Title: Geographical, statistical, historical map of South America
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003679/00001
 Material Information
Title: Geographical, statistical, historical map of South America
Alternate Title: Complete historical, chronological, and geographical American atlas being a guide to the history of North and South America,and the West Indies:...to the year 1822 according to the plan of Le Sage's atlas, and intennded as a companion to Lavoisne's improvemnt of that celebrated work.
Physical Description: 1 map. : col ; 24 x 29 cm. on sheet 45.4 x 55.6 cm.
Language: English
Creator: H.C. Carey & I. Lea (Firm)
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Publication Date: 1822
Subject: Maps -- Early works 1800 to 1900 -- South America   ( lcsh )
Early Maps -- South America -- 1822   ( local )
Early Maps -- South America -- 1822   ( local )
Genre: single map   ( marcgt )
General Note: "no.46"
General Note: Drawn by E. Paguenaud.
Funding: Funded in part by the University of Florida, the Florida Heritage Project of the State University Libraries of Florida, the Institute for Museum and Library Services, and the U.S. Department of Education's TICFIA granting program.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00003679
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002854942
notis - ANY6036
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Full Text



South America is divided into the following countries:
Countries. Square miles.
Republic of Colombia, 1,350,000
Guiana, 90,000
Peru, 495,000
Brazil, 3,060,000
United Provinces of South America, 1,440,000
Chili, 175,500
Patagonia, 400,000


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The population and extent of the different countries have never been
accurately ascertained, but may be estimated nearly as in the above


Of the Discoveries in South America.

It was not until his third voyage that the continent of America was dis.
covered by Columbus. Sailing from Spain on the 30th of May, 1498, he ar-
rived on the 19th of July within five degrees of the line, when his ships
were becalmed, and the heat being excessive, most of the liquor was
spoiled, and the provisions became corrupted. Such was the heat that the
seamen were afraid that their ships would take fire; but these fears were
relieved by a seasonable and heavy fall of rain. The eastern part of New
Andalusia is celebrated as having been the scene of the first continental
discoveries in the new world. The first land discovered on this expedition
was the island of Trinidad, which was so named because Columbus had
made a vow to give the appellation of the Trinity to the first land he should
meet, and also because three mountains were observed at the same mo-
ment. This happened on Tuesday, the 31st of July, and having butone cask
of water left, they landed at Punta de la Playa, where the necessary, sup-
plys were obtained.
On the first of August, while plying between cape de la Galua (the
first cape they made) and Punta de la Playa, Columbus discovered the
main land twenty-five leagues distant, but imagining it another island, he
named it Isla Santa. The channel between Trinidad and Isla Santa was
named Boca del Sierpe, and the next day he sailed into the lower channel
and called it Boca del Draso They were so styled on account of the vio-
lent and hissing noise which the current of an immense river made in
rushing towards the ocean. Columbus concluded that so vast a body of
water as this river contained could not be supplied by an island, and con-
sequently that he was now arrived at that continent which it had long
been the object of his wishes to discover. The place at which he landed
was called by the inhabitants Parea. He found the people to re-
semble those of Hispaniola in their appearance and habits. They wore
as ornaments small plates of gold, and pearls of considerable value. The
admiral was.so delighted with the beauty and fertility of the country that
he fancied it to be the paradise of the scriptures. Being informed that
pearls were found in great abundance among some islands to the west he
steered in that direction, and discovered the isles of Margarita, Cubagua, and
others. On the 16th of August he stood to the north-west and anchored
on the coast of Hispaniola soon afterwards.
In the following year Alonzo de Ojeda, an attendant of Columbus in his
second expedition, set out from Spain with four ships which the merchants
of Seville had equipped. He adhered to the same route that Columbus
had taken, arrived on the coast of Paria, traded with the natives, proceeded
westward as far as cape de Vela, and returned by way of Hispaniola to
Spain. Among the adventurers on this voyage was AMERIGO VESPUCCI, a
native of Florence, and an experienced navigator, who had a considerable
share in directing the operations, and on his return published an account
of his discoveries. As this was the first description that had appeared of
any part of the new world, he was considered as the discoverer of the
whole continent; in process of time it came, apparently by general con-
sent, to be called after his name. In the same year Alonzo Nigno, who had
served under Columbus, fitted out a single ship, and sailed to the coast of
Paria, but effected no discovery of importance. Soon after Nigno's expe.
edition, Vincent Yanez Pinzon sailed from Palos with four ships and crossed
the equinoctial line, but landed on no part of the American coast beyond
the mouth of the river Maranon. In the succeeding year the coast of
Brazil was discovered by Pedro Alvarez Cabral, who, sailing to the East
Indies by the Cape of Good Hope, stood out to sea in order to avoid the
variable winds on the African coasts, and kept so far to the west that he
came in sight of a part of the American coast, of which he took posses-
sion for the crown of Portugal.
The spirit of discovery now pervaded all ranks in Spain. Rodrigo de
Bastidas fitted out two ships in company with John de la Cosa, the most
skilful pilot in the kingdom. Having touched at Paria, he proceeded west-
ward and discovered all the coast of Terra Firma, from cape Vela to the
gulf of Darien. Not long after this, Ojeda and Amerigo Vtspucci set out
on a second voyage, following the track of Bartidas, and visited the same
places without making any additional discoveries. In 1513 a discover' of
greater importance was made: Balboa, the governor of a small colony
settled at St. Maria, in Darien, happening to display a great eagerness for
the acquisition of gold before a young Indian, was informed by him that
at the distance of six days journey to the south, there was another ocean,
near to the shore of which was a region in which gold was so com-
mon that the meanest utensils were formed of it. This was the first in-
formation that the Spaniards had received concerning the opulent country
of Peru. Balboa, elated with the prospect of the discoveries before him,
was impatient until he could set out on this enterprise, in comparison with
which all former exploits appeared inconsiderable. Having collected a
number of volunteers from Hispaniola he set out upon this important ex-
pedition, on the 1st of September, about the time when the periodical
rains began to abate. Though their guides had represented the breadth
of the isthmus to be only a journey of six days, they spent twenty-five in
forcing their way through the woods and mountains. At length, when
they were almost ready to sink with fatigue, the Indians assured them that
from the top of the next mountain they should discover the ocean, the ob-
ject of their wishes. When they had climbed up the greater part of the
ascent, Balboa commanded his men to halt and advanced alone to the sum-
mit, that be might be the first to enjoy the sublime spectacle. As soon as
he beheld the mighty Pacific rolling its eternal waves beneath him, he fell
on his knees, and lifting up his hands to heaven, returned thanks to Provi-
dence for having made him the instrument of so beneficial a discovery.
His followers observing his actions, rushed forward to join in his transports
of joy and gratitude. They then advanced to the beach, and Balboa en-
tering into the waves, armed with buckler and sword, took possession
of the ocean in the name of the king his master, and vowed to defend it
with his arms against all his enemies. To that part of the Pacific ocean
which he first discovered, Balboa gave the name of the Gulf of St. Michael.
It is situated on the east of Panama, and still retains the appellation.
From the natives of the vicinity he obtained a considerable quantity of
pearls, and some gold, and received information corroborating the intelli-
gence he had previously gained of the existence of a mighty and opulent
kingdom in the south east. Anxious as Balboa was to visit this unknown
country, his prudence restrained h m from attempting to invade it with
a handful of men, and he determined to lead back his followers to their
settlement at St. Maria, and to return the next season with a more ade-
quate force. In this expectation, however, he was disappointed, and the
discovery and conquest of Peru were reserved for another.
Two years after this, discoveries were made in another quarter. De
Solis, a skilful navigator, having received the command of two ships, sailed
along the coast of South America, entered the Rio Janeiro, and afterwards
proceeded to the La Plata. In endeavouring to make a descent in this
country, he was slain by the natives, and the survivors of the crew returned
to Europe. In the following year Sebastian Cabot explored the coast as
far as Brazil. Tre vast extent of country, however, whose coast had been
thus traced, remained uncolonized by any European power, with the ex-
ception of a few Spanish settlements, for almost a century from the time
I of its discovery.





South America is situated between N. lat. 12 30' and S. lat. 55 30', and
from 350 to 810 W. long. It is bounded north by the Caribbean sea and At-
lantic ocean; east and south by the Atlantic ocean; west by the Pacific
ocean; and on the north-west it is connected with North America by the
isthmus of Darien. Its greatest length from north to south is 4570 miles,
and its greatest breadth 3320. The area is estimated at 7,010,500 square


There are two extensive ranges of mountains, one running along the
western, and the other along the eastern coast. The Andes, or great
western range, commencing at the straits of Magellan on the southern
extremity of the continent, run in a northerly direction to the isthmus of
Darien, and are generally parallel with the shore of the Pacific ocean, at
the distance of from 50 to 200 miles. In different parts of its course it
varies greatly in its general aspect. Sometimes it consists of one entire
mass, while at others two or three distinct ridges appear, separated by
longitudinal allies. In Chili the Andes are about 120 miles broad, and
consist of a great number of mountains, all of them of prodigious height,
and appearing to be chained to each other. In Peru they divide into
three ridges, which continue to about the 6th degree of S. lat. where
they are united into a single chain. They again divide on entering New
Granada, into two distinct ridges, which inclose between them a longitu-
dinal valley 200 miles long, 20 or 30 broad, and elevated 9000 feet above
the level of the sea. Farther to the north, about the 2d degree of north
latitude, the Andes divide into three separate ranges: the western is the
proper Andes, and passes into North America over the isthmus of Darien;
the eastern, called the chain of Venezuela, pursues a northeasterly course,
and, winding along the shores of the Caribbean sea, terminates on the gulf
of Paria, opposite the island of Trinidad ; the middle range runs north be-
tween the rivers Magdalena and Cauca, The most elevated part of the
Andes is the double ridge in New Granada, which abounds with colossal
summits, the highest of which, the celebrated Chimborazo, rises to more
than 20,000 feet above the level of the sea. In Chili, Peru, and New Gra-
nada, the loftiest peaks form one row of volcanoes, many of which are in
a state of constant eruption.
The eastern range of South American mountains, sometimes termed
the Brazilian Andes, runs along the coast of Brazil from about 12 to 32?
south latitude.

Owing to the peculiar construction of South America, no river of any
magnitude flows from it into the Pacific ocean, the Andes forming a con-
tinued barrier along the whole western coast. For the same reason no
important stream enters the Atlantic between 120 and 3: S. lat. More
than three-fourths of all the water which falls on this continent is carried
to the ocean through the channels of the three great rivers, the Orinoco,
the Amazon, and the Plata.
The Orinoco rises in lat. 5 north, and long. 650 west. Its course is
very crooked, somewhat resembling the figure 6. For the first 300 miles
it runs from north to south. It then turns, and proceeds in a westerly di-
rection for several hundred miles, to St. Fernando, where it receives from
the south-west the Guaviari, a very considerable river. Here it turns
northward, and, after receiving the Vichada from the west, pours its wa-
ters down the cataracts of Atures. These cataracts are 740 miles from
the mouth of the Orinoco, and 760 from its source, and completely obstruct
the navigation. At the distance of 90 miles below the cataracts, the river
is enlarged by the junction of the Meta, one of its principal tributaries,
which is 500 miles long and navigable 370 miles. About ninety miles
below the mouth of the Meta, the Orinoco receives from the west the
Apura, a large and deep river, 520 miles long, having numerous and wide
spreading branches, and more rapid than the Orinoco, into which it emp-
ties its waters by many mouths. After receiving the Apura it turns, and
running about 400 miles in an easterly direction, divides into many branch-
es, and discharges its waters into the ocean by 50 mouths, the two most
distant of which are 180 miles apart. Only seven, however, are navigable,
and but one of them, the southern, called the Ship's mouth, for vessels of
more than 200 tons. All the rivers which rise on the southern declivity
of the chain ot Venezuela, and on the eastern declivity of the Andes be-
tween the parallels of 20 and 90 N. lat. are tributaries of the Orinoco. It
thus forms the channel which conveys to the ocean the waters of an im-
mense valley, extending from east to west about 1000 miles, and from
north to south, in many parts between 5 and 600.
The dmazon, the largest river in the world, rises in Peru, between two
ridges of the Andes, in about lat. 160 south, under the name of the Apuri-
mac, and, after running in a northerly direction through five degrees of
latitude, is joined by other branches, and forms the Ucayale. The
Ucayale runs north 60 more, and unites with the Tunguragua, and forms
the Amazon. It then runs in a direction a little north of east completely
across the continent, and discharges its waters underthe equator by a mouth
180 miles wide, after a course of more than 4000 miles. The tide flows up
400 miles, and the river is navigable to the very foot of the Andes. The
principal branches of the Amazon from the south are 1. The Tunguara-
gua and Ucayale already mentioned. 2. The .Madeira, the principal tribu-
tary of the Amazon, rises in the United Provinces near Potosi, about 200
S. lat. and passes under various names into Brazil, where it is joined by
numerous other rivers, and makes its way in a north-easterly direction to
the Amazon, into which it falls after a course of more than 2000 miles. 3.
The Tocantins which discharges itself into ihe Amazon near its mouth,
after a northerly course of about 1500 miles. Its principal tributary, the
Araguay, rises between the parallels of 18" and 190 S. lat. The other
principal tributaries of the Amazon from the south are the Jutay, the Ju-
ruay, and the Puros, which join it between the Ucayale and the Madeira ;
and the Tapajos and Xingu, which join it between the Madeira and the
Tocantins. The principal rivers which fall into the Amazon on its north-
ern bank, beginning in the west, are the JV'apo, the Putumayo or Ica, the
Jupura and the XVegro. The Negro is remarkable for sending off a branch
towards the north, which, under the nane of Cassiquiari, falls into the
Orinoco, and thus unites the Amazon with that mighty stream. All the
rivers which rise on the eastern declivity of the Andes between the par-
allels of 20 N. lat. and 200 S. lat. are tributaries of the Amazon. Not a
single brook rises in all this distance which does not contribute to swell
its waters. he valley of the Amazon is thus more than 1500 miles long
from north to south ; from east to west it is more than 2000: and its area
may be estimated at 3,000,000 square miles, or nearly half of South Ame-
The Plata is a very broad stream, formed by the Uruguay and the Pa-
rana, which unite near lat. 34 S. It is more properly the mouth or estu-
ary of these two rivers, as it is no where less than 30 miles broad, and at
its entrance into the ocean between the parallels of 35 and 36, expands
to the width of 150 miles.
The Uruguay, the eastern branch of the Plata, rises on the western de-
clivity of the Andes of Brazil, and pursues a south-westerly course of more
than 1000 miles, for the last 200 of which it is navigable.
The Parana, or western branch of the Plata, is formed by the union of
several small streams, which rise on the western declivity of the Andes of
Brazil, between 18 and 210 S. lat. It runs on the whole in a south-west-
erly direction for about 1000 miles, till it receives the Paragua) from the
north, when it turns to the south, and after a further course of 500 miles
joins the Uruguay.
The Paraguay is formed by several streams which rise between the
parallels of 13 and 14 S. lat near the head waters of the Tapajos, the
Xingu, the T'ocantins and other tributaries of the Amazon. It pursues a
southerly course through nearly 14 degrees of latitude, and joins the Para-
na under th< parallel of 27 S. lat.
The Pilcomayo and the Vermejo, the principal western branches of the
Paraguay, both rise in the Andes between 20 and 23 S. lat. and pursue
a south-easterly course of more than 1000 miles.
The Saladillo is a considerable stream which rises in the interior of
Buenos Ayres, and joins the Plata about 50 miles from its mouth, after a
south-easterly course of several hundred miles. The valley of the Plata
thus includes the extensive country bounded west by the Andes of Chili,
north by the Andes ot Chiquitos, and east by the Andes of Brazil, em-
bracing more than two-thirds of Buenos Ayres and the southern part of
Brazil, and covering an area of about 1,300,000 square miles.

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