Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Part I: The play-ground; or, out-door...
 Part II: Athletic and graceful...
 Part III: Amusements with pets
 Part IV: Play-room games for rainy...
 Part V: Evening amusements
 Part VI: Mechanical and miscellaneous...
 Back Cover

Title: American boy's book of sports and games: a repository of in-and-out-door amusements for boys and youth
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003469/00001
 Material Information
Title: American boy's book of sports and games: a repository of in-and-out-door amusements for boys and youth
Series Title: American boy's book of sports and games: a repository of in-and-out-door amusements for boys and youth
Physical Description: Book
Creator: White ( Designer )
Herrick ( Designer )
Wier ( Designer )
Harvey ( Designer )
Orr, N. ( Engraver )
Publisher: Dick and Fitzgerald
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1864
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00003469
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA4746
ltuf - ALX8598
oclc - 00616221
alephbibnum - 002373901

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Half Title
        Half Title
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Table of Contents
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Part I: The play-ground; or, out-door games
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
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        Page 24
        Page 25
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        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 120a
    Part II: Athletic and graceful recreations
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
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    Part III: Amusements with pets
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
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    Part IV: Play-room games for rainy days
        Page 407
        Page 408
        Page 409
        Page 410
        Page 411
        Page 412
        Page 413
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    Part V: Evening amusements
        Page 469
        Page 470
        Page 471
        Page 472
        Page 473
        Page 474
        Page 475
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    Part VI: Mechanical and miscellaneous amusements
        Page 559
        Page 560
        Page 561
        Page 562
        Page 563
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    Back Cover
        Page 601
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        Page 603
Full Text


T".! 'Vb,


The Baldwin Library

S "'I


-- "' r7 t _







jllutu&t WIB, Aot wbxY; an senuab N. OB.i



Malls" smardise to Act of Congom, In tOw yew 19% by

In the CI@A% 02w of tie Dhtclc Court of the Ualled Stakes for the Scother Dial"te of New Tech.


SNGTH, courage, and a wholesome spirit
of emulation, are among the best charao-
teristics of all really great nations; and
the presence of these noble attributes in
the Man depends largely upon his training
as a Boy.
Though the pursuit of simple sad
healthy amusements may not actually
he heroes, it may certainly cultivate and develop all the heroic ele-
mts that may be inherent.
For this reason, as well as for many others, of less vital importance,
rhape, it is believed that a complete Manual of Games and Pastimes for
nerican Boys will now be found especially acceptable. There have been.
eral excellent works of a similar nature published heretofore, but none
the national character in which the present volume has been conceived
d executed.
While the Games of other nations are fully represented here, oar


American method of playing them has been strictly adhered to in every
cue where it difers from the foreign way; and many purely national
amusements, unknown abroad, such as Base-ball, etc., have been ac-
corded a prominent place.
Gymnastics, as the parent of all out-door exercises, are minutely ex-
plained, so that the student of physical culture may become expert with-
out the aid of any teacher besides this book. Among other branches of
the science, the healthful and graceful art of Skating, which, through the
increase of our parks and skating-ponds, is annually doubling its popu-
larity, has not been forgotten. The same may be said of Fencing,--n
accomplishment that must become universal among our young men as
the military prestige of America increases. The importance of Riding,
Driving, Fishing, and other manly sports, has also been duly recognized;
and in these departments much valuable information is given concerning
hores, dogs, pets, and fish in their proper seasons, etc.
Nor have the less exciting, though more refining occupations of in-door
life been neglected in these pages. Directions for the preparation of
Aquaris, the study of Experimental Chemistry, Parlor Magic, etc., com-
bining recreation with instruction; and a host of amusing games and
devices, well adapted to relieve the tedium of the long wet days, when
open-air exercise is impracticable, are here given in detail, with much
more matter of a kind to fascinate and delight the youth of America.
In a word, it has been the aim of the Publishers to produce, in the
handsomest style, the most complete and perMfct book for Boys that has
ever been issued from the press.
The Illustrations with which the work abounds are in many instances
from original designs, by Wm 6, HURBIOc, Win, HAXVaY, and other
celebrated American and English artists. These have been engraved in
Mr. N. On's most felicitous manner, and leave nothing to be desired in
the way of artistic beauty, finish, or correctness.


The nser-press i edited by a Gentleman of acknowledged literary
Ability, who has not forgotten that he too was once a Boy, and who, on
;>e contrary, retains the warmest sympathy with the heart and heeling
f the young.
It is but just to add, that we are indebted to the compilers of the
Boy's OWN Bool," Evzr Boy's BOOK," and the BOT's HAxDT BooK
er GAxsA," for sundry extracts, descriptions, and hints, of which we have
w e use in the preparation of this volume.


IArxs wITH TOYS 33
;AMaS WITH BALL, mTO. . . 64

T As.nsI............. 123
iwlxx~ne 123
W oINIoG . 180
OATG- 196
lOS --AN-a-P . . . 223
B--G .- 241
OiraNG 269

BA Bn3s- 295
A BIrm 321
0MMOx Peonum . m

IAXOT Pi-on .

CoMsox, AXm Wm Tuso .
GmnA-Ps .
R Aomoo . .
Do .

RomUn Gxas AND FORPrrs . .

CouMo Daos .
PA&LOn MAaO, wITr A Ts .
Tm wITH O. .
Somrmo aa ows. .
PnxAo A rr .
Amm M ai .
Awns To Pasu .


GA as G . .
PrAenranmPB .
P a m .


94t Ulal-fronn:



Tms is a game played by hopping on one foot and kicking an oyster-shell
small flat stone from one compartment to the other, without halting the
Shifted foot, except in one case, to the ground, and without
suffering the shell to rest on any of the lines. A diagram
go is first drawn similar to the subjoined. It consist of thir-
S| teen compartments, twelve being numbered, and the last
S one having a large P, standing for plum-pudding. In con.
meneing the game, the players take their stand at the place
R marked by a star, and quiti" Jbr innings. He who can
go nearest to the P, plays first.
SMehod of Plgys9g.-The winner begins by throwing
5 his shell into No. 1; he then hope into the spaoe, and
kicks the shell out to the star*; he next throws the shll
into No. 2, kiks it from No. 2 to No. 1, and then otak
2 He then throws it into No. 8, kilks it from 3 to fhm I
to 1, and out. He next throws it into No. 4, kiks it frrn
S 4 tof to 2, frm 2 to 1,and at; and so lh pro-
da tillhe has passed the eroms and omes to No. 1, when he is permitted


to rest hlm by standing with one foot la No. 6 and the other in No. 1;
but he must resume hopping before he kicks the shell home. He then
passes through the beds 8, 9, 10, and 11, as he did those of 1,2, 3, 4, 5, o.,
and o. on, till bhe gets to P, when he may rest, and placing his hell on the
P, he is required, while standing on one foot, to kick It with such force as
to send it through all the other beds to at one kick. If one player throws
his shell into the wrong compartment, or when be is kicking It out, he loses
his Innings, a he does also if the shell or his foot at any tim rests on a line,
or if he kicks his shell out of the diagram.

Is a good game for the play-ground or the field. The players separate into
two parties; one party must hide their eyes in a chosen base or home (and
no peeping allowed) while the rest seek out the best hiding-places they can
find. One of the hiding party waits until his companions are hidden, and
thenensconces himself in somenook, crying "Whoop" as he does so, as a sig-
nal to the opposing party that they may sally forth. The object of the hid.
den ones is to rush out suddenly, and touch one of the opposing party, before
they can retreat to the shelter of the "home." On the other hand, if one of
the seekers can detect the lurking-place of any foe, he gives the alarm by
crying--"I spy Jones I" or "I spy Robinson I" whereupon the said Jones
or Robinson must come out and try to touch one of the retreating crew, who
scour away home at his appearance. Every one thus touched counts owe
toward the side of the player who touched him. When all that are of one
side have come out of their concealment, the opposite party take their turn
at hiding; and the side which manages to touch most of the enemy's men,
wins the game.


The boys who are to play
at this game begin by twist-
ing their handkerchief into
the farm of whips, with a
knot at the end-, thing
which most boys can do
uncommonly well. A boy
is then fixed upon to
act "Bear." He crouches
down, holding a cord in his
As mswsuaw or TOnvaR, hands, while another boy,
who represents his master, msees the opposite end. The boys try to hit the
bear with their pocket handkerbhle, while the mater's aim Is to touch one
of ten, without letting go the rope, or overbalancng the bear, who, fro
his Squatting position, is easily overturned by a Jerk of the rope. The first


Vy touched takes the bear's place, while the late bear beomes bear4eader,
ad the leader joins the assailants. This is a capital game, requiig the
ree qualities we like to see developed by all boys-temper, ability, and
idurance. Ore must be taken, however, that the handkerchief are not
dotted too tightly, and that the assailants are forbearng with the bear,
hose position would otherwise become unbearable.

This game is played by two boyn, each of whom takes a smooth, round
pebble. One player then throws his pebble about twenty bet before him,
ad the next tries to strike it with his stone, each time of striking counting
B one. If the two pebbles are near enough for the player to place one
pon the other with his hand, he is at perfect liberty to do go, ad it will
vunt one for him. It is easy enough to play at this game when the peb-
les are at some distance apart; but when they lie near each other, It is very
Imfult to take a good aim, and yet send one's own pebble beyond the reach
f the adversary's aim. Two four-pound cannon-balls are the beat objects
) pitch, as they roll evenly, and do not split, as pebbles always de when
bey geta hard knock. The game is ten, and whoever gets tean Arst, wins


This is a very merry old game, and one of the simplest kind. Two cap-
are named, who choose their men alternately, until all the players are
Into two equal parties. A line is chalked or scratched on the
d, and all the players take hold of each other a represented in the em
ving. The object of each party is, by dint of judicious pulling, to draw
ir adversaries over the line. This is not a mere matter of strength. It
d in great measure upon the skillof the leaders, who show their
Sby letting their repective flowers know, by a secret sign, when they
suddenly to slacken their hold, aad when to give a long pull, aad a treg
and a pull altogether. We have seen, assisted, and led this pme, ha-
of times, and never fled to find it productive of very gret miNmM.
game is not to be oodidered as won, unless the entire idt h bee.
over the lie.

14 rox.-oo0xK-nIHTING.-HOPPIMNG o0 WE DOTTLr.

One player is termed FPo, and is furnished with a den, where none of the
players may moleet him. The other players arm themselves with twisted
or knotted handkerchief (the ends tied in knots), and range themselves
round the den waiting for the appearance of the Fox. When the Fox is
ready he calls out, "Twice five is ten." The next answers, Fox, Fox, come
out of your denI" Thereupon, the Fox, being also armed with a knotted
handkerchief hope out. When he is fairly out, the other players attack
him with their handkerchleb, while he endeavors to strike oe of them
without putting down his other foot. If he does so, he has to run back as
tht as he can, without the power of striking the other players, who baste
him the whole way. It however, he suooeeds in striking one without losing
his balance, the one so struck becomes Fox; and, as he has both feet down,
is accordingly basted to his den.

This game, which is productive
of fun, is a trial of skll between
two players. It is also called trus
ing." The players are made to sit
down on the ground, and draw their
legs up, clasping the hands together
below the knees. A stick is then
passed under the knees, and over
the elbows of each player, as shown
in the cut; and then the two play.
ers, being placed face to hoe, try to
overbalance each other, by pushing with the points of their toes. Of course,
the hands may not be unclasped; and when a combatant rolls over, he lies
quite helpless, until set up again by the spectators, or by his backers. The
cook who overturns his adversary twice out of three times is considered to
have won the fight.
Various games are in vogue among boys, in which hopping a one foot is
the principal object. Among these is one which not only assists in strength-
ening the limbs, but also teaches the performers the useful art of balaning
themselves upon a movable substance. A wooden bottle, a round wooden
log, or something of that description, is laid upon the ground, a mark is
made at a certain distance, and the players have to hop from the mark upon
the bottle, and retain their possession while they count a number agreed
upon. In the olden times of Greece, this was considered an exercise of
sufikent importance to give it a place at the public games. The perifober
in this ca had to hop upon inflated leather bags, carefully greased, and of
course, by their inevitable upsetting. and floundering, caused geat amseu

pFIUOn R'S Asm.

at to the spetator. The sports took place on th Donysis, or helivals
BEahbus, when the vintage was gathered in, and the victor was aqpm-
ately rewarded with a cask of wine.

.... .- -. -

is a capital game. It is a war in miniature, with attack, retreat,
tagems, bold sallies, with defeat and imprisonment for the vanquished,
Honor and credit for the victors. The various incidents of this game,
exciting character, and the scope it affords for the display of activity,
iness, and ingenuity, give Prisoner's Base" an undoubted right to the
t place among play-ground games, not requiring toys. It is played in the
owing manner:
he players should be about sixteen
twenty in number. They are divided R 'A I
> two parties, the men being chosen .
lately by two leaders or captains, .
m to make the forces as equal as -
ible. Two bases are then marked
side by side, one for each party,
two prisons or smaller bases
eteo the first, at about twenty yards
anoe-the prison belonging to base
1 being opposite to base No. 2 (see
), and Ie wr. A player now
out from base No. 1, to the space between the bases and the prisons,
standing still, crie out," cOhevy, chery chase, ones, twito, thrice,"whlsh


Is cosierd a ohaDleng to the opposite party in base No ; one of
whom, accordingly, runs out to try and touch the challenger before he an
get baok to his own bae. If he can succeed in this, then mst the
person thus touched go to the prison belonging to his base, and there
remain until he is rescued by one of his own party sallying forth, and
touching the prisoner, if he can manage to get to him without being himself
touched by one of the opposite party. I however, chevy chase" gets
beck untouched to his own home, the pursuer in his turn is followed by
another from the enemy's camp, and is liable to be touched. Thus, any
player may sally forth and pursue any other of the opposite party who ha,
left the base before him, with the intent to touch him before he can get back
to his own base; and every one so touched must go to prison, until he is re-
leased by one of his own side getting to his prison and touching him. The
two leaders, who of course are the best runners, should not quit their baaes
except in cases of emergency, as much depends upon their generalbhip.
When several prisoners are in prison together, they may take hold of hands;
and the last only need keep his foot in the prison, the rest stretching out in
a diagonal line toward their own base. This shortens the distance the
resoner has to run to release onq of them. No one who quits the base for
the rescue of one prisoner may attempt to rescue another, until he has first
returned to his base. When all the prisoners on both sides ae released, the
game begins again, by a "chevy" being given in their turn by the party last
challenged; and it in seldom such a challenge passes without one or more
prisoners being the result. The side which manages to send all its adver-
saries to prison, so that none remain to rescue them, wins the game.
There is a variety of this game in which no prisoner can be rescued; once
touched, he is shut out of the game, which concludes when all on one side
have been thus excluded. This way of playing at "Prisoner's Base" is, of
course, more expeditious than the ordinary method; but far less amusing to
those players who happen to get shut out early in the campaign, and have
to walk about doing nothing until the contest is decided.

This sport, the name of which is probably a corruption of "King Cams,"
is rather a romp than a game, but it affords capital fan in cold weather.
Two lines are drawn, at about seven or eightyards' distance fromeach other,
on the ground. The players range themselves behind these lines, leaving
the intermediate space clear. One of them, called the "king," stands in the
vacant space. The object of the players is to run from one base to another,
across this space, without being arrested by the king, who, on his part
must try to hold any one of them, while he taps him on the bead, and re
peata the following formula:
*Oa, two. thm, I rewu tbm;
NOW them art t laleo's h."
The player thus captured becomes one of the king's men, and most assist ii

xI=N 01 a OAMua.-IMOW 6 TL UT6

apturinu his me comrades, in their o* dI fiom bhe to beM. 2'y,
onthei part, mVy ho om way out of a be, and hop bok agin, m to
aproh of danger; but if they rnm out, or put both et to th gomund,
they may not return, but must run to the opposite bMe, be the risk what It
y. When more than half the players have been captured, a rush is some
lm made by the stronger party into the besm, to capture the remainder
Smase, as ship in war-time used tobe taken by boarding; t any rate,
e game must end sooner or later in the triumph of the king, whom power
oeon increasing with every fresh capture; for when a man has onoe been
Cken, there is no way of redeeming him.
The aecoompanying engraving
explain what this game is like.
of the players posts himSlf
"ground of vantage," and the
t try to pull him down from his
vaed position Someatmes the
iyers divide into two parties, woe
attack, and the other for de-
nee, and a good deal of fun, not
yan inml with eare of Jackets,

which is rather a rough one,
sh aould be particularly careful
"fight fairly," and to keep their
mper, though they may lose the
e. Pair pulls and fair pushed
ny, are allowed in this game;
players must not take hold of
y partof the clothes of the king,
Must confine their grasps to
hand, the leg, or the arm. The player who smucceeda in dethroning the
takes his place, and is subjected to the like attacks.

This, If well managed, is a very comical game. The players a m arranged
in Drill Sergeant, the player who enacts Simon standing in font. He
Sallthe other players dench their fasts, keeping the thumbpointed pward.
playeris toobey his commands unless pre aced with the words, "Sinm
Siman is himself subjected to the maime rules. The gaim oeemmmems
Simon eommanding,- l on says, hr's d%. m' on which he turns his
be downward, followed by the other players. He then ms, "Simon
iWse p," and brings his hands back agpin. Or, he may sy, "Smn
wig.wag," when the whole party fDllow his emple and twidle thk


tmb M,. Whe he has done so smesl tmes, and thinks that the players
an off their guard, he merely gives. d word, Turn up," or "Turn down,"
or "Wig-wag" without moving his hand. Some one, if not all, Is sure to
obey the command, and is subject to a forfeit Simon i also subject to a
fcMit if he tells his companions to turn down while the thumba are already
down, or meos wo. With a sharp player enacting Simon, the game Is very


The first boy out, by counting sets
S a back a. in playing "Leap-Frog,"
e sideways, and the others Afllow. Then
they all leap back; and then over him
in the second position of leap-frog. In
this last leap, the leader leaves his cap
on the boy's back, and the others must
jump over without displaying the oap,
until the 1wat who must take it with
him as he leape. If either fidl to do
th isthe filing boy sets a back for the
rest, instead of the first boy out. This
*,.** game may be varied by depositing a
S,-. handkerchief rolled in a ball, or by
"knuckling," that is, going over with
the hands clenched; or by "slapping," that is, placing one hand on the
boy's back, and hitting him when going over; or In many other amusing
ways. But whoever &ils to do what he attempts, goes down, and becomes
"back," instead of the other, who takes his place among the leepers.

The name of this game suMiently indicates its nature. A quick, clever
lad is chosen as "leader," and the other players have to follow him wherever
he goes, to take any leap he chooses, to clamber up any steep place he has
climbed; in fact, they must never desert him. The game may be made
very amusing, if the leader have wit enough to set his followers such tasks
as they can just manage to accomplish by dint of great exertion;-fbr in-
stance, we have heard of a leader who made some of his followers, they
being somewhat of the ft type of boys, crawl through the very narrow win-
dows of an ot-house, at the imminent risk of sticking in the middle, In their
seal to stick to their leader. The sailors on board ship often play at this
gam when they are "turned up," an a fine afternoon, to "skylark" or enjoy
themselves; and Captain Marryst tells a tale of an impudent fellow of a
sailor leader, who, after leading his followers a wild-goose chase all over the
shp, ran off to the galley-Are, sad blacked his hace with the soot. All th


en had to do the sam thing; and a they followed their leader, shoating
d laughing, he led them to the end of the mainyard, and dropped off ii
sea. Of course it was a point of hodor to follow him, and sailor are not
a men to hang back in such a case; but some of them, who could not
rim, were nearly drowned. The sailor was called before the captain to be
primanded; and touching his hat very respectfully, excused himself on the
ound that the men were all so dirty, he thought a little washing would do
em good-whereupon the captain laughed, and said no more about the

'his game is best played by four boys of a side; one party being the
sea, and the other the Riders. The party to be Horses are deter-
ed by toesing up, and they arrange themselves in the following manner:
1 stands erect with his face to the wall; No. 2 places his head against
back of No. 1, and bends his back. No. 8 does the same at the book
fo. 2, and No. 4 the same at the back of No. 3. The Riders now make
r leaps. The first, making a run, must endeavor to leap over Noe. 4 and
> the back of No. 2, and the second rider to leap over No. 4, to lo. 3;
last leaping on the back of No. 4. When thus seated, It is the province
he Horses to wriggle off the Riders, or to make their feet touch the
ind, without calling themselves. They must not, in wriggling, touch the
Md with any part of their bodies but their feet; and if they can suo-
in making the Riders touch or fall off, they become Riders; and those
touch or &ll, the Horses. The leader of the Riders has no Horse to


munt, the o r leader stmaing against the wal. So be stands o; and
mat twety, or repeat the words, "Jump, little nag-tall, one, two, three,"
thimee a, aiding, at the last time, "O0 off off!" Ifthe Riders can keep
their Iate while this is being done, or if any Horse gives way under the
weight of the Rider, and comes to the ground, the Riders have another go.
But if either of the Horses can wriggle off or throw his Bider, without
himself touching the ground, except by his feet, then the Riders become
Horses, and the Horses Riders. This play in England is called "Little
Nag-tail." Before jumping on, the first Rider always cries out, Warning!"
or "Boot and Saddle"'

This is a very favorite game with little boys, and may be considered as a
modification of King Senio. A large base is formed by drawing a line
across the play-ground, and one boy, called "Tom Tiddler," takes his station
within it, while the others run in, crying out, "Here am I on Tom Tiddler's
ground, picking up gold and silver." If Tom Tiddler can touch any boy
while he is on his ground, the boy so touched takes his place as the guar.
dian of the imaginary gold and silver.

.This game may be played by
any number of boys. One of
the players being chosen as
Tag, it is his business to run
about in all directions after the
other players, til he can touch
one, who immediately becomes
Tag in his turn. Sometimes
when the game is played it is
Shield as a law that Tag shall
have no power over those boys
who can touch iron or wood.
SThe players then, when out of
I breath, rush to the nearedt hus
or wood they can find, to reader
themselves secure. Cross-tag
is sometimes played, in which, whenever another player runs between Tag
and the pursued, Tag must immediately leave the one he is after to follow
him. But this rather onfubses, and spoils the gamne.

In this amusing sport the players join hands, nd extend their arms to
their fall extent. One of the outside players remains ationary, and 0
others run round him as fast as they can, which proceeding is called ", wl~ai


the dock." In this inner ta sdtraiht la becomes a oafead qsdl,
I all th players get huddled together in a most lghable mer. The
adug of the look usuyl beds to soh disorder that it is Wn to m
is to unwind it without breaking the line of boys.

Thin is a very good game for three
ye. The flrt called the Buck,
e second the Prog, and the third
e Umpire. The boy who plays the
ock is blindfolded, and gives a back
Ith his head down, on some wall or
ding in front of him, and his hands
Shis knees. The Frog now leaps on
s back, and the Umpire stands at his
: the Frog now holds up one, two,
five, or any number of fingers,
ries, "Buok, Buck, how many
dol holdup?" The Buok then
veors to guess the right number;
5e 19eed, the Frof then becomes .
and in turn jumps on his baek.
Umpire determines whether Buck has guessed the numbers rightly or not.
1a game is to be played from a mound, the same as in the engraving of
of the Castle, and it may consist of any number of players. Each
selects a Captain, and having done this, divide themselves into Attoak.
and Defenders. The defending party provide themselves with a small
which is fixed on a staff on the top of the mound, and then arrange
sueves on its side and at its base, so as to defend it from the attacks of
opponents, who advance toward the hillock, and endeavor to throw
those that oppose them. Those that are so thrown on either side, are
d "dead men," and must lie quiet till the game is finished, which is
luded either when all the attacking party are dead, or the bannerm iseear-
off by one of them. The player who carries off the banner is called
night, and is chosen Captain for the next game.

diaactive, merry, noisy game can be played by any number of boys,
Mumenoes by their joining hands and forming a ring, having inolosed
boy in the middle, who is the Bull. It is the Bull's part to make a
Sbreak through the ring, and escape, and the part of the boys who
the ring to bold their hand so st together that be at bak t
B ef B "kig &a T th a l mlBa" r7 "Boo," to tgive wMrala,


tb the boys may grasp their hands more tightly. The whole ring gener.
k neplies to the Ball's challenge by crying "Boo" all together, and a
pretty noes they make. When the Bull breaks through the ring he is
pursued until captured, and the boy who seizes him first is "Bull" when
they return. A good Bull" will lead them a pretty dance, clearing fnbes
and ditches, and if he gets back and touches some mark agreed upon, near
to where he broke through the ring, he is "Bull" again.

Several boys seat themselves in a row, clasping each other round the
waist, thus representing a batch of loaves. Two other players then ap-
proach, representing the baker's men, who have to detach the players from
each other's hold. To attain this object, they grasp the wrists of the second
boy, and endeavor to pull him away from the boy in front of him. If they
succeed, they pass to the third, and so on until they have drawn the entire
batch. As sometimes an obstinate loaf sticks so tight to its companion, that
it is not torn away without bringing with it a handful of jacket or other part
of the clothing, the game ought not to be played by any but little boys.

Is made by scooping a hole in the ground, and placing in it an upright stick;
on the top of it is placed a stone, or similar substance.
S The player then retires to a distance, and flings at the stone
with clubs or balls, the latter being preferable. If the
stone falls into the hole, the player only counts one toward
game, but if it falls outside the hole, he counts two. This
is a capital game for the sea-side, and can be played upon
the sands. This is similar to a game called Baton, which
is played in this wise:
A stick is fixed in a kind of cup or hole, about six inches
over, in a loose moist soil, and the players consist of the
Keeper and Throwers. The Keeper places on the top of
the stick some article, such as an apple or orange, and the
Throwers endeavor to knock it onf by throwing at it short thick sticks, or
batons; whoever succeeds in doing this claims the prize, whenever it fails
without the hole. The Thrower will soon find, in his play, that to hit the
stick is of little importance, as from the perpendicular line of gravity which
the apple or orange will take in its descent, it is almost certain to fall in the
hole. The aim, therefore, should be to strike the object from the stick.

This is a game something like Follow my Leader. It consists of the
Drill Sergeant and his Squad. The Drill Sergeant places himself in a central
spot, and arranges his Squad before him in a line. He then common
another guard here with various odd gestures, which all the Squad are bound


to imitate. He move his head, arms, legs, hand, et, in various di-
tions, somtis sianses, cough, wep. laughs, and blows, ia of which
the Squad are to imitate. Sometimes this is a most amusing soese, and
provokes gast laughter. Those who ae observed to laugh, howve, an
immediately ordered to stand out of the line, and when half the number of
players are so put out, the others are allowed to ride them three times
round the play-ground, while the Drill Sergent with a knotted handker-
chief accelerates their motions.


.- - .,. '-,t .

This is an excellent game for cold weather. It may be played by any
number of boys. In playing it "loose bounds" are made near a wall or
fence, about four feet wide and twelve long. One of the boys is selected,
who is called the Cook, who takes his place within the bounds; the other
players are called the Chickens, who distribute themselves in various parts
of the play-ground. The Cook now clasps his hands together, and cries,
"Warning once, warning twice, and warning three times over; a bushel of
wheat, and a bushel of rye, when the Cook crows, out jump I." He then,
keeping his hands still clasped before him, runs after the other players;
when he touches one, he and the player so touched immediately make for
the bounds; the other players immediately try to capture them before they
get there; If they suooeed, they are privileged to get upon their baooks and
ride them home. The Cook and his Chiok now come out of the bounds
hand-in-hand, and try to touch some other of the players; the momet they
do this they break bands, and they and the player now touched run to the

24 DUCK Ox TaU BOC, o0 DUC-mton.

bomds a before, while the other players try to overtake them, sas to
eemre tShe M. The three now come from the bounds in the ame mmnar,
mptm ar touch a boy, and return. If while trying to touch tihe other
boy, the players when sallying from the grounds break hands before they
toWoh any one, they may immediately be ridden, if they can be caught be-
fare they reach the bounds. Sometimes when three players have been
touched the Cock is allowed to join the out party, but this is of no advan-
tsge in playing the game.

This capital game requires at least three players, but its interest is con-
siderably increased when there are six or eight. A large stone, called "the
mammy," having a tolerably fat top, is placed on the ground, and home"
is marked off about twelve feet from it. Each player being provided with
a stone about double the size of a base-ball, the game in commenced by
pinking for "Duck"-that is, by all standing at the home and throwing their
stones or ducks in snooession at the mampy. The player whose duck fall
or rolls farthest from it becomes Duck, and must place his stone on the top
of the mammy. The other players are allowed to take up their ducks
and go to the home unmolested, while Duck is placing his stone down; they
then throw their ducks, one after the other, at it, and endeavor to knock it
off the mammy. Duck must replace his stone whenever it is knocked o0
and the throwers must pick up their ducks and endeavor to run home
while he is so engaged. Should the duck remain on after four or five have
thrown at it, the stones must rest where they fell, until some player more
skilful than the others knocks off the duck, and so gives the throwers a
chance of getting home. If Duck can touch one of the throwers as he is
running home with his duck in his hand, the one so touched becomes Duck.
When the duck is knocked off by any player, it must be instantly replaced,
aa Duck cannot touch any one while it is off the mammy. When a throw-
er's duck falls and lies before the mammy, Duck may touch him if he can,
even before he picks up his duck. When Duck succeeds in touching a
thrower, he must run to the mammy and quickly remove his duck; if he
has time, he should tap the mammy twice with his duck, and call out,
"Feign double-duck as he may then walk home without fear of being
touched by the boy whom he has just made Duck. Should all the players
have thrown without being able to knock the duck of it is frequatly pro-
posed by some of them to Duck to take either a heelerr," a "ding," or a
"Jump" toward home, in order that they may have a chance of resebing
it. Duck may retfhe or assent to these proposals at his option. The
"heder" is performed by the player kicking his duck backward toward
home; the lingn" by placing the duck on the middle of the right foot, and
s ging it far in the direction of home as possible; and the "jump" by
plaacing the duck between the feet, and holding it in that manner while a


Jump is taken, the jumper letting the stoe go as he a lght, s that it may
roll forward. If the duck i so r from home that oe alng, Jump, or bhAer
will not auee, two or more of each may be taken, provided of course that
Duck allows them. If the player does not get his dook home in the num-
ber of dings, jumps, or heelers, agreed on, he become DOuk. Duck-stone
is one of the liveliest of winter games, but we must caution our readers
against playing roughly or carelessly at it, as they may through negligence
do one another much harm, on account of the weight of the stones and the
force with which they must be thrown.

game is very simple. It consists of any number of players; but
m six to eight ia the most convenient number. Having by agreement or
determined who shall give the first "beck," one player so selected
aoes himself in position, with his head inclined and his shoulders elevated,
d his hands resting on his knees, at ten yards' distance from the other
ayers; one of whom immediately runs and leaps over him-having made
a leap, he sets a back at the same distance forward from the boy over
hom he has just leaped. The third boy leaps over the first and second
ysn, and sets a "back" beyond the second; and the fourth boy leaps over
e first, second, and third, and sets a "back" beyond the third, and so on
all the players are out. The game may continue for any length of time,
I generally lasts till the players are tired; but the proper rule should be
Small who do not go clean over should be out. Those who make backs"
uld stand perfectly stiff and firm; and those who make leaps" should
rest in their flight heavily upon the shoulders of their playmates, so as
throw them down, which is not fair play. The backs may be sideways
,. which is the first position, or with the back to the frogs (2), which is the
m position. But no boy should.",fudge," as it is termed, that is, stoop
aldely, as the other touches him. If he should do such a vile trick, there
a that the boy will fall suddenly to the ground, and put out his arm,
shoulder, or otherwise injure himaals

n.Y mU 9AUU5 ---az-w.

One boy selected by chance gives a back as in Spanish Fly. The pbyir
who gives the back must stand sideways, with one foot a litt forward,
near a line which has previously been drawn on the ground. This line is
3aled the garter." The other players have not only to vault over his
back, but must alight with their heels beyond the garter or line. Any one
ailing to do this has to take the place of the lad who has hitherto given the
back to the rest, and the game begins anew. Supposing all to have flown
satis ttorily, the back-giver takes a jump backward from his petition and
ofebr himself again to the rest. These must now start from beyond the
garter, give one spring, and then clear the back. Failing to do this, places
are changed. Any one stepping on the garter, taking more than one jump,
or Ihiling to dear the back satisfactorily, must take his comrade's place, and
present his back to the rest; and so the game commences de nowo.

A stout plank is laid
w, over a log or low fence,
Snand nicely balanced if
the players are of the
same weight; but if
one is heavier than the
C other, the end on which
he intends to sit should
be the shortest. Two
Hi players then take their
seats on the plank, one
,at each end, while a
third stations himself on
the middle of it, as represented in the illustration, the name of this player
is in some places Jack-o'-both-sides, and in others Pudding. As the players
by turns make slight springs from their toes, they are each alternately ele-
vated and depressed, and it is the duty of Pudding to sseist these move-
meants by bearing all his weight on the foot, on the highest end of the plank,
beyond the centre of the tree or wall on which it rests; this will be best
understood by referring to the illustration; thus, A is the trunk of a tree,
across it a plank is laid, on which two players, B, 0, take their seats; D is
"Pudding;" it will be seen that his left foot is beyond the centre of the
trunk A, on the highest end of the board, and consequently his weight
being added to that of B will depress that end of the plank, and the end on
which 0 sits must, of course, rise; Pudding then bears on his right foot
and C in turn descends; and thus the game continues during pleasure, Pui.
ding bearing alternately on each side.


In dlimblng trend both the hands and fet ms to be used, but the dber
should never forget that it is to the hands that he has to traiL He should
carefully look upward and select the branches br his hands, and the knobs
and other excrescences of the trees for his feet. He should also mark the
best openings for the advance of his body. He should also be particularly
cautious in laying hold of withered branches, or those that have sudbred
decay at their Junction with the body of the tree, in consequence of the
growth of moss, or through the efieot of wet. In descending, he should be
more cautious than in ascending, and hold fht by his hands. He should
rarely slide down by a branch to the ground, as distance are very ill calcu-
lated from the branches of a tree.

Make a mark on the ground at a place called the "starting point" At
ten yards' distance from this make another, called the spring." Then let
the players arrange themselves at the starting point, and in succession run
to the second mark called the spring. From the spring make first a h9 on
one leg, from this make a long step, and from the step a long jumy. Those
who go over the greatest space of ground are of course the victors.

Every boy has played at snow-balls, from the time that his little iergm
ere first able to grasp and mould a handful of snow. Elderly gentdema
w to their cost how apt the youthful friend is to hurl very hard mnew-
which appear to pick out the tenderest parts of his person, gIgty
striving to lodge Just at the juncture of the chin and the eometsr, or
with a dea ning squash in the very centre of his ar. Bmv t*e
policeman does not always escape; and when he turns round, iW


ant at the temporary loss of his hat, he cannot recognie his assailant In
the boy who isoalmly whistling, as he saunters along, with both his hands
in hls.dpoketa. The prudent shoolmoaster will also not venture too near
the playground, unales he has provided himself with an umbrella


To make a snow frt, wooden spades may be used, if the snow is loose;
when, however, It cakes, heavier implements are necessary, as the weight
and resistance of the blocks would soon destroy a wooden shovel A snow-
ball may be brought to almost any size, by first kneading a small one with
the hands, for the nucleus, and then rolling it over and over, when it will
gain sise in its progress, until at last it can only be moved by employing the
leverage of long poles. To make a snow fort, the foundations should at
first be marked out, either in a square or circular form, and then clear out
the snow from within, piling it upon the line of boundary to form the wall.
A similar process goes on from without, and thus a good stout wall Is moon
produced, which must be considerably broader at the base than at the top.
The diae of the construction, and the plan, must necessarily depend upon
the number of boys engaged in rearing it, and the supply of material in the
Jrm aof snow. In a castle of ambitious construction, there should be a pars-
pet, raised above the wall, on the top of which latter the defenders stand, to
ward ci the attacks of the besieging party. Loopholes should also be
piered, through which the smler boys, hidden in the interior, haran the
appMleathM enemy with snowballs. The height of the fort, exclusive ol
the pampet, should not ezeeed ix et, or seen at the most; and care mut


taken, in piercag the loopholes, to stregthe the otm ag parts, or
* attacking party may And a breach most oonveniently made, thtrgh
loh they Oan enter the fbrtress, to the disomfiture of the 4imb.dem. The
ow-balls used for the bombardment and defeooe must not be made too
rd or too large, and all the military operations should be eonduoted with
at good humor and love of fair play for which American boys are in geWe-
I famous.


This is made in the same way as the now fort, that is, by rolling large
ow-balls to the place where the giant is to be erected, and then ped up
d carved into form. He is not considered completed until two coas are
oerted for eyes, and until he is further decorated with a pipe sad an old
t. When he is quite finished, the juvenile sculptors retire to a distaene,
d with snow-balls endeavor to knock down their giant, with as manh est
they exhibited in building him. If a snow giant is well made, he will last
itil the leaves are out, the sun having but little power on so large a mr
hard snow.

What better sport is there than coasting down hill! Take your sled on a
iar, winter day-start from the top of a long slippery hfl-and-w you
--lidig, rushing alog-sr and hater-your very blood dlauing in


your ves- now Jumping over this knoll, and then over that-bonnaing
away to the bottom of the hill. What if your feet are cold, and your fingers
toot Off of your sled quick, and trudge back again-the exercise warm
you ready for another start
Well do I remember a good time I had years ago. It was two days be-
fore Christmas*-there was a heavy fall of snow, and all of us boys, and
some of the girls too, were rejoicing over the capital fun we should have as
soon as it stopped snowing.

In the afternoon as we left school, one of our number, who was always
prophesying about the weather, said, "Bee how red it is in the weet and
look, the wind is in the north-it will stop snowing before morning, and will
be cold enough." "What sport we will have then I" said another who stood
by; "I will have my 'Gen. Jackson,' ready to run a race with any of youl"
And sure enough, the next morning it was clear and cold, and half an
hour before school we boys were at work, clearing away the snow, and
making a good path on the hill just back of the school-house; before we had
finished, however, the bell rang, and with red cheeks and cold fingers we
rushed into the school-house out of breath.
As it was the day before Christmas, we were dismissed early in the after-
noon. Once out of school, there was a rush for sleds; and boys and girls,
all of us were ready for a start. We found our hill one glare of ice, with
deep snow banks on both sides; we soon found out how this came. One of
the boys asked permission to "go out" during the morning exercises, and
had taken the opportunity to draw several buckets of water, and pour it
upon the track we had opened.
Soon we were at it, "Gen. Jackson" taking the lead, followed by several
larger combatants. I was ready with my long sled, seated in front steering,


with two of the girls behind; ml were cheering, laughing, and shoating,
"out of the way, or l runm over youl" Gen. Jackson did keep ahead; but
some said, he did not start fair. We were oon beck again for another
start-one of our number, more adventurous than the rest, took his sled in
his hands, ran a short distance, and then threw himself at ftil length on the
seat, using his feet behind for steering when half way down the hill, and at
full speed; suddenly his sled turned, and away he went head frst into the
snow bank, nothing left but his feet, kicking furiously in the air; he soon
found his way out, with a red face and clothes covered with snow. We all
laughed heartily, which so vexed him, that he left the hill and was not men
again that day; but I was as unfortunate, for soon after, when near the
bottom of the hill, with my sleigh load of girls, over we went, I into a bed
of snow, they here, there, and everywhere; and what a time, sleds whisk.
zing past-boys hallooing, girls crying-all in confusion. We moon found
that we were all safe, no one hurt, and all was forgotten in the excitement.
This game can be played by any number of boys, who must all join hands;
he game is begun by the outside players at each end of the line holding the
following dialogue: "How many miles to Babylon?" "Threescore and
en." "Can I get thereby candle-light?" Yes, and back again." "Then
n the gates without more ado, and let the king and his men peas through."
e player and the one next to him at the end of the line opposite the last
aker then elevate their joined hands as high as they can, to allow the
er to run under, and the whole line follow him, still holding hands.
is should be done, if possible, without breaking the line by letting the
ds go, and is styled threading the needle." When all the boys have
through, the same conversation begins again, excepting that the re-
dent in his turn becomes the inquirer, and runs between the opposite
years, the others following as before.
It is usual to toss up coppers between two leaders as to who shall have
ret choice of men, or who shall have first "innings" or "go" at a game.
games where one has to first give "back," as in leap-frog, or go out first,
in tag," one player repeats a jingle, touching each player in succession,
a word, or letter comes out. Whoever he touches at the last word goes
t. There are a great many of these jingling rhymes. The flowing are
ce of the best known:-
One-ery, two-ery, hickory Han,
Phillisy, fofiusy, Nicholas John;
Bpinkum, spankum, winkumn, wankum,
Twiddlum, twaddlum, twenty-one.
O-U-T, out,
With a white dish-olout-outl

MOD= 0F ROMouuOu

HMdw, beer, Peter e,
Hey BOy Martin, tiptoe fse,
Higgledy-piggledy, up the spout,
Tip him, turn him round about,
One, two, three;
Out goes hel

enFA deenz, din, dust,
Cattle, weena, win, wust,
Spin, spor, must be done,
Twiddlum, twaddlum, twenty-one;
O-U-T--4pelus out,
With the old dish-clout-
Out, boys, out I

Aila, mai, tip-tee tee;
Di. dila, dominee;
Oka, poka, dominoka,
High prong tusk;
One flew east, and one flew west,
And one flew over the cockoo's neat.

We will here close our department of Outdoor games without oys. We
have given our juvenile friends a host of amusing games to choose from,
and we might have added many others, such as Pot and APw wants a corner,
but our readers will agree with us that such childish games should not be
included among the sports of sturdy American boys, being at best only fit to
amuse very little boys, and therefore to be considered as mere

*' oW's LAT."


tax old-fashioned marbles were made by the attrition of pieces of stons
inst each other in a kind of mill, and were far better than many of those
W in use, which are made of porcelain. When we were young the painted
rbles, now a deal in vogue, were called Chinese," and were not valued
much as others. They are generally too smooth to shoot well. Marbls
in, and still are wherever marbles is much played, divided into common
rbles and alleys." Of these last a "red alley" is equal to two common
rbles, a "black alley" equal to three, and a white alley" to fbur. Very
go marbles called tomtrollers," are sometimes, but not often used-ever
the ring games; and the very small marbles, called "peewees," are only
for children with very small hands.
There are three ways of shooting a marble. 1, Fraing, which oonists
projecting the marble so that it rolls along the ground, until it strikes the
rble at which it is aimed; 2, Houmg, where the marble is shot from at
above the level of the knee, while the party stands; and jaMndi dese,
the player shoots with the middle knuckle of his ft-Dager tondaing
ground, but makes his marble describe a curve in the air on its way to
ring. A boy has to be a good player, a "dabser," a they say, to
Ikledown well.


To shoot a marble properly, It must be held be-
tween the tip of the fore-flnger and the first joint
of the thumb, resting on the bend of the second
finger, and propelled forward by suddenly fobring
up the thumb-nail. Some boys place it between
NW TO D= TOUro ALN the bend of the first finger and the thumb-joint
This is called "shooting ounnethumb," and not
only subjects those who do it to the ridicule of their associates, but tires the
thumb very much.
Marbles is a game played in different ways. We play it in the United
States different somewhat from the English, and in different parts of this
country various games prevail
The old-fashioned
Which merely consists in shooting at each other's alleys in turn, the one
who hits his opponent's alley taking it as his prize, is very little played.


Is another game not much used. A board, with nine little arches, each
just large enough to admit a marble, is held by one party, while another
shoots his alley at one of the holes. The shooter pays one marble for the
privilege of a shot. If his marble goes through a hole, he gets the number
of marbles written above that-the holes being numbered as in the cut.

Is a game of marbles. A teetotum, with
figures on its sides, is set spinning, and shot
at. If it be hit and knocked over while spin-
ning, the lucky shooter gets the number of
marbles set down on the upper side of the

Is an English game requiring no skill.
Each player puts his marble in a ring, and
then each in turn drops a marble on the pile.
All they thus knock out they take. If a player's marble stays in the ring
it is lost and goes to the general stock.


Is similar, but requires better players Three
marbles are placed in the ring, and one get on top.
The shooters get all they knock out, but forfeit their
alley if they miss.

Is played with tomtrollers, and instead of shoot-
ng the marbles with finger and thumb, they are thrown by hand, and he
who hits the other's bounce being winner.

England "Picking Plums") is
yed by laying the marbles of the
yer in a row, instead of a ring, _
d shooting at them under the same
of gain and loss as in the -
Pile game."
an English game. We have never seen it played
e. A marble is rubbed nearly square--at least enough
stand firmly, and to have a flat upper surface. On
last part an ivory die is placed. The player is to
ke the marble so that the die will fall of; paying first
marble for his shot. If he succeeds, whatever num-
Is uppermost on the die indicates the number of
rbles he is to receive.

played by making three holes, or "pots," in the ground,
out four feet apart. To determine who shoots first, one boy
es a marble and places his hands behind his back. He then -
owe his closed fists to one of the others, who guesses which
'd holds the marble. If he guesses right, the other boy goes
and the successful one tries with another. If he succeeds 0
Ihhim, be tries another, and so on. If he hil he is next to
and the one who guessed right goes before him, and takes 0
place to try. For instance: four boys are to play. John
dth takes a marble, and puts it in one hand behind his baok.
Sthan shows both fists to Peter Brown, and asks which hand
the marble. Peter Brown teaches the right had. The ham are

flhSKMAM, ORtnmu

opened, and the marble is found to be in the left hand. Peter Brown is the
last to play. John Smith now tries Andrew Jones. Andrew guesses the
right hand, and it is found there. Now John Smith is next to last, and
Andrew Jones tries Alfred Williams. Alfred guesses the left hand, and the
marble was in the right hand. Consequently he falls back; and the play-
ers shoot in the following order: 1. Andrew Jones. 2. Alfred Williams.
S. John Smith. 4. Peter Brown. Andrew now knuckles down at a line
six feet from the first hole, and shoots. If his marble gets into the hole, he
shoots from there to the second; and if he gets into that, then into the
third, and wins a marble from each of the others. If he misses, he puts
his alley, or another instead, into the first hole; and Alfred takes his turn.
So it goes in succession. If the player who wins the first bole chooses, he
can make each of his opponents in turn put down their alleys for him to
shoot at. If he hits them they are his. If he misses, the one whose alley
he aimed at may shoot at his alley. If that be hit, he is out of the game,
and his alley gone.
Another method of playing this game is as follows: Make three holes in
the ground at about a yard and a half distance from each other. Then
make a mark at a yard and a half distance from the first hole. The first
player Mkuckie downe at the mark and shoots his marble into the first hole
if he can. If he succeed, he then takes a span toward the second hole, and
shoots his marble again toward that hole, and so on. If he does not suc-
coed, the next player tries his luck with his own marble, and if he enters
the hole and his adversary's marble is near it, he may either try to knock
the former player's marble away with his own or try to enter the second
hole. If he succeed, he goes on again to the next, taking a span toward it
as the former did, and throughout the whole game, having the privilege of
knocking his adversary's marble away if he can, whenever he has first en-
tered a hole; and when he has knocked it away, he continues from the place
his marble goes to. If he miss either the marble or the hole, the first player
goes on again, or if there be a third player he takes his turn in like manner,
and whoever plays may, if he can, knock away all other marbles that sur-
round either of the holes, thus rendering it more difficult for the next player
to get in his marble. Whoever first gets his marble into the ninth hole wins
the game. The ninth hole is reckoned thus: First, 1, 2, 3, 2, 1, 2, 8, 2, 1.
So that he goes up and down the three holes twice. The loser must pay to
him whatever they agree to play for. Sometimes the loser puts his knuckles
on the ground at a certain distance, and allows the winner to shoot his
marble at them from that distance, then from wherever the marble goes to.

Is played by two or more players. To play it, a hole, of the diameter of
three inches, is first made on a smooth or level piece of ground, and a line
is marked at about seven feat from it. Each boy puts down two, three, of

WARS5 A39D BNOM.-C30N4V=3.

four marbles, amay be agreed upon, and then the whole party bowl fr
their throws, by retiring .to three times the distance already marked roem
the hole, and bowling one marble to it; the order of throws being deter
mined by the nearness that each boy's marble approaches the bole. When
this is settled, the first thrower takes all the marbles in his had, and
throws them in a cluster toward the hole. If an even number fals in,
such as 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, he wins all; but if an odd number hlls in, he loes
all, and the next player throws. Sometimes it happens that the game is so
soon finished, that the other players have not a chance of a throw. When
this happens, those thrown out have first innings in the next game, which
restores the equilibrium of chances. This game is sometimes played by
giving to the thrower all the marbles he can put into the hole, while the
other players take the remained.

consists of one boy laying
lown his marble, and, giving -

hoots at it; if he misses,
e first boy shoots at the
ly of the second, till one
struck, which the striker ,
me. He also gets it, if
can span the space be-
n the two marbles, so
t his thumb will rest on
and his forefinger on the ._
er. Failing to do this,
companion shoots with
marble at that of his adversary, and thus the game goes on. a mar.
e being paid each time a span or a emop occurs.

P played in some places. A piece of hard ground, and free from stoMnes,
Chosen for the spot. The first player lays his marble s the ground, and
se second throws his own at it with all his force, and endeavors to break
If he succeeds, his marble counts one, and the vanquished player ays
wn another marble. If two players have marbles that have already
anquished others, the "Conqueror" counts all the conquered of the other
y in addition to his own. For example, suppose A, beig oonquret of
enty, breaks B, also a conqueror of twenty, A counts forty-Ane, L.,
renty of its own, twenty fbr the vanquished belonging to B, and one ar


May be called an elaborate version of "picking cherries." The marbles are
*not merely ranged along a line, but disposed on a diagram, as in the illustra-
tion, and the players try to shoot them out of the limits of the fortification,
not being allowed to consider a marble as won until it is quite clear of the
outworks. If the taw of the attacking person remains within the fortress,

7 A.-

It is considered as a prisoner of war, and must remain where it is, until shot
out by another player, whose booty it becomes, according to the laws and
regulations of war. This fortification" game is much played in France,
and is supposed to have been recently introduced here by some young
Americans, on their return to their native country, after a residence in a
French college at Paris.




Is played by knocking marbles against a
wall, or perpendicular board set up for the
purpose; and the skill displayed in it depends
upon the player's attention to what is called
in mechanics the resolution of forces. For in-
stance, if an object be struck against the wall
at A from the mark at B, it will return again
to B in a straight line; if it be sent from C
to A, it will, instead of returning to C, pass
off aslant to D, and its course will form the

angle C D; the angle of incidence being equal to the angle of reflection.


The game is played by any number of playss; the tot player throw
his marble against the wall, so that it may bound and fall about a yard
distant hrom It; the other players then, in succession, throw thMr mbles
against the wal, in such awayas to cause them to strip any of thea
already lagged out, and the marble struook is considered won by the owner
or the marble that strikes it, in addition to which, the winner has another
throw. When only two boys play, each successively throw out til One of
the "laggers" is struck, and he who strikes takes up all.
This game may also be played by spanning the marbles, as in .samd

they call it in England, is the great game of marbles. The English
is as follows: Two rings are drawn upon the ground, a small one
x inches in diameter, enclosed by a larger
ne, six feet in diameter. Into the small
each player puts a marble, called
shot." The players then proceed to any
of the large ring, and from thence, as an
g, shoot at the marbles in the centre.
a player knocks a marble out of the ring
wins it, and he is entitled to shoot again
ore his companions can have a shot.
n all the players have shot their mar-
they shoot from the places at which
ir marbles rested at the last shot. If the
ter's marble remain in the small circle, he is out, and has to drop a
ble in the ring, and he must put in besides all the marbles he had pre.
y won in that game. It is a rule, also, that, when one player shoots
and strikes another's marble, the one so struck is considered dead, and
owner must give up to the striker of the taw all the marbles he may
ve previously won during the game. The game is concluded when all
e marbles are shot out of the ring, or all the players' marbles are killed.
In this country it is played that way in some few places. In others it is
ied. The general way is as followa:-Inutead of the outer ring, a line
feet off is drawn, and called the base. (See illustration at beginning of
bleI) From this the players knuckle down, unless some one prefns to
when he must call out, "iholtinge." Each player puts oe alley in
ring If the first shooter knocks any or all the marbles out they are
and he shoots on until the ring is cleared, or he misses. If his aey
inside of the ring, its "ftt," that i, he lo it, ad out of the
unless it remains after shooting out the last marble. After any e
the next one may, if he chooses, shoot at the alley of the other, and
e hts it, the other is kAled, and is out of the g d his ally gMM.

"vaDu h35 M UT

The player who has just killed one of his antagonists may then go to base,
and shoot at the ring. I; however, he kills all his antagonists, he takes the
ring marbles without shooting at them. And when any one is killed, he
gives to the victor all the marbles he has won during the game, whether
he got them from the ring or by killing his antagonist. If his opponent's
marble has got in a hole or behind any obstacle, he may cry "puts," which
will give him a right to place it in an eligible position, at the same distance,
or may cry clearance," and then remove any thing from between him and
the marble. But if his antagonist cries fen puts," or fen clearance," be-
fore he cries "puts" or "clearance," he must shoot as it lies. And he must
shoot from where his marble lies always. In some places, however, if he
cries roundingss," before his antagonist cries "fen roundings" he can go
around to some more eligible point at the same distance, and shoot from
Another way, in vogue in some parts of the West: ring is made, and one
marble placed in the centre, and the others at points on the edge of the
circle. The player may either hoist, troll, or knuckle down, as suits him. If
he knocks out the centre marble at the first shot, it counts him one. If he
hits one of the others he shoots on, till he has hit all, or misses. If he clears
the ring it counts one, or if he kills all his antagonists it counts one. The
players who follow the first may neglect the ring and follow him to shoot
at his alley, and heldo the same with them. Whoever counts three first
wins the game.
In all these games the players "lag" for first shot. That is, they troll
from base to a marble placed in the centre of the ring, and whoever gets
nearest, shoots first. Whoever wine a game always shoots first in the next
Remember that a taw" and marble" are the same; but in this country
the word taw" is rarely used. Strictly speaking, it only applies to the
marble a player shoots with.

*NAsMMM AM Oft."


Tore are very good toys-that is to say, the pag-top ad wbp.Os. The
mming-top we have always looked upon rather asHlightgl, a att for
y but very little boys; for there is no skill required in its use, aor does it
ord healthy exercise, or teach a boy that leeon which eve In the play-
ound he may always be advantageously learning-namely, the right way
using his wits. Peg-tops are made of various kinds of wood, besh and
x being the chief. Tops of box'wood, or "boxers," as they ar usually
led, are much the beat for all purposes, from their superior strength; and,
they are more expensive than tops made of other woods, they are gene-
ly provided with the best' pegs. Every boy knows that there are two
qys of spinning a peg-top-namely, taderhand and owrhmoa The former
thod consists in holding the top, with the string wound round it, in the
nd, with the peg downwards; and it is spun by suddenly dropping the

and drawing away the string with a Jerk, or snatch, as it flls. This
doubtedly the easiest way of spinning; but it is justly decried by school-
s as a girlish and shuffling proceeding, and totally inferior in every way
e honest overhanded method of holding the top tightly in the hand with
peg upward, the end of the string being secured by a loop round the
inger, or a button between the third and fourth fingers, and then
the top down, by a bold circular movement of the arm over thei
with a force which will make it spin three times as long as by the
method. We should advise our friends in this, as in every other
important afair in Ub, to eschew all underhand proceeding.



Is played by first whirling the top
into motion, -by turning It sharply with
both hands, and then, by flogging it
till its motion becomes very rapid.
When two persons play Whip-top, the
object should be for each to whip his
top to a certain goal, he who reaches it
first being the victor. Another play is
_for each whipper to flog his top, so that
w it strikes and knocks down that of his
WHIP-TOP, adversary; this play is called "encoun-
ters," as the other is denominated "racing." The best kind of thongs are
those made of pliable eel-skins, and they should be used carefully, particu-
larly in races" and encounters," so that the whippers may not cut each
other's eyes out.

There are many kinds of Peg-tops, and they
also vary in shape, some being much rounder than
others. Those are the best which are shaped like
a that represented in the cut. There is also great
variety as regards the shape and size of the peg,
which in some tops is short and thick, in others,
long and tapering. Again, tops are made of differ-
b ent kinds of wood, some being made of beech, others
-__ of elm, some of sycamore, and others of box-wood.
Some of the very best tops are made of lgnum-
vitae, with long, handsome pegs. A box-wood or
white beech top is a very good one.
In winding the top, lay one end of the string, commencing at a, down to
the base of the peg, b, and then, commencing at the peg, wind it round and
in the grooves, until you come to the upper part, keeping the other end of
the string in your hand as you throw.

This game may be played by any number of boys. A ring, about a yard
in diameter, is first marked on the ground, and another ring, surrounding
the f-rst, and at a yard's distance from it, is also marked. The players must
stand on this ring, and from it throw their tops. One player begins by
throwing his top spinning into the ring, and while it is there spinning the


other players are at liberty to peg at t as qukly as they can. If aone of
them hit it until it ceases spinning, and if it rolls out of the rIag the
owner is allowed to take it up, and having wound it, to peg at the others
which may be still spinning in the circle. Should any of the tops, when
they cease spinning, fall within the ring, they are considered dead, and are
placed in the centre of the circle for the others to peg at. The player who
succeeds in striking any of the tops out of the circle claims those so struck
out. In some places, each player may ransom his top with a marble.
If a player does not cast his top within the ring, or attempts to take it
ut before it is down, or fails in spinning when he throws, in either case it
i considered "dead," and must be placed in the centre of the ring for the
there to peg at. There is no.order in this game; the object of the player
being either to split the top of his companions, and thereby gain the peg as
trophy, or to restore them to their owners, by striking them sufciently
ard to drive them without the boundaries of the circle. Sometimes half a
oen dead tops are driven out of the ring by one cast, without any of them
sing damaged, and, indeed, if they be made of good box it is but rarely
they split
Sleeping tops are exposed to much danger in the play, for they offer a
tr mark to the "pegger," and often get split, when the "peg" is taken by
B splitter as his trophy. Long-pegged tops are the best for the game, for
they must lie more upon their sides after their fall, and before the spin-
entirely ceases, they are the more likely to spin out of the ring.
re is a way of making the top spring out of the ring directly it has
bed the ground. Only long-pegged tops will execute this feat. It is
by drawing the hand sharply toward the body just as the top leaves
string. When the manoeuvre in well executed, the top will drive any
nent that it strikes entirely out of the ring, while it does not remain
n the dangerous circle itself for more than a few seconds.

This game is played by two boys in the following manner: Two lines,
out six feet apart, are marked upon the ground, which ought to be smooth
d hard. Bome small stones are then procured and placed midway be.
een the lines; they should not be larger than a small bean, and the black
I polished ones are the most sought after. The tops are now set up
uning on the ground, and the players, being each provided with a
wooden spoon, dexterously introduce them under the pegs of the
ng-tops, and then, with the top still spinning in the spoon, throw the
t of the peg against the stone, so as to chip it out of bounds; he who
this the soonest being the victor. While the top continues to spla he
take it up with the spoon as many times as he can, and when it spinal
he must again wind up, pursuing the same plan until he hips out."



Are made hollow, having at their
crown a peg, round which ai wound
a string; this, being pulled through
a kind of fork, gives motion to the
top, and sets it spinning; the fork
and the string being left in the
spinner's hand. In spinning the
top, care should be taken in wind.
ing the string firmly and evenly on
...-- the peg, and when it is pulled out,
-- neither too much nor too little force
Pt) should be used, and a firm and
steady hand should be employed,
mmVXMr-Tor. while the top should be held in a
perpendicular position. The string should be drawn with a steadily in-
ereasing force, or the top will not hum properly.

"Top ABm nV"


rT-rLYrmG is fine fun, if you have a good kite, plenty of string, and a
neither too windy nor too calm. In this country, kites are raised by boys
, but in China everybody flies his kite at the proper period; and it looks
rly to a traveller in that country to see old men with big specstaole
heir noses, each seeing if his kite will soar higher than his neighbor's.
le old-fashioned bow-kite is still made by some a
It looks well enough, but does not fly so
as the three-sticked kite. An upright, thin
k--say twenty inches long, is taken. A piece of
whalebone, fifteen inches long, is bent into a
r, the string of which would be ten inches in
th. The whalebone, while straight, is notched (
he centre, and fastened by winding thread to
straight stick, at d, which is two inches from
top end. It is then brought down, and the
g, five inches from one extremity, is wound
)e around the stick, at which is thirteen inches
i the bottom. It is then carried over, and As-
to the other end of the bow, just fAve inches
the centre. A string is now fatened to one
of the bow, and brought down over the lower
of the tick (6), which should have a notch to I
it, and carried up to the other end of the bow,
it Is soned. At two inches from d o the bow, a sm a s tri

hismt m 1 rie over the top of the stick to a corresponding distance
an the opposite ride where it is fastened. The frame is made, and you have
emly to cover it with paper in the manner which we will describe, when
treating about the square kite, and when dry, make a hole on each side of
the tick, five inches from the top, and again five inches from the bottom,
for the belly-band, and you have your kite. The bob-tail is fastened in the
same way, by a string passed through near the bottom.
The sie of the kite may be varied, but the proportions given should be
preserved. That is, if the kite be fifteen inches long, the distance from the
bow to the top should be one and a half inches, from the bow-string to the
bottom nine and three-qltrters, and the length of the bow-string, seven and
a half inches, and so for any other length of stick.

The best kite is that made in the shape of a square (Fig. 1) with the two
upper corners cut off-a six-sided figure. The skeleton of this is made of
three sticks, tied together as represented in the out. These are notched at
their extremities, and through the notches a thread is laid, and brought
around the aides of the figure, so as to give stability to the position of the
sticks, and firmness to the kite after it is made. Having made the frame, it
is laid upon paper (Fig. 2), which is out to about an inch wider than the line
of the figure, with notches at the corners, as represented by the fi&ure.
That part of the paper outside of the thread is
covered with good boiled paste, the pasted part
turned over the edge, and the kite set up to dry.
As soon as it is dried thoroughly, the belly-band,
0 which is constructed differently from that of the
bow-kite, is put on. Holes are pierced at d d in
the paper, and a thread put through, and tied.
e & The other end of the loop is tfatened in the same
way at d, on the opposite side. A similar loop
e made at a a. The belly-band Is tied to and
between these two loops, in such a manner that it
Swil not slp, and the kiteU4tring(), attached in

about the centre of this at c. RHob ar made at the lower orders and a
loop attached, for the purpose suspending the bob-tan, at/.
The tail of the kite may be made of one piece
of paper, or cloth, a long band or trip, enough
to balance the kite, and keep it from being "top-
heavy;" but not too long, or it will prevent it
from rising wel. The bob-tail is the best kind,
however. This is made by rolling up dlips of
paper, cut about three inches wide, or wider, ao-
cording to the size of the kite, into a bob d, in-
sorting them in a slip-loop (a b), on the tail.
string, about three inches apart, as at c, using
enough to balance the kite properly.
Unless there be a nice breeze stirring, the kite-flyer need not expect to
have much sport, as nothing can be more vexatious than attempting to fly a
kite when there is not sufficient wind for the purpose. To raise the kite,
the flyer will require the aid of another boy. The owner of the kite having
unwound a considerable length of string, now turns his fAee toward the
wind and prepares for a run, while his assistant holds the kite by its lower
extremity, as high as he can from the ground. At a given signal the assist-
ant lets the kite go, and if all circumstances be favorable it will soar up-
ward with great rapidity. With a well-constructed kite in a good breeze,
the flyer need not trouble himself to run very fast nor very far, as his kite
will soon find its balance and float quite steadily on the wind. The kite-
flyer should be careful not to let out string too fast. When a kite pitches it
is a sign that it is lop-sided, or that its tail is not long enough.
If the kite be very large, it may be raised at night, with a lantern ap-
pended to the tail. In that case, muslin is used instead of paper, to with-
stand the dew. A lantern may be made by hollowing out a mook-orange,
or small gourd, and placing the stump of a candle in it, impaled on a sharp
nail, driven in the bottom of the gourd. The string should be as thin as
the kite will bear, or it will "belly" too much. On the other hand, if too
thin, it is liable to be broken by the pressure of the wind on the kite. Boys
sometimes send up messengers to their kites. To do this, cut a thin piece
of pasteboard or stiff paper in a circular form, with a hole in the centre about
the size of a dime; put the string of the kite through the hole, and the me-
senger will gradually and gracefully ascend, until it reaches the kite. The
messenger should be about three inches in diameter.


Tm proper and legitimate hoop should be made of a stout ashen lath,
round on the outside and flat on the inside, and should be well fastened at
its point of juncture; it should be in height so as to reach midway between
the youngster's elbow and shoulder, so that he may not have to stoop while
striking it. The stick should be about sixteen inches long and made of
tough ash; and in bowling the hoop the bowler should strike it vigorously
in the centre, and in a direction horizontal with the ground. Such hoop
exercise is exceedingly good, and a good run with such a hoop will warm
the youth in the very coldest weather. Nothing can be more objectionable
than are modem iron hoops; they are exceedingly dangerous to by-passers,

and many are the shins that have been broken, and not a few old men have
been thrown down and killed by them. The practice of running them with
a Crooked piece of iron is also foolish, for it defeats the end of the hoop,
which is to give exercise to the arm, while running gives it to the legs.
The game called "encounters" can be well played with wooden hoops, but
not with iron ones. It consists of two players driving their hoops against
each other from long distances, the victor being he who beats the other
hoop down. Sometimes a string is extended across the diameter of the hoop,
and another at right angles with this, while some pieces of tin are tied
loosely in the centre, to -jingle as the hoop is driven.

Any number of boys can join in this exciting sport, but they ought all to
be provided with hoops as nearly equal in size as possible. At a given


ignal, the players an tart together, and each adsvors to ranl the wil.
ning-poet (which may be any distant object) before has ompealm. He
who arrives at the winning-post last s generally noeved witk'h ,
hisses, and other vocal signs of disapprobation.

Five or six boys can play at this game though only one hoop is required.
Chance decides which of the players shall first take the hoop. The other
players become turnpike-keepers. Each turnpike is formed of two bricks or
stones, placed on the ground, and separated by about three fingers' breadth.
These turnpikes are fixed at regular distances, and their number is regulated
by the number of keepers. When all is ready, the first player starts his
hoop, and endeavors to drive it through all the turnpikes; should e meo-
ced in this, he turns &he hoop, drives it back again, and retains It until It
touches one of the turnpikes, the keeper of which now becomes hoop.
driver. When a player touches the hoop with his hand, or allows it to fall,
he must deliver it up to the nearest turnpike-keeper. Each keeper must
stand on that side of his turnpike which is toward the right hand of the
hoop-driver, and it therefore follows that he must alter his position when
the hoop-driver returns. Should a keeper stand on his wrong side, the
driver need not send the hoop through his turnpike. When the players are
numerous, there may be two or more hoops driven at once.

The best pop-guns are made of a strong straight piece of elder, and
should be about six inches long. The pith of this should be pierced out by
an iron ramrod fitting the hole; and when the inside is thoroughly smooth
by rubbing the rod up and down, it is
ready for use. The pellets are made with
moistened tow-brown paper is a nasty
thing to put into the mouth, and we shall
never advise the use of it. When the pellet is prepared, it should be laM
over the mouth of the gun in such a quantity as to require squeesing and
plugging in. The first pellet should be driven through the gun to its other
end; the second pellet is to be driven in, in a similar manner to the flrst,
and then, as it is forced through the gun, the air between the pellets being
incompressible beyond a certain point, forces out the lower pellet with a
loud "pop;" hence the term "pop-gun," which has been applied to them.
Pop-guns are not a very healthy exercise; the pressing of the rammer
against the pit of the stomach frequently leading to derangement of ti"a
organ. To prevent this, the lad who plays at pop-gun should have a small
round board slung over his neck by a string hanging as low as the pit afds
stomach, against which he should press the handle of his ramod whe Ae
ie off his pop-gun.

U9 W.o 0 mn- -tWUm.-TEB luLW.
W !I

Bsh s su y hIMg ad perhtly straight tin or brass tube, through
wvMhd pllmb- putty an driven by the breath. Great accuracy is some-
mes attaned with this instrument. We knew a young naturalist who
shot all the birds he stuMbd with a blow-gun, bringing down a yellow-
blmme or toatit with it, at twenty yards, as surely as with a rifle. For
king at a mark it is capital.

The art of slingig, or casting of stones with a sling, is of very high anti-
quity. We see it represented on the Nimroud monuments, and the feat of
David, in killing Goliath, is familiar to every one. In the earliest times there
were bands of slingers, and probably whole regiments of them, and there
is little doubt that the art of slinging was earlier than that of archery.
In country districts, slinging of stones is a common
sport; and the sling so used consists simply of a piece
of leather cut into the annexed form, to which are
affixed two cords, one having a loop. In using it, the
leather is suffered, to hang from the string downward;
the slinger places his little finger in the loop, and holds
the other end in his hand, and then putting the stone
in the hole of the sling at A, which prevents its falling,
( whirls the whole round for three or four times, to ob-
tain a strong centrifugal force, and, suddenly letting go
of that part of the sling held in his hand, the stone flies
forward with inconceivable rapidity, making twanging
sound in the ear aa it flies. Slinging is a very good exercise for imparting
strength to the arm, but young slingers should be very careful where they
asem their tones, or they may do much damage.
If any of our readers may wish to construct a better kind of
Sl sling, they may do it in the following manner:-Get a currier
to cut a piece of very strong buckskin leather in this shape,
the centre being out into bars. Two long strips of the same leather are
thes cat of this shape,

two aots being made along them so as to leave three leather cords. These
ae plaited together, and the flat ends firmly sewn to the centre piece. The
shape will then be this,

A liang made oa this principle will carry a stone of a pound weight The

sp3 soox0 rAe.- grUoiY. *X

loop and point should be whipped with silk. The soainracy at be ob.
tainted with such a weapon Is astonlabimag, only the midese shol always
be leaden bullets of the same weight-two or three ounces being the be
average weight.
This instrument is a curved piece of
wood, flat on one aide, and slightly
rounded on the other. It is used by the
natives of New South Wales, who can
throw it so dexterously as to kill a man
behind a tree, where he may have fled
for safety. It should be held horizontally in throwing it, and cast by bring-
ing the arm backward, and after making a variety of ourme it will come
back again to the person who sent it. If skilfully thrown, it may be made
to go in almost any direction the thrower pleases. We do not recommend
its use, however, as with an unskilftl person it is very apt to omeo bask on
his own head, or hit some one standing near him.


,, A very ancient and deservedly popular gam.s
// It strengthens the arms of the player, opens the
chest, and is altogether a most healthful, desirable
exercise. The necesary implements consist of a
number of iron rings, called fuoe and two Iron
pin, called ho; these are to be obtained AeLn
almost every dealer in hardware. The game is
played on a piece of level grass or turf. The two hobs are driven
into the ground at a distance of sixteen or twenty yards from each
other, leaving only a few inches out of the ground. There are either
two players, or three playing against each other, or four playing two
on each side, and throwing alternately. The players being armed with an
equal number of quoits, each steps out in turn beside one of the hob, sad
aims his quoits, one by one, at the other bob; his object being to throw the
ring over the hob, that the quoit may form a circe round it. This, howes
requires very great skill, and is rarely achieved; the next obje there
is to bring the quit as near as possible to the hob When the first player
has thrown all his quoits, the second takes his turn; and when all his ab
munition is expended, they walk to the second hob to compare notes. Sup.
pose A has three quoita nearer than any of B's-he counts three polnta to.
ward the game. If one ofhis is nearest, and then oe of B's com S next, A
can count only one, however mueh nearer his other qlts may be to the
hob than the ret of B's The nearer proximity of one quit of B's bars all
the advantages of position attained by the rest of A& bxiag at thea

0oo05'M Im=mr.

n ald kh tbshy as their qu oit toward the AAt, and thus the game eon-
ilaeBssutloM or other of the players has gained the requisite number of
p t toooM loatte him the victor. If a quolt completely eoirles the bob
It counts ten points.
This is a capital amusement, al-
though it cannot boast of a very
\n euphonious name. All the rng
required for Boo 'nm Safty, is a
high post with an arm to it (the same
as the sign-poet to a country inn), or
a tolerably high tree with one long
.- Ibranch extending from it at a right
angle, a stout piece of twine from
-- ten to fifteen feet in length, and an
i- ron ring three or four inches in
"' diameter. In addition to these, it
Is necessary to have
an iron hook which
should be driven in
the post at a sufi-
cient height from the
ground to permit the
ring to catch upon it
when swung from the
hand of the player
-- (see Fig. 1). The game Is totry and
get the ring on the hook by standing
.* off at some distance from the latter,
and swinging the former beyond it.
Bach boy is entitled to the same number of teugs, and he who hooks the
ring the greatest number of times, wins the game. A pleasant variation to
this game may be had a follows:
Instead of the sismg book, substitute
a, board with several hooks (my ten),
and number each from one to ten; then
fasten the board firmly to the tree or
wl 3 poet, at the proper height from the
a ( ground (see Fig. 2), and all is ready to
- 2 begin the game. The boy who is skil-
f ul enough to owing the ring so that It
{ catches on a book, sore as much as
S. the hook is numbered. Each player
h an squae somber of swigs and he who oores th geatst number is


declared the victor. As at every thing esue, it requires preotle to becom
an adept at Hook 'em iSlef. In our happy boyhood days we derived mash
.pleasure from this innocent sport.

The title of this game is taken from three colored dice, which are placed
upon pillars stationed at any distance trhe the starting pointagreed upon by
the players on commencing the game. Each player hs three balls, which
he throws at the pillars, and scores so many toward the game, soaording
to the number the dice, when overthrown, may turn up.

Cut a circular piece of stout leather; bore a
hole through its centre; and pass a string, with
a knot to prevent the end from escaping, through
this hole. Soak the leather well in water bebre
you use it; when thoroughly soaked, place the
leather on a stone, and press it down with your
foot, by which you exhaust or press out the air
from between the leather and the stone; then
holding the string, you may, by the pressure of
the external air on your leather sucker, raise a
considerable weight. If the sucker could act
with full effebot, every square inch of its surface
would support about the weight o fourteen
pounds. The feet of the common house-fly are
provided with minute natural suckers, by aid of which the lasect is emabsed
to run up a smooth pane of glass and walk along the selling.

=Vn; 0Z 350 TRU NAIL.

This game, although very simple, is very amusing. The apparatus nece
Gary is, first, a board about eighteen inches square, with a knife or Iarge nail
driven in the centre, and sixteen mall/er na driven in around it in regular
order; seeaodly, seventeen rings made of stout Iron wire about two inches
In diameter. The board is placed on the ground, and the boy who plays
first takes the ring. The players then stand twenty feet from the board,

or such distance as may have been agreed upon, and pitch the rings at it the
ame as in the game of quoits. Each boy tries to pitch the rings so that
they will encircle the nails, or the knife if possible, and the most skilfhl
pitcher wins the game. Each ring that encircles a nail counts five; if a
player is fortunate enough to ring the knife, he counts twenty The game
may be played at any number of points the players choose.

This sport, which is of French origin, is for two players only. Each
should be blindfolded, and then tied to either end of a long string, to be se-
cured by a loose knot in the middle to a poet, so that the players are enabled
to move about with facility. He who takes the part of the "mouse" scrapes
two pieces of wood (one notched) together, so as to make a grating noise,
which attracts the other player, or the "oat;" and he immediately strives
to ateh his prey, by hmlowing the noise; the "mouse," at the same ,
struggling to emape being caught.


Tn modem practice of archery is oounaed, in civilied naotiosto -m
amusement-and a very graceful and excellent one it is. To consider iS
properly, we must begin with the several implements.


The Cross Bow was
formerly used as a wea- A
pon of war, and the bow
ihelf being made of a
strong steel spring, it
required the assistance
of mechanical power to
bend it; but the croes FgI.s
bow we recommend to our readers is not of quite so formidable a nature.
The stock of the bow (A A*, Fig. 1) is formed something like the stock of a
musket, to the extremity of this the bow is fixed; from, toB a sem ronlar
groove is formed, in which the arrow or the bullet is laced; at B there is a
step in the wood, as shown more plainly in Fig. 2, pver this step the string
of the bow is drawn, and there it remains until Is raised by means of the
trigger. This last is constructed in various ways; in the plan represented
in the engraving, the lock, if we may so call it, is formed of two pieces of
brass, or hard wood; these are let into the stock, which is pierced for that
purpose, as shown at C, Fig. 3; their shape is indicated by the dotted lines
at C and D, Fig. 2: a pin is driven through the stock, and also through each
of these pieces, so as to form two axles on which they can work. The eaot
of this arrangement is as follows: when the finger draws back the trigger
D, its upper portion presses against the lower half of the lever 0, and the
upper part of that lever is consequently forced against the string of the bow,
which is thus raised above the step, and being drawn forcibly forward by
the bow, it carries with it the ball or the arrow.

The Bow bay be made of the yew-tree, laburnum, thorn, or aacsa, and is
generally formed of two pieces of wood joined together, the back piece being
of a different wood to the front, and the grain reversed. It is of great im-
portance to secure a good bow. We would not, therebre, advise the young
archer to make one, but to buy one at a good toy shop, where they
may be had at all prices. Upon making a purchase, he should examnethe
bow well, to observe whether it be well set in all its parts, of an elegeatt
or shape, and free from flaws, knots, or cracks. He should look we at the
ends, and to those points on which the bow-string is fixed, which ough to


be tipped with horn. The proper length of a bow for a youth is about five
feet The flat or outward part of a bow is called its back, and the inward
part its belly; and in stringing it the young archer should be particularly
esMA to keep the belly inward, or the bow will break.


The string of the bow should be made of hemp, and whipped with sew-
ing silk at that part of it which receives the arrow, marked C in the an-
nexed plan. The thickness of the string should depend upon the length
of the bow, and should never be too thin for its powers, as the snapping of
a string sometimes causes the snapping of the bow. The young archer
should never use a string in the least out of order, and should avoid cat-gut
strings especially. A bow five feet long, when bent, should have a string
about five inches from the centre. This will be a guide in stringing the
bow. The young archer should take great pride in the care of his bow,
especially of the string, and look carefully, after every day's shooting, at
the "whipping" of the string, and at the wearing points, repairing the least
defect. He ought also to place his bow in,an oil-skin case, lined with baize;
and when put away for the season it should be well rubbed with oil, and
polished. He should also have always two or three spare strings in readi-
ness, in case the one in use may fly.

Arrows are generally made of some white wood, such
as ash, deal, or the wood of the orbele poplar, and are
sometimes varnished. They are both blunt and sharp.
o The sharp ones are for target shooting, the blunt ones
principally for roving; they also vary as regards
length, some being long and some short. In purchas-
ing them, the principal thing to be attended to is, that
they are perfectly straight, well made, and that the
plumes are securely fitted. There should be three on
each arrow; one, which is of a darker color than the rest, is called the
cock-plume, and in shooting should be placed uppermost. The length and
weight of the arrows should be in proportion to the size of the bow. The
nicks of the arrows should be cased with horn, and they should fit the
string exactly.

The young archer must be very careful in performing this feat, or he will
al in the attempt; to do so safely, he must take the bow in his right hand


by the handle, the flatiart towd him; the et blemma i lhstMbl
side, then put the lower end of the bow against the buide of ie Ht&ht ~oot,
bring hi let foot forward, and pleae th eestre of tho eIw ft the o
upper level of the bow below the loop of the mtri the hteJqe kmkle
on one edge of the bow, and the top of the thumb upon the ether; them up
with the bow and loop it. This fat, however, can be beat armed by see-
Ing another expert person perform it. In unstriaging the bow, the short
horn should be placed on the ground against the right foot, the middle o
the bow grasped in the right hand, and the left writ placed on the upper
horn, so that the fore-finger may unloop the trying when the bow Is brought
down, as In the manner of stringing it.


oarnU Xm Moon jo1 "G Now. rOUWno UTn uoo1n0 Oama- Now.

The directions for drawing the bow, or rather the arrow, are an
follows: The archer having placed himself opposite to the target,
with his face a little inclined to the right, should awing himself slightly
round, so that his eye and the target are in an exact line. He should stand
quite upright, his left foot slightly in advance. Holding the bow hodroatally
in his left hand, he should draw an arrow from his pouch and carry it under
the string and over the left side of the bow. The fore-finger of tihe left
hand now hold the arrow secwe on the wooden part at the bow at its cen-
tre, while the right hand flxe the nick of the arrow on the rtri., where it
is held fast between the first and second flages, the coek-ather being
uppermoet The forefiger of the left hand may now be moved from the
arrow, and the centre of the bow grasped tightly. The bow is nOw raied
gradually by the left hand, at the mae tile that te string in palled by the
right; sad when the arrow Is drawn about two-thinrds of lenth, the neek

Ua APARAT!, Nwo.

of t theld be brought oel to the right ear and the aim should be takes.
The m a hodd be taken quickly, and the string loosened freely from the
fAges wth a petliaer toeh, which no books can teach, and whloh nothing
but xperlmc and skill can give. In long shots the right hand must be
lowered, and t arrow seat so as to form a greater curve in its flight. The
archer should look at his maru, not at his shaft, and when he haa shot should
retreat to the leftward, and take his position behind the person with whom
he is shooting.
The allowing apparatus will be required by the young archer:
A BAId.-This is a broad leather guard, buckled round the inside of the
left arm, between the elbow and wrist. Its use is that the string may
strike against it when the arrow is discharged. The sharp twang of the
bow-string against the unprotected arm or wrist will frequently produce
such bruises as to prevent the practice of archery for some time afterward.
A Glose, or rather finger-stalls for three fingers of the right band, will be
found almost indispensable. This prevents the fingers from being blistered
from the friction of the string and arrow.
A Bet and Pouch.-These are buckled round the waist. The belt is made
of various designs, generally of leather, with a pouch to receive the pile of
the arrows. The pouch is worn on the right side; the tassel and grease-
box being fixed on the left side.
A Quier, which is generally made of japanned tin, is used to preserve
the arrows from damp, ke.; also for keeping the reserve arrows in, as only
three am used when shooting in company. It is only worn when roving.
target are made of different sizes, varying from one foot to four feet three
inches, consisting of five circles. The centre, gold, counts nine; red, seven,
miner white or alue five; black, three; and the outer white, one. There
should always be a pair of targets in the field, to save time and trouble.
The distance for target-shooting varies. Some gentlemen shoot at sixty
yards; others at eighty to one hundred yards. Ladies generally fifty and
sixty yards. The young archer should practise at a short distance, and
lengthen it Wa he progresses, commencing at twenty yards, till he is able to
hit the smallest mark, which will prove he has attained command over his
A graceful attitude is always requisite in shooting, which the inexpe-
rieneed archer would scarcely suppose of consequence. The position (or
standing), holding, nocking, drawing, and loosing are the points which
require great study.
Roving is the most amusing of the various styles of shooting. A party
go across country, selecting any object as a mark, at which they shoot with
bhat arrows. He whose arrow is nearest to the mark is the winner.
lgihaooeabgis practised to determine who can shoot furthest. Strength
in drawing the bow, rather than skill, is here called into play. Oare should
be taken, or in your ardor to excel you may snamp your bow.
obt..haesfg is shooting at a piece of pasteboard or paper stuck in a


Mtlk Midplaood l the gropmd. I the good pd days of eat- y, w he
of mersm who could split In twain a willow wand, peeled, and dtock upefiht
In the earth as a mark; but In these degenerate imes we quire something
more tangible.

1. In commencing archery never begin with a stiff bow, but select oe
adapted to your strength, and change this for a stronger from time to time.
2. Never shoot with another person's bow.
3. Never put an arrow in the string when any one stands between you
and the target, or you may shoot out an eye.
4. Never talk, jibe, or jest at the time of shooting.
6. Always study to take a graceful attitude in shooting, or in moving
about the field.
6. Never draw a bow near another person; as, should it eamp, the danger
will be greater to him than yourself
7. Never let your bow-string get untwisted or ravelled by neglect
8. Never exhibit impatience at the tardy efforts of your compeers, or
chagrin at your own tailures.
9. Never shoot alone if you can help it, as it leads to negligence and In-
10. Take care that the arrows are kept dry; otherwise they will twist
and warp, the feathers will fall oi and they will soon be utterly usele
11. Always walk behind the rest of the party, if you have to change your
position during the shooting; and when you have shot, always go off to the
left, so that your neighbor may step into your place readily, and take his
turn. It is scarcely necessary to caution all young archers to refrain from
crossing between the target and the shooters, at any time while archery
practice is going on.

Let no one despise this exercise. If any one can
stand a twenty feet swing for half an hour, the sea may
toss its worst, for he will come of unscathed. Now,
we do not mean to say that merely sitting on a board
and getting swung by some one else is any great object:
far from it But there are some very graceful xercises
to be managed on the swing. Here are some:
L The way to get into the swing is "as fqows:
Take one rope in each hand, just above the sat; walk
backward until the ropes are freely stretched. Now .
run sharply forward, letting the hands glide up the rop esL
as. fr as possible, and the instant that you fel a
check, grasp the rope tightly, and spring into the met stadie. Whm


-tem work *assly up by alternately being and straightening the kam.
(s. lIf. L)
2. Whme n good swing, slip the feet off the seat (which should not
be more than four inches wide); let the hands slide down the ropes, and
come down sittig. To recover the standing position, reach upward with
the hands as high as possible, and draw yourself upward as the swing is
going forward, when the seat will place itself exactly under your feet.
8. Now fbr some feats.
let the swing go very gently. Place both hands at
the level of the shoulders, and suddenly extend them,
keeping the arms straight. Take care, a there will be a
violent vibration, and you will be shot out of the swing
before you know where you are. Practise it first while
the swing is still, but do not be satisfied until you can
do it while in strong swing, and without closing the
hands, merely letting the palms rest against the ropes.
(See Fig. 2.)
Swing stilL Stand up on the seat, and grasp the rope
with the hands as low as possible, without bending the
g I body or the knees. Now lean forward, making your
hands the pivot, and do not be astonished at finding your heels in the air,
and your head downward. To recover your.
Nsel the body must be bent a little. (See
Fig. B.)
An old proverb says:-" A good beginning
makes a good ending," and the sports of youth
are no exception to this rule.
IS & The following will teach our young friends
how to come gracefully from the swing.
To make a telling exit from the swing, two ways may be adopted.
First way: Get the swing into a firm, steady movement, sit down, and bring
both hands inside the ropes; and just as the swing has passed its centre,
strike the seat away with the hands and you will shoot forward several yards.
Take care to come down on the toes, and to loan well backward as you leave
4 the swing, as the impetus will bring you upright
V as you touch the ground. (See Fig. 4.)
The second method is, to seat yourself in the
same manner, and as the swing crosse its centre
backward, lean well forward and strike away the
seat. You will then be hurled backward, and if
your balance is good, will ome to the ground in
Sa very elegant attitude. Be sure to lean well for.
t. 4 ward, cross the het, dasp the hands, and come
down on the toes. (ee fig. .)


GUet ear m- t be taken to wan well backward if you /
shoot out forward, and well forward if you shoot back-
ward, or in the one case you will come with your nose on
the ground, and in the other you will find the back of
your head rather damaged. So practise with gentle
swings at first, and then increase. We have often done it
with the swing at full speed, and in one instance we shot
so far forward that the spot was marked by a row of iron
nails driven into the ground. i &


The best shape for balloons of all kinds, whether large or small, is that of a
globe; the lower end of the globe being somewhat opened out into a
tube for air-balloons, and
widened out still more or else
a portion of the globe cut
ob for fire-balloons. In the
one case to admit the gas, in l
the other to allow of the fire
burning beneath, without set-
ting fire to the paper of
which the balloon is made.
The best material for
making a fire-balloon is com.
mon sheets of tissue paper;
the length of the paper is .
equal to half round the bal-
loon, supposing it to be ai
perfect globe; therefore sup-
posing you want a bal-
loon three feet in diam-
eter when complete, the sheets of paper to make it of should be 41 feet long,
but as the lower end of the balloon is to be open, the paper will of course
be shorter, so that sheets of paper four feet long would make a balloon of
the above size and allow an opening below of one foot acoss. The length
of the paper being determined, you must then decide upon the number of
sections or gores which it is to have, and this should be twelve nla the least;
or in a large balloon there should be a much greater number, the width of
each of these papers,if there are twelve of them, must be a twelfth of the
clreaumhrenoe, which will make about 9 lanches for each, bat they must be
out ten inches in the widest part because of folding over and formaing the
sams. The particular shape of each section Is like a part of a oraunge-peel,
out out from the fruit, of the following shape A.


A pieoe at one end being supposed to
be out off. An improvement, however,
A I> Ismade when the sections are out as in
fig. B, because the mouth is more open.
To cut these sections of a very accurate
form requires great care, and a table
B of decimals is often given to show the
accurate length of the cross measure-
ment of different parts, but this is not by any means necessary for common
purposes. It is quite sufficient if the sides be formed by a pair of com-
passes, one point of them being fixed in the distance, the other point touch-
ing the paper at the two ends and in the middle. If one of the papers, or
still better if a stiffer piece of paper of full size be doubled in two down the
-middle, the outer mark may be made by one stroke of the compasses, and
the various sections may then be easily cut out by this one pattern.
When the gores are all ready, paste about a quarter of an inch of the
edge of one of them, and stick a second to it, carefully and smoothly all
along the edge; this it will be difficult to do without assistance; the easiest
method is to paste the edge of one section on a flat table and then to trans-
fer it to the edge of a flat hoop of about equal circumference as the balloon;
holding it there, take the second section, put it right at one end, and continue
it along the hoop to the other end, when the two edges will fit each other
as beautifully and cleanly as possible. When stuck together, put them
aside to dry, and stick together two other sections, and so on till the whole
are joined in twos. When dry join in like manner two of these, till all are
joined in fours, let them dry, and join two fours, and when dry the third
four, the last joint of which should be done when all the rest are dry, and
by the hand without the hoop. As the sections will not be strong enough
at the top, a small star of paper is to be pasted over the upper end of all
the sections, a small piece of rag about the size of a half-dollar piece is put
within side, and pasted down, and then let a string be drawn through the
rag at the top to hold the balloon by. Next procure a light hoop which
may be rather larger than the opening left at the bottom, and furnish it
with two wires across, a smaller hoop and that of wire or else a wire basket
being in the middle. Put the hoop in its place and paste the edges of the
paper around it, then fasten by wire a piece of sponge to the centre of the
hoop or basket, and the balloon will be complete. When it is to be fired,
some spirited of wine is to be poured over the sponge, taking oare that none
of it shall touch the paper, then taking hold of the top of the balloon, move
it three or four times up and down in the air, in order partlyto inflate it, and
thus remove the paper from around the spirit. Then very carefully light the
spirited, holding the balloon up from the ground. Let it ascend till you have
hold of the hoop, now let it become well inflated by the hot air, and when
ready, let it gently fly away. Of course you will always regard the direction


of the wid, and the posion of the o t around. If the balloon is to be
used in damp weather it had better be varnished, cotton and hemp are not
so good as sponge to pour the spirit of wine upon, because they are apt to
throw out sparks. Spirits of turpentine is not so good, because the bedt I
less than spirits of wine, it produces a great deal of smoke and its flame is
larger, and therefore more apt to set fire to the balloon.

These are easily made by cutting a piece of paper in a circular form, and
placing threads round the edges, which may be made to converge to a point
at which a cork may be placed as a balance. They ascend by the air get-
ting under them, and are frequently' blown to a great

And here we conclude our list of minor out-door
games and sports. Of course, many have been ne-
ceuarily omitted for want of space; and many of the
games here chronicled will be known to our young
readers in a different form to that here described.
But we have endeavored, in every case, to give the
most popular, and at the same time the most simple,
form of each sport; and think that, with the explana-
tions and hints here afforded, no set of boys need ever
be at a loss for the means of amusing themselves in the playground. We
will now proceed to give the more difficult games, and those suited to older
boys, such as foot-ball, cricket, base-ball, shinny, golf, racket, and kindred

S0CUa1 os.


Ta= is essentially an English game as base-ball is American, but it meets
with some favor in this country, and seems to be gaining ground. It is
played with single or double wicket-the latter the true game, though the
principles of the game are the same in both cases. We will first consider
double wicket. The number of players is twenty-two, divided into two
sides of eleven each, though when the players on one side are acknowledged
to be very superior, they sometimes allow their opponents to have more.
One of these sides is in, and the other out, until all the players of the it
side, except one, have been put out as batsmen, one after the other, by the
fall of the wickets they defend, or by being caught out by one of the other
side. The bowler is the chief personage of the out side, and the two bats-
men are the only ones of the is side employed. The ten other players dis-
perse themselves through the field in certain stations which we shall pres-
ently indicate; and here are the names of a side:
1. The bowler. 7. The short slip.
2. The wicket-keeper. & Middle wicket.
3. The long stop. 9. Long field-on side.
& The point 10. Long Meld-off sida
5. The cover point 11. Leg.
8. Theloeng slip.

flATS, 111111, AND sTUISPO.

The bowler, having dispersed his mm through the a has to bowl at
the wlket of moe of the batMmen, who, o his side, debod t, and at the
ame time strives to make "rune." When the ball has beni truck from
the bat, the batman, if he Me a chance, must run and mhage places with
his companion at the other wicket before the ball can be thrown up by the
fielders. If he gets to the other wicket in saalty, thia counts as om rua
He may sometime make as many as fve runs off a single hit; but this is
about the maximum. Twos and three are more common. The regisatr of
these runs is kept by the umpires, and each man has his runs meored against
his name. The side that makes moat running In two inning wine.
We will now describe the preliminary proceedings at a game of cricket,
and explain the different technical term. employed. The laws or rules of
the game we shall give literally according to the code laid down by the
Marylebone Club, now universally looked upon as the great and chief au-
thority in these matters, in the United States and England.
We will suppose a party of cricketers turning out for an afternoon's sport.
Some carry bats, two have cricket ball, and several others bear the stumps
of which the wickets are constructed. They come to the place where the
wickets are to be set up, or "pitched." It is a level field, and the apace
between the wickets, in particular, is flat as a billiard-table. Now the bowl-
ers advance, and under their direction the wickets are set up. The distance
between the wickets, for full-grown players, is twenty-two yards; where
the players are young, it is advisable somewhat to decrease the distance.
The distance between the stumps must be a little less than the diameter of
the cricket ball, so that the ball cannot pass between the stumps without
touching them, and knocking off the bails or little bits of wood placed across
the top of the stumps. The companions of the bowler are. now dispersed
about the field, in various positions, according to the rules we shall describe.
They all labor for the same object, namely, to stop the ball when it is struck
by the batsman, to catch it (if possible) before it reaches the ground after
being delivered from the bat (in which oae the batman is considered
caw/ht out, and his innings is over), and to throw the ball up, when they
have stopped it, to the bowler or wicket-keeper as quickly as possible. The
bowler's desire is to knock down the batsman's wicket, while the bateman's
province is to defend his wicket by striking away the ball as it is bowled
toward him. Beyond this, he has to judge what balls it will be safe for him
to strike hard at, and what balls he must content himself with blodcig, or
striking down; for on the number of runs he obtains will depend the share
he contributes to the success of his side.

The bat must not exceed thirty-eight inches in length, nor be more than
four inches and a quarter in the widest part. Bats are h y made of wil-
low, and bound tightly round the handle with wand twla to aItrd the


dtrilmna sarm pp, and to prevent macon. The weight of a flulsised
bat shou ldnot mesed two pounds and a hal The blade should be about
twenty-oe lahe long, and four aches wide at the shoulder, gradually ex-
tWading to bar fid es and a quarter at the tip. It should likewise increase
in thieknase from the shoulder to the tip, to produce a greater momentum
in striking. The hfe should be perfectly smooth, slightly curved from the
middle to the sides; and the back should be more acutely rounded than the

face. For a right-handed player, the off aido of the bat should be square
at the tip, and the near side rounded, tq prevent the ball from rising when
tipped or blocked; and for a left-handed player, this should be reversed. In
making choice of a bat, never select one that is too heavy to use comfort-
ably, with a handle that feels at all too thick when grasped, as it will be
very likely to ramp the hands; but give the preference to one rather stout

MRU U31115.-YUU saouus-yq= *11oU

at the bottom of the handl or shoulder, as they m Invela b the
The ball must not weigh more than five ones al threemquarte, mor
les than five ounces and a half Its ircumference must not exceed nie
inches and a quarter; and it should be made of four pieces of leather sewn
together so as to form two perfect hemispheres. At the beginning of each
innings, when playing a match, either side is entitled to oal for a new belL
When the game is over, the ball should be well greased, to preserve the
pitches from rotting, and the leather from becoming rough.
The stumps must be sufficiently long to leave twenty-seven inches out of
the ground. They should be made either of lance-wood or ash, bound with
brass wire or strong twine, and grooved on the top, to hold the balls, each
of which should be four inches long.
The umpires are to be appointed, one by each party, to settle all disputes
that may arise in the course of the game. As their decisions are final, two
persons should be selected who are distinguished for impartial judgment,
and knowledge of the laws. They take their stations, one at each wicket;
the umpire at the striker's wicket should stand rather behind it; at the on
aide, so as not to be in the way of the players; his duty is chiefly to decide
whether the batsman is fairly stumped out, or not. The umpire at the
bowler's wicket should place himself in a direct line behind'it, to see that
the bowler delivers the ball fairly, ad that the bateman does not stop it
when delivered straight, with any part of his dress or Wersn besne S
wicket. He is likewise to be first appealed to in all questions respecting
catches before wicket. The umpires in all case should pitch hir wickets,
and the parties toss up for the choice of innings. The umpires should
change wickets after each party has had one innings.
Two scorers are to be chosen, one by each side, to mark the game. They
should be placed in a line with cover-point, at some distance out in the field,
so as not to be in the way of the players. Each party's sore is to be kept
separate. Every striker's runs are to be marked separately to his name
each innings; and when he is out, it must be described as bowled, caught,
etc., eto., a3 the case may be, and the name of the person attached by whom
he was put out.
All overthrows and lost balls are to be scored to the striker; and the
wide balls, no balls, and byes, that occur during an innings, are each to be
placed in a separate line, and cast up with the runs of the strikers when the
innings is fnishbed.
The ground selected for the game should be extensive, nd a level 4
possible, that the progress of the bell may not be impeded. To pesrve it


n pod eMoitea, it wil be oeeiouay requisito to have it roled and
watered; and if the gram can be mowed, or eaten of lose by sheep, it
will be bnd advantageous.

The Wiets must be pitched by the umpires, directly opposite to each
other, at the distance of twenty-two yards for men, but may be varied (with
the aes and weight of the bat, bail, eto.) according to the strength of juve-
anile players. The stumps abshould be placed aloes enough to each other to
prveat the ball paying through, without either striking them down, or
knocking the bails o When two matches are played by the same parties,
it is usual to allow the party leaving home the privilege of pitching the first
wicket within thirty yards of a spot Axed upon by their opponents.


Popping remse

Dowin" Crease

Each wicket is set up on a line, six feet
eight inches in length, drawn on the
ground. This line is called the bowling
crease. At each end of the bowling
crease two lines are carried forward at
right angles to the bowling crease. These
are the return creases; and in front of

the wicket, parallel to the bowling crease, at a distance of four feet, runs
another line, called the poppiV as Within this popping crease the

evAroimxe B mrn u rn ows.uW.

botman who runs arom e wke teonother after the bl b been stek
most ground his bst; for until be does so, e nt home, and can be pt
out The batsman mst remain within this popping esmse unt the bal
has been delivered by the bowler. The bowler must have e hot within
the bounds of the bowling and return creamses when he delivers the balL
It is the bowler's business to place the men in their dibrent stations,
which is usually done according to a certain established plan. It rests
with the bowler, however, to alter or modify the positk of the men, and to
increase or decrease the distance at which they stand from the wickets, so.
cording to the peculiarities of
the play of the batamen at the
wickets. With extraordinary t Long Stop.
rily hard hitters it becomes
advisable to increase the dis- t oIMn
tance, that the ball may not Blip. t Short t Wicket t Lee
Blip. deeper.
be sent skimming far away wicket.
over the heads of the indus- * *
trious players who are "fag- tPolint. tBatamUa. tUinma.
going out" Where the bats-
man has a knack of striking
the ball up high into the air,
it is often well to poet some
player of quick eye and im- t Cover.
ble fingers where he may
have a chance of a good
catch; and other changes will t Middle Wieket.
be made which the bowler's
experience will naturally sug.
gt. tBatm
The accompanying figure tumPm. * tBowler.
will best explain the posi- Wicket.
tions of the men on the
field. When six balls have t L eld "o
been bowled at one wicket, tLr Ild'm."
orv is cried, and all the play-
ers change their places to
corresponding positions on the opposite side of the field to that on which
they stood; for now the bowling wil be from the opposite wicket We
have now to ofbr a few remarks to

He is the most important personage in the eleven, hr the time betlg; hr
it is to his prowess that the opposing batmes are to smeumb; and it his


Wto i to ba S. the prowes wd p neverane. of the baseman noppo to
Ms, by judi ous mnageqsiet, pati .ce, and skill, to put his adverarias
eeasiovely Acr do combt Nothing will compensate, in a match, for un-
skUl or releei bowling, if the batemen on the other side are quick to
take advantage of the opportunities aflbrded them by their adversaries.
Two or three of the best players on each side generally divide the bowling
between them; the captain or leader of the eleven exercising his judgment
in appointing difbrent bowlers to attack various batemen. And this is
important, for matches have been won or- lost by the way in which the
bowlers and batsmen have been pitted against each other. There are three
chief varieties in bowling, vis.: fast and slow underhand, and overhand,
which last is necessarily fast. Variety of balls, and deception to the eye
of the striker, are the great objects of every good bowler; and for this par-
pose a peculiar twist, or bias, is given, which is intended to make the ball,
a4er it kcAnes the growmd take a different course to what is expected by the
striker. In mechanics, the angle of reflection is the same as the angle of
incidence; but at cricket the bias often prevents this, and the ball which is
expected to go dear of the wicket will often turn in to it, almost round the
bat, and take the stumps when least expected. The bell is held by the tips
of the fingers, but no description will sqrve to teach the mode of producing
this bias, and the young bowler must learn it by imitating the actions of a
practical master of the art, and if possible, a professed bowler. As to the
various methods of bowling, it is very difficult to pronounce an opinion, or
to give a prebrence, for the great professors of the art are themselves
divided in opinion on the subject. As a rule, however, it may be unhesita-
tingly said that the swift round-hand bowling is the most dangerous and
destructive to wickets in general; it is, however, the most difficult to man-
age, and should be well practised in private before being attempted in a
match; for, if the balls go wide, all the swiftness in the world will be of no
avail. In under-hand bowling, the wrist is kept beneath the arm, with the
knuckles downward. The ball must be pitched in nearer to the wicket than
in round-hand bowling, for it is generally slower than the round-hand
method, and a long, slow pitch, aimed well at the centre stump, will consid-
erably pussle the batsman. The bowler may deliver the ball from the right
or left side of the wicket at which he stands; and the batman at that
wicket must stand as the bowler requires. It is usual to take a short run,
and then to deliver the ball-this increases the momentum; but too long a
run is not advisable, as it disturbs the aim.
The bowler may not deliver the ball with the arm extended straight from
the body, nor with the back part of the hand uppermost. Changes in the
mode of bowling are perplexing to nervous and unpractised batsmen; it is
therefore desirable that the bowler should be an adept in the round-hand as
well as the under-hand style, and be able to alternate the swift style with
s 10sow.


He must stand ina firm, steady attitude, with the bat held perpsndle-
larly, the lower end just over the "block-hole," a small hole in the popping
crease, just in frout of the centre utamp. Then his bid must be before the
wicket, but no part of his body may be there. He must stand fairly beside
it. (See Fig. 1, page 82.) The right foot must be put down firmly just
within the popping crease, and upon this hot nearly all the weight of the
body must rest, that the bateman may turn in any direction to hit out at the
ball. In running, take care to keep the bat out of the way of the other
batsmen, and hold it in a sloping direction before you, that you may ground
it quickly within the popping crease at the very earliest moment. Half a


second of time saved in doing this may save your wicket. On ArMt going in,
it is beat to block a few balls, before attempting to strike out at any. Deer
this display of your skill till your hand has got properly in by a fw minutes'
practice. Keep the left shoulder well up, and forward. Slope the bat-han-
dle slightly forward, when expecting the word "play." Do not saMorifice
neatness and precision to an overweening wish to be considered a harbud hit-
ter, or you may chance to carry out your bat with the ftal cypher 0 against
your name In the list, to represent your Moore.
Now for a fw words respecting the other players; and then we wil
give the laws or rules established for double and hr single wiekAt

rM U.I

should be o-e of the sharpest players on the side to which he belmogs, for,
axt to the bowler's, his is the most important post. His first duty is to
top the ball when the bowler has bowled, and the batsman mised it; and,
co-sequently, the Afrt great art in wicket-keepag consists In judging how
the bell will bound after it has been pitched toward the wicket. The
wicket-keeper stands a yard or two behind the wicket, and, with his wrists
lose together, catches at the bell as it bounces upward; and if he does this
quickly and well, he may, two or three times in the course of a match, come
In lbr a chance of jumping out an incautious batsman, who is standing off
his ground, by knocking down his wicket for him; but to do this, the
wicket-keeper must be entirely behind the wicket, and with no part of his
body prIeating over it, or the batsman will not be out. To the wicket-
keeper the ball is generally thrown up, while the batsmen are running, and
thus it will be seen that the chance of putting one of them out depends
greatly on his quickness, and on his faculty of catching quickly and se-
These two functionaries stand to the right of the wicket-keeper. A slight
tip of the ball by the batsman will often send it in these directions, with a
good chance of a catch. They must, therefore, be always on the alert, as a
ball passing them generally tells toward the score of the opposite party, by
adding several runs to their account. Long slip generally gets more of the
running, and short slip more of the catching to do; therefore, these two
fielders should be posted with regard to their qualifications in these re-
spects. If the wicket-keeper quits his post to run after a ball, short slip
must run in and stand at the wicket ready to have the ball thrown up to
him, and to stump out the batsman, resigning his poet at the wicket-keeper's
Stands on the left, or "on" side of the batsman at the wicket-some yards
off. A "leg hit" is one in which the ball is struck sideways by the bats-
man, in a line with the popping crease, and it is a ball of this kind that
"leg" has to stop, or oatch, and from this he takes his name, and not, as a
wag once faeetiously suggested, because it is his duty to stop the ball with
his legs if be can't do so with his hands, rather than let the other side get
runs, by allowing it to go by him. Nevertheless, he ought to stop it some-
how-with his head, if he cannot otherwise I It is also "leg's" duty to
stop and throw up balls thrown up toward him by outlying elders.

An posted a little distaboe behind the bowler's wicket, and are to run after
and throw p those skimming balls which are the delight of batemen, and

MIDDLE WIKUM.--ooWL- 0nIr.--LOWN MrO., n

the bae of energetdo bowlers. They smst be qdaIk, active pau AMe to
get over ground quickly in trying efreoma-m ; and thuir am soM be
strong, to enable them to throw the bell well "bome," when they
stopped it.
Stands on the "off" or right side of the batsman. It will be seen
by the diagram that he is placed not quite midway between the
wickets, but rather nearer to the bowler's. This is because bells struck in
a peculiar way by the batsman often pitch just to the point where he Is
posted, giving him a chance of a catch, of which be ought to be always ready
to avail himself His pot is the next in importance after that ofthe wiket-
Stands not far from middle wicket, but nearer to the striker's wicket.
His duties are similar to those of middle wicket, but his post is less impor-
tant, as, in the ordinary course of cricketing events, he gets fewer chances.
It will be seen that the field is more closely watched on the "off" than on
the "on" side. This is because, in ordinary playing, the batsman is tr mre
likely to hit the ball in an "off" than in an "on" direction.

Stands not far from the striker's wicket on the "off" side, and stops
the balls hit almost sideways from the wicket on his aide. He has likewise
to me that he misses no chance of a catch from a ball blocked by the bats-
man. A good catcher, with a very quick eye and band, should be placed
at this post.
Stands behind the wicket-keeper, and has to stop all the balls the latter
allows to pass. Of course, he must be posted nearer to or farther from the
wicket, according as the bowling is fast or slow.
It is general, moreover, to appoint two umpires, one for each side, who
take up their positions near the wickets, and to whom every question that
may arise during the match is to be referred. Their decision is to be ac-
counted final, and no good cricketer would think of appealing from it, how-
ever much it may be at variance with his own opinion. It is the umpire's
duty also to see that the rules are properly observed, and that every thing
is carried on in good oriketing style. If the bowler, for example, raless his
hand above the shoulder in delivering the bell,it is for the umpire newest
him to call "no ball." If the batsmen, in running, il to ground their bats
properly within the popping creases, it is his duty to disallow the run. He
also decides when a ball, passing the striker at undue distance, Is to be om.
idered as "wide."

It is Pnl to raMq brehandm the uas In w k the ba men are to
p en auk ide fr their laius. Cae should, however, be taken not
toaPM Y t erwof e rinary merit too ner the bottom of the lit, or
it Oy happen that a his comrades' wickets being put down, he may have
to e ry out his bat, for want of a companion to stand at the opposite wiket,
and thus his ide will lose part of the oore he might be reasonably expected
to make. On the other hand, it is only courteous to msee that the player who
has been obliged to go oet for want of a companion, in the first innings of
the mote, should go in earlier in the list in the second, so that one, at least,
of his innings may be complete.


The allowing RuBales have been taken from those issued in a modified form
by the Marylebone Club. Some alterations, which were thought necessary,
have been made, and the forty-seven rules of the club have become forty-
anine; not by the addition of new rules but by the subdivision of one into
two in two instances.
1. The Aa must not weigh les than five ounces and a hal nor more
than Ave ounces and three-quarters. It must measure not less than nine
inabhes, nor more than nine inches and one-quarter in circumference.
2. The Bt must not exceed four inches and one-quarter in the widest
part; it must not be more than thirty-eight inches in length.
S. The bmp must be three in number, twenty-seven inches out of the
ground; the bails eight inches in length; the stumps of sufficient thickneu
to prevent the ball from paining through.
4. The vbWq OCreme must be in a line with the stumps; six feet eight
inches in length, the stamps in the centre, with a return crease at each end
toward the bowler at right angles.
6. The 1bppS O wras must be four feet from the wicket, and paralleled
to it; unlimited in length, but not shorter than the bowling crease.
6. The Wwicket must be pitched opposite to each other, at the distance of
twenty-two yards.
1. It shall not be lawful for either party during a match, without the con-
sent of the other, to alter the ground by rolling, watering, covering, mowing,
or beating, exoopt at the commencement of each innings, when the ground
may be swept and rolled; such request to be made to one of the umpires
within one minute after the conclusion of the former innings. This rule
does not prevent the striker from beating the ground with his bat near to
the spot where stands during the innings, nor the bowler fom filling up
hoel with sawduAt, k., when the ground is wet.
L After rdn the wlkets may be changed with the consent of both parties.
The aMr shan deliver the ball with one foot on the ground behind
tde bowilg rase, ad within return crease, and shall bowl four bal
h er. .

no~u WMOF SAUX or oUMW.

10. The almMt be bowled, not thrown or jekad, ad tme.hll M
not be above the sbhMr i delivery; aad whenever the beowdr NW*
elosly ifrlage this rb a to make it dleoB fbr the umpnl to jp
whether the ball ha been delivered within the true latet aid mmasl aof
this rule or not, the umpire shall call "no ball."
11. He may require the strike at the wicket tem which he boWag
to stad on that side of it he may direct.
12. If the bowler shalltoos the ball over the striker's head, or boweIt b
wide that in the opinion of the umpire It shall not be thirly within the reach
of the betman, he shall adjudge one run to the parties re eving tits.
nings, either with or without an appeal, which shall be put dow to th
score of wide balls; such bell sh4 not be reckoned as one of the four bals;
but if the bateman shall by any means bring himself within reach of the
ball, the run shall not be adudged.
13. If the bowler deliver a "no ball," or a "wide bal," the striker shall
be allowed as many runs as he can get, and he shall not be put out emeapt
by running out. In the event of no run being obtained by any other means,
then one run shall be added to the score of no balls" or wide ball," a
thecasemaybe. All runs obtained for "wide balls" to be soared to "wide
balls." The names of the bowlers who bowl wide balls" or no ball,"
in fMture to be placed on the score, to show the parties by whq either
More is made.
14. At the beginning of each innings the umpire shall call "play." Irem
that time to the end of each innings no trial ball shall be allowed to any
15. The ibSer is oit if either of the balls be bowled or or if a stump be
bowled out of the ground.
16. Or, if the ball from the stroke of the bet or hand, but not the wrist,
be held before it touch the ground, although it be hugged to the body of the
17. Or, if in striking, or at any other time while the ball shall be in play,
both his feet shall be over the popping crease, and his wilket. put down,
except his bat be grounded within it
18. Or, if in striking at the ball he hit down his wicket.
19. Or, if under pretence of running, or otherwise, either of the strikes
parent a ball from being caught, the striker of the bll is ouat
20. Or, if the ball be struck and he wilfully strike it again.
21. Or, if in running the wicket be struck down by throw, or by to
hand or arm (with ball in hand), beltre his bat (in hand) or sopepart hi
person be grounded over the popping crease. But if both the baels be a
stump must be struck out of the ground.
2. Or, if any part of the triker's dress knock down the with L
2S. Or, if the striker touch or take up the ba while k play, unpls at the
request of the oppoite party.


24. Or, f with ay part of his person he stop the ball, which, in the
qpil of the umpire at the bowler's wicket, shall have been pitched In a
amaight line roa It to the striker's wicket, and would ave hit it.
SIf the plaprs have crossed seeh other, he that runs for the wicket
which is put down is out.
26. A bell being caught, no run shall be reckoned.
21. A striker being run out, that run which he and his partner were at-
tempting shan not be reckoned.
2. If a lost ball be called, the striker shall be allowed six runs; but if
more than six shall have been run before "lost ball" shall have been called,
then the striker shall have all which have been run.
29. After the bell shall have been finally settled in the wicket-keeper's or
bowler's hand, or shall have passed through the hands of the wicket-keeper
for the bowler to resume bowling, it shall be considered dead; but when
the bowler is about to deliver the ball, if the striker at his wicket go outside
the popping crease before such actual delivery, the said bowler may put him
out, unless (with reference to the 21st law) his bat in hand, or some part of
his person, be within the popping crease.
80. If the striker be hurt, he may retire from his wicket, and return to it
at any time during that innings.
31. If the striker be hurt, some other person may stand out for him, but
not go in.
32. No substitute in the field shall be allowed to bowl, keep wicket, stand
at the point, cover the point, or stop behind in any case.
33. If any fleldsman stop the ball with his hat, the ball shall be consid-
ered dead, and the opposite party shall add five runs to their score; if any
be run, they shall have five in all.
34. The bell having been hit, the striker may guard his wicket with his
bat, or with any part of his body except his hands; that the 23d law may
not be disobeyed.
36. The wicket-keeper shall not take the ball for the purpose of stumping,
until it has passed the wicket; he shall not move till the ball be out of the
bowler's hand; he shall not by any noise incommode the striker; and if any
part of his person be over or before the wicket, although the ball hit it, the
striker shall not be out.
86. The umpire sole judges of fair or unhkir play; and all disputes
shall be determined by them, each at his own wicket; but in case of a catch
which the umpire at the wicket bowled from cannot see sufficiently to decide
upsa, he my apply to the other umpire, whose opinion shall be con-
St. The mpires in all matches shall pitch fair wickets, and the parties
shall tos up for the choice of innings. The umpires shall change wickets
afts seeh party has had one innings.
I. They shall allow two minutes for each striker to come In, and taE


mianut between eahb innings. When the umpses shall ea "pehy," the
party refusing to play shall loM the match.
89. They re not to order a striker out unless appealed to by the dter-
40. But if any one of the bowler's feet be not on the ground behind the
bowling crease, and within the return crease when be shall deliver the ball,
the umpire at his wicket, unasked, must call "no ball."
41. If either of the strikers run a short run, the umpire must call "one
42. No umpire shall be allowed to bet.
43. No umpire is to be changed during a match, unless with the consent
of both parties, except in case of a violation of the 42d law; then either party
may dismiss the transgressor.
44. After the delivery of four balls, the umpire must call "over," but not
until the ball shall be finally settled in the wicket-keeper's or bowler's hand;
the ball shall then be considered dead; nevertheless, if an ides be enter-
tained that either of the strikers is out, a question may be put previously to,
but not after, the delivery of the next ball.
45. The umpire must take especial care to call "no ball" Instantly upon
delivery; "wide ball" as soon as ever it shall pass the striker.
46. The players who go in second shall follow their innings, if they have
obtained one hundred runs less than their antagonists.
47. When one of the strikers shall have been put out, the use of the bet
shall not be allowed to any person, until the next striker shall come in.
48. At the beginning of each innings, either party may call for a new
49. No bowler shall be allowed to change wickets more than once during
the innings.
It is usual for wicket-keeper and bowler to come provided with thick
leather gauntlets, to protect the hands; the wicket-keeper especially, who
has to stop the bowler's swift balls, will find his gauntlets any thing but
useless appendages. Pads for the legs are also worn, and will save a good
deal of bruising. Light flannel suits, like those worn by pupils practising
gymnastics, are best for cricketing. Shoes with spiked soles, to prevent the
players from slipping on the smooth turf are also used.

The game of Single Wicket is a substitute for the more legitimate Double
Wicket game, when the number of players will not suffice to play in the
regular match fthhion. The batsman has a stump set in the ground, to
which he must run, and then back to his popping cresse, as thme i, of
course, no companion to run with him. The wicket-keeper is generally
dispensed with altogether; so that three or four soonts, with the bowler
and batsman, ma enough to play the game. When the players we very


t%, %W* pdnm- play "all against each othr"-eah one taIng the bat
in tura, and playing to get runs on his own account; he wh sores most
darinW tb mngs being considered the victor. Hits behind wicket do not
couot, when there are less than five players on a side. As single wicket is
ftiqusntly played fr patioe, it is well to let each man change his position
a of sa as convenient, that they may learn something of each separate
operation of the cricket-field; the bowler of one inning being the long-stop
of the nxt, the point of the third, &c. And here we must be allowed to
give our young readers a very emphatic caution to avoid the bane of the
oricketer, namely, carelessness in practice. He should always go into the
aldd determined to do his very best, and to play as if he were playing a
match, and as if the favorable issue of a day's efforts depended on him alone.
Those who follow this game as a mere amusement, without seal, perseverance,
or determination, will not only never excel, but can hardly hope to avoid
the ridicule of their more skilful companions. Especially is this caution
against carelesneas required in the matter of bowling. To obtain a correct
method, the distance of the bowler from the wicket against which he bowls
should always be the sme. If you bowl from different distances at different
times, the pitch will always vary; and precision in delivering the ball-the
great object of all bowlig-will never be obtained.
No match can be considered as decided until it is completely played out,
however great the preponderance of runs on one side may be. The side
neglecting to finish the match is considered to have lost it.
The following are the laws of Single Wicket:-
1. When there shall be less than five players on a side, bounds shall be
placed twenty-two yards each in a line from the off and leg stump.
2. The ball must be hit before the bounds, to entitle the striker to a run;
which run cannot be obtained unless he touch the bowling stump or crease
in a line with his bat or some part of his person, or go beyond them; return-
ing to the popping crease, as at a double wicket, according to the 21st
S. When the striker shall hit the ball, one of his feet must be on the
ground and behind the popping crease,otherwise the umpire shall call "no hit."
4. When there shall be less than five players on a side, neither byes nor
overthrows shall be allowed, nor shall the striker be caught out behind the
wicket, or stumped out.
5. The fieldsman must return the ball so that it shall cross the play be-
tween the wicket and the bowling stump, or between the bowling stump
and the bounds; the striker may run till the ball be so returned.
6. After the striker shall have made one run, if he start again he must
touch the bowling stump and turn before the ball shall cross the play, to
eatith him to another.
1. The striker shall be entitled to three runs for lost ball, and the same
lumber for ball stopped with hat, with reference to the 27th and 3ad laws
of Double Wicket.

ONSILZA 0fl011.

L Wheatm sh b fl e M then tr plersm n a ai t*ee be
no booda. A hlt, by, and overthrows bd them be almM.
9. The bowler is suleot to the sam laws as at Double Widet.
10. No mora than one minute all be allowed between maeh balL
When Single Wioket is played without sides, the first im s is tossed
for; and when out, the striker takes the bowler's pleo% then that of the
wicket-keeper, then feldsman to the left of the bowler, and so on in no-
cession, according to the number engaged.

HBis pon Drea.-Eachew hats of every description. If made of straw
they are apt to blow off and strike the wicket, or to baulk you in hitting or
catching. Woollen cape, made with peaks to shelter the eyes, are prhr-
able, being not only light and cool to the head, but absorbing the penkahs
tion. As loose shirt-leeves sometimes stop the ball in their Md., froa
whence it may be shaken on to the wicket, an elastio cotton or mnrino
flannel shirt will be found the most convenient garment If you iondnl
to a flannel jacket you will ind it of most service when fielding, or to sip
on after leaving your wicket with such a score as may have induced copious
perspiration. Encase your nether limbs in trousers of well shrunk flannel,
with an India-rubber belt passed through loops sewn upon the waistband.
Avoid braces, which unquestionably impede a cricketer's movements,
whether he be striking, bowling, or fielding. Tie a ootta handkerchief
round your neck, in preference even to the silk of Delhi, and this, with
merino or thin worsted socks, and well spiked shoes, will complete your
toilet. If the bowling be very swift, there is no objection to your donning
India-rubber gloves, or, adopting padding for the better preservation of
your shins; and should you, perchance, get a bruise or two, remember the
very best remedy is to rub with sweet oil until your arm aches. .
Bowlig and Wickd-keepiwg.-In bowling, an ounce of practice is worth a
ton of theory. The bowler must learn by observation the week stump of
the batsman (as a commander reconnoitres the week point of afortres), and
lay siege to it accordingly. As a general rule, the leg-stump ias the most
vulnerable, though balls pitched rather wide of the direct line to the off-
stump, are pusiling to batemen not well up in the hit known as "Sto cat"
In reaching out at them, the batsman is very apt to strike muder the ball,
and cause a catch. Upon the bowler's Judgment must depend the variation
of his delivery from swift to slow, and mem vrMe. Where a style of round
bowling ia attained, accompanied by considerable bias, or twist, in the pro.
grmes of the ball, after grounding, the bateman has no easy task Ia debm&
ing his wicket But in adopting round bowling, eschew, by all mea,' the
repehensble practice of tkr ;-remember the bell mut be d1elvead
with the head below, and not above the shoulder. When praoti tsagd e
m os with moderate froe of delivery, which is easily lanmrasiiem

eyWhmsveaequled the arta ouag the ball a proper length. The
bIlis ispar-ed to the ball by fbrelbly inverting the wrist in the delivery,
aid at the soe tim imparting with the little finger an impulsive twist, by
whih tihe ball, a ding to the natural motion of bodies, acquires a circular
notmtio, combine with a lateral progression. In playing a match, there
should be at leat four good bowlers, to allow of a change at each wicket,
if neeessary.
The whole attention of the player should not be devoted either to bowl-
ing or batting, but be equally divided with fielding; for good fielding Is a
very important item in playing a match, and equally so is good wicket-
keeping. Hence, the wicket-keeper is required to possess ready judgment,
keenness of sight, and agility of limb. Like Putnam, he should not know
fear, with reference to the velocity of the coming ball. He should continually
watch the positions of the fleldsmen, changing the same by signals, that
advantage may be taken of the batsman's weak points. It is also his duty
to maintain silence, and prevent confolson during the game.
HB to detod your Wicket-The bifold task of the bateman consists ia
stopping some balls and hitting others. It is the proper discrimination of
which to do that marks the practised player. Batmnen who adopt a slashing
style of play, are apt to place too great a reliance upon mere physical force,
which they wrongly look upon
as the source of success. Any
one can alash away with im-
punity at a ball coming tolera-
bly wide of the stumps; but
(our young reader doubtless
well knows that, just without
his reach, there is a spot upon
which all straightly delivered
balls that happen to ground
am difficult to treat, and not
merely dangerous, but fre.
quently prove "trimmers."
1 There is but an instant of time
*-.- -in which you must decide
whether you will step forward
and meet the ball, or receive it
.. with the home block (see En-
graving). If you adopt the
former plan, most likely the bowler will drop his succeeding balls gradually
shorter, until you leave your ground, and (as the natural consequence of
missing one of them) your wicket. Remember, if you should dedide upon
dipping in, and afterward change your mind, you cannot recover yourself
sa ienty in time to take the ball on the back play. Now the advantage


of Atopllg them dangerous "length balls" by the homMlMk n e balk
play K, that the sight you thus get of the ball, by waning t arrival, is
much better than when the eye s directed forward In qmpoeia to the ad.
vanming projectile. Therefore keep o your ground, and mother these bll
by the home blook, rather then risk your wicket by stepping la to hit m.
Now it must be understood that
these observations apply only to
ballsgrounding wkAow the betaman's
reach. When the bowler delivers
the ball a few inches over the spot
noted as "dangerous," it must be
met by forward play(see Engraving).
If the length at which it rises be
sufficient for you to do so, lounge
well out at it, and make, if possible,
your brace of runs by this descrip-
tion of hit, generally known to
cricketers as the "forward drive." / -
14 on the contrary, the ball grounds A
and ries sharply, and your sphere
of action i so limited, that in striking ----. -/ S
at the ball you can hardly fail to
strike your stumps at the same time, than smother it by the forward block.
Generally speaking, forward play is the safest against swift bowling that
comes within your reach, as the rapidity of the delivery, when the bell is
met by back play, often sends itoff into the Point's hands. While aluleding
to one chance of the batsman's being caught out, he may as well be re-
minded not to "spoon" the ball up into the air in his forward play. This
he will avoid by not elevating the left elbow too much. The allowing
diagram shows the angles at
which the ball will rise to the
bat, and rebound from it, accord-
ing to the length of the bowler's
delivery. No. I is the most dim-
cult to dispose of for if the bate-
man lounges out incorrectly, the
ball may chance to rise just high 8 1
enough to pass over the shoulder
of the bat. No. 2 may be treated, as previously described, by "forward
play." Nos. 8 and 4 deserve the hardethitting your strength oanbestow-
a regular forward drive.
The allowing outs represent the dibreat posItions of the btman In
desnding his wicket:
No. I shows bhim I pstio ready fr the ball, aftr the delivery o wlth


thbIeI ralusd Into mme ems o their of the fAbowing p ole, or .en
ios a dill greater vanity. No. show an advance of the left lg, to
each a wide ll on the offs." No lath3 attitude in the"leg hit."
Na.4 itheadvanee ofthe rightlegbran "offabl." No.5 how what is

.s "the drive;" and No. 6, "the draw." The grand principle la to
*Old hitting at all bills coming straight at the wioket, which must be
topped or blocked," aM it is termed, instead; and to hit only at thois
whlh ae going wide of the stumps, and alwayN with a foU bat.

A nmzaom anm



THs game, which is Rounders, or Town Ball, reduced to a system, and
governed by scientific rules, is a graceful and invigorating pastime, and bids
fair to become to this country what cricket is to England-the national
game. We give the rules and principles of the game, as played by grown
players, remarking that boys should reduce the distances there set down
about one-sixth.
A base-ball ground should be level and free from irregularities; turfy, if
possible, but, if gravelly, then the ground around the bases should be turbKl,
to prevent injury in falling, and the field should be about four hundred feet
broad and six hundred feet long. The home base should be seventy fet
from the head of the field. The bases should be made of wood, sad a ring
srewed in each, and they should be set flush with the ground.
In laying off your ground, fix first the point of your home base, then
measure from that, down the field, one hundred and twenty-seven feet folr
inches, and there set your second base. Attach a cord one hundred and
eighty feet log with a knot in the middle, to the rings of the home ei
second base. By taking the knot in the hand, and stretching the cord a
fr asyou can on the right, you will get the point of the first base; sad
then, by carrying it over to the left in the same way, you will get the third
base. On a line een, and distant from the hones rlty-five "t towmd the
second base, is the pitcher's point. The ebul-bat posts we poMd ot aNli


with the home and frsk and hems and third base, at least one hundred feet
osm the bases; and should be painted, and high enough from the ground
to be seen by the umpire.
The bases are made of canvas, or some heavy stau and filled with cot.
ton or hair; are about fourteen by seventeen inches, and fastened to the
baseblocks with stripe of harnese-leather. Four quoits, nine inches across,
fiat ide up, and painted white, show the pitcher's point, and the home base,
add have Iron spikes at the bottom, to keep them from being shifted. A
piece of plank, set edgewise, six feet long, two inches wide, and eight inches
deep, and the edge above ground enough to catch the umpire's eye, makes
the line of the pitcher's position.

The form and shape of the bat and ball are regulated by the rules. For
ordinary use ash is the best ma-
terial; but those who like a
heavy bat will take hickory, and
for a eight bat, English willow is

If your et Is off the position, and a
ground, riwl not be a foul ball.

There are different styles.
Each player chooses what best
suits him. Some give a blow
like a woodman, grasping the
handle with the left hand, and
sliding the right toward it; some
take the bat near the middle,
with both hands; others seize
the handle with both hands, and
give a swinging hit. Whichever
mode you adopt, plant yourself
firmly on the ground, with your
left foot on the striker's position,
and while you meet the ball
with a quick stroke, do not hit
so hard as to lose your balance.
ball comes perpendicularly to the

Thea* alm ai players on a ide-one ide having the bat, and the other
e h elder a as Mfllows: Catcher, Pitcher, first, second, and


third Domenm; Mot ftop, ad aght, Laf, and OnMtre iddimem By look-
ing at the diagram you will ee the relative position. Whoever win the
tow at the outet, can either bet or Lel flrst. Tle batsman takes his pa&-
tio at the hom base, on a line drawn through ito amnte, paiNll to e


0 Umpire.
SSfeet. s8 ht.

OUrl m.d.

UAlaAK OV A 0 a IA-Al.L .a

extending from the flht to the third base, and ezteading three feet on eaeh
de of it. A soon a he hit the ball he tart fr the nd a baemd
nuoceeded by the other batsmen in turn. When three of the are put o04
the riders take their turn at the bat, and play their laain; and oes, to
the dol of the game, whlah ooumit of nine banlum oa sid If t*
batmnan after touching snooeslvely the first, meod. anl third bas meNh

0 Scorer.

the hoe bMse utomhd by te ball in his adversry' hnds h he b entitled
to moore one run; and if he hits the bell so far as to make the four bases
before it is returned, he makes a home run. If the game be interrupted or
stopped before eaqh side have played ive innings, it is drawn. The rest of
the game will be found by a reference to the rules.

Cakcher.-His business is to catch or stop all balls pitched or thrown to
the home base, to catch all tips and foul balls, throw the ball swiftly and
unerringly to the bases, and keep
a watch over the whole field.
When a player has made the first
base, the catcher gets nearer the
striker, so as to take the ball from
the pitcher before it bounds; and
so soon as the ball is delivered,
and the player runs from first to
second base, he takes the ball be-
_- fore bounding, and delivers it
swiftly to the second base, in
-J time to cut off the player before
he gets to that base. When the
catcher sees several fielders run-
ning to catch a ball, he should
name the one he thinks surest to
take it, when the others should
not strive to catch the ball on
the fly, but only, in case of
H its being missed, take it on the
Tns Camn. bound.
Short Stop.-His duty is to stop all balls that come within his reach,
and pass them to whatever base the striker is aiming at. When neces-
sary, he covers the third base, and backs up the second and third bases,
when the ball is thrown in from the field. He must be ready to take
foul balls on the bound, when missed on the fly by the pitcher, or third
Pitcher.-His position is behind a line, four yards long, drawn at right
angles from the home to the opposite base, at the distance of forty-five feet
from the home. He should be chosen for his good fielding, and swift and
accurate delivery of the ball, which he must pitch, and not throw. The
ball must be delivered as near as he can to the home base, to the striker,
and high enough to prevent its bounding at or before the base. He should
keep his eye out to the bases, and when he sees the players endeavoring to
run to the bases, should deliver an accurate and swift ball to the basemen.



WUrn -AQM ;DM.

He should be able to phth th ball quickly sad evely, ad give it a the
same time that bias, or twist, which is best to baffle the bateman's blow,
and yet is a fair bll at the str-
ker. He should cat too, if a '
player endeavors to make the
home baue while he is pitching,
and follow his ball to the home,
where he will take it from the
LO8 Ad&-As halt or may =94
be more, of the balls hit are sent
in his direction, he should be a
sure catcher, as well as a good. -
thrower and runner.
mn IWLd.-Right ield-
These require the same qualities
as the other field; but as few
balls go to him, it is usual to put
the poorest player in the last
named position.
Batsman.-He must not get
over three feet from either side
of the line drawn through the Tu rmas.
centre of the home base, and
wait the coming of a proper ball; but when a fair ball comes he should
strike. When he has hit the ball he should drop, not throw his bat, and
make for the first base; for if it be a foul ball the umpire will declare it at
once, and he can easily return. The rules, if studied, will speak further of
him and his duties.
First Bae.-He should take a position a little below his base, and inside
the line of the foul-ball post, to catch balls he would otherwise miss. The
moment the ball is struck, and does not come near him, he must get book to
his base, and with one foot on it, be ready to receive the ball from anmy
fielder; because the striker may be put out at the first base without being
touched by the ball, provided the baseman, with ball in hand, touches the
base before the striker gets there. The moment he has held the ball, he
should either send it to the pitcher, or to any other base that players are
trying to make.
Sound Bass.-He should play generally to the left and a little back of
his base, though lie should be guided in it by the customary play of the
striker. When the striker reaches the first base, he should retar to his
base, prepared to receive the ball from the catcher, and be ready to put eut
the striker by touching him withhe balL On no bae, except the flet, an
the striker be put out by the baseman holding the ball, ezeept when balls

we ught on the fly, or are fol, when the player, in returning to the bae
he has et, my be put ou, as at the first base.
fird Bwe.-The same general rules will
apply here as to the second base, in regard
to practice.
The fielders should always be able to
throw the ball to base from long field; and
whenever they stop the ball, they should
return it at once, either to the pitcher, or to
/the baseman needing it. Let each start the
moment the ball is struck, so as to take it,
j if possible, on the fly, and not on the bound.
It is easier to take a ball by running for-
ward than backward. You may be de-
ceived by a ball being hit high to long
field, and think it will come farther than it
will-a ball describing a more sudden curve
in its descent than ascent. Practice and a
keen eye must strengthen the fielder's
ss asAS-TssaD, judgment on this point.

The27 Umpie.-The position of the umpire is not altogether desirable, for
he must displease some one with his decision. But he should not merely
be impartial, nevertheless, but strict, in enforcing the rules of the game, and
prompt in his decision, giving an opinion in general according to the first
impression on his mind, which, in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred, he
will find correct. If the point is doubtful, the rule is to decide in favor of
the ball. He should call a foul ball instantly; and call out one strike,"
and so on through to three strike," whenever a player persists in refusing
fair balls. He must keep his eyes about him, see that the pitcher does not
jerk the ball, or have one foot before his position, or in any other way vio-
late the rules; and see that the batsman is on his line. If the striker is off
his line, and the ball therefore fall behind the base when struck, the umpire
will declare it A fair ball. His position is to the right of, and between the
striker and catcher, in a line between the third and home base, unless the
striker is left-handed, when he takes the opposite side. If either side try
to prolong the game, in order that night may stop it, let him decide it by the
last t mr innings, or make it a draw. Let him remember that a bound is
when it has struck the ground but once, though it may have struck against
a tree or other stationary object before.
Th2 &orrw.-His duty is very plain. He is the clerk of the game, to set


down very thing as it is; and therere he oWidd know the game thor-
oughly in every point.
The allowig are the rules adopted by the National Aasodsttion of Baae-
Bell Players, with the klWd amendments:

Adopted by the Nationa As ocitdoi of BA Bail Players, Add In NoS York,
Dsamber 9, 186S.
S8o. 1. The ball must weigh not less than five and one-half nor more than
five and three-fourths ounces, avoirdupois. It must measure not less
than nine and one-half, nor more than nine and three-fourths inches in
droaumirence. It must be comajosed of India-rubber, and yarn, and cov-
ered with leather, and, in all match games, shall be furnished by the chal-
lenging club, and become the property of the winning club as a trophy of
Sc. 2. The bat must be round, and must not exceed two and a half inches
in diameter in the thickest part. It must be made of wood, and may be of
any length to suit the striker.
8so. 3. The bases must be four in number, placed at equal distances from
each other, and securely fastened upon the four corners of a square, whose
sides are respectively thirty yards. They must be so constructed as to be
distinctly seen by the umpire, and must cover a space equal to one square
foot of surface. The first, second, and third bases shall be canvas begs,
painted white, and filled with sand or saw-dust; the home base and pitcher's
point to be each marked by a flat circular iron plate, painted or enamelled
SBa. 4. The base from which the ball is struck shall be designated the
home base, and must be directly opposite to the second base; the first base
must always be that upon the right-hand, and the third base that upon the
left-hand side of the striker, when occupying his position at the hcae base.
And in all match games, a nUse connecting the home and first base and the home
and third base, shall be marked by the use of chalk, or other suitable material,
0o a5 to be distindlwy een by the umpire.
BaS. 5. The pitcher's position shall be designated by two lines, four yards
in length, drawn at right angles to a line from -home to second base, having
their centres upon that line at two fixed iron plates, placed at points fifteen
and sixteen yards distant from the home base. The pitcher must stand
within the lines, and must deliver the ball as near as possible over the cen-
tre of the home base, and for the striker.
Sac. 6. Should the pitcher repeatedly fail to deliver to the striker fair
balls, for the apparent purpose of delaying the game, or for any other amuse,
the umpire, after warning him, shall call one ball, and f the pitcher persists
in such action, two and three balls; when three balls shall have been called,
the striker shall be entitled to the first base; and should any bae be ooou-


pbl at that tioe, each player ooouyiag them shall be entitled to oe base
without being put out.
Sa. The bell mut be pitched, not jerked or thrown to the bat, and
whenever the pitcher draws back his hand, or moves with the apparent
purpose or pretension to deliver the ball, he shall so deliver it, and must
have neither foot in advance of the front line or off the ground at the time
of delivering the ball; and if he fails in either of these particulars, then it
Ball be declared a balk.
8Bo. 8. When a balk is made by the pitcher, every player running the
bases is entitled to one base, without being put out.
Smo. 9. If the ball, from a stroke of the bat, first touches the ground, the
person of a player, or any other oject, behind the range of home and the first
base, or home and the third base, it shall be termed foul, and must be
so declared by the umpire, unasked. If the ball first touches the ground,
either upon, or in front of the range of those bases, it shall be considered
SBa. 10. A player making the home base, shall be entitled to score one
SBa. 11. If three balls are struck at, and missed, and the last one is not
caught, either flying or upon the first bound, it shall be considered fair, and
the striker must attempt to make his run.
SBO. 12. The striker is out if a foul ball is caught, either before touching
the ground, or upon the first bound.:
Sao. 13. Or, if three balls are struck at and missed, and the last is caught,
either before tpouhing the ground, or upon the first bound;
So. 14. Or if a fair ball is struck, and the ball is caught either without
having touched the ground, or upon the first bound;
Sma. 15. Or, if a fair ball is struck, and the ball is held by an adversary
on first base, before the striker touches that base.
Smo. 16. Any player running the bases is out, if at any time he is touched
by the ball while in play in the hands of an adversary, without some part
of his person being on the base.
SMc. 17. No ace or base can be made upon a foul ball; such a ball shall
be considered dead, and not in play until it shall first have been settled in
the hands of the pitcher. In such cases players running bases shall return
to them, and may be put out in so returning in the same manner as the
striker when running to the first base.
hS. 18. No ace nor base can be made when a fair ball has been caught
without having touched the ground; such a ball aball be considered alive
and in play. In such case players running bases shall return to them, and
may be put out in so returning, in the same manner as the striker when
running to first bee; but players, when balls are so caught, may run their
bases immediately after the ball has been settled in the hands of the player
atahing it.
SM. 19. The striker must stand on a line drawn through the centre of the


home bus, not eeedtg in lengA three fat hteaemsur sie Semee
and parallel with the line occupied by the pier. He shell be aelird"
the striker until he has ade the first base. Players mst strike i
regular rotation, and, after the first Innings I played, the tarn coammne
with the player who stands on the list neit to the on* who lost the third
Bac. 20. Players must make their bases in the order of striking; and
when a fair ball is struck, and not caught flying (or on the first bound), the
first base must be vacated, as also the second and third bases, if they are
occupied at the same time. Players may be put out on any bese, under
these circumstances, in the same manner as the striker when running to
the first base.
Si. 21. Players running basis must touch them; and, so far aspossible,
keep upon the direct line between them; and must touch them in the ol-
lowing order: first, second, third, and home; and if returning must revere
this order; and should any player run three feet out of this line, for the
purpose of avoiding the ball in the hands of an adversary, he shall be de-
clared out
Sao. 22. Any player, who shall intentionally prevent an adversary f c
catching or fielding the bell, shall be declared out.
Sac. 23. If the player is prevented from making a base, by the intentional
obstruction of an adversary, he shall be entitled to that base, and not be
put out.
Sac. 24. If an adversary stops the ball with his has or cap, or takes it
from the hands of a party not engaged in the game, no player canbe put out
unless the ball shall first have been settled in the hands of the pitcher.
Sac. 25. If a ball, from the stroke of a bat, is held under any other cir-
cumstances than as enumerated in Section 24, and without having touched
the ground more than once, the striker is out
SBc. 26. If two hands are already out, no player running home at the
time a ball is struck, can make an ace if the striker is put out.
Sac. 27. An innings must be concluded at the time the third hand is put
Saz. 28. The game shall consist of nine innings to each side, when, should
the number of runs be equal, the play shall be continued until a majority of
runs, upon an equal number of innings, shall be declared, which shall con-
elude the game.
SBc. 29. In playing all matches, nine players from each club shall eonst*i
tute a full field, and they must have been regular members of the club
which they represent, and of no other club, for thirty days prior to the
match. No change or substitution shall be made after the game has beea
commenced, unless for reason of Illnes or injury. Position of players ad
choice of innings shall be determined by captain& previously appolated hr
that purpose by the respective clubs.
a 3. 30. The umpire shall take care that the regulations respeotig bell


bae, beams, and the piter's and strike's positions, are strily obnervd.
He shall keep a seaord of the game in a book prepared for the purpose; he
dall be the Judge of fir and unfifr play, and shall determine all disputes
aad differences which may occur during the game; he shall take especial
care to declare all foul balls and balks, immediately upon their occurrence,
unasked, and in a distinct and audible manner. He shall, in every instance,
bqlobr leaving the ground, declare the winning club, and shall record his decision
in the score books of the hw clubs.
Sm. 31. In all matches the umpire shall be selected by the captains of
the respective sides, and shall perform all the duties enumerated in Section
30, except recording the game, which shall be done by two scorers, one of
whom shall be appointed by each of the contending clubs.
Sac. 32. No person engaged in a match, either as umpire, scorer, or
player, shall be, either directly or indirectly, interested in any bet upon the
game. Neither umpire, scorer, nor player shall be changed during a match,
unless with the consent of both parties (except for a violation of this law),
except as provided in Section 29, and then the umpire may dismiss any
Swa. 38. The umpire in any match shall determine when play shall be
suspended; and if the game cannot be concluded, it shall be decided by
the last even innings, provided five innings have been played, and the party
having the greatest number of runs shall be declared the winner.
SBa. 34. Clubs may adopt such rules respecting balls knocked beyond or
outside of the bounds of the field, as the circumstances of the ground may
demand; and these rules shall govern all matches played upon the ground,
provided that they are distinctly made known to every player and umpire,
previous to the commencement of the game.
Bao. 35. No person shall be permitted to approach or to speak with
the umpire, scorers, or players, or in any manner to interrupt or interfere
during the progress of the game, unless by special request of the um-
SB. 386. No person shall be permitted to act as umpire or scorer in any
match, unless he shall be a member of a Base-Ball Club governed by these
Smo. 37. Whenever a match shall have been determined upon between
two clubs, play shall be called at the exact hour appointed; and should
either party fail to produce their players within fifteen minutes thereafter,
the party so failing shall admit a defeat.
8 O. 38. No person who shall be in arrears to any other club, or who
shall at any time receive compensation for his services as player, shall be
competent to play in any match.
Sa. 39. Should a striker stand at the bat without striking at good balls
repeatedly pitched to him, for the apparent purpose of delaying the game,
or of giving advantage to a player, the umpire, after warning him, shall call
one strike, and if he persists in such action, two and three strikes. When


three strikes are called, he shall be subject to the same rules as if he had
struck at three &Air balls.
Sma. 40. Every match hereafter mdeM sall be odelated by aigle gios,
unless otherwia mutually agreed upon by the contesting dubs.

TM game (pronounced cro-kay') i of French origin, and has been only
recently Introduced into
this country. As it is an .
out-door game, requiring
some skill, and giving a
variety of e er ie, with- .
out being too fatiguing, it
is likely to become pop-
ular; and we will give its
details in full.
Croquet can be played
only on a level piece of
ground; but a good Cro-
quet-ground should be
dlone turf---he grass cut
short, the moss killed out,
and the ground well rolled.
The area required is not an "
large-about sixty by nine-
ty feet. If it be for a permanent Croquetground, there should be a shallow
ditch around it, to prevent the balls from straying. Of this rectangle laid
out for the course of the ball, the lower part is the base, or foot, the oppo
site end the head, while the sides are respectively the right and left flanks.
In the centre of the foot is the spot from whence the play begins, and here
the starting-stake is set; and in the centre of the head is the turningstake.
There are ten bridges, with a span of twelve inches, made of iron wire,
and stuck in the ground, leaving six to eight inches above ground. The
stakes are of wood, two feet in length, and having eight rings of difibrat
colors, running down in this way: black, yellow, red, white, blue, orange,
brown, green. It is from the startdng-stake, through the bridges, touching
the turning-stake, and (rom the other flank, back to the spot, that the balls
are driven, by a mallet in the hands of the player. The course of the ball
will be seen by an examination of the diagram.
The bells are made of wood, are turned to be ten inches in lremaurmeee,
of beech, willow, or plane tree, eight In number, and panlated to eorreqcmd to
the rings a the starting-stake. This allows one to each player, though
whan four play they can either use fbur, or play.two each. Tm mallet has
a head with a diameter of two and one-third Ianches, and a length at hbr, a

gblh ,dl y hew in the laMd ad having the ad diligtly oo-m
Sabadmk of tSo maut i elmdmer, tapering toward the hmd, about nio
afimt ,f an lait In dia eir at the blt and twoet and a half loag.
am dmnk dIM tbe oat wlkeaoeM d hikory-the head of dogwood,
heart-hlokry, or box-the latter prntrable.
The distance from the tarting-take should be about ten iet from the
base, and the tranng-take should have the same distance from the head.


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31. UPPer OuN"llmu 6 Is .S 10, Nogt fuh fladg-
~1eee~d~hemdwwbei Sesee e abl I inlig thegdemieAdot

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