Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Preparation of the soil
 Seed and general direction for...
 Seed beds
 Marketing your crops
 Culture of lettuce
 Culture of celery
 Culture of tomatoes
 Culture of cabbage, cauliflower,...
 Culture of Irish potatoes
 Culture of sweet potatoes
 Culture of cucumbers
 Culture of melons
 Culture of squash
 Culture of carrots
 Culture of peas
 Culture of beans
 Culture of okra
 Culture of pepper
 Culture of onions
 Culture of sweet corn
 Culture of egg plants
 Culture of Florida cranberry
 Culture of strawberry
 Culture of forage crops
 A few crops for the home garde...
 Formulas for insecticides
 Formulas for insecticides
 Useful tables
 Back Cover

Title: Facts and figures; or, The A B C of Florida trucking,
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003995/00001
 Material Information
Title: Facts and figures; or, The A B C of Florida trucking,
Series Title: Facts and figures; or, The A B C of Florida trucking,
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Kennerly, Clarence Hickman
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Bibliographic ID: UF00003995
Volume ID: VID00001
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Preparation of the soil
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Seed and general direction for planting
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Seed beds
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Marketing your crops
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Culture of lettuce
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Culture of celery
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Culture of tomatoes
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Culture of cabbage, cauliflower, and collards
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Culture of Irish potatoes
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Culture of sweet potatoes
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Culture of cucumbers
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Culture of melons
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Culture of squash
        Page 95
    Culture of carrots
        Page 96
        Page 97
    Culture of peas
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
    Culture of beans
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
    Culture of okra
        Page 106
        Page 107
    Culture of pepper
        Page 108
        Page 109
    Culture of onions
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
    Culture of sweet corn
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
    Culture of egg plants
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
    Culture of Florida cranberry
        Page 124
    Culture of strawberry
        Page 125
        Page 126
    Culture of forage crops
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
    A few crops for the home garden
        Page 135
        Page 136
    Formulas for insecticides
        Page 137
        Page 138
    Formulas for insecticides
        Page 139
    Useful tables
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
    Back Cover
        Page 157
        Page 158
Full Text

Facts and Figures


The A B C of

'----a TrL



Price 50 cents


...... ..
S *"*'.. *"* ..

*. ...

*. ** *

Copyright, 1911,
C. H. Kennerly.




I. Soil --------------------------------- 9
II. Preparation of the Soil --------------------- 12
III. Seed and General Direction for Planting --------- 14
IV. Irrigation .-------------------- ---- 17
V. Implements ------------------------------------ 31
VL. Fertilizing ----------------------------------- 38
VII. Seed Beds ---------------------- ------------ 41
VIII. Marketing Your Crop -------- ----------------- 44
IX. How to Grow Four Crops to the Acre ------------ 46
X. Culture of Lettuce -------------------------- 52
XI. Culture of Celery ------ -----------------_ 60
XII. Culture of Tomatoes ------ ----------- 67
XIII. Culture of Cabbage, Cauliflower and Collards -----73
XIV. Culture of Irish Potatoes--------- --------- 77
XV. Culture of Sweet Potatoes ------ ---------- 81
XV1. Culture of Cucumbers ------------------ 83
XVII. Culture of Melons ------- ------------ 89
XVIII. Culture of Squash ----------------------------- 95
XIX. Culture of Carrots --------- ---- -------- 96
XX. Culture of Peas ---------- ------------------- 98
XXI. Culture of Beans l----- ----------------102
XXII. Culture of Okra -------------------_----o6
XXIII. Culture of Pepper ----- ----------------- o8
XXIV. Culture of Onions --------------------------
XXV. Culture of Sweet Corn 6-----------------_ 6
XXVI. Culture of Egg Plants ------ -------------120
XXVI1. Culture of Florida Cranberry -- ------------1-24
XXVIII. Culture of Strawberry 1--------25
XXIX. Culture of Forage Crops -------------- --127
XXX. A Few Crops for the Home Garden ------------ 34
XXXI. Formulas for Insecticides ----- ------------136
XXXII. Useful Tables ----------------------------------139







There has hardly been a day during the past year .that
I have not received two or three inquiries from parties who
have either just moved to Florida or anticipated moving,
each one desiring information on this subject, the majority
asking if there was not some authority which they could get
in book form that would help them with their trucking
problems. I endeavored in each case to give them the in-
formation asked for, but could not refer them to any work
on this subject, as there had not been a book written at the
time which treated truck farming in all sections of the State.
It was mainly for the benefit of these new settlers that I
decided to write this book. I do not claim to know it all
about trucking, but, as the greater part of my life has been
spent in farming and in the seed business, I hope that I may
be able to give some information which will be of assistance
to them in making a success of their trucking venture. Let
me say right here, that if there is any point in this book
which is not plain to my readers, or any other information
they desire, I want them to feel that they are privileged to
write me and I will cheerfully help them to the best of my
ability. When writing address me, Palatka, Florida.
Wishing you the best of success, I am,
Yours very truly,




The greatest opportunity in Florida is offered in the line
of agriculture or vegetable raising. You will find other
occupations filled to the limit. There is hardly a day during
the entire year that the Florida farmers cannot be growing
or harvesting some crop. As to the markets for this pro-
duce, there are hundreds, yes, thousands of cities through-
out the country that never see Florida produce on the
markets. The reason for this is that the larger markets
consume the entire output. The growers will find that as
the supply of Florida vegetables increase, new markets will
open up for them. The newcomer into Florida must realize
that the methods of planting and cultivating differ in this
State from any other section of the country, and to make
a success of trucking in Florida you will have to farm
according to the methods in vogue here. I will endeavor
to give you complete directions for each crop, will also give
you an idea of the different kinds of implements required.
The heavy teams and machinery used in the North and
West are worse than useless here. We use lighter and less
expensive tools, as the work is done on a smaller scale, and
is properly described as intensive farming. An acre in the
North which will yield $25.00 worth of produce may be
made to produce $150.oo worth of potatoes here, $300.00
in cabbage, or perhaps $500.00 in onions, cauliflower, or cu-.
cumbers. The Sanford growers make as high as $i,ooo.oo
per acre on celery and lettuce. I am inserting a clipping
taken from The Florida Times-Union under date of Janu-
ary I, 1911, showing what vegetables actually sold for in
Sanford this season:
"The growers of Sanford celery delta are very jubilant

over the continued high prices for lettuce, peppers and
English peas. Sanford lettuce is selling now for $5 per
hamper. Mr. Berry shipped some green peppers on which
he realized $12 per crate. English peas are now bringing
$15 per hamper. Single crops are now realizing from $500
to $I,500 per acre net to the growers. Mr. Hawkins sold
three acres of lettuce to a commission man for $I,800. The
last named party has sold $6,500 worth off the three acres
and has some $800 worth still to be harvested from this
small acreage."
The figures given in this book are conservative, as you
will find out by making inquiries in the different trucking
If you will come to Florida and give your farm the same
careful study and work you would have to give any other
business you are bound to succeed.

Facts and Figures or the A B C

of Florida Trucking



To grow good vegetables, field crops or fruit in Florida
or any where else, you must have good soil, but it is not a
hard matter to find this in all parts of the State.
I am going to divide Florida land, suitable for successful
truck growing, into three classes-the pine land, the prairie
or muck land, and the hammock land. The principal thing
to watch in selecting your tract is to see that it is underlaid
with clay, marl or hard pan; clay or marl is preferred, but if
the hardpan is down about fourteen to eighteen inches, it
will work to perfection. The value of this bottom to the land
is to hold the moisture and keep the fertilizer from washing
down too deep, out of reach of the plants' roots or feeders.
The prairie and hammock land are best, as they contain
some fertilizing elements, particularly nitrogen or ammonia,
from decayed vegetable matter. You will find some ham-
mock and muck land containing all the nitrogen your crops
will require for the first year or two, and if they do, all you
have to supply will be the potash and phosphoric acid that
the crops will need. One thing I want to impress upon
you is that no matter how rich your land is, if you keep
planting it, without putting back the elements the plants are
drawing out you will soon exhaust it.


The pine land, you might say, does not contain anything
but acidity, but if you will pick pine land, with a good
bottom as described above, remove this acidity, as directed
in the chapter on preparation of land, irrigate, fertilize and
work it, you can raise excellent crops. I am speaking
from personal experience, as my own farm is all pine land,
underlaid with hardpan, and not extra select pine land at
that, and I have raised as good vegetables as were ever
shipped out of Florida. Another matter that it might be
well to speak of here, is that in a lot of Florida pine land
you find spots where the hardpan is very close to the sur-
face, and on this class of soil it will be impossible to raise
any crops until you build up the top-layer. This can be done
in different ways: You can haul muck or hammock soil and
put on it or you can cover it with stable manure, putting
it on from two to four inches thick, and plow in, but you
will have to be careful not to plow deep enough to turn up
the hard pan. Another good method to follow is to plant the
land in cowpeas or velvet beans and turn them under. After
you get this class of land built up, the chances are it will
.be the best piece you have.
It might be a good idea to say a word here about this
disease. You will find it only on land that has been in
cultivation for several seasons. It is caused by a minute
insect which can only be seen with the aid of a microscope.
This insect causes small knots to form on the roots of the
plants, and in some cases ruins the crop, and in others it
keeps them from making as perfect specimens as they would
on land not infected with it. There are two exceptions
to this rule-they are carrots and crabgrass, which are
immune to its attack and are one of the remedies for getting
rid of the pest. If you will plant your land in these crops


for several seasons you will starve the insect out. The other
remedy is to leave the land idle for two or three years. The
following vegetables can be grown on infested land and
make fair crops: cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce, tomatoes and
beets, but okra, cucumbers, cantaloupes and watermelons
cannot be grown on it. This disease is usually distributed
by plants grown on infested land, therefore if the trucker
will be careful not to plant any diseased plants, he should
not be bothered with it. You will never find new land
infested with it, therefore it should not worry any one
clearing or planting this class of land, only using the pre-
cautions I have advised, to see that he does not bring it
from some infested tract.




This, I consider, the most important subject for the truck
farmer, as everything depends on having the land in a
perfect condition. You can have it irrigated, use all the
high grade fertilizer your crops can take up, have fine,
healthy plants, but if the land is not in proper shape,
your time, labor and fertilizer will be lost.
The first thing to do after you have looked up the title
to your land is to put a good hog and cattle-proof fence;
the American Steel and Wire Co. make an excellent one. If
the land has trees on it, you will have to cut these down, sav-
ing the best ones to make posts for the fence. Next, remove
the stumps, either by pulling them out with a stump puller,
blowing them out with dynamite, or burning them out.
After you have these removed, take out all the roots, as it
is from them, particularly the palmetto roots, that the land
is kept acid. When you have all the roots removed, it is
time to put in the tile for sub-irrigation, if you wish to
use this system (see chapter on Irrigation). Next, plow the
land several times, both ways, as deeply as the soil will
allow without turning up the subsoil. Now give the land
an application of lime or Canadian hardwood ashes, to
remove the acidity. Either one will answer, but I prefer
the ashes, as they seem to give better results, making up for
the difference in price in the quality and yield of the crop
raised. If you use lime, get the air-slacked, applying about
1,5oo pounds to the acre; if you use ashes apply from a ton
to a ton and a half to the acre. Both are applied broadcast
and harrowed, not plowed, in. Do not use lime or ashes on
land you wish to plant in Irish potatoes, as the acidity in
the soil seems to keep the fungus in check that causes potato-


scab. In a week or two after you have applied either the
lime or ashes, you are ready to put on the fertilizer, using:
the kind suited to the particular crop you wish to plant,.
either broadcasting or drilling it in furrows, as advised in the
directions for growing the crop you are planting. Always.
harrow fertilizer in the ground, when it is broadcasted
instead of plowing it in, for if it is plowed in, it will be
down so deep the plant's roots or feeders cannot find it. If
the land is well drained and can be planted on the level, it
is a good idea to go over it with a board drag to level and'
pack it before planting. If you are planting on beds or ridges.
do not use the drag, unless they are three feet or more
wide, but level as best you can with rakes, and use a roller
on the seed drill to pack the soil as the seed are plantea.-
These rollers come on all reliable makes of seed drills.
If you will prepare your land as described here, plowing
it as much as possible-it will be impossible to plow and'
harrow iew land too much- have it irrigated, give the
plants what work and careful treatment they require, you.
will not have any trouble making excellent crops.




To make a success of growing vegetables for shipment,
you must not only plant the varieties suited to the Florida
soil and climate, but you must know the kinds that sell best
on the markets you intend using, and plant accordingly.
I have tried to give you all the leading varieties planted
for shipping to distant markets, also those for the home
garden and local markets.
Another point that truckers do not pay enough attention
to, is, be sure the seed you wish to plant is suited to this
part of the country. Some truckers think if they buy a
*certain variety of seed that it will give the same results,
no matter where the seed is grown, but such is not the
,case. Take, for instance, corn. If we are planting field corn
.and should happen to buy seed that is grown in the North
-or West, we will not get near the results that we would if
we had planted Southern grown stock. But sweet corn is
entirely different; if we want the finest sweet corn, plant
Connecticut grown stock. Then, again, take Bermuda onion
seed-a great many seed men tell us that California grown
Bermuda onion seed is equally as good for planting in this
part of the country as the genuine Teneriffe grown stock,
but such is not the case, as the California grown seed of this
variety will prove a complete failure, but if you wish to plant
the Australian Globe, Silver Skin or the Prizetaker, the
California grown seed is excellent. If you do not under-
stand the seed problem, buy from some good reliable South-
ern seed house which does.
In planting seed always plant about double the amount
you think you will need to produce the number of plants it
will require to plant your own acreage, for no matter how


fine a grade of seed you buy there are always conditions that
have to be met in growing the plants that may ruin half of
them, and you can usually buy three pounds of seed for
what several thousand plants would cost you, and then again
when you raise the plants yourself you know what stock you
have, and this is not always the case when you have to buy
them. If you do plant more seed than you will need for
your requirements, and have eight or ten thousand left over
you can always sell them, and I have often paid for my,
entire lot of seed from the surplus plants. If you are living-
in a farming community, try raising a few plants for sale.
There is money in this business for you, as someone is
always needing plants. It is not only a clean, pretty busi-
ness, but you get your money out of it in one or two months.


I have tried in each culture to give you the time for
planting the different crops, but it is impossible to give you
directions that will apply to your special case, as there are
some localities that have more natural protection than others,
and in these the farmers can plant at least two weeks
to a month earlier than their neighbors who are not so
fortunate. I doubt if there is a State in the Union where
the climate in the different parts of it vary as much as it
does here. There is as much difference between the climate
of Northern and Southern Florida in the winter as there
is between North Florida and Virginia. Make inquiries
"among the old truckers in your locality, and they will be
able to give you exact time for planting the different





The expression, "You never miss the water until the well
goes dry," certainly applies here, even though we have an
average rainfall of over fifty inches. The Florida farmer
who has not put in irrigation does not know the value of it
until he has a fine crop of vegetables dying from the want of-
water; then he realizes too late that he could more than have
paid for an irrigation plant with this one crop.
It is only when crops are short that the growers realize
extra high prices, and the dry weather we sometimes have
is one of the causes of vegetables being scarce and high.
If you have your land irrigated you profit by a drouth, if
not, you are the loser. So you can readily see it pays to
irrigate, for you are not only more certain of making a crop,
but you always get a larger yield and a better quality of
There are three systems of irrigation in use in Florida.
One, the sub-irrigation, which consists of carrying the water
under the surface of the ground, in parallel rows of 3-inch
tile. This tiling is laid in narrow ditches, sixteen to eighteen
inches deep, with a fall of about two inches to the hundred
feet. A cut of this tiling is shown in figure number one.
After the tiling is laid in these ditches, with the ends pressed
together as closely as possible, cover with about six inches
of wood cinders or sawdust; this will allow the water to
either come out of the joints, or go into them when the tile
acts as a drain, without the sand seeping in; cover the
cinders or sawdust with dirt, packing it down well. The
distance between the rows of tile varies according to the soil;
in sandy loam twenty-four foot rows give excellent results,



4" Sewer P'/e

ca : (1

< ;"'S~~ %> (OB

FIG. 2.


but if the soil contains much clay, place them about twenty
feet apart.
If you will refer to figure number two, you will see I
have given you a rough sketch of how this system is put in.
The first thing to do is to lay the head row, which extends
from the water supply, on one end, which is usually an
artesian well, to a ditch on the other. This row is usually
made out of 4- or 6-inch sewer pipe, the joints cemented
together. The irrigating ditches run in opposite directions
from the head row, between these and the head row we put
in a tiling box as shown in figure number one, only this
figure does not show the hole cut in the side of the box for
the sewer pipe to fit in. You can readily see that water
going into the head row and running through these boxes
can be turned into as few or as many rows as desired, so
that you can either irrigate all of the field or a part of it at
a time. The lower ends of these tiling rows empty into a
ditch which carries off the surplus water. Between the ditch
and the head row are placed stop boxes. I have shown one
of these (figure number three), with the front out, so you
can see the partition which is used for damming the water up
to any required level. For instance, if we plug up hole No.
one, it dams the water up all along the row of tiling from
this box to the head row as high as hole number two; if we
plug holes numbered one and two, it forces the water up
as high as hole number three. If we wish to overflood the
land, which is sometimes done in setting plants, plug up all
three of the holes, forcing the water up over the parti-
tion. You will note in row A and D we have a bucket box
in each, which is double the size of the ordinary stop boxes;
the reason for this is that when setting plants you will need
a great many buckets of water, and it is best to have these
boxes that are large enough to get a bucket into, scattered


I - I rr~s
r I ~
L ~


FIG. 3.


throughout the field, to keep from having to go back to the
vell each time for water. The head row should always
e run along the highest part of the field. This system is
ised very extensively in the Sanford section and gives per-
ect satisfaction. It cost about $75 per acre to install it.
Another system of irrigation consists of running the
after on top of the ground along the side of the vegetable
ows, and last but not least, the Skinner or overhead system.
must confess that even though I use the sub-irrigation
n my own farm, that if I were to put in any more irriga-
ion, it would be the Skinner system. But I will leave the
explanation of this to Mr. T. F. Holdbrook, manager of
e Skinner Irrigation Company of Florida, who was kind
enough to write a special article on it for use in this book.
If you cannot afford either the Skinner or sub-irrigation,
en run the water along the side of the rows in a shallow
itch or trench. This style of irrigation is practiced in the
astings section and the farmers are well pleased with it,
they get perfect results from their crops. If you use this
stem you should have a uniform fall of about three inches
the hundred feet, and you will find you get better results
you turn the water into these trenches every five or six
ays, then in two or three days after give the field a
Irorough working.
The Skinner system of irrigation, which is so largely
ed in Florida, has been developed to a point where it is
probably the most complete and perfect method of watering
t devised.
The efforts of the Skinner Irrigation Company have been
erected toward developing an equipment which would prove
absolute uniformity of distribution in a manner best
apted to the fullest development of the crop and by such,




, method that would place within the hands of the user an
absolute control of his water distribution. Not only has this
been accomplished, but the more recent installations of the
Skinner Irrigation System have entirely eliminated the labor
required in irrigation. Inasmuch as no other system has
ever been devised which has proved these essentials, a de-
scription of the Skinner system and the conditions which
demand such a method of watering are worthy of con-
Probably few growers realize the importance of water-
ing; but scientific men, who have investigated this problem,
are authority for the statement that from 80 to 95 per cent.
of every growing crop is water. This means that at least
four-fifths of every vegetable which is placed on the market
is simply water. It is also worthy of note that from 270 to
6oo pounds of water is taken up by the plant and breathed
into the air for every pound of solid matter that is added to
the plant. These statements are surprising, but they have
)een verified to a degree which removes all elements of
uncertainty regarding their proof. Inasmuch as this is true
1: emphasizes the importance of the correct application and
distribution of water and explains the fact that the irrigated
"rop yields returns from 200 to 500 per cent above the
returns which can be secured from crops which depend
solely upon rainfall.
The users of the Skinner system in Florida state that
an cabbage, which possibly is regarded as the least suscept-
ble to drought, the average unirrigated crop is possibly
worth $150.oo per acre, whereas the average crop irrigated
'ith the Skinner system is worth about $500 per acre. With
rops, such as celery and other valuable products, the com-
arison is even more forcible, and the experience of celery
growers of a year ago has brought out the fact that the


celery crop grown under the Skinner system mature from
three to four weeks earlier and a proportionately larger
yield than the crops which were irrigated by sub-irrigation
methods, with the result that they brought a proportionately
higher price.
The Skinner system consists of a series of lateral pipes
approximately fifty feet apart extending over a field. In
these pipes are inserted nozzles from three to four feet apart,
the nozzles being arranged in a row with absolute uni-
formity, this work being accomplished by means of a drilling
machine designed and patented by the Skinner Irrigation
All special fittings required by this installation have been
developed and patented by the Skinner Irrigation Company,
and are devised in a manner to secure the best results and
most permanent life. Recently there has been developed a
device for rotating these lines from a point in the field, oper-
ating them not only together, but in unison. This saves a
large amount of labor and secures a uniformity of water
distribution not obtainable when each line is operated in-
One of the most recent developments brought out by the
Skinner Company is an automatic turning machine driving
the pumping engine, which rotates the pipes uniformly and
in unison, eliminating altogether the labor involved in irri-
gating. In some sections of the country, where the Skinner
system developed to meet special conditions, there has been
added an equipment for spraying the entire acreage with
fungicides, insecticides and commercial fertilizers. A plot
of ten acres can be sprayed in five minutes' time, and the
work is done better than is possible by hand. A heating
device has also been added for raising the temperature of
the water in order to secure the fullest degree of frost pro-

---- -- -- 1






tection. This. featreq is especially valuabjie,and it has been
demonstrated that during, tlhe,.last winter, in, Texas, crops
have been brought through a three days' freeze accompanied
by a high wind when the thermometer reached a point 16
below freezing.
The Skinner system costs $150 to $250 per acre to
install. It provides a means of water distribution whereby
every inch of soil receives the same amount of water. With
this system earlier maturity of the crop is secured; the labor
of irrigating is eliminated.; frost protection is provided, and
every inch of soil can be made to produce the maximum
crops. Growers are beginning to realize the importance of
the correct water distribution, and it is needless to state
that in the growing sections, where high priced crops are
produced, as is the case in Florida, there is not a crop or a
season when the increased returns, as the result of irrigation
by means of the Skinner system, will not pay the entire cost
of the system. Many growers who have irrigated only a
part of their acreage have reached the conclusion that it is
not profitable for them to grow crops outside of the irrigated
The Skinner system can be seen in use throughout the
entire State of Florida, as well as in all truck-growing sec-
tions of the United States. Its practicability is demonstrat-
ed, and although its use originally was intended simply
to protect against drought, yet, in more recent experience,
it has been shown that the application of water in correct
amounts and at proper times, is a most essential factor in
producing the best crops with the earliest maturity, and
which will obtain the highest market prices.



Since publishing the second edition of this book, I have
had my attention called to a new system of irrigation, in-
vented and manufactured by Mr. J. P. Campbell, of Jack-
sonville, Fla. I have investigated this system very carefully,
finding it an excellent one, and I would advise any of my
readers to investigate it thoroughly, before deciding which
system they will install.
I have had Mr. Campbell get me up a description of
tie system as follows:


The Campbell Automatic Irrigation Sprinkler as illus-
trated on the back cover of this publication, supplies a de-
mand that has existed since the beginning of time for a
method of applying water to crops of all kinds in the form
of natural rainfall, which result has heretofore been im-
possible to obtain.


As will be seen from the illustration, there are two dis-
charge tubes to this machine. The water being forced up
through the main tube of machine is discharged through
the main tube in the same manner as it would be if dis-
charged from a fire nozzle, and is revolved by the reaction
produced by the small stream discharged through the tube
or nozzle emerging from side of machine. This revolving
of the main tube breaks the stream emerging from same
up in small drops at a considerable distance from point of
discharge, and the discharge from the smaller or driving
stream is broken up in the same manner and fills in the
space nearest the stand pipe, which is not covered by the
discharge from the main stream. In other sprinklers the


discharge stream is broken up at the point of delivery, which
reduces the area covered to about one-quarter of that cover-
ed by our machine.


The Campbell Automatic Sprinkler is superior to and
different from any other similar device ever placed on the
market, for the following reasons:
In that it covers four times the area of any other prac-
tical machine, thus saving at least half the usual cost of
pipe and fittings.
In that the water is evenly distributed over the entire
surface covered.
In that both discharge streams are entirely unobstructed
and cannot become clogged by sediment or pipe scale.
In that it is supplied with ball bearings placed on out-
side of machine where the water does not come in contact
with them, and which reduces the friction of operation to
a minimum, thus enabling the machine to be operated ad-
vantageously on low pressures and with inexpensive pump-
ing machinery.
In that the ball races or bearings are made of Tobin
Bronze and are readily removable and replaceable in case
of wear.

When this machine is used for vegetables or other small
crops it is advisable that the lateral pipes be placed 42 feet
apart on both sides of a main pipe running through the
tract to be irrigated, and that the sprinklers be placed 47
feet apart on these laterals, and not square with each other
but staggered, and with this arrangement each sprinkler is
exactly 47 feet distant from all others, and the circular


areas covered will fit into and lap over each other so that
the entire surface will be covered. It is recommended that
.all the main and lateral pipes be of standard black painted
with asphaltum, and buried deep enough to be out of the
way of cultivation. The stand pipes should be 3 to 5 feet
high, and preferably should be galvanized. Stop cocks
should be placed at the intersection with main so that the
entire lateral line can be turned on at one time.


No, 3.



As I have said in a previous chapter, the farming imple-
ments used in Florida differ from those used in other parts
of the country, therefore I think it a good plan to give
my readers some idea of the different implements they will
The first one you will have to buy will be a good horse
plow, the style shown in cut number I works to perfection
in our sandy soil. Of course, you understand, a great deal
of the cultivation on the intensive truck farms is done with
hand plows, but you will have to prepare the land and lay
the furrows off with a horse plow.
Cut number 2 shows an Acme harrow. This I consider
the best harrow on the market for leveling and pulverizing
the land, also for harrowing fertilizer in after it is broad-
The horse cultivator, as shown in cut number 3, is one
of the best implements for working the crops which re-
quire being worked with a horse cultivator. The beauty of
this implement is you can use it in nearly any width row,
as the levers make the frame wider or narrower as you
wish. You can also regulate the depth the teeth go in the
soil by another lever.
Cut number 4 is one of the handiest tools on the market
for the Florida truck farmer. It is a fertilizer drill that not
only distributes the fertilizer in the row, but regulates the
quantity so you can apply any desired amount. If you wish
to plant any kind of small seed or peas and beans, get a
seed drill or a combination seed drill and cultivator as
shown in cut number 5. This combination tool can be used
either as a plow and cultivator, or as a seed drill.


The hand plow, as shown in cut number 6, is an indis-
pensable tool to any truck grower who is raising crops

No. 4.
which require being worked with a hand plow. This cut
shows a single wheel plow. but either a double or a single

No. 5.

wheel plow will give satisfaction. If I had only money
enough to buy three implements for my truck farm, the
first would be a single horse plow, the second an Acme
harrow and the third a hand plow.
The cultivator, as shown in cut number 7, is a tool which
can be used in two ways. You can either remove the handle



from it and bolt it onto a hand plow, or use it on the handle
as shown in the cut. In the Sanford section you will find

No. 6.
about four out of every five growers using this cultivator
attached to their hand plows.

No. 7.

In cut number 8 we have
a hand weeder which is
made on the same principle
as the hand cultivator only
on a miniature scale. It
makes an excellent tool for
working small plants in the
home garden, or for use in
the seed bed.



No. 9.

No. Ic.



I have recommended in nearly every culture in this book,
to spray the crop for either insects or fungous diseases. If
you are growing potatoes, beans, cabbage, cauliflower, etc.,
extensively, you should buy a Four Row sprayer as shown
in cut No. II. This particular make and style of machine
has been given a thorough test by leading Florida truckers,
and found to be an ideal one. If you are only planting on
a small scale the compressed air sprayer, as shown in cut
number Io, will answer all purposes.
The potato planter, as shown in cut number 9, is made
especially for planting in Florida, where ridges are used. It
is used extensively in the potato growing sections and gives
perfect satisfaction. If. you are going to plant potatoes
extensively, one of these planters will soon pay for itself.

No. ii.
Cut number 12 shows a disc harrow, which should also
especially appeal to the potato grower, as it is this tool which
is used for making up the potato beds or ridges.


The Cole corn planter, as shown in cut number 13, is
one which any farmer who plants a large acreage of corn
cannot well do without. It not only plants the corn more

No. 12.
.accurately than it can be done by hand, but in just half the
time. This planter is so arranged that by changing a disc
in the bottom of the seed can, you may plant the corn about

No. 13.
any distance you desire. This machine can be bought with
or without a fertilizing attachment.



The double row marker as shown in cut number 14, is
used to mark off the rows where seed or plants are to be
planted. One side of this marker marks rows one width, and

No. 14.
the other side another width. For instance, if you are plant-
ing lettuce, and wish the rows eighteen inches apart, and
the plants set twelve inches apart in the row, make the
marker with the teeth on one side of it eighteen inches and
on the other twelve inches apart. Stretch a line tightly, the
length you wish the rows, the outside tooth of the marker
is set against it, and the marker drawn to the end of the row,
the other rows are marked from these. The distance in the
Srow is made by marking diagonally across these rows al-
ready made, using the twelve-inch side of the marker.




As this book is written more for the benefit of those not
experienced in Florida trucking, I am not going to recom-
mend your mixing the fertilizer for your crops, for even
after you have had experience in the business unless you
plant a very large acreage, you will find it will pay you
better to buy ready mixed brands. I have tried to give you
an analysis suited to each vegetable which you will be able
to buy ready mixed from any of the large fertilizer factories
in the State, and their mixtures must be good, as a majority
of the most successful truckers in Florida are using them. I
have used fertilizer from the following firms, and found
their brands all they claimed them to be: The E. O. Painter
EFertilizer Co., Independent Fertilizer Co., Armour Fertilizer
Co., and Chas. Tyson & Co., all of Jacksonville, Florida,
and Ocala Fertilizer Co., Ocala, Florida. Any of these will
be glad to give you information concerning their goods and
assist you in any way possible with your fertilizing problems.
A large majority of the most successful growers in the
different trucking sections use at least a ton of fertilizer
to the acre for each crop, and in addition, a ton of Cana-
dian hardwood ashes, and they make it pay. If you are
stingy with your crops, they will be stingy with you in their
A complete fertilizer must contain the following ele-
ments: nitrogen or ammonia, phosphoric acid and potash.
For shipping crops you will find that you will get better
results if the fertilizer contains a good per cent of potash,
as it is this element that gives the vegetables strength to
stand up under their long journey to market.



When you decide what crop you wish to plant, find what
kind of fertilizer is suited to make it to perfection, and give
it just what it needs.
Stable and barnyard fertilizers are excellent for most
crops, if mixed with sufficient potash and phosphoric acid,
as they are a little weak in these two important elements.
You cannot use too much of them, but it will not pay you to
buy stable fertilizer unless you can get it delivered at your
farm for $2 per double team load or less. If you save stable
fertilizer from your own yards, be sure to see that the
pen you store it in has a good cover, as the sun and rain
take all the strength out of it. If you can gather oak leaves
convenient to your place and compost them with the stable
manure, it makes an excellent fertilizer, but you cannot
afford to buy them.
Do not take vegetable matter of any kind off of your
land, but let it die and plow it under as it all helps to make
the soil rich. Cowpeas, velvet beans, rape, vetch and corn
stalks are all good. One thing that I should say right here
is that in plowing under vegetable matter do not turn any-
thing under that shows the least sign of disease, but pull
it up and burn it-the quicker the better.
I know many of my readers who are not experienced
in farming as practiced here, will think I recommend using
too much .fertilizer, arid in order to prove it will pay to feed
your crops well I will give a little example. Suppose we
plant an acre of lettuce, using I,ooo pounds of fertilizer
at a cost of $17.00, the labor and other expenses of raising
the crop amounts to $50.00; we get a yield of four hundred
crates that sell for $I per crate f. o. b. our station; this
will net us a profit of $333.00. Now, if we plant the same
acre in lettuce and use a ton of fertilizer at a cost of $34,
under the same growing conditions, the yield will not be


less than six hundred crates to the acre, and the cost of
labor and other expenses will be the same or even less; for
it is easier and cheaper to grow a well fertilized crop than
a poorly fertilized one. This lettuce sells for the same price
of $I per crate, netting us a profit of $516.oo. Now, we
have a profit from one acre of $333.00 and on the other of
$516.oo, a difference of $183.oo. If any of my readers can
tell me where I can exchange $17.00 for $183.00oo, I would
like to have them do so at once. Ask yourself if it pays to

"Feed your crops well and they will feed you well."


Cow manure (fresh)
Horse manure (fresh) --
Sheep manure (fresh) __
Hog manure (fresh) --
Ien dung (fresh) --
Mixed stable manure

itrogen Ammonia



Potash Acid (PO,)
(K20) Total
0.40 o.16
0.53 0.28
0.67 0.23
0.60 0.19
0.85 1.54
0.63 0.26





To raise good crops, you must have good plants. There-
fore, it is very important to prepare the seed bed land in
the best manner possible. They should be on land that has
not been in cultivation for over two years on new land. Of
course, you can raise plants on the same land for five or ten
years, but you will not get the results you can from one-
or two-year-old land. Try and have the beds close to the
house or barn, as plants demand constant attention, and if
left to themselves for any length of time are apt to ruin;
also have them convenient to the well, as they require plenty
of water. Give the seed bed tract from one to two tons of
Canadian hardwood ashes, and from I,ooo to 1,500 pounds
of fertilizer to the acre. The fertilizers should analyze
about as follows: Ammonia, 6%; available phosphoric acid,
8%; potash, 2%. Always have the fertilizer you use on the
seed bed containing a high per cent. of ammonia, as plants
should be grown in a hurry. You will find some plants
require more fertilizer than the amount just given; for
instance, celery, which needs at least a ton to the acre. A
good rule to follow is to decide just how much fertilizer you
expect to use in the field where the plants are to be set when
taken from the'seed bed, and put about half this quantity
in the seed bed, as you must always have the field richer
than the bed you take the plants from or the crop will not
pay for transplanting, much less for the seed and fertilizer.
Make the beds just wide enough to reach across, and as
Long as you wish. You will find some of the most progres-
sive truck growers using about 500 pounds of castor pomace
to the acre, applying it as the beds are made up. This is
a cheap grade of fertilizer which is poison to the cut worms,


and as they do more damage to young plants than all the
other insects put together, I really think it is a good idea to
use it. Another point I should add here is never use
cotton seed meal as a fertilizer on any land that you wish
to grow plants on, as there is nothing the cut worm likes
better than cotton seed meal. If you wish to protect the
plants in cold weather drive a row of stakes down the
middle of the bed about five feet apart, having one at each
end. Run a heavy wire on the top of these stakes, stretch-
ing it tight. Put up ten or twelve-inch boards, all round
the bed, standing them on edge, and drive iod nails in them,
about every three feet. Stretch a cover of either canvas
or duck over the wire and fasten it to these nails by heavy

The problem of raising plants in a hot bed need not
worry, the trucker in the southern part of the State. In
the northern and central portions, such plants as tomatoes,
peppers and egg plants, when planted in November, Decem-
ber and January, will have to be grown in hot beds. To
grow these plants in the southern portion of the State
during the months named, all that is necessary is to protect
the beds as advised in the article on seed beds. In selecting
a place for the hot bed, try to get a piece of medium high
land as it is necessary to dig a pit nine inches deep under the
bed. If the land is very low, first make up a bed about eight
feet wide and four feet longer than you wish to make the
hot bed, building the frame on top of this. Sash make the
best covering for this purpose. The frame should be as
wide as the sash are long, which is six feet. The length
of the frame depends upon the quantity of seed that are to
be planted. Make the bed as air tight as possible, running
it from east to west, and sloping it towards the south. The



back or northern side of the frame is usually about eighteen
Inches high, and the south side from ten to twelve inches
high. Dig out three inches of the top soil, place this to one
side, next dig out six inches more, banking it against the
frame around the outside. Put about six inches of fresh
stable fertilizer in the bottom of the pit, wet it thoroughly
and pack down. Over this spread the top soil, which you
first removed from the bed, leveling and pulverizing it with
a rake. Now the bed is ready for fertilizing and planting.
It is necessary to keep the hot bed thoroughly moist, from
the time the seeds are planted-until the plants are removed
from it. Try to keep the temperature about 80 degrees in
the bed. If you find it is getting too hot prop up some of
the sash.




No matter how fine a crop you raise, unless you make
some money out of it, your time and labor are lost.
The principal thing is to put your vegetables up in the
best shape possible. Grade them very carefully. Pack in
standard crates and be sure to have the crates clean. You
will find the most successful truckers put their produce up
in first-class shape. The majority have a trade mark for
their fancy stock, and you will find it advisable to do like-
wise; but under no conditions pack anything but extra fancy
stock uder it. If you will do this, it will not be long before
you will have a reputation worked up on your brand, and
can get a good price when other stock not so carefully grad-
ed is hardly bringing freight charges. Choice produce put
up in first-class shape will bring more money than extra
fancy stock that is put up in a shoddy manner. It is best
to try an.: plant enough of one kind of vegetable to be able
tc load a car, for if you have good stock and can load cars,
straight or mixed, you can nearly always sell them f. o. b.
your station, which is much more satisfactory than consign-
ing your shipments. I always make it a point to sell f. o. b.
my station when possible, even taking twenty-five cents a
crate less than the market is offering, for if you take chances
and ship, you run the risk of your shipments going into
market in a poor condition, or having the market drop be-
fore they arrive. If you can not plant a large enough
acreage to ship this way, get several of your neighbors to
go in with you, each planting the same vegetable at the same
time, so that when they are matured you can pool the lot.
Find on2 or two good commission houses on each market,
and when you find a good one stick to it, no matter what kind



of "hot air" some drummer tries to give you. Stick to the
people who have treated you right. Now, a word as to com-
mission men. Don't think all commission merchants are
rascals; of course, there are a great many in this business,
as it offers a fine field for the rascal, but you will find the
majority of them perfectly reliable. Don't take it for granted
because a house writes you on swell stationery, or their rep-
resentatives are nice fellows, and treat you fine, that they are
honest; look every house up before you deal with them; the
honest houses want to be looked up.
There are some vegetables you can ship by freight, such!
as Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes, melons, onions, tomatoes.
and cabbage; but lettuce, celery, okra, cucumbers, egg
plants, cauliflower, pepper, cantaloupes, strawberries, sweet
corn and beets will either have to be shipped by refrigerator
cars or by express. It is always best to ship in'refrigerator
cars, as your vegetables are sure to carry in perfect condition.
If possible, form an association at your point, elect your
most competent men officers, and let them ship or sell all
the produce raised there. If you will do this and get a repu-
tation of putting up first-class packages, you will soon have
the buyers hunting you instead of your having to hunt them.
Put up a good grade of produce, sell f. o. b. your station
if possible, if not, consign only to reputable houses, and you
will find at the'end of the season, if you have had a good
crop and the markets were in any kind of shape, that you
have made money.
Make a study of marketing your crop and you will be
apt t6 make a success of your farming venture.




To the average farmer, in and out of Florida, the above
statement is apt to be doubted, but I have raised four crops
on the same acre of ground at Montrose Farm Trial
Grounds in one season, and if you will be a little patient, I
will try to prove to you that you can do likewise.
To start with, you should have the land in the best con-
dition possible, and it is better to have it sub-irrigated or
irrigated by the Skinner system, if you are going to make a
success of the crops.
The crops we will raise will be two of beets, one of sweet
corn, and one of cow peas. The last crop will pay best if
turned under for fertilizer, as you can use nothing better
for enriching the soil.
We will deal with each crop, in the order which it is
grown. The first thing that has to be done in raising a
crop of beets will be to make up the seed beds. These beds
can be made as long as convenient, and just wide enough to
reach across. They should be free from any sticks, weeds,
stones, or trash of any kind. The best fertilizer to use in the
seed beds is a good article of commercial fertilizer, as weeds
and grass do not grow as fast on it as on stable fertilizer.
It is a good idea to put some castor pomace in the beds.
This is a low grade of fertilizer, which is a preventive for
cut worms, and as they are the principal enemy of the beet,
it is best to use preventive to keep them from getting a
start. The seed should be in the ground not later than
September Ist. They should be planted in rows six inches
apart, and very thin in the rows. Keep them well worked
until they are about six inches high, when they can be trans-
planted to the field. One of the best varieties of beets to





plant is Kennerly's Improved Truckers' Perfection. The
Crimson Globe, Eclipse, Early Model and Egyptian are all
popular kinds.
Some of my readers will ask: "Why don't you plant the
seed where you want the plants to grow?" I will admit it
does look like double work transplanting the plants, but it
is about as much work thinning them out. Replanted plants
make twice as quick, and we are after saving all the time
we can.
Now, while we are letting the plants grow, we will get
the field ready to set them in. As I have said above, you
must get the land in the best condition possible. For ferti-
lizer there is nothing better for beets in the field than good
well rotted stable manure, put on as heavy as you can. Let
me say right here, when growing a succession of crops,
what fertilizer one crop does not get the next one will, and
the succeeding ones will make twice as fast. Besides the
stable fertilizer you should use about a ton of kainit to
the acre, for it not only furnishes what potash the plants
require, but is a good cut worm preventive. After the field
is well fertilized and plowed, it should be gone over with
a home-made board drag to level and pack the ground.
When it is level and packed we will proceed to lay it off
for planting. The first thing to do is to mark off the land
with a wooden rake marker, as advised for laying off the land
when setting lettuce plants. The rows should be eighteen
inches apart, and the plants set three or four inches apart
in the rows. There is one thing to remember in setting
any kind of a root plant, and that is, do not get the bulb
down too deep in the ground, or your labor will be lost. You
must be careful in watering the plant after setting. Do not
pour. the water on the plant, but on the ground at the side of
it, packing the soil well around the roots. It is best to water


them the afternoon they are set, and again early the follow-
ing morning.
After the plants are in the field, they should be left alone
for about two weeks until they are well rooted and have
started to grow. Then go through the middle of the rows
and give them a light application of nitrate of soda, about
150 pounds to the acre, being careful not to get it on the


plants. This makes the beets start off and keep on growing,
otherwise they will loaf for three or four weeks. The pr;n-
cipal thing now is to keep them well worked. There is
nothing better for this purpose than a Planet, Jr., Wheel
plow. (See chapter on Implements.) It is equal to an extra
hand on the farm. About two months after planting in the
field the beets should be ready for shipment.


Beets should be packed with the tops on, as these make
excellent greens. Some markets require the beets tied in
bunches of about four to the bunch; others prefer them
loose. The best crate for packing them in is the barrel,
cabbage crate or the lettuce hamper. The cabbage crate
1 olds about two hundred beets and the lettuce hamper half
as many. There is another flat crate that is used in the Cole-
man (Florida) section, but I do not like it as well as either
of the above named. Care must be taken in packing; shake
all the dirt and trash off the beets before they are put in
the crates, also pull off all the dead leaves. The best way
to pack them is in layers, and be sure to get the crate full,
as they will naturally shake down in transit.
Any of the Southern markets will use beets nearly the
whole season, paying good prices for them. Washington,
D. C., Baltimore, Md., and Philadelphia, Pa., are also good
markets for them.
Now that we have the first crop off, we must prepare
for the second. About a month before this crop was ready
to ship you should have made up the seed beds and sown
another lot of beet seed. You will, in all probability, have
to cover the young plants this time, in case of frost, as they
are very tender until they are about six inches high. This
covering can be easily made by putting a frame around the
bed and stretching a light quality of duck or canvas over
the frame. Treat the second lot of plants the same as you
did the first. Before setting them plow the field several
times, giving it I,ooo pounds of some good commercial ferti-
lizer that will analyze about as follows: Ammonia, 5%;
a, ailable phosphoric acid, 7%, and notash, 8%. Mark the
land off the same as you did before, only making the rows
twenty-four inches apart this time.

lr ~- ~I



When the beets are about half grown, go through the
Middle of every other row and plant sweet corn, Country
Gentleman or Stowell's Evergreen preferred. Treat this
crop of sweet corn as advised in chapter on Sweet Corn.
Ship the second crop of beets the same as you did the first
Now that we have taken three crops off the land,' we
are ready to plant the fourth. First turn the ground over
With a good turn plow and broadcast it in cow peas, either
harrowing or plowing them in. For further directions for
growing this crop, see chapter on Field Crops.
One suggestion I neglected to make in regard to the beet
crop is that in case of a freeze, do not get discouraged if
Sthe plants are killed to the ground, as they will come out.
VWhen they begin to show signs of coming to life, give them
abdut 150 pounds of nitrate of soda to the acre, and you
will lose but little time by this backset.




This is a winter crop and nearly always a money-maker.
It is a quick one, being made in about ninety days from the
seed. It seems particularly adapted to our Florida soil and
climate. It is raised to perfection in all parts of the State
on most any kind of soil, but seems to do best on the gray
hammock land. An acre of good lettuce will usually yield


from five hundred to seven hundred and fifty crates to the
acre. Lettuce like the heads in the picture will run at least
eight hundred crates to the acre, and you can nearly always
get from $I.oo to $2.00 per crate f. o. b. your station. It
is planted any time from the first of September until the
last of February in the central portion of the State; in the

r *!

southern portion from October until January. It requires
an ounce of seed to make about three thousand plants, and
it'-takes from 254oo to 30,000 plants to set an acre.

Make up the seed beds as directed in Chapter VII, having
the rows across the beds six inches apart, and plant not over
one-quarter of an inch deep, as the seed should be planted
very shallow. Some truckers prefer to sow the seed broad-
cast, claiming they get better plants, but if you will sow the
seed very thinly in the row you can make just as good',-
ones; and where you have them in the rows you can keep
te ground stirred, making them grow faster. I prefer to
soak.lettuce seed over night before planting, then mix with
dry sand and sow. This method has two advantages-it
not only makes the seed germinate quicker and better, but
the ants won't bother seeds that have started to sprout;
and any one who has ever tried to raise lettuce in Florida
knows that unless something is done to stop them they
will carry off the seed as fast as you can put it in the
ground, and this is easier said than done. Another method
to keep ants from carrying off the seed is to make up the
seed beds close to the well, and have ditches all round them,
keeping these full of water. In this way you can keep
Sthe ants off the beds entirely. Keep the plants growing
from the time they come through the ground until you
|give them the last working in the field. This can be accom-
plished in the seed bed by constant working with a small
weeder. If the plants turn yellow or get a backset from
any cause, mix up a solution of nitrate of soda and water,
busing one quart of soda to fifty gallons of water, and sprin-
kle the plants with this mixture twice a week until they
turn green and start to growing. When the plants are


-about three inches high they are ready for setting in the
Prepare the land as advised in Chapter II, being sure
to use not less than one ton of Canadian hardwood ashes
to the acre, as this vegetable is very fond of them. In about
Sa week after you have applied the ashes put on the fertilizer.
The following makes an excellent analysis for lettuce:
Ammonia, 5%; potash, 12%; available phosphoric acid,
-9%, using about a ton to the acre, broadcasted and harrowed
in. The best way to lay the land off for planting is in checks.
Make a wooden rake as advised in the chapter on imple-
ments, having the teeth the width you wish the rows apart,
marking the first row by a line and the remainder from this
-one, so.as to get them perfectly straight. These rows are
usually from twelve to eighteen inches apart. Then mark di-
agonally across these rows with a similar marker with the
teeth the width you wish the plants apart in the row, which
is from twelve to sixteen inches.

Set the plants in the row where the diagonal line crosses
it, grade them very carefully, and set only the ones that
:are chunky and have a healthy supply of roots. The best
tool for this work is a plasterer's small poititing trowel or a
dibbler, which can be made from a broom handle about six
inches long, whittled to a point on one end. Most farmers
who plant lettuce very extensively have several men who
-are expert plant setters. The plants are dropped by chil-
dren or women who keep about twelve feet in advance of the
setters. Following the men come children or women, whose
-business it is to water the plants. One of them can water
:.as many plants as two men can plant You will have to


be careful to see that the plants are not put in the ground
Below the bud, for if they are they can not'grow. Make
the water carriers pour the water on the ground at the
rbot of the plant and not on the top of it. This not only
Makes the plant live, but packs the dirt well around the
root. Of course, the setter is expected to pack the dirt
|when he sets the plant, but as the old saying goes, "Every
little bit helps;" and it is impossible to do this work too
When the plants have been set about a week or ten days,
it is time to start working them. Stir the ground very shal-
low at first with the little hoes that come on your hand
plow, being careful not to cover them up. It is impossible
to work the lettuce too much, especially if. you do not have
t planted on irrigated land. But let me say right here that
any farmer who attempts to grow lettuce without irriga-
tion will not have near the success with his crop that he
would have if he used it. It is a good idea to give the let-
ce a little fertilizer at each working or every other work-
&n using about 150 to 200 pounds of the same kind you
at first, to the acre, each time. You will find that a large
jority of the best lettuce growers in Florida give their
ce about 150 pounds of nitrate of soda to the acre just
fore the last working. I have tried this and find that it
works to perfection, not only causing the lettuce to head
up quicker. but making it larger.
In the Gainesville section you will find quite a few grow-
s raising their lettuce under cover. Of course, this costs
ore money, but you run no chance of your crop freezing,
and when all of the outside lettuce is killed by a freeze, it
will be all right and will net the grower handsome returns.


The beds are made up as shown in the picture. It is ad-
visable not to have the beds over twenty feet wide and
ninety feet long, for if wider and longer than this the cov-
ers will be hard to handle. Light canvas or duck makes an
excellent cover.

Cut the lettuce as soon as it has formed solid, hard heads,
as it goes to seed very quickly after maturing if the weather
is the least bit warm. In cutting leave the dirty yellow
leaves on the stalk; if there should be any left on the let-
tuce, pull them off before it is packed. Shake the head
well to remove any sand sticking to the leaves. Do not cut
the lettuce immediately after a rain. In packing pull the
outside leaves over the head as much as possible. The one
and a half-bushel hamper is the best crate for shipping it in.
Pack the first layer in the crate with the heads up and the


next with the butts up, and vice versa until the crate is
filled; the top layer should have the butts up. In packing
always-jar the. crate several times, as this packs the lettuce
down, so the crate will go into market full, which is a
very important thing, as any commission man will tell, you
that a crate of lettuce three-quarters full will not bring more
than half the price that a well packed, full crate will. You'
should make two grades of the lettuce, packing the extra-
fancy to itself and marking it either fancy or with your
trade mark.
The only insect that attacks lettuce in this State is the
green cabbage worm or looper, and a solution of arsenate
of lead and water, mixed as directed in the chapter on in-
secticides and applied with a spray pump will stop them.
The greatest drawback to lettuce growing in this sec-
tion of the country is a disease known among the truckers
as "damping off." This is a kind of mold or fungus which
attacks the plant from the bottom, and is not particular
whether the lettuce is ready to be cut for shipping or half
grown, and it is very destructive. I have seen it destroy
several acres at a time, but-I am thankful to say that there
is a remedy for it, which is nearly an absolute preventive.
Make the lettuce land up in ridges about one to one and a
half inches high, having these ridges the distance apart you
wish the rows, and set the plants on top of them, and in this
way you can keep the ground under the leaves well stirred
until the lettuce is cut, and as long as you keep the soil well
stirred under the leaves the fungus can not form under them.
There are several kinds of lettuce recommended for
planting in Florida for shipping to market, but the Big Bos-
ton, California Cream Butter and the Florida Perfect are the


leading varieties in all the trucking centers. They are large,
hard heading kinds, and make to perfection here. For the
home market and home garden the Hansen is the most pop-
ular and can not be beaten.

is a tall, head.lettuce, which
It is planted, worked and

resembles Chinese cab-
fertilized the same as

other lettuce, but will give an immense yield to the acre. I
have grown it on my own place that only required eleven
heads to fill a bushel and a half hamper, and this is on an
average of over 1,500 crates to the acre, but I would not
recommend truckers planting it very extensively, as it is
not known on all markets and does not always sell well on
the markets where it is known. Plant the self-folding va-







Of all the vegetables that are grown for shipment there
is none that will give you the large returns that this one will;
but again there is none that requires the labor, ferti-
lizer and careful treatment that this crpp does. The San-
ford growers are considered specialists in growing celery,
and I doubt if you will find one of them who nas made a
success of it who does not use at least two tons of high-
grade fertilizer to the acre, besides having his land irri-
gated and drained with the sub-irrigation system. I know
there are some of my readers who will say that the crop
will not pay for this.expense, but from personal experience
I know that it will, and I feel confident that any one visit-
ing Sanford during the shipping season and seeing the re-
turns which the growers are receiving for their crops will
agree with me. Two years ago I was in a ten-acre field
of celery at this point which sold in the field for $12,ooo.
I would not advise a person not thoroughly acquainted with
the culture of this vegetable to plant it extensively until
he has experimented with it on a small scale. You can
learn how to grow it by planting an eighth of an acre just
as well as you can by planting ten acres, and if you make a
failure you will not be out much money.

Sow the seed any time from the Ist of August until the
Ist of November, using only the Golden Self-Blanching
variety, and making certain that the seed are French grown.
as the American-grown seeds are apt to give you a crop of
hollow stalk celery, which is absolutely worthless.
Make up the seed beds as advised in Chapter VII, having



the rows across the bed six inches apart. Sow the seed
thinly in these rows, but do not cover with sand. After the
bed is all planted cover with ordinary burlap bags, which
have been cut open. Wet this covering twice a day until
the seed has started to sprout, which is usually from ten to
fourteen days after planting. As soon as you notice the seed
putting on little white sprouts, remove the burlap bags and
cover the beds with a half shade made of laths or cheese
cloth put over it in tent shape. I would advise giving the
plants a little more sun each day until they become hardened
to it, when the shading can be entirely removed. Celery
plants are very hard to raise, and the wise grower will plant
about three times as much seed as it takes to grow the re-
quired number of plants. Under favorable conditions a
half pound of seed will make enough plants to set an acre.

This is one subject which it seems impossible for celery
growers to agree upon. Some growers claim it does not pay
to prick plants, while others, just as successful, claim it is
the only method to follow. As for myself, I prefer to prick
out the plants. This is done when they are about two inches
high. Make the rows across the bed the same as you did
when you planted the seed, but set the plants about three-
quarters to one inch apart in the row. The best tool for
pricking is made from an ordinary piece of wood three or
four inches long, whittled round; drive a piece of stiff wire
about three inches long, into this stick. With this tool in
one hand a celery plant in the other, place the wire on
the root, pressing it in the ground as deep as you wish the
plant to be set, being careful not to cover the bud. Women
and children are more adapted to this work than men. Im-
mediately after you finish pricking them, they should be


watered with a fine sprinkling pot. This kind of setting is
usually paid for by the thousand. In about three weeks'
time after the plants are pricked out they are ready to be
transferred to the field; that is if they have been watered
daily and well fertilized. If for any reason your plants do
not start growing as quickly as you think they should, make
up a solution of nitrate of soda and water, using one quart
of soda to fifty gallons of water, and apply to the plants
with a fine sprinkling pot twice a week. If you do not care
to prick the plants, you should cut them back several times
and in this way make them chunky. An ideal celery plant
when it is ready for the field should be the size of your little
finger and about five inches high, having plenty of white,
healthy roots.
The first thing to do is to apply all the stable fertilizer
you can get on the land, or if you cannot get the stable fer-
tilizer, give it a ton of pulverized sheep manure, plowing
it under well. Next lay the field off in furrows thirty
inches apart, and drill a ton of celery special fertilizer in
them, mixing thoroughly with the soil as you cover it. The
following is an excellent analysis for this vegetable: Am-
monia, 7%; available phosphoric acid, 5%; and potash,
io%. In about ten days' time you will be ready to set the
Make two sizes of the plants, putting the large ones in
one row and the small ones in the next, and vice versa
through the field. To make the rows straight, stretch a
line from one end of the furrow to the other, then run a
wheel marker with plugs in the tire the width you wish the
plants apart, which is usually three to four inches, down the
line. The best tool for setting the plants is a plasterer's


pointing trowel, as advised for setting lettuce plants. Pack
the dirt well around the roots. You should be careful to
see that the plant setters do not set them too deep in the
ground. Water immediately after setting. It requires about
60,000 plants to an acre. Lettuce is often raised between
the rows of celery, as it matures very quickly and will not
be in the way of the celery plants.

The roots of the celery burn very easily, thus causing
the plant to blight; therefore this crop should be cultivated
and fertilized deeply to keep the roots from feeding close
to the surface. After the plants have been in the field about
four weeks give them a second application of fertilizer, us-
ing I,ooo pounds to the acre-the same kind as you used
before. Apply this fertilizer in a furrow from five to six
inches from the plant. The majority of growers give their
crops fertilizer every ten days, using one which contains a
high per cent. of ammonia, some prefer nitrate of soda;
others dried blood or blood and bone. If you see any signs
of hollow stalk, give the field an application of high grade
When the celery is from ten to twelve inches high it
is ready to board, but before doing so I would advise going
through the patch and remove any suckers you find grow-
ing on the plants. Use pecky cypress boards about twelve
inches wide. It is best to have these boards in short
lengths standing them on each side of the rows, using stakes
to hold them up, or holding in position with cross strips
tacked on top of the boards. If you wish to blanch the crop
in a hurry, slant the boards toward each other at the top,
shutting out most of the light, being careful not to bruise


the tops of the celery. It will require about ten days or
two weeks to blanch it perfectly.


In cutting the celery leave some roots on the stalk, as
this will make it keep better. Remove all the brown or
spotted leaves. Ship in celery crates, packing in layers, put-
ting all the butts at one end. Grade the celery very closely.
Four to six dozen stalks to the crate is considered fancy,
and will bring the highest price; six to eight dozen is classed
as choice. When celery is not bringing extra good prices,
ship only the choice and fancy sizes; but if it is scarce and
wanted badly, also ship the smaller sizes. Always mark on
the crate the number of dozen stalks it contains. There are
two styles of crates on the market. They are known as the
Sanford and the Manatee. I prefer the Manatee, as it only
contains a few more stalks than the Sanford crate, but has
the appearance of holding several dozen more. It seems
to be more popular with both commission merchant and the

The greatest enemy of the celery crop is blight; therefore
you should use every possible means to try and prevent it.
Spray the crop with Bordeaux mixture from the time the
plants are pricked out, until it is ready to board. If you
find the young plants damping off badly in the seed bed
dust them with powdered sulphur. If black heart or, as it is
sometimes called, black rot, attacks the celery, the only rem-
edy is to try and get the crop shipped before it can spread;
but do not ship any diseased stock, for it will rot before
reaching the market.



A few celery growers in different parts of the State pre-
fer to plant celery in block beds; but I cannot say that I
thoroughly approve of this method, although I have seen
extra fancy celery grown in this way. To grow block bed
celery, raise the plants the same as advised in the first part
cf this article. Make up the beds four feet wide and as
long as you wish. Apply at least three tons of celery special
fertilizer to the acre, as they are made up. You will note
1 am advising you to fertilize very heavily. My reason for
this is that you will plant over double the number of plants
to the acre; therefore it is necessary to increase the fertilizer
in proportion. Another point I wish to bring to your atten-
tion is that it will be impossible to raise the celery in block
beds unless your land is irrigated. Make the rows six inches
apart, either running them lengthwise or across the bed.
Set the plants six inches apart in the rows. It is only when
the plants are small that you will be able to work them,
and for that reason you will have to give them all the
cultivation possible at this stage. In blanching, it is only
necessary to board the outside rows on the beds. When the
crop is matured, pack and ship as already advised.


While the tomato is grown very extensively in all parts
of Florida, the lower East Coast is what might be called the
tomato section. In this part of the State they can grow
tomatoes the entire winter, and make good money out of
them. Many a rich East Coast tomato grower came to Flor-
ida without a cent in his pockets, and had to get some one
tc run him until he made his first crop. There is no other

~I,!;- A

Florida crop that will give you as generous returns for the
money and labor invested as this one will. Another thing
that should make the tomato appeal to the new settler in
Florida is that it does fine on new land that has just been
cleared, and there are very few crops that can be grown
on this kind of land until the sourness is removed from it.


The secret of success in tomato growing is to have the pla
unchecked from the time it comes out of the ground unt
it starts putting on fruit. A check to a tomato vine is never
fully overcome. The plants may seem to outgrow it b
you will find its productiveness has been lessened. No dou
you have had tomato fields yourself that had fine, health
looking vines, but would not put on any fruit, and yo
wondered what was the matter with them. Such condition
are caused either by the plant being checked in its gro
or too much fertilizer in the seed bed, and not enough in th
field. Tomatoes do better on irrigated land, as there is som
time during its growth that it demands a great deal of wa
ter, and then there are other times when water will ruin th
crop, where if the field is irrigated, you can furnish the wa
ter just as it is needed.
The tomato is not particular as to the kind of land it
planted on. It will thrive on land varying in every degr
from the whitest sand to the blackest muck, provided yo
have the land in perfect condition, and give it all the fert
lizer it requires. Of course, every one has his own idea a
tc what kind of soil is best suited to this vegetable, but i
I were buying land to raise tomatoes on, I would choose
piece with a sandy loam for a top soil, underlaid with
subsoil at a depth of about eighteen inches.
Sow the seed in beds, either broadcasting them or plant-
ing in rows across the beds about six inches apart, sowing
the seed very thinly in the row. It requires a quarter of aJ
pound of seed to produce enough plants to set an acre. If,
you are farming in Southern Florida, you can plant anyi
time from September until January. In Middle and Northj
ern Florida make your fall planting in July-and August, and


your spring planting from the middle of December until
February. You will have to raise the spring plants either in
hot beds or cold frames. When all danger of frost is over
transplant the plants to the field. They should be from six
to eight inches high and set in the ground nearly up to the
bud. Make the rows four or five feet apart, setting the
plants from two to three feet apart in the row.

The Florida tomato growers are very progressive and
Will only plant a variety as long as there is nothing better
to be had. At present the Livingston's New Globe seems
to be the favorite in all sections, and I really think it de-
serves its popularity, as it certainly is a beautiful tomato,
stands shipment exceedingly well, and seems suited to all
sections of the State. The Livingston's Beauty, Redfield's


Beauty, Acme, Stone, Matchless, Paragon, Duke of York,
Earliana, Kennerly's Florida Gold Mine, Dwarf Champion
and Early Detroit are all popular varieties.
You will find if you give the land where you wish to set
the plants a ton of Canadian hardwood ashes to the acre,
broadcasted and harrowed in, then lay it off in furrows the
width you wish the rows apart, and put about 1,200 pounds
of any good brand of tomato special fertilizer, that will an-
alyze about as follows: Ammonia, 5%; available phos-
phoric acid, 4%, and potash, 9%, in the furrows, mixing
the fertilizer and soil well together, that you will make an
excellent crop.
Tomatoes do not require the work that some other crops
do; they need only shallow cultivation. Keeping the weeds
down, and the surface of the soil open, is all that is neces-
While I can not say that I fully approve of pruning to-
matoes, never having been able to satisfy myself as to
whether it pays for the expense or not, I think it is a good
idea to give a short treatise on it, in case some of my read-
ers should care to try it. After the plants have recovered
from transplanting and started off to growing again, remove
all the suckers except the one which you will find just be-
low the first fruit stem. Watch your patch closely, re-
moving any other suckers you should find. As soon as four
or five hands of fruit have been set on the sucker and main
stalk, top the plant. This checks its growth, allowing all
the strength to go into the fruit, which will give you heavier
and more perfect specimens. While you will not make as
large a crop by pruning, you will find that two-thirds of it


will be fancy stock. Another matter I might speak of here
is staking. If you desire, to stake the plants, use sticks
about three feet long, driving them about four or five inches
from the plant and tying to it with soft twine. Staking
prevents the fruit from rotting and sun burning, also keeps
the cut worms from eating it.

Grade the tomatoes very carefully. Fruit that runs about
twenty-four to a four-quart basket or one hundred and
forty-four to the crate is classed as fancy, that is if they
are free from spots, cracks or blemishes of any kind. The
second grade should run about 180 to the six-basket carrier,


and if you will be careful to pack nothing but smooth, choice
fruit, this grade should bring nearly as much as the fancy.
Always mark on the crates the number of tomatoes they
contain. I would not advise shipping culls unless tomatoes
are unusually scarce and bringing very high prices.
If you are shipping the fruit any distance, it should be
picked before it is fully ripe. During the cold weather leave
it on the vines until you notice a faint tint of red on it, but
in warm weather pick the fruit as soon as it turns white.
You will have to handle the fruit very carefully; if any are
bruised, throw them out. Wrap the tomatoes in paper and
pack in four-quart baskets, which in turn are packed in six-
basket carriers.
The principal disease that affects the tomato in Florida
is the blight. I do not believe there is any remedy for this
after it takes hold of a plant, but if you will spray the
plants with Bordeaux mixture from the time they are about
four inches high until they begin to form their fruit, after
it is formed use ammoniacal copper carbonate, as Bordeaux
mixture may stain the fruit, you should not have any trou-
ble. Smutty or black face is another fungous disease you
have to contend with in this section, but it is not nearly so
common as the other, and the same remedy will help it.
Some truckers recommend using as a source of potash fer-
tilizer, muriate of potash, claiming it prevents all kinds o
fungous diseases. Do not under any conditions plant toma
toes on land that has had a diseased crop on it. The toma
worm is very troublesome some seasons, but if you
keep the plants sprayed with a mixture of arsenate of le
and water, as directed for spraying cabbage, you can kee
them from doing any harm.




As these three vegetables require about the same soil,
fertilizer and general culture, I am going to treat them in
the same chapter.
Of the three, cauliflower is the most sensitive to bad
treatment, and while it is worked and fertilized the same as
the collard and cabbage, it takes more fertilizer, and if given
any set back it is apt to yield a poor crop; and a poor crop
of cauliflower is as bad as no crop at all. To succeed it
should be planted on well prepared land with not less
than a ton of fertilizer to the acre. Another point in
which it differs from the cabbage is that when it begins to
head the leaves should be drawn over the head and fastened
with a small wooden pin (toothpicks are excellent for this
purpose), so as to protect it from the sun, while the cab-
bage head takes all the sun it can get-the more the better.
In shipping the cauliflower you should be very careful to
pull the leaves well over the heads, as it bruises and rots
quickly. Pack in lettuce hampers, as they make a nice size
package, which are not apt to tear up in transit.
The Old Georgia Collard will grow in all parts of Flor-
ida any time of the year, with scarcely, if any fertilizer. It
oes not pay to ship, but is known as the Colored Man's
cabbage, and if tied in bunches, sells well on any of the
ida markets. It also makes excellent greens for chick-
s, and the beauty of the collard is that you don't have
take the plant up to sell it; all that is necessary is to
11 or cut the leaves off and in a few weeks you can come
kto the same plant and pull the leaves again. It comes
ine about the middle of the summer, when all other
vegetables are gone. You can hardly find a home of


a colored man in Florida without seeing collards in the
yard. Any of the above named vegetables do better if the
plants are raised in seed beds and transplanted when they
are about four inches high. In the Northern and Central
portions of the State plant the cabbage and collard seed any
time from September Ist until February; the cauliflower for
a fall crop in September and October, for a spring crop in
December and January. In Southern Florida plant any of
them from September until January or February. Make the

'.;" i


seed bed as advised in Chapter VII. It requires about a
half-pound of seed, of each, to produce plants enough to
plant an acre.
Now, as to the best varieties, the Early Snowball seems
to be the most popular and makes fine size shipping cauli-
flower. The Jersey and Charleston Wakefield are the best
of tle pointed head cabbages and seem to be the favorites
with many Florida truckers. If you prefer the flat head


varieties, any of the following will make fine shippers: The
Early Flat Dutch, Early Summer, Kennerly's First Early,
Succession, Surehead, Large Flat Dutch, Danish Ballhead
and the large Late Drumhead. The Old Georgia Collard
is the leading variety.
When the plants are ready to set they should be put out
immediately, as a stunted plant is sure to make a poor crop.
The field where you are going to set the plants should be in
the best condition possible. (See chapter on Preparation of
the Land.) It should be plowed several times, then har-
rowed. If you wish to broadcast the fertilizer it should
be applied before you harrow it; but I would advise putting
the fertilizer under the row where you set the plants. To do
this, lay the field off in furrows the width you wish the
rows; some prefer them two and a half feet apart, while
others prefer the three-foot rows. Apply the fertilizer in
these furrows, using about i,ooo pounds to the acre. Of
course, you could make a crop with less, but it does not pay
to be stingy with fertilizer, as both the cabbage and the
cauliflower are rank feeders. I prefer to put i,ooo pounds
the furrows and then drill an equal quantity to them after
ey start to grow. The following makes a fine fertilizer for
other the cabbage, cauliflower or collard: Ammonia, from 4
S5%; available phosphoric acid, 6 to 8%; and potash 8 to
0. I always like to have plenty of potash in the fertilizer
r these crops. Apply it about two weeks before you are
dy to set the plants. If you will do this and give them all
e work and water they require, the chances are you will
smiling when you figure up the profits on the crop.
Jn setting the plants it is well to get them down fairly
in the ground. I set them up to the first leaves. The
tool for this purpose is a plasterer's small pointing
el or a round stick or dibbler. (See chapter on Lettuce.)


Pack the dirt well around the roots and water the plants
immediately after setting, pouring it at the side of the plant
and not on it. The distance to set the plants depends upon
the variety of cabbage you are planting, the early and small
varieties only requiring about eighteen inches between the
plants. The cauliflower and collard are set the same dis-
tance as the early cabbage. The other varieties of cabbage
require about two feet between the plants.
Start working the plants as soon as they take root, and
do not stop until the heads are about formed. Ship both
the cabbage and cauliflower as soon as the heads are fully
grown, as you may lose the crop by leaving it in the field
after it matures.
If the crops do not grow fast enough to suit you or start
to turn yellow at any stage of their growth, give them an
application of nitrate of soda, about 150 or 200 pounds to
the acre, drilling it in the rows about six inches from the
plant, ':iing careful not to get it on them, as it burns.
Ship the cabbage in barrels or, better still, barrel cab-
bage crates. You can get these from any Florida crate
The only insect that will be apt to bother these vege-
tables is the green cabbage worm or looper, and a solution
of arsenate of lead sprayed on the plants will fix them, using
about one and a half pounds of arsenate of lead to 50 gal-
lons of water.


If any one doubts that the Irish potato will grow to
perfection in Florida, let him visit the Hastings section
during the shipping season. The farmers at this point ship
from 200,000 to 250,000 barrels during this time, which
lasts about six weeks. Several years ago the majority of
the potatoes grown in Florida for shipment were raised in
this section, but the growers in different parts of the State
have found by experimenting that they can raise just as
fine quality of potatoes as can be grown at Hastings, as they
seem to do well on most any kind of Florida soil. Of course,
like other vegetables, they will do better on soil particularly
adapted to their requirements, which, in this case, is a rich,.
sandy loam.
For a Fall crop in the Northern and Central portions of
the State plant in August and September; for a spring crop,.
from January Ist until the middle of February. For a fall!
crop in Southern Florida plant in October; for a spring crop
from December Ist until the middle of January. One point;
to be remembered is that the seed you plant in the spring:
will have to be Northern grown stock, New York and Maine,
preferred. While in the fall, Florida-grown seed saved!
from the spring crop should be planted.
Plow the ground several times; and when I say plow, 1"
mean as deeply as the soil will allow. The potato roots deep-
and wants the ground stirred to a depth of at least ten-
inches. If the land is low, as is some of the best potato
land in the State, care should be taken to have a sufficient
number of ditches to carry off the surplus water in case of


heavy rains. While it is not absolutely necessary to have all
the trash removed from the land, the chances are the better
you prepare the soil the better success you will have with the
crop. Another matter which I might speak of here is irriga-
tion. Of course, a crop can be made without it, but it is best
to have the potato land irrigated, for you will find it not only
increases the yield, but will make the crop more certain.
The Hastings farmers have irrigation ditches through their
fields; these answer for two purposes; they carry off the
surplus water in wet weather, and during the dry season,

if the ends of the ditches are closed up, and the well turned
into them, they furnish a perfect irrigation system. If
the land is low I would advise planting on beds three or
three and a half feet apart. First, partially throw up the
beds with a disc harrow leaving a trench or hollow in the
top of them; apply the fertilizer, drilling it in this trench,
using a ton to the acre that will analyze about as follows:
Ammonia, 5%; available phosphoric acid, 8%; potash, io%.
Next finish making up the beds with the disc, covering


the fertilizer well. Do not use lime or ashes on the land
you wish to plant in potatoes. If the land will not overflow,
it is not necessary to plant on much of a bed; just make a
furrow, put the fertilizer in and cover.
There are only two varieties of seed that are planted ex-
tensively in the potato sections. They are the Spaulding's
Rose No. 4, and the Red Bliss Triumph. While other vari-
eties may do all right, but these have been given a thorough
test by leading potato growers and found to be the ideal
varieties for Florida. In the Hastings section the growers.
will not plant anything but the Spaulding's Rose No. 4. For
a fall crop, as I have said before, plant the Florida grown
seed, using the whole potato. While for a spring crop,.
where Northern-grown stock is used, the seed has to be cut.
Be careful to see that each cutting contains two good eyes.
and is large enough to furnish nourishment for these eyes
until the cutting puts on roots or feeders. Care should be
taken in selecting seed stock, as everything depends on it,
Do not use any seed that shows the least sign of blight;-
or if scabby, it should be treated before it is planted. It will
take about four barrels or sacks to the acre.
This is usually done with a potato planter as shown in
the chapter on Implements, but it can be done by hand with.
the aid of a hoe; although, if you have many acres to plant,.
a planter will soon pay for itself. Plant the seed about-
twelve inches apart in the row and cover well.
About a week after the seed has been planted it is a good
idea to go through the field and level the top of the beds.
with a board scrape fastened on a horse plow or with a
horse weeder, killing the weeds and grass that have started.


In working the potatoes always throw the dirt to them so
that at the last working they will have a good wide bed, as
it is in this bed the potatoes are made. In case of a freeze,
if the vines are not too large, plow dirt over them, removing
it as soon as the cold is over.
While there are several machines on the market for dig-
ging potatoes, there are none that give the results that you
.can get from the colored man and the potato hoe. One of
the advantages in digging by hand is that you can grade
them as they are dug.
Have the potato barrels in the field, putting the potatoes
in them as soon as they come out of the ground. Cover
them with grass or potato vines until you are ready to put
the head in the barrel. This is done with the aid of a hand
barrel press. Be sure that you have the barrel well filled.
Make three grades of the spuds, fancy, number 2 and num-
ber 3, or culls. Ship only the fancy and number 2, saving
the number 3 for eating and fall seed.
Some very successful potato growers contend that it
does not pay to spray, but you will find a majority of the
most successful growers spraying their crops as regularly
as they work them, and their fields are always free from
blight, which is the greatest enemy of the potato in Florida.
The best spray to use is the old reliable Bordeaux mixture.
If any eating insects attack the vines, spray with arsenate
of lead, but you will hardly have to do this, as the potato
has very few, if any, insect enemies in this section of the
country. Examine the potato seed very carefully and if
you find scabby stock among them, soak for two hours in
the following solution: Formalin eight ounces, water fif-
teen gallons.


I cannot say that the sweet potato originated in Florida,
but I will sayl this, that there is no country in the world
where they produce better crops or grow them with less
work and fertilizer than they can in our own State. The
Florida farmer has not given this valuable vegetable the
attention as a shipping crop in the past that he will in the
future. The Hastings farmers ship them by the car load
every season, and many of them have assured the writer
that there is no crop they can plant that pays them as well
as this one does, taking into consideration that it requires
less work and fertilizer than other crops do, and is raised
at a time when they are through with their winter and
spring crops.
Plant the seed in hot beds, transplanting the draws to
the field when they are from tweve to fourteen inches long;
cutting the vines from these to plant the acreage.
Plant about the first of January in Northern Florida, and
December Ist in Southern Florida. Dig a pit 14 inches
deep and as large as you wish, according to the number of
potatoes you intend to plant. Put about six inches of fresh
stable fertilizer in the bottom of this pit; cover with two
inches of sand; next comes the potato seed, with a cover-
ing of one and a half inches of sand; then two inches of
stable fertilizer on top of this. When they start to sprout
give them another layer of dirt one and a half or two
inches thick, thus completing the bed. As soon as all danger
of frost is over, which is about the first or middle of March
in the Central portion of the State, transplant these draws
to the field.



Make up the field in beds about ten inches high and two
feet across, having them rounded from the crown; put
about I,ooo pounds of sweet potato special fertilizer in these
beds as they are made up, mixing well with the soil. In
about two weeks' time the field will be ready for planting.
The best way to do this is to drop the plants on the top of
the bed, leaving a distance of about eighteen inches between
each one, placing a forked stick on the middle of them, push-
ing them down deep, so as to leave about two inches of
each end of the vine sticking out of the ground. As soon
as these start to running, cut off slips fourteen inches long
and plant the balance of the patch the same as you did the
first part. Cultivate just enough to keep the weeds down
until the vines start to grow.

The Nancy Hall, Providence, Norton Yam and Porto
Rican Yam are the most popular varieties.
Dig the potatoes when you are ready to ship them. They
can be allowed to remain in the ground for quite a while,
after they are matured, as they keep well. Ship in sacks
or barrels.


This has become one of the leading vegetables for Flori-
da growing. It stands shipment to distant markets re-
markably well. In the Central portion of the State, it is
one of the principal spring crops.
The time for planting varies according to the section of
the State you are farming in. In the Northern and Cen-
tral portions for a fall crop plant in August; for a spring
crop from January until March. In the Southern part of
the State from September until January. During the winter
months the truckers in this section supply the Northern
markets with nearly all the cucumbers used, and realize
good profits. Of course there are quite a few hot house
cukes raised in different parts of the country during the
winter, but these never interfere with the sale of the Flori-
da open air grown cukes. Hardly a year goes by that you
will not find cucumbers bringing $6.00 or more per crate,
sometime during the season. Of course, you understand
this is only when they are very scarce. If a grower can
average even $I.oo a crate f. o. b. his shipping point, he
can make good quick money out of this crop, as 6oo crates
to the acre is only an average yield. Some truckers go so
far as to claim they can raise i,ooo crates to the acre, but
to do this all conditions will have to be perfect and the
crop raised on irrigated land.
Prepare the land as directed in Chapter II. As cucum-
bers are over 90 per cent. water, it is very essential that
the land be irrigated. The majority of large growers prefer
the Skinner Overhead system, but either this or sub-irriga-
tion will work to perfection. If your-land is low, plant on


beds eight feet wide; if not, plant on the level. If you
prefer to use hills, do not make them very high. In plant-
ing cukes, whether on new land or old, or if following
another crop, aways give the field an application of Cana-
dian hardwood ashes broadcasted and harrowed in, using
about I,ooo pounds to the acre. In about a week's time,
apply the cucumber special fertilizer. If you are planting on
beds, apply the fertilizer in rows where you expect to plant
the seed. If in hills, work the fertilizer in with the soil, as
the hill is being made up, using about 2 pounds to the
hill. Use any good make of cucumber special fertilizer,
that will analyze about as follows: Nitrogen, 6%; available
phosphoric acid, 7%; and potash, 8%.
If planting on beds, make the rows four feet apart and
plant the seed three feet apart in the rows. If in drills, make
them three by four feet. You will note that I plant cucum-
bers closer than the majority of truckers. My reason for
this is that you do not get many pickings off a cucumber
vine in this State before it is apt to become affected with
either blight or mildew and then stops bearing, that is why
I prefer to get more vines to the acre, and be contented
with fewer pickings. Plant about eight seeds to a hill, as
they rot very badly if the weather is not just to their liking.
If you should have too many plants, it is much easier and
better to thin them out than to replant; for a replanted
patch will start bearing at different times, making it hard
to get shipments. A good idea is to make three plantings,.
making the first one the distance given above; the second,
which should be about fifteen days later, in the same row,
half way between the first plantings; the third planting ten
to fifteen days later, in the same row between the first and
second plantings. In this way you have three distinct:


crops of cucumbers coming on. If the first and second
should be killed, the third will be apt to come through all
right, and in this way much valuable time is saved. If
none of the plants are killed you are that much better off,
for when all danger of frost is over you can cut up all but
the oldest plants.
The Improved Perfected
'l /. White Spine is the most
popular variety. It has a
L J medium vine, fruit about six
.... ... inches long, and about two
'- and a half inches in diameter,
and spines white. It holds its
S dark green color a long time
after shipping. The Early
M T A L Fortune is a very popular
kind, its color dark green, and
is an exceedingly heavy bear-
N''..,,l* er, popular with both truck-
SFANCY ers and consumers.
The Davis Perfect is an-
other excellent variety, being
IMP. PERFECTED WHITE SPINE long and slim. If wrapped
CUCUMBERREADYFOR SHIPPING and packed in tomato crates
these will sell for very fancy prices, as they resemble the
hot-house grown stock.
Keep the soil well stirred, working the plants both ways.
If you wish to hurry your crop, give it two applications of
nitrate of soda, 150 pounds to the acre at a'time, fifteen
days between the applications.


One of the most important points in growing cucum-
bers is to keep the fruit picked as fast as it matures, for a
matured cucumber left on the vine takes as much strength
from it as four or five growing cukes would. Do not pull
the fruit, but cut it from the vine with clippers. It is a
good idea to go over your patch daily, and do not under
any condition let it go longer than three days without
Pack the fruit in bushel hampers, being sure to have
them well filled, but do not bruise the cukes. Make two
grades of them, fancy and choice. If you have a good
home market you should be able to dispose of the culls at
a fair price, but I would not advise shipping them undei
any condition, as they seldom bring freight charges.

This vegetable has more than its share of trouble from
insects and fungous diseases. The aphis is the hardest of
the insects to fight, as it gets on the under side of the leaves,
where it is hard to reach with an insecticide, but if you
will keep the plants well dusted with tobacco dust from the
time they put on their third leaf until they finish bearing,
you should not have any trouble. Do not use tobacco dust
made for fertilizer, as it is too strong; get the kind pre-
pared especially for this purpose. If you have an exception-
al case which the tobacco dust will not remedy, spray with
whale oil soap solution (see chapter on Insecticides).
Should caterpillars or any kind of worms attack the
vines, spray with arsenate of lead and water, using about
one and a half pounds of lead to fifty gallons of water.
For fungous diseases keep the plants sprayed with Bor-
deaux mixture, applying every ten days from the time the


plant puts on its third leaf until your last picking. You.
will find it much easier to prevent blight and mildew
than to cure them.


A great many truckers prefer to plant cucumber seed
in paper pots or quart strawberry baskets, putting these in
hot beds or cold frames, where they can be protected, let-
ting the plants grow there until all danger of cold is over.
If you start them in this manner you may plant the seed
at least six weeks earlier than you can where you plant
them in the open ground, and by maturing the crop from a
month to six weeks earlier you are apt to increase your
returns from $200.00 to $500.00 per acre,


In case it is impossible to have the cucumber field irri-
gated, buy a number of fifty-gallon barrels, oil barrels
are best for this purpose; scatter these through the patch,
four or five to the acre; fill them up with water, using one
and a half quarts of nitrate of soda to each barrel. Make
a slight depression in the ground about six inches from
the cucumber plants, and pour a small cup of liquid into it
once or twice a week. Several children with buckets and
cups can cover quite a bit of ground in an hour, but you
must be careful to see that the solution does not touch the
vines. This method will not only furnish the vines what
water they need, but will double the yield and make your
crop from ten days to two weeks earlier.

*-*'- ANv *



As the culture of the watermelon and the cantaloupe are
so much alike, I think it best to treat them in the same
The South is the home of the melon, and there is no
section of it that will produce any better or larger crops
than can be grown in our own State. The melon likes a
rich, sandy loam soil and plenty of warm sunshine. This
kind of soil abounds here, and as to the warm sunshine,
there is no country under the sun that has more of it than
you can find right here in Florida. This crop is raised
very extensively in all parts of the State, but it is only in
the Southern portion that it can be grown during the win-
ter months. In the Northern and Central sections it is
planted in the early spring. Make your first plantings in
January and from then any time until May. If you wish
to force the crop, read the directions for forcing cucum-
bers, as this will apply equally as well to the melon.
Plow the land several times as deeply as possible with-
out turning up the sub-soil, then harrow thoroughly. For
cantaloupe lay the field off in beds six feet wide and apply
the fertilizer in a continuous line along the middle of the
beds, using about a thousand pounds to the acre, which
should analyze as follows: 5 to 7% ammonia; available
phosphoric acid, .7 to 9%; potash, 5 to 7%. For melons use
the same fertilizer, only apply it as you make up the hill,
using from two to two and one-half pounds for each one,
mixing with the soil. It will be impossible to do this work
ton thoroughly. As soon as the plants of both the melon
and the cantaloupe start to grow give a second applica-


'tion of fertilizer, using about five hundred pounds of the
same kind, putting it about two feet from the plants to
make them reach out after it. Never move the vines after
;they start to run, as this is apt to bruise them and lessen
the yield.


Plant the cantaloupe seeds in a straight row about four
feet apart along the middle of the beds, putting about six
seeds to the hill. When the plants come up and start to
grow, thin them down to two plants to the hill. For plant-
ing the watermelons lay your land off in checks eight to ten
feet each way and plant in the checks. If the land is low,


plant the seed in hills above the level of the field; but if
it is medium high land plant on the level. Put the same
number of seed to the hill as you do for cantaloupes, thin-
ning as soon as the plants start to grow. If you wish to
have extra early melons and cantaloupes, plant in paper
pots as advised for cucumbers.
The Florida Favorite and the Tom Watson are the most
popular varieties of the watermelons for shipping, al-
though the Duke Jones and the Kolb Gem are well liked in
some sections. The first two named are long melons while
the last two are round. For the home garden and local
markets there is no melon that will give you better results
than you can get from the standard oblong melon, Kleck-
ley's Sweet. Florida grown watermelon seeds give the best
results here. Since the first issue of this book came out, two
new melons have been introduced, and both deserve men-
tion. One is the Invincible or Anti-Wilt, a melon that is
proof against the melon wilt, and can be grown on the same
land indefinitely. The other, Kennerly's New Shipper, is
one of the best eating, shipping and selling melons I have
ever seen. As the picture shows it is an oblong round mel-
on, if such a term can be used. Has a thick rind, insuring
good shipping qualities, and is so thick through that it real-
ly has more meat in it than the thin rind melons. I may be
wrong, but I would not be surprised to see this melon take
the place of the popular Watson melon.
The genuine Rocky Ford cantaloupe is the standard va-
riety planted in all the trucking sections of the State, and
makes to perfection. There is a new Rocky Ford variety,
which should be of special value to the Florida growers.
It is the rust and blight-resisting Rocky Ford cantaloupe.
As its name implies, it is immune to rust and blight, and as

____ '0

* a''.,

iL; i i L

L '


these are the principal enemies of the cantaloupe in Flori-
da, it should make this new melon the most popular variety
ever introduced to the Florida truckers. For home use and
local markets, the Redland Giant, Late Large Hackensack,
Jenny Lind and Montreal Market are all good. Plant noth-
ing but Colorado grown seed; no matter if you have to pay
double the price, the crop will more than make up for the
difference in the price of the seed, in the quality of the
Give the ground frequent shallow cultivation, with a
tooth harrow. All that is necessary is to keep the soil well
open to let the warm air and sunshine in. It is a good idea
when the vines are about three or four feet long, to nip
off the ends. This makes them put on laterals which make
a larger mass of vines, and causes them to fruit quicker. If
you find the vine putting on too many small melons, pinch
off some of them; this will make the fruit that you leave
larger and better.
Ship the melons before they are fully ripe, just as soon
as they are matured. Leave about an inch of stem on
them, as they will keep better, and when they reach mar-
ket the merchant can cut off some of the stem, making
the melons appear freshly picked. Pack the cantaloupes
in cantaloupe crates, packing each size to itself. Great
care will have to be used to keep from bruising them. Pack
the watermelons in cars, using plenty of pine straw in the
bottom and on the sides, also the ends of the cars. Pack
carefully to keep them from moving around in transit.
Some growers say to pack the small melons on the bottom
layer, as they will stand the weight better than the larger



The same insects and diseases attack these crops that
attack the cucumber, and the remedies advised for that crop
apply here. If the plants start to damping off when young,
dust them with powdered sulphur. This disease is gener-
ally caused by excessive moisture and improper drainage,
and if these conditions exist you cannot remedy it, only let
it be a warning to you when you plant your next crop to
see that the land is thoroughly drained.


Both the vine and the bush squash seem suited to our
soil and climate, but I would not advise any one to plant
them extensively, for it is only when they are very scarce
that they pay at all. When plentiful you cannot give them
The White Bush, Kennerly's Improved Early Proli-
fic White Bush and the Golden Summer. Crookneck are
the best of the bush kind; the Boston Marrow and the Hub-
bard of the vine varieties. In the Crescent City section some
truckers claim they have made big money raising the Bos-

ton Marrow for shipment to Boston. They plant them in
their orange groves, and it costs very little to raise them.
Plant, fertilize and cultivate the bush varieties as direct-
ed for tomatoes, and the vine varieties as directed for can-
taloupes and cucumbers.
The same class of insects attack the squash that attack
the cucumber, and if you will follow the course of treat-


ment advised in the chapter on cucumbers you should have
no trouble from them.
Carrots grow to perfection here and take the same cul-
tivation, fertilizer and treatment as the beet. They do not
sell as well, although there are times when they will pay
if bunched and shipped in lettuce hampers or barrels; but.
I would not advise anyone to plant them extensively for
**.i jAiLIV/




market. They are very healthful and make a fine vegeta-
ble for the home garden. They can be grown here the en-
tire season with the exception of the summer months:
June, July and August.


The best varieties for both home garden and shipping
are the Half Long Danvers, Chantenay and a new kind,
the Coreless. It requires about four pounds of seed to
plant an acre.

Peas are one of the easiest crops we can raise in this
State, and usually pay well. They are planted very exten-
sively in the large trucking sections in the Central portion
^ "- ;., '^ .. ''- i !

I i'l, 'I.

i "-- i I
..?I \ ,l^ -,",-;

S ,, t ,,-70
ON^ ^^ ^t:1?^^
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of the State. They do well on most any kind of soil if it
is warm and properly drained.


Prepare the land as advised in
the chapter on bean culture, and
OIL plant the same as you do beans. I
would advise planting the seed in
double rows, as the vines support
each other. You. can plant any time
from September first until March.
These directions apply to all sec-
tions of the State. The only time
that cold hurts peas is when they
are in blossom, then it -only de-
stroys that crop, and if you will
give the plants an application of
nitrate of soda in the rows, using
1|1 about 200 pounds to the acre, it
will be but a short time before you
will have another crop of peas on
the vines. It takes about two bush-
Sels of seed to plant an acre.

'' For shipping, plant the varieties
4 that do not require staking. The
Alaska, Kennerly's First Early,
Nott's Excelsior, Premium Gem,
KENNERLY'S IST EARLY Gradus or Prosperity and the Bliss
Everbearing are the most popular.
For home use plant the tall varieties. The Telephone, Mar-
row and the Alderman are all good kinds.
Cultivate and fertilize as advised for beans. (See chap-
ter XXI.)


Do not let the peas mature, but pick them the minute
the pods are full, as they get hard very quickly and a hard
pea is worthless. Pack in bushel bean hampers, putting
them up as nicely as possible. The pea ruins in transit very
quickly, and, if possible, should be shipped in refrigerator
cars; but if you have not enough to ship in this way send
by express, never by freight.

The pea is very hardy, but if fungous diseases attack
it, spray with Bordeaux mixture; for the worms, spray
with arsenate of lead.

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