Dade County Florida In the tropical zone of Florida where the coconuts grow
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Title: Dade County Florida In the tropical zone of Florida where the coconuts grow
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Language: English
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Source Institution: University of Florida
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Dade County, Florida

THERE is a unique appeal about a home in subtropical Dade County, Florida. The
new environment offers a delightful change; the congenial climate marks an
end of many discomforts occasioned by severe winters; the wonderful variety of
plant and vegetable production opens a wide field for investigation and culture; the
fertility of the soil and the friendly growing conditions assure a bountiful return upon
small area; the glorious sunshine, the balmy air and the constant life out of doors make
for health and happiness.
Agricultural and horticultural conditions are so different that here the man unskilled
in this line, with a little application and study, can compete successfully with those who
have spent a lifetime tilling the soil. The man weary of office grind, the one tired of
indoor routine, the laborer whom the factory bores, can find here the little bit of earth
to till that means contentment and a nest-egg for his declining years.
There is also opportunity for big-scale operations; for the young man with large
ambitions; for the man who seeks investment and expansive fields. To the man who
seeks a few acres and a modest home, and also to the operator who wishes to create and
control an estate or plantation, Dade County extends the invitation to come and see.
Study the possibilities and the opportunities here. Hear from their own lips the story
of the success of the hundreds who are satisfied and contented residents. This booklet
cannot be more than an outline; let them complete the details of the picture.

Area and Location

DADE COUNTY contains 1,450,720 acres and is situated at the extreme southern
end of the Florida peninsula, with the Atlantic Ocean on the east and an arm of
the Gulf of Mexico on the south. About 35,000 acres are in cultivation and an
additional 100,000 acres are cleared and ready for the settler. Much of the remaining
acreage lies in the Everglades, which the immense drainage plans of the state are
gradually opening to cultivation.

Highway in the Redland Grove Section


DADE COUNTY is located in the same subtropical zone as southern Egypt, and south-
ern Burmah and India. Frosts are exceedingly rare, many winters pass with-
out a trace, and when they do come they are very light and of short duration.
In twenty-eight years the lowest temperature recorded by the United States Weather
Bureau is 29 degrees and the average temperature for the winter months is 68 degrees.
The summers are not excessively hot, the highest temperature recorded being 96 degrees,
and in the last eleven years the thermometer has not passed 92.2. The ever-present
trade winds blowing from the warm Gulf Stream, just off shore in the ocean, keep away
the freezing winds of winter and cool the heated land in summer. Sunstroke and heat
prostrations are unknown in southern Florida. The average mean temperature is 75
degrees. The normal yearly rainfall is 59.66 inches, and the rainy season comes in the
months of September and October. The months of least precipitation are December,
January and February.

Valuation and Development
LES than thirty years ago there were no roads in what is now Dade County and
transportation was by water from points north and south. Henry Flagler ex-
tended the Florida East Coast Railway line to Miami in April, 1896, which
really marks the beginning of development. Within the last decade the growth has
been phenomenal, the 1920 United States census showing Dade County leading all other
counties in the nation with 258 per cent. Miami, the county seat, with its 440 per cent
of gain in the same period, also led all cities in percentage of population increase. The
1920 census gave Dade County a population of 42,731, and a special state census, in the
spring of 1923, recorded a population of 72,481, a gain of 70 per cent in three years.
The rapid growth of the county shows the increasing demand for back-country products.
The rapid advancement is shown by a comparison of the tax-valuation increase.
The assessed valuation, on a basis of one-third the real value, as prepared by the tax

CSDde Count

Packing House and Grapefruit Cannery in Miami

assessor for the County Commissioners for the year 1923, is $31,875,613. In 1900 the
assessed valuation was $1,582,227; in 1910, $4,336,569; in 1920, $17,850,000. This is for
real, personal and corporation property.

Transportation and Shipping
THE Florida East Coast Railway extends the entire length of the county, and an
extension line from Miami across the Everglades to the Lake Okeechobee region
and connecting with the main line farther north is now under construction. This
will facilitate movement of fruits and vegetables during the heavy shipping season. The
main shipping points are: Ojus, Fulford, Arch Creek, Little River, Lemon City, Buena
Vista, Miami, Coconut Grove, Larkins, Kendal, Benson, Rockdale, Perrine, Peters,
Goulds, Princeton, Naranja, Modello, Homestead, and Florida City. At most of these
points are large packing houses for fruits and vegetables.
Considerable shipments are made by water to northern ports. Miami has now eight-
een feet depth in her channel to the sea and the United States engineers have approved
a twenty-five-foot depth, which will permit many other ocean-going steamships to make
this port. It is the expectation that thousands of tons of fruits and vegetables will be
carried by water to northern ports, the lower rate widening the market and yielding a
greater return to the grower.

Firm Rock Highways

DADE COUNTY has about 700 miles of rock-based, smooth-surfaced highways. A
large portion is asphalt oil-coated. The County Commissioners have extended.
these roads out into the farm and grove sections, realizing the necessity of im-
proved transportation for the movement of crops. These new roads are often in advance
of settlement. In this manner all populated sections of the county have easy access to
shipping points. The Dixie Highway enters the county at Ojus, and from Miami south-
ward the Ingraham Highway extends practically to Cape Sable, its ultimate destination.


Farmers' Market at Miami

Westward across the Everglades the Tamiami Trail extends now to the Dade County
line. This will eventually be a famous motor highway connecting the gulf with the
ocean. Another important link is the highway along the Miami Canal to the Dade
County line. This will be extended ultimately to Lake Okeechobee. These highways,
as finished, are oil-coated and no finer roads are to be found anywhere.

Miami, the Wonder City

MIAMI, the county seat of Dade County, has had such a remarkable growth that
visitors term it the "Wonder City." Its 1923 population, official figures, is
47,021, but including the immediate suburban territory the population is 55,000.
It is the chief winter resort of Florida, having a winter population above 100,000, and
every twelve months nearly 300,000 visitors are entertained. Miami is a modern city
with 75 miles of paved streets, 67 miles of oiled macadam, 92 miles of cement sidewalks,
153 miles of sewers, 112 miles of water mains, a street-car system and all other
municipal developments.
It is a city of beautiful homes, some of the most palatial and ornamental in the
country. It has fine schools and churches; 75 large hotels and 200 apartment houses,
and its stores are equal to the best in the country. It is a trading center for the south-
east coast and has numerous wholesale and jobbing houses. The two cities of Miami and
Miami Beach led the state in building for the first nine months of 1923 with a total of
$8,850,410. The bank deposits April, 1923, were $31,347,768. The assessed valuation
of city property for 1923 is $69,911,300. Ten years ago the valuation was $1,506,183,
a gain of 1407 per cent.
Being a tourist city, Miami is famous for its amusement and entertainment features
which include motoring along scenic tropical highways, graced with royal and coconut
palms; speed-boat racing; yachting; the best fishing in the world; unexcelled surf-
bathing 365 days in the year; six golf courses; tennis courts, and all other out-of-door
sports; theatres, and free band concerts December to April, by a world-famous band,
in a coconut grove park.


Typical Citrus Fruit Packing House in Dade County

Growing TropicalProducts
To visualize the tropical location of Dade County, remember that it is more than
500 miles south of the southern extremity of California. It is the only section
on the mainland of the United States where strictly tropical fruits and products
can be grown in commercial quantities. Most every tropical edible known to man can
be grown here. Some have been transplanted from their native habitat, even equatorial
plants, and thrive better in their new location. Although there are seasons for most
products, there is something growing in Dade County soil every month in the year. For
most crops the regular planting season is from October to May, just the season when
northern farms are in the dormant period.

Miami's Farmers' Market
OF chief importance to the grower are the marketing facilities. Miami has erected
at a cost of $30,000 a municipal market house as a part of her City Hall unit
where, in stalls under cover, the grower sells his produce direct to the consumer.
Tuesday, Thursdays and Saturdays find these eighty stalls filled with a varied assort-
ment from the farms for miles around. Thousands of Miamians and winter visitors
come here with their baskets to make their purchases. The market is controlled by three
commissioners and its regulation is by city ordinance. The grower is enabled to com-
mand a higher price because he sells at retail. The public market is one of the inter-
esting points for the tourists, for here they get a comprehensive display of truly tropical
products. There are several commission houses in Miami which supply the local stores
or ship to northern markets, affording an additional outlet for the small grower. For
the carload-lot producer there are large packing houses which handle the crop on a
cooperative, commission or an outright purchase basis. Some large growers have their
own packing houses in connection with their plantations.

A Field of Sugar Cane in the Everglades

Winter Vegetables
BY far the largest returns from an agricultural standpoint is the growing of vege-
tables which come to the tables of the North when blizzards rage. The earliest
of this crop is from the thousands of acres under cultivation in Dade County.
The 1922-23 crop, while far from a record year, yielded the gross total of $5,000,000, of
which 90 per cent was tomatoes. To move this crop required 6,000 cars. The plant-
ing was 14,000 acres.
The greatest vegetable acreage is in the marl prairies in the southern end of the
county and the numerous glades reaching back several miles to the Everglades. This
is very rich soil, overflowing during the summer rains and overgrown with rank
vegetation, which proves a good fertilizer when plowed under in the fall. Tomatoes
are very profitable when all things conspire for success. The crop is very sensitive to
wet weather and if too dry, the yield is scanty. A light frost plays havoc also with the
crop. But despite the hazards, there is never a dearth of growers and a large number
have good bank accounts to show for their effort.
Seed beds are made in August or September and the early plants set out in October
and November, and often the planting is continued until February. Fertilizer costs
from $100 to $125 per acre or more, as the grower desires. The cost of labor, hauling
and crating adds another $200 per acre. Last season the grower received from $1.50 to
$3.25 per crate, the latter for fancies. The grower estimates there is good profit in an
average price of $2.50 per crate. The bumper years make up for the losses in poor
seasons. The yield varies from 150 crates per acre to 400 when growing conditions are
right, and intensive fertilization practiced.

SECOND in commercial importance in Dade County is cabbage. This crop grows very
rapidly, the heads are large and firm and extremely tender and crisp, bringing a
high price in the markets of the North. The first heads come into market during
the month of March.

Picking Tomatoes in Dade County

MOST every grower has an acre or two of peppers which serve as a steady, reliable
crop in addition to his special planting. This is practically an all-the-year-
around product and the quality is especially fine. First plants are set out late
in July or August. They are heavy feeders and require frequent and abundant ferti-
lizing. Shipment begins in November and continues until July. An average crop is 400
half-barrel boxes to the acre and many growers realize $500 to the acre net.

LANTING of this crop begins in October and continues through January, mostly in
the northern end of the county. The yield is heavy, the beans maturing in six or
seven weeks. The heavy shipments are during December and January. A fair crop
is 200 to 400 hampers to the acre, yielding the grower a profit of about $500 per acre.

Many Other Vegetables
IRISH POTATOES have proved profitable for many growers. First shipment starts soon
after the New Year when $4.00 per bushel is often realized. A successful yield is
200 bushels to the acre. This crop is steady until well into the summer. Many
acres of Everglade soil are planted in potatoes.
Eggplant grows easily and there is a large quantity produced. The yield runs as
high as 600 boxes per acre. Shipments start in November and continue until fall. The
Everglades produce heavy crops of a very fine quality.
Sweet potatoes and yams are plentiful. A wide variety of squash is found on the
market practically the year around. There are immense lettuce fields and the yield is
heavy. Celery, sweet corn, radishes, onions, carrots, watermelons, cantaloupes, beets,
spinach, Chinese cabbage and other greens grow well, and most of these products are
produced in commercial quantities.

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A Prolific Strawberry Patch at Little River (Size Compared with Half Dollar)
Lettuce Field at Florida City Beans, Pole and Bush, at Allapattah


Mid-Winter Strawberries
HE strawberry season in Dade County is from December till June. As a com-
mercial line it has proven remarkably profitable to several growers. Thus far
the most success has attended the growing on soil in the Little River and Alla-
pattah sections, although the range is widening yearly and Everglade muck has yielded
some particularly fine berries. The most successful growers plant their land to velvet
beans during the summer and this is plowed under in September, giving a valuable
addition of nitrogen to the land. Less than a total of 100 acres are planted and the
demand locally is sufficient to absorb the entire crop with prices never dropping below"
35 cents per quart and starting the season at $1.00.
Dade County boasts having the king of all strawberry growers and his farm is one
of the show places for visitors. His accurate record is printed herewith to indicate
what intensive study and cultivation will produce:
Season, 1921 Season, 1922 Season, 1923
A rea ......- ..- ....... ..----- ..--------.. ......... ...-. .-4.1 acres 1.9 acres 10.2 acres
Yield per acre .--- ------.. --....- ......... ....... 10,014 8,166 7,689
Total yield (quarts) ---------.... .-.--...... .-....... 41,059 15,515 78,425
Average price (quart) ------.-------.. - $0.45 plus $0.47 $0.36
Gross sales ---.. ------..-- .--- ..... ... $18,830.92 $7,319.37 $28,135.00
This grower says his cost is about 3313 per cent. He specializes on the Brandywine
variety and sets his plants 46,416 to the acre, and during the month of October.

ROWERS of oranges in Dade County are specializing on late varieties, particularly
the Valencia, which reach the market when the price is high. They come into
bearing during the month of January. The King orange has had a remarkable
development and only in recent years has there been a sufficient quantity for shipment.
They command 50 cents per dozen in the local market. The skin of this orange is
rough, it peels easily and separates into sections and the taste is delicious. A large
number of tangerines are grown, and command a ready sale. Large quantities of the
sweet Florida variety of oranges, extremely heavy with juice are grown.

The New Tangelo
THE tangelo is a new fruit, a cross between the tangerine and the grapefruit, or
pomelo, and the name "tangelo" is a compound. The fruit resembles the grape-
fruit in color and shape, although a trifle smaller. It has a taste resembling
grapefruit with tangerine juice poured over it. A fine market has been developed for
this fruit and it is being produced on a large scale.

Limes and Lemons

BOTH limes and lemons are grown in large quantities. This is the natural home of
the lime and the flavor is unexcelled. They are practically an all-the-year-
around bearer. The Persian lime is exceedingly popular, being larger than the
common variety and of a deep-green color. In Everglade soil the lemon grows to a
very large size, is heavy in juice and is used extensively by manufacturers of lemon

'Large Variety of Tropical Fruits
enumerate all the different tropical fruits that are to be found in Dade County
would be the listing of those products which one associates with ancient Oriental
Countries. Each year some fruits are imported from subtropical sections in the far
corners of the earth and they all thrive as if this were their na ural home. Botanists
declare this is the only section in the United States where truly tropical vegetation can
be found.
Most every grove and many city homes have a few banana plants producing. As
yet it is not among the commercial fruits. Guavas are plentiful and several factories


Gathering Grapefruit in Dade County

convert this fruit into excellent jelly. The kumquat makes fine preserves. Gooseberries
grow on trees and figs yield sufficiently for table use. Practically all the fruits in the
following list are to be found on the local markets in season: Citron, sapodilla, pome-
granate, Japanese persimmons, Surinam cherries, custard apples, Jamaica apple, loquat,
carissa, monstera deliciosa, egg fruit, rose apple, mammee apple, Barbadoes cherry,
cherimoyas, jack fruit, cecropia, Buganot, Kaffir plum, sour sop, sapote, sausage fruit
and dateS.

WHILE the pineapple grows well in Dade County, it is not as much a commercial
factor as in years past owing to the cost of production. In recent years, however,
growing of the Smooth Cayenne, the variety in highest favor in Hawaii, has

Royal Palms and Coconut Palms Found Only in the Miami Zone


Pineapples-Successfully Grown in Dade County

proven profitable. Pines weighing six to eight pounds are common on the local market
and command a good price. This crop must be grown under lattice cover and in sandy
soil, well drained.
By maturing plants at different periods, a continuous crop can be harvested. Heavy
fertilization is required. The Red Spanish variety slips cost from $5.00 to $7.00 per
thousand and the suckers for the Smooth Cayenne cost $10.00 per hundred and an acre
will take about 10,000 plants. They mature in about twenty-two months, and their life
is from eight to ten years. From 200 to 300 crates per acre is a good yield and the
price is from $2.00 to $3.00 per crate.

How Avocadoes Grow

New Urate ror Snlpping Avocaaoes,
Miami Beach Invention


The Profitable Avocado

N 'o product of Dade County has greater future possibilities than the avocado, or
what is popularly known as the "alligator pear." This is the natural home of this
wonderful fruit as it cannot withstand much frost. Great strides have been made
in its culture and the United States Plant Introduction Bureau and individual growers
are fast learning the varieties which ship best. By selection of varieties, avocados are
now being marketed eleven months in the year, and it is expected they soon will be an
all-the-year-around product.
In anticipation of a vastly increased demand as the American public awakens to the
food value of this fruit and acquires the taste for it, large acreages are being planted
with choice varieties. Selection of varieties which ship well and improved containers
for its marketing are factors making for its commercial success. It is estimated that
there are about 2,000 acres now in bearing and as many more in young budded groves,
and hundreds of additional acres are being planted yearly. The yield in 1923 is
estimated at 40,000 boxes, from which the growers will receive approximately $225,000.
That the quality of this fruit may be better known, the following analysis of the
avocado from United States Government reports is given showing a comparison with
eggs and milk:
Avocado Egg Milk
Water .-...-.....- .. 72.8 73.7 87.0
Protein ............. -------- 2.2 1.48 3.3
Carbohydrates .-.........-- .----4.4 .... 5.0
Fats--.....- ......--. .. -----.. ---- 17.3 10.5 4.0
Crude Fiber.------.. ---..-......-. ..---- 1.4...
Ash ... ----------.. --....- --.. ...- -.....-. 1.9 1.0 .7
The avocado has a rich, nutty flavor and smooth buttery texture which, when prop-
erly seasoned, makes a table delicacy. It can be served in a wide variety of ways, the
most usual being in halves ice-cold as a cantaloupe, with lime juice or combined into a
salad. The taste is acquired, but once learned they are in constant demand.
The budded variety only is going into commercial groves. The fruit does not run
true to seed and seedlings are unprofitable. The better known budded varieties are the
Pollock, the Trapp, Waldin, Collinson, Taylor, Eagle, Wagner, Taft and Fuerti. These




come into bearing in different months and most new groves have several varieties so
as to be able to supply the market almost continuously. The Pollock is one of the earliest,
coming into market in July and with individual fruit that often weighs three to four
pounds. The most common of the budded stock is the Trapp, early and late varieties.
The young trees are set out eighteen to twenty feet apart and demand much water-
ing the first two years. They are fertilized three and four times yearly, the third year
each tree taking about twenty-four pounds. Some fruit appears the third year, but after
the fourth year they should produce from two to three crates per tree, increasing each
year. The cost of bringing an avocado grove through the third year runs about $500
per acre.
The returns vary according to the season. In midseason the price ranges from $2.50
to $3.50 per crate. Some very late fruit has brought as high as $36.00 per crate of forty
fruit. One eighteen-year-old Pollack tree in the Redlands shows the following returns:
1920, $210.00; 1921, $234.00; 1922, $175.00. It has more than 1,000 fruit in 1923. One
young grove, five years old, netted the owner $900 per acre, and while this is above the
average it demonstrates what care and attention with avocados will yield.

Grapefruit Leads Citrus Fruits
DADE COUNTY, one of the first sections in the state to take the lead in marketing
grapefruit, has continued to grow large quantities of this universal breakfast
delicacy. Shipments start the last week in September with fruit usually riper
by two weeks than other sections. On account of earlier ripening, growers are special-
izing on early production, some groves being ready for gathering the first week in


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Dade County has an area of 1,450,720 acres, the greater portion of which is
Everglade lands now in the process of reclamation. The cleared area, mostly
pine lands, extends back from the coast line an average of 8 to 10 miles from the
northern boundary of the county as far south as Florida City, with the exception
of occasional prairie lands. It is this strip which is settled. The Florida East
Coast Railway and good rock highways make communication easy. From the

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main highways leading into the Everglades, branch roads are being constructed
as rapidly as the land is ready for the settler. There are now 700 miles of fine
roads in Dade County, only the more important of them being shown upon the
map. The strategic importance of Miami as a port is easily apparent, and the
development of ocean transportation is a factor of great importance to a pro-
spective settler.


Some groves in Dade County have trees twenty-five years old. The acreage has in-
creased yearly until today there are about 6,000 acres in bearing grapefruit and several
thousand acres of young trees planted, which will come in within the next two or three
years. Grapefruit bears when four years old, but not much can be expected from the
trees until the sixth year unless special intensified care has been given. This care
marks the difference between a paying grove and one that yields )nly a modest return.
The trees must be carefully pruned, watered in dry periods, frequently sprayed for
insect pests and fertilized regularly. Two groves adjoining will show a vast difference
in returns due entirely to the intensified care. The profits some growers make indicate
the money-making opportunities of this line.
Grapefruit groves are found in all sections of Dade County. Th, Redlands, with
Homestead, Goulds and intermediate points as shipping centers, has some wonderful
groves which produce a fine quality of fruit. The water here is close to the surface
and the soil is of a reddish cast. The price of raw grove land the county over ranges
from $40 to $250 per acre, nearness to shipping points and rock-based highways influenc-
ing the price. Most of the groves are on pine lands which are well drained. The cost
of clearing land and preparing holes, most of which are blasted, runs from $50 to $100
per acre. Trees are set from twenty to twenty-five feet apart. Good budded stock,
eighteen months to two years old, sells from 75 cents to $1.00 per tree delivered. Rough
lemon stock is most in demand.
Wells consisting of pipes driven through the rock, with ordinary pumps, are scattered
through the grove to keep the young trees well watered. As previously mentioned, care
determines the progress of the grove. The seventh year should see a well-cared-for
grove produce a small profit. This profit should increase materially each year there-


after. The fruit is graded firsts, seconds and culls. The price varies with the season
and the time of marketing. Firsts range from $1.25 to $2.50 per crate on the trees,
seconds from 75 cents to $1.25, and culls for canning purposes bring 40 to 60 cents
delivered. Marketing is done through cooperative associations, or on commission, or
by outright sale. The yield from Dade County groves 1922-23 netted the growers about
Many growers do some cropping between the trees such as vegetables, or some
nitrogen-producing forage crop as velvet beans, cowpeas, peanuts, the roots enriching
the soil and the cover crop being fed to stock. A disastrous freeze has never been
known in Dade County, and this fact is worth considering in the selection of a grape-
fruit grove.

The Delicious Mango

A OTHER fruit in which Dade County, on account of its tropical location, has prac-
tically a monopoly in the United States, is the mango, a most ancient fruit and
for ages confined practically to India and islands near the equator. It is only
within the last three years that this fruit has been shipped, the local demand consuming
all that were grown. Now the northern markets each July have some on sale at $1.00
to $1.50 each. These are the budded stock, and even on the local market the Hayden,
with its beautiful coloring and spicy odor, sells from 25 cents to 50 cents each. It is
correctly termed the aristocrat of all fruits, and the development of Dade County grow-
ers is fast putting it within reach of all classes. Other varieties of budded mango are
the Mulgoba, a shy bearer, the Sandersha, the Cecil, and some Hawaiian, Philippine, and
Chinese varieties which as yet have not come up to the Dade County variety, the Hayden.
Extensive plantings of mango groves is under way. The trees are very ornamental.
Trees begin bearing in from five to seven years and while the height is from mid-June
to mid-August, there are some commoner varieties on the market in May and some as
late as October. The wonderful possibilities of this fruit, the field for its advanced
culture and development is a striking instance of the rich opportunities in Dade County
for the horticulturist.


Sixteen-Year-Old Grapefruit Tree in In a Papaya Grove
Grove near Goulds
The Prolific Papaya
HIS fruit has 400 years of history behind it and can be grown safely in compara-
tively frostless regions. Most every farm and backyard in Dade County has a
few of these "cantaloupe trees," so called from the appearance and taste of the
fruit. They bear the year around and growers are beginning to select choice varieties.
Not much effort has yet been made to develop a market outside the locality, although
that will come in time due to their many-sided use. The retail price is from 10 to 12
cents per pound, and they have been grown as large as thirty pounds, although the
average is about four or five. A single tree, properly cared for, will bear when ten
months old and yield 100 fruit or more, ripening at intervals.
They are cut as a cantaloupe, the meat is from two to three inches thick, and is eaten
in many ways. One of the active chemical properties of the papaya is papain, closely
akin to animal pepsin. This medicinal property makes the papaya one of the most
healthy fruits grown.

Dade County Road Bordered by Shrubs and Trees

White Belt Dairy, Lemon City

Prosperous Dairy Section

IN no department of agriculture has there been more rapid progress in Dade County
in the last two or three years than in dairying and stock raising. Forage crops grow
abundantly and there is year-around pasturage. The county is tick-free and has
been for several years, and it is asserted that Dade County has the highest percentage
of any county in the nation in pure-bred bulls. The first certified dairy in Florida is in
this county. Most of the herds are pure-bred stock, Jerseys leading, with Holsteins,
Guernseys, Dutch Belt and Ayershires in the order named.

Curtiss-Bright Dairy, Hialeah


"Fern's Oxford You'll Do," Head of Register of Merit Herd, Milam Farm

There are sixty-four dairies in the county and among them are some of the best
equipped in the entire South. This industry represents an investment of $2,000,000, with
an annual pay roll of $360,000. The acreage is 7,500 with 3,400 head. In 1922, 2,171,750
gallons of milk were produced at an average price of 80 cents per gallon, or a total of
$1,937,400. Approximately 50,000 pounds of butter were churned.
The regulations regarding stock sanitation and milk production are extremely strict.
No climatic diseases are found here, and all conditions conspire for good herd health
and a high quality of milk. Many prize-winning cows and bulls, both state and nation,
are in Dade County.

Noble's Belle of Covington, Milam Farm, State Jersey Champion for Several Years.
Record, 10,250 Pounds of Milk; 660 Pounds of 85 Per Cent Butter


Gem of Columbia 2038, Highest Producer of Milk of Dutch Belted Breed to Date.
Record, 14,173 Pounds of Milk, 559,108 Pounds of Butter

Owing to the large tourist population during the winter months, the dairies are not
able to supply the demand for milk, and plans are in the making for the erection of
creameries to care for the oversupply during the summer months. Experienced dairy-
men assert milk can be produced here cheaper than elsewhere in the United States, there-
fore canneries and condensaries are among the industries of the future. Cuba also offers
a large market for thermos shipments, being less than twenty-four hours distant.
The Everglades produce a wonderfully abundant growth of forage crops and
grasses. Ensilage consists of Napier grass, Nassau corn, Japanese cane, and the pioneers
in the industry are developing other grains and feeds through experimentation. Stock
raising is being successfully conducted, and western stockmen are watching this section
and predict a great future for this enterprise.
There are above one hundred different varieties of grasses grown in Dade County,
mostly on the Everglades. A new native Everglade grass has just been isolated and
has been named the Seminole. Some grasses are still in the experimental stage and are
showing promising results. The Guatamalan has been grown for several years and
tests show it will run above fifty tons to the acre for a twelve-month crop. Several
other grasses produce tonnage equally as high. Other pasturage and hay varieties are:

Cattle Grazing in Para Grass Field on Everglade Muck


A Backyard Poultry Flock

Para, Bermuda, Rhodes, Elephant, Natal, Sudan, St. Lucie, Napier, Broom Sage, the
Billion Dollar Grass, Gordura, Chinese Grass, Japanese Kudzu and many others. Some
of these are especially rich in protein and are speedy fatteners. Nassau corn grows
especially well in the muck soil.

A Wonderful Poultry Section
WITHIN the last two years poultry raising has increased a thousand per cent in
Dade County and, as the success that attends this industry becomes better real-
ized, hundreds of others will engage in it. Poultry is easily cared for here,

Chicken Houses and Runways (Commercial Farm)


there is a longer laying period, so many forage crops are possible, and the market for
eggs and dressed poultry is steady and good prices prevail. A good roof is all that is
necessary and many chicken houses have canvas sides. Green food is available at all
times and runways are constructed permitting the fowls to practically take care of
Well-authenticated records of returns from many poultry raisers show a surprising
net on the investment. There are many commercial farms where little else is raised.
Practically every grove and truck farm has its stock of poultry which, besides providing
for home use, yields a handsome side return. There are no more than the usual num-
ber of insects and probably less disease than is found in colder climates. A typical
poultryman has divided his acreage into numerous runways which he plants in buck-
wheat, Japanese barnyard millet, Egyptian wheat, and sunflower, which, ripening at
different periods, afford a plentiful supply of grains and forage. When one runway is
eaten down, he has another ready.
An active poultrymen's association is constantly raising the standard of breeds and
at the annual County Fair the poultry exhibit shows splendid specimens of pure-bred
strains. Dade County poultry win prizes at state and national shows. During the
winter months eggs sell from 80 cents to $1.00 per dozen, and in the summer the average
is 40 cents. During the tourist season dressed poultry sells around 65 cents per pound
and in the summer 40 to 45 cents. Squab raising is being started on a large scale, and
turkeys and ducks do well. Belgian hares and rabbits are grown with great success.

Honey-Makers and Money-Makers

Where the Bee Is Kept Busy
A a side line or on a large scale, beekeeping is very successful. There is an exquisite
aroma and delicious flavor to the honey which is divided into three main vari-
eties: orange, palmetto, and mangrove. Among the citrus groves the orange honey
is produced. The palmetto, which grows in profusion on all water courses, is a reliable
honey plant. The mangrove honey comes from the black mangrove which grows
abundantly on the keys fringing the coast. From February to September there is a
constant source of nectar provided.

Hog Raising

M ANY of the forage crops mentioned also provide excellent food for hogs. Cow-
peas, velvet beans, peanuts and Nassau corn have produced some splendid
results. There are some fine herds of Duroc-Jerseys, Poland-China, Berkshires
and Hampshires. Hog raising is not carried on extensively, but there is a steady increase


United States Plant Introduction Garden at Miami

United States Plant Introduction Gardens
BECAUSE of its subtropical climate, Miami offers excellent facilities for propagat-
ing trees and shrubs suitable for cultivation not only in Florida and the Southern
States generally, but also in Porto Rico, Panama, Hawaii and other tropical
regions. The Office of Foreign Plant Introduction of the United States Department of
Agriculture maintains several gardens in Miami and vicinity, where thousands of
plants, grown from seeds, cuttings or roots introduced from all parts of the world are
propagated and tested. The oldest of these gardens is situated on Brickell avenue and
has made, during the past quarter of a century, many notable contributions to tropical
The garden on the Dixie Highway, near Buena Vista, is relatively new, but contains
already a valuable collection of tropical fruits. The Chapman Field garden, situated
on the coast fifteen miles south of Miami, is now being developed. It is the most ex-
tensive of all, and in time will contain important collections of tropical fruits, economic
plants of various sorts, ornamental trees and shrubs, palms, and other plants.
The Brickell avenue gardens has, since 1898, been utilized by the Department for the
propagation and testing of tropical plants, as well as for studying their diseases, their
uses, and other problems. At the laboratory maintained in connection with this garden
notable scientific work has been done by investigators representing the Department of
Agriculture, the Carnegie Institution, and others. The garden, though scarcely more
than six acres in extent, contains a large number of rare and interesting plants and one
of the best collections of tropical fruits which exists in all the world. It is open to
visitors, except Sundays and holidays, and the records and observations which have
been accumulated, and which cover many important crops, are available to prospective
Some of the more interesting plants which are to be seen in the garden and which
through it have found their way into the dooryards and plantations of south Florida as
well as other regions, are: East Indian and Philippine mangos, fiberless and rivalling
the peach in quality, of which many varieties have here fruited for the first time in the
western hemisphere; hardy winter and spring ripening avocados from Guatemala, of
which a collection of nearly twenty-five varieties was secured by one of the Depar-
ment's explorers in the highlands of Central America and sent here for propagation,
later to find their way into the hands of nurserymen in many parts of Florida, and to be
sent to Hawaii, to the Philippines, to India and many other parts of the world; hybrids
between the cherimoya and the sugar apple, both delicious tropical fruits; the best
varieties of the loquat, one of the favorite fruits of the Japanese; and so on.


Through the tests made at this garden, and the distribution of thousands of young
plants annually, many useful and ornamental species have become much more common
in south Florida gardens than would otherwise have been the case. Among these are
the hedge plant, Carissa grandiflora, from Natal, which has beautiful glossy foliage,
star-shaped waxy flowers with the fragrance of the jessamine, and red fruits the size of
plums which make excellent sauce and jelly; the orange jasmine, Murraya exotica, an
excellent ornamental and hedge plant; shade trees from all parts of the world, such as
the beautiful sycamore fig from Rhodesia (Fiscus sycamorus), of rapid growth, and
reaching immense size, with a smooth trunk of golden color; the pipul or sacred Bo tree
of India (Ficus religiosa), under which Buddha is said to have sat in meditation.
Thespesia, Pongam, Pithecolobium, Terminalia and others whose beauty is greatly en-
hancing the attractiveness of south Florida dooryards. The Queensland nut (Maca-
damia ternifolia) has shown itself well adapted to the climate and soil of this region,
and yields liberally of its round nuts, resembling but superior to filber s; Rhodes grass,
called the timothy of the South, Para grass, an excellent forage crop from South
America, and the Zoysia or Japanese lawn grass have all been tested here and have
shown their value for the South; the pigeon pea, the bonavist bean, the yam bean, and
the crotalarias, soil-enriching legumes for citrus orchards, the first two furnishing also
excellent food for the table, have been established. The West Indian yam and the
chayote, new vegetables for the South, have shown themselves capable of extensive cul-
tivation and use. Petraea volubilis, comparable to the wistaria of the North; the
lignum vitae of Guatemala, a handsome ornamental shrub or small tree bearing blue
flowers in profusion; the Acrocomia palm from Paraguay, and an ornamental grape-
vine from Cape Colony are a few other species which have here been tested and have
shown their value for this region.

Different Soil Sections
OUGHLY speaking, there are four major classifications of soil in Dade County. Each
requires different treatment and in a general way practically all of the varieties
of products mentioned in this booklet can be grown anywhere in the county. As
the experience of the growers becomes classified, naturally certain types of soil will be
more generally recognized and specialized. The four classifications are: Everglades,
pine lands, marl or prairie lands, and red soil. There are also combinations of these
various soils.
The Everglades
ONE of the greatest reclamation projects on this continent is the drainage of the
Everglades by the state of Florida. It is estimated that $20,000,000 and possibly
more will be required to complete the transformation of millions of acres into a
productive garden spot. The success that has attended the work, the richness of the soil,
its wonderful productivity is the greatest romance in agriculture. A calm recital of
everyday records in those sections where the work has been practically completed can
scarcely be believed by one who has tilled the soil of the older sections of the country
in Northern States. But the proof is here, the products can be seen, the story and the
records of the growers are easily verified.
Dade County, being at the lower end of the Everglades, naturally is one of the latest
sections to obtain full benefit of this great reclamation. A reference to the map of the
county will indicate the immense amount of territory that is gradually being thrown
open to cultivation. Much of this land is now owned by purchasers of small tracts or
larger holdings of a section or more who are waiting the time when drainage is
completed and roads constructed and this accumulated fertility of centuries will be
ready for the plow. Each year sees a few more thousand acres laid bare to the sun,
and gradually the line of cultivation is being extended westward. The system of drain-
age controls, through giant locks, the level of the water and thus aids cultivation.
The soil is black muck from two to ten feet deep. The native grass and vegeta-
tion is extremely rank and each year sees an addition to its richness. It is particularly
heavy in nitrogen and needs to be aerated and worked over to get the full results.
When thus treated, one needs but to see the potatoes, dasheens, corn, peanuts, squash,
turnips, eggplant, yams, beans, etc., to realize its wonderful possibilities. Many acres
are being planted in orange, grapefruit and avocados and remarkable growth and fine
quality of fruit are produced.


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Bungalow Home in a Grapefruit Grove Country Home Amid Palms and Tropical Fruits
Homestead Graded High School Farm Life School at Redlands


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For dairying purposes the rapid and heavy growth of different grasses produces a
pasturage that dairymen assert will graze three times the number per acre of any other
soil. It is on Everglade soil that most of the dairies and stock farms are located. Just
as soon as the drainage plans are a little farther along, the county commissioners plan
the extension of spur roads from the main highways into the drained areas, enabling
transportation of crops to market easily. At the present time there are three main
highways into the Everglades-the Tamiami Trail extending to the western line of
Dade County which will eventually connect the gulf coast with the ocean; the highway
to the county line along the banks of the Miami drainage canal; and the Ingraham
Highway leading through the southern end of the county, its ultimate objective being
Cape Sable on an arm of the Gulf of Mexico.

The Pine Lands
BETWEEN the Everglades and Biscayne Bay there is a ridge underlaid with oolitic
limestone. This was originally covered with a thick growth of Carribean pine
which has been cut for lumber. The limestone is porous and soft and easily
broken up. The larger part of the cultivated area consists of this land and most of the
groves are planted on this rock land. It produces fruit of exceptional flavor and, when
fertilized, yields bountifully. It drains easily and speedily.
This limestone is the basis of the 700 miles of smooth highway in Dade County. It
is available everywhere, is taken from numerous pits by steam shovels, hauled to the
road, rolled, coated with oil and sanded, making a surface not unlike asphalt, and stands
up well. The unoiled roads are of this crushed rock, making transportation easy.

Marl Prairies
B ETWEEN the pine lands and the bay in large areas of the county are thousands of
acres of marl prairies. Sometimes these little glades extend through the pine lands
back to the Everglades, and they once served the purpose of natural drainage of
this vast section extending through the center of the state. During the summer months
when the rainy season is on these prairies are subject to overflow, except where drain-
age has been otherwise provided. During the winter months when little rain falls, they
are plowed, and it is from these lands that the greater portion of the tomatoes, beans,
peppers, cabbage and other vegetables come.
The soil is sandy and rich in alluvial material. On these prairies are many small
farms of five and ten acres, all near a shipping point. Here also are to be found some
very extensive growers who employ in the planting and harvesting season thousands of
extra helpers. Planting is done in November and December, and the first trainloads
of vegetables start northward in January, continuing from eight to ten weeks.

The Redlands
THE most famous section of Dade County in the line of fruit is in that area that
ships from Homestead to Goulds which is known as the "Redlands." The name
comes from a peculiar reddish cast to the soil. It has the limestone, but the sand
and clay is of a dark red color. The water is very close to the surface, and citrus
fruits, avocados, mangos and all other tropical fruits grow easily. There are many
groves which have peaches, plums and other fruits whose natural home is farther
north. Some of the finest groves in Dade County are found here. Just as an indication
of what can be grown, one grower cultivates more than 225 varieties of tropical fruits,
plants and trees gathered from the tropics of the world, many not found elsewhere on
this continent.
This is a thickly settled community, with splendid highways, fine schools, homes that
are the last word in comfort, beautiful lawns and gardens, reveling in the wonderful
floral riches of the tropics. Homestead is a thriving, fast-growing city, an evidence of
the prosperity and the social development of the surrounding community. It has two
banks, a fine school, large packing houses, several churches, two newspapers, modern
hotels and many stores.


Sugar Mill of the Pennsylvania Sugar Company

Sugar Growing
A BUT sixteen miles up the Miami Canal from Miami is the 150,000-acre plantation
of the Pennsylvania Sugar Company. A mill and refinery erected at a cost of
$1,500,000 is ready for operation, and 3,200 acres have been cleared and planted
to cane. The first grinding will be made this fall. An experimental tract of 800 acres
demonstrated through a period of three years the success of growing cane in the Ever-
glades in this section. The company has now an investment of about $5,000,000, and
those connected with it are expecting a tremendous success. The absence of frost or its
lateness and mildness has convinced them that this is to be the sugar bowl of America.
The cane has shown a very high sugar content and the grinding season will be at least
twice as long as elsewhere in the United States.

Canning and Preserving
IN the last two years rapid strides have been made in canning and preserving. Ex-
cellent preserves, jellies, marmalades, etc., are being made from grapefruit, oranges,
guavas, kumquats and other fruits. In Dade County also, within the last two years,
the first successful canning of hearts of grapefruit was perfected. This year five plants

Tractors at Work in the Everglades


will be engaged in this line, which will give the grower a market for the odd-shaped
fruit that has heretofore been a total loss. The juices of the citrus fruits are also
bottled and make a very palatable and healthful drink. There are several vegetable
canneries now in operation and others projected. This industry opens a field for
investors and also insures a steady market for the grower.

Opportunity for the Small-Farmer
WING to the fertility of the soil and the rapidity of plant growth in the tropics, the
number of acres in the average farm in Dade County is much less than in the
North. Five-, ten- and twenty-acre farms give the grower not only all he can
care for adequately with most crops, but the yield in net returns, if properly handled, is
equal to an acreage three and four times larger. In the North one and sometimes two
turnovers can be made in a season. In Dade County there are truck growers who have
made a turnover every month in the year, and five or six turnovers are not uncommon
in most lines.
These small farms and the quick returns permit men to engage in agriculture here
with very small capital. The radical differences in methods of farming give the novice
practically an even chance with the trained agriculturist. That is one reason why so
many of those who are making good in Dade County come from walks of life far
removed from soil cultivation. Some of their histories read like romances.

County Agricultural Agent
To assist those who engage in farming here to grasp quickly the change in methods
and to teach them the best methods to pursue in tropical agriculture, fertilization
and seasonal planting, a County Agricultural Agent is employed through the co-
operation of the County Commissioners, the Agricultural Department of the State of
Florida, and the United States Extension Service. The office of this official is in the
Court House, and his services and advice are free to the public.

Dade County Agricultural School at Lemon City

This booklet is authorized and paid for by the Commissioners of Dade
County. It is prepared by the Chamber of Commerce of Miami, which
will gladly supply further information and send illustrated booklets
descriptive of Miami upon request. The Chambers of Commerce at
Miami Beach and Homestead also will be glad to furnish information
to all 'who may apply.

Designed, Engraved and Printed by The Record Company, St. Augustine, Florida


IHE banner county
.,of the United States
forwintertruck gardening,
Sugar Cane, Grapefruit,
Oranges, Avocadoes,
Mangoes, Bananas and


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