has earned the title "Keeper of the Ever-
glades." It cleans out the large holes dissolved in the
Everglades' limestone bed. These serve as oases in
the dry winter season. Fish, turtles, snails, and other
freshwater animals seek refuge in these life-rich solu-
tion holes, which become feeding grounds for alliga-
tors, birds, and mammals until the rains come. Sur-
vivors, both predators and prey, then quit the holes to
repopulate the Everglades.

Roseate Spoonbill
J.P Lavalleve

ean Se e R

Visitor Centers Stop by a park visitor center
and pick up park information. A short introduc-
tory film is shown regularly at the main visitor
center, 17 kilometers (10.8 miles) southwest of
Homestead. Books on the Everglades are sold
here, too. An entrance fee is charged only if
you enter the park through the main entrance.
Descriptions of trails and points of interest
appear above the map on the reverse side.

Birdwatching The chance to see rare birds,
such as the American bald eagle and the snail
( kite, and spectacular seasonal displays of water
birds lure people to the Everglades. Some
species that are uncommon or endangered
throughout the United States or the world are
relatively common in the park. Early morn-
ing and late afternoon are the best times for

Ranger-Guided Activities Naturalists give hikes,
talks, canoe trips, tram tours, demonstrations,
and campfire programs during the year. Activi-
ties change daily. One day there may be a
sunrise bird walk or a paddle out into Florida
Bay or a crosscountry slough slog or a moon-
light tram tour. Ask at the visitor centers for

Hiking Trails range from easy walks of less than
400 meters (0.25 mile) to more strenuous ones
23 kilometers (14 miles) long. For more infor-
mation, see "Walking Trails" on the reverse
side or ask a park ranger. See the map for trail

Fishing Inland and coastal waters of the Ever-
glades are popular fishing grounds. There is
largemouth bass fishing in freshwater ponds.

The most sought-after saltwater species are
snapper, redfish, and trout. Freshwater fishing
requires a Florida state license; saltwater fish-
ing does not. Florida fishing regulations apply
in most cases, but special additional federal
regulations must be followed within the park
boundary. Special bag limits have been estab-
lished. The taking of spiny lobster, or crawfish,
is prohibited. Spearguns are not allowed. Some
freshwater and saltwater areas are closed to
fishing. For a list of closed areas, and a copy of
the park's fishing regulations, ask at visitor
centers or ranger stations.

Boating The park's many inland and coastal
waterways lead to remote parts of the EveT-
glades. Several marked canoe trails near Fla-
mingo, rivers near Everglades City, Whitewater
Bay, and other areas also offer good boating
opportunities. Boaters can explore the shallow
waters of Florida Bay, too. Most bay islands are
closed to boat landings to protect nesting birds.
A small portion of the bay has been closed to
protect the endangered American crocodile.
Boaters must always be on the lookout for
manatees and should slow their boats when
entering known manatee areas. See "Marina
and Boats" for additional information.

Information To find out more about the park,
write: Information, Everglades National Park,
P.O. Box 279, Homestead, FL 33030; or call
(305) 247-6211. (TTY/TTD service-Persons
with a teletypewriter, a telecommunication de-
vice for the deaf, can use this number, too.) The
non-profit Everglades Natural History Associa-
tion sells publications at the main visitor center
and by mail. Write the association at P.O. Box
279, Homestead, FL 33030, for a catalog.

4.. 0 QC00
el4 ,0o~

Main Visitor Center
Royal Palm Visitor Center
Long Pine Key
Shark Valley
Everglades City/Gulf Coast

Some services are limited
or unavailable between
May 1 and mid-December.

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Camping in the Park Park campgrounds at Long
Pine Key and Flamingo have drinking water,
picnic tables, grills, tent and trailer pads, and
restrooms. Flamingo also has cold water showers..
Recreational vehicles are permitted, but there-
are no electrical, water, or sewage hookups.
Campground stays are limited to 14 days from
November 1 to April 30. Fees are charged
during the winter season. Group sites can be
reserved from November 1 to April 30; write or
call for details. Backcountry campsites are
accessible by boat, foot, or bicycle. A free
permit, issued at ranger stations on a first-
come, first-served basis no more than 24 hours
before the start of your trip, is required. The
number of campers allowed at each designated
site is limited to guard against overuse and to
increase opportunities for solitude.

Marina and Boats The Flamingo marina rents
small powered skiffs, houseboats, patio boats,
and canoes. The marina can accommodate boats
up to 18 meters (60 feet) long with boat trailer
parking and free launch access. Slip fees are
based on boat length. Canoes can also be
rented from a concessioner in Everglades City.
Navigational charts can be purchased at the
Flamingo marina, the main visitor center, and in

Homestead, Miami, and Everglades City. Boat
tours at Flamingo explore the mangrove
wilderness and Florida Bay. Sightseeing boats
also go into the Ten Thousand Islands region
--nd the mangrove swamps of the northwestern
Everglades; these concession-operated tours
leave from the Gulf Coast Ranger Station.

Information For general information about
facilities and services, contact the park (see
"Information" under "Things to See and Do" for
address and telephone number). For specific
information about concesssion-operated
services, contact the following. Flamingo: for
information and reservations for Flamingo Lodge
motel and cabins and for information on the
marina and store, boat tours and rentals, tram
tours, gift shop, restaurant, and gasoline station,
write Flamingo Lodge, Marina and Outpost
Resort, Flamingo, FL 33030; or call (813)
695-3101 or (305) 253-2241. Shark Valley: for
tram tour information and reservations, call
(305) 221-8455. Everglades City/Gulf Coast:
for boat tour and rental information, write
Everglades National Park Boat Tours, P.O. Box
119, Everglades City, FL 33929; or call
1-800-445-7724 (in Florida) or 1-800-233-1821

Please help us protect the Everglades. Practice
good outdoor manners. Put litter in trash recep-
tacles. Backcountry users must carry their litter
out with them. Observe safety and courtesy
rules. Enjoy your visit in a way that lets others
enjoy theirs.

Plants and Animals After years of protection
many animals, such as alligators, lose their
natural fear of people. You can view them at
close range, but this does not mean they are
tame. They are still wild. DO NOT DISTURB
Even friendly looking animals, like raccoons,
can be dangerous. For your safety, watch for
poisonous snakes, inc'lud-ng coral snakes, wa-
ter moccasins, and diamondback and pygmy

particularly in the warmer, wetter months of
summer. Bring insect repellent, or plan to buy
some when you arrive. A longsleeved shirt,
long pants, and a cover for your head will help
guard against being bitten.

Do not damage, remove, or disturb any plants.
They, like the animals, are protected under park
regulations. Watch for poisonous plants, such
as poison ivy, poisonwood, and manchineel.

Hiking Off Trails Be careful of your footing.
Mucky soil, sharp-edged pinnacle rock, and
holes can make walking tricky. Let someone
know your schedule and planned route before
you leave.

Driving The maximum driving speed is 88 kilo-
meters (55 miles) per hour. Reduced speed

limits are posted. Drive slowly; the road is
designed for your enjoyment of the scenery.
Watch carefully for animals crossing the road to
avoid hitting them.

Fire Be careful with fires. Do not smoke on
trails. Self-contained cooking stoves should be
used at backcountry campsites.

Pets Pets must be under physical restrictive
control. They are not allowed on trails or in

Airboats, Swamp Buggies, and All Terrain Vehi-
cles These vehicles are not permitted in the
park. They destroy vegetation, and their noise
'scares the wildlife.

Hunting Using any firearms or other hunting
apparatus that could injure wildlife is prohibited.

Park rangers are here to help you enjoy your
visit. Do not hesitate to ask their assistance or
guidance. Please report any fire, accident, vio-
lation, or other unusual incident to them.

,GPO, 1990-262-100/20060 Reprint 1987

C Singetary