Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Arabian hospitality, etc.
 Remarkable instance of courage...
 Indian field sports
 Death of Sir John Moore
 Persian tyranny
 Sketches in Virginia
 The Christian slave
 Violent earthquake in Calabria
 Escape from a ship on fire
 Anecdotes, etc.
 Extraordinary escape from...
 Adventure in the desert, and murder...

Group Title: Darton's holiday library
Title: The book of enterprise and adventure
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003544/00001
 Material Information
Title: The book of enterprise and adventure being an excitement to reading for young people
Series Title: Darton's holiday library
Alternate Title: Book of enterprise
Physical Description: 143, <1>, 35, <1> p. : ill. ; 15 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Dalziel, George, 1815-1902 ( Engraver )
Irwin, William ( Printer )
Absalon ( Illustrator )
Darton & Co ( Publisher )
Publisher: Darton and Co.
Place of Publication: London
Manufacturer: Wm. Irwin
Publication Date: 1853
Copyright Date: 1853
Edition: New and condensed ed.
Subject: Adventure and adventurers -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1853   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1853
Genre: Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Engalnd -- Manchester
Statement of Responsibility: with illustrations by Absalon.
General Note: Publisher's advertisement follow text, also on the endpapers and flyleaves of both the front and back covers.
General Note: Ill. engraved by G. Dalziel.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00003544
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA4916
notis - ALG2616
oclc - 45964361
alephbibnum - 002222374

Table of Contents
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Arabian hospitality, etc.
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Remarkable instance of courage in a lady
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Indian field sports
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Death of Sir John Moore
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Persian tyranny
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Sketches in Virginia
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    The Christian slave
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Violent earthquake in Calabria
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Escape from a ship on fire
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    Anecdotes, etc.
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
    Extraordinary escape from drowning
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
    Adventure in the desert, and murder of a Sheikh
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
Full Text

Now Publishing,

A. Complete Iotliday Library,
Illustrated by John Absolon.
N% 2. TAKE CARE OF No. 1, or Good to Me
includes Good to Thee, by S. G. GooD-
RICH, Esq. (the original Peter Parley).
Illustrated by Gilbert.
by Mrs: BuBnuRY. With Illustrations.
by "' Adelaide," one of the amiable
Authoresses of Original Poems."
With Illustrations.
No. 6. PAULINA, a Tale from the German.
With Illustrations.
No. 7. HOUSEHOLD STORIES. With llus-
ADVENTURE; or, An Excitement
to Reading. Illustrated with Wood
Engravings, from. Designs by Absolon.
No. 11. BOOK OF RIDDLES. &c.

J. Werthimer A Co., Prin tersFinabury Cirwns.







The Baldwn Library
^K im ^K ojf

~,1~CT~"IC ~;L~iClr~L_~_~%p( J'

81 I

THE name of DAI TON has been for so very many
years connected with the publication of Children's
Books, that the Proprietors do not consider it to
be necessary to say much respecting the present
undertaking ; especially as, in addition to this
* circumstance, the Authors engaged to write the
Volumes are all of well known and estatished
reputation. They feel confident that the litert
*< + character of the Series will be of the highest excel-
lence, while the subjects of ;he Works will be such
as to combine to the greatest possible extent in-
)l* struction and amusement. They pledge themselves,
in addition, that the style of getting up shall not
be inferior to that of any books for young people.
The only object of stating even so much, is to
call on the purchasers of children's books to look
Sat the Volumes for themselves. If they can obtain
this end, they will be quite content to let them
stand or fall by their own merit.













(ntrr rit r

anh Uutrture;




THE object of this Volume is that of in-
ducing young people to read, co cultivate in
them a habit of reading and reflection, and to
excite the imagination, the feelings, and the
better emotions of their nature in a pleasur-
able and judicious manner.
The pieces selected are such as will be likely
to exert a beneficial influence upon the reader,
to inspire him with heroic enthusiasm, and to
lead him to despise danger.
In our perpetually migrating population, no
one can tell who will not be called upon to
brave the vicissitudes of "flood and field;"
a 2


and to show how perils may be surmounted,
and privations endured with energy and pa-
tience, is to teach no unimportant lesson.

Nothing whatever has been introduced into
this Volume, but such subjects as will teach a
dependence upon Divine Providence, in aid
of self-reliance and self-sacrifice, while details
of war and bloodshed have been studiously




Hospitality of the Arab .
Horrors of African Warfare
Crocodile Shooting .


Method of Catching Birds
The Hyena
The Bear
Sagacity of the Elephant
Anecdotes of the Tiger


S 9
S 16


S 26
S 30



. 46

Rock Bridge,
Wier's Cave .






The Albatross .
Visit to a Penquin Rookery .
The Sea Elephant .
Visit from the- Tatives at Terra Del Fuego
Chillan mode of capturing Wild Horses
Fight between a Whale and a Killer
War Dances of the New Zealanders
History of Paddy Connel .






. 135





truhiu -aun pitaliti-- friran Warfarr, ~:r.

The following three extracts are from a work of con-
siderable merit, entitled "The Crescent and the
Cross." It contains, not only much valuable mat-
ter relative to Egypt and Abyssinia, but many in-
teresting anecdotes, of which we give a specimen.

IN 1804, Osman Bardissy was the most influ-
ential of the Mameluke Beys, and virtuallygo-
verned Egypt. Mehemet Ali, then rising into
power, succeeded in embroiling this powerful
old chief with Elfy Bey, another of the Mame-


The latter escaped to England, where he was
favourably received, and promised assistance
by our government against Osman, who was in
the French interests. At this time a Sheikh
of Bedouin stood high in Osman's confidence,
and brought him intelligence that Elfy had
landed at Alexandria. Go, then," said the
old Bey, c" surprise his boat, and slay him on
his way up the river; his spoil shall be your
reward." The Sheikh lay in wait upon the
banks of the Delta, and slew all the com-
panions of the rival Bey: Elfy himself escaped
in the darkness, and made his way to an Arab
encampment before sunrise. Going straight
to the Sheikh's tent, which is known by a
spear standing in front of it, he entered, and
hastily devoured some bread that he found
there. The Sheikh was absent; but his wife
exclaimed, on seeing the fugitive, I know
you, Elfy Bey, and my husband's life, per-
haps at this moment, depends upon his taking
yours. Rest now and refresh yourself, then
take the best horse you can find, and fly. The
moment you are out of our horizon, the tribe



will be in pursuit of you." The Bey escaped
to the Thebaid, and the disappointed Sheikh
presented himself to his employer. Osman
passionately demanded of him if it was true
that his wife had saved the life of his dead-
liest enemy, when in her power. "C Most
true, praised be Allah !" replied the Sheikh,
drawing himself proudly up, and presenting
a jewel-hilted dagger to the old Bey : "" this
weapon," he continued, C" was your gift to
me in the hour of your favour; had I met
Elfy Bey, it should have freed you from your
enemy. Had my wife betrayed the hospi-
tality of the tent, it should have drank her
blood; and now, you may use it against my-
self," he added, as he flung it at the Mame-
luke's feet. This reverence for-hospitality is
one of the wild virtues that has survived from
the days of the patriarchs, and it is singularly
contrasted, yet interwoven with other and
apparently opposite tendencies. The Arab
will rob you, if he is able; he will even mur-
der you, if it suits his purpose; but, once
under the shelter of his tribe's black tents,



or having eaten of his salt by the way-side,
you have as much safety in his company as
his heart's blood can purchase for you. The
Bedouins are extortionate to strangers, dis-
honest to each other, and reckless of human
life. On the other hand, they are faithful to
their trust, brave after their fashion, temper-
ate, and patient of hardship and privation be-
yond belief. Their sense of right and wrong
is not founded on the Decalogue, as may be
well imagined, yet, from such principles as
they profess they rarely swerve. Though
they will freely risk their lives to steal, they
will not contravene the wild rule of the de-
sert. If a wayfarer's camel sinks and dies
beneath its burden, the owner draws a circle
round the animal in the sand, and follows the
caravan. No Arab will presume to touch that
lading, however tempting. Dr. Robinson
mentions that he saw a tent hanging from a
tree near Mount Sinai, which his Arabs said
then been there a twelvemonth, and never
would be touched until its owner returned in
search of it.



THERE appears to be a wild caprice amongst
the institutions, if such they may be called,
of all these tropical nations. In a neighbour-
ing state to that of Abyssinia, the king, when
appointed to the regal dignity, retires into an
island, and is never again visible to the eyes
of men but once -when his ministers come to
strangle him; for it may not be that the proud
monarch of Behr should die a natural death.
No men, with this fatal exception, are ever
allowed even to set foot upon the island,which
is guarded by a band of Amazons. In another
border country, called Habeesh, the monarch
is dignified with the title of Tiger. He was
formerly Malek of Shendy, when it was in-
vaded by Ismael Pasha, and was even then
designated by this fierce cognomen. Ismael,
Mehemet Ali's second son, advanced through
Nubia, claiming tribute and submission from
all the tribes. Nemmir (which signifies tiger),
the king of Shendy, received him hospitably,
as Mahmoud, our dragoman, informed us,



and, when he was seated in his tent, waited
on him to learn his pleasure. "" My pleasure
is," replied the invader, that you forthwith
furnish me with slaves, cattle, and money, to
the value of 100,000 dollars."-" Pooh !"
said Nemmir, you jest; all my country
could not produce what you require in one
hundred moons."-" Ha Wallah !" was the
young Pasha's reply, and he struck the Tiger
across the face with his pipe. If he had done
so to his namesake of the jungle, the insult
could not have roused fiercer feelings of re-
venge, but the human animal did not shew
his wrath at once. "C It is well," he replied;
" let the Pasha rest; to-morrow he shall have
nothing more to ask." The Egyptian, and the
few Mameluke officers of his staff, were tran-
quilly smoking towards evening, entertained
by some dancing-girls, whom the Tiger had
sent to amuse them ; when they observed that
a huge pile of dried stalks of Indian corn was
rising rapidly round the tent. What means
this ?" inquired Ismael angrily; am not I
Pasha ?"-" It is but forage for your high-



n ess' horses," replied the Nubian; for
were your troops once arrived, the people
would fear to approach the camp." Suddenly
the space is filled with smoke, the tent-cur-
tains shrivel up in flames, and the Pasha and
his comrades find themselves encircled in what
they well know is their funeral pyre. Vainly
the invader implores mercy, and assures the
Tiger of his warm regard for him and all his
family; vainly he endeavours to break through
the fiery fence that girds him -round; a thou-
sand spears bore him back into the flames,
and the Tiger's triumphant yell and bitter
mockery mingle with his dying screams. The
Egyptians perished to a man. Nemmir escaped
up the country, crowned with savage glory,
and married the daughter of a king, who soon
left him his successor, and the Tiger still de-
fies the old Pasha's power. The latter, how-
ever, took a terrible revenge upon his people :
he burnt all the inhabitants of the village
nearest to the scene of his son's slaughter,
and cut off the right hands of five hundred
men besides. So much for African warfare.



THE first time a man fires at a crocodile is an
epoch in his life. We had only now arrived
in the waters-where they abound; for it is a
curious fact that none are ever seen below
Mineych, though Herodotus speaks of them
as fighting with the dolphins, at the mouths
of the Nile. A prize had been offered for the
first nman who detected a crocodile, and the
crew had now been two days on the alert in
search of them. Buoyed up with the expec-
tation of such game, we had latterly reserved
our fire for them exclusively; and the wild-
duck and turtle, nay, even the vulture and
the eagle, had swept past, or soared above,
in security. At length the cry of "" Timseach,
timseach !" was heard from half-a-dozen
claimants of the proffered prize, and half-a-
dozen black fingers were eagerly pointed to
a spit of sand, on which were strewn appa-
rently some logs of trees. It-was a covey, of



crocodiles! Hastily and silently the boat was
run in shore. R. was ill, so I had the enter-
prise to myself, and clambered up the steep
bank with a quicker pulse than when I first
levelled a rifle at a Highland deer. My in-
tended victims might have prided themselves
on their superior nonchalance; and, indeed,
as I approached them, there seemed to be a
sneer on their ghastly mouths and winking
eyes. Slowly they rose, one after the other,
and waddled to the water, all but one, the
most gallant or most gorged of the party. He
lay still until I was within a hundred yards of
him; then slowly rising on his fin-like legs,
he lumbered towards the river, looking as-
kance at me, with an expression of counte-
nance that seemed to say, "6 He can do nme
no harm; however, I may as well have a
swim." I took aim at the throat of this super-
cilious brute, and, as soon as my hand stea-
died, the very pulsation of my finger pulled
the trigger. Bang went the gun; whizz !
flew the bullet; and my excited ear could
catch the thud with which it plunged into the
B 2



scaly leather of his neck. His waddle became
a plunge, the waves closed over him, and the
sun shone on the calm water, as I reached the
brink of the shore, that was still indented by
the waving of his gigantic tail. But there is
blood upon the water, and he rises for a mo-
ment to the surface. "C A hundred piasters
for the timseach," I exclaimed, and half-a-
dozen Arabs plunged into the stream. There'
he rises again, and the blacks dash at him as
if he hadn't a tooth in his head. Now he is
gone, the waters close over him, and I never
saw him since. From that time we saw hun-
dreds of crocodiles of all sizes, and fired shots,
-enough of them for a spanish revolution ;
but we never could get possession of any,
even if we hit them, which to this day re-
mains doubtful.



Whmarkaklrt Sstant nf Uixrage in a Eauy.
In the Life of Thomas Day, Esq., an anecdote is re_
lated of Miss B- afterwards Mrs. Day, shewing
with what remarkable effect presence of mind and
courage can tame the ferocity of the brute creation.
Miss B, was, on one occasion, walking in
company with another young lady through a
field, when a bull came running up to them
with all the marks of malevolence. Her
friend began to run towards the stile, but
was prevented by Miss B., who told her,
that as she could not reach the stile soon
enough to save herself, and as it is the nature
of these animals to attack persons in flight,
her life would be in great danger if she at-
tempted to run, and would be inevitably lost
if she chanced to fall; but that, if she would
steal gently to the stile, she herself would
take off the bull's attention from her, by
standing between them. Accordingly, turn-
ing her face towards the animal with the
firmest aspect she could assume, she fixed
her eyes steadily upon his. It is said by
travellers, that a lion itself may be controlled

by the steady looks of a human being; but
that, no sooner a man turns his back, than
the beast springs upon him as his prey. Miss
B., to whom this property of animals seems
to have been known, had the presence of
mind to apply it to the safety of her friend
and of herself. By her steady aspect she
checked the bull's career; but he shewed the
strongest marks of indignation at being so
controlled, by roaring and tearing the ground
with his feet and horns. While he was thus
engaged in venting his rage on the turf, she
cautiously retreated a few steps, without re-
moving her eyes from him. When he ob-
served that she had retreated, he advanced
till she stopped, and then he also stopped,
and again renewed his frantic play. Thus by
repeated degrees she at length arrived at the
stile, where she accomplished her safety; and
thus, by a presence of mind rarely seen in a
person of her youth and sex, she not only
saved herself, but also, at the hazard of her
own life, protected her friend. Some days
afterwards, this bull gored its master.


Snhitat xirh lprts.
We give a few anecdotes illustrative of the above, from
a work entitled Sketches of Field Sports, as fol-
lowed by the Natives of India," from the reading of
which we have derived much pleasure. The autho-
rity is Dr. Johnson, East India Gompany's Service.
He begins by informing his readers, that the Shecar-
ries" (or professed hunters) are generally Hindoos
of a low caste, who gain their livelihood entirely by
catching birds, hares, and all sorts of animals;
some of them confine themselves to catching birds
and hares, whilst others practise the art of catching
birds and various animals; another description of
them live by destroying tigers.
THOSE who catch birds equip themselves with
a framework of split bamboos, resembling the
frame of a paper kite, the shape of the top of
a coffin, and the height of a man, to which
green bushes are fastened, leaving two loop-
holes to see through, and one lower down for
their rod to be inserted through. This frame-
work, which is very light, they fasten before
them when they are in the act of catching


birds, by which means they have both hands
at liberty, and are completely concealed from
the view of the birds. The rod which they
use is about twenty-fbur feet long resem-
bling a fishing-rod, the parts of which are
inserted within one another and the whole
contained in a walking-stick.
They also carry with them horse-hair nooses
of different sizes and strength, which they fas-
ten to the rod : likewise bird-lime, and a va-
riety of calls for the different kinds of birds,
with which they imitate them to the greatest
nicety. They take with them likewise two
lines to which horse-hair nooses are attached
for catching larger birds, and a bag or net to
carry their game.
Thus equipped, they sally forth, and as
they proceed through the different covers
they use calls for such birds as generally re-
sort there, which from constant practice is
well known to them, and if any birds answer
their call they prepare accordingly for catch-
ing them; supposing it to be a bevy of quail,
they continue calling them, until they get



quite close; they then arm the top of their
rod with a feather smeared with bird-lime,
and pass it through the loop-hole in their
frame of ambush, and to which they continue
adding other parts, until they have five or six
out, which they use with great dexterity, and
touch one of the quail with the feather, which
adheres to them ; they then withdraw the
rod, arm it again, and touch three or four
more in the same manner before they attempt
to secure any of them.
In this way they catch all sorts of small birds
not much larger than quail, on the ground
and in trees. If a brown or black partridge
answers their call, instead of bird-lime, they
fasten a horse-hair noose to the top of their
rod, and when they are close to the birds, they
keep dipping the top of their rod with' con-
siderable skill until they fasten the noose on
one of their necks ; they then draw him in, and
go on catching others in the same way. It is
surprising to see with what cool perseverance
they proceed. In a similar manner they catch
all kinds of birds, nearly the size of partridges.



A Servant of Mr. William Hunter's, by name
Thomas Jones,who lived at Chittrah, had a full
grown hyena which ran loose about his house
like a dog, and I have seen him play with it
with as much familiarity. They feed on small
animals and carrion, and I believe often come
in for the prey left by tigers and leopards after
their appetites have been satiated. They are
great enemies of dogs,and kill numbers ofthem.
The natives of India affirm that tigers, pan-
thers, and leopards, have a great aversion to
hyenas, on account of their destroying their
young, which I believe they have an opportu-
nity of doing, as the parents leave them during
the greatest part of the day. The inhabitants,
therefore, feel no apprehension in taking away
the young whenever they find them, knowing
the dam is seldom near. . Hyenas are
slow in their pace, and altogether inactive; I
have often seen a few terriers keep them at
bay, and bite them severely by the hind quar-



ter; their jaws, however, are exceedingly
strong, and a single bite, without holding on
more than a few seconds, is sufficient to kill a
large dog, They stink horribly, make no
earths of their own, lie under rocks, or resort
to the earths of wolves, as foxes do to those of
badgers; and it is not uncommon to find
wolves and hyenas in the same bed of earths.
I was informed by several gentlemen, of
whose veracity I could not doubt, that Captain
Richards, of the Bengal Native Infantry, had
a servant of the tribe of Sheearries, who was
in the habit of going into the earths of wolves,
fastening strings on them, and on the legs of
hyenas, and then drawing them out; he con-
stantly supplied his master and the gentlemen
at the station with them, who let them loose
on a plain, and rode after them with spears,
for practice and amusement. This man pos-
sessed such an acute and exquisite sense of
smelling, that he could always tell by it if
there were any animals in the earths, and
could distinguish whether they were hyenas
or wolves.


BEARS will often continue on the road in
front of the palanquin for a mile or two,
tumbling and playing all sorts of antics, as if
they were taught to do so. I believe it is
their natural disposition; for they certainly
are the most amusing creatures imaginable in
their wild state. It is no wonder that with
monkeys they are led about to amuse man-
kind. It is astonishing, as well as ludicrous
to see them climb rocks, and tumble or rather
roll down precipices. If they are attacked
by any person on horseback, they stand erect
on their hind legs, shewing a fine set of white
teeth, and making a cackling kind of noise.
If the horse comes near them, they try to
catch him by the legs, and if they miss him,
they tumble over and over several times.
They are easily speared 1by a person mounted
on a horse that is bold enough to go near them.



AN elephant belonging to Mr. Boddam, of the
Bengal Civil Service, at Gyah, used every day
to pass over a small bridge leading from his
master's house into the town of Gyah. He
one day refused to go over it, and it was with
great difficulty, by goring him most cruelly
with the Hunkuss [iron instrument], that the
2lahout [driver] could get him to venture on
the bridge, the strength of which he first tried
with his trunk, shewing clearly that he sus-
pected that it was not sufficiently strong. At
last he went on, and before he could get over,
the bridge gave way, and they were precipi-
tated into-d the ditch, which killed the driver,
and considerably injured the elephant. It is
reasonable to suppose that the elephant must
have perceived its feeble state when he last
passed over it. It is a well known fact, that
elephants will seldom or ever go over strange
bridges, without first trying with their trunks
if they be sufficiently strong to bear their
weight,--nor will they ever go into a boat
without doing the same.



I had a remarkably quiet and docile ele-
phant, which one day came home loaded with
branches of trees for provender, followed by
a number of villagers, calling for mercy (their
usual cry when ill used); complaining that
the Mahout had stolen a kid from them, and
that it was then on the elephant, under the
branches of the trees. The Mahout took an
opportunity of decamping into the village and
hiding himself. I ordered the elephant to be
unloaded, and was surprised to see that he
would not allow any person to come near to
him, when at all other times he was perfectly
tractable and obedient. Combining all .the
circumstances, I was -convinced that the Ma-
hout was guilty, and to get rid of the noise,
I recompensed the people for the loss of their
kid. As soon as they were gone away, the
elephant allowed himself to be unloaded, and
the kid was found under the branches, as
described by the people. I learnt from my
Sarcar, that similar complaints had been made
to him before, and that the rascal of a Mahout
made it a practice to ride the elephant into



the midst of a herd of goats, and had taught
him to pick up any of the young ones he di-
rected; he had also accustomed him to steal
their pumpions and other vegetables, that
grew against the inside of their fences like
French beans, which could only be reached
by an elephant. He was -the best Mahout I
ever knew, and so great a rogue that I was
obliged to discharge him.
The very day that he left my service, the
elephant's eyes were closed, which he did not
open again in less than a fortnight, when it
was discovered that he was blind. Two small
eschars, one in each eye, were visible, which
indicated pretty strongly that he had been
made blind by some sharp instrument, most
probably by a heated needle. The suspicion
was very strong against the former keeper, of
whom I never heard anything after. The
elephant I frequently rode on, shooting, -for
many years after this, through heavy covers,
intersected with ravines, rivers, and over hol-
low and uneven ground, and he scarcely ever
made a false step with me, and never once



tumbled. He used to touch the ground with
his trunk on every spot where his feet were
to be placed, and in so light and quick a man-
ner as scarcely to be perceived. The Mahout
would often make him remove large stones,
lumps of earth, or timber, out of his way, fre-
quently climb up and down banks that no
horse could get over. He would also occa-
sionally break off branches of trees that were
in the way of the Howdah, to enable me to pass.
Although perfectly blind, he was con-
sidered one of the best sporting elephants of
his small size in the country, and he travelled
at a tolerably good rate, and was remarkably
easy in his paces.

AN occurrence nearly similar happened to me
soon after, which put an end to my shooting
on foot. From that time to the period of my
leaving Chittrah, which was many years after,
I always went out to shoot on an elephant.
The circumstance I allude to was as follows:



-Fifty or sixty people were beating a thick
cover. I was on the outside of it, with a man
holding my horse, and another servant with a
hog's spear, when those who were driving the
cover called Suer Suer! which is the Iindoo-
stanze name for hog. Seeing something move
the bushes about twenty yards from me, and
supposing it to be a hog, I fired at the spot,
with ten or a dozen small balls. Instantly on
the explosion of my gun, a tiger roared out,
and came galloping straight towards us. I
dipped under the horse's belly, and got on
the opposite side from him. He came within
a few yards of us, and then turned off growl-
ing into the cover.
When the people came out, they brought
with them a dead hog, partly devoured. These
two cases, I think, shew clearly that tigers are
naturally cowardly. They generally take their
prey by surprise, and whenever they attack
openly, it is reasonable to conclude that they
must be extremely hungry; which I believe
is often the case, as their killing animals of
the forest must be very precarious. It is the



general opinion of the inhabitants, that when
a tiger has tasted human blood he prefers it
to all other food. A year or two sometimes
elapses without any one being killed by a tiger
for several miles round, although they are
often seen in that space, and are known to
destroy cattle : but as soon as one man is kil-
led, others shortly after share the same fate.
This, I imagine, is the reason why the natives
entertain an idea that they prefer men to all
other food. I account for it otherwise. Tigers
are naturally afraid of men, and, in the first
instance, seldom attack them, unless com-
pelled by extreme hunger. When once they
have ventured an attack, they find them much
easier prey than most animals of the forest,
and always to be met with near villages, and
on public roads, without the trouble of hunt-
ing about for them through the covers.
A tigress with two cubs lurked about the
Xutkumsandy pass, and during two months
killed a man almost every day, and on some
days two. Ten or twelve of the people be-
longing to government (carriers of the post-



bags) were of the number. In fact, the com-
munication between the Presidency and the
upper provinces was almost entirely cut off.
The government, therefore, was induced to
offer a large reward to any person who killed
the tigress.
She was fired at, and, adds Mr. J., never...
" heard of after ;" from which it may be pre-
sumed she was wounded. It is fortunate for
the inhabitants of that country, that tigers
seldom survive any wound; their blood being
always in a state predisposing to putrefaction,
a consequence of the extreme heat, and their
living entirely on animal food. .....
Two Biparies* Were driving a string of
loaded bullocks to Chzttrah from Palamow.
When they were come within a few miles of
the former place, a tiger seized on the man
in the rear, which was seen by a Guallah
[herdsman], as he was watching his buffaloes
grazing. He boldly ran to the man's assist-
Bipar signifies merchandise, and Biparies are
people who buy grain and other articles, which they
transport from one part of the country to another on
bull ks.

34 Opinions of the London dj Provincial Press

ment, in which all the powers of the mind are
-duly excited and exercised; and of all the
juvenile works before the public intended fop
this important end, there are none so well cal
culated to ensure success as the series of Cate-
chisms of the Rev. T. WiLsor, to which we
have so often adverted, and which we would
most cordially recommend to the notice of our
numerous scholastic readers."
As serials for children, and well adapted to
woo the infant mind to the acquaintance of
knowledge, we can confidently recommend
these Catechisms, which, for perspicuity of
style, and accuracy of information, have not
been equalled."
Mr. WILsow's Catechisms, which have
superseded those of P]nriocK, appear to have
avoided the defects of the ancient pedagogue.
They are written by different eminent indi-
viduals, each subject having been wisely
intrusted to a person peculiarly conversant
with it; but all have worked together in
harmony with the common design, and the
result is a series of Catechisms for schools and
families, which not only bring down the in-
formation to the present state of knowledge in
every branch, but convey it in a form adapted
to &he comprehension of those who have to


struck at her with his two fore paws ; one on
the neck, and the other on the breast. This,
if I may judge from the number I have seen
wounded, is their usual.way of attacking men.
The old woman was six months under my
care, and at last recovered.
A s an old Mahometan priest was travelling
at mid-day on horseback, within a few miles
of Chittrah, with his son, an athletic young
man, walking by his side, they heard a tiger
roaring near them. The son urged his father
to hasten on; the old man continued at a slow
pace, observing that there was no danger, the
tiger would not molest them. He then began
counting his beads, and offering his prayers
to the Almighty; in the act of which he was
knocked off his horse, and carried away by
the tiger; the son ran after them, and cut the
tiger with his sword; he dropped the father,
seized the son, and carried him off. The
father was brought to Chittrah, and died the
same day; the son was never heard of after-
wards. In this instance, I think, the tiger
must have been ravenously hungry, or he



would not have roared when near his prey;
it is what they seldom or ever do, except in
the very act of seizing............
Some idea may be formed how numerous
the tigers must have been at one period in
Bengal, from the circumstance, that one
gentleman is reported to have killed upwards
of three hundred and sixty.


taty nf 6ir S2n14 3naurt.

From Mr. Southey's History of the Peninsular War,
a work of sterling merit.

MARSHAL SouLT'S intention was to force the
right of the British, and thus to interpose be-
tween Corunna and the army, and cut it off
from the place of embarkation. Failing in
this attempt, he was now endeavouring to out-
flank it. Half of the 4th regiment was there-
fore ordered to fall back, forming an obtuse
angle with the other half. This manoeuvre
was excellently performed, and they com-
menced a heavy flanking fire: Sir John Moore
called out to them, that this was exactly what
he wanted to be done, and rode on to the
50th, commanded by Majors Napier and Stan-
hope. They got over an inclosure in their
front, charged the enemy most gallantly, and
drove them out of the village of Elvina; but
Major Napier, advancing too far in the pur-


suit, received several wounds, and was made
prisoner, and Major Stanhope was killed.
The General now proceeded to the 42nd.
"" Highlanders," said he, "remember Egypt!"
They rushed on, and drove the French be-
fore them, till they were stopped by a wall.
Sir John accompanied them in this charge.
He now sent Captain Hardinge to orLer up
a battalion of Guards to the left flank of the
42nd. The officer commanding the light in-
fantry conceived at this that they were to be
relieved by the Guards, because their ammu-
nition was nearly expended, and he began to
fall back. The General, discovering the mis-
take, said to them, My brave 42nd, join
your comrades: ammunition is coming, and
you have your bayonets !" Upon this, they
instantly moved forward. Captain Hardinge
returned, and pointed out to the General
where the Guards were advancing. The
enemy kept up a hot fire, and their artillery
played incessantly on the spot where they
were standing. A cannon-shot struck Sir
John, and carried away his left shoulder, and



part of the collar-bone, leaving the arm hang-
ing by the flesh. He fell from his horse on
his back ; his countenance did not change,
neither did he betray the least sensation of
pain. Captain Hardinge, who dismounted,
and took him by the hand, observed him
anxiously watching the 42nd, which was
warmly engaged, and told him they were ad-
vancing; and upon that intelligence his coun-
tenance brightened. Colonel Graham, who
now came up to assist him, seeing the com-
posure of his features, began to hope that he
was not wounded, till he perceived the dread-
ful laceration. From the size of the wound,
it was in vain to make any attempt at stop-
ping the blood; and Sir John consented to
be removed in a blanket to the rear. In
raising him up, his sword, hanging on the
wounded side, touched his arm, and became
entangled between his legs. Captain Har-
dinge began to unbuckle it ; but the General
said, in his usual tone and manner, and in a
distinct voice, "6 It is as well as it is; I had
rather it should go out of the field with me."



Six soldiers of the 42nd and the Guards bore
him. Hardinge, observing his composure,
began to hope that the wound might not be
mortal, and said to him, he trusted he might
be spared to the army, and recover. Moore
turned his head, and looking stedfastly at the
wound for a few seconds, replied, "No, Har-
dinge, I feel that to be impossible."
As the soldiers were carrying him slowly
along, he made them frequently turn round
that he might see the field of battle, and lis-
ten to the firing; and he was well pleased
when the sound grew fainter. A spring-
wagon came up, bearing ColonelWynch, who
awas wounded: the colonel asked who was in
the blanket, and being told it was Sir John
Moore, wished him to be placed in the wagon.
Sir John asked one of the Highlanders whe-
ther he thought the wagon or the blanket
was best ? and the man said the blanket would
not shake him so much, as he and the other
soldiers would keep the step, and carry him
easy. So they proceeded with him to his
quarters at Corunna, weeping as they went...



The General lived to hear that the battle
was won. Are the French beaten ?" was
the question which he repeated to every one
who came into his apartment; and he ex-
pressed how great a satisfaction it was to him
to know that they were defeated. I hope,"
he said, C" the people of England will be satis-
fied I hope my country will do me justice."
Then, addressing Colonel Anderson, who had
been his friend and companion in arms for
one-and-twenty years, he said to him, C" An-
derson, you know that I have always wished
to die this way-You will see my friends as
soon as you can :-tell them everything-
Say to my mother"-But here his voice failed,
he became excessively agitated, and did not
again venture to name her. Sometimes he
asked to be placed in an easier posture. "C I
feel myself so strong," he said, I fear I shall
be long dying. It is great uneasiness-it is
great pain." But, after a while, he pressed
Anderson's hand close to his body, and, in a
few minutes, died without a struggle. He
fell, as it had ever been his wish to do, in



battle and in victory. No man was more
beloved in private life, nor was there any
general in the British army so universally
respected. All men had thought him worthy
of the chief command. Had he been less
circumspect,-had he looked more ardently
forward, and less anxiously around him, and
on all sides, and behind,-had he been more
confident in himself and in his army, and im-
pressed with less respect for the French
Generals, he would have been more equal
to the difficulties of his situation. Despon-
dency was the radical weakness of his mind.
Personally he was as brave a man as ever
met death in the field; but he wanted faith
in British courage : and it is faith by which
miracles are wrought in war as well as in re-
ligion. But let it ever be remembered with
gratitude, that, when some of his general
officers advised him to conclude the retreat
by a capitulation, Sir John Moore preserved
the honour of England.
He had often said that, if he were killed
in battle, he wished to be buried where he


fell. The body was removed at midnight to
the citadel of Corunna. A grave was dug
for him on the rampart there, by a party of
the 9th regiment, the aides-du-camp attend-
ing by turns. No coffin could be procured;
and the officers of his staff wrapped the body,
dressed as it was, in a military cloak and
blankets. The interment was hastened, for,
about eight in the morning, some firing was
heard, and they feared that, if a serious at-
tack were made, they should be ordered
away, and not suffered to pay him their last
duty. The officers of his staff bore him to
the grave ; the funeral service was read by
the chaplain ; and the corpse was covered
with earth.
Thus, with a solemn splendour and a sad
glory, closed the career of a gallant but un-
fortunate commander.


We subjoin the beautiful Ode on the Death of Sir
John, written by the Rev. Mr. Wolfe :-


NOT a drum was heard, not a funeral-note,
As his corse to the ramparts we hurried;
Not a soldier discharged his farewell-shot
O'er the grave where our hero we buried-
We buried him darkly at dead of night,
The sods with our bayonets turning,
By the straggling moonbeam's misty light,
And the lantern dimly burning.
No useless coffin inclosed his breast,
Not in sheet or in shroud we wound him,
But he lay like a warrior taking his rest,
With his martial cloak around him.
Few and short were the prayers we said,
And we spoke not a word of sorrow;
But we stedfastly gazed on the face that was dead,
And we bitterly thought of the morrow.
We thought, as we hallowed his narrow bed,
And smoothed down his lonely pillow, [head,
That the foe and the sti anger would tread o'er his
And we far away on the billow !


Lightly they'll talk of the spirit that's gone,
And o'er his cold ashes upbraid him,-
But little he'll reck, if they let him sleep on
In the grave where a Briton has laid him.
But half of our heavy task was done,
When the clock struck the hour for retiring;
And we heard the distant and random gun
That the foe was sullenly firing.
Slowly and sadly we laid him down,
From the field of his fame fresh and gory;
We carved not a line, and we raised not a stone-
But we left him alone with his glory.


V^frrian taqrnuir.
Sir R. K. Porter, in his travels in Persia, met with
the sufferer from despotic tyranny and cruelty whose
story is here related. He informs us, that the be-
nignity of this person's countenance, united with
the crippled state of his venerable frame, from the
effects of his precipitation from the terrible height
of execution, excited his curiosity to inquire into
the particulars of so amazing a preservation.
ENTERING into conversation on the amiable
characters of the reigning royal family of Per-
sia, and comparing the present happiness of
his country under their rule, with its misery
during the sanguinary usurpation of the tyrant
Nackee Khan, the good old man, who had
himself been so signal an example of that
misery, was easily led to describe the extra-
ordinary circumstances of his own case.
Being connected with the last horrible acts,
and consequent fall of the usurper, a double
interest accompanied his recital, the substance
of which was nearly as follows :-
Having by intrigues and assassinations made


himself master of the regal power at Shiraz,
this monster of human kind found that the
governor of Ispahan, instead of adhering to
him, had proclaimed the accession of the law-
ful heir. No sooner was the intelligence
brought to Nackee Khan than he put him-
self at the head of his troops, and set forward
to revenge his contemned authority. When
he arrived as far as Yezdikast, he encamped
his army for a short halt, near the tomb on
the north side. Being as insatiable of money
as blood, he sent to the inhabitants of Yez-
dikast, and demanded an immense sum in
gold, which he insisted should instantly be
paid to his messengers. Unable to comply,
the fact was respectfully pleaded in excuse,
namely, that all the money the city had
possessed was already taken away by his own
officers, and those of the opposite party; and
that, at present, there was scarce a tomaun
in the place." Enraged at this -answer, he
repaired, full of wrath, to the town, and, or-
dering eighteen of the principal inhabitants
to be brought before him, again demanded



the money, but with threats and imprecations
which made the hearers tremble. -Still, how-
ever, they could only return the same answer
--" their utter inability to pay ;" and the
tyrant, without a moment's preparation, com-
manded the men to be seized, and hurled from
the top of the precipice in his sight. Most of
them were instantly killed on the spot; others,
cruelly maimed, died in terrible agonies where
they fell; and the describer of the dreadful
scene was the only one who survived. He could
form no idea of how long he lay after preci-
pitation, utterly senseless; but," added he,
" by the will of God I breathed again, and, on
opening my eyes, found myself among the
dead and mangled bodies of my former neigh-
bours and friends. Some yet groaned." He
then related that, in the midst of his horror
at the sight, he heard sounds of yet more ter-
rible acts, from the top of the cliff, and, mo-
mentarily strengthened by fear of he knew not
what, for he believed that death had already
grasped his own poor shattered frame, he
managed to crawl away, unperceived, into one


of the numerous caverned holes which perfo-
rate the foot of the steep. He lay there in an
expiring state the whole night, but in the
morning was providentially discovered by some
of the town's people, who came to seek the
bodies of their murdered relatives, to mourn
over and take them away for burial. The
poor man, feeble as he was, called to these
weeping groups, who, to their astonishment
and joy, drew out one survivor from the dread-
ful heap of slain. No time was lost in convey-
ing him home, and administering every kind
of assistance, but many months elapsed before
he was able to move from his house, so deep
had been the injuries inflicted in his fall.
In the course of his awful narrative, he told
us that the noise which had so appalled him,
as he lay among the blood-stained rocks, was
indeed the acting of a new cruelty of the usur-
per. After having witnessed the execution of
his sentence on the eighteen citizens, whose
asseverations he had determined not to be-
lieve, Nackee Khan immediately sent for a
devout man, called Saied Hassan, who was



considered the sage of the place, and, for his
charities, greatly beloved by the people.
" This man," said the Khan, '" being a des-
cendant of the Prophet, must know the truth,
and will tell it me. He shall find me those
who can and will pay the money." But the
answer given by the honest Saied being pre-
cisely the same with that of the innocent vic-
tims who had already perished, the tyrant's
fury knew no bounds, and, rising from his seat,
he ordered the holy man to be rent asunder in
his presence, and then thrown over the rock, to
increase the monument of his vengeance below.
It was the tumult of this most dreadful
execution which occasioned the noise that
drove the affrighted narrator to the shelter of
any hole from the eye of merciless man. But
the cruel scene did not end here. Even in the
yet sensible ear of the Saied, expiring in ago-
nies, his execrable murderer ordered that his
wife and daughters should be given up to the
soldiers, and that, in punishment of such uni-
versal rebellion in the town, the whole place
should be razed to the ground. But this last


act of blood on a son of the Prophet cost the
perpetrator his life. For the soldiers them-
selves, and the nobles who had been partisans
of the usurper, were so struck with horror at
the sacrilegious murder, and appalled with the
threatened guilt of violating women of the
sacred family, that they believed a curse must
follow the abettors of such a man. The next
step, in their minds, was to appease heaven
by the immolation of the offender; and, in the
course of that very night, a band of his ser-
vants cut the cords of his tent,which, instantly
falling in upon him, afforded them a secure op-
portunity of burying their poniards in his body.
The first strokes were followed by thousands.
So detested was the wretch that in a few mi-
nutes his remains were hewn and torntopieces.
It does not become men to lift the veil which
lies over the whole doom of a ruthless mur-
derer; but there is something in the last mor-
tal yell of a tyrant, whether it be a Robespierre
or a Nackee Khan, which sounds as if mingled
with-a dreadful echo from the eternal shore.



ikrfrlys in Virginia.
The Rock Bridge is described by Mr. Jefferson, late
President of the United States, as one of the most
suLlime of the productions of Nature. It is on the
ascent of a hill which seems to have been cloven
through its length by some great convulsion of
Although the sides of the bridge are provided in some
parts with a parapet of fixed rocks, yet few persons
have resolution to walk to them, and look over into
the abyss. The passenger involuntarily falls on his
hands, creeps to the parapet, and peeps over it.
Looking down from this height for the space of a
minute occasions a violent headache, and the view
from beneath is delightful in the extreme, as much
as that from above is exquisitely painful.
The following beautiful sketch is from the pen of the
Rev. John Todd, of Philadelphia, author of the
Student's Manual, Simple Sketches, and other ad-
mired works.
Os a lovely morning towards the close of
spring, I found myself in a very beautiful part
of the great valley of Virginia. Spurred on
by impatience, I beheld the sun rising in
splendour, and changing the blue tints on the
tops of the lofty Alleghany mountains into


streaks of purest gold; and nature seemed to
smile in the freshness of beauty. A ride of
about fifteen miles, and a pleasant woodland
ramble of about two, brought myself and my
companion to the great NATURAL BRIDGE.
Although I had been anxiously looking
forward to this time, and my mind had been
considerably excited by expectation, yet I
was not altogether prepared for this visit.
This great work of nature is considered by
many as the second great curiosity in our
country, Niagara Falls being the first. I do
not expect to convey a very correct idea of
this bridge, for no description can do this.
The Natural Bridge is entirely the work
of God. It is of solid limestone, and con-
nects two huge mountains together by a most
beautiful arch over which there is a great
wagon road. Its length from one mountain
to the other is nearly eighty feet, its width
about thirty-five, its thickness forty-five, and
its perpendicular height above the water is
not far from two hundred and twenty feet.
A few bushes grow on its top, by which the
E 2


traveller may hold himself as he looks over.
On each side of the stream, and near the
bridge, are rocks projecting ten or fifteen feet
over the water, and from two hundred to
three hundred feet from its surface, all of
limestone. The visitor Reannot give so good
a description of the bridge as he can of his
feelings at the time. He softly creeps out on
a shaggy projecting rock, and, looking down
a chasm from forty to sixty feet wide, he sees,
nearly three hundred feet below, a wild stream
foaming and dashing against the rocks be-
neath, as if terrified at the rocks above. This
stream is called Cedar Creek. He sees under
the arch trees whose height is seventy feet,
and yet, as he looks down upon them, they
appear like small bushes of perhaps two or
three feet in height. I saw several birds fly
under the arch, and they looked like insects.
I threw down a stone, and counted thirty-
four before it reached the water. All hear
of heights and of depths, but they here see
what is high, and they tremble, and feel it to
be deep. The awful rocks present their ever-



lasting butments, the water murmurs and
foams far below, and the two mountains rear
their proud heads on each side, separated by
a channel of sublimity. Those who view the
sun, the moon, and the stars, and allow that
none but God could make them, will here
be impressed that none but an Almighty God
could build a bridge like this.
The view of the bridge from below is as
pleasing as the top view is awful. The arch
from beneath would seem to be about two feet
in thickness. Some idea of the distance from
the top to the bottom may be formed, from the
fact, that as I stood on the bridge and my
companion beneath, neither of us could speak
sufficiently loud to be heard by the other. A
man, from either view, does not appear more
than four or five inches in height.
As we stood under this beautiful arch, we
saw the place where visitors have often taken
the pains to engrave their names upon the
rock. Here Washington climbed up twenty-
five feet, and carved his own name, where it
still remains. Some, wishing to immortalise


their names, have engraven them deep and
large, while others have tried to climb up and
insert them high in this book of fame.
A few years since, a young man, being am-
bitious to place his name above all others,
was very near losing his life in the attempt.
After much fatigue he climbed up as high as
possible, but found that the person who had
before occupied his place was taller than him-
self, and consequently had placed his name
above his reach. But he was not thus to be
discouraged. He opened a large jack-knife,
and, in the soft limestone, began to cut places
for his hands and feet. With much patience
and industry he worked his way upwards, and
succeeded in carving his name higher than the
most ambitious had done before him. He
could now triumph, but his triumph was short;
for he was placed in such a situation that it
was impossible to descend, unless he fell upon
the ragged rocks beneath him. There was
no house near, from whence h;s companions
could get assistance. He could not long re-
main in that condition, and, what was worse,



his friends were too much frightened to do
anything for his relief. They looked upon
him as already dead, expecting every moment
to see him precipitated upon the rocks below
and dashed to pieces. Not so with himself.
He determined to ascend. Accordingly he
plies the rock with his knife, cutting places
for his hands and feet, and gradually ascended
with incredible labour. He exerts every mus-
cle. His life was at stake, and all the terrors
of death rose before him. He dared not look
downwards, lest his head should become dizzy;
and perhaps on this circumstance his life de-
pended. His companions stood on the top of
the rock, exhorting and encouraging him.
HIs strength was almost exhausted ; but a bare
possibility of saving his life still remained;
and hope, the last friend of the distressed,
had not yet forsaken him. His course up-
wards was rather oblique than perpendicular.
His most critical moment had now arrived.
He had ascended considerably more than two
hundred feet, and had still further to rise,
when he felt himself fast growing weak. He


thought of his friends, and all his earthly joys,
and he could not leave them. He thought of
the grave, and dared not meet it. He now
made his last effort and succeeded. He had
cut his way not far from two hundred and
fifty feet from the water, in a course& almost
perpendicular; and in a little less than two
hours, his anxious companions reached him
a pole from the top, and drew him up. They
received him with shouts of joy, but he him-
self was completely exhausted. He immedi-
ately fainted on reaching the top, and it was
some time before he could be recovered!
It was interesting to see the path up these
awful rocks, and to follow in imagination this
bold youth as he thus saved his life. His
name stands far above all the rest, a monu-
ment of hardihood, of rashness, and of folly.
We lingered around this seat of grandeur
about four hours; but, from my own feelings,
I should not have supposed it over half an
hour. There is a little cottage near, lately
built; here we were desired to write our
names, as visitors of the bridge, in a large



book kept for this purpose. Two large
volumes were nearly filled in this manner al-
ready. Having immortalised our names by
enrolling them in this book, we slowly and
silently returned to our horses, wondering at
this great work of nature; and we could not
but be filled with astonishment at the amazing
power of Him who can clothe Himself in
wonder and terror, or throw around His works
a mantle of sublimity.

About three days' ride from the Natural Bridge brought
Mr. Todd and his companions to a place called Port
Republic, about twenty miles from the town of
Staunton. Here they prepared themselves to visit
this other natural curiosity.
THE shower was now over, which had wet us
to the skin-the sun was pouring down his
most scorching rays-the heavy thunder had
gone by; we threw around our delighted eyes,
and beheld near us the lofty Alleghany rear-
ing his shaggy head. The south branch of
the Shenandoah river, with its banks covered



with beautiful trees, was murmuring at our
feet-a lovely plain stretched below us, as far
as the eye could reach; and we, with our
guide, were now standing about half way up
a hill nearly two hundred feet high, and so
steep that a biscuit may be thrown from its
top into the river at its foot-we were stand-
ing at the mouth of WIER'S CAVE. This
cavern derives its name from Barnet Wier,
who discovered it in the year 1804. It is
situated near Madison's Cave, so celebrated ;
though the latter cannot be compared with
the former.
There were three of us, besides our guide,
with lighted torches, and our loins girded,
now ready to descend into the cave. We
took our torches in our left hands and entered.
The mouth was so small that we could de-
scend only by creeping, one after another. A
descent of almost twenty yards brought us into
the first room. The cave was exceedingly
cold, dark, and silent, like the chambers of
death. In this manner we proceeded, now
descending thirty or forty feet--now ascend-



ing as high-now creeping on our hands and
knees, and now walking in large rooms--the
habitations of solitude. The mountain seems
to be composed almost wholly of limestone,
and by this means the cave is lined through-
out with the most beautiful incrustations and
stalactites of carbonated lime, which are form-
ed by the continual dripping of the water
through the roof. These stalactites are of
various and elegant shapes and colours, often
bearing a striking resemblance to animated
nature. At one place we saw over our heads
what appeared to be a waterfall of the most
beautiful kind. Nor could the imagination
be easily persuaded that it was not a reality.
You could see the water boiling and dashing
down,-see its white spray and foam-but it
was all solid limestone.
Thus we passed onward in this world of
solitude-now stopping to admire the beau-
ties of a single stalactite-now wondering at
the magnificence of a large room-now creep-
ing through narrow passages, hardly wide
enough to admit the body of a man,-and


now walking in superb galleries, until we came
to the largestroom, called WASHINGTON HALL.
This is certainly the most elegant room I ever
saw". It is about two hundred and seventy
feet in length, about thirty-five in width, and
between thirty and forty feet high. The roof
and sides are very beautifully adorned by
the tinsels which Nature has bestowed in
the greatest profusion, and which sparkle
like the diamond, while surveyed by the
light of torches. The floor is flat, and
smooth, and solid. I was foremost of our
little party in entering the room, and was not
a little startled as I approached the centre, to
see a figure, as it were, rising up before me
out of the solid rock. It was not far from
seven feet high, and corresponded in every
respect to the common idea of a ghost. It
was very white, and resembled a tall man
clothed in a shroud. I went up to it sideways,
though I could not really expect to meet a
ghost in a place like this. On examination
I found it was a very beautiful piece .of the
carbonate of lime, very transparent, and very



much in the shape of a man. This is called
WASHINGTON'S STATUE----as if Nature would
do for this hero what his delivered country
has not done-rear a statue to his memory.
Here an accident happened which might
have been serious. One of our party had pur-
posely extinguished his light, lest we should
not have enough to last. My companion ac-
cidentally put out his light, and in sport-came
and blew out mine. We were now about six
teen hundred feet from daylight, with but I
feeble light, which the falling water might in
a moment have extinguished. Add to this,
that the person who held this light was at
some distance viewing some falling water.

Conticuere omnes, intentique ora tenebant."

We, however, once more lighted our torches,
but, had we not been able to do so, we might,
at our leisure, have contemplated the gloomi-
ness of the cavern, for no one would have
come to us till the next day. In one room
we found an excellent spring of water, which


boiled up as if to slake our thirst, then sunk
into the mountain, and was seen no more.
In another room was a noble pillar, called the
TOWER OF BABEL. It is composed entirely
of stalactites of lime, or, as the appearance
would seem to suggest, of petrified water. It
is about thirty feet in diameter, and a little
more than ninety feet in circumference, and
not far from thirty feet high. There are pro-
hably millions of stalactites in this one pillar.
Thus we wandered on in this world within
world till we had visited twelve very beau-
tiful rooms, and as many creeping places, and
had now arrived at the end,- a distance from
our entrance of between twenty-four and
twenty-five hundred feet, or, what is about
its equal, half a mile from the mouth. We
here found ourselves exceedingly fatigued,
but our torches forbade us to tarry, and we
once more turned our lingering steps towards
the common world. When we arrived again
at Washington Hall, one of our company
three times discharged a pistol, whose report
was truly deafening; and as the sound rever-


berated and echoed through one room after
another till it died away in distance, it seemed
like the moaning of spirits. We continued
our wandering steps till we arrived once more
at daylight, having been nearly three hours
in the cavern. We were much fatigued,
covered with dirt, and in a cold sweat, yet
we regretted to leave it. From the farther
end of the cave I gathered some handsome
stalactites, which I put into my portmanria
and preserved as mementos of that day'si
To compare the Natural Bridge andml e
together as objects of curiosity, is exceedingly
difficult. Many consider the Bridge as the
greatest curiosity, but I think the Cavern is.
In looking at the Bridge we are filled with
awe, at the Cavern with delight. At the
Bridge we have several views that are awful;
at the Cave hundreds that are pleasing. At
the Bridge you stand and gaze in astonish-
ment; at the Cave awfulness is lost in beauty,
and grandeur is dressed in a thousand capti-
vating forms. At the Bridge you feel your-
self to be looking into another world; at the



Cave you find yourself already arrived there.
The one presents to us a God who is very
" wonderful in working ;" the other exhibits
the same power, but with it is blended love-
liness in a thousand forms. In each is vast-
ness. Greatness constitutes the whole of cmr,
but the other is elegant as well as great. Of
each we must retain lively impressions; and
to witness such displays of the Creator's
.rmer, must ever be considered as happy
I s in our lives. While viewing scenes
l these, we must ever exalt the energy of
creatoig power, and sink under the thoughts
of our own insignificance. The works of
nature are admirably well calculated to im-
press us deeply with a sense of the mighty
power of God, who can separate two moun-
tains by a channel of awfulness, or fill the
bowels of a huge mountain with beauties,
that man, with all the aid of art, can only
admire, but never imitate.



<(t C1ristiana laur.
We venture to extract another of Mr. Todd's Simple
Sketches, so charmingly are they described.
THE sun had set, and I began to be anxious
to find a place of rest for the night, after a
day's ride under a sultry sun. I was travel-
ling in South Carolina, and was now not far
from a branch of the Cooper river. The coun-
try here is a dead level, and its surfai
covered with thinly scattered pines. I B
to an old church-it stood solitary ; a
house in sight: it was built of wood, and
much decayed. The breezes of evening were
gently sighing through the tops of the long-
leaved pines which stood near, while still
nearer stood several large live-oaks, which
spread out their aged arms, as if to shelter
what was sacred. On their limbs hung, in
graceful folds, the long grey moss, as if a
mantle of mourning, waving over a few de-
cayed tombs at the east side of the church.
These oaks give the place a very sombre and
awful appearance; they seemed to stand as


silent mourners over the dust of generations
that had sunk into the grave, and waiting in
solemn expectation that others would soon
come and lie beneath their shade in the long
sleep of death. The time of day, and the
sacredness of the spot, were so congenial to
my own feelings, that I involuntarily stopped
my horse.
VIy curiosity was now excited by seeing a
S ged negro standing and gazing steadily
mall decaying tomb. He seemed to be
irrint, and did not observe me; his woolly
locks were whitened by age ; his countenance
was manly, though it bore the marks of sor-
row; he was leaning on his smooth-worn staff,
the companion of many years. I was some-
what surprised on seeing this aged African
silently meditating among the vestiges of the
dead, and accordingly roused him from his
reverie. He started at first, but his confi-
dence was soon gained. There is a spring in
the bosom of every Christian which throws a
joy into his heart whenever he meets a fel-
low-christian during his pilgrimage here be-


low. I found the old negro to be an eminent
Christian, and we were soon acquainted. I
inquired what motive induced him, at that
hour of the day, to visit these tombs. Instead
of answering my question directly he gave me
the following account of himself, in broken
language :-
About sixty years ago, this negro was liv.
ing under his paternal roof in Africa. He
was the son of a chief of a small tribe, the
pride of his parents, and the delight a
countrymen; none could more dexteroMly
throw the dart; none more skilfully guide
the fragile canoe over the bosom of the deep.
He was not far from twenty years of age,
when, on a fair summer's morn, he went int
his little canoe to spend the day in fishing.
About noon he paddled his bark to the shore,
and, under the shade of a beautiful palmetto-
tree, he reclined till the heat of noon-day
should be passed. He was young, healthy,
and active; he knew none whom he dreaded;
he was a stranger to fear, and he dreamed
only of security, as he slept under the shade


~Zi~j~Bl~y~ Y

ig _~~-~sa~s~e~s~il~~

0JI. Y -I

[ ___S__W


of his own native tree. Thus, while our sky
is encircled with the bow of happiness, we
forget that it may soon be overspread with
darkness. When this African awoke, he
found his hands bound behind him, his feet
fettered, and himself surrounded by several
white men, who were conveying him on board
of their ship,--it was a slave-ship. The ves-
sel had her cargo completed, and was ready
to sail. As they were unfurling the sails,
the son of Africa, with many others of ma
countrymen, for the last time cast his eyes
upon his native shores. Futurity was davilf
-was uncertain,-was despair. His bosom
thrilled with anguish as he threw his last
farewell look over the plains of his native
country. There was his native spot where
his ancestors had lived, there the home of his
infancy and childhood, there the place where
he had inhaled his earliest breath-and to
tear him from these, seemed like breaking
the very strings of his heart.
After a melancholy passage, during which
the African was forced to wear double the


irons, to receive double the number of lashes,
that any of his companions received; on ac-
count of his refractory spirit, he was at length
landed and sold to a planter in the place
where he now resides. There is nothing new,
nothing novel or interesting, that ever takes
place in the life of a slave-describe one day,
and you write the. history of a slave. The
sun, indeed, continues to roll over him, hut
it sheds upon him no new joys, no new pros-
pects, no new hopes. So it was with the
subject of this narrative. His master was
naturally a man of a very humane disposition,
but his overseers were often little else than
compounds of vice and cruelty. In this
situation the negro lost all his natural inde-
,pendence and bravery. He often attempted
to run away, but was as often taken and pun-
ished. Having no cultivated mind to which
he could look for consolation-knowing of no
change that was ever to take place in his
situation,-he settled down in gloominess.
Often would he send a silent sigh for the
home of his youth; but his path shewed but


few marks of happiness, and few rays of hope
for futurity were drawn by fancy's hand.
Sunk in despondency and vice, he was little
above the brutes around him.
In this situation he was accidentally met
by the good minister of the parish, who ad-
dressed him as a rational and immortal being,
and pressed upon him the first principles of
religion. This was a new subject; for he had
never before looked beyond the narrow bounds
before him, nor had he ever dreamed of- a
world beyond this. After a long conversa-
tion on this subject, the minister made him
promise that he would now attend to his
The clergyman could not, for many months
after this, obtain an interview with his new
pupil, who most carefully shunned him. But
though afraid to meet his minister, he still
felt an arrow of conviction in his heart.
Wherever he went, whether asleep or awake,
to use his own words, his promise, me take
care of soul, stick close to him." He now
began in earnest to seek "" the one thing need-



ful." By the kindness of his master he
learned to read his Testament, and to inquire
more about Jesus. He was now very desirous
to see his minister, and before a convenient
opportunity occurred, he was in such distress
of mind as actually to attempt two several
times to kill himself. His minister visited
him, conversed and prayed with him.
C" Oh," he would say, God never think
such poor negro, he no love so much sinner,
he no before ever see such bad heart !" The
mercy of Christ, and his compassion towards
sinners, were explained to him, and his soul
was filled with "joy and peace in believing."
He now rejoiced and thanked God that he
was brought from his native shores, as he had
a fairer country, and purer enjoyments pre-
sented to his view, after the scenes of this
transitory world shall be over. He now be-
came more industrious and more faithful.
By uncommon industry he raised money suf-
ficient to purchase his own freedom. He
next bought the liberty of his wife, and had
nearly completed paying for that of his only


daughter, when she was liberated by the hand
of death. His wife soon followed her, and
left this world a perfect void to the husband
and father. His every tie that bound him
to earth was now broken. Having no earthly
enjoyment, he now placed his affections on
heaven above. It is easy for the Christian
to make rapid progress in holiness when not
fettered by worldly cares.
It was now dark, and I must leave my new
acquaintance. I left him with his face wet
with tears, still standing beside the tomb--
the tomb of his old minister This good man
had been his faithful and constant guide, and
though his ashes had been slumbering for
years, the negro had not yet forgotten how
to weep at their urn. I could not but admire
the wonderful dealings of God, in order to
bring men to himself. Happy minister who
hast been the instrument of covering a mul-
titude of sins Happy negro his is not this
world. Though no sculptured marble may
tell the traveller where he may shortly lie-
though he never trod the thorny road of



ambition or power-though the trumpet of
fame never blew the echo of his name through
a gaping world-still those eyes, which will
soon be closed in death, may hereafter awake,
to behold, undaunted, a world in flames, and
these heavens fleeing away.

3inlu t dtartjquanat in atlahria.
In nature there is nothing which can inspire us with
so much awe as those violent outbreakings which
occasionally convulse the earth, creating fearful de-
vastation, overthrowing cities, and destroying much
life and property. The following is a description
of one which occurred in Calabria and Sicily in the
year 1783, and which, from its violence, overthrew
many cities, creating an universal consternation in
the minds of the inhabitants of the two kingdoms.
ON Wednesday, the fifth of February, about
one in the afternoon, the earth was convulsed
in that part of Calabria which is bounded by
the rivers of Gallico and Metramo, by the
mountains Jeio, Sagra, and Caulone, and the


coast between these rivers and the Tuscan
Sea. This district is called the Piana, be-
cause the country extends itself from the
roots of the Appenines, in a plain, for twenty
Italian miles in length by eighteen in breadth.
The earthquake lasted about a hundred
seconds. It was felt as far as Otranto, Pa-
lermo, Lipari, and the other JEolian isles; a
little also in Apuglia, and the Terra di Ca-
voro; in Naples and the Abruzzi not at all.
There stood in this plain a hundred and nine
cities and villages, the habitationsof a hun-
dred and sixty-six thousand human beings;
and in less than two minutes all these edifices
were destroyed, with nearly thirty-two thou-
sand individuals of every age, sex, and sta-
tion,-the rich equally with the poor; for
there existed no power of escaping from so
sudden a destruction. The soil of the Piana
was granite at the base of the Apennines, but
in the plain the debris of every sort of earth,
brought down from the mountains by the
rains, constituted a mass of unequal solidity,
resistance, weight, and form. On this ac-


count, whatever might have been the cause
of the earthquake, whether volcanic or elec-
trical, the movement assumed every possible
direction,-vertical, horizontal, oscillatory,
vorticose, and pulsatory, producing every
variety of destruction. In one place a city
or house was thrown down, in another it was
immersed. Here, trees were buried to their
topmost branches, beside others stripped and
overturned. Some mountains opened in the
middle, and dispersed their mass to the right
and left, their summits disappearing, or being
lost in the newly-formed valleys; others slip-
ped from their foundations along with all their
edifices, which sometimes were overthrown,
but more rarely remained _uninjured, and the
inhabitants not even disturbed in -their sleep.
The earth opened in many places, forming
frightful abysses, while, at a small distance,
it rose into hills. The waters, too, changed
their course ; rivers uniting to form lakes, or
spreading into marshes; disappearing, to rise
again in new streams, through other banks, or
running at large, to lay bare and desolate the


most fertile fields. Nothing retained its an-
cient form ; cities, roads, and boundaries
vanished, so that the inhabitants were bewil-
dered as if in an unknown land. The works
of art and of nature, the elaborations of cen-
turies, together with many a stream and rock,
coeval perhaps with the world itself, were in
a single instant destroyed and overthrown .
Whirlwinds, tempests, the flames of volcanoes,
and of burning edifices, rain, wind, and thun-
der, accompanied the movements of the earth:
all the forces of nature were in activity, and
it seemed as if all its laws were suspended,
and the last hour of created things at hand.
In the meantime, the sea between Scylla,
Charybdis, and the coasts of Reggio and MVes-
sina, was raised many fathoms above its usual
level, overflowing its banks, and then, in its
return to its channel, carrying away men and
beasts. By these means, two thousand per-
sons lost their lives on Scylla alone, who were
either congregated on the sands or had escaped
in boats, from the dangers of the dry land.
Etna and Stromboli were in more than usual



activity; but this hardly excited attention,
amidst greater and graver disasters. A worse
fire than that of the volcanoes resulted from
the incidents of the earthquake; for the beams
of the falling houses being ignited by the
burning heaths, the flames, fanned by the
winds, were so vast and fierce, that they
seemed to issue from the bosom of the earth.
The heavens, alternately cloudy or serene,
had given no previous sign of the approach-
ing calamity ; but a new source of suffering
followed it, in a thick fog, which obscured
the light of the day, and added to the dark-
ness of night. Irritating to the eyes, in-
jurious to the respiration, fetid, and im-
moveable, it hung over the two Calabrias for
more than twenty days,-an occasion of me-
lancholy, disease, and annoyance, both to man
and to animals. .
At the first shock, no token, in heaven or
on earth, had excited attention; but at the
sudden movement, and at the aspect of des-
truction, an overwhelming terror seized on
the general mind, insomuch, that the instinct


of self-preservation was suspended, and men
remained thunder-stricken and immoveable.
On the return of reason, the first sentiment
was a sort of joy at the partial escape; but
they soon gave place to grief for the loss of
family, and the overthrow of the domestic
habitation. Amidst so many aspects of death,
and the apprehension even of approaching
judgment, the suspicion that friends were yet
alive under the ruins was the most excruci-
ating affliction, since the impossibility of as-
sisting them rendered their death-(miserable
and terrible consolation)-a matter of pre-
ference and of hope. Fathers and husbands
were seen wandering amidst the ruins that
covered the objects of their affections, and,
wanting the power to move the superincum-
bent masses, were calling in vain for the as-
sistance of the bystanders; or haply they lay
groaning, night and day, in their despair,
upon the ruinous fragments. But the most
horrid fate-(a fate too dreadful to conceive
or to relate)-was theirs, who, buried alive
beneath the fallen edifices, awaited, with an


anxious-and doubtful hope, the chances of re-
lief-accusing, at first, the slowness, and then
the avarice, of their dearest relations and
friends; and when they sank under hunger
and grief-with their senses and memory be-
ginning to fail them-their last sentiment was
that of indignation against their kindred, and
hatred of humanity. Many were disinterred
alive by their friends, and some by the earth-
quake itself, which, overthrowing the very
ruins it had made, restored them to light. It
was ultimately found that about a fourth of
those whose bodies were recovered, might have
been saved had timely assistance been at hand.
The men were chiefly found in attitudes in-
dicating an effort at escape, the women with
their hands covering their face, or desperately
plunged in their hair. Mothers were dis-
covered dead who had striven to protect their
infants with their own bodies, or lay with
their arms stretched towards these objects of
affection, when separated from them by in-
tervening masses of ruin.


csagrp frnm a dlip nu ,irr.
From the "< Missionary Annual" for 1833.
MANY of the party, having retired to their
hammocks soon after the commencement of
the storm, were only partially clothed, when
they made their escape; but the seamen on
the watch, in consequence of the heavy rain,
having cased themselves in double or treble
dresses, supplied their supernumerary articles
of clothing to those who had none. We
happily succeeded in bringing away two com-
passes from the binnacle, and a few candles
from the cuddy-table, one of them lighted;
one bottle of wine, and another of porter,
were handed to us, with the tablecloth and
a knife, which proved very useful; but the
fire raged so fiercely in the body of the ves-
sel, that neither bread nor water could be
obtained. The rain still poured in torrents;
the lightning, followed by loud bursting of
thunder, continued to stream from one side
of the heavens to the =other,-one moment



dazzling us by its glare, and the next moment
leaving us in darkness, relieved only by the
red flames of the conflagration from which
we were endeavouring to escape. Our first
object was to proceed to a distance from the
vessel, lest she should explode and over-
whelm us, but, to our inexpressible distress,
we discovered that the yawl had no rudder,
and that for the two boats we had only three
oars. All exertions to obtain more from the
ship proved unsuccessful. The gig had a
rudder; from this they threw out a rope to
take us in tow; and, by means of a few pad-
dles, made by tearing up the lining of the
boat, we assisted in moving ourselves slowly
through the water. Providentially the sea
was comparatively smooth, or our overloaded
boats would have swamped, and we should
only have escaped the flames to have perished
in the deep. The wind was light, but varia-
ble, and, acting on the sails, which, being
drenched with the rain, did not soon take
fire, drove the burning mass, in terrific gran-
deur, over the surface of the ocean, the dark-


ness of which was only illuminated by the
quick glancing of the lightning or the glare
of the conflagration. Our situation was for.
some time extremely perilous. The vessel
neared us more than once, and apparently
threatened to involve us in one common des-
truction. The cargo, consisting of dry pro-
visions, spirits, cotton goods, and other ar-
ticles equally combustible, burned with great
violence, while the fury of the destroying
element, the amazing height of the flames,
the continued storm, amidst the thick dark-
ness of the night, rendered the scene appal-
ling and terrible. About ten o'clock, the
masts, after swaying -from side to side, fell
with a dreadful crash into the sea, and the
hull of the vessel continued to burn amidst
the shattered fragments of the wreck, till the
sides were consumed to the water's edge.
The spectacle ,was truly magnificent, could
it even have been contemplated by us with-
out a recollection of our own circumstances.
The torments- endured by the dogs, sheep,
and other animals on board, at any other time



wotld have excited our deepest commisera-
tion; but at present, the object before us,
our stately ship, that had for the last four
months been our social home, the scene of
our enjoyments, our labours, and our rest,
now a prey to the destroying element; the
suddenness with which we had been hurried
from circumstances of comfort and compara-
tive security, to those of destitution and peril,
and with which the most exhilarating hopes
had been exchanged for disappointment as
uaihecpected as it was afflictive; the sudden
death, of the two seamen, our own narrow
escape, and lonely situation on the face of
the deep, and the great probability even yet,
although we had succeeded in removing to a
greater distance from the vessel, that we our-
selves should never again see the light of day,
or set foot on solid ground, absorbed every
feeling. For some time the silence was
scarcely broken, and the thoughts of many,
I doubt not, were engaged on subjects most
suitable to immortal .beings on the brink of
eternity. The number of persons in the two


boats was forty-eight, and all, with the ex-
ception of the two ladies, who bore this severe
visitation with uncommon fortitude, worked
by turns at the oars and paddles. After
some time, to our great relief, the rain
ceased ; the labour of baling water from the
boats was then considerably diminished. We
were frequently hailed during the night by
our companions in the small boat, and re-
turned the call, while the brave and gener-
ous-hearted seamen occasionally enlivened
the solitude of the deep by a simultaneous
"" Hurra !" to cheer each other's labours, and
to animate their spirits. The Tanjore rose
in the water as its contents were gradually
consumed. We saw it burning the whole
night, and at day-break could distinguish a
column of smoke, which, however, soon
ceased, and every sign of our favourite ves-
sel disappeared. When the sun rose, our
anxiety and uncertainty as to our situation
were greatly relieved by discovering land a-
head; the sight of it filled us with gratefitl
joy, and nerved us with fresh vigour for the


exertion required in managing the boats.
With the advance of the day we discerned
more clearly the nature of the country. It
was wild and covered with jungle, without
any appearance of population : could we have
got ashore, therefore, many of us might have
perished before assistance could have been
procured; but the breakers, dashing upon
the rocks, convinced us that landing was im-
practicable. In the course of the morning
we discovered a native vessel, or dhoney,
lying at anchor, at some distance: the wind
at that time beginning to favour us, every
means was devised to render it available. In
the yawl we extended the tablecloth as a sail,
and in the other boat a blanket served the
same purpose. This additional help was the
more seasonable, as the rays of the sun had
become almost intolerable to our partially
covered bodies. Some of the seamen at-
tempted to quench their thirst by salt water,
but the passengers encouraged each other to
abstain. About noon we reached the dhoney.
The natives on board were astonished and


alarmed at our appearance, and expressed
some unwillingness to receive us; but our
circumstances would admit of no denial, and
we scarcely waited till our Singalese fellow-
passenger could interpret to them our situa-
tion and our wants, before we ascended the
sides of their vessel,-assuring them that every
expense and loss sustained on our account
should be amply repaid.

Itraoatts of tlr 1fitatruss, k.
The author of the following extracts is Mr. Augustus
Earle, whose life has been one of wandering and
peril, traversing every quarter of the globe. The
account of his residence for nine months among the
New Zealanders is very interesting ; but a descrip-
tion of their cannibal habits will not suit the taste
of many of our young readers. We shall therefore
accompany him to the Island of Tristan d'Acunha,
upon which, by accident, he was left, where he
amused himself hunting goats, sea elephants, alba-
trossesl and penguins-; while, like another Crusoe,
1he occasionally watched for the ship that should
release him from his island prison. His work is
entitled "Nine Months' Residence in New Zea-
land," &c.
BEI3=w a fine morning, I determined to ascend
the mountain. As several parties had before
gone up, they had formed a kind of path: at
least we endeavoured to trace the same way,
but it requires a great deal of nerve to at-
tempt it. The sides of the mountain are
nearly perpendicular, but, after ascending
about two hundred feet, it is there entirely


covered with wood, which renders the footing
much more safe, but in order to get to the
wood, the road is so dangerous that it made
me almost tremble to think of it--slippery
grey rocks, and many of them unfortunately
loose, so that when we took hold, they sepa-
rated from the mass, and fell with a horrid
rumbling noise. Here and there were a few
patches of grass, the only thing we could
depend upon to assist us in climbing, which
must be done with extreme caution, for the
least slip or false step would dash one to
atoms on the rocks below. By keeping our
eyes constantly looking upwards, and con-
tinuing to haul ourselves up, by catching firm
hold on this grass, after an hour's painful toil
we gained the summit, where we found our-
selves on an extended plain, of several miles
expanse, which terminates in the peak, com-
posed of dark grey lava, bare and frightful
to behold. We proceeded towards it, the
plain gradually rising, but the walking was
most fatiguing, over strong rank grass and
fern several feet high, with holes concealed



under the roots in such a way, that no pos-
sible caution could prevent our occasionally
falling down into one or other of them, and
entirely disappearing, which caused a bois-
terous laugh amongst the rest; but it fre-
quently happened, while one was making
merry at the expense of another, down sunk
the laugher himself. A death-like stillness
prevailed in these high regions, and, to my
ear, our voices had a strange, unnatural echo,
and I fancied our forms appeared gigantic,
whilst the air was piercing cold. The pros-
pect was altogether very sublime, and filled
the mind with awe On the one side, the
boundless horizon, heaped up with clouds of
silvery brightness, contrasted with some of
darker hue, enveloping us in their vapour,
and, passing rapidly away, gave us only casual
glances of the landscape ; and, on the other
hand, the sterile and cindery peak, with its
venerable head, partly capped with clouds,
partly revealing great patches of red cinders,
or lava, intermingled with the black rock,
produced a most extraordinary and disimal



effect. It seemed as though it were still
actually burning, to heighten the sublimity
of the scene. The huge albatross appeared
here to dread no interloper or enemy, for
their young were on the ground completely
uncovered, and the old, ones were stalking
around them. This bird is the largest of the
aquatic tribe, and its plumage is of a most
delicate white, excepting the back ahd the
tops of its wings, which are grey: they lay
but one egg, on the ground, where they form
a kind of nest, by scraping the earth round
it. After the young one is hatched, it has
to remain a year before it can fly; it is en.-
tirely white, and covered with a woolly down,
which is very beautiful. As we approached
them, they clapped their beaks, with a very
quick motion, which made a great noise.
This, and throwing up the contents of the
stomach, are the only means of offence and
defence they seem to possess. The old ones,
which are valuable on account of their fea-
thers, my companions made dreadful havoc
amongst, knocking on the head all they could


come up with. These birds are very help-
less on the land, the great 'length of their
wings precluding them from rising up into
the air, unless they can get to a steep de-
clivity. On the level ground they were com-
pletely at our mercy, but very little was
shewn them ; and in a very short space of
time the plain was strewn with their bodies,
one blow on the head generally killing them
instantly. Five months after, many of the
young birds were still sitting on their nests,
and had never moved away from them; they
remain there for a year before they can fly,
and during that long period are fed by the
mother. They had greatly increased in size
and beauty since my first visit to them. The
semblance of the young bird, as it sits on the
nest, is stately and beautiful. The white
down, which is its first-covering, giving place
gradually to its natural grey plumage, leaves
half the. creature covered vith down ; the
other half is a fine compact coat of feathers,
composed of white and grey, w while the head
is of a dazzling, silvery white. Their size is



prodigious, one of them proving a tolerable
load. Upon skinning them, on our return,
we found they were covered with a fine white
fat, which I was told was excellent for fryr-
ing, and other culinary purposes; and the
flesh was quite as delicate, and could scarcely
be distinguished in flavour from lamb. Be-
sides our albatross, the dogs caught some
small birds, about the size of our partridge,
but their gait was something like that of the
penguin. The male is of a glossy black, with
a bright red hard crest on the top of the
head; the hen is brown. They stand erect,
and have long yellow legs, with which they
run very fast; their wings are small and use-
less for flying, but they are armed with sharp
spurs for defence, and also, I imagine, for
assisting them in climbing, as they are found
generally among the rocks. The name they
give this bird here is simply "' cock," its only
note being a noise very much resembling the
repetition of that word. Its flesh is plump,
fat, and excellent eating.



THE spot of ground occupied by our settlers
is bounded on each side by high bluffs, which
extend far into the sea, leaving a space in
front, where all their hogs run nearly wild,
as they are prevented going beyond those
limits by those natural barriers ; and the
creatures who, at stated' periods, come up
from the sea, remain in undisturbed posses-
sion of the beaches beyond our immediate
vicinity. The weather being favourable, we
launched our boat early in the morning, for
the purpose of procuring a supply of eggs for
the consumption of the family. We heard
the chattering of the penguins from the
rookery long before we landed, which was
noisy in the extreme, and groups of them
were scattered all over the beach; but the
high thick grass on the declivity of the hill
seemed their grand establishment, and they
were hidden by it from our view. As we
could not find any place where we could pos-
sibly land our boat in safety, I and two more



swam on shore with bags tied round our necks
to hold the eggs in, and the boat with one of
the men lay off, out of the surf. I should
think the ground occupied by these birds (if
I may be allowed so to call them) was at least
a mile in circumference, covered in every part
with grasses and reeds, which grew consider-
ably higher than my head; and on every
gentle ascent, beginning from the beach, on
all the large grey rocks, which occasionally
appeared above this grass, sat perched groups
of these strange and uncouth-looking creatures,
but the noise which rose up from beneath
baffles all description! As our business lay
with the noisy part of this community, we
quietly crept under the grass, and commenced
our plundering search, though there needed
none, so profuse was the quantity. The scene
altogether well merits a better description
than I can give- thousands, and hundreds of
thousands, of these little two-legged erect
monsters hopping around us, with voices very
much resembling in tone that of the human;
all opened their throats together: so thickly


clustered in groups that it was almost im-
possible to place the foot without dispatching
one of them. The shape of the animal, their
curious motions, and their most extraordinary
voices, made me fancy myself in a kingdom
of pigmies. The regularity of their manners,
their all sitting in exact rows, resembling
more the order of a camp than a rookery of
noisy birds, delighted me. These creatures
did not move away on our approach, but
only increased their noise, so we were obliged
to displace them forcibly from their nests;
and this ejectment was not produced without
a considerable struggle on their parts; and,
being armed with a formidable break, it soon
became a scene of desperate warfare. We
had to take particular care to protect our
hands and legs from their attacks: and for
this purpose each one had provided himself
with a short stout club. The noise they con-
tinued to make during our ramble through
their territories the sailors said was, Cover
em up, cover 'em up." And, however in-
credible it may appear, it is nevertheless true,



that I heard those words so distinctly re-
peated, and by such various tones of voices,
that several times I started, and expected to
see one of the- men at my elbow. Even these
little creatures, as well as the monstrous sea
elephant, appear to keep up a continued
warfare with each other. As the penguins
sit in rows, forming regular lanes leading
down to the beach, whenever one of them
feels an inclination to refresh herself by a
plunge into the sea, she has to run the gaunt-
let through the whole street, every one pecking
at her as she passes without mercy; and though
all are occupied in the same employment, not
the smallest degree of friendship seems to
exist; and whenever we turned one off her
nest, she was sure to be thrown amongst
foes; and, besides the loss of her eggs, was
invariably doomed to receive a severe beating
and pecking from her companions. Each one
lays three eggs, and after a time, when the
young are strong enough to undertake the
journey, they go to sea, and are not again
seen till the ensuing spring. Their city is



deserted of its numerous inhabitants, and
quietness reigns till nature prompts their
return the following year, when the same
noisy scene is repeated, as the same flock of
birds returns to the spot where they were
hatched. After raising a tremendous tumult
in this numerous colony, and sustaining con-
tinued combat, we came offvictorious, making
capture of about a thousand eggs, resmbling
in size, colour, and transparency of shell,
those of a duck; and the taking possession
of this immense quantity did not occupy
more than one hour, which may serve to
prove the incalculable number of birds col-
lected together. We did not allow them
sufficient time, after landing, to lay all their
eggs; for, had the season been further ad-
vanced, and we had fund three eggs in each
nest, the whole of them might probably have
proved addled, the young partly formed, and
the eggs of no use to us; but the whole of
those we took turned out good, and had a
particularly fine and delicate flavour. It was a
work of considerable difficulty to get our

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