Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Chapter 1
 Chapter 2
 Chapter 3
 Chapter 4
 Chapter 5
 Chapter 6
 Chapter 7
 Chapter 8
 Chapter 9
 Back Cover

Title: Common objects of the sea shore: including hints for an aquarium
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003508/00001
 Material Information
Title: Common objects of the sea shore: including hints for an aquarium
Series Title: Common objects of the sea shore: including hints for an aquarium
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Wood, J. G.
Sowerby ( Designer )
Publisher: Routledge, Warne, and Routledge
Place of Publication: London
New York
Publication Date: 1961
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00003508
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA4833
ltuf - ALJ0479
oclc - 13561492
alephbibnum - 002239941

Table of Contents
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
        Cover 6
        Cover 7
    Half Title
        Half Title
        Frontispiece 1
        Frontispiece 2
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Chapter 1
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 6a
        Page 6b
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        Page 11
        Page 12
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    Chapter 2
        Page 18
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    Chapter 3
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    Chapter 4
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    Chapter 5
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    Chapter 6
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    Chapter 7
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    Chapter 8
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    Chapter 9
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    Back Cover
        Cover 3
        Cover 4
Full Text

The Baldwin Library

73N mB-',"7,7,id, '




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"' ""` " '~`T:'T ''~T









REV. J. G. WOOD, M.A., F.LS., ETC.,


rPunaiDOB gIUaTr.

A Cheap Edition of this Book, oith the Plates Plain,
price 1s., is also published.


THIS little work is simply a popular
account of the "Common Objects of the
Sea-Shore," and is restricted to those ob-
jects which every visitor to the sea-side is
sure to find on every coast. For descrip-
tions of those creatures which only inhabit
certain localities, and those whose lives are
passed in the deep water, requiring the
dredge, the net, or the drag to bring them
to the light of day, the reader is referred
to those magnificent and comprehensive
works that have been written for the pur-
pose of illustrating particular branch of

I- - 4 1-,


During my visits to the sea-eoasts for
the last six or seven years, I have taken
note of the questions put to me by persons
who were anxious to know something of the
curious objects that everywhere met their
eyes; and the following pages are, as nearly
as possible, the condensed conversations that
then took place.

The whole of the illustrative plates were
drawn expressly for this work by Mr.
Sowerby, whose name is a sufficient guarantee
for their truth.

IoosM, MKa, 1867.



MAIIM" BmiB-Poanau . .. . . .


Muman -P-I urwnxxa YZrOW -PlnXrw a
CoMowN-T . . . . .


MAIUX A ma oB Sa.-Wms .. . .

SRawosDmO an


GamwoaU Aru .. .

-w * 7 IN-V .WTW- > -, ; ? I



Eer or Mauna AALmra Cu-wL A ~rms
HBu .s ..... ........ 74


Sa AIxmoaS Anr on=mn ZoonrfTm . 9


STA-FlmaM AHD SZA-UM . ... 125






Cmmon kbjtds of tot sta-Sdatr.



WHBTBB the sea i approached by land or by
water, the first indications of its existence ar
generally to be found in the air. On some day,
the electric clouds that skirt the olih map out,
as it were, the sa-coast; and when uch signs
fail, the marine birds give evident tokens that
the sea, their great store-house, is oee at hand.
With the birds, then, we will ommence our
observations of the sea and its shora.
The bird that usually presents italf as the
oOean's herald is the Common Gul (Lear
aMm). Them ar some twelve or thirteen
soeoei of British Gulls, including the Kittiwake


and the Iceland Gull. The bird represented in
the accompanying figure is the Great Blck-
backed Gull (Larw mariuan ) which is tolerably
frequent on our coasts, but not so often men a
the Common Gull, nor does it form such large
societies as those in which its more sociable
relations love to congregate.
Why the word "gull" should be employed to
express stupidity I cannot at all comprehend,
for the gulls are very knowing birds indeed, and
difficult to be deceived. If a piece of bread or
biscuit be thrown from a boat, it remains but a
very short time on the surface of the water before
it is carried off by a gull, although previously
not a bird was visible. But if a number of gulls
are flying about, and a piece of paper or white
wood be thrown into the water, there is not a
gull who will even stoop towards it, although to
the human eye the bread and the paper appear
identical The cry of the gull is very curious,
being a kind of mixture of a wail, or scream,
and a laugh, and on a dark stormy day adds
wonderfully to the spirit of the scene Its flight
is peculiarly quiet, combining great power of wing
with easy elegane of motion. It is a very bold
bird, and for many miles will follow boats so
loosely that the very sparkle of its eyes i plainly

Ossi 8
viibS, s it twes itst wilooking hed ham
side to side while watching the voyaWg


The gull is an exclusively marine bird, being
found only on the m -shore or at the mouths of
large riers, although more than usually violent
storms ooosionally drive it inland, where it
wander about for some time very miSrable, and
quite out of its element, until it get shot by
some rustio sportsman.
The next bird to which our attention will be
directed is the Common Tern (So"srn Awnmdo),
or Se Swallow, u it is very appropriately caed.
It belongs to the gull family, and has many of



the gull habits, baut i madily distinguluhabls
from the gull, even at a considerable distance,
on account of its rapid, darting flight. It is
not at all unlike a swallow in general shape,

for the wings are long and pointed, the body is
rather large in front, and tapers to a point, and
its tail is forked like that of a swallow.
It is extremely dexterous in its capacity as a
fisher, for in its swift fight over the waves it
darts upon any small fish that may be unfortunate
and curious enough to come near the surface, and
scoops it up, as it were, from the water, without
seemingly interrupting the speed of its course.
The nest, if it can be dignified with the title, is
merely a hollow scooped in the sand, well above
high-water mark; and in this hollow two or three

eg are dep
coMab the Co
the Arotio '
supply its pla
of British Ta
On many ol
that look tow
tolerably large
yellowish cou
rather hooked

This i the C
our three Bri

7 .

dted. On the Soottih ad nortrn
nmon Ton is not often fond, but
!ern (S&rna mawoua) oome to
e. The are ten or eleven apeae
Sthe English ooart, especially those
yards the Chanel, may be sen a
e blaok-fethered bird, having a
ntenanoe, a decidedly long and
d bill, and a pair of green eyea.

ormorant (Oracu u ro), one of
tiah repmnWntav of the Peima


'7a~R~P~ a q Ig

mnily. Te enormous pouch which deommrte
the lower bill of the white pelican is only rudi.
mentary in our British pelicans, probably because
there would be no use for it, as the birds live on
or lose to the oast.
The other English pelicans are the Gannet, a
figure of which will be given shortly, and the
Common Shag, a bird of a monosyllabic Englih
cognomen, but who ought to consider himself
recompensed by the scientific name given to him
by certain naturalists, namely, Phatlarowora
crictat; the epithet criotatu, or crested, being
due to a tuft of reverted green feathers that
decorates the head. This tuft, however, is only
worn during the breeding season, when most
animals put on their gayest apparel, and is lost
as soon as the young Ple~uwoo ram cridati take
their places as independent members of society.
The cormorant is a peeving fsher, in-
satiable in appetite, and almost paralleled in
digestion. The pike and the shark among fsh
appear to possess much the sam proportionate
digestive power as the cormorant among birds
The cormorant is not content with sitting, like
the heron, on the edge of the water, and snapping
up the fish that may enter the shallows; or evn,
like the gulls, with seizing them from the surbo

7 .9



own dlmat, pnlum into th water, Mdl
the s *ioe and actually prove himU- a m
expert wimmer then the vry hA threiNlv
In former days the oarmoant -w employed in
Engand for the purpose of atehing fih; and
such is still the ae in China The Ghines
oormorant, however, is not the same species as
that which is found on our oasts It is rather
a curious ircumtanoe, that one of the mat-
malia, namely, the otter, and some of the brds,
should be enabled to carry on a sooesshl
sabequeous chase, and tht both beast and bird
have been preed into the rice of man.
Te ormorant is sometimes found inand,
especially in the winter season, and exhibit its
powers among the hfeh-water fb.
Although the pouch is comparatively mall
in the cormorant, it still axia, and i VMefA in
giving elastity to the throat and neok; a pro-
perty whia i mch required, for the cormorant
s a very geedy bird, and o swallows Ash of
so large a d that a throw of twice .i dimm-
sions seems incapable of perntting the pMage
o blky a body. In oade to swallow a
e amonrmt genierlly stI it roM wi- to es
it n the air,W then 0* it ja it d-m-b

with t head donwada Om of these bird
bomm, has been en to mis its a m, am&to
"teh the fsh with its had upwards; in ths
position the cormorant ndeavoured to wallow
its prey, but when the fah had paed about half-
way down its captor's throat, the sharp fin pre-
vented its further progress, and both bird and
fish were soon dead. The poor cormorant seemed
terribly distremed, and made violent struggle.,
but all to no purpose; for the fish was im-
movably fixed, and could neither be swallowed
nor rejected.
The feathers of the oormorant, although they
appear to be of a dusky black, are really of a
very deep green, so deep, indeed, as to appear
black at a little distance, something like the
plumage of the magpie. The nest is composed
of dried sea-weed, and is usually placed on lofty
rooks, but is sometimes built among the branches
of trees. The eggs are remarkable for a thick
coating of ohalk, which seems to envelope the
shell quite independently, and can be easily
removed with a knife. There are fom threto
fiv eggs in each net.
Our remaining English pelican i the Ganet
(&kGs aws ), also called the Solan Gooe. It
is to be find ao many of our shore, but espeai-

my om th swdM.hO BmBok,a tb .e maa
Sts Frith of Faoth. Thr isM dl ulty in
dentifying this bird, m at om distance, as
t has very much the appeared of wearing
peotaolm; a ofmumsrtane that ha earned it the
title of the Spectacled Goos, although it is not
Goose at all.


It in in the search after these birds, their eggs
d young, that the St. Kilda oragimen imperil
lives year by year.
The Auk hmily find npsqMtatres in the
ilmot, and the comial little Pon. The
ilo (Uria ril) is a oommon bird on

Y r.

10 GUrIna.

may of our oomta, and may be rs, fn tbh
breeding uaAWo, sitting with extraordinary aity
and importance over a solitary egg. The gg
is often laid, and the young hatched, on suoh a
narrow ledge of rook, that it is quite a wonder


how the egg can escape a fall, or how the young
bird can even open its big beak without toppling
over the precipice.
The guillemot has earned the epithet of
Sfoolih," beo se, when sitting on this solitary
g, it will suffer italf to be taken by hand,


tor than 1ki lts duty. I would mgnft
at the word "Mithful" be nubetituted or
abolish The eg is a very bhamdxm oe,
ry large, and varble both in colour and
ape. It is generally covered with large regular
otahe, of a brown colour, on a palgreen
to the Puffin (Fraterwla ati~), it is
ly to be found in company with the guil-
and indeed lives in much the same

It is a lively little bird, easy dis-
by its large beak from which nature
derived the popular name of Sea Prrot
beak i very uall to the bird Jfr three


pial purposes: the first being, to catch fih;
the wond, to dig the burrow in whih its egg
is bid; and the third, to fight the ravens and
other foes who try to get at the egg.
The favourite food of the pufin appears to
be the common sprat, which it chases under
water, and of which it generally seures six or
seven, all arranged in a neat row along the
puffin's beak, and hanging by their heads.

There are many more marine birds that are
often seen, but those already mentioned ar the

emua. 18
most oommo. Yet them is ne other bird that
I must notice, because it has not so muoh the
marine aspect as the gulls and cormorants: this
is the Dunlin Sandpiper (Fria a pina), a
very interesting little bird, that frequents the
sandy shores in great numbers, for the purpose
of feeding on the insects and small crustaceans
that are found in such profusion, either buried
in the sand, or hidden under stones and drifted
It is quite aware that on the edge of every
wave may be found the various substanoes which
constitute its food, and so skirts the very margin
of the sea, running hither and thither; and occa-
sionally venturing a few paces into the retiring
waters in chase of some detached limpet, some
houseless worm, or tiny crab, as restlesly, and
almost as untiringly, as the many-voiced waves
There is no difficulty in watching the habits
of this, or indeed of any other bird. All that
is required is perfect stillness and silence, and
the birds will oome and pick up their food almost
within arm's reach.
In the hot summer months the observer may
watch the sands without seeing a single Dunlin,
for they then desert the sea-shore in avour of

II --


hbnd moosn where they ly their aegs nad
batch the young; returning with their o tring
towards the end of August. This bird i some-
times called the Purre.
If we now leave the sands for a time, and
amend the cliff we shall probably be indulged
with a transient glimpse of a very singular
animal. Some little distance from the shore a
number of black objects may be seen partly
emerging from the water, executing a summer-
sault, and disappearing below the surface. These


are Porpeae (Phocsna communi), and very
curious creature they are, belonging to the mam-
malia; forced, therefore, to breathe atmospheric
air, and yet permanently inhabiting the sea,
with something of the form and many of the
habits of the fsh. It is a curious conneion of
the two most distant links of the chain of the

Terwh teM the mammala bing the hdms
and the ish the lowest.
Some people my, that a it looks like a ab,
and lives like a flh, to all intents and purpose
it is a fih. So it is, if the diver at the Poly-
technic Institution i a fsh; for it holds its lease
of life on precisely the same tenure. Both diver
and porpeme must breathe atmospheric air, or
they would die; and therefore each finds means
to supply himself with that indispensable
material. The diver surrounds himself with a
supply of fresh air, with which to renovate his
blood; but the porpeese is able to renovate a
surplus amount of blood, that lasts him for some
time: so the chief different is, that the diver
takes down with him oxygen externally, and the
porpesse internally. The man goes down inside
the diving-bell, but the diving-bell goes down
inside the porpeme.
Yet the porpeese has no reservoir in which
atmospheric air is retained, for such a formation
would make it too buoyant. There is, however,
in the aeeas, to which familyy the porpesse
belongs, a reservoir of blood, which is renovated
by the atmosphere air, and is passed into the
system as required. Even man has the same
power, although in a limited degree. In gensrl,

?**., .' *

16 oam3 .

a an ennot hold his breath more than one
minute, and it is not every man who can do even
that. But if he thoroughly renovates his blood
by expelling all the impure air that remains in
the minuter tubes of his lungs, and takes a suo-
ceesion of deep inspirations, he will be able to
abstain from breathing for a much longer period.
I have just made the experiment myself and
held my breath without difficulty for a minute
and a-half; and had there been any necessity,
oould have done so for another half minute.
The porpemae is rather a sociable animal, being
generally seen in shoals, or schools, as the sailors
call them. I should hardly have aid so much
about so common a creature, were it not for the
purpose of pointing out these remarkable facts in
its structure and habits: and even though it be
common, it is not so well known as might be
imagined. Not long ago, as I was on board
a steamer, a worthy old lady began to exhibit
symptoms of nervousness and alarm. I thought
he was hearing a storm, and told her that there
was not the least danger of any commotion of
the elements, for the barometer had been steadily
riol for the last two or three days. However,
it w a different subject that caused her unesi-
ame She had heard that there were porpeses


n tho part, and wiwd to know whether we
vwe likely to met one. I told her that we
probably dould meet several, but not so may
u if a gle were impending. At this reply her
fight evidently inoresd, and he aked, in much
trepidation, whether, if we did meet one, it would
upset the Ihip!

*'i C :"B

I I~ 1 I1I~A r~FP~a~Slb~


. 1. J., ,



wLK--OOwIT--ooCs-raoLA -m Umi-4AS-wusmM
o0s1 mLL-aL&ini-FiAn mj--1-annuni,
T uow--Rnrwn1m4 aomolar--no

Dmomanmo to the shore, we hall probably
se at our feet many dseI, or f agments of
hells, which have been washed upon the beach
by the advancing tide, and which having lodged
behind a stone, or being sank into the wet mud,
remain behind when the waves retreat. These
shells are almost invariably empty, their in-
habitants having either died a natural death, or
having fallen victims to some ravenous nhbi-
tent of the sea.
The strong house with which iost of these
features are furnihed would seem to be an
edotual defense agnst the effort of open foes
while the sensitive nervous nature with which
they are gifted would appear to secure them
from insidious attacks. Yet the hard, stony
dhllt that turn the edge of a steel kni, are
constantly found to be perforated by creatures

-as. to
rSt eua be squeMd lt between th&e bqa m d
whose bodies re no harder than the human
togmue. formerly, the external charaoe of
shells were the only odet of the coletor;
and the oonehologet, a he su termed, might
bve, and very often did ha a large collection
of valuable shell., without the leat ide of the
fom, food, habit, or development of the eatur
that serted them. Now, however, those who
examine a shll are not ateided unleathey know
something of the create that inhabited it, and
from whose substance it was formed: and so thi '
branh of Natural History h leaped at once out
of the mere childish toy of oonohology into the
mature science of malaoology. The former
treated merely of shells, and therefore excluded
the vast army of mollusc, that wear no hells at
all; but the latter treats especily of the animal,
oomdering the shell to be of secondary im-
And yet, een though the shell is consideed
to be inferior to the animal by whom it was
sreted, much more attention s paid to the
hll itself than was the s in the old oonobo-
logial times In tho days the mere shape and
colour of the hell were the chadrcteristi by
which its name and plce in the sydem wer


..; r .-""... ,. -- *-, .. -.* -.-.. *.- .... .. ^ ^ wy <*r Zw"i i

SO udtm.
desrmined; but now we submit the shell to the
maehing power of the micrsope, and fnd
that various kinds of shells are characterize
by various arrangements of parties, and re
acted upon by polarized light in various ways
It is, therefore, quite possible to fix the character
of a shell from a single fragment no larger than
a pin's head. There are few things more curious
than this wonderful arrangement of the particles;
which, by the way, are brought within the soope
of the microscope, by making very thin sections
of the shells, by the aid of uaw, fle, and hone.
One of the commonest shells found on the
ea-hore is the Limpet (PaUell wrgaa). See
plate fig. 3.
In its living state it may be found adhering
closely to rooks or other substances, that give it
a firm basis of support. The adhesion is caused
by atmospheric pressure, for the limpet is enabled
to raie the centre of that part of the body that
rests on the rook, while the edge is closely pressed
upon it. This movement causes a vacuum; and
so firmly does the air hold the limpet in its
plak that the unaided fingers will nd great
dilolty even in stirring it. The firmness of
adhesion is also increased by the Wot that after
the animal has remained for some time in am

pot, forms a halow in the plaoe hm it
rea, orresponding in ie with the ahape of the
dhell Into this depremion the hell inks, and
consequently there i no possibility of reaching
it edge, where alone it is lnerable. When,
however, it i not warned, and prepared for resst-
anoe, it can be easily detached by a sharp move-
ment of the hand.
In general, it i not a migratory creature, and,
consequently, is often seen to be so covered with
parasite of various kinds, that its form can
hardly be reognised. I have now in my aqua-
rium a limpet-hell, on which a specimen of the
common laver (Ula Wtinsa) and another of
Porpyra laciw ta have affied themselves, and
are growing luxuriantly. There was alo in the
ame tank another limpethell, on which was
growing a whole forest of seM-gra (Et.soorpha
opresea), expanding as widely as the crown of
a man's ht. The acorn barnacle, too, often takes
posession of the limpets, and it frequently
happens tht, in some dark cavity of rook, a
colony of limpets may be found, each so covered
with these *mnle baroales, that not a particle
of the original shell is visible. Of thi, however,
we will speak hereafter.
The figure, plate j A a, remprents the





appMeam of the limpet it is genelly am
Om the rook; 3 6 reprs#at the unds~Aur@ I
of the mme oldet, and show the animal itme
The limpet may eaily be thu seen, if it is
placed in a reel of sea-water with flat glss
sides, for it soon crawl up the side, and s
exhibits itMelf very perf6tly.
The Common Whelk (Bweim abdmakm) is
another shell that is sure to be found on the
sand. This i so well known a shell that no
particular description is here necesry, but
mention will be made of it on a suooeeding paga

The little shell, figured on the left side of the
whelk, is owe of the oowrie, of which there are
almost innumerable varieties. Some of them,
found in the tropical sea, are of very large ise,
while other are much smaller than the spedmea
erepreseted. One rspeies of this hell is used


/ k



~e~: i~:



*^Wr .. ^'

a mealem of exchange ln semali MmNO
that an be piked up a th6i s bore I, hew-
eear, of very mall ale, M m hundred cowries
being oonsidemod an equqivala to one EnglUs
illing-hardly raimbureing the oolletor for the
trouble of stooping so odan.
There is another shel aied or dinotldy
related to the whelk which is very common on
our coasts, and whih is well worthy of notice.
This is the Pwrpwa lapiu ( plte fg 4), a
shell that is sometime found nearly white, but
mostly banded with brownish orange, is repre-
ented in the figure Now, the creature that
inhabits this shell is one of those animals that
irnished the famous purple of the analent, and
rom that property it derives its name of Purpura
The colour is not particularly beautil, and it
is rather remarkable that the anients, who had
very good taste in oolour, should have placed so
high a value on this purple, whih, according to
their own account and our observation, closely
reembled plotted blood.
Perhaps, however, its rarity constituted its
value; for there is little in eah hell, that an
enormous number of victims mut have peribed
before a suffiieny of the dye r oe robe oould
lave been obtained.

St 1Upn3A.
The sanents seemed to hav manapd the
extreting prooes in rather a clumsy manner;
but it is eay enough to procure the dye without
mixing it with the juices of the animal, as me
to have been the cae in the olden times. If the
reader would like to try the experiment, it may
be done as follows:-
Let him look among the rooks at low water,
and plenty of the shells may be found tolrnbly
oloee together. When a sufficient number are
collected, they should be killed by placing them
in fresh water, after the shell has been pierced
or broken, as otherwise the animal shuts itself up
so tightly that the water cannot gain admittance.
When the creatures are quite dead, the colouring
matter may be found in a yellowish-looking
vessel, that derives its colour from the substance
contained within. There is very little of this
colouring matter in the vesel. Now, if this
yellow substance be spread on white paper and
placed in the sunshine, a blue tinge enters the
yellow, making it green. The blue gradually
conquers the yellow, and the green soon becomes
blue. Another colour, red, now makes its appear-
ance in the blue, and turns it into purple. The
red becomes gradually stronger, and in its turn
almost vanquishes the blue, but does not quite

aooed in doing so; hr the ble, Uhavig taen
so muok pain to turn out the yeDow, wll aot
ntrly vacate the pmunimes and oaluaing with
the red, forms a deep purple, the red very moh
predominating. So we have here all the primary
coloure fighting for the dominion, and yellow,
the most powerful of the three, forced to retire
before its oomplementaries.
There are great numbers of little shell, called
Tops from their form, which are found plenti-
fully on every coast, either empty and cast ashore
by the waves, or living, and found adhering to
the sesweeds that are laid bare at low water.
It is not often that these shell are found quite
perfect, for the shell is generally worn away at
the apex, so that the colouring substance is
removed and the point of the shell is white.
One of the most beautiful of these shell the
Livid Top (Trockw kisipkin), is represented on
plate a, fig. 1.
The tongue of this species is remarkable for
its structure. Many mollusks are furnished with
very wonderful tongues, the true beauty of which
an only be seen by placing them under a
microuope of moderate power. Their tongue
is eily extrated by drawing it out from ite
hiding place ith a needle, and cutting it

of-th ownr beiMg of ooarm prlm ly

When this organ is properly diplyed, it wil
apper furnished with one ary of teeth, vry
minnte, but very strong, and quite adequate to
the work which they have to perform. In hot,
the tongue is a miniature fihe, and i used not
so much for tasting the food, as for a rasp, whre-
with to out it of The top, therefore i an usful
inhabitant of an aquarium, for he aves an im-
mensity of trouble in keeping the glass ides
lean. After an aquarium aa fairly settled
itad the algb pour out their sporea, and theme,
adhering to the glbm, there affix themselves, so
that in a few weeks the glam beoomes dimmed
by the mass of minute vegetation. Here the
tops and periwinkles come to our aid, and by
mean of the natural saythe. with which they
re armed, soon mow away the greater part of
this vegetable growth. They seem to do their
work as oomposedly and regularly as if they were
paid by the day for it. The Livid Top may be
fund alive among the rooks at low water.
I have already stated that the periwinks are
usel inhabitants of an aquarium, and such is
the a long a they can be kept alive But
they ae often very perverse in disposition, and


n* -w -w Ea!-- s

wrho gresir dilemfo h dyig thw hr
mowing. The Common Periwinkle, so hmiar
in our steets, is tolerably hardy in aooafimmr
and ay be kept for some time But thb
handsomer Yellow Periwinkle (IUois t a liM.
rlis), whioh is represented on plate x, g. s,
still more delicate in constitution, and seldom
survive for many week. But even the Common
Periwinkle is a pretty creature, as it exhibits
itself when crawling upon the glass of the aqua-
rinm, or on the sea-weeds where it finds its food.
The body is prettily banded with multitudes of
narrow dark marking and the mode in which
the creature slides italf over the glass is very
There is a very petty shell found in tolerable
profbsion on our m nd, and which will be re-
ognised at once from its portrait (plate g. ).
This is the Common Wentletrap (8Scdards o-
mrnu). It is not only a pretty shel, but holds
relationship with a very aristocratic omanemon
The Wentletrap are divided into two great
motions; the flse Wentletrap, the whora of
whose spires touch each other; and the true
Wentletraps, whose whorls a dijointed from
each other. Of the Irmw sotion our little
friend is a good ample; and of the latter, the

-Rlr?~ ~17~YmmP"~rM7~~Ri*~1~I~

U cOOar
dd' oao relative alluded to. This is s
Boyal Stairsea Wntletrap, a hell formerly of
eak rarity that a specimen only two inhes and
a quarter in height would etch eighty or ninety
The next shell which I shall mention is the
Common Cookle (Cardirm edul), represented on
plate fig. 6.
Perhaps this i the most abundant of all the
littorine shcll ; for if a handful of shells be
gathered at random from the wands, nearly one-
third will be cookies. When living, the animals
find a home under the sand, in which they lie
buried. The cockle is a capital deliver, and,
armed with his natural spade, dig for himself
a hole in the sand nearly as fast as a man can
dig with a spade of metal. As for the wooden
spades, so much in vogue on sandy coasts, they
have hardly a chance against the cokle.
Many an observer has been perplexed at the
little jets of mingled sand and water which are
so often seen issuing from the sand when the
waves have retired. These tiny geysirs are oo-
casioned by the cockles that lie buried beneath
the sand, and which are still in the water below
the sand level, although the surhe i tolerbly

.V:' '* .*

Our eookle, howenr, is not oly a adgIr,
bat a jumper, and the Iam instrumem t which
res him M a spade to dig a hole in the and
also series him as a foot by mmea of which to
spring into the air.
There is another burrowing shell, that is fund
on most mandy beaches. This is the Basr-Shell
(Sol s eni), for a representation of which, me
plate 4, fig. 7.
This creature burrows even deeper than the
oockle, being often found at the depth of two
feet It does not, however, seem fond of sinking
thus low, but generally remains sufficiently near
the surface to permit the tube just to project
from the sand. The burrow in which the animal
lives is nearly perpendicular, and in it the Solen
pasess its entire life, sometimes ascending to the
surface, and sometimes descending to the bottom
of its burrow, for it has none of the locomotive
faculties of its fellow-miner, the oeokle. But
although its range of travel is circumscribed, the
narownes of its habitation is compensated by
the activity of its movements therein. The
fsherman who wishes to capture the feature
is aware of its agility, and takes measures aord-
ngly. As the tide retreats he watohs for the
jet of d and d water which the animal throw.

ito the air when alarmed by its hunats fb t-
isp Into the hole hom which the jet a dd
the IMurman plunges a tender iron rod, which
bhing a barbed, harpoon-like head, pierces the
animal, and retains it while it is dragged fom
it hole. I however, the fisherman take a
bad aim, and mises his aot, he does not try
a second with the ame creature, knowing that
it will have retreated to the termination of its
burrow, whence it cannot be extracted.
Yet another burrowing shell In most chalky
rocks, such as those of which the white clif of
old England are omposed, many portions run
well out to mea. If theee are examined at low
water they will be found to be perforated with
numerous holes, running to some depth, and
varying considerably in dimensions. These holes
are made by the Phola dadylua, plate B,
fig. 9, one of the most remarkable animals in
Hard rooks and timber are constantly found
perforated by this curious shell, but how the
operation is performed no one knows. It is the
more wonderful, because the shell is by no means
hard, and cannot act as a file. Indeed, in some
speie, the external shell is almost mooth. And,
moror, if the shell were used as the boring-

mmes. 81
too, th hobe auld be mwly daea, iltad of
being acmnodat to the sape o t helbl, a"
is s to be theb ea Hower they gt nto
the stone, th thethey may be everywhere found,
and it does not mem to be of much importnee
whether their hbitation be limestoma, mrtoe,
halk, or oak. Even the Plymouth breakwatr,
solid stone it is, iwa very soon attacked by
these ratures.
They are epeoially obnoxious to the builders
of wooden pien, for they eine on the submerged
portion of the pilea on whioh the pier rest, and
do their utmost to reduce them to a honey-
combed state with the least poible delay.
lately, however, the Pholads hre been con-
quered; for they cannot pierce iron, and it is
found that if iron nails are loosely driven into
the submerged portion of wooden pils, they
bid defiance to the Pholas.
The specimen represented in our figure i
shown rating in its rooky bed, and seen edge-
way. At each aide may be seen the Arrowed
shells; the foot appears in the centre surrounded
by the mantle, and the tube i seen projecting
hr beyond the shell. Very many good speoins
may be obtained by splitting open the piece of
rook, and thus the shells etraoted without injury


fm the roolky horn where they have ed and
dd. In the interior of a pert shell may be
-a a vay curious projection, formed something
lik a spoon Its object does not sem to be very
early ascertained. The tube, which has been
no often mentioned, is generally a composite
organ, composed of two tubes or siphons, a they
are called, which are placed closely together,
something on the principle of a double-barrelled
gun, or an elephant's trunk. Through these
tubes passes the water which is neceary for
respiration, being received into one tube, drawn
from thence over the gills, and finally expelled
from the other tube.
There is another boring mollusc, which is on
many accounts worthy of notice. This is the so-
called Shipworm (Teredo navalis), a representa-
tion of which may be found on plate P, fig. 3.
It has been placed on the same page with some
of the worms, in order to show its very great
external resemblance to some animals of that
cle a and especially its similitude to the Serpula.
So loosely, indeed, does it resemble the last
named creature, that even Linnams placed the
Teedo between Serpula and Sabella in his
"Syds of Nature."
Bat this is really one of the molluass, and a

mle-- m. 3S

very rious one. It s called the Ship-wrm
because it has so powerfMl an appetite for mb-
merged wood, and especially for ship-timber. I
have now by me a large piece of oak, the remains
of some wreck, which I found entangled among
the rocks at low water. It is so completely
devoured by the Teredo, that it is almost im-
possible to find any portion of the wood that is
thicker than the sheet of paper upon which
this account is printed. Timber, however, can be
protected from the Teredo by a closely-studded
surface of broad-headed iron nails. These nails
soon rust through the action of the salt water,
and the whole of the timber is rapidly covered
with a thick coating of iron rust, a substance
to which the Teredo seems to have a strong
The Teredo navdis is not a very large animal,
but it has a huge overgrown relation, the Giant
Teredo, whose diameter at the thickest part is
three inches, and its length nearly six feet.
On plate fig. 8, may be seen a shell, which
will probably be recognized at once as the
Common Musel (Mytilf edudli). The specimen
figured is a young one, and is shown as it
appears when adhering to the rook by means
of the natural cable-or bynus, as it ia sleti.

.. , ...Bn.; LL



Sealy naed-with whieh thbus rtmrme

These shells a exceedingly common, and
lkge mase of them may be found clinging to
any rooks or stair where they can anchor them-
selves This mussel is called Edulis, or estable,
because it is largely used as an article of food.
But it is by no means a safe edible, as at certain
times, or to certain constitutions, it acts a
poison, producing most alaming and sometimes
tal effect.
The byssus is an amemblage of delicate, silky,
and excessively strong fibres, the origin of whioh
seems to be at present rather obscure. Many
shells re fumished with this substance, which is
shown in perfection in the great Mediterranean
Pinna, some specimens of which measure nearly
two feet in length. The byssus of these creature
is often spun and woven like silk, and in many
places may be seen gloves, purses, and other
objects, which have been made from this sub-
stance. It is, however, too rare to be put to any
practical use.
The Common Scallop (Petem Jacobe), gne-
rally known in connexion with oysters, may be
fond abundantly on our shores. Even the
empty shells are pretty enough to attract obser-


i :s_:~""~Z~"Ppp

vmton; but tmhe msamw mr a bantuti them
their shelly habitation. A living snoalp k wel
worthy ofnotie, if it we only fr the row of
eye-like points which are een peeping out
fom the vry margin of the shel, when the
feature holds the valves partially open. Whether

these brilliant spots are really eye or not has not
been clearly ascertained, but at all events there
appears no reason why they should not be eyes;
and so to us eyes they shall be.
The scallop is capable of changing its poitioa,
and does so by the forcible qjection of water
from a given point This mode of progrs is
analogous to that employed by the lara of the
dragon-fly. The title Jaoobsa is given to the
soallop, from the shrine of St. James (La&



. W

3M amoW.

Jeobs ), at Oompostella; to which spot jouame
wer made by pilgrims, who, in token of having
paid their devotions at St. James's shrine, won
a scallop-shell in their hats for the admiration of
their contemporaries, and bore it on their coats-
of-arms for the information of their posterity.
The story which connects the scallop-shell
with St. James is very curious, but too long for
The last shell-bearing molluso which I shall
mention is one which does not at first appear to
be a molluso at all. This is the curious little
Chiton, a creature which, instead of a tubular
shell like the Teredo, a single whorled shell like
the whelk, or a double shell like the scallop,
bears an array of eight shelly plates on his back,
and thus gives to the observer an idea of a tiny
marine armadillo.
The entire back of the Chiton is covered with
a strong leathery eoat, much larger than the
living centre of the animal. Upon this leathery
mantle are placed eight shell-plates, which over-
lap each other just as do the tiles of a house:
They are not very large on our English coasts,
but some foreign species are found which exceed
four inches in length.
If the shell-bearing molluats ae remarkable

rL m ,



~~r IC

for the elegant bm and brilliant olouring of
their babitations they seem to be equalled, f not
eclipsed, in beauty by a race of mollusk which
posses no shell at all, and whose chief beauty is
derived from the angular peculiarity of formal
tion from which their name is derived These
are the Nudibranoha, or Naked-gilled Molluss,
so named because their respiratory apparatus,
instead of being concealed within their bodies,
or defended by shells, is placed upon the ex-
terior, in apparently heedless defiance of sur-
rounding objects And the more that the delicate
construction of these branches is seen, the more
wonderful does it appear that these organs should
be placed in the position which they occupy
without suffering serious injury. If the lungs
of one of the mammalian were to be attached to
its sides, and permitted to hang loosely 'there-
from, exposed to the invasions and collisions to
which they would probably be liable, the owner
of the said lungs would hardly feel comfortable.
But the lung, gills, or branch of the mollusa
ae so exceedingly delicate, that the mammalian
lung appears quite ooarse by their side.
There are many species of Nudibranoha found
on our coasts, one of the commonest of which
(Dori pilos) is represated on plate i, fig. 4


Th gSi may be sen speeding like a fthery
plume, or a radiating lower, o the upper surbae
of the areatur. The position of the brnohia is
by no means uniform, for indeed the most fertile
imagination would hardly venture to depict such
fantastic forms as are found among the Nudi-
branch, or, if they were depicted, could hope
that such wondrous shapes should be received by
men a existing in the same world with them-
Some species, like those whose shape has been
already alluded to, are nearly flat, and wear their
lungs much as a gentleman wears a bouquet,
in his button-hole. Others have their lungs
neatly arranged round their bodies in little
spreading tufts, so that the creature has some-
thing the aspect of a floriated coronet. Some
have their whole dorsal surface thickly studded
with lungs, so that it would bear a decided
resemblance to a hedgehog, were it not that the
spikes must be semitransparent, and tinged with
the most exquisite colours. Again, there are
some species which carry their lungs at a distance
from their bodies, and present them to the waves
a if they were holding the branchie in the
hands of their outstretched arms; while there
arn some whoe forms are so utterly unique and

ei -, : l


Ll I



As to l 'iritm m ~ i
hadly a ti~, m bk ik Pa to Lim
brilliant armi a tmt is not rnad tna smm
member of thi sr heagdall. They a allilong
to that division oe the moaus that go b the
name of Gasteropods, became the lower m rfce
of the body forms the foot by which they move
from place to place. By the aid of this foot they
often lost on the urfaceof the water, as hb been
already recorded of other molleua This action,
however, has been well described, a keeping on
the sperinoumbent stntam of air. Many apeie
of the genera Dori sad Eall, together with
fther, may be hmd at low water, clinging to
the roks and to They will hardly be
recognimed as Nudibnnos at a basty glance, r
they subside into shapelm gelatinous knobs as
soon a th waves lave them, and do not reense
their expanded form until the surneg returns
The Nudibranobs, although most lovely
features, ae very unsaf inhabiante of an
aquarium, in spite of their delicate and dainty
looks; and a wolf would be about as appropriate
an inmate of a d pold, as a Nudibranoh of
an aquarium where eaaneone live Even

40 uIaManIM

the girt amuioorn or Thick-homed Anummni,
has Meo a victim to the intiabe appetite of
thesm greedy features. In dosing this short
demription of the Nudibranh, let me strongly'
recommend the reader to examine, if poible,
the beautiful work on these creatures by Memrs
Alder and Hanoook, published by the Bay Society.


p 1 -.. ,

MTM.vwf -w-Z-:- '

--J- --nR~-Y~--rr~-~m~-~n cm~R-~~~I





S9a and land are, after all, wonderfully like
each other. The surface of the land has its
mountains, its valleys, its fire-vomiting volcanoes,
its mountains of eternal cold. So the bed of the
sea is delved into vast valleys, as yet unfathom-
able by human plummet; and these valleys we
of the upper world call depths. Also, it has its
precipitous mountains, some towering above the
watery surface, and others lifting their heads until
they are dangerous neighbours to those that go
in ships upon the waters; and these we call by
various insulting names according to their degree
of elevation. And there are volcanoes of the sea
as well as of the land; while the Polar islands,
which are, in fact, the tops of submarine moun-
tains, are covered with snows as eternal as those
which crown the Monarch of mountains him-
Then, the sea-bed has its Table Mountains, its
vast Sahars, its undulating prairies its luxuriant

!1 '

lmt, and its verdant pastu-lands. And a
the rsndy traets or shingly beds ae bare and
devoid of vegetative life on the upper earth, so
are they alpo in the sa below; while submarine
forets lift their branches towards the light of the
sun, and submarine herbage waves its many-
ooloured leaves in the rolling sea, just as flowers
and leaves bend to the breeses above. For in
the kingdom of Ocean, water is the atmosphere,
and, like its more ethereal relative, is ever rolling,
and ever changing.
Let us now visit the boundary line of the two
great kingdoms, Earth and Water, and though
belonging to the former, extend our researohe as
hr as possible into the latter.
Throughout the preceding pages it will be
noticed that the expression "at low water" is
constantly used. Now, this expression is quite
necessary; for were the sea always to remain at
the same height, our knowledge of its wonders
would be wofully eireumscribed. It is little
enough even now, but that little would be almost
reduced to nothing were there no alternations of
high and low water.
Of the theory of tides there is here no oppor.
tunity to speak, for it is a most complex subject,
and een to give a hasty sketch would oeoupy

my pagsm ad riuire maoy dip s auem
it to my, that the grad exciting e of the
tides s the foree cled attraction, or gnvitation;
the moon being the chief among the many agents
through which it ats. It matter not whethw
the water is salt or fresh, whether as an oean it
fills the bed of the Atlantic, or a a drop of dew
trembles on a violet leat The tide-force still
acte on it, and tides there are, although we are
incapable of perceiving them. It is the same
with the upper sea namely, the atmospheric air
of our earth. In the aerial ocean there are waves,
whirlpools, calms, and storms, although our eyes
are too dull to perceive them, and can only be
made aware of their existence by seeing their
Twice in every day of twenty-four hour the
water advances and recedes, and thus at least
one opportunity is given daily for the obserr
to follow the retiring waves, and to discover some
small portion of the wonders of the ea. Some
of its living and breathing inhabitants have been
mentioned in the preceding chapter, and in the
following pages will be brief described some
few of its vegetative inhabitants, that bathe
not, but yet live.
If we walk on the sea-hors vast masses


dak olive vegetation meet our eyes; if we wat
util the tide has retreated, and examine the
pools of water that are left among the rooks
'there we find miniature forests, and gardens of
gorgeous foliage, some of which are scarlet, others
pink, others bright green, others purple, while
some there are that play with all the prismatic
colours, each leaf a rainbow in itself If we take
a boat, and rowing well out to sea, cast over-
board a hooked drag, we shall find adhering to
the iron claws new kinds of vegetation, and
probably among them will be found a veritable
flowering plant,--apparently as much out of its
place at the bottom of the sea as a codfish in
a birdcage. Now all this luxuriant, graceful, and
magnificent foliage, we dedecorate with the title
of sea-weed. It is a miserable appellation; but as
it is a term in general use, I shall employ it,
although under protest.
Those sea-weeds, then, which first strike our
eyes, are usually those denominated Wracks, the
Common Bladder-wrack (Fucus vsieulo.u) being
the most common. For a figure of this plant, see
plate fig 6.
There is little difficulty in distinguishing this
oon pionous alga; for the double series of round
air-v'els with which the fronds are studded,

YMFR"W.. 'T ..r'

DU5ms or mOo. 41
and the mid-rib running up the entire of rah
ond, point it out at once. This plant, togeth
with one or two-other of the same genus, i still
nsed in the manufacture of kelp, but not to
such an extent as was formerly the case. There
is a variety of this plant found in salt marshes,
where it congregates in dense masses: this variety
is very small, being only an inch or two in height,
and the eighth of an inch, or even less, in width.
The plant is at all times very variable, according
to its locality, both in colour and form.
When trodden on, or otherwise suddenly corn
pressed, the air-vessels explode with a slight
report, and seem to afford much gratification to
juveniles. This and other fuci grow in the
greatest abundance on rocks that are covered by
the waves at high water, and left bare when the
tide retires. Now on, under, and among these
rocks, the great zoological or botanical harvest
is to be collected, and therefore among these
rocks the collector must walk.
I make mention of this circumstance, because
it is necessary to warn the enthusiastic but
inexperienced naturalist, that the slimy and
slppery fuci make the rook-walking exceedingly
dangerous; for the masses of fuci are so.heavy
and thick, that they veil many a deep hollow,



Pn 0n -

Ssdighty cover many a sharp pohtv-in the
mP r of which a limb may be easily broken,
mi by the latter a serious wound lalicte,-
mad there i special reason for avoiding any
much mishap. Proverbially, time and tide wait
for no man; and should a disabling accident
ooour when no one was near to help, the return-
ing waters would bring death in their train-a
death the more terrible from its slow but relent-
less advance.
Now, the reader must be careful not to con-
found with Aucuw meiculous another species of
somewhat similar appearance, namely PoW
nodoes; see plate fig. 1.
This plant may at once be distinguished from
the Common Bladder-wrack, by the absence of a
midrib; it is of a tough consistence, and it grows
to a large size, being sometimes nearly six feet in
About half-way between high and low water
another species of fuous may be found: this is
destitute of air-vessels, it lacks the slimine of
the bladder-wrack, and its edges are toothed, like
the edge of a saw. It is much about the same
si a the bladder-wrack, but perhaps rather
looe; ee plate D, fig. 2.
Th is a very useful plant indeed It i a

B~as~: ":"'`

"~"'' *^**^ ^ m~B~

eptl Im am I r hlad, it man be sgemd, Md
aed a food or oattl it ma be made into kiP
and it is an ezxcslet embateam in which to pMk
lobtes, aad other marine productics, tat are
sent inland. The badderwrack is much used
for the same purpose, but its sliminem renders
it liable to heat and to ferment; while Fmo
serrat, being comparatively free from dlim,
retains its cool dampness, and preserves the fish
sweet. It is really of importance, for a tainted
lobster is not only nauseous to the palate, but
even dangerous to the whole system.
There is a very tiny fucns, some four or six
inches long at the most, that is to be found near
high water-mark, chiefly in summer and autumn;
it may be recognized by a number of small
bcannels that furrow one side of the frond. It
haa no air-veaels.
All these plants, together with all the alg
comprised in this chapter, belong to the class of
alg called MuAosuaxos, or black-seeded; so
called from the dark olive tint of the spores, or
tiny eed from which they spring. They all
seem to be exclusively marine.
At spring-tides the waters recede considerably
below their usual mark, and the sea aons m
the harvest-tims of the uhore-aturalist Aa

48 L&amNAU.

ner a posdble at six houm after the hI
tide the water will have retired to their lowue
boundary, and near that boundary will be found
myriads of new forms, both animal and vegetable.
Indeed, so prolific is the spring-tide harvest, that
an hour or two of careful investigation will some-
times produce as good results as several hours'
hard work with a dredge. It is better to go
down to the shore about half an hour or so
before the lowest tide, so as to follow the reced-
ing waters, and to save time.
When the naturalist has gained the spots below
the usual low-water mark, he will find himself in
the midst of a new set of vegetation, contrasting
as strongly with the productions of the higher
grounds, as forest trees with herbage and brush-
wood. Huge plants, measuring some eleven feet
or so in length, and nearly a yard in width,
are firmly anchored among the rocks by roots
rivalling in comparative size and strength those
of the oak-tree. This plant is commonly known
by the name of Oar-weed, and may be easily
reoognised from the drawing in plate D, fig. 1.
Its scientific name is Laminaria digitata. It is
called "Iaminaria" on account of the fiat thin
plates, or lamina, of the frond, and digitata,"
or angered, because the frond is split into


ugment, something like the Angers of a
I may as well mention hem, that the sa-weeds
have no real root, and do not derive their nourish-
ment from the soil, as do the plants of earth;
they adhere to the rooks or stones by simple
disc, and draw their whole subsistence from the
water that surrounds and sustains them. In the
so-called root of the Laminaria there are no root-
fibres, but a sueeession of discs, each connected
with the main stem of the plant by a woody
The stem of the Laminaria is very strong, and
is used for making handles to knives and other
implements. When fresh, this stem is soft enough
to permit the tang of a knife-blade to be thrust
longitudinally into it. A portion of the stem
sufficiently long for the knife-handle is cut off,
and in a few months it dries, contracting with
such force as to fix the blade immovably; and
having much the consistency and appearance of
stag's horn. One good stem will furnish more
than a dosen of these handles.
Among the laminarin may be sen growing a
angular plant, more like a rope than a vegetable.
It consists of one long, cylindrical, tubular fond,
hardly thicker than an ordinary pin at the bhe,

80 notDA-ruPDA.
bat swelling to the di of a swan's quill in the
mntre. When the plant is handled, it slips from
thegrarp a if it were oiled; this effect is pro-
du(ed by a natural slimines, aided by a dense
covering of very fine hairs
The name of this plant i Chorda ltwn. Its
length varies extremely, some specimens being
found to measure barely one foot, while others
run from twenty to thirty, and even to forty feet.
It tapers gradually from the middle to the point,
where it is about the same thickness as at the
I here make an exception to my general rule
of excluding all but the commonest objects, in
favour of one sea-weed, which, although not very
common, yet may be found quite unexpectedly.
It owes its introduction to its very singular form.
The name of it is the Peacock's-Tail, deriving its
title from its shape. Its scientific name is Padin
pavonia; see plate A, fig. 3.
The habitation of this plant is midway between
high and low water-mark, where it may occasion-
ally be found adhering to the rocks. It i not
a large plant, as it is generally only two or three
inches in height, but occasionally reaches the
height of five inches.
In the same order as the Padina is another

I .. Y I(

little dp, hioh, I think, is one of the pntt
of the Melanosperms. I do not know whether
it posesse any popular name, but if solentflo
title is oD a dictohoma. For a figure of it, e
plate A, fig 5. It is a very deliate-lookingplant,
and, unlike the Melanosperms in general, lives
tolerably well in an aquarium. The name
Dictyota is derived from a Greek word, signify-
ing a net; and it will be seen, on examination,
that the surface of the frond appears as if woven
into a tiny network, with square, or rather slightly
oblong meshes. Its specific appellation of "dioho-
toma" is also of Greek derivation, and signifies
"out in pairs," in allusion to the shape of the
Failing space permits only one more plant
belonging to the class, or rather, to speak accu-
rately, the sub-class Melanospermes. This is the
plant known to botanists by the title of Beo-
corp W siliculo and which I mention here
because it is liable to be confused with other
alge that much resemble it in form, though not
in constitution; see plate A, fig. 2. It is called
Ectocarpus from two Greek words, signifying
"external fruit," and its specific title "siliou-
loss is given to it on account of the silioules,
or little pod-like bodies, that are found on the




.....t-'-.wo,-'- --r


ORnAI of TIn.

baneh. These details are of very minute idu
and cannot be made out without the assitanoe ol
a magnifying glass.
These dark-spored vegetables are very variable
in colour, as indeed are all the algae, without
reference to the colour of their spores; some-
times, indeed, even trespassing on the colour of
another sub-olas. These changes are mostly due
to the varying depths of the sea where the plants
grow, and to the amount of light and shade
which falls to their lot. Even the hardy, rough,
and coarse bladder-wrack, which is usually of a
very dark olive-green, more approaching to black
than to green, becomes of a rich yellow tint when
found at any depth of water.
When dried the green vanishes totally, the
colour changing to dark-brown, and in many
cases to black. Most of this sub-class of alga
require alternations of water and air, the best
specimens being found where they are exposed
to the heat of the sun and to the force of the
winds for some hours daily.



Wrrs this chapter we begin the account of
another sub-class of algee, the RHoDoperPus, or
red-seeded. The plants belonging to this clam
are among the most beautiful of the alge, that
is, when they are placed in favourable situations;
for they also change their colours, and as their
most beautiful colour is their natural tint, any
change is for the worse. Some of them even
become brown when there is too much light for
About low water-mark may be found growing
largish mases of a dense, thread-like, reddish
foliage, sometimes adhering to the rook, or some-
times even fixed to the stems of the Laminaria
When removed from the water the plant does not
collapse, like many of its relatives, but each
thread and branch preserves its own individuality.
This is one of the large genus Polysiphonia, and
the spea~io name is "ueolata." See plate x


By the side of the plant itself is reprMntd a
little object that explains the latter title. This
little jar-shaped object is one of the fruits or
eeramidi, aa they are learnedly called, mueh
magnified. The word "uroeolata" signifies
pitchered, if we may be permitted to coin an
English word corresponding to the Latin. The
name Polysiphonia is Greek, and signifies "many
siphons," or tubes The reason for the name is
evident on cutting any of the branches trans-
versely. It will be then seen that the plant is
composed of six tubes arranged round a central
aperture; the branches are jointed, the length
of each joint being several times its own width.
There are twenty-six known British species of
this single genus.
That popular author and extensive traveller,
Baron Munohausen, tells us that in one of his
journeys he met with a tree that bore a fruit
filled interiorly with the best of gin. Had he
travelled along our own sea-coast, or indeed
along any sea-coast, and inspected the vegetation
of the waves there, he would have found a plant
that might have furnished him with the ground-
work of a story respecting a jointed tree, oom-
Spoed of wine-bottles, each joint being a separate
bottle, filled with claret. It is true that the plant

- -~ I
'' ,'.. 4 '7 '7 -
A." '2$




T11~(: ~

vr " I~



6 ~_


is Mot vry lem it lkiRm men s ais of tto
lanhes in height; but if eamin through a
mirosope, it might be nlaged to any o-
velient sis~
The name of this plant is rather a long oe, but
very appropriate, COAhooldia artw ata, L e. the 4
"jointed juice-branch." See plate A, fig. 1.
It may be found adhering to rocks, or some-
times paasitically depending on some of the
larger alge, and really does resemble a jointed
series of transparent bottles filled with claret or
other red wine. The colour is remarkably delicate
and beautiful, but is rather apt to fade after a
time; when it is preserved, dried, and premed, the
gelatinous juioe that filled the interior disappears,
and the plant can be flattened until it hardly
presents any thickness, even to the touch. Them
is now before me a dried specimen of another
species of chylooladia, which adheres so firmly to
the paper on which it is laid, and is so delicate
in substance, that several persons to whom I
have shown it have mistaken it for a well-
exe~ted drawing.
If now the reader will refer to plate fig. 1,
he will there see depicted one of the most
remarkable of the alga; remarkable in itselZ
and for the great battles which have been fought

over it by wilnti o individuals. This plant a the
Common Coralline (Corawim ojineadi), whish
may be found most abundantly on any of our
coast, growing in greatest perfection near low
It is well enough known that many creatures,
formerly supposed to be vegetable, such as the
corals and the soophytes, have since found their
proper place in the animal kingdom; and one
consequence of this reformation was, that several
real plants were supposed to be animals, because
they possessed some of the characteristics which
had distinguished those animals that had been
placed in their proper position. Of these plants
the coralline is a good example; for until a com-
paratively late period, it was placed among the
animals in company with the true corals.
There was reason for this error, for the coralline
is a very curious plant indeed, gathering from
the sea-water, and depositing in its own sub-
stance, so large an amount of carbonate of lime,
that when the purely vegetable part of the alga
dies, and is decomposed, the chalky portion
remain, retaining the same shape as the entire
plant, and very much resembling those soophytes
with which it has been confounded. While
growing, the orlline is of a dark purple colour;


but when removed from the watr, the purpe
tint vanishes, d the white stoy dsketon re
mains. It is, however, a true regetaMb as may
be men by disolving away the chalky portions in
acid: there is then left a vegetable ramework,
precisely like that of other algo belonging to the
same sub-class.
The coralline is a small plant, seldom exceed-
ing five or six inches in height, and not often
even reaching that size. However, it compenates
for its low stature by its luxuriant growth, being
usually found in dense masses wherever it can
find'a convenient shelter.
If a dried branch of coralline be inserted into
the flame of a candle, it exhibits a most brilliant
white light just at the point where it meets the
flame. The light is exhibited better by the flame
of a spirit-lamp than by that of a candle, and for
obvious reasons.
It will live well in an aquarium, and, if taste-
fully disposed, is an elegant ornament to the vase
or tank. There is now in my own aquarium a
moderate tuft of ooralline, which seems in good
health, although the water has lately been assum-
ing an unpleasant milky appearance, from some
cause which I cannot as yet detect
We now oome to a most magnificent sa-plat,

N t. I

11 ITa~

'I I,


8M DmummuA amenA.
maSWis ent both on account of its gorgeous
elokring, and on account of its luxuriance. This
is the Ddearia mgwuema, represented, about
half its usual doe, in plate J, fg. S.
The shape of the leaf, or rather of the frond,
so closely resembles that of terrestrial trees, that
at first sight few would attribute the beautiful
scarlet leaf, with its decided midrib and bold
nervures, to an alga. Yet an alga it is, and may
be found in its most perfect state about June or
July: later in the year it becomes very ragged,
the broad flat frond giving way to the fruit.
In this state, although interesting to the botanist,
it is hardly suitable for the cabinet, as little of
the plant is left except the midrib, and a few
flapping raglets. When spread on paper and pre-
served, it retains its colour well, and adheres very
The fronds are generally from two to seven or
eight inches in length, but they are not often
found exceeding five or six inches. A branch
containing eight or ten fronds, averaging five
inches in length, may be considered a good
specimen, and worth preserving, if the edges are
entire. There is a very peculiar marine scent
about this plant, an "ancient and fishlike smell,"
quite indescribable, but not to be forgotten. A

7a7-7a- -U-omun. 9

large branch will retain this sent for months.
I have by me a tuft of this plant, whih I
gathered in July lat, and its peculiar mel is
now (April) very perceptible.
There are five British species of this beautiful
genus, none of them very rare. Dekuera hypo-
glo unm (plate D, fig. 4) may be found in the
summer months growing on almost every coast.
It is a very pretty plant, although not so
gorgeous as its predecessor. The fronds are
generally of small size, being hardly a quarter
of an inch in length.
In the little sea-weed landscapes, that are
sold so abundantly at the fashionable seaside
towns, there is one species of sea-weed in great
request for trees and bushes. It is of a bright
pinky red colour, and is thickly branched, so as
to afford a tolerable representation of a forest
tree, or of a thick bush. This is the Plocaumium
coccmnmn, a plant sufficiently beautiful to the
unassisted eye, but especially so when submitted
to a magnifying lens. When examined through a
glass of moderate power, it will be seen that
even the tiny branohlets, each hardly thicker
than a hair, are again furnished with a row of
smaller ramifications, somewhat resembling a
very finely-toothed comb.

PI I II , l ill II

On plate fig. 8, may be sen a spedmen of
the Ploomium of the natural siie, and nar
it a single branch magnified, in order to show
the tiny combs.
Many of the marine algae are used as articles
of food; some eaten uncooked, and others after
a long course of boiling. To the former of these
categories belongs the Dulse, Dillisk, or Dillosk
(Rhodymenia palmata), although it is sometimes
cooked. The species, however, which is here
illustrated, is Rhodymenia bfda, a plant of a
very fine rosy red when fresh, found in tolerable
profusion adhering to rocks or on the larger alge.
The fronds are generally two inches or so in
length, and about a quarter of an inch in width.
For a figure of this plant, see plate K, fig. 4.
The Carrageen Moss, so well known in the
form of jelly snd size, is one of the Rhodosperm
Alg, by name Chondru orispus. (Plate j,
ig. 5.)
It may be found growing on the rocks in large
quantities, where its shape will be the beat guide
to its detection, for its colour is exceedingly
liable. Although one of the Rhodosperms, it
is very frequently of a greenish tint, and in many
places it assumes a yellow jaundiced completion,
not at all of a healthy nature.

mDaAUmA-n-aDM. 61
To prerve it for esnalent purposes, it mst
be washed in fresh water and then left to dry,
when it soon becomes horny to the touch, and
resists pressure. If boiled, it subsides into a
thick colourless jelly, that is thought to be very
nutritive, and is employed for many purposes.
Invalids take it in their tea, or epicures in their
blanc-mange. Calico printers boil it down into
size, and use it in their manufactures. It is said
to be a good fattening substance for calves, if
boiled in milk; and, lastly, pigs are very fond of
it when it is mixed with potatoes or meal It
is sometimes known by the name of "Irish
Moes." It will grow in an aquarium.
A plant is represented on plate J, fig. 4, that is
found plentifully between tide-marks. It is rather
a conspicuous plant, and is appropriately named
Furcellaria fastigiat the generic title being
derived from a Latin word signifying a little fork.
It is of a dark-brown colour with an obscure
dash of purple, but in drying the purple departs,
and the brown becomes nearly black.
I have already mentioned that some of the
alge reflect prismatic colours. This is ococsion-
ally the case with Chondrw cripua, and there is
one genus which is so resplendent that the name
Iridoa is given to it; Iris signifying a rainbow.


The species represented at plate ig. 4, is
fr ides adi, a plant which is sometimes eaten
raw, and sometime fried by unpoetioal gatro-
nomists I do believe that some people would
fry the rainbow itself if it were eatable.
The frond of this species is generally about
nine or ten inches in length, and five inches in
width, although it sometimes nearly doubles these
dimensions. Its colour is an uniform deep
red, and its shape somewhat resembling a
A particularly elegant species of alga, making
a good figure when spread on paper, is seen
figured on plate r, fig. 5. The fronds are some-
times more than a foot in length, but do not
often exceed ten or eleven inches, some being
only.three or four inches long. The colour is
rather apt to fly, unless care be taken; but it
is a beautiful plant, were it only for the elegance
of its form. Its name is Ptilota plumosa, both
words having a like signification, and meaning
"winged," or feathery.
There is a pretty little alga, called Gri&ithia
etaesm, which has the property of staining paper
with a fine pinkish-scarlet hue, when the en-
closing membrane bursts. Contact with fresh
water will usually cause the membrane to yield,

and then the coloring matter is dot out with
a slight tackling noise
Its length i generally about four or Ave
inches. A drawing of the plant of the natural
si, together with a magnifed sketch of the fruit,
may be seen on plate fig. 1.
The last of the Rhodosperms that will be
noticed in this volume is a very delicate species,
entitled Nitophylum punatus; se plate c,
fig. 5. This plant will easily be recognized from
the drawing. Its usual sie is six or ten inches
in length, and nearly as wide; but it is not un-
common to find specimens that exceed a foot in
length, while some huge monsters have been found
that measured five feet in length and a yard in
width. It is easy enough to distinguish this
plant from the Delesseria, as it has no midrib.
The CamooasePmr or Green-seeded Alg, are
the best friends of those who keep marine aquari,
for they are endowed with the power of pouring
out oxygen in very large quantities when placed
in favourable circumstances. If any of my
readers wish to preserve alive the creatures that
they find on the sea-shore, they can do so without
difficulty, by imitating as nearly as possible the
natural state and accompaniments of the animals
which they have captured.

If ona one or two Afih, crab, or indeed any
living animal, be placed in a jar of sea-water,
they speedily exhaust the free oxygen of the
water, and, as the water cannot absorb fteh
oxygen from the atmosphere so rapidly as the
animals consume it, the water soon becomes
unfit to support animal life, and its inhabitants
die as surely as a man would who was enclosed
in an air-tight box. It is possible to renew the
oxygen by dashing water into the jar from a
height, or even by pumping fresh air into it;
but such a process would be very fatiguing, as
it must be continually carried on day and night.
But it is found that plants have the property
of pouring out oxygen when they are in a healthy
state and acted on by light. So, if we can
procure plants that will thrive in a confined
space, and keep them in a light room, we shall
find that each plant acts as a natural pump, and
not only supplies continually fresh oxygen, but
consumes the carbonic acid gas that loads the
water with its stifling influence. The Chlo-
roeperms are peculiarly useful for this purpose,
as many of them will live for an unlimited time
in confinement, continually regenerating the
water in which they are placed I have now an
aquarium containing water that I brought from

the Irs ta August, ad by the unthing emtaio
of a fw grn a weeds the water has ben
presered bright and pure, even though inhabited
by all kinds of marine animals.
Among the most useful, a well as the most
elegant of the se-weeds used for this purpose,
is the little Bryopri plume; ee plate ig. 3.
This brilliant and delicate little plant is common
enough, and may be found in the pool left by
the retiring tide, where it adheres to their rooky
walls. The colour of the plant is a very bright
green, and its form is so feathery, or rather fan-
like, that it well deserves its name of "plumoe."
In almost any little pool, between tide-marks
or even hanging from rooks that have been left
quite dry, may be seen thick tufts of a coanish
horsehair-like plant, of a dull green colour,
often dashed with black. This is the CladopAora
nputria, one of the commonest species out of
the twenty that are exclusively marine. There
are two species that inhabit ditches and lakes
where the sea occasionally obtains admimion,
and several others that prefer water entirely
freh. The length of the tufts is about four or
fie inches, often les, but seldom more.
Another species of the same gPus, Cladoplr
ara, is of a brighter green than the preceding.

? ' 66 -n_ u.

and altogether a prettier plant. It grow in a
radiating manner from a very broad dim. This
plant is represented on plate fig. 2.
But the most useful of the Chlorosperms
may be found almost at the very margin of
high water, where they live rather more in the
open air than under water. These are the Ulwe
and Enteromorphe, the first being known by the
popular title of Laver, and the second of Sea-
grass There is another plant that is also called
Sea-grass; but it is not an alga, and will be men-
tioned at the end of this chapter.
The Common See-graV (Enteromorpha cor-
prema) may be seen in abundance on the stones
and rooks that are even for a few hours sub-
merged daily. The leaf or rather frond, of this
species is variable in width, sometimes being
hardly wider than common sewing thread, and
sometimes so wide as to resemble a very narrow
ulva. It is this variety which is represented
in the engraving, plate o, fig. 3. When the
waves retire, leaving sundry pools fringed with
this and other sea-weeds, their fronds form
hidingplaees for innumerable living beings of
very many species; and by gathering masses of
the wet weed into a basket, and then putting it
into a large vessel filled with sea-water, myriads

of uinmals may be mpted with hardly my
trouble. They wi live perfotly well in the
evm if it is kept in a light spot with a free
airolation of air.
The Common Green ILver (ITUs lati Mi),
plate x, fig. 6, sometimes called the Sea Lettuse,
is found most abundantly on the same spots a
the preceding plant. Of all the sea-weeds for an
aquarium, the Green Laver is perhaps the very
best. It is very pretty, from its delicate green
colour, and the various folds and puckers into'
which it throws itselL Its power of expiring
oxygen seems to be almost unlimited. I have in
my aquarium a large plant of this species, which
generally lives very contentedly in the place
where it had been deposited. But, a few days
ago, the sun shone brightly enough to pierce
through the veil of smoke with which the metro-
polis is generally hidden from his presence, and
consequently there was a greater abundance of
light than usual. On looking at the aquarium,
I found that the ulva had risen in the water, and
was hanging in most elegant festoons fom the
surface, forming emerald caves and grottos such
as the sea-nymphs wold love. Even at a little
distance it was a pretty sight, but a closer in-
spection revealed still mo beauties; for being


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