Citation
Stories of Ireland and her four provinces

Material Information

Title:
Stories of Ireland and her four provinces
Series Title:
Stories of Ireland and her four provinces
Creator:
Geldart, Thomas
Place of Publication:
London
Publisher:
Jarrold and Sons
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Edition:
Second

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
AAA4678 ( ltqf )
ALH0546 ( ltuf )
23706744 ( oclc )
026780362 ( alephbibnum )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
“9%. ce
poet ered habe ss ee ae
DSP IGS es tpn eee pr aeet:
; Se fe Fn
Pearse nist teat acer e ee ile
a CaS Pe 2

7 :

peg Ne

Seg tee
Pre

3
p Po
Rete
ee ee ape
See tee

PT 3;

oem

We ory

‘peer
gui gets geri

Sere

eS

ne

nape

Pe aNs pS
pe Ses Comat dn Thee tt ay?
Sten obscene oeats
at
Tae este eh reese ees

Sa trates Sh op een ar csr
Pea

mes Are Se





The Baldwin Library





Sacos.el —<2aZe'
Lc ctGll tM de
Laut,
FEZ

Gel BIW. Gonnes bela



STORIES OF IRELAND









Wy

Sf

Melee
iitnltin



. LONDONDERRY.





STORIES OF IRELAND

HER FOUR PROVINCES.

—~—

BY MRS, 7, GELDART,

AUTHOR OF “STORIES OF ENGLAND,” “TRUTH I8 EVERYTHING,”

ETC, ETC.





LONDON:
JARROLD & SONS, 47, ST. PAUL’S CHURCHYARD.









Preface.

A preface to “Stories of Ireland” appears desirable,
as the author can claim but little originality in writing
of a country which she has never seen. The presont
work is, in reality, but a condensation of much that
has already been published of that interesting island;
a condensation and adaptation to the ideas and tastes
of young persons. Very few children, it is presumed,
would sit down of their own free will to read Hall's
Ireland ; and yet from this, and some other books of
travel, much that this little volume contains is bor-
rowed—dressed, perhaps, in simpler language; but, it
is to be hoped, not the léss attractive to a child. Many
difficulties have presented themselves, not because the
subject is devoid of interest, but on account of the
apathy with which English children are accustomed
to regard Ireland, together with a too general preju-
dice against its inhabitants. Should the writer of
the following pages have succeeded in awakening
some tender and brotherly feelings to the poor Irish,
she will feel that a great object is achieved, even if
the name of every county be not indelibly engraved
on the memory of the youthful reader.

Altrincham,
May, 1857.







Contents,

ae

INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER.
The position of Ireland—The early inhabitants—Visit of
the Phenicians—Chiefs

CHAPTER I.
Divisions of Ireland—Northern Division—Donegal Bogs—
Lough Erne—A Fairy Tale—Ballyshannon—The Pullins

CHAPTER II.

The County of Londonderry—Derry—The Revolution—James
II.—Flight from Whitehall—Shutting the Gates—Siege of
Derry—Dreadful Suffering—Walker, the Priest Soldier—
Famine—Reli

CHAPTER III.
Antrim—Belfast—Botanical Gardens—Manufacture of Linen
—Cottage Cultivation of Flax—Damask Factory—Lough
Neagh—Petrified Wood—Carrickfergus .......cssceseee
CHAPTER IV.
Antrim continued—Giant’s Causeway—Tale of the Idiot Boy

—Dunluce Castle—County of Down—History of St.
Patrick—The River Bann ........sececesesvessscees

31



viii
CHAPTER V.

Tyrone—The Story of the O’Niels—Their Quarrels—Shane’s
Visit to Queen Elizabeth—Hugh 0’ Niel—Suspicion of him
—The Rebellion—Essex—His Mission to Ireland—He
fails—His disgrace—Mountjoy’s Cruelty—O’Niel is de-
feated—His pardon—News Tellers—Cavan—Monaghan—
Enniskellen—Round Towers, and their Origin ..........

CHAPTER VI.

Province of Connaught—County of Leitrim—Irish Cabin—
Its Tenants—Furniture—Famine—Frightful scenes—Death
from Starvation—Mr. Kohl’s description of a Cabin ....

CHAPTER VII.

Sligo—Cong Abbey—Burial-place of the last King—The
famous Robber—Speed of his Horse—His Exploits—Castle-
bar Races—Isle of Achill—Coracles—Seals—Roscommon
—Galway—Resemblance to Spanish Towns ....... ooeee

CHAPTER VIIL

Dublin—Public Buildings—Botanical Gardens—Christ-Church
Cathedral—Story of Lambert Simnel—East Meath—Dan-
gan—Duke of Wellington—West Meath—Louth—Siege of
Drogheda—Cromwell—Battle of the Boyne ......+ eeeee

CHAPTER IX.

Queen’s County—Dun-a-mase Rock—King’s County—Origin
of its Name—Kildare—Race Ground—Turf Cutting—May-
nooth—County of Carlow—River Barrow—Carlow Castle—
Milford Flour-Mills—Town of Leighlin—County Wicklow
—Phoula Phooka—Glendalough and its Ruins—Moore,
and the Meeting of the Waters—Gold Mines of Wicklow..

Page

61

75



ix
CHAPTER xX.

Page

County of Longford—Edgeworthstown—Curious Steeple—
The Edgeworth Family—Pallas—Oliver Goldsmith—De-
serted Village—A Curious Adventure—Goldsmith’s Vanity

Teese eeeeeeeeeeeeeersesseeessesessesessens 105

CHAPTER XI.

Kilkenny—History of Strongbow—Kilkenny Castle—Kil-
kenny Coal—Caves of Dunmore—Stalactites—Story of an
Idiot Girl—Wexford—Rebellion—Lord Edward Fitzgerald
—Lobster Fishing—Sea Goose ..... seeecveceeeccceeees Lt

CHAPTER XII.

Waterford—Lismore Castle—Mount Melleray—Monastery—
Cork—Emigrant Ship—Provision Merchants—Temperance
Societies— Father Mathew—Youghall—Sir Walter Ra-
leigh’s History—Potatoes—Tobacco ....ssssceseseceee 124

CHAPTER XIII.

Cork continued—Kilonlman—Spenser, the Poet—Fairy Queen
—Bantry Bay—Couaty Kerry—Lakes of Killarney—Beau-
tiful Evergreens—Gap of Dunloe—Echo—Eagle Capturing
—Irish Wake Se ee eeeereeeeeccceseccccrescccesscsees 140

CHAPTER XIV.

Limerick—Its Manufactures—Salmon Fishing—County Clare
—Shannon’s Mouth—Tipperary—Clonmell—Bianconi Cars
~Stalactite Caves—Cashel-Ruins—Origin of the Name of
Whiteboys, &c, &c.—Conclusion ....se.eseescees coos 149

Concluding Remarks Core eeeeeereeeeseeeeeeeeesesssees 165







Bist of Engravings,



City of Londonderry (Frontispiece)
Giant’s Causeway .
Round Towers ....sseesesesees

ssosese OO SSB
fens EN SS






QURME cesccccssccorcdorcoss teeeeeeees i=









at
2

STORIES OF IRELAND,
And her Four Provinces,

INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER.

The position of Ireland—The early inhabitants—Visit of the
Phenicians—Chiefs and Druids—Visit of Milesians—The five
Kings—Danish mischief—Brien the Brave—Conquest of Ire-
land—Wars—Rebellion.

Inrropuctory chapters are usually dull
affairs ; nor can I promise that mine shall be
an exception, because in anything of which
we know s0 little, we are not naturally dis-
posed to feel interest. I do not think that I
shall be supposing a very unlikely case, if I
believe that you are somewhat ignorant about
Treland! ‘Can there be anything interesting
to tell about that country?” has been said to
me more than once; and perhaps you are
thinking much in the same way, as you look
at the title of this book. Stories of the little
merry Laplanders and their rein-deer, or of
the Greenlanders in their snow houses; stories
of Italy with its fine blue sky and its old

B



*

cities and empires, its towns buried for years
beneath the lava of its burning mountain,
and then discovered fresh and bright as if laid
there but yesterday; stories of Spain with
the romantic associations and tales connected
with it; of Portugal with its fruits; of
France with its gay, care-nought people :—
to such stories you would like to listen. «
But of Ireland! with its “wet bogs,” its
“riotous people,” its poor distressed beggars,
you do not care to read. The very names
frighten you—such outlandish names! and
to have to learn thirty-two such, disheartens
you at the outset. We shall see, however,
whether there is not more to be known of
Treland than relates to bogs and beggars.
It is a pity, at all events, to live in ignorance
of so near a neighbour; a neighbour, too,
which England has, by her own free will,
taken the charge of; whether to her benefit
or not, remains a matter of question with
wiser heads than yours or mine.

Ireland is, as vou may see on the map, an
island by itself. It is bounded on the west by
the Atlantic Ocean, on the east by the Irish
Sea, and the St. George’s Channel, which also
divides its south-eastern coast from England,
and on the north by the Northern Channel.

Of the early history of Ireland there is not»

14 STORIES OF IRELAND.

ey



Â¥

VISIT OF THE PHGNICIANS.

15

much known; we cannot even be certain
what people first inhabited it, but very likely
a people called Celts, as in the case of Britain.
The Celts were a race who came from the
borders of the Euxene and Caspian Seas, for
which you must look on the map of Asia.
The Celtic language is still spoken by the

lower orders of the Irish, and is also
posed to be the origin of the languages

sup-
used

in Wales, in some parts of Scotland, and the

north of France. Another ancient people

visited Ireland from a country called Phoe-

nicia. The Phenicians, who were great

traders and navigators, and whose country

was situated on the eastern extremity of the
Mediterranean Sea, were always useful to

those people amongst whom they took up

their abode. They did not plunder and lay ;
whole countries waste as most other ool
in old times did, but they were peac P

in their conduct, and always tried to impreye

the state of the inhabitants. They induced

such people to trade with them, to exchange

the produce of their countries for that which

they offered in return.

There were amongst them rich merchants,
clever artisans, and even manufacturers, and
they used to go and reside with less civilised
. and instructed people, and teach them different

B2



16 STORIES OF IRELAND.

arts and trades. If Ireland were inhabited
at all at the time of the Pheenicians’ first
visit, it must have been gonly by savages.
We have no history, however, of this time,
and can only infer that the Pheenicians resided
there from different articles that have been
discovered. Weapons, gold ornaments beau-
tifully wrought, and such as were in use
amongst the Pheenician and other countries
of Asia, have been dug out of the bogs, and
remains of old roads have been found to
exist. The Round Towers of which I shall
have occasion to speak to you, and which are
evidently relics of Eastern workmanship, and
used by the worshippers of fire, resemble
some still standing in Persia and India,
Long before the time called the Christian
era, whicli you should understand means the
birth of Jesus Christ, a band of warriors from
the north of Spain, called Milesians, after
their leader Milesius, made themselves mas-
ters of Ireland. They were divided into
tribes, each ruled by a chief, but these chiefs
did not make the laws. These were made by
the Druids. The Druids were priests as well
as law-givers, and exercised great influence
over Ireland as well as England, in early
times. It was a custom with the Druids to.
sacrifice their first-fruits to their idols; the ~







VISIT OF THE MILESIANS. 17

early corn, fruit, and other produce of the
earth, as well as the firstborn of the animals,
and even of the human family, were offered
up to their gods. Then came the Romans:
but the country does not appear to have been
to their taste, for they never settled there,
They put an end to the Druids’ rule, however,
and gave Ireland the name of Hibernia. A
long time after came a people called Scoti,
but the Milesians did not wish for their com-
pany, and persuaded their visitors to go
further north, telling them of a fine country
they would find there, So the Scythians or
Scoti having staid a little while, and married
some Irish women, went away to the west of
Scotland, where they founded the kingdom
of the Scots. Ireland was originally divided
by the Milesians into five provinces—Ulster,
Munster,@onnaught, Leinster, and Meath.
Meath was the province where the princi-
pal sovereign resided ; but each province had
a king subject to the king of Meath. These
five kings were always quarreling and at war.
They were still a very ignorant, uncultivated
race, as you may suppose when I tell you
that the chiefs lived in wicker huts covered
with straw, rushes, and sods. The people
generally wore sheep-skins ; those of higher
k, however, were clad in gayer clothes.
B3



18 STORIES OF IRELAND.

Then at last came St. Patrick, whose history
I will give you hereafter ; this was about the
fifth century. The Danes also, who left no
known country untouched, paid Ireland one
of their unfriendly visits in the year 717,
By Danes you should understand Northmen,
not the inhabitants. of Denmark alone, but a
wandering race from several of the northern
countries of Europe. They always treated
the Christians, wherever they found them,
very cruelly, and set fire to the churches
and monasteries as soon as they saw them.
Indeed, there seemed no end to the mischief
they wrought, and we never hear of any
good they did to the countries they invaded.
A Norwegian Chief, called Turgesius, in
about the year 850, made himself king of
Ireland, and obliged the old Irish kings to
pay him very heavy sums, in what was called
tribute. He also raised a tax called nose
money, because those who would not: pay it
were condemned to have their noses cut off.
So much for the Danes. After they had been
settled about 200 years in Ireland, Brien the
Brave, king of Munster, subdued the Danes,
and became king of all Ireland ; but Brien was
defeated again in his old age, and fell in bat-
tle at a place called Clontarf. It would tire
you to read of all the conflicts of the next few



CONQUEST OF IRELAND. . © 19

years with the Danes, nor could I, in a little
book like this, write fully on the subject.

At the time when Henry IL. was king of
England, a king of Leinster, who was dethro-
ned, took refuge in our country, and king
Henry promised to help him to recover his
kingdom, if he would help the English to
conquer the rest of the country.

The full particulars of the conquest of
Ireland I must omit; but you will remember,
however, that this country was united to
Ireland, in the reign of Henry IL. Still there
was no peace in the island. The rebellions
that broke out were endless, not only in
Henry’s, but in succeeding reigns. At the
time of the civil wars, and after Charles I.
was beheaded, the English Parliament created
Cromwell lord lieutenant of Ireland, and
commander of the army in that country.
The Irish generally took the part of Charles
IL, and were anxious to restore him; so they
were not prepared to receive Cromwell as a
friend, nor did his conduct in Ireland do
much to conciliate them, as you will see here-
after, when I have occasion to tell you of
some of the sieges in which he was engaged.

I shall not, in this introductory chapter,
give you an account of the rebellions so
common in the Island. It seemed for a



20 STORIES OF IRELAND.

long while as if it never would be settled ;
old chiefs and descendants of chiefs and
kings were for ever struggling to throw off
the English government; and certainly the
English did not treat their conquered neigh-
bours with justice, but seemed to think they
had a right to oppress and tyrannise; but
you will see instances of this in the course
of this little work, and I will not make the
introductory chapter any longer.



CHAPTER I.

Divisions of Ireland—Northern Division—'Donegal Bogs—~
Lough Erne—A Fairy Tale—Ballyshannon—The Pullins.

I rorp you that Ireland was divided into
provinces, but it has still another division,
each province containing several counties.
Ulster, the most northerly province, has nine
counties ; Leinster, twelve; Munster, six;
and Connaught, five. The division of Meath
does not now exist. ~ There are thirty-two
counties in all, you will find, if you add
them up. Let me now explain to you the
meaning of the word province.

Very early in the history of Ireland, we
read of its divisions into separate kingdoms,
each having different laws, and a different
kind of government. Ulster, Munster, Con-
naught, and Leinster, are the remains of
these petty kingdoms. When the English
tirst began to interfere with their neighbour
Treland, they subdivided each province into
counties. I believe that king John of Eng-
land was the first to introduce this division,
which was not completed until 300 years



22 STORIES OF IRELAND.

afterwards. This division into counties was
made for the purpose of holding assizes, and
appointing sheriffs to execute the king’s
writs and orders, as in England. Such a
division has long ceased to have any con-
nection with the title of Earl or Count.

Ulster, the most northerly division, con-
tains nine counties. We will begin as we
did in Stories of England, with the county
which lies nearest to the north; that county is
called Donzcan. You must not be surprised
to find the names more difficult to remember
than those of your own country, but do not be
discouraged. Your ear is less familiar with
them, and this is the great cause of the diffi-
culty. If you can only associate some subject
of interest with each difficult name, you will
find the difficulty wonderfully vanish.

Now for the first hard name, Donegal. Its
land is little cultivated, and barren mountains
and bogs cover the greater part. I will explain
a bog to you; with a mountain you are
familiar. A large portion of Ireland is more
or less bog or morass. The very hills, tops of
rocks and caves, are covered with bog. Bogs
arise from the decay of plants in the vicinity
of springs, and the extreme dampness of the
climate of Ireland is one, although not the
only, cause of this phenomenon. In a dry



DONEGAL BOGS. 28

country, decayed grass and plants change into
earth and dust, and thus no bogs are formed;
but in Ireland, where from the continual mois-
ture the process of decay is slower, a large
portion, which in some situations would fly
away in dust, is here kept moist and fixed. A
young bog, that is, a bog growing where the
plants are yet loose, is called a quaking bog.
When the bog grows older, and a considerable
mass is formed, it is called a peat bog. Asa
bog is formed of different kinds of plants, so
the produce is of course different. The turf
obtained from a dry bog, by cutting with a
spade or slane, is called slane turf.- Bogs are
a source both of wealth and poverty to the
Trish; they supply them with fuel it is true,
but they cover much land that might be
more profitably used in cultivation; they spoil
the water of the rivers, and fill the air with
an unpleasant smell. They do not, however,
all produce good fuel; such bogs. as are
adapted for this purpose should be carefully
worked, and others drained and cultivated.
Bog-wood dug out of the morasses is used by
the Irish for many things; articles of furniture
may be made of it, and it is even employed
in building. I have seen some beautiful
ornaments made of bog-wood, which resemble
ebony when thus wrought; they are used in



24 STORIES OF IRELAND.

the form of bracelets, brooches, and ear-drops,
and are as handsome as jet. Although this
wood is at first soft and wet, it becomes in
time almost as hard as iron. Some, which is
more elastic, is used for making ropes. There
is also a sort of yellow fat substance found
in bogs, in which the Irish soak rushes, and
are thus supplied with candles. I have said
a great deal about bogs, a subject of which
I dare say you have never thought at all; or
if you have done so, I do not suppose it has
excited much interest in your mind. Donegal
is not the only county, however, in which
bogs abound; they are indeed very common
in many parts of Ireland. But Donegal has
some beautiful lakes, which are at least more
interesting to see than the bogs. The capital
town is Donegal. The highest of its moun-
tains, called Errigal, rises 2463 feet above
fiwersea. Lough Erne washes the southern
border of the county, and Lough Foyle and
Swilly are also connected withit. The word
Lough means the same as Lake. The lakes
in all parts of Ireland are not called so, but
you must understand the meaning of the
word when you see it,
The town of Ballyshannon is situated on
the northerly bank of Lough Erne, and is a
neat, pleasant place, The belief in fairies



A FAIRY TALE, 25

and witches is common, even at the present
day, in most parts of Ireland, although far
less so than formerly, In Donegal it seems
especially so. There is something very
charming to children in fairy tales. I have
seldom known a child who did not take
delight in the mysterious and impossible
doings of those imaginary little creatures.
You would be plentifully treated with fairy
tales if you were to visit Ireland; the thing
to be lamented is, that the poor ignorant
peasants delieve in these fairies and witches ;
and amusing as it may be to hear such tales,
it is sad to see how this belief influences their
character. A lady, miich acquainted with the
Trish, says, that when she was young she
remembers to have seen a woman who, it was
believed, lived with the fairies for many years.
She was then old and decrepit, with yery
light blue eyes, which had a wild, wandering
look about them. Molly the Wise, as she
was called, wag always sure of food and a
reception; the food was abundant, but the
reception not a hearty one, for Molly was
more feared than loved. She was an object
of dread, for they imagined she knew all that
passed concerning them. It was in vain the
poor little old thing denied this—they were
certain of it, ie presence was considered
c



26 STORIES OF IRELAND.

_ “lucky,” and she was often forced to do what
she disliked, in consequence of their belief.
She was pleased to attend weddings and
funerals, but hated every thing belonging to
the sea with a determined hatred; yet every
new boat must first. go to sea with “ Molly
the Wise,” to insure it against wreck.

Molly did not much like talking of when
she was with the “good people,” as they call
the fairies; but a quarter of a pound of
tobacco and an ounce of “tay” would bribe
her to do so sometimes. She would crouch
close into a corner of a large chimney, like
an old cat; her back hunched up, and her
arms clinging round her knees, on which
she rested her chin; and then, without
fixing her eyes on any one or any place,
would wander on in her story, which she
told in a low monotonous wail. Sometimes
her eyes would settle for a moment on a
person, and if they happened to rest on any
of the young ones, you werecertain to see
them grow fidgetty and move their seat.

Now do you really wish to hear the nonsense
that Molly the Wise would talk? There is a
saying, “that all work and no play makes
Jack a dull boy ;” and perhaps you will say
that all sense and no nonsense will make
Stories of Ireland a ve book ; so I will



A FAIRY TALE, 27

indulge you with Molly the Wise’s history of
what she did when she lived with the good
people. “The way of it,” she said, “was
this. When we lived by the Slaney, by the
ould Tower built by King John, my father
and brothers were always out earning their
bread; and there’s a spot there, where long
ago, they say, a boy was drowned; but he
was not drowned, not he indeed! but was
taken by the good people; it is n’t all of them
that have power to take them thro’ the wather,
only when they make marriages with the
other spirits that live among the things at
the bottom of the many wathers, and then
one helps the other. ~ Tit for tat, you see;
so I used to be then in the boat with them,
sometimes minding one thing and sometimes
another, with plenty of heart, that kept my
eyes and feet dancing the length of a summer
day. And so it was, one midsummer night,
and we crossing over in the cobble, just to be in
time for the divarshun of the bonfire, and my
father and uncle, out of respect to the poor
boy that was drowned in it, raised their oars
as they passed over the place where he was
lost, and if I had done what I ought. to do,
(mind this, girls, for Molly the Wise is talking
to you) no harm could have come to me; but
T didn’t, and w. ing a song, and my
02



28 STORIES OF IRELAND.

father and uncle were looking at me, and-
thinking how purty I looked with the moon-
light settling on my face, and—I was gone.
Then they took on, and thought I was strug-
gling; now at this side of the boat, then on
that, there was a sort of foam, like silver;
and though the blue river was so clear they
could see far down into it, they could not see
me.” And where were you, Molly dear, tell
us, tell us all about it? “Is it where I was?
Pll tell ye what’s fitting, without questions,
Iwas away and I am here now, and that’s
enough for you. I was away seven years,
and they kept me night and day to mind the»
childer, and dress the queen.” Oh! Molly)
what sort of dress had she? “Why, ye don’t
suppose its trusting to one sort of dress she’d
be of a day; no, no, ten sometimes. One
day she’d be dressed all in diamonds in the
morning, and spiders’ webs in the evening.
It’s like any earthly queen she is in her little
ways and all, and full up of all kinds of love
and divarshun, and I almost danced the ten
toes off striving to plase her and the childer.
Oh! then, it’s them that was childer: talk of
education, they were born larned, and never a
wink of sleep did they get, at night dancing
on the sands of the sea, or in a ring on the
softest grass, and to flying on

5 ME

_*



A FAIRY TALE. 29

rushes, which they turn into horses, and
whisp thro’ a key or a latch hole, hundreds
of them. had, while with them, white bread
and cruddy cream, and beautiful flowers.”

e manner of her getting away was this.
ae night she was very lonesome, the queen
having goneto her“divarshun,” andshe began
thinking of her people and her country, and
how she never had the power to say a prayer
since she came to the place, for when she
turned her thoughts to a prayer she fell asleep,
Just then she dropped down on her knees and
tried to pray, and her uncle came, her own

» uncle, who had been in the boat with her
~ the night she was taken, and had been dead
be years, and he gave her a blessed herb,
and as she had it in her fingers, back came
the queen and court, like a flash of lightning.
And the queen made a grab at the herb, and
her uncle told her to go on and pray, and
she did, and found herself at the door of her
father’s house, but he was in his grave. So
she went and sate on his grave, and there
was no flax on the wheel, nor “tater” in the
garden; no turf in the rick, only a swallow
with its young in the hole of the wall. And
her heart was near burstin,” and she wished
herself back with the good people, for the

world was hard had no friends.
c3
| ~ ae



30 STORIES OF IRELAND,

Imay as well tell you here, that the peasan-
try believe, that if a child is praised without
the person who praises him, adding, “God
bless him,” he is “overlooked.” Such is the
expression, but they mean that the praisgy
unlucky, and some misfortune will befal
child. You know there is no such thing as
luck; nothing happens or comes by chance,
but all things are under the control of a good
and wise God. There are people even in
England, and some who ought to know better
too, who talk of signs, and good luck, and
bad luck, and act as if they believed in it —
too, There is less excuse for them than fom.
the poor ignorant Irish. ; ce

I should tell you that near the to -*
Ballyshannon is a very great natural wonder,
called “the Pullins.” It is formed by a
mountain torrent, which runs for a mile
through a ravine, and presents quite a series
of cascades, caves, cliffs, and rocks, clad with
beautiful ferns and many mountain plants.
The whole course of the river is shaded: by
woods, which gives a very beautiful effect.

A bed of limestone seems to have been cleft
thirty to forty feet deep, and here the river
foams and rushes along. I have made rather
along chapter on Donegal, with my fairy tale.

The next may be | ing, but you mi
try and recollect w! tell you. <= *





CHAPTER IL.

pp County of Londonderry—Derry—The Revolution—James

I1.—Flight from Whitehall—Shutting the Gates—Siege of

Derry—Dreadful Suffering—Walker, the Priest Soldier—

Famine—Relief.

TuE next county of which I shall tell you
is Lonponperry. Tyrone bounds it on the
south and south-west, Antrim on the east,
the Atlantic Ocean on the north, and Done-
gal county on the west. The chief town ‘is

_ Londonderry, or Derry, famous for a siege
hich took place at the time of the Revolu-
on in 1689,
Derry is built ona hill which it almost
covers, and around a large portion of the hill
flow the waters of Lough Foyle. Look now
at your map, that you may better understand
the situation of the town, and its fitness to
endure the siege. _ The appearance of Derry,
“even at the present day, is very imposing.
The houses rise in tiers one above another,
and the lofty spire of the old cathedral tops
all. The thick high wall and well-preserved
towers look even now capable of defence.
There is a broad walk on the walls neatly
gravelled. -The custom of enclosing ancient






82 STORIES OF IRELAND.

cities with walls for defence was universal in
old times, when quarrels and wars seemed to
be the rule, peace and amity the exception.

To those of you who have not read much
history, it may be as well to give a littl
account of the circumstances of that period,
which is called in English history, the Revo-
lution. A Revolution in this sense, means
a change from one kind of government, or
from one governor, to another.

James IL, son of the unfortunate king
Charles I., of whom you have heard, was
never a popular monarch; he was a Roman
Catholic, feared by the Protestants, and sus-
pected by the Papists. He was a weak
obstinate man, and seems to have learn
little wisdom from the misfortunes of his
family. His tyranny and misgovernment
arose, however, in part, from the very absurd
view which he held, in common with his pre-
decessors, that a king being God’s vice-gerent
on earth, could do no wrong, forgetting that
the infallibility of was not to be assu-
med by any creature, however exalted, even
though he wore a crown.

Being the son of a king, and descended
from a long and noble line, does not of neces-
sity make a man fit to rule a great nation.
Many who would in private life have lived.

*

4



JAMES II. 33

and died respected, have not had the qualities
essential to govern a great nation, and thus
it happens that you hear of the apparent
contradiction, “a good man, but a bad king.”
James appears to have been a kind husband
and father, but certainly was one of the worst
kings that ever sate on the English throne.
He was twice married ; and his first wife left
him two daughters, Mary and Anne, who
were educated as Protestants, and to whom
therefore the Protestant party looked with
hope and affection. They both married
Protestant princes. Mary’s husband ‘was
. William, Prince of Orange, and Stadtholder
‘of Holland, afterwatds William IIL, and
nephew of James II.; and the Princess Anne
married Prince George of Denmark. James’
second wife, Mary Beatrice, of Modena, a
country in Italy, lived for some years on very
good terms with her step-daughters, Mary
and Anne; but the birth of a son, known in
history as the Pretender, appeared to excite
great fears in the minds of all zealous
Protestants, who thus saw their hopes ‘of
Protestant rulers extinguished.

There was a foolish story of the prince
being introduced into the palace in a warm-
ing-pan, which was believed, or at least
listened to, by the princesses ; and an unkind





34 STORIES OF IRELAND.

feeling sprung up in their minds against the
innocent brother, as well as the father.
Although England gained much by the
Revolution, we cannot admire the spirit
either of Mary or Anne, in thus coolly usur-
ping the throne of their father and brother.
When the birth of a prince was announced,
the chief men of the kingdom turned their
thoughts to the Prince of Orange, and wrote
to entreat him to come over to England, and
save them from the Popish rule.

James was terribly alarmed when he found
one loud cry for William sounding through
the kingdom, and yet more so, when news
was brought him of William’s actual arriv
in Torbay, in Devonshire, on 5th Nov., 1688.

And now one cannot help pitying the poor
king ; who on hearing that even his favourite
daughter Anne had espoused William’s cause,
exclaimed, “ My very children have forsaken
me.” Mary’s conduct might have been a
little more dignified; even though she thought
it right to obey her husband, it was scarcely
necessary to show such very childish joy as
she did when she took possession of thé
forsaken apartments in her father’s palace of
Whitehall, whence queen Mary Beatrice and
her infant son had escaped. All the particu-
lars of this flight you may read in history ;



SIEGE OF DERRY. 35

I must hasten to the siege of Derry, to
which I have been long in coming, you will
say.

‘But these particulars were necessary for
you to learn, in order that you might know
the circumstances which led to the Revolu-
tion, and then you can better appreciate
the conduct of the Derry men in this noted
siege. The Protestants of Ireland, no less
than those of England, were extremely anx-
ious for William to reign. They looked
to him as their deliverer from the horrors
they anticipated from the continuance of a
popish line of kings. It is not for us to
judge of William’s motives in this case. He
may have been influenced by a desire to
promote the Protestant religion ; but there is
feason to fear that ambition had also some
share in his usurpation of the crown.

Just at the time of these disturbances in
England, there was a report that a great
massacre or wholesale murder of the Protes-
tants in Ireland was intended by the Papists ;
and James who had fled to France, was now
about to land in Ireland with an army of
French allies, hoping to subdue that part of
his dominions, and to regain possession of
his crown. He first directed his attention to
the North of Ireland, and part of his army



36 STORIES OF IRELAND,

was advancing to Derry, with very little fear
of resistance, and was actually within sight,
when eight or nine lads, apprentice boys,
shut the gates and refused admission. This
act appeared madness at the time, so little
preparation had been made for a siege, and
so suddenly was the resolution taken. The
spirit of the ’prentice boys spread; men of
note caught it; and within a very brief period
a band of armed men was formed and disci-
plined, to man the walls and endure a siege.
I told you of the rumour of a massacre;
many Protestants had resolved to take refuge
in Derry, and this act of the ’prentice boys
quickened their zeal. The news of Derry’s
intended siege spread like wildfire through
the northern counties. Protestants of all
grades fled to it. Arms and ammunition
were by degrees, though not without diffi-
culty, conveyed thither. Ample time was
given for these preparations, for the month
of April had far advanced before they were
exposed to any serious danger.

Meanwhile James II. actually reached the
walls, expecting quiet possession, when the
*prentice boys, a ‘tumultuous rabble,” so
the king called them, rushed to their bas-
tions (a kind of bulwark or fortress) and
fired their cannon on his troops, killing, it is



SIEGE OF DERRY. 37

said, a captain who stood near the king’s
mn. dames in his own account, says,
‘that he endeavoured to bring the rebels to
a sense of their duty, by unwearied forbears
ance.” He called the garrison “ obstinate
wretches,” who neither offered to surrender
nor capitulate, and whose answers were
nothing but cannon and musket shot.

The king remained in the camp opposite
to Derry until the middle of June. The
Governor Lundy was very anxious to open
the gates and sacrifice the cause; but at the
moment when they were deliberating, Adam
Murray, a medical man who had been absent
from Derry, arrived; and encouraged the
citizens to persevere. On the 19th of April,
poor Lundy, whose conduct and advice had
made him very unpopular, was obliged to flee
from the walls in disguise, with a load of
matches on his back. Major Henry Baker
and George Walker were appointed to suc-
ceed him as Governors. The garrison was
formed into eight companies, the treacherous
had been expelled, the timid withdrawn, and
the town was now left to its own resources.
But the citizen-soldiers were badly armed,
and ill provisioned; the town was crowded,
with no one of experience to direct them.
They had no engineers, few horses, and no

D



38 STORIES OF IRELAND,

forage ; not a gun well mounted, and nothing
indeed to cheer them, but, as General Walker
said, ‘that great confidence and dependance
upon Almighty God that He would take
care of and preserve them,” At this period
it appears, that there were 30,000 living
beings encompassed by the walls in a space
of a few acres,

The first attack or sortie from the garrison,
took place on 21st of April. Colonel Murray
with his own hand killed the French General
Mammou, and the sword by which he fell
is still retained by Murray’s descendants.
This success animated the citizens, and no
difficulty was found in procuring men for a
sortie. (Sortie is a French word, signifying
to go out.) In times of siege a certain
number of men are sent out from the garri-
son to fight the enemy hand to hand.

The resolution of the Derry men soon
became known in England, and Major Kirk
was sent with men, arms, and provision, but
the passage up the Foyle was arrested by the
enemy. Kirk continued to communicate
with the city, informing the garrison that
he had stores and victuals for them. He
sent a little boy as messenger, who carried
the letter made up in a cloth button, and as
in conveying a reply he was taken prisoner,



DREADFUL SUFFERING. 39

he contrived to swallow it, Kirk, however,
made no persevering efforts to relieve the
starving garrison ; he set sail, coolly advising
them to husband their provisions well;
advice which they had melancholy cause to
follow. Even then they were dreadfully
reduced, living on salted and dried hides,
horse flesh, dogs, cats, and mice; yet still
declaring they would eat one another rather
than yield.

Disease added its terrors to those of famine;
yet half-dead men, shrunk and feeble, kept
walking through the city, and threatening
death to any who would speak of a surrender.
One dying man declared he had fed on
nothing but starch for four days. On the
Ist of July, Rosen, who commanded the
Trish and French forces, collected from the
neighbouring counties of Antrim, Tyrone,
and Donegal, every Protestant he could find,
and before daybreak the miserable garrison
heard a sad sound of groans and cries. As
morning dawned, what a spectacle was before
them! Old decrepit men and women, infant
children and helpless beings, to the number
of some thousands, were pushed onwards at
sword’s point to the walls, with an intimation
from Rosen, that if they were not taken in
they should be left there to perish. I must

D2



40 STORIES OF IRELAND.

tell you, in justice to James, that he quite
disapproved this cruel measure, and at once
issued orders to Rosen to desist. Rosen
had, however, assembled above 4000 before
the courier reached him.

The poor people within, mistaking their
friends for their enemies, began in despair to
fire on them, so that Rosen was obliged to
send the 4000 back again; but of that
number many starved by the way, and many
found their homes burnt in their absence.
Alas! for war and its cruel, heartless conse-
quences! When the wretched crowd were
suffered to withdraw from the trenches, the
garrison, wishing to get rid of some of the
useless inhabitants of the town, sought to
mix some of the townspeople with them, but
the trick failed; they were found out, and
driven back. King James says, “the town
was reduced to so great extremity, that the
intruders were known at once by their wan
and lean countenances and nauseous smell,
that made every one think they had the”
plague; and some fell down on the strands.”
The priest soldier, as he was called, George
Walker, was a very important character ; he
kept up the spirit of the besieged with un-
wearied patience, and was their priest and
their pastor as occasion required. He would

he



WALKER, THE PRIEST-SOLDIER. 41

go about, now with the sword, and now with
the bible, urging on the inhabitants to stand
fast. He was certainly an extraordinary
character, and although we cannot understand
the kind of religion which could influence a
man in such a course, we may well believe
in its sincerity. He had no honour, and no
wealth to gain from his endurance, and we
can but admire the courage, both of the
priest soldier and the poor citizens, in this
memorable siege. The siege lasted one
hundred and nine days: thousands died of
famine and disease, and many fell by the
shot of the enemy. Relief, however, came
at the moment when it was most needed.
“We only reckoned,” says Walker, “ on two
days’ life.” Think of the delight of the
perishing creatures, when from the housetops
their eyes beheld the glad sight of ships on
the Lough, ships laden with provisions!
Could it be? yes; their signals were
answered, their deliverers were at hand.
But their troubles were not yet over; they
had to bear the misery of hope deferred;
still in the hour of famine, to see the food,
as it were, and not to taste it. You know it
is no easy matter to convey provision into a
garrison. The great hope of the troops
without the walls, was in the starvation of
- D3



42 STORIES OF IRELAND.

those within, for they had seen enough of
their endurance to know that they would die
rather than yield. Mackenzie, one of the
leaders, gives a touching account of the
scene. “Our spirits sunk, and our hopes
were expiring,” he says; “at last the boom
the enemy had laid across the Lough was
broken, and slowly, but surely, the ships
sailed to their quays. Then what joy there
was, the bells of the battered Cathedral rang
a merry, grateful peal, bonfires were kindled,
cannons thundered when the craving hunger
of the multitude was satisfied.” Can you
not picture the crowding of the starving men,
women, and children, around the boats, and
the thankful expressions of the mother as
she fed her poor faint child, and the hope
and joy that sprung up in every breast, as
they each secured the long-desired food !
Surely you will never now forget the county
and town of Londonderry, and its beautiful
Lough Foyle.



CHAPTER III.

Antrim—Belfast—Botanical Gardens—Manufacture of Linen—
Cottage cultivation of Flax—Damask Factory—Lough Neagh
—Petrified wood—Carrickfergus.

The County of Antrim is bounded on the
north by the Northern Ocean, on the east
and north-east by the North Channel, on the
south-east by Belfast Lough and the river
Lagan, on the south-west by Lough Neagh,
and on the west by the County of London-
derry. It is encompassed by waters, as you
will see if you look on the map; and hence
its name, Endrium, or the habitation of
waters. The county town is Carrickfergus ;
but Belfast is a place of much greater im-
portance, being the grand seat of the linen ©
trade, and having several manufactures of
cotton, cambric, sail-cloth, and glass. Bel-
fast is a sea-port town, and, although it
contains many inhabitants, is one of the
cleanest and healthiest manufacturing places
in the kingdom. It has been called a “clean
Manchester.” There are many fine public
buildings, and some Botanical Gardens about
a mile from the the town, where young men



44 STORIES OF IRELAND.

are instructed, to fit them to become experi-
enced gardeners. The Linen Hall at Belfast
is a plain building ; but it leads me here to
speak of the manufacture of flax.

From a very early period in the history of
Treland, linen has been manufactured. The
native Irish used to wear saffron-coloured
shirts, which were of this material. In the
reign of Elizabeth we read that the Irish
chiefs presented themselves at Court in
“ Krin’s yellow vesture,” and induced spinners
from France and the Netherlands to come
and settle in Ireland. The unfortunate Earl
of Stafford, who was beheaded in the reign
of Charles I., exerted himself very much in
promoting the cultivation of flax in Ireland.
He caused flax seed to be brought over from
Holland. He expended £30,000 (a large
sum in those days,) of his private fortune in
the business. The cruel wars which so soon
followed, put a stop to the trade for a time,
but his efforts were not altogether fruitless.
After Charles II. was restored to the throne,
it was again carried on through the efforts of
the Duke of Ormond. Soon after a company
of French Refugees, who were compelled to
leave their own country, came over to Ireland,
and introduced the manufacture of that beau-

tiful article called damask ; and to them also



THE FLAX PLANT. 45:

we are indebted for the first improvement in
bleaching linen.

You know, I have
no doubt, that linen is
made from the fibres
of the flax plant, which
bears a pretty blue
flower, and grows three
or four feet in height.
The flax fields, at the
flowering season, are
very gay and pretty.
The cultivation of this
plant and its prepara-
tion formed at one time
a great part of the occu-
pation of the small
farmer and cottager.
When the petals of
the pretty blue flow-
er dropped off, and the
State of the seed-pod
showed that the plant
was ripe, it was pulled
in small handfuls at a
time, and laid two and
two on the ground
across each other ; after
it was stacked came THE FLAX PLANT,





46 STORIES OF IRELAND.

the process of “rippling,” (i.e.) drawing the
flax through an iron comb fixed in a block
of wood; they then steeped, or as they call
it, “bogged it.” In bogging, heavy stones
were placed over it in the water to prevent its
being disturbed, and it was then left to decay.
After it had been “bogged” long enough,
according to the cottage plan, it was either
dried in the open air, or over a low fire;
when dry, the bundles were placed on some
“wattles,” laid beneath the thatch for that
purpose, to wait for the time of “scutching,”
or they were housed ina barn. ‘“Scutching”
was done on the back of a chair; the person
who scutched, beating the flax with one hand
with a heavy instrument, and with the other
drawing it gradually back as it was beaten.
The flax dresser used to go about from house
to house with his hackle on his back, and
was always a welcome visitor. The hackle is
a tool consisting of a number of sharp steel
spikes in a wooden frame. Then came the
bojling or scalding the thread to make it
soft; and after it was thoroughly free from
harshness, it was taken to running water,
dried on the grass, boiled again and again in
pure water, spun into thread, and then sent
to the loom of the rustic weaver.

The ‘spinning of flax by means of the



MANUFACTURE OF LINEN. 47

wheel, is now very little done. Machinery is
introduced for the purpose of spinning it
into yarn. The flax, after being hackled, is
divided into two parts; the finer is called the
line, and the coarser the tow: the line is used

for the manufacture of fine linen and damask,
' the tow is employed for commoner purposes.

Then, after the linen is manufactured,
comes the bleaching. In order to make the
cloth perfectly white, it must be exposed, for
a long time, to the open air. This is done
by spreading it on the grass; generally near
the banks of a river. The bleaching districts
in Ireland have a bright, cheerful look. The
buildings around are generally white-washed,
and kept very clean. The process of bleach-
ing is tedious, and the particular description
of it would not interest you. The timd it
takes is from two to three months, and the
spring and autumn seasons are generally
preferred for the purpose.

There is a damask manufactory at Ardoyne,
three miles from Belfast. I will endeavour
to describe the process to you. The yarn, on
being received from the spinner, boiled and
bleached in the manner I have told you,
is very carefully sorted, the fine hanks being
all put with those of the same quality. It
is then separated into two portions, the warp



48 STORIES OF ENGLAND.

and weft ; the warp being put longitudinally
or lengthwise in the loom, and the weft is
woven into it. The latter is given to the
families of the workmen, and wound upon
little wooden spools, called bobbins or reels,
which are fixed in the shuttle, and with which
the weaver must be kept constantly supplied.
The warp is measured before being removed
to the loom, by the revolutions of a “avarping
mill,” or wooden cylinder, five yards in
circumference. When in the loom, every
four threads are passed through the several
splits of a hanging reed or scale, which pre-
serves the warp in the right width, and presses
the weft together when inserted by the shuttle.
Again the threads are passed through smaller
bead-like objects formed of glass, and fastened
to cords suspended from some machinery
above, retained in their place by leaden
weights at the end. The warp is now ready
for the pattern. Damask table cloths have,
you know, very pretty patterns of different
designs ; sometimes a group of flowers, some-
times a'landscape. These are first sketched
on plain paper, and thence traced on sheets
of design paper, the whole surface of which
is covered with engraved lines crossing each
other. Vermilion, or lake, is then applied ;
such a number of smaller squares formed by



DAMASK FACTORY. 49

the lines being covered with the paint as will’
serve to form the pattern sketched. The
design is then transferred to a series of cords,
placed perpendicularly in a wooden frame;
each cord representing the space contained
between two of the perpendicular lines of the
design paper. A thin wooden instrument,
called a “needle,” with another cord attached,
is passed under a cord in the frame, once for
every small square in the corresponding spaces
of the painted pattern, which is covered, and
over those representing the squares left blank.
By means of the cords attached to the needle
thus interwoven, a coarse loose texture is
formed, containing the design accurately
transferred, but this is not the damask.
The cordage is next fixed to the “cutting
machine,” where, by more cords connected
with wires and moved by a cylinder, a
circular steel punch, half an inch long, is
obtruded from a plate of steel full of holes,
so as to give a single punch for every square
of the paper covered by paint. The move-
able plate is then placed in the “ perforator,”
over a stout card a foot and a half long, and
three inches and a half broad; against which
it is forced by a screw, so that a perforation
or hole is formed in the card by every punch
contained in the plate. Thus the pattern is
E



50 STORIES OF IRELAND.

transferred to many hundred cards in small
portions, each representing the space con-
tained between two of the horizontal lines
of the design paper, while the circular per-
forations correspond to the painted squares,
and the rest of the card to those left vacant.
The cards being laced together, the pattern
is ready, and is removed to a machine, which
is erected on a stage above the workman’s
head.* It consists of an iron frame, con-
taining a moveable grating and a succession
of perpendicular and horizontal wires, the
former passing through the latter and having
the cords suspended from them, to which are
fastened the little glass nails, through which,
you must remember, the threads of the warp
are passed. Close to the ends of the horizon-
tal wires, which project a little way from the
frame, is placed a square cylinder full of holes,
like those on the pattern cards, to the size
of which the sides correspond. The cards are
now placed on the cylinder, so that one of
them covers the side next the wires. The
machine is set in motion by a lever, raised
and lowered by the workman’s foot, when
the horizontal wires being forced against the
card, such of them as come in contact with
the plain spaces are pressed back, and with
* This mode of weaving is called ‘‘ la Jacquard.”



DAMASK FACTORY. 51

them the perpendicular wires connected with
the warp beneath, while the other horizontal
wires, entering the holes of the card and cylin-
der, leave those which pass downwards through
them unmoved. The grating is then raised,
and catching by their bent tops the wires
which have not been forced backwards, raises
those threads of the warp which pass through
the mails, and leaves an opening for the weft
between the raised threads and the rest of
the warp. The shuttle having been passed
four times through this opening, and each
thread of weft closely beaten into the fabric
by the hanging reed, the machine above is
lowered by. the lever; when the cylinder
partly revolves, another card is presented to
the wires, and the same operation is repeated.
Thus the pattern is gradually formed by the
passage of the weft below certain raised por-
tions of the warp; the four threads, passing
through a single glass mail, being once raised
for every hole in the cards, or every square of
the paper covered with paint ; while for every
card, or every space contained between two
of the horizontal lines of the paper, four
threads of weft are inserted. Now I do not
suppose that you will find this very easy to
understand ; you will have to read it over and
over again, and be sure you know the meaning
E2



52 STORIES OF IRELAND.

of the first part of the process, before you
go on to another. Take a damask cloth or
dinner napkin, and examine it and ask your
mamma, or your teacher, to read the account of
its manufacture to you; and in time, though
not without attention, you will understand
something about it—at least, try. I shall
have but little in my Stories of Ireland to
tell you of manufactures. That of flax is in-
deed the only one for which Ireland is famous.

I must say a few words about the beauti-
ful Lough Neagh, between the counties of
Antrim and Londonderry. It is the largest
lake in the United Kingdom, and there are
few larger in Europe. It is formed by the
confluence or meeting of the Blackwater, the
Bann, and five other rivers. It is twenty
miles in length, twelve in breadth from east
to west, and eighty miles in circumference.
The Lough Neagh pebbles are well known ;
most of them are cornelian, calcedony, quartz,
or opal. The Lough is very beautiful near
the town of Antrim; elsewhere it is bare of
trees, but here it is finely wooded, and the
islands are very picturesque.

“Petrified wood” is found in large quanti-
’ ties also in the vicinity. These petrifactions
are composed of portions of the stems and
roots of trees, most generally holly and oak,



PETRIFIED WOOD. 53

which to the eye look in a natural state,
but are found to consist of stone, either
partially, or entirely. For a long time, be-
cause the process of this petrifaction could
not be understood, the fact was denied and
doubted, and naturalists maintained that no
change in the substance could have taken
place, and that it merely resembled wood.
It is believed now that the power of petri-
faction is in the soil. There appears to be
no evidence that the waters of Lough Neagh
have the peculiar property of converting
wood into stone, as was originally believed,
as different articles that have been put into
the lake, and along its banks, have not been
thus acted on.

Carrickfergus is one of the oldest towns
in Ireland; of its ancient fortifications some
remains exist, and the “north gate” is
almost perfect. It is a neat, clean town, and
a large portion of it is called the Scotch,
quarter, a great many of the inhabitants
being of Scottish descent.

I must conclude my account of Antrim in
another chapter, as I shall have to tell you
a great deal about one of the most remarkable
natural curiosities in the whole country.

E3



CHAPTER IV.

Antrim continued—Giant’s Causeway—Tale of the Idiot Boy—
Dunluce Castle—County of Down—History of St. Patrick—
The River Bann.

You have no doubt heard of the Giant’s
Causeway ; it is on the north coast of the
county of Antrim, and near the town of
Bushmills. It projects from a steep coast
into the sea to an unknown extent, and is
composed of pillars of basalt. There are
many objects of interest and wonder in the
neighbourhood, besides the Giant’s Cause-
way; caves and rocks in abundance. Port-
boon cave is very beautiful. Boats may row
into it a few yards, but the swell of the sea
there is sometimes dangerous. The stones,
of which the roof and sides are composed,
are rounded ; the inner recess is like an isle
of a Gothic cathedral, and the walls are
slimy to the touch.

But the Causeway is the great point of
attraction, and I will try and give you as
good an idea of it as Ican; but never havin .
seen it, I am only able to do so from col-
lecting the accounts which travellers have





THE GIANT’S



CAUSEWAY.



GIANT’S CAUSEWAY. 55

written of this extraordinary place. On the
side of a hill is the part called the Giant’s
Organ, a fine colonnade of natural pillars
laid open in the centre of a cliff, and one
hundred and twenty feet in height ; its name
is very appropriate, it really looks like an
organ. The guides have plenty of stories to
tell of the reasons for the wonderful natural
objects around. They believe that they were
the work of spirits of different kinds, and
very gravely tell you so. Another curious
object is the “chimney tops.” Three pillars,
the tallest of which is forty-five feet high,
stand on a rock some distance from the cliff.
A few years ago, a poor idiot boy was depri-
ved by death of his only parent, a mother.
The woman was buried; and some of the
neighbours, anxious to withdraw the lad from
her grave, where he used to sit and weep, told
him his mother was not there, but was gone
up to heaven. “Gone up!” he said, “ what
gone up as high as that organ?” “Ay, higher
than that,” they said. ‘As high as the chim-
neys?” Yes, higher still.” He shook his
head and said, innocently, that there was
nothing higher. Next evening they took
him some potatoes to the place where he had
« e since the funeral, but they could not
find him. Before night closed in, the poor



56 STORIES OF IRELAND.

boy was seen weeping on the top of those
fearful columns, ‘the chimneys,” clapping
his hands and crying aloud. The neighbours
were terribly frightened; they could not
imagine how he got there, and not one dared
peril his life to save him. It grew dark, and
the boy cried louder still. They shouted to
him, begging him to keep quiet until morn-
ing, and to cling closely to the columns;
some agreed to watch at the foot of the chim-
neys, so that if he fell, they might help him.
They were hard-working people, however,
and quite overcome with fatigue, they forgot
their watch and fell asleep. The sun was
high when they awoke, and when they looked,
the idiot boy was gone. They rushed to the
scattered masses of rock around the chimneys,
expecting to see his mangled corpse ; but they
sought in vain, for there was no trace of him.
“Ts it a dream?” they asked, as they pro-
ceeded homewards. ‘The first object that
they saw on their return, was the poor idiot
safe and sound in body, except for the
scratches and bruises he had received from
the sharp stones. “Ah!” said one of the
men, “but those whom God keeps, are well
kept. How did ye get down, my bonny
man?” “J could na’ find my mammy,” said
the boy, crying bitterly ; “I cried to her, but



TALE OF THE IDIOT BOY. 57

I could na’ find her.” It is said that these
chimney tops were battered by one of the
slugs of the Spanish Armada, whose men in
the night-time mistook them for a Castle.
The Spanish Armada was that great fleet sent
out by Philip of Spain to conquer England,
in the time of Queen Elizabeth. The Cause-
way itself consists of three parts—the Little
Causeway, the Middle Causeway, and the
Great Causeway—each jutting out into the
sea; the greater is to be seen 300 yards at
low water, the others not half as far.

Each pillar of the Causeway is worth
notice, looking like a distinct piece of work-
manship, regularly divided and jointed, as
though the hand of man had formed it.
All the points of interest in the Causeway
have names given them, and they are all
called the works of the Giant; there is the
Giant’s Loom, the Giant’s Theatre, the
Giant’s Pulpit, &c. The Guides would tell
you that when the Irish Giant, Fin Mac
Cool, was wishing to fight the Scotch Giant,
Benandonna, and invited him over to receive
the beating he intended for him, the Irish
Giant thought it only polite to hinder the
stranger wetting the sole of his foot, so built
a bridge for him across the sea, all the way
to Staffa, (one of the Scotch Islands,) over



58 STORIES OF IRELAND.

which the Giant came, to get broken bones.
T have given you a very faint description of
this great work of the Almighty, but I believe
had I seen it, I should still have been unable
to do it justice, it is so very wonderful.

The last object of interest in the county,
that I shall name, is Dunluce Castle, standing
on a rock, which rises one hundred feet above
the sea. The sides of the rock appear as if
they formed part of its walls, whilst its base,
from the constant action of the waves,
abounds in curious caverns,

The County of Down is bounded on the
east and on the south by the Irish sea, on
the north by Antrim and Belfast Lough, and
on the west by the county of Armagh. Its
principal towns are Newry, Downpatrick,
Bangor, and Dromore. It derives its name
from the Irish word Dunmer, a hilly country.

Newgy is a flourishing town ; it has manu-
factures of linen, and some good buildings.

Downpatrick is, however, the county or
capital town; an ancient place, and noted
for being the burial-place of the Patron
Saint of Ireland, called St. Patrick. Ireland
is a Catholic country, and hence you hear
a great deal of saints, as well as of giants,
spirits, and fairies, I will tell you a little
about this Patrick. For a long time in the



HISTORY OF ST. PATRICK. 59

early history of the Island, the only religion
taught was by the Druids. One of the
accounts of St. Patrick runs thus—About
the time that the Romans left England, an
Irish King named Mac Nial invaded France,
and carried off a great many captives to
Ireland. Amongst these was a youth about
16 years of age, who was sold as a slave,
and employed by his master to keep sheep.
His name was Patrick. Young Patrick, as
he used to watch his sheep, and wander
forth with them over hills and through
forests, used to reflect on the idolatrous
worship of the poor Irish, and thought how
sad it was that they should sacrifice their
little innocent children, and how foolish it
was in them to worship stone images instead
of bending the knee to the true God. For
about six years, Patrick remained in slavery
in Ireland, when he managed to make his
escape and return to France.

There is something very noble in Patrick’s
conduct; he did not forget the country where
he had been in bondage, and after many
years’ study he asked permission of the Pope
to revisit Ireland, and teach the natives
something about the God he worshipped.
The Pope, whom the Catholics consider as
the father of the church, (as the Italian word



60 STORIES OF IRELAND.

Papa signifies) gave his consent; and Patrick
came over to Ulster about the year 432, with
a few companions to help him in the work
of instructing the ignorant natives. He had
learned their language, and by his mild and
earnest discourse hesoon made many converts.

He then proceeded to Tara, in the county
of Meath, of which place I will tell you
presently. Here the King resided; and
Patrick preached to him and many chiefs,
who listened respectfully to him. Soon the
religion of the Druids was at an end; human
sacrifices were done away with ; the Christian
religion spread throughout the country, and
was soon established there. The form of it,
Imean. Religion is a personal affair, and a
country cannot be said truly to be religious,
unless every inhabitant of it were subject. to
the will of God, and lived according to the
requirements of the gospel. When peace and
holiness influence all men, when we all are
found loving our neighbour as ourselves, and
God above all, we may be called a christian
country. So when you hear of the establish-
ment of religion in a country, you will see
how far the phrase may be understood.

The Druids did not much oppose the
doctrines of Patrick, although once or twice
they tried to take his life. Monasteries







IRISH CABIN.



HISTORY OF ST. PATRICK. 61

were now founded in many parts of the
island, and they were soon filled. Patrick
himself was a great scholar; and from his
works has been gathered much of what we
know of the Irish at this early period.

This is the simple history of a simple plain
man, called by those who would rather exalt
the creature than the Creator, Saint Patrick.
The worship of saints and angels is a sign of
the corruption which crept into the church ;
when it began to think less of Christ, it felt
the need of other intercessors with God, and
in its foolish pride put mortals in the pldce
which can but be occupied by Him who is
the only Advocate with the Father. Some
historians say that Patrick was born in
Britain, and was taken captive to Ireland by
some Danish pirates or sea robbers, at the
age of sixteen. There are many versions of
his history, and it is impossible to discover
which is the true one. They are all liable
to mistake.*

* Amongst many curious stories told of St. Patrick, by the Irish,
it is said that he banished all frogs and toads from Ireland, or as
the old verse has it,

“Twas on the of this high hill,

St. Patrick re his sarmint ;
He a the into the bogs,
And banished all the varmint.”

Whether the moisture of the climate prevents the existence of ser-
pents and toads in Ireland, is a question ; but frogs are now about

as common in some districts of Ireland as in England. There are
no moles in the country.

F



*
62 STORIES OF IRELAND,

The great object of attraction in Down-
patrick is the Cathedral, a modern and
elegant building. The River Bann, in the
county of Down, was once noted for its pearl
fisheries, and I believe pearls are still occa-
sionally found there. They come from a
fresh-water muscle, in shape and colour like
the sea muscle, but of a very flat, insipid
taste. The common mode of fishing for
pearls in the Bann is simple enough. In
the warm weather, when the river is low and
clear, the poor people wade in the water;
and some with their toes, others with sharp
sticks thrust into the opening of the shells,
take them up. This can only be done in
shallow water, whereas the large muscles and
the greater quantities are found in deep
smooth water. In the pearl fisheries in the
East and West Indies, they fish by means
of diving, sometimes sixty feet under water.
Pearls are thought to be the result of disease
in a particular kind of oyster. The principal
pearl fisheries are in the East and West
Indies. In the bay of Panama, in South
America, are some islands called the Pearl

Islands; and many pearls are procured
there.



CHAPTER V.

Tyrone—The Story of the O’Neils—Their Quarrels—Shane’s
Visit to Queen Elizabeth—Hugh 0’Neil—Suspicion of him—
The Rebellion—Essex—His Mission to Ireland—He fails—
His disgrace—Mountjoy’s cruelty—O’Neil is defeated—His
pardon—News tellers — Cavan —Monaghan— Enniskellen—
Round Towers, and their origin.

The county of Tyroye is entirely inland,
and is bounded by Londonderry on the
north, Fermanagh and Monaghan on the
south, Donegal and Fermanagh on the west,
and Armagh and Lough Neagh on the east.

You have many of you heard, I suppose,
of the Tyrone Rebellion, which began in the
timeof Queen Elizabeth. It arose in a quarrel
between the O’Neils, who were of the ancient
royal race of Ireland, and traced back their
ancestry earlier than the days of St. Patrick.
Shane and Matthew, two half brothers, were
constantly fighting and quarrelling about
titles and possessions, till at last Matthew
was murdered, as many people believed, by
his brother. Matthew left two sons, Hugh
and Cormac, who were for a long time resi-
dent in England, whither they fled after their

F2



64 STORIES OF IRELAND,

father’s death, leaving Shane O’Neil chief of
the counties about which there had been so
much dispute. This Shane took rather too
much on himself, it appears; behaving just
as the old kings of Ulster had done, and
acting according to the old laws of Ireland
in carrying on wars without permission of
the Lord Lieutenant, who was placed by the
English at Dublin to carry out the laws of
England in the country ; and to see, in fact,
that the Irish remained faithful subjects.

Of course, Shane’s conduct gave great
offence, and he was summoned to Dublin to
give an account of himself; but he was
rather too prudent to trust himself to the
mercy of the Lieutenant away from his own
home, so he shrewdly invited his lordship to
Strabane, in Tyrone, where he lived, begging
him to do him the honour of standing god-
father to a little boy who was just born.

The Lieutenant went to O’Neil, and they
became great friends after this; Shane having
treated him very nobly and hospitably. The
chief being quite encouraged by getting the
Lieutenant into good humour, thought he
would venture on a visit to London to see
Queen Elizabeth, that he might tell her his
case, and why he considered he had a greater
right to the estate of his father than his



SHANE’S VISIT TO QUEEN ELIZABETH. 65

brother’s children. The fact was, that Shane
suspected what I believe was the truth, that
Matthew was not really his own brother;
and, if so, he had more right to inherit his
father’s property than Matthew, or Matthew’s
children. Shane’s visit was quite a pleasure
to Queen Elizabeth, who was always fond
of novelty and show; and Shane went in
great state and parade to the court. He
rode into London, richly dressed, and fol-
lowed by a great many foot-guards, habited
in the fashion of their country, in large
loose saffron-coloured linen garments, under
which the officers wore armour, with a sword,
shield, and a weapon like a battle-axe, about
four feet long. The common men only wore
the saffron-coloured linen, and a belt round
the waist. They had long flowing beards,
and no covering to their heads. It pleased
Queen Elizabeth to receive Shane O’Neil
most graciously. She set him quite at ease
about his title and estates, confirming his
right to them, to his great satisfaction; so
that he returned to Ireland in good spirits,
and, for a short time, went on peaceably
enough. But, on some slight pretence, he
broke his oaths of allegiance, and the whole
Province of Ulster was again in arms. A
chief of the name of O’Donnel, son-in-law
F3



66 STORIES OF IRELAND.

of Shane, distinguished himself in these
rebellions.

In the mean time, Matthew’s sons had
grown to be young men; and Hugh, the
elder of them, being very handsome, which
was always a recommendation to Elizabeth,
became a great favourite of hers. She made
him captain of a troop of horse; and when
Shane died, she bestowed on him the title of
Earl of Tyrone, and restored to him some of
the estates, which, through his uncle’s re-
bellion, had been forfeited to the crown.

Shane, I should tell you, was stabbed
at a banquet; some say, by his son-in-law,
O'Donnel. Hugh lived on his estate in
Ireland for some time, in peace; and acted
dutifully and loyally enough to please his
royal mistress.

You have read, no doubt, of the Spanish
Armada; that great fleet which Philip III.,
of Spain, proposed sending to England to
conquer it. This Spanish Armada met with
great misfortunes ; and was, finally, scattered
entirely. Very stormy weather arose, and
some of its vessels were wrecked on the Irish
coast. The Earl of Tyrone, out of a feeling
of common humanity, treated the poor
Spaniards, thus cast on shore, very kindly ;
and this treatment caused his enemies to



THE REBELLION. 67

report to the Queen that Hugh was taking
part with Philip, the Spanish King, against
her. A son of Shane O’Neil made this
accusation, which so incensed the Earl of
Tyrone, that he caused his cousin to be
strangled. When he had once thus given
way to the spirit of revenge and murder, he
became ungovernable, and agreed with other
chiefs of Ulster, to try and recover the
throne of their ancestors—in short, to throw
off allegiance to Elizabeth.

And now they really did apply to Philip,
who was ready enough to assist them against
his enemy—England. War began—not only
in Ulster, but other provinces; and again the
whole country was in confusion. Such was
the state of things when Queen Elizabeth sent
over the Earl of Essex with a large army, to
put an end to the rebellion. This Earl had
been a great favourite with the fickle Queen,
but was losing her confidence very rapidly at
this time. It is not unlikely that his enemies
(of which he had many, as all favourites have)
were very anxious to have Essex dispatched
on this mission, in which they were certain
he would fail, from want of experience and
caution. During the consultation which
took place in the Queen’s Cabinet, as to the
proper person to send to Ireland to quell the



68 STORIES OF IRELAND.

disturbances, Essex interfered with a great
deal of warmth. Elizabeth, affronted at his
positive tone, reproached him rather sharply,
on which, he so far forgot himself as to turn
his back on her Majesty, with a very rude
speech. The Queen forgot herself in like
manner, you will say, and gave him a sound
box on the ear. He was so enraged that he
grasped his sword-hilt, and, but for the inter-
ference of the Lord Admiral, Sir Robert Cecil,
some serious mischief might have ensued.
However, Essex swore that he would not
have taken that blow from king Harry, her
father, and that it was an indignity he neither
could nor would endure from any one. He
then muttered something about a “king in
petticoats,” and rushed away from Court in
high displeasure. He remained away for five
months, and then the quarrel was made up,
and his appointment to the office of Lord
Deputy took place. It appears that Essex
offended the Queen, in this Irish mission, in
three points. He treated with Tyrone for a
six weeks’ truce, when she ordered him to
fight. He appointed a friend of his, Master
of the Horse, contrary to her Majesty’s order,
and marched into another part of Ireland,
instead of proceeding directly against Tyrone
as he was commanded, thus losing a great



ESSEX, 69

part of his army from fatigue and famine,
Elizabeth wrote many angry letters to Essex;
and at last he was so alarmed by their tone,
that he resolved to return to England and
plead his own cause. He arrived in London
about ten in the morning; and breathless as
he was, untidy in dress, and his very face
bespattered with mud, he rushed into her
bed-chamber, flung himself on his knees
before her, and covered her hands with kisses.
The Queen, who was only just risen, with her
hair all about her face, was rather surprised,
as you may suppose, but gave him a kinder
reception than he expected, so that Essex
left her quite encouraged; but poor Essex
had enemies, who did not fail to foment the
Queen’s anger against him, and in the evening
he found her stern and distant in her manner.

The next day he was summoned before the
Council to answer for his disobedience whilst
in Ireland, his bold letter from thence, and
finally, for his daring to appear in her
Majesty’s bed-chamber. This last affront
was not to be forgiven; the vain old Queen
of sixty-eight was not pleased to be seen, by
her favourite, with her thin grey hair un-
covered by one of her eighty wigs; unpainted,
and unadorned. Essex was placed in con-
finement, and fretted himself really ill. He



70 STORIES OF IRELAND.

had often feigned sickness to excite her com-
passion ; but it was too late for that now.
In vain he wrote her pathetic letters, and
earnest apologies: Elizabeth was not to be
moved. After a few months’ imprisonment
he was released, but not permitted to ap-
proach court: and had this proud and self-
willed man chosen to content himself with a
private life, there is no doubt but that he
might have ended his days in peace. After
a while, however, he grew dissatisfied ; ‘I
will not,” he said, “be pushed down into
private life.” His house now became quite
a place of meeting for discontented and dis-
loyal subjects ; but the great cause of offence
—that which might be said to seal his fate—
was a speech he made, in which he publicly
called his Queen “ an old woman, as crooked
in mind as she was in body.” This speech
was reported to Elizabeth, who cherished it
in her memory. Essex collected about three
hundred followers, who determined to force
their way into the Queen’s presence; but
the insurrection was soon stopped, and Essex
again lodged in the Tower; and very soon
afterwards was sent to the block. This was
' the end of Essex ; sad enough, as the end of
a favourite in history usually is,
We have wandered far from the Tyrone



MOUNTJOY’S CRUELTY. 71

rebellion in Ireland to the Tower of London ;
and now let us see what sort of Deputy
was Lord Mountjoy, the successor of Essex.
The Irish heard that this same Lord was
but a “bookish man,” and were disposed to
laugh at him at first; but they soon found
that they had little cause for laughter. He
pursued the rebels with fire and sword, killing
without mercy, cutting. down corn, burning
houses, and causing famine and suffering
throughout the country where he marched.
He made it a practice, too, to destroy the
ploughs and other implements of husbandry,
so that the poor people had no means left
of cultivating the soil when war had done
its worst.

Fynes Morrison, an eye-witness, gives a
dreadful account of the sufferings of the Irish
at this time, and concludes a melancholy
description by saying, “No sight was more
common than that of wasted counties, especi-
ally of towns, and multitudes dead in the
ditches, their mouths all coloured green with
nettles and docks they had eaten, and such
things as they could tear above ground.”
Many of the rebel chiefs fled to Spain, and
the poor people dispersed among the moun-
tains. O’Neil himself went to Dublin to
make submission to Earl Mountjoy. Queen °



72 STORIES OF IRELAND.

Elizabeth, who was greatly worried by these
Trish rebellions, and by the death of her
favourite Essex, had died a few days prior to
O’Neil’s submission, and James was not
likely to be very merciful to the rebel chief.
However, O’Neil accompanied Mountjoy to
London; there, on bended knees, to ask the
king’s forgiveness: whereupon his life was
granted him, and his estates partially re-
stored. He lived only a short time in Ireland,
however ; for being suspected of intentions
to rebel, he was compelled to flee to Spain,
and all his property and estates were confis-
cated to the king. These are the principal
incidents relative to that celebrated Tyrone
rebellion, of which you will often hear, and
they will, I hope, be sufficient to impress
the name of Tyrone on your memory.
There are many ruined castles in Tyrone,
and, indeed, throughout Ulster generally ;
which may be accounted for by the state of
warfare into which the province was so
frequently plunged.

During the wars of the O’Neils every one
was of course very anxious to hear the news.
There were no newspapers in those days, and
the want was supplied by a class of men called
news men, or news tellers. These persons
used to go up and down the country, collecting



"= =



CORACLE.



NEWS TELLERS. 73

news, and would go and relate it to the
farmers or private gentlemen, where they ~

were sure to find a ready welcome, and bed
and board at least. I dare say their news
was not always to be depended upon exactly,
but perhaps as much so as many things we
read in newspapers now-a-days. This chapter
on Tyrone is already sufficiently long, but
we have not yet quite finished with Ulster.
Omagh and Strabane are the principal towns
of Tyrone, but I do not know of anything
in their history likely to interest you.
ArmacH is bounded on the north by
Tyrone and Lough Neagh, on the north-east
by Down, on the south and west by Mona-
ghan and Louth. Its capital, Armagh, is
built on the sides of a steep hill. It isa
neat, clean town, and the streets are paved
with marble, of which most of the houses are
likewise built. There is a fine old Cathedral
here, which is said to have been founded by
St. Patrick. Nial, one of the very early
kings of Ulster, is buried near Armagh.
He fought and conquered the Danes, and
after a great victory over them, he ordered
one of his captains to pursue the enemy over
a river—the river Callan. The waters were
swollen with heavy rains, and the poor
captain was carried away. As no one ran to
@

—



74 STORIES OF IRELAND.

his relief, Nial himself plunged into the
current, and was drowned.

Of Cavan County I have really nothing to
tell you that is likely to be interesting. It
is bounded on the north by the county of
Fermanagh ; on the east and north-east by
parts of Longford, Meath, and West Meath.
Cavan and Belturhet are the only towns of
importance or size, and a large portion of this
district is uncultivated bog and mountain.

The county of Fermanacu, the last of the
nine counties of Ulster, is bounded on the
north by Tyrone and Donegal, on the east
by Monaghan, and on the south by Cavan.

This county abounds in lakes, of which
the beautiful Lough Erne is the most im-
portant.

The town of Enniskillen, the capital of
Fermanagh, is situated on an island between
the upper and lower lake, Lough Erne. This
town is noted for its defence against James
the Second’s army at the battle of the Boyne,
which I will notice in the proper place
There are many islands on Lough Erne, as
many, it is said, as there are days of the
year; all of these are green and verdant,
but that of Devenish is the most interesting.
Devenish contains the remains of seven
churches and a round tower, the most perfect
of its kind in Ireland.





ROUND TOWER (IRELAND.)

ROUND TOWER (INDIA.)



ROUND TOWERS, AND THEIR ORIGIN. 75

I promised to give you an account of these
round towers, which have often puzzled
travellers and persons curious in antiquities.

Without giving you all the opinions and
conjectures that have been formed about
them, I will tell you that they are considered
by the best authorities as having been the
work of those Phoenicians who were the
early settlers in Ireland.

That the ancient Irish worshipped fire, is a
fact fully established, and they were doubt-
less taught this worship by their visitors
from the East, where it was prevalent. The
old Irish name Cillcagh, indeed quite bears
out this idea. Cillcagh is a compound of two
words, meaning fire and divinity ; its deriva-
tion is the same as the Hindoo word Coill,
from Challana, to burn. That they were
also used for burial places is evident from
some discoveries of bones and skeletons with-
in the walls. There are but eighty-three
towers now remaining; twenty in a perfect,
and sixty-three in a decaying state. Those
that are in good repair vary in height from
70 to 130 feet, and are divided into several
stories; they are from 8 to 15 feet in
diameter. The door is as high as six, some-
times sixteen feet from the ground. Each
floor is lit by a single window. The whole

G2



76 STORIES OF IRELAND.

has a roof of stone-work of a conical shape.
The drawing of one Tower will give you
an idea of almost all of them, for they ap-
pear only to have varied in small particulars,
such as height, or the number of windows.
These temples of the early: fire-worshippers
make us regret that a people so learned as
the Pheenicians, who taught all else so well,
could teach the Irish nothing about the true
God.

The drawings annexed will show you the
resemblance that exists between the round
towers in India and those remaining in
Treland.



CHAPTER VI.

Province of Connaught—County of Leitrim—Irish Cabin—
Its Tenants—Furniture—Famine—Frightful scenes—Death
from Starvation—Mr. Kohl’s description of a Cabin.

Tue province of Connaught contains five
counties. Lxrrrm, the most northerly, is
bounded on the north by Donegal Bay; on
the west by Sligo and Roscommon; on the
east by Cavan and Fermanagh; and on the
south by Longford. It is a very long,
narrow county, being forty-six miles in
length, and from two to sixteen in breadth.
It has no towns of any note, but its county
or capital town is called Carrick-on-Shannon.

In the province of Connaught, the distress
and poverty of which you have frequently
heard is very melancholy to witness, and
even a description, falling, as it does, very
far short of the reality, might make you sad.
But although it is not an amusing subject,
it is one which I would have you think of; it
is a bad plan, at all times, to avoid matters
that are distressing, and to say, that as we
cannot help Ireland, it is no use to think
about it. Had every one thought thus,

a3



78 STORIES OF IRELAND.

slavery would never have been abolished ;
and if none will think on the subject of Ire-
land’s distress, no improvement will ever
take place in the country. Happily some-
thing has been done, and more still might
be done to improve her condition.

The fact is, that we have thought too little
about her; and yet she has a claim upon
England, for did not England of her own
accord take charge of Ireland when she con-
quered her? The Romans, who made great
conquests in different parts of the world, used
to say that as soon as they had conquered a
nation, they considered themselves no longer
its enemies, but that they should thence-
forward become as brothers, and work to-
gether for one another’s good. Well would
it be if nations now adopted the same plan ;
but England has not acted thus to Ireland.

You cannot understand the great political
questions which have puzzled wiser brains
than yours or mine; but you can understand
this, that we have neglected the claims of our
neighbours, and whilst we have sent the bible
to the heathen, taken interest in the abolition
of slavery in foreign countries, and spent
much money for schemes abroad as well as at
home, we have looked on Ireland as a very
troublesome beggar, and have taken but little
pains to improve it; but you shall hear what



os

Q

a a



ISLAND OF ACHILL.

IN

DOOAGHA,







FAMINE. 79

kind of distress exists, and then ask your-
selves if you have thought of it as you ought.

You can, most of you, remember the year
1847, when there was such a dreadful famine
in Ireland. I will tell you a little of that
presently ; but let us look at the lives the
poor Irish lead in a common way, when
there is no such particular pressure as that
of which I speak. You will often hear it
said that there is quite as much distress and
poverty in England as in Ireland. First of
all, I do not believe this is the case; or, how
is it that we did not suffer from the famine
as the Irish did, for corn was dear all the
world over? and secondly, if there were,
which there is not, it would be no reason
for our refusing to pity and to help our
neighbours as far as possible.

Look now at this drawing; this is an
Trish cabin, by no means of the worst class,
as I will describe to you bye and bye.

How should you like to spend a night
there? Why, your papa’s horse is better
lodged by far; nay, the pigs in the sties are
almost as well or better covered than the Irish
poor. There is frequently, in cabins like
this, no window, and only a hole in the roof,
and an old wicker basket on it for a chimney ;
the light and air enter where they can, and



80 STORIES OF IRELAND.

how they can, and the rain finds easy entrance
enough through the holes in the roof, the wet
often standing in great pools on the floor.
One room is all that such cabins contain ;
there a whole family eat and sleep. Their
beds are straw or heather, laid on the floor,
and covered with an old rug or blanket, if
such a thing remain, and if not, with the
clothes of the family. But besides the father
and mother, and six or seven children, crow-
ded into this little room, there is another
occupant. I have seen fowls in the poor
English cottages, and very much I have dis-
liked the sight, but the Irish share their bed
and food with their pig. Even the pig, how-
ever, is a less common sight than it was, for
the pig is sold in times of great distress and
starvation. The furniture of these cabins
consists of an iron pot, to boil potatoes in; a
rude dresser, sometimes; two or three very
rough stools ; a table, (but not always that);
a basket, into which the potatoes are thrown
when dressed; and now and then, a poor
truckle bed in the corner. Outside, and often
in the very front of the door, is the dung
heap; and you may easily imagine that with
such a crowd within, and polluted air without,
sickness and disease abound. And what is
their food? you will ask. Petatoes princi-



FRIGHTFUL SCENES. 81

pally, and butter-milk; bacon very rarely,
and occasionally a cabbage. I am speaking of
those who can get food at all. It is not un-
common—indeed, it is very common, for the
poor creatures to be without even coarse fare
like that I have described. The potatoe is the
great article of diet in Ireland. I cannot ex-
plain to you how it is that they depend so on
this root, which never was intended by Provi-
dence to form the principal food of man; it
is very well, combined with other food, but
does not contain nourishment enough in itself.
Yet the Irish are content if they can find
sufficient potatoes, and seem to have little
ambition beyond.* This is not natural to
them, however. Ifyou set an Irishman down
to a dinner of soup or meat, he will not tell
you that he prefers potatoes, but poor fellow,
he has so long been living in poverty, and is
so crushed and disheartened by it, that he has
lost that energy and desire for improvement
natural to more healthy minds. A prisoner
does not enjoy his liberty at first. I have
even heard of one sighing, after a long con-
finement, to be taken back to the gloomy jail.

Well, when the potatoe crop is less plenti-
ful, or when, as has been the case of late
years, the potatoe itself is bad and unwhole-
some, you will easily see how bad is the



“ter

82 STORIES OF IRELAND.

Trishman’s case. The little bit of land
attached to his miserable cabin, is covered
entirely with that plant; it is his all, and if
that fails throughout the country, he is ruined.
Great efforts are being made to induce the
farmers to sow oats and turnips, and other
seed instead of the potatoe; but so ignorant
are the farmers and cottiers of farming, that
they have been known to sow the turnip-seed
like grass, and having omitted to hoe it, the
root has been as thin and taper as a radish.
A gentleman who went over to Ireland to
ascertain the amount of distress, and to make
a report to a committee formed in England
to relieve it, in 1847, says in his journal, that
the lahourers were willing to work, but could
find no employment. Many assured him
that they should thankfully take six-pence a
day or less, but could not obtain it. A quart
of meal was in some cases all that was given
to a full-grown man for a day’s work.
During that awful time the roads were
strewed with dead bodies, and several cab and
coach drivers assured the writer, that in the
dark they had even driven over them. In
the neighbourhood of one town, 140 bodies
had been found by the road side. In some
cases it has been known, that where all other
members of a family have died, the last



—

DEATH FROM STARVATION. 83

wretched surviver has earthed up his cabin-
door that dogs and pigs might not come in,
and then laid himself down to die. Think
of ten thousand people in one district, within
forty-eight hours’ journey of London, living
or rather starving upon sea-weed, sand eels,
and turnip-tops.

The landlords, distressed by the same
scarcity that affected the tenants, were in
some instances very hard-hearted. Instances
have been known of unroofing the cabins,
in order to drive the poor creatures out of
them. The account which one poor woman
gave was very touching; she was living in
Mullarogue, in the county of Mayo, with her
husband, when the landlord came about ten
days before Christmas and turned the people
out of the cabins, pulling down the roofs.
That night they had no tent nor shelter, but
such as they made out of wood and straw
that the drivers threw down when they drove
them from the place. It was a night of high
wind, but their wailing could be heard for
some distance. They implored the driver for
mercy, but in vain. A poor man on the sea
shore, close to this village, was picking up
shell-fish or sea-weed to appease his hunger,
and was seen to stagger and fall. Another
man who saw it carried him into his hut,



84 - STORIES OF IRELAND.

but it was too late, he was dead! He was
one of the ejected tenants of Mullarogue.

Fever of a Very dreadful kind then made
its appearance, and thousands died with all
the horrors of pestilence, added to those of
starvation.

I promised to give you a description of a
hut, of a worse kind than that which you
have just looked at. Here is the account
which Kohl, the German traveller, gives of
such a dwelling.—

“Let the traveller look where he is going,
or he may make a false step; the earth may
give way under his feet, or he may fall into
what—an abyss? a cavern? a bog? No, into
ahut; a human dwelling-place, which he had
overlooked, because the roof was level with the
ground! Of what is this composed? The
wall of the bog often forms two or three
sides of it, whilst sods taken from the surface,
form the remaining part, and the roof. Win-
dow there is none, chimneys are not known ;
light, smoke, pigs, and children, all pass out
and in at the only opening—the door! When
I have entered, I have had to do it onall
fours. You may conceive a family of six
or eight—men, women, and children, kneel-
ing or squatting by the peat fire, or lying

on the damp ground; they are in rags and



IRISH FAMINE, 85

tatters, some even entirely naked. I asked
one poor man, on what he and his family
subsisted. He pointed to some withered
turnip-tops. ‘Upon these’ he said. ‘And
what else?’ ‘ Yonder,’ he replied, ‘is one of
the family seeking for sea-weed.’ ‘And
are there many so badly off? ‘ Yes ; worse,
aback in the mountain; they are dying
there every day.’ ”

Now for what purpose do you suppose I
have told you these sad stories of famine and
misery? Not alone to impress the name of
this county upon your minds; still less, to
pass away an idle half-hour, or to gratify
mere curiosity. ~

This is not a tale, remember; it is sad,
serious fact. It has occurred too, within a
distance of comparatively few miles from
your very doors.

I know, moreover, that you are at an age
when the heart is tender, and when associa-
tions made are strong; I want, therefore, to
encourage you, thus early in life, in love and
pity, instead of scorn, contempt, and aver-
sion to those suffering people. They are not
greater sinners than the people of England
because they suffer such things; and there
is no telling to what deeds of mercy your
early feelings of benevolence and love of

H



86 STORIES OF IRELAND.

your neighbours may lead. You are children
now, but you will be men and women soon.
May you be useful, active, and tender-
hearted; after the example of Him who
went about doing good.

I will just say in conclusion, that these
remarks on the famine and distress of this
part of the Island, apply equally to almost
all Connaught. I introduce them here, be-
cause Leitrim is so devoid of all interest of
any other Kind.



CHAPTER VIL.

Sligo—Cong Abbey—Burial-place of the last King—The famous
Robber—Speed of his Horse—His Exploits—Castlebar Races
—Isle of Achill—Coracles—Seals—Roscommon—Galway—
Resemblance to Spanish Towns.

Suico is bounded on the east by Leitrim,
on the north-by the Atlantic Ocean, on the
west and south by Mayo county, and on the
south-east by Roscommon.

The capital, Sligo, is a sea-port; but it ‘
has little trade. Its Abbey has long been
famous, and the ruins are very interesting.
It has once or twice been destroyed by fire,
but has been restored. The steeple is entire ;
and each little pillar in the Abbey is differ-
ently and beautifully ornamented. There
are several vaults in the ruin; and many
skulls, portions of bones and coffins have
been discovered. The county of Sligo
abounds in mountains and lakes; but like
several other counties in Connaught, there is
little beyond the poverty of its inhabitants
to notice—and that is a melancholy subject.

Mayo, the adjoining county, is bounded on
the east by Sligo and Roscommon, on the

H2



88 STORIES OF IRELAND.

south by Galway, and on the north and west
by the Atlantic Ocean.

Before I refer particularly to Castlebar, its
principal town, I will tell you of the old
town of Cong, distant from it twelve miles,
and noted for its Abbey. Here Roderic
O'Connor, the last of the Irish kings, passed
the concluding fifteen years of his life, and
is said to be buried.

The last Abbot of Cong was interred among
the ruins about twenty years since; and here
also are the remains of a noted robber, whose
name was Mac Namara. There are many
marvellous tales told of this man: and of
a very swift horse he possessed, whose feats
seem almost to have surpassed those of Dick
Turpin’s Black Bess. One evening he invited
some gentlemen from Munster to dine with
him at his house, near Cong. After having
dinner and plenty of wine, they all retired
to rest for the night. Mac Namara went to
his room as if for the same purpose ; but
instead of going to bed, he got Binnish, his
noted horse, ready ; and set off to the house
of one of his guests, in the county of
Clare, which he robbed, and then returned
to Cong the same night, as swift as the
wind. He arrived just in time to see the
guests go to the breakfast table, where he



THE FAMOUS ROBBER. 89

joined them in capital spirits; the poor
robbed man little thinking what his host had
been after all night. Mac Namara had a
passage underground from his house to the
Town Cross of Cong ; and in this place he and
his followers often secreted themselves, At
last he had to take his trial for one of his
robberies, but contrived to get off, some one
of influence interfering on his behalf; at
which he testified his joy by springing up
over the spikes of the dock, hand-cuffed and
fettered as he was, to the great astonishment
of judge and jury.

The situation of Cong Abbey is very
beautiful. The village stands en a small
peninsula that juts out into Lough Corrib. .

The capital town of Mayo, called Castlebar,
is a neat and thriving place, but the suburbs
are very wretched. The mountains are pic-
turesque, and there are some fine lakes in the
neighbourhood. Castlebar was famous for
a battle fought there in 1798, called the
Castlebar Races.

The town of Newport-Mayo is second in
importance. There is a great deal of fish
caught here; both trout and salmon. The
boats at Newport-Mayo seem to be like those
used by the ancient Irish: they are made of
wooden laths covered with canvass; and the

H3



90 STORIES OF IRELAND.

* stem is almost as broad as the stern. The
size is usually large enough to contain four
men; but they are extremely light, rising
and falling with every wave, and have never
been known to upset. These kinds of boats,
called coracles, are of ancient origin; they
were used by the Irish in their invasions,
before the Romans left Britain.

About sixteen miles from Newport is

» the Island of Achill, which abounds in
beauty and interest. This is the largest
island off the Irish coast. The dwellings
of the islanders are very curious; they are
heaps of rough stones, procured from the
beach, and without cement of any kind;
their roofing is fern, heath, and shingles. In
the village of Dooagha, which consists of
forty cabins, there is not a single chimney ;
nor is there one tree in the whole place,
though there are signs of its having been
once a thick forest. It is full of lakes,
The foxes are so abundant that the lambs
are never safe. There are many seals among
the rocks, and plenty of ravens and eagles.

I wonder if you ever saw a seal; it
is a strange looking creature. Seals, in
general, prefer cold climates ; but are caught
off the coast of Scotland, as well as Ireland.
They belong to that tribe of animals called



SEALS. 91

amphibious, living either on land or in the
water. They are usually found in the sea, but
are known to.inhabit very large fresh water
lakes, and are caught in those of Ladoga and
Onega, in Russia. The form of their bodies
is something like a fish; the hind feet are at
the extremity of the body, and serve the
purpose of afin. The fore feet are adapted
for swimming, and the toes are furnished
with claws, and united by a membrane.
The tail is very short; the eyes are large ©
and prominent; and they can open and shut

their nostrils at pleasure. They feed chiefly
on crabs, small fish, and sea birds. They
are very fond of their young; and often,
when badly wounded, carry them off in
their mouths. They live in herds or
families along the sea shore, and sleep on
rocks or ice banks. The full-grown bottle-
nose seal, as it is called, grows from eleven
to eighteen feet in length; but common
seals are but from four to six feet long.
They become very fat; their oil is of great
use; and the skins are used by trunk makers,
hatters, and saddlers. The Greenlanders
and Finlanders, people who inhabit countries
at the north of Europe, are very expert
seal hunters. There are seals kept at the
Zoological Gardens in London; so you



92 STORIES OF IRELAND.

must remember to go and look at them if
you visit that interesting place.

Roscommon is bounded on.the north by
Leitrim, on the north-west by Mayo and
Sligo, on the south and south-west by Gal-
way, and on the east by Longford, West
Meath, and King’s County.

Roscommon, the capital, is a small and
poor town. Boyle is a large town, and has
the remains of a very ancient Abbey. Ath-
lone, in the south of the county, is noted as
being the scene of some battles between
James II. and William II. The beautiful
river Shannon forms the eastern boundary of
the county of Roscommon. The Shannon’s
source is in a deep hollow, near the base of
the Culkagh mountains, in Leitrim. This
gulf, though not twenty feet in diameter, is
so deep that a line of two hundred yards has
not reached the bottom.

The last county in the province of Con-
naught is Gatway; it is bounded on the
north by Roscommon and Mayo, on the
east by Tipperary and King’s County, on the
south by Clare and Galway Bay, and on the
west by the Atlantic Ocean. The capital town
is Galway; and many travellers have been
much struck with its resemblance to a Spanish



RESEMBLANCE TO SPANISH TOWNS. 93

town. Galway was in early times a famous
trading port with Spain; a country to the
south of the continent of Europe. Several
Spanish families settled here; and this may
account for the style of the buildings being
so different to that of any other town in
Treland. Mr. Inglis, a traveller, who has
written an account of his visit to Treland,
said that he found here even more to remind
him of Spain than he had been led to expect :
—wide entries and broad stairs, as in Cadiz
and Malaga; arched gateways with outer and
inner railings, and a little sliding wicket in
several doorways peculiar to that country.
There is a manufacture of marble at Galway,
which I must mention. That marble which is
obtained near the town is black. The quarries
are on the banks of Lough Corrib. Some
of the blocks are very large. The first pro-
cess in obtaining the marble is that of strip-
ping, as it is called; for the marble does not
lie at the surface, but is embedded in rocks
of limestone, sometimes two or three feet
thick ; this is done by aid of gunpowder, and
called blasting the rock. When the rubbish
is removed, the marble is easily got at. It
lies as smooth and even as a table, and in
slabs of different thickness. This is not
the only kind of marble found in Connaught.



Full Text


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID ETWYZJAAU_6QZN3A INGEST_TIME 2014-10-01T20:18:16Z PACKAGE UF00003425_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES


“9%. ce
poet ered habe ss ee ae
DSP IGS es tpn eee pr aeet:
; Se fe Fn
Pearse nist teat acer e ee ile
a CaS Pe 2

7 :

peg Ne

Seg tee
Pre

3
p Po
Rete
ee ee ape
See tee

PT 3;

oem

We ory

‘peer
gui gets geri

Sere

eS

ne

nape

Pe aNs pS
pe Ses Comat dn Thee tt ay?
Sten obscene oeats
at
Tae este eh reese ees

Sa trates Sh op een ar csr
Pea

mes Are Se


The Baldwin Library


Sacos.el —<2aZe'
Lc ctGll tM de
Laut,
FEZ

Gel BIW. Gonnes bela



STORIES OF IRELAND






Wy

Sf

Melee
iitnltin



. LONDONDERRY.


STORIES OF IRELAND

HER FOUR PROVINCES.

—~—

BY MRS, 7, GELDART,

AUTHOR OF “STORIES OF ENGLAND,” “TRUTH I8 EVERYTHING,”

ETC, ETC.





LONDON:
JARROLD & SONS, 47, ST. PAUL’S CHURCHYARD.



Preface.

A preface to “Stories of Ireland” appears desirable,
as the author can claim but little originality in writing
of a country which she has never seen. The presont
work is, in reality, but a condensation of much that
has already been published of that interesting island;
a condensation and adaptation to the ideas and tastes
of young persons. Very few children, it is presumed,
would sit down of their own free will to read Hall's
Ireland ; and yet from this, and some other books of
travel, much that this little volume contains is bor-
rowed—dressed, perhaps, in simpler language; but, it
is to be hoped, not the léss attractive to a child. Many
difficulties have presented themselves, not because the
subject is devoid of interest, but on account of the
apathy with which English children are accustomed
to regard Ireland, together with a too general preju-
dice against its inhabitants. Should the writer of
the following pages have succeeded in awakening
some tender and brotherly feelings to the poor Irish,
she will feel that a great object is achieved, even if
the name of every county be not indelibly engraved
on the memory of the youthful reader.

Altrincham,
May, 1857.

Contents,

ae

INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER.
The position of Ireland—The early inhabitants—Visit of
the Phenicians—Chiefs

CHAPTER I.
Divisions of Ireland—Northern Division—Donegal Bogs—
Lough Erne—A Fairy Tale—Ballyshannon—The Pullins

CHAPTER II.

The County of Londonderry—Derry—The Revolution—James
II.—Flight from Whitehall—Shutting the Gates—Siege of
Derry—Dreadful Suffering—Walker, the Priest Soldier—
Famine—Reli

CHAPTER III.
Antrim—Belfast—Botanical Gardens—Manufacture of Linen
—Cottage Cultivation of Flax—Damask Factory—Lough
Neagh—Petrified Wood—Carrickfergus .......cssceseee
CHAPTER IV.
Antrim continued—Giant’s Causeway—Tale of the Idiot Boy

—Dunluce Castle—County of Down—History of St.
Patrick—The River Bann ........sececesesvessscees

31
viii
CHAPTER V.

Tyrone—The Story of the O’Niels—Their Quarrels—Shane’s
Visit to Queen Elizabeth—Hugh 0’ Niel—Suspicion of him
—The Rebellion—Essex—His Mission to Ireland—He
fails—His disgrace—Mountjoy’s Cruelty—O’Niel is de-
feated—His pardon—News Tellers—Cavan—Monaghan—
Enniskellen—Round Towers, and their Origin ..........

CHAPTER VI.

Province of Connaught—County of Leitrim—Irish Cabin—
Its Tenants—Furniture—Famine—Frightful scenes—Death
from Starvation—Mr. Kohl’s description of a Cabin ....

CHAPTER VII.

Sligo—Cong Abbey—Burial-place of the last King—The
famous Robber—Speed of his Horse—His Exploits—Castle-
bar Races—Isle of Achill—Coracles—Seals—Roscommon
—Galway—Resemblance to Spanish Towns ....... ooeee

CHAPTER VIIL

Dublin—Public Buildings—Botanical Gardens—Christ-Church
Cathedral—Story of Lambert Simnel—East Meath—Dan-
gan—Duke of Wellington—West Meath—Louth—Siege of
Drogheda—Cromwell—Battle of the Boyne ......+ eeeee

CHAPTER IX.

Queen’s County—Dun-a-mase Rock—King’s County—Origin
of its Name—Kildare—Race Ground—Turf Cutting—May-
nooth—County of Carlow—River Barrow—Carlow Castle—
Milford Flour-Mills—Town of Leighlin—County Wicklow
—Phoula Phooka—Glendalough and its Ruins—Moore,
and the Meeting of the Waters—Gold Mines of Wicklow..

Page

61

75
ix
CHAPTER xX.

Page

County of Longford—Edgeworthstown—Curious Steeple—
The Edgeworth Family—Pallas—Oliver Goldsmith—De-
serted Village—A Curious Adventure—Goldsmith’s Vanity

Teese eeeeeeeeeeeeeersesseeessesessesessens 105

CHAPTER XI.

Kilkenny—History of Strongbow—Kilkenny Castle—Kil-
kenny Coal—Caves of Dunmore—Stalactites—Story of an
Idiot Girl—Wexford—Rebellion—Lord Edward Fitzgerald
—Lobster Fishing—Sea Goose ..... seeecveceeeccceeees Lt

CHAPTER XII.

Waterford—Lismore Castle—Mount Melleray—Monastery—
Cork—Emigrant Ship—Provision Merchants—Temperance
Societies— Father Mathew—Youghall—Sir Walter Ra-
leigh’s History—Potatoes—Tobacco ....ssssceseseceee 124

CHAPTER XIII.

Cork continued—Kilonlman—Spenser, the Poet—Fairy Queen
—Bantry Bay—Couaty Kerry—Lakes of Killarney—Beau-
tiful Evergreens—Gap of Dunloe—Echo—Eagle Capturing
—Irish Wake Se ee eeeereeeeeccceseccccrescccesscsees 140

CHAPTER XIV.

Limerick—Its Manufactures—Salmon Fishing—County Clare
—Shannon’s Mouth—Tipperary—Clonmell—Bianconi Cars
~Stalactite Caves—Cashel-Ruins—Origin of the Name of
Whiteboys, &c, &c.—Conclusion ....se.eseescees coos 149

Concluding Remarks Core eeeeeereeeeseeeeeeeeesesssees 165

Bist of Engravings,



City of Londonderry (Frontispiece)
Giant’s Causeway .
Round Towers ....sseesesesees

ssosese OO SSB
fens EN SS






QURME cesccccssccorcdorcoss teeeeeeees i=



at
2

STORIES OF IRELAND,
And her Four Provinces,

INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER.

The position of Ireland—The early inhabitants—Visit of the
Phenicians—Chiefs and Druids—Visit of Milesians—The five
Kings—Danish mischief—Brien the Brave—Conquest of Ire-
land—Wars—Rebellion.

Inrropuctory chapters are usually dull
affairs ; nor can I promise that mine shall be
an exception, because in anything of which
we know s0 little, we are not naturally dis-
posed to feel interest. I do not think that I
shall be supposing a very unlikely case, if I
believe that you are somewhat ignorant about
Treland! ‘Can there be anything interesting
to tell about that country?” has been said to
me more than once; and perhaps you are
thinking much in the same way, as you look
at the title of this book. Stories of the little
merry Laplanders and their rein-deer, or of
the Greenlanders in their snow houses; stories
of Italy with its fine blue sky and its old

B
*

cities and empires, its towns buried for years
beneath the lava of its burning mountain,
and then discovered fresh and bright as if laid
there but yesterday; stories of Spain with
the romantic associations and tales connected
with it; of Portugal with its fruits; of
France with its gay, care-nought people :—
to such stories you would like to listen. «
But of Ireland! with its “wet bogs,” its
“riotous people,” its poor distressed beggars,
you do not care to read. The very names
frighten you—such outlandish names! and
to have to learn thirty-two such, disheartens
you at the outset. We shall see, however,
whether there is not more to be known of
Treland than relates to bogs and beggars.
It is a pity, at all events, to live in ignorance
of so near a neighbour; a neighbour, too,
which England has, by her own free will,
taken the charge of; whether to her benefit
or not, remains a matter of question with
wiser heads than yours or mine.

Ireland is, as vou may see on the map, an
island by itself. It is bounded on the west by
the Atlantic Ocean, on the east by the Irish
Sea, and the St. George’s Channel, which also
divides its south-eastern coast from England,
and on the north by the Northern Channel.

Of the early history of Ireland there is not»

14 STORIES OF IRELAND.

ey
Â¥

VISIT OF THE PHGNICIANS.

15

much known; we cannot even be certain
what people first inhabited it, but very likely
a people called Celts, as in the case of Britain.
The Celts were a race who came from the
borders of the Euxene and Caspian Seas, for
which you must look on the map of Asia.
The Celtic language is still spoken by the

lower orders of the Irish, and is also
posed to be the origin of the languages

sup-
used

in Wales, in some parts of Scotland, and the

north of France. Another ancient people

visited Ireland from a country called Phoe-

nicia. The Phenicians, who were great

traders and navigators, and whose country

was situated on the eastern extremity of the
Mediterranean Sea, were always useful to

those people amongst whom they took up

their abode. They did not plunder and lay ;
whole countries waste as most other ool
in old times did, but they were peac P

in their conduct, and always tried to impreye

the state of the inhabitants. They induced

such people to trade with them, to exchange

the produce of their countries for that which

they offered in return.

There were amongst them rich merchants,
clever artisans, and even manufacturers, and
they used to go and reside with less civilised
. and instructed people, and teach them different

B2
16 STORIES OF IRELAND.

arts and trades. If Ireland were inhabited
at all at the time of the Pheenicians’ first
visit, it must have been gonly by savages.
We have no history, however, of this time,
and can only infer that the Pheenicians resided
there from different articles that have been
discovered. Weapons, gold ornaments beau-
tifully wrought, and such as were in use
amongst the Pheenician and other countries
of Asia, have been dug out of the bogs, and
remains of old roads have been found to
exist. The Round Towers of which I shall
have occasion to speak to you, and which are
evidently relics of Eastern workmanship, and
used by the worshippers of fire, resemble
some still standing in Persia and India,
Long before the time called the Christian
era, whicli you should understand means the
birth of Jesus Christ, a band of warriors from
the north of Spain, called Milesians, after
their leader Milesius, made themselves mas-
ters of Ireland. They were divided into
tribes, each ruled by a chief, but these chiefs
did not make the laws. These were made by
the Druids. The Druids were priests as well
as law-givers, and exercised great influence
over Ireland as well as England, in early
times. It was a custom with the Druids to.
sacrifice their first-fruits to their idols; the ~




VISIT OF THE MILESIANS. 17

early corn, fruit, and other produce of the
earth, as well as the firstborn of the animals,
and even of the human family, were offered
up to their gods. Then came the Romans:
but the country does not appear to have been
to their taste, for they never settled there,
They put an end to the Druids’ rule, however,
and gave Ireland the name of Hibernia. A
long time after came a people called Scoti,
but the Milesians did not wish for their com-
pany, and persuaded their visitors to go
further north, telling them of a fine country
they would find there, So the Scythians or
Scoti having staid a little while, and married
some Irish women, went away to the west of
Scotland, where they founded the kingdom
of the Scots. Ireland was originally divided
by the Milesians into five provinces—Ulster,
Munster,@onnaught, Leinster, and Meath.
Meath was the province where the princi-
pal sovereign resided ; but each province had
a king subject to the king of Meath. These
five kings were always quarreling and at war.
They were still a very ignorant, uncultivated
race, as you may suppose when I tell you
that the chiefs lived in wicker huts covered
with straw, rushes, and sods. The people
generally wore sheep-skins ; those of higher
k, however, were clad in gayer clothes.
B3
18 STORIES OF IRELAND.

Then at last came St. Patrick, whose history
I will give you hereafter ; this was about the
fifth century. The Danes also, who left no
known country untouched, paid Ireland one
of their unfriendly visits in the year 717,
By Danes you should understand Northmen,
not the inhabitants. of Denmark alone, but a
wandering race from several of the northern
countries of Europe. They always treated
the Christians, wherever they found them,
very cruelly, and set fire to the churches
and monasteries as soon as they saw them.
Indeed, there seemed no end to the mischief
they wrought, and we never hear of any
good they did to the countries they invaded.
A Norwegian Chief, called Turgesius, in
about the year 850, made himself king of
Ireland, and obliged the old Irish kings to
pay him very heavy sums, in what was called
tribute. He also raised a tax called nose
money, because those who would not: pay it
were condemned to have their noses cut off.
So much for the Danes. After they had been
settled about 200 years in Ireland, Brien the
Brave, king of Munster, subdued the Danes,
and became king of all Ireland ; but Brien was
defeated again in his old age, and fell in bat-
tle at a place called Clontarf. It would tire
you to read of all the conflicts of the next few
CONQUEST OF IRELAND. . © 19

years with the Danes, nor could I, in a little
book like this, write fully on the subject.

At the time when Henry IL. was king of
England, a king of Leinster, who was dethro-
ned, took refuge in our country, and king
Henry promised to help him to recover his
kingdom, if he would help the English to
conquer the rest of the country.

The full particulars of the conquest of
Ireland I must omit; but you will remember,
however, that this country was united to
Ireland, in the reign of Henry IL. Still there
was no peace in the island. The rebellions
that broke out were endless, not only in
Henry’s, but in succeeding reigns. At the
time of the civil wars, and after Charles I.
was beheaded, the English Parliament created
Cromwell lord lieutenant of Ireland, and
commander of the army in that country.
The Irish generally took the part of Charles
IL, and were anxious to restore him; so they
were not prepared to receive Cromwell as a
friend, nor did his conduct in Ireland do
much to conciliate them, as you will see here-
after, when I have occasion to tell you of
some of the sieges in which he was engaged.

I shall not, in this introductory chapter,
give you an account of the rebellions so
common in the Island. It seemed for a
20 STORIES OF IRELAND.

long while as if it never would be settled ;
old chiefs and descendants of chiefs and
kings were for ever struggling to throw off
the English government; and certainly the
English did not treat their conquered neigh-
bours with justice, but seemed to think they
had a right to oppress and tyrannise; but
you will see instances of this in the course
of this little work, and I will not make the
introductory chapter any longer.
CHAPTER I.

Divisions of Ireland—Northern Division—'Donegal Bogs—~
Lough Erne—A Fairy Tale—Ballyshannon—The Pullins.

I rorp you that Ireland was divided into
provinces, but it has still another division,
each province containing several counties.
Ulster, the most northerly province, has nine
counties ; Leinster, twelve; Munster, six;
and Connaught, five. The division of Meath
does not now exist. ~ There are thirty-two
counties in all, you will find, if you add
them up. Let me now explain to you the
meaning of the word province.

Very early in the history of Ireland, we
read of its divisions into separate kingdoms,
each having different laws, and a different
kind of government. Ulster, Munster, Con-
naught, and Leinster, are the remains of
these petty kingdoms. When the English
tirst began to interfere with their neighbour
Treland, they subdivided each province into
counties. I believe that king John of Eng-
land was the first to introduce this division,
which was not completed until 300 years
22 STORIES OF IRELAND.

afterwards. This division into counties was
made for the purpose of holding assizes, and
appointing sheriffs to execute the king’s
writs and orders, as in England. Such a
division has long ceased to have any con-
nection with the title of Earl or Count.

Ulster, the most northerly division, con-
tains nine counties. We will begin as we
did in Stories of England, with the county
which lies nearest to the north; that county is
called Donzcan. You must not be surprised
to find the names more difficult to remember
than those of your own country, but do not be
discouraged. Your ear is less familiar with
them, and this is the great cause of the diffi-
culty. If you can only associate some subject
of interest with each difficult name, you will
find the difficulty wonderfully vanish.

Now for the first hard name, Donegal. Its
land is little cultivated, and barren mountains
and bogs cover the greater part. I will explain
a bog to you; with a mountain you are
familiar. A large portion of Ireland is more
or less bog or morass. The very hills, tops of
rocks and caves, are covered with bog. Bogs
arise from the decay of plants in the vicinity
of springs, and the extreme dampness of the
climate of Ireland is one, although not the
only, cause of this phenomenon. In a dry
DONEGAL BOGS. 28

country, decayed grass and plants change into
earth and dust, and thus no bogs are formed;
but in Ireland, where from the continual mois-
ture the process of decay is slower, a large
portion, which in some situations would fly
away in dust, is here kept moist and fixed. A
young bog, that is, a bog growing where the
plants are yet loose, is called a quaking bog.
When the bog grows older, and a considerable
mass is formed, it is called a peat bog. Asa
bog is formed of different kinds of plants, so
the produce is of course different. The turf
obtained from a dry bog, by cutting with a
spade or slane, is called slane turf.- Bogs are
a source both of wealth and poverty to the
Trish; they supply them with fuel it is true,
but they cover much land that might be
more profitably used in cultivation; they spoil
the water of the rivers, and fill the air with
an unpleasant smell. They do not, however,
all produce good fuel; such bogs. as are
adapted for this purpose should be carefully
worked, and others drained and cultivated.
Bog-wood dug out of the morasses is used by
the Irish for many things; articles of furniture
may be made of it, and it is even employed
in building. I have seen some beautiful
ornaments made of bog-wood, which resemble
ebony when thus wrought; they are used in
24 STORIES OF IRELAND.

the form of bracelets, brooches, and ear-drops,
and are as handsome as jet. Although this
wood is at first soft and wet, it becomes in
time almost as hard as iron. Some, which is
more elastic, is used for making ropes. There
is also a sort of yellow fat substance found
in bogs, in which the Irish soak rushes, and
are thus supplied with candles. I have said
a great deal about bogs, a subject of which
I dare say you have never thought at all; or
if you have done so, I do not suppose it has
excited much interest in your mind. Donegal
is not the only county, however, in which
bogs abound; they are indeed very common
in many parts of Ireland. But Donegal has
some beautiful lakes, which are at least more
interesting to see than the bogs. The capital
town is Donegal. The highest of its moun-
tains, called Errigal, rises 2463 feet above
fiwersea. Lough Erne washes the southern
border of the county, and Lough Foyle and
Swilly are also connected withit. The word
Lough means the same as Lake. The lakes
in all parts of Ireland are not called so, but
you must understand the meaning of the
word when you see it,
The town of Ballyshannon is situated on
the northerly bank of Lough Erne, and is a
neat, pleasant place, The belief in fairies
A FAIRY TALE, 25

and witches is common, even at the present
day, in most parts of Ireland, although far
less so than formerly, In Donegal it seems
especially so. There is something very
charming to children in fairy tales. I have
seldom known a child who did not take
delight in the mysterious and impossible
doings of those imaginary little creatures.
You would be plentifully treated with fairy
tales if you were to visit Ireland; the thing
to be lamented is, that the poor ignorant
peasants delieve in these fairies and witches ;
and amusing as it may be to hear such tales,
it is sad to see how this belief influences their
character. A lady, miich acquainted with the
Trish, says, that when she was young she
remembers to have seen a woman who, it was
believed, lived with the fairies for many years.
She was then old and decrepit, with yery
light blue eyes, which had a wild, wandering
look about them. Molly the Wise, as she
was called, wag always sure of food and a
reception; the food was abundant, but the
reception not a hearty one, for Molly was
more feared than loved. She was an object
of dread, for they imagined she knew all that
passed concerning them. It was in vain the
poor little old thing denied this—they were
certain of it, ie presence was considered
c
26 STORIES OF IRELAND.

_ “lucky,” and she was often forced to do what
she disliked, in consequence of their belief.
She was pleased to attend weddings and
funerals, but hated every thing belonging to
the sea with a determined hatred; yet every
new boat must first. go to sea with “ Molly
the Wise,” to insure it against wreck.

Molly did not much like talking of when
she was with the “good people,” as they call
the fairies; but a quarter of a pound of
tobacco and an ounce of “tay” would bribe
her to do so sometimes. She would crouch
close into a corner of a large chimney, like
an old cat; her back hunched up, and her
arms clinging round her knees, on which
she rested her chin; and then, without
fixing her eyes on any one or any place,
would wander on in her story, which she
told in a low monotonous wail. Sometimes
her eyes would settle for a moment on a
person, and if they happened to rest on any
of the young ones, you werecertain to see
them grow fidgetty and move their seat.

Now do you really wish to hear the nonsense
that Molly the Wise would talk? There is a
saying, “that all work and no play makes
Jack a dull boy ;” and perhaps you will say
that all sense and no nonsense will make
Stories of Ireland a ve book ; so I will
A FAIRY TALE, 27

indulge you with Molly the Wise’s history of
what she did when she lived with the good
people. “The way of it,” she said, “was
this. When we lived by the Slaney, by the
ould Tower built by King John, my father
and brothers were always out earning their
bread; and there’s a spot there, where long
ago, they say, a boy was drowned; but he
was not drowned, not he indeed! but was
taken by the good people; it is n’t all of them
that have power to take them thro’ the wather,
only when they make marriages with the
other spirits that live among the things at
the bottom of the many wathers, and then
one helps the other. ~ Tit for tat, you see;
so I used to be then in the boat with them,
sometimes minding one thing and sometimes
another, with plenty of heart, that kept my
eyes and feet dancing the length of a summer
day. And so it was, one midsummer night,
and we crossing over in the cobble, just to be in
time for the divarshun of the bonfire, and my
father and uncle, out of respect to the poor
boy that was drowned in it, raised their oars
as they passed over the place where he was
lost, and if I had done what I ought. to do,
(mind this, girls, for Molly the Wise is talking
to you) no harm could have come to me; but
T didn’t, and w. ing a song, and my
02
28 STORIES OF IRELAND.

father and uncle were looking at me, and-
thinking how purty I looked with the moon-
light settling on my face, and—I was gone.
Then they took on, and thought I was strug-
gling; now at this side of the boat, then on
that, there was a sort of foam, like silver;
and though the blue river was so clear they
could see far down into it, they could not see
me.” And where were you, Molly dear, tell
us, tell us all about it? “Is it where I was?
Pll tell ye what’s fitting, without questions,
Iwas away and I am here now, and that’s
enough for you. I was away seven years,
and they kept me night and day to mind the»
childer, and dress the queen.” Oh! Molly)
what sort of dress had she? “Why, ye don’t
suppose its trusting to one sort of dress she’d
be of a day; no, no, ten sometimes. One
day she’d be dressed all in diamonds in the
morning, and spiders’ webs in the evening.
It’s like any earthly queen she is in her little
ways and all, and full up of all kinds of love
and divarshun, and I almost danced the ten
toes off striving to plase her and the childer.
Oh! then, it’s them that was childer: talk of
education, they were born larned, and never a
wink of sleep did they get, at night dancing
on the sands of the sea, or in a ring on the
softest grass, and to flying on

5 ME

_*
A FAIRY TALE. 29

rushes, which they turn into horses, and
whisp thro’ a key or a latch hole, hundreds
of them. had, while with them, white bread
and cruddy cream, and beautiful flowers.”

e manner of her getting away was this.
ae night she was very lonesome, the queen
having goneto her“divarshun,” andshe began
thinking of her people and her country, and
how she never had the power to say a prayer
since she came to the place, for when she
turned her thoughts to a prayer she fell asleep,
Just then she dropped down on her knees and
tried to pray, and her uncle came, her own

» uncle, who had been in the boat with her
~ the night she was taken, and had been dead
be years, and he gave her a blessed herb,
and as she had it in her fingers, back came
the queen and court, like a flash of lightning.
And the queen made a grab at the herb, and
her uncle told her to go on and pray, and
she did, and found herself at the door of her
father’s house, but he was in his grave. So
she went and sate on his grave, and there
was no flax on the wheel, nor “tater” in the
garden; no turf in the rick, only a swallow
with its young in the hole of the wall. And
her heart was near burstin,” and she wished
herself back with the good people, for the

world was hard had no friends.
c3
| ~ ae
30 STORIES OF IRELAND,

Imay as well tell you here, that the peasan-
try believe, that if a child is praised without
the person who praises him, adding, “God
bless him,” he is “overlooked.” Such is the
expression, but they mean that the praisgy
unlucky, and some misfortune will befal
child. You know there is no such thing as
luck; nothing happens or comes by chance,
but all things are under the control of a good
and wise God. There are people even in
England, and some who ought to know better
too, who talk of signs, and good luck, and
bad luck, and act as if they believed in it —
too, There is less excuse for them than fom.
the poor ignorant Irish. ; ce

I should tell you that near the to -*
Ballyshannon is a very great natural wonder,
called “the Pullins.” It is formed by a
mountain torrent, which runs for a mile
through a ravine, and presents quite a series
of cascades, caves, cliffs, and rocks, clad with
beautiful ferns and many mountain plants.
The whole course of the river is shaded: by
woods, which gives a very beautiful effect.

A bed of limestone seems to have been cleft
thirty to forty feet deep, and here the river
foams and rushes along. I have made rather
along chapter on Donegal, with my fairy tale.

The next may be | ing, but you mi
try and recollect w! tell you. <= *


CHAPTER IL.

pp County of Londonderry—Derry—The Revolution—James

I1.—Flight from Whitehall—Shutting the Gates—Siege of

Derry—Dreadful Suffering—Walker, the Priest Soldier—

Famine—Relief.

TuE next county of which I shall tell you
is Lonponperry. Tyrone bounds it on the
south and south-west, Antrim on the east,
the Atlantic Ocean on the north, and Done-
gal county on the west. The chief town ‘is

_ Londonderry, or Derry, famous for a siege
hich took place at the time of the Revolu-
on in 1689,
Derry is built ona hill which it almost
covers, and around a large portion of the hill
flow the waters of Lough Foyle. Look now
at your map, that you may better understand
the situation of the town, and its fitness to
endure the siege. _ The appearance of Derry,
“even at the present day, is very imposing.
The houses rise in tiers one above another,
and the lofty spire of the old cathedral tops
all. The thick high wall and well-preserved
towers look even now capable of defence.
There is a broad walk on the walls neatly
gravelled. -The custom of enclosing ancient



82 STORIES OF IRELAND.

cities with walls for defence was universal in
old times, when quarrels and wars seemed to
be the rule, peace and amity the exception.

To those of you who have not read much
history, it may be as well to give a littl
account of the circumstances of that period,
which is called in English history, the Revo-
lution. A Revolution in this sense, means
a change from one kind of government, or
from one governor, to another.

James IL, son of the unfortunate king
Charles I., of whom you have heard, was
never a popular monarch; he was a Roman
Catholic, feared by the Protestants, and sus-
pected by the Papists. He was a weak
obstinate man, and seems to have learn
little wisdom from the misfortunes of his
family. His tyranny and misgovernment
arose, however, in part, from the very absurd
view which he held, in common with his pre-
decessors, that a king being God’s vice-gerent
on earth, could do no wrong, forgetting that
the infallibility of was not to be assu-
med by any creature, however exalted, even
though he wore a crown.

Being the son of a king, and descended
from a long and noble line, does not of neces-
sity make a man fit to rule a great nation.
Many who would in private life have lived.

*

4
JAMES II. 33

and died respected, have not had the qualities
essential to govern a great nation, and thus
it happens that you hear of the apparent
contradiction, “a good man, but a bad king.”
James appears to have been a kind husband
and father, but certainly was one of the worst
kings that ever sate on the English throne.
He was twice married ; and his first wife left
him two daughters, Mary and Anne, who
were educated as Protestants, and to whom
therefore the Protestant party looked with
hope and affection. They both married
Protestant princes. Mary’s husband ‘was
. William, Prince of Orange, and Stadtholder
‘of Holland, afterwatds William IIL, and
nephew of James II.; and the Princess Anne
married Prince George of Denmark. James’
second wife, Mary Beatrice, of Modena, a
country in Italy, lived for some years on very
good terms with her step-daughters, Mary
and Anne; but the birth of a son, known in
history as the Pretender, appeared to excite
great fears in the minds of all zealous
Protestants, who thus saw their hopes ‘of
Protestant rulers extinguished.

There was a foolish story of the prince
being introduced into the palace in a warm-
ing-pan, which was believed, or at least
listened to, by the princesses ; and an unkind


34 STORIES OF IRELAND.

feeling sprung up in their minds against the
innocent brother, as well as the father.
Although England gained much by the
Revolution, we cannot admire the spirit
either of Mary or Anne, in thus coolly usur-
ping the throne of their father and brother.
When the birth of a prince was announced,
the chief men of the kingdom turned their
thoughts to the Prince of Orange, and wrote
to entreat him to come over to England, and
save them from the Popish rule.

James was terribly alarmed when he found
one loud cry for William sounding through
the kingdom, and yet more so, when news
was brought him of William’s actual arriv
in Torbay, in Devonshire, on 5th Nov., 1688.

And now one cannot help pitying the poor
king ; who on hearing that even his favourite
daughter Anne had espoused William’s cause,
exclaimed, “ My very children have forsaken
me.” Mary’s conduct might have been a
little more dignified; even though she thought
it right to obey her husband, it was scarcely
necessary to show such very childish joy as
she did when she took possession of thé
forsaken apartments in her father’s palace of
Whitehall, whence queen Mary Beatrice and
her infant son had escaped. All the particu-
lars of this flight you may read in history ;
SIEGE OF DERRY. 35

I must hasten to the siege of Derry, to
which I have been long in coming, you will
say.

‘But these particulars were necessary for
you to learn, in order that you might know
the circumstances which led to the Revolu-
tion, and then you can better appreciate
the conduct of the Derry men in this noted
siege. The Protestants of Ireland, no less
than those of England, were extremely anx-
ious for William to reign. They looked
to him as their deliverer from the horrors
they anticipated from the continuance of a
popish line of kings. It is not for us to
judge of William’s motives in this case. He
may have been influenced by a desire to
promote the Protestant religion ; but there is
feason to fear that ambition had also some
share in his usurpation of the crown.

Just at the time of these disturbances in
England, there was a report that a great
massacre or wholesale murder of the Protes-
tants in Ireland was intended by the Papists ;
and James who had fled to France, was now
about to land in Ireland with an army of
French allies, hoping to subdue that part of
his dominions, and to regain possession of
his crown. He first directed his attention to
the North of Ireland, and part of his army
36 STORIES OF IRELAND,

was advancing to Derry, with very little fear
of resistance, and was actually within sight,
when eight or nine lads, apprentice boys,
shut the gates and refused admission. This
act appeared madness at the time, so little
preparation had been made for a siege, and
so suddenly was the resolution taken. The
spirit of the ’prentice boys spread; men of
note caught it; and within a very brief period
a band of armed men was formed and disci-
plined, to man the walls and endure a siege.
I told you of the rumour of a massacre;
many Protestants had resolved to take refuge
in Derry, and this act of the ’prentice boys
quickened their zeal. The news of Derry’s
intended siege spread like wildfire through
the northern counties. Protestants of all
grades fled to it. Arms and ammunition
were by degrees, though not without diffi-
culty, conveyed thither. Ample time was
given for these preparations, for the month
of April had far advanced before they were
exposed to any serious danger.

Meanwhile James II. actually reached the
walls, expecting quiet possession, when the
*prentice boys, a ‘tumultuous rabble,” so
the king called them, rushed to their bas-
tions (a kind of bulwark or fortress) and
fired their cannon on his troops, killing, it is
SIEGE OF DERRY. 37

said, a captain who stood near the king’s
mn. dames in his own account, says,
‘that he endeavoured to bring the rebels to
a sense of their duty, by unwearied forbears
ance.” He called the garrison “ obstinate
wretches,” who neither offered to surrender
nor capitulate, and whose answers were
nothing but cannon and musket shot.

The king remained in the camp opposite
to Derry until the middle of June. The
Governor Lundy was very anxious to open
the gates and sacrifice the cause; but at the
moment when they were deliberating, Adam
Murray, a medical man who had been absent
from Derry, arrived; and encouraged the
citizens to persevere. On the 19th of April,
poor Lundy, whose conduct and advice had
made him very unpopular, was obliged to flee
from the walls in disguise, with a load of
matches on his back. Major Henry Baker
and George Walker were appointed to suc-
ceed him as Governors. The garrison was
formed into eight companies, the treacherous
had been expelled, the timid withdrawn, and
the town was now left to its own resources.
But the citizen-soldiers were badly armed,
and ill provisioned; the town was crowded,
with no one of experience to direct them.
They had no engineers, few horses, and no

D
38 STORIES OF IRELAND,

forage ; not a gun well mounted, and nothing
indeed to cheer them, but, as General Walker
said, ‘that great confidence and dependance
upon Almighty God that He would take
care of and preserve them,” At this period
it appears, that there were 30,000 living
beings encompassed by the walls in a space
of a few acres,

The first attack or sortie from the garrison,
took place on 21st of April. Colonel Murray
with his own hand killed the French General
Mammou, and the sword by which he fell
is still retained by Murray’s descendants.
This success animated the citizens, and no
difficulty was found in procuring men for a
sortie. (Sortie is a French word, signifying
to go out.) In times of siege a certain
number of men are sent out from the garri-
son to fight the enemy hand to hand.

The resolution of the Derry men soon
became known in England, and Major Kirk
was sent with men, arms, and provision, but
the passage up the Foyle was arrested by the
enemy. Kirk continued to communicate
with the city, informing the garrison that
he had stores and victuals for them. He
sent a little boy as messenger, who carried
the letter made up in a cloth button, and as
in conveying a reply he was taken prisoner,
DREADFUL SUFFERING. 39

he contrived to swallow it, Kirk, however,
made no persevering efforts to relieve the
starving garrison ; he set sail, coolly advising
them to husband their provisions well;
advice which they had melancholy cause to
follow. Even then they were dreadfully
reduced, living on salted and dried hides,
horse flesh, dogs, cats, and mice; yet still
declaring they would eat one another rather
than yield.

Disease added its terrors to those of famine;
yet half-dead men, shrunk and feeble, kept
walking through the city, and threatening
death to any who would speak of a surrender.
One dying man declared he had fed on
nothing but starch for four days. On the
Ist of July, Rosen, who commanded the
Trish and French forces, collected from the
neighbouring counties of Antrim, Tyrone,
and Donegal, every Protestant he could find,
and before daybreak the miserable garrison
heard a sad sound of groans and cries. As
morning dawned, what a spectacle was before
them! Old decrepit men and women, infant
children and helpless beings, to the number
of some thousands, were pushed onwards at
sword’s point to the walls, with an intimation
from Rosen, that if they were not taken in
they should be left there to perish. I must

D2
40 STORIES OF IRELAND.

tell you, in justice to James, that he quite
disapproved this cruel measure, and at once
issued orders to Rosen to desist. Rosen
had, however, assembled above 4000 before
the courier reached him.

The poor people within, mistaking their
friends for their enemies, began in despair to
fire on them, so that Rosen was obliged to
send the 4000 back again; but of that
number many starved by the way, and many
found their homes burnt in their absence.
Alas! for war and its cruel, heartless conse-
quences! When the wretched crowd were
suffered to withdraw from the trenches, the
garrison, wishing to get rid of some of the
useless inhabitants of the town, sought to
mix some of the townspeople with them, but
the trick failed; they were found out, and
driven back. King James says, “the town
was reduced to so great extremity, that the
intruders were known at once by their wan
and lean countenances and nauseous smell,
that made every one think they had the”
plague; and some fell down on the strands.”
The priest soldier, as he was called, George
Walker, was a very important character ; he
kept up the spirit of the besieged with un-
wearied patience, and was their priest and
their pastor as occasion required. He would

he
WALKER, THE PRIEST-SOLDIER. 41

go about, now with the sword, and now with
the bible, urging on the inhabitants to stand
fast. He was certainly an extraordinary
character, and although we cannot understand
the kind of religion which could influence a
man in such a course, we may well believe
in its sincerity. He had no honour, and no
wealth to gain from his endurance, and we
can but admire the courage, both of the
priest soldier and the poor citizens, in this
memorable siege. The siege lasted one
hundred and nine days: thousands died of
famine and disease, and many fell by the
shot of the enemy. Relief, however, came
at the moment when it was most needed.
“We only reckoned,” says Walker, “ on two
days’ life.” Think of the delight of the
perishing creatures, when from the housetops
their eyes beheld the glad sight of ships on
the Lough, ships laden with provisions!
Could it be? yes; their signals were
answered, their deliverers were at hand.
But their troubles were not yet over; they
had to bear the misery of hope deferred;
still in the hour of famine, to see the food,
as it were, and not to taste it. You know it
is no easy matter to convey provision into a
garrison. The great hope of the troops
without the walls, was in the starvation of
- D3
42 STORIES OF IRELAND.

those within, for they had seen enough of
their endurance to know that they would die
rather than yield. Mackenzie, one of the
leaders, gives a touching account of the
scene. “Our spirits sunk, and our hopes
were expiring,” he says; “at last the boom
the enemy had laid across the Lough was
broken, and slowly, but surely, the ships
sailed to their quays. Then what joy there
was, the bells of the battered Cathedral rang
a merry, grateful peal, bonfires were kindled,
cannons thundered when the craving hunger
of the multitude was satisfied.” Can you
not picture the crowding of the starving men,
women, and children, around the boats, and
the thankful expressions of the mother as
she fed her poor faint child, and the hope
and joy that sprung up in every breast, as
they each secured the long-desired food !
Surely you will never now forget the county
and town of Londonderry, and its beautiful
Lough Foyle.
CHAPTER III.

Antrim—Belfast—Botanical Gardens—Manufacture of Linen—
Cottage cultivation of Flax—Damask Factory—Lough Neagh
—Petrified wood—Carrickfergus.

The County of Antrim is bounded on the
north by the Northern Ocean, on the east
and north-east by the North Channel, on the
south-east by Belfast Lough and the river
Lagan, on the south-west by Lough Neagh,
and on the west by the County of London-
derry. It is encompassed by waters, as you
will see if you look on the map; and hence
its name, Endrium, or the habitation of
waters. The county town is Carrickfergus ;
but Belfast is a place of much greater im-
portance, being the grand seat of the linen ©
trade, and having several manufactures of
cotton, cambric, sail-cloth, and glass. Bel-
fast is a sea-port town, and, although it
contains many inhabitants, is one of the
cleanest and healthiest manufacturing places
in the kingdom. It has been called a “clean
Manchester.” There are many fine public
buildings, and some Botanical Gardens about
a mile from the the town, where young men
44 STORIES OF IRELAND.

are instructed, to fit them to become experi-
enced gardeners. The Linen Hall at Belfast
is a plain building ; but it leads me here to
speak of the manufacture of flax.

From a very early period in the history of
Treland, linen has been manufactured. The
native Irish used to wear saffron-coloured
shirts, which were of this material. In the
reign of Elizabeth we read that the Irish
chiefs presented themselves at Court in
“ Krin’s yellow vesture,” and induced spinners
from France and the Netherlands to come
and settle in Ireland. The unfortunate Earl
of Stafford, who was beheaded in the reign
of Charles I., exerted himself very much in
promoting the cultivation of flax in Ireland.
He caused flax seed to be brought over from
Holland. He expended £30,000 (a large
sum in those days,) of his private fortune in
the business. The cruel wars which so soon
followed, put a stop to the trade for a time,
but his efforts were not altogether fruitless.
After Charles II. was restored to the throne,
it was again carried on through the efforts of
the Duke of Ormond. Soon after a company
of French Refugees, who were compelled to
leave their own country, came over to Ireland,
and introduced the manufacture of that beau-

tiful article called damask ; and to them also
THE FLAX PLANT. 45:

we are indebted for the first improvement in
bleaching linen.

You know, I have
no doubt, that linen is
made from the fibres
of the flax plant, which
bears a pretty blue
flower, and grows three
or four feet in height.
The flax fields, at the
flowering season, are
very gay and pretty.
The cultivation of this
plant and its prepara-
tion formed at one time
a great part of the occu-
pation of the small
farmer and cottager.
When the petals of
the pretty blue flow-
er dropped off, and the
State of the seed-pod
showed that the plant
was ripe, it was pulled
in small handfuls at a
time, and laid two and
two on the ground
across each other ; after
it was stacked came THE FLAX PLANT,


46 STORIES OF IRELAND.

the process of “rippling,” (i.e.) drawing the
flax through an iron comb fixed in a block
of wood; they then steeped, or as they call
it, “bogged it.” In bogging, heavy stones
were placed over it in the water to prevent its
being disturbed, and it was then left to decay.
After it had been “bogged” long enough,
according to the cottage plan, it was either
dried in the open air, or over a low fire;
when dry, the bundles were placed on some
“wattles,” laid beneath the thatch for that
purpose, to wait for the time of “scutching,”
or they were housed ina barn. ‘“Scutching”
was done on the back of a chair; the person
who scutched, beating the flax with one hand
with a heavy instrument, and with the other
drawing it gradually back as it was beaten.
The flax dresser used to go about from house
to house with his hackle on his back, and
was always a welcome visitor. The hackle is
a tool consisting of a number of sharp steel
spikes in a wooden frame. Then came the
bojling or scalding the thread to make it
soft; and after it was thoroughly free from
harshness, it was taken to running water,
dried on the grass, boiled again and again in
pure water, spun into thread, and then sent
to the loom of the rustic weaver.

The ‘spinning of flax by means of the
MANUFACTURE OF LINEN. 47

wheel, is now very little done. Machinery is
introduced for the purpose of spinning it
into yarn. The flax, after being hackled, is
divided into two parts; the finer is called the
line, and the coarser the tow: the line is used

for the manufacture of fine linen and damask,
' the tow is employed for commoner purposes.

Then, after the linen is manufactured,
comes the bleaching. In order to make the
cloth perfectly white, it must be exposed, for
a long time, to the open air. This is done
by spreading it on the grass; generally near
the banks of a river. The bleaching districts
in Ireland have a bright, cheerful look. The
buildings around are generally white-washed,
and kept very clean. The process of bleach-
ing is tedious, and the particular description
of it would not interest you. The timd it
takes is from two to three months, and the
spring and autumn seasons are generally
preferred for the purpose.

There is a damask manufactory at Ardoyne,
three miles from Belfast. I will endeavour
to describe the process to you. The yarn, on
being received from the spinner, boiled and
bleached in the manner I have told you,
is very carefully sorted, the fine hanks being
all put with those of the same quality. It
is then separated into two portions, the warp
48 STORIES OF ENGLAND.

and weft ; the warp being put longitudinally
or lengthwise in the loom, and the weft is
woven into it. The latter is given to the
families of the workmen, and wound upon
little wooden spools, called bobbins or reels,
which are fixed in the shuttle, and with which
the weaver must be kept constantly supplied.
The warp is measured before being removed
to the loom, by the revolutions of a “avarping
mill,” or wooden cylinder, five yards in
circumference. When in the loom, every
four threads are passed through the several
splits of a hanging reed or scale, which pre-
serves the warp in the right width, and presses
the weft together when inserted by the shuttle.
Again the threads are passed through smaller
bead-like objects formed of glass, and fastened
to cords suspended from some machinery
above, retained in their place by leaden
weights at the end. The warp is now ready
for the pattern. Damask table cloths have,
you know, very pretty patterns of different
designs ; sometimes a group of flowers, some-
times a'landscape. These are first sketched
on plain paper, and thence traced on sheets
of design paper, the whole surface of which
is covered with engraved lines crossing each
other. Vermilion, or lake, is then applied ;
such a number of smaller squares formed by
DAMASK FACTORY. 49

the lines being covered with the paint as will’
serve to form the pattern sketched. The
design is then transferred to a series of cords,
placed perpendicularly in a wooden frame;
each cord representing the space contained
between two of the perpendicular lines of the
design paper. A thin wooden instrument,
called a “needle,” with another cord attached,
is passed under a cord in the frame, once for
every small square in the corresponding spaces
of the painted pattern, which is covered, and
over those representing the squares left blank.
By means of the cords attached to the needle
thus interwoven, a coarse loose texture is
formed, containing the design accurately
transferred, but this is not the damask.
The cordage is next fixed to the “cutting
machine,” where, by more cords connected
with wires and moved by a cylinder, a
circular steel punch, half an inch long, is
obtruded from a plate of steel full of holes,
so as to give a single punch for every square
of the paper covered by paint. The move-
able plate is then placed in the “ perforator,”
over a stout card a foot and a half long, and
three inches and a half broad; against which
it is forced by a screw, so that a perforation
or hole is formed in the card by every punch
contained in the plate. Thus the pattern is
E
50 STORIES OF IRELAND.

transferred to many hundred cards in small
portions, each representing the space con-
tained between two of the horizontal lines
of the design paper, while the circular per-
forations correspond to the painted squares,
and the rest of the card to those left vacant.
The cards being laced together, the pattern
is ready, and is removed to a machine, which
is erected on a stage above the workman’s
head.* It consists of an iron frame, con-
taining a moveable grating and a succession
of perpendicular and horizontal wires, the
former passing through the latter and having
the cords suspended from them, to which are
fastened the little glass nails, through which,
you must remember, the threads of the warp
are passed. Close to the ends of the horizon-
tal wires, which project a little way from the
frame, is placed a square cylinder full of holes,
like those on the pattern cards, to the size
of which the sides correspond. The cards are
now placed on the cylinder, so that one of
them covers the side next the wires. The
machine is set in motion by a lever, raised
and lowered by the workman’s foot, when
the horizontal wires being forced against the
card, such of them as come in contact with
the plain spaces are pressed back, and with
* This mode of weaving is called ‘‘ la Jacquard.”
DAMASK FACTORY. 51

them the perpendicular wires connected with
the warp beneath, while the other horizontal
wires, entering the holes of the card and cylin-
der, leave those which pass downwards through
them unmoved. The grating is then raised,
and catching by their bent tops the wires
which have not been forced backwards, raises
those threads of the warp which pass through
the mails, and leaves an opening for the weft
between the raised threads and the rest of
the warp. The shuttle having been passed
four times through this opening, and each
thread of weft closely beaten into the fabric
by the hanging reed, the machine above is
lowered by. the lever; when the cylinder
partly revolves, another card is presented to
the wires, and the same operation is repeated.
Thus the pattern is gradually formed by the
passage of the weft below certain raised por-
tions of the warp; the four threads, passing
through a single glass mail, being once raised
for every hole in the cards, or every square of
the paper covered with paint ; while for every
card, or every space contained between two
of the horizontal lines of the paper, four
threads of weft are inserted. Now I do not
suppose that you will find this very easy to
understand ; you will have to read it over and
over again, and be sure you know the meaning
E2
52 STORIES OF IRELAND.

of the first part of the process, before you
go on to another. Take a damask cloth or
dinner napkin, and examine it and ask your
mamma, or your teacher, to read the account of
its manufacture to you; and in time, though
not without attention, you will understand
something about it—at least, try. I shall
have but little in my Stories of Ireland to
tell you of manufactures. That of flax is in-
deed the only one for which Ireland is famous.

I must say a few words about the beauti-
ful Lough Neagh, between the counties of
Antrim and Londonderry. It is the largest
lake in the United Kingdom, and there are
few larger in Europe. It is formed by the
confluence or meeting of the Blackwater, the
Bann, and five other rivers. It is twenty
miles in length, twelve in breadth from east
to west, and eighty miles in circumference.
The Lough Neagh pebbles are well known ;
most of them are cornelian, calcedony, quartz,
or opal. The Lough is very beautiful near
the town of Antrim; elsewhere it is bare of
trees, but here it is finely wooded, and the
islands are very picturesque.

“Petrified wood” is found in large quanti-
’ ties also in the vicinity. These petrifactions
are composed of portions of the stems and
roots of trees, most generally holly and oak,
PETRIFIED WOOD. 53

which to the eye look in a natural state,
but are found to consist of stone, either
partially, or entirely. For a long time, be-
cause the process of this petrifaction could
not be understood, the fact was denied and
doubted, and naturalists maintained that no
change in the substance could have taken
place, and that it merely resembled wood.
It is believed now that the power of petri-
faction is in the soil. There appears to be
no evidence that the waters of Lough Neagh
have the peculiar property of converting
wood into stone, as was originally believed,
as different articles that have been put into
the lake, and along its banks, have not been
thus acted on.

Carrickfergus is one of the oldest towns
in Ireland; of its ancient fortifications some
remains exist, and the “north gate” is
almost perfect. It is a neat, clean town, and
a large portion of it is called the Scotch,
quarter, a great many of the inhabitants
being of Scottish descent.

I must conclude my account of Antrim in
another chapter, as I shall have to tell you
a great deal about one of the most remarkable
natural curiosities in the whole country.

E3
CHAPTER IV.

Antrim continued—Giant’s Causeway—Tale of the Idiot Boy—
Dunluce Castle—County of Down—History of St. Patrick—
The River Bann.

You have no doubt heard of the Giant’s
Causeway ; it is on the north coast of the
county of Antrim, and near the town of
Bushmills. It projects from a steep coast
into the sea to an unknown extent, and is
composed of pillars of basalt. There are
many objects of interest and wonder in the
neighbourhood, besides the Giant’s Cause-
way; caves and rocks in abundance. Port-
boon cave is very beautiful. Boats may row
into it a few yards, but the swell of the sea
there is sometimes dangerous. The stones,
of which the roof and sides are composed,
are rounded ; the inner recess is like an isle
of a Gothic cathedral, and the walls are
slimy to the touch.

But the Causeway is the great point of
attraction, and I will try and give you as
good an idea of it as Ican; but never havin .
seen it, I am only able to do so from col-
lecting the accounts which travellers have


THE GIANT’S



CAUSEWAY.
GIANT’S CAUSEWAY. 55

written of this extraordinary place. On the
side of a hill is the part called the Giant’s
Organ, a fine colonnade of natural pillars
laid open in the centre of a cliff, and one
hundred and twenty feet in height ; its name
is very appropriate, it really looks like an
organ. The guides have plenty of stories to
tell of the reasons for the wonderful natural
objects around. They believe that they were
the work of spirits of different kinds, and
very gravely tell you so. Another curious
object is the “chimney tops.” Three pillars,
the tallest of which is forty-five feet high,
stand on a rock some distance from the cliff.
A few years ago, a poor idiot boy was depri-
ved by death of his only parent, a mother.
The woman was buried; and some of the
neighbours, anxious to withdraw the lad from
her grave, where he used to sit and weep, told
him his mother was not there, but was gone
up to heaven. “Gone up!” he said, “ what
gone up as high as that organ?” “Ay, higher
than that,” they said. ‘As high as the chim-
neys?” Yes, higher still.” He shook his
head and said, innocently, that there was
nothing higher. Next evening they took
him some potatoes to the place where he had
« e since the funeral, but they could not
find him. Before night closed in, the poor
56 STORIES OF IRELAND.

boy was seen weeping on the top of those
fearful columns, ‘the chimneys,” clapping
his hands and crying aloud. The neighbours
were terribly frightened; they could not
imagine how he got there, and not one dared
peril his life to save him. It grew dark, and
the boy cried louder still. They shouted to
him, begging him to keep quiet until morn-
ing, and to cling closely to the columns;
some agreed to watch at the foot of the chim-
neys, so that if he fell, they might help him.
They were hard-working people, however,
and quite overcome with fatigue, they forgot
their watch and fell asleep. The sun was
high when they awoke, and when they looked,
the idiot boy was gone. They rushed to the
scattered masses of rock around the chimneys,
expecting to see his mangled corpse ; but they
sought in vain, for there was no trace of him.
“Ts it a dream?” they asked, as they pro-
ceeded homewards. ‘The first object that
they saw on their return, was the poor idiot
safe and sound in body, except for the
scratches and bruises he had received from
the sharp stones. “Ah!” said one of the
men, “but those whom God keeps, are well
kept. How did ye get down, my bonny
man?” “J could na’ find my mammy,” said
the boy, crying bitterly ; “I cried to her, but
TALE OF THE IDIOT BOY. 57

I could na’ find her.” It is said that these
chimney tops were battered by one of the
slugs of the Spanish Armada, whose men in
the night-time mistook them for a Castle.
The Spanish Armada was that great fleet sent
out by Philip of Spain to conquer England,
in the time of Queen Elizabeth. The Cause-
way itself consists of three parts—the Little
Causeway, the Middle Causeway, and the
Great Causeway—each jutting out into the
sea; the greater is to be seen 300 yards at
low water, the others not half as far.

Each pillar of the Causeway is worth
notice, looking like a distinct piece of work-
manship, regularly divided and jointed, as
though the hand of man had formed it.
All the points of interest in the Causeway
have names given them, and they are all
called the works of the Giant; there is the
Giant’s Loom, the Giant’s Theatre, the
Giant’s Pulpit, &c. The Guides would tell
you that when the Irish Giant, Fin Mac
Cool, was wishing to fight the Scotch Giant,
Benandonna, and invited him over to receive
the beating he intended for him, the Irish
Giant thought it only polite to hinder the
stranger wetting the sole of his foot, so built
a bridge for him across the sea, all the way
to Staffa, (one of the Scotch Islands,) over
58 STORIES OF IRELAND.

which the Giant came, to get broken bones.
T have given you a very faint description of
this great work of the Almighty, but I believe
had I seen it, I should still have been unable
to do it justice, it is so very wonderful.

The last object of interest in the county,
that I shall name, is Dunluce Castle, standing
on a rock, which rises one hundred feet above
the sea. The sides of the rock appear as if
they formed part of its walls, whilst its base,
from the constant action of the waves,
abounds in curious caverns,

The County of Down is bounded on the
east and on the south by the Irish sea, on
the north by Antrim and Belfast Lough, and
on the west by the county of Armagh. Its
principal towns are Newry, Downpatrick,
Bangor, and Dromore. It derives its name
from the Irish word Dunmer, a hilly country.

Newgy is a flourishing town ; it has manu-
factures of linen, and some good buildings.

Downpatrick is, however, the county or
capital town; an ancient place, and noted
for being the burial-place of the Patron
Saint of Ireland, called St. Patrick. Ireland
is a Catholic country, and hence you hear
a great deal of saints, as well as of giants,
spirits, and fairies, I will tell you a little
about this Patrick. For a long time in the
HISTORY OF ST. PATRICK. 59

early history of the Island, the only religion
taught was by the Druids. One of the
accounts of St. Patrick runs thus—About
the time that the Romans left England, an
Irish King named Mac Nial invaded France,
and carried off a great many captives to
Ireland. Amongst these was a youth about
16 years of age, who was sold as a slave,
and employed by his master to keep sheep.
His name was Patrick. Young Patrick, as
he used to watch his sheep, and wander
forth with them over hills and through
forests, used to reflect on the idolatrous
worship of the poor Irish, and thought how
sad it was that they should sacrifice their
little innocent children, and how foolish it
was in them to worship stone images instead
of bending the knee to the true God. For
about six years, Patrick remained in slavery
in Ireland, when he managed to make his
escape and return to France.

There is something very noble in Patrick’s
conduct; he did not forget the country where
he had been in bondage, and after many
years’ study he asked permission of the Pope
to revisit Ireland, and teach the natives
something about the God he worshipped.
The Pope, whom the Catholics consider as
the father of the church, (as the Italian word
60 STORIES OF IRELAND.

Papa signifies) gave his consent; and Patrick
came over to Ulster about the year 432, with
a few companions to help him in the work
of instructing the ignorant natives. He had
learned their language, and by his mild and
earnest discourse hesoon made many converts.

He then proceeded to Tara, in the county
of Meath, of which place I will tell you
presently. Here the King resided; and
Patrick preached to him and many chiefs,
who listened respectfully to him. Soon the
religion of the Druids was at an end; human
sacrifices were done away with ; the Christian
religion spread throughout the country, and
was soon established there. The form of it,
Imean. Religion is a personal affair, and a
country cannot be said truly to be religious,
unless every inhabitant of it were subject. to
the will of God, and lived according to the
requirements of the gospel. When peace and
holiness influence all men, when we all are
found loving our neighbour as ourselves, and
God above all, we may be called a christian
country. So when you hear of the establish-
ment of religion in a country, you will see
how far the phrase may be understood.

The Druids did not much oppose the
doctrines of Patrick, although once or twice
they tried to take his life. Monasteries




IRISH CABIN.
HISTORY OF ST. PATRICK. 61

were now founded in many parts of the
island, and they were soon filled. Patrick
himself was a great scholar; and from his
works has been gathered much of what we
know of the Irish at this early period.

This is the simple history of a simple plain
man, called by those who would rather exalt
the creature than the Creator, Saint Patrick.
The worship of saints and angels is a sign of
the corruption which crept into the church ;
when it began to think less of Christ, it felt
the need of other intercessors with God, and
in its foolish pride put mortals in the pldce
which can but be occupied by Him who is
the only Advocate with the Father. Some
historians say that Patrick was born in
Britain, and was taken captive to Ireland by
some Danish pirates or sea robbers, at the
age of sixteen. There are many versions of
his history, and it is impossible to discover
which is the true one. They are all liable
to mistake.*

* Amongst many curious stories told of St. Patrick, by the Irish,
it is said that he banished all frogs and toads from Ireland, or as
the old verse has it,

“Twas on the of this high hill,

St. Patrick re his sarmint ;
He a the into the bogs,
And banished all the varmint.”

Whether the moisture of the climate prevents the existence of ser-
pents and toads in Ireland, is a question ; but frogs are now about

as common in some districts of Ireland as in England. There are
no moles in the country.

F
*
62 STORIES OF IRELAND,

The great object of attraction in Down-
patrick is the Cathedral, a modern and
elegant building. The River Bann, in the
county of Down, was once noted for its pearl
fisheries, and I believe pearls are still occa-
sionally found there. They come from a
fresh-water muscle, in shape and colour like
the sea muscle, but of a very flat, insipid
taste. The common mode of fishing for
pearls in the Bann is simple enough. In
the warm weather, when the river is low and
clear, the poor people wade in the water;
and some with their toes, others with sharp
sticks thrust into the opening of the shells,
take them up. This can only be done in
shallow water, whereas the large muscles and
the greater quantities are found in deep
smooth water. In the pearl fisheries in the
East and West Indies, they fish by means
of diving, sometimes sixty feet under water.
Pearls are thought to be the result of disease
in a particular kind of oyster. The principal
pearl fisheries are in the East and West
Indies. In the bay of Panama, in South
America, are some islands called the Pearl

Islands; and many pearls are procured
there.
CHAPTER V.

Tyrone—The Story of the O’Neils—Their Quarrels—Shane’s
Visit to Queen Elizabeth—Hugh 0’Neil—Suspicion of him—
The Rebellion—Essex—His Mission to Ireland—He fails—
His disgrace—Mountjoy’s cruelty—O’Neil is defeated—His
pardon—News tellers — Cavan —Monaghan— Enniskellen—
Round Towers, and their origin.

The county of Tyroye is entirely inland,
and is bounded by Londonderry on the
north, Fermanagh and Monaghan on the
south, Donegal and Fermanagh on the west,
and Armagh and Lough Neagh on the east.

You have many of you heard, I suppose,
of the Tyrone Rebellion, which began in the
timeof Queen Elizabeth. It arose in a quarrel
between the O’Neils, who were of the ancient
royal race of Ireland, and traced back their
ancestry earlier than the days of St. Patrick.
Shane and Matthew, two half brothers, were
constantly fighting and quarrelling about
titles and possessions, till at last Matthew
was murdered, as many people believed, by
his brother. Matthew left two sons, Hugh
and Cormac, who were for a long time resi-
dent in England, whither they fled after their

F2
64 STORIES OF IRELAND,

father’s death, leaving Shane O’Neil chief of
the counties about which there had been so
much dispute. This Shane took rather too
much on himself, it appears; behaving just
as the old kings of Ulster had done, and
acting according to the old laws of Ireland
in carrying on wars without permission of
the Lord Lieutenant, who was placed by the
English at Dublin to carry out the laws of
England in the country ; and to see, in fact,
that the Irish remained faithful subjects.

Of course, Shane’s conduct gave great
offence, and he was summoned to Dublin to
give an account of himself; but he was
rather too prudent to trust himself to the
mercy of the Lieutenant away from his own
home, so he shrewdly invited his lordship to
Strabane, in Tyrone, where he lived, begging
him to do him the honour of standing god-
father to a little boy who was just born.

The Lieutenant went to O’Neil, and they
became great friends after this; Shane having
treated him very nobly and hospitably. The
chief being quite encouraged by getting the
Lieutenant into good humour, thought he
would venture on a visit to London to see
Queen Elizabeth, that he might tell her his
case, and why he considered he had a greater
right to the estate of his father than his
SHANE’S VISIT TO QUEEN ELIZABETH. 65

brother’s children. The fact was, that Shane
suspected what I believe was the truth, that
Matthew was not really his own brother;
and, if so, he had more right to inherit his
father’s property than Matthew, or Matthew’s
children. Shane’s visit was quite a pleasure
to Queen Elizabeth, who was always fond
of novelty and show; and Shane went in
great state and parade to the court. He
rode into London, richly dressed, and fol-
lowed by a great many foot-guards, habited
in the fashion of their country, in large
loose saffron-coloured linen garments, under
which the officers wore armour, with a sword,
shield, and a weapon like a battle-axe, about
four feet long. The common men only wore
the saffron-coloured linen, and a belt round
the waist. They had long flowing beards,
and no covering to their heads. It pleased
Queen Elizabeth to receive Shane O’Neil
most graciously. She set him quite at ease
about his title and estates, confirming his
right to them, to his great satisfaction; so
that he returned to Ireland in good spirits,
and, for a short time, went on peaceably
enough. But, on some slight pretence, he
broke his oaths of allegiance, and the whole
Province of Ulster was again in arms. A
chief of the name of O’Donnel, son-in-law
F3
66 STORIES OF IRELAND.

of Shane, distinguished himself in these
rebellions.

In the mean time, Matthew’s sons had
grown to be young men; and Hugh, the
elder of them, being very handsome, which
was always a recommendation to Elizabeth,
became a great favourite of hers. She made
him captain of a troop of horse; and when
Shane died, she bestowed on him the title of
Earl of Tyrone, and restored to him some of
the estates, which, through his uncle’s re-
bellion, had been forfeited to the crown.

Shane, I should tell you, was stabbed
at a banquet; some say, by his son-in-law,
O'Donnel. Hugh lived on his estate in
Ireland for some time, in peace; and acted
dutifully and loyally enough to please his
royal mistress.

You have read, no doubt, of the Spanish
Armada; that great fleet which Philip III.,
of Spain, proposed sending to England to
conquer it. This Spanish Armada met with
great misfortunes ; and was, finally, scattered
entirely. Very stormy weather arose, and
some of its vessels were wrecked on the Irish
coast. The Earl of Tyrone, out of a feeling
of common humanity, treated the poor
Spaniards, thus cast on shore, very kindly ;
and this treatment caused his enemies to
THE REBELLION. 67

report to the Queen that Hugh was taking
part with Philip, the Spanish King, against
her. A son of Shane O’Neil made this
accusation, which so incensed the Earl of
Tyrone, that he caused his cousin to be
strangled. When he had once thus given
way to the spirit of revenge and murder, he
became ungovernable, and agreed with other
chiefs of Ulster, to try and recover the
throne of their ancestors—in short, to throw
off allegiance to Elizabeth.

And now they really did apply to Philip,
who was ready enough to assist them against
his enemy—England. War began—not only
in Ulster, but other provinces; and again the
whole country was in confusion. Such was
the state of things when Queen Elizabeth sent
over the Earl of Essex with a large army, to
put an end to the rebellion. This Earl had
been a great favourite with the fickle Queen,
but was losing her confidence very rapidly at
this time. It is not unlikely that his enemies
(of which he had many, as all favourites have)
were very anxious to have Essex dispatched
on this mission, in which they were certain
he would fail, from want of experience and
caution. During the consultation which
took place in the Queen’s Cabinet, as to the
proper person to send to Ireland to quell the
68 STORIES OF IRELAND.

disturbances, Essex interfered with a great
deal of warmth. Elizabeth, affronted at his
positive tone, reproached him rather sharply,
on which, he so far forgot himself as to turn
his back on her Majesty, with a very rude
speech. The Queen forgot herself in like
manner, you will say, and gave him a sound
box on the ear. He was so enraged that he
grasped his sword-hilt, and, but for the inter-
ference of the Lord Admiral, Sir Robert Cecil,
some serious mischief might have ensued.
However, Essex swore that he would not
have taken that blow from king Harry, her
father, and that it was an indignity he neither
could nor would endure from any one. He
then muttered something about a “king in
petticoats,” and rushed away from Court in
high displeasure. He remained away for five
months, and then the quarrel was made up,
and his appointment to the office of Lord
Deputy took place. It appears that Essex
offended the Queen, in this Irish mission, in
three points. He treated with Tyrone for a
six weeks’ truce, when she ordered him to
fight. He appointed a friend of his, Master
of the Horse, contrary to her Majesty’s order,
and marched into another part of Ireland,
instead of proceeding directly against Tyrone
as he was commanded, thus losing a great
ESSEX, 69

part of his army from fatigue and famine,
Elizabeth wrote many angry letters to Essex;
and at last he was so alarmed by their tone,
that he resolved to return to England and
plead his own cause. He arrived in London
about ten in the morning; and breathless as
he was, untidy in dress, and his very face
bespattered with mud, he rushed into her
bed-chamber, flung himself on his knees
before her, and covered her hands with kisses.
The Queen, who was only just risen, with her
hair all about her face, was rather surprised,
as you may suppose, but gave him a kinder
reception than he expected, so that Essex
left her quite encouraged; but poor Essex
had enemies, who did not fail to foment the
Queen’s anger against him, and in the evening
he found her stern and distant in her manner.

The next day he was summoned before the
Council to answer for his disobedience whilst
in Ireland, his bold letter from thence, and
finally, for his daring to appear in her
Majesty’s bed-chamber. This last affront
was not to be forgiven; the vain old Queen
of sixty-eight was not pleased to be seen, by
her favourite, with her thin grey hair un-
covered by one of her eighty wigs; unpainted,
and unadorned. Essex was placed in con-
finement, and fretted himself really ill. He
70 STORIES OF IRELAND.

had often feigned sickness to excite her com-
passion ; but it was too late for that now.
In vain he wrote her pathetic letters, and
earnest apologies: Elizabeth was not to be
moved. After a few months’ imprisonment
he was released, but not permitted to ap-
proach court: and had this proud and self-
willed man chosen to content himself with a
private life, there is no doubt but that he
might have ended his days in peace. After
a while, however, he grew dissatisfied ; ‘I
will not,” he said, “be pushed down into
private life.” His house now became quite
a place of meeting for discontented and dis-
loyal subjects ; but the great cause of offence
—that which might be said to seal his fate—
was a speech he made, in which he publicly
called his Queen “ an old woman, as crooked
in mind as she was in body.” This speech
was reported to Elizabeth, who cherished it
in her memory. Essex collected about three
hundred followers, who determined to force
their way into the Queen’s presence; but
the insurrection was soon stopped, and Essex
again lodged in the Tower; and very soon
afterwards was sent to the block. This was
' the end of Essex ; sad enough, as the end of
a favourite in history usually is,
We have wandered far from the Tyrone
MOUNTJOY’S CRUELTY. 71

rebellion in Ireland to the Tower of London ;
and now let us see what sort of Deputy
was Lord Mountjoy, the successor of Essex.
The Irish heard that this same Lord was
but a “bookish man,” and were disposed to
laugh at him at first; but they soon found
that they had little cause for laughter. He
pursued the rebels with fire and sword, killing
without mercy, cutting. down corn, burning
houses, and causing famine and suffering
throughout the country where he marched.
He made it a practice, too, to destroy the
ploughs and other implements of husbandry,
so that the poor people had no means left
of cultivating the soil when war had done
its worst.

Fynes Morrison, an eye-witness, gives a
dreadful account of the sufferings of the Irish
at this time, and concludes a melancholy
description by saying, “No sight was more
common than that of wasted counties, especi-
ally of towns, and multitudes dead in the
ditches, their mouths all coloured green with
nettles and docks they had eaten, and such
things as they could tear above ground.”
Many of the rebel chiefs fled to Spain, and
the poor people dispersed among the moun-
tains. O’Neil himself went to Dublin to
make submission to Earl Mountjoy. Queen °
72 STORIES OF IRELAND.

Elizabeth, who was greatly worried by these
Trish rebellions, and by the death of her
favourite Essex, had died a few days prior to
O’Neil’s submission, and James was not
likely to be very merciful to the rebel chief.
However, O’Neil accompanied Mountjoy to
London; there, on bended knees, to ask the
king’s forgiveness: whereupon his life was
granted him, and his estates partially re-
stored. He lived only a short time in Ireland,
however ; for being suspected of intentions
to rebel, he was compelled to flee to Spain,
and all his property and estates were confis-
cated to the king. These are the principal
incidents relative to that celebrated Tyrone
rebellion, of which you will often hear, and
they will, I hope, be sufficient to impress
the name of Tyrone on your memory.
There are many ruined castles in Tyrone,
and, indeed, throughout Ulster generally ;
which may be accounted for by the state of
warfare into which the province was so
frequently plunged.

During the wars of the O’Neils every one
was of course very anxious to hear the news.
There were no newspapers in those days, and
the want was supplied by a class of men called
news men, or news tellers. These persons
used to go up and down the country, collecting
"= =



CORACLE.
NEWS TELLERS. 73

news, and would go and relate it to the
farmers or private gentlemen, where they ~

were sure to find a ready welcome, and bed
and board at least. I dare say their news
was not always to be depended upon exactly,
but perhaps as much so as many things we
read in newspapers now-a-days. This chapter
on Tyrone is already sufficiently long, but
we have not yet quite finished with Ulster.
Omagh and Strabane are the principal towns
of Tyrone, but I do not know of anything
in their history likely to interest you.
ArmacH is bounded on the north by
Tyrone and Lough Neagh, on the north-east
by Down, on the south and west by Mona-
ghan and Louth. Its capital, Armagh, is
built on the sides of a steep hill. It isa
neat, clean town, and the streets are paved
with marble, of which most of the houses are
likewise built. There is a fine old Cathedral
here, which is said to have been founded by
St. Patrick. Nial, one of the very early
kings of Ulster, is buried near Armagh.
He fought and conquered the Danes, and
after a great victory over them, he ordered
one of his captains to pursue the enemy over
a river—the river Callan. The waters were
swollen with heavy rains, and the poor
captain was carried away. As no one ran to
@

—
74 STORIES OF IRELAND.

his relief, Nial himself plunged into the
current, and was drowned.

Of Cavan County I have really nothing to
tell you that is likely to be interesting. It
is bounded on the north by the county of
Fermanagh ; on the east and north-east by
parts of Longford, Meath, and West Meath.
Cavan and Belturhet are the only towns of
importance or size, and a large portion of this
district is uncultivated bog and mountain.

The county of Fermanacu, the last of the
nine counties of Ulster, is bounded on the
north by Tyrone and Donegal, on the east
by Monaghan, and on the south by Cavan.

This county abounds in lakes, of which
the beautiful Lough Erne is the most im-
portant.

The town of Enniskillen, the capital of
Fermanagh, is situated on an island between
the upper and lower lake, Lough Erne. This
town is noted for its defence against James
the Second’s army at the battle of the Boyne,
which I will notice in the proper place
There are many islands on Lough Erne, as
many, it is said, as there are days of the
year; all of these are green and verdant,
but that of Devenish is the most interesting.
Devenish contains the remains of seven
churches and a round tower, the most perfect
of its kind in Ireland.


ROUND TOWER (IRELAND.)

ROUND TOWER (INDIA.)
ROUND TOWERS, AND THEIR ORIGIN. 75

I promised to give you an account of these
round towers, which have often puzzled
travellers and persons curious in antiquities.

Without giving you all the opinions and
conjectures that have been formed about
them, I will tell you that they are considered
by the best authorities as having been the
work of those Phoenicians who were the
early settlers in Ireland.

That the ancient Irish worshipped fire, is a
fact fully established, and they were doubt-
less taught this worship by their visitors
from the East, where it was prevalent. The
old Irish name Cillcagh, indeed quite bears
out this idea. Cillcagh is a compound of two
words, meaning fire and divinity ; its deriva-
tion is the same as the Hindoo word Coill,
from Challana, to burn. That they were
also used for burial places is evident from
some discoveries of bones and skeletons with-
in the walls. There are but eighty-three
towers now remaining; twenty in a perfect,
and sixty-three in a decaying state. Those
that are in good repair vary in height from
70 to 130 feet, and are divided into several
stories; they are from 8 to 15 feet in
diameter. The door is as high as six, some-
times sixteen feet from the ground. Each
floor is lit by a single window. The whole

G2
76 STORIES OF IRELAND.

has a roof of stone-work of a conical shape.
The drawing of one Tower will give you
an idea of almost all of them, for they ap-
pear only to have varied in small particulars,
such as height, or the number of windows.
These temples of the early: fire-worshippers
make us regret that a people so learned as
the Pheenicians, who taught all else so well,
could teach the Irish nothing about the true
God.

The drawings annexed will show you the
resemblance that exists between the round
towers in India and those remaining in
Treland.
CHAPTER VI.

Province of Connaught—County of Leitrim—Irish Cabin—
Its Tenants—Furniture—Famine—Frightful scenes—Death
from Starvation—Mr. Kohl’s description of a Cabin.

Tue province of Connaught contains five
counties. Lxrrrm, the most northerly, is
bounded on the north by Donegal Bay; on
the west by Sligo and Roscommon; on the
east by Cavan and Fermanagh; and on the
south by Longford. It is a very long,
narrow county, being forty-six miles in
length, and from two to sixteen in breadth.
It has no towns of any note, but its county
or capital town is called Carrick-on-Shannon.

In the province of Connaught, the distress
and poverty of which you have frequently
heard is very melancholy to witness, and
even a description, falling, as it does, very
far short of the reality, might make you sad.
But although it is not an amusing subject,
it is one which I would have you think of; it
is a bad plan, at all times, to avoid matters
that are distressing, and to say, that as we
cannot help Ireland, it is no use to think
about it. Had every one thought thus,

a3
78 STORIES OF IRELAND.

slavery would never have been abolished ;
and if none will think on the subject of Ire-
land’s distress, no improvement will ever
take place in the country. Happily some-
thing has been done, and more still might
be done to improve her condition.

The fact is, that we have thought too little
about her; and yet she has a claim upon
England, for did not England of her own
accord take charge of Ireland when she con-
quered her? The Romans, who made great
conquests in different parts of the world, used
to say that as soon as they had conquered a
nation, they considered themselves no longer
its enemies, but that they should thence-
forward become as brothers, and work to-
gether for one another’s good. Well would
it be if nations now adopted the same plan ;
but England has not acted thus to Ireland.

You cannot understand the great political
questions which have puzzled wiser brains
than yours or mine; but you can understand
this, that we have neglected the claims of our
neighbours, and whilst we have sent the bible
to the heathen, taken interest in the abolition
of slavery in foreign countries, and spent
much money for schemes abroad as well as at
home, we have looked on Ireland as a very
troublesome beggar, and have taken but little
pains to improve it; but you shall hear what
os

Q

a a



ISLAND OF ACHILL.

IN

DOOAGHA,




FAMINE. 79

kind of distress exists, and then ask your-
selves if you have thought of it as you ought.

You can, most of you, remember the year
1847, when there was such a dreadful famine
in Ireland. I will tell you a little of that
presently ; but let us look at the lives the
poor Irish lead in a common way, when
there is no such particular pressure as that
of which I speak. You will often hear it
said that there is quite as much distress and
poverty in England as in Ireland. First of
all, I do not believe this is the case; or, how
is it that we did not suffer from the famine
as the Irish did, for corn was dear all the
world over? and secondly, if there were,
which there is not, it would be no reason
for our refusing to pity and to help our
neighbours as far as possible.

Look now at this drawing; this is an
Trish cabin, by no means of the worst class,
as I will describe to you bye and bye.

How should you like to spend a night
there? Why, your papa’s horse is better
lodged by far; nay, the pigs in the sties are
almost as well or better covered than the Irish
poor. There is frequently, in cabins like
this, no window, and only a hole in the roof,
and an old wicker basket on it for a chimney ;
the light and air enter where they can, and
80 STORIES OF IRELAND.

how they can, and the rain finds easy entrance
enough through the holes in the roof, the wet
often standing in great pools on the floor.
One room is all that such cabins contain ;
there a whole family eat and sleep. Their
beds are straw or heather, laid on the floor,
and covered with an old rug or blanket, if
such a thing remain, and if not, with the
clothes of the family. But besides the father
and mother, and six or seven children, crow-
ded into this little room, there is another
occupant. I have seen fowls in the poor
English cottages, and very much I have dis-
liked the sight, but the Irish share their bed
and food with their pig. Even the pig, how-
ever, is a less common sight than it was, for
the pig is sold in times of great distress and
starvation. The furniture of these cabins
consists of an iron pot, to boil potatoes in; a
rude dresser, sometimes; two or three very
rough stools ; a table, (but not always that);
a basket, into which the potatoes are thrown
when dressed; and now and then, a poor
truckle bed in the corner. Outside, and often
in the very front of the door, is the dung
heap; and you may easily imagine that with
such a crowd within, and polluted air without,
sickness and disease abound. And what is
their food? you will ask. Petatoes princi-
FRIGHTFUL SCENES. 81

pally, and butter-milk; bacon very rarely,
and occasionally a cabbage. I am speaking of
those who can get food at all. It is not un-
common—indeed, it is very common, for the
poor creatures to be without even coarse fare
like that I have described. The potatoe is the
great article of diet in Ireland. I cannot ex-
plain to you how it is that they depend so on
this root, which never was intended by Provi-
dence to form the principal food of man; it
is very well, combined with other food, but
does not contain nourishment enough in itself.
Yet the Irish are content if they can find
sufficient potatoes, and seem to have little
ambition beyond.* This is not natural to
them, however. Ifyou set an Irishman down
to a dinner of soup or meat, he will not tell
you that he prefers potatoes, but poor fellow,
he has so long been living in poverty, and is
so crushed and disheartened by it, that he has
lost that energy and desire for improvement
natural to more healthy minds. A prisoner
does not enjoy his liberty at first. I have
even heard of one sighing, after a long con-
finement, to be taken back to the gloomy jail.

Well, when the potatoe crop is less plenti-
ful, or when, as has been the case of late
years, the potatoe itself is bad and unwhole-
some, you will easily see how bad is the
“ter

82 STORIES OF IRELAND.

Trishman’s case. The little bit of land
attached to his miserable cabin, is covered
entirely with that plant; it is his all, and if
that fails throughout the country, he is ruined.
Great efforts are being made to induce the
farmers to sow oats and turnips, and other
seed instead of the potatoe; but so ignorant
are the farmers and cottiers of farming, that
they have been known to sow the turnip-seed
like grass, and having omitted to hoe it, the
root has been as thin and taper as a radish.
A gentleman who went over to Ireland to
ascertain the amount of distress, and to make
a report to a committee formed in England
to relieve it, in 1847, says in his journal, that
the lahourers were willing to work, but could
find no employment. Many assured him
that they should thankfully take six-pence a
day or less, but could not obtain it. A quart
of meal was in some cases all that was given
to a full-grown man for a day’s work.
During that awful time the roads were
strewed with dead bodies, and several cab and
coach drivers assured the writer, that in the
dark they had even driven over them. In
the neighbourhood of one town, 140 bodies
had been found by the road side. In some
cases it has been known, that where all other
members of a family have died, the last
—

DEATH FROM STARVATION. 83

wretched surviver has earthed up his cabin-
door that dogs and pigs might not come in,
and then laid himself down to die. Think
of ten thousand people in one district, within
forty-eight hours’ journey of London, living
or rather starving upon sea-weed, sand eels,
and turnip-tops.

The landlords, distressed by the same
scarcity that affected the tenants, were in
some instances very hard-hearted. Instances
have been known of unroofing the cabins,
in order to drive the poor creatures out of
them. The account which one poor woman
gave was very touching; she was living in
Mullarogue, in the county of Mayo, with her
husband, when the landlord came about ten
days before Christmas and turned the people
out of the cabins, pulling down the roofs.
That night they had no tent nor shelter, but
such as they made out of wood and straw
that the drivers threw down when they drove
them from the place. It was a night of high
wind, but their wailing could be heard for
some distance. They implored the driver for
mercy, but in vain. A poor man on the sea
shore, close to this village, was picking up
shell-fish or sea-weed to appease his hunger,
and was seen to stagger and fall. Another
man who saw it carried him into his hut,
84 - STORIES OF IRELAND.

but it was too late, he was dead! He was
one of the ejected tenants of Mullarogue.

Fever of a Very dreadful kind then made
its appearance, and thousands died with all
the horrors of pestilence, added to those of
starvation.

I promised to give you a description of a
hut, of a worse kind than that which you
have just looked at. Here is the account
which Kohl, the German traveller, gives of
such a dwelling.—

“Let the traveller look where he is going,
or he may make a false step; the earth may
give way under his feet, or he may fall into
what—an abyss? a cavern? a bog? No, into
ahut; a human dwelling-place, which he had
overlooked, because the roof was level with the
ground! Of what is this composed? The
wall of the bog often forms two or three
sides of it, whilst sods taken from the surface,
form the remaining part, and the roof. Win-
dow there is none, chimneys are not known ;
light, smoke, pigs, and children, all pass out
and in at the only opening—the door! When
I have entered, I have had to do it onall
fours. You may conceive a family of six
or eight—men, women, and children, kneel-
ing or squatting by the peat fire, or lying

on the damp ground; they are in rags and
IRISH FAMINE, 85

tatters, some even entirely naked. I asked
one poor man, on what he and his family
subsisted. He pointed to some withered
turnip-tops. ‘Upon these’ he said. ‘And
what else?’ ‘ Yonder,’ he replied, ‘is one of
the family seeking for sea-weed.’ ‘And
are there many so badly off? ‘ Yes ; worse,
aback in the mountain; they are dying
there every day.’ ”

Now for what purpose do you suppose I
have told you these sad stories of famine and
misery? Not alone to impress the name of
this county upon your minds; still less, to
pass away an idle half-hour, or to gratify
mere curiosity. ~

This is not a tale, remember; it is sad,
serious fact. It has occurred too, within a
distance of comparatively few miles from
your very doors.

I know, moreover, that you are at an age
when the heart is tender, and when associa-
tions made are strong; I want, therefore, to
encourage you, thus early in life, in love and
pity, instead of scorn, contempt, and aver-
sion to those suffering people. They are not
greater sinners than the people of England
because they suffer such things; and there
is no telling to what deeds of mercy your
early feelings of benevolence and love of

H
86 STORIES OF IRELAND.

your neighbours may lead. You are children
now, but you will be men and women soon.
May you be useful, active, and tender-
hearted; after the example of Him who
went about doing good.

I will just say in conclusion, that these
remarks on the famine and distress of this
part of the Island, apply equally to almost
all Connaught. I introduce them here, be-
cause Leitrim is so devoid of all interest of
any other Kind.
CHAPTER VIL.

Sligo—Cong Abbey—Burial-place of the last King—The famous
Robber—Speed of his Horse—His Exploits—Castlebar Races
—Isle of Achill—Coracles—Seals—Roscommon—Galway—
Resemblance to Spanish Towns.

Suico is bounded on the east by Leitrim,
on the north-by the Atlantic Ocean, on the
west and south by Mayo county, and on the
south-east by Roscommon.

The capital, Sligo, is a sea-port; but it ‘
has little trade. Its Abbey has long been
famous, and the ruins are very interesting.
It has once or twice been destroyed by fire,
but has been restored. The steeple is entire ;
and each little pillar in the Abbey is differ-
ently and beautifully ornamented. There
are several vaults in the ruin; and many
skulls, portions of bones and coffins have
been discovered. The county of Sligo
abounds in mountains and lakes; but like
several other counties in Connaught, there is
little beyond the poverty of its inhabitants
to notice—and that is a melancholy subject.

Mayo, the adjoining county, is bounded on
the east by Sligo and Roscommon, on the

H2
88 STORIES OF IRELAND.

south by Galway, and on the north and west
by the Atlantic Ocean.

Before I refer particularly to Castlebar, its
principal town, I will tell you of the old
town of Cong, distant from it twelve miles,
and noted for its Abbey. Here Roderic
O'Connor, the last of the Irish kings, passed
the concluding fifteen years of his life, and
is said to be buried.

The last Abbot of Cong was interred among
the ruins about twenty years since; and here
also are the remains of a noted robber, whose
name was Mac Namara. There are many
marvellous tales told of this man: and of
a very swift horse he possessed, whose feats
seem almost to have surpassed those of Dick
Turpin’s Black Bess. One evening he invited
some gentlemen from Munster to dine with
him at his house, near Cong. After having
dinner and plenty of wine, they all retired
to rest for the night. Mac Namara went to
his room as if for the same purpose ; but
instead of going to bed, he got Binnish, his
noted horse, ready ; and set off to the house
of one of his guests, in the county of
Clare, which he robbed, and then returned
to Cong the same night, as swift as the
wind. He arrived just in time to see the
guests go to the breakfast table, where he
THE FAMOUS ROBBER. 89

joined them in capital spirits; the poor
robbed man little thinking what his host had
been after all night. Mac Namara had a
passage underground from his house to the
Town Cross of Cong ; and in this place he and
his followers often secreted themselves, At
last he had to take his trial for one of his
robberies, but contrived to get off, some one
of influence interfering on his behalf; at
which he testified his joy by springing up
over the spikes of the dock, hand-cuffed and
fettered as he was, to the great astonishment
of judge and jury.

The situation of Cong Abbey is very
beautiful. The village stands en a small
peninsula that juts out into Lough Corrib. .

The capital town of Mayo, called Castlebar,
is a neat and thriving place, but the suburbs
are very wretched. The mountains are pic-
turesque, and there are some fine lakes in the
neighbourhood. Castlebar was famous for
a battle fought there in 1798, called the
Castlebar Races.

The town of Newport-Mayo is second in
importance. There is a great deal of fish
caught here; both trout and salmon. The
boats at Newport-Mayo seem to be like those
used by the ancient Irish: they are made of
wooden laths covered with canvass; and the

H3
90 STORIES OF IRELAND.

* stem is almost as broad as the stern. The
size is usually large enough to contain four
men; but they are extremely light, rising
and falling with every wave, and have never
been known to upset. These kinds of boats,
called coracles, are of ancient origin; they
were used by the Irish in their invasions,
before the Romans left Britain.

About sixteen miles from Newport is

» the Island of Achill, which abounds in
beauty and interest. This is the largest
island off the Irish coast. The dwellings
of the islanders are very curious; they are
heaps of rough stones, procured from the
beach, and without cement of any kind;
their roofing is fern, heath, and shingles. In
the village of Dooagha, which consists of
forty cabins, there is not a single chimney ;
nor is there one tree in the whole place,
though there are signs of its having been
once a thick forest. It is full of lakes,
The foxes are so abundant that the lambs
are never safe. There are many seals among
the rocks, and plenty of ravens and eagles.

I wonder if you ever saw a seal; it
is a strange looking creature. Seals, in
general, prefer cold climates ; but are caught
off the coast of Scotland, as well as Ireland.
They belong to that tribe of animals called
SEALS. 91

amphibious, living either on land or in the
water. They are usually found in the sea, but
are known to.inhabit very large fresh water
lakes, and are caught in those of Ladoga and
Onega, in Russia. The form of their bodies
is something like a fish; the hind feet are at
the extremity of the body, and serve the
purpose of afin. The fore feet are adapted
for swimming, and the toes are furnished
with claws, and united by a membrane.
The tail is very short; the eyes are large ©
and prominent; and they can open and shut

their nostrils at pleasure. They feed chiefly
on crabs, small fish, and sea birds. They
are very fond of their young; and often,
when badly wounded, carry them off in
their mouths. They live in herds or
families along the sea shore, and sleep on
rocks or ice banks. The full-grown bottle-
nose seal, as it is called, grows from eleven
to eighteen feet in length; but common
seals are but from four to six feet long.
They become very fat; their oil is of great
use; and the skins are used by trunk makers,
hatters, and saddlers. The Greenlanders
and Finlanders, people who inhabit countries
at the north of Europe, are very expert
seal hunters. There are seals kept at the
Zoological Gardens in London; so you
92 STORIES OF IRELAND.

must remember to go and look at them if
you visit that interesting place.

Roscommon is bounded on.the north by
Leitrim, on the north-west by Mayo and
Sligo, on the south and south-west by Gal-
way, and on the east by Longford, West
Meath, and King’s County.

Roscommon, the capital, is a small and
poor town. Boyle is a large town, and has
the remains of a very ancient Abbey. Ath-
lone, in the south of the county, is noted as
being the scene of some battles between
James II. and William II. The beautiful
river Shannon forms the eastern boundary of
the county of Roscommon. The Shannon’s
source is in a deep hollow, near the base of
the Culkagh mountains, in Leitrim. This
gulf, though not twenty feet in diameter, is
so deep that a line of two hundred yards has
not reached the bottom.

The last county in the province of Con-
naught is Gatway; it is bounded on the
north by Roscommon and Mayo, on the
east by Tipperary and King’s County, on the
south by Clare and Galway Bay, and on the
west by the Atlantic Ocean. The capital town
is Galway; and many travellers have been
much struck with its resemblance to a Spanish
RESEMBLANCE TO SPANISH TOWNS. 93

town. Galway was in early times a famous
trading port with Spain; a country to the
south of the continent of Europe. Several
Spanish families settled here; and this may
account for the style of the buildings being
so different to that of any other town in
Treland. Mr. Inglis, a traveller, who has
written an account of his visit to Treland,
said that he found here even more to remind
him of Spain than he had been led to expect :
—wide entries and broad stairs, as in Cadiz
and Malaga; arched gateways with outer and
inner railings, and a little sliding wicket in
several doorways peculiar to that country.
There is a manufacture of marble at Galway,
which I must mention. That marble which is
obtained near the town is black. The quarries
are on the banks of Lough Corrib. Some
of the blocks are very large. The first pro-
cess in obtaining the marble is that of strip-
ping, as it is called; for the marble does not
lie at the surface, but is embedded in rocks
of limestone, sometimes two or three feet
thick ; this is done by aid of gunpowder, and
called blasting the rock. When the rubbish
is removed, the marble is easily got at. It
lies as smooth and even as a table, and in
slabs of different thickness. This is not
the only kind of marble found in Connaught.
94 STORIES OF IRELAND.

There is some of a green, and some of a
white and rose colour.

Outerard is a small neat town, and within
a few miles of it are a great many remains of
the Druids. Stones, of all shape and sizes,
cover the country for nearly two miles. The
circles are of different sizes ; some very small,
others nearly half a mile in circumference.
The habits and customs of the people in the
district of Connamara, in Galway, seem to
have changed but little for many years. The
dress of the peasants is very picturesque.
It is usually of red woollen, and has a pretty
effect on the green hills and slopes. This
woollen cloth is spun in the cabins, and dyed
by the inhabitants, in logwood. The women
wear gay handkerchiefs twisted round their
heads, and they arearemarkably good-looking
race. Goats here are numerous, and seem to
be valuable to the country people ; their milk
is very good, and excellent cheese may be
madé from it.

The poor women in Galway, knit a great
deal; they knit, as they walk from place to
place, long stockings, short socks, and other
woollen articles.

The town of Clifden is beautifully situa-
ted, and is almost surrounded by mountains.
The poverty and distress of the people here
CLIFDEN, — 95 _

is, however, so great, that it takes off
pleasure in visiting a place which aboufids
in objects of beauty and interest. We have
now come to the end of the province of
Connaught; and I hope you will remember
the names of its five counties.
CHAPTER VIII.

Dublin—Public Buildings—Botanical Gardens—Christ-Church
Cathedral—Story of Lambert Simnel—East Meath—Dan-
gan—Duke of Wellington—West Meath—Louth—Siege of
Drogheda—Cromwell—Battle of the Boyne.

Tue province of Leinster comprises twelve
counties. We will begin with Dusty. This
county, which contains the capital of Ireland,
is bounded on the north by Meath, on the
east and south-east by Kildare, on the south
by Wicklow, and on the west by the Irish
Sea and the Bay of Dublin.

Dublin is the second city in the British
Isles; and there are not many finerthroughout
the Continent of Europe. It is less ancient
than either London or Edinburgh ; but con-
tains many objects of interest. Its situation
is very good; standing as it does on the
beautiful Bay of Dublin. The river Liffey
flows through the city, and the country
around is pleasant and fertile. Dublin has
a University ; but it differs from the Univer-
sities of Oxford or Cambridge, having but
one College. It was founded by Queen
PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 97

Elizabeth in 1591. The Bank of Ireland is
an elegant building, built of Portland stone ;
and, though simple and unornamented, has
been greatly admired. The Custom-House
and Post-Office are both handsome; but a
description of buildings is rarely interesting ;
so I will not give you particulars of pillars
and staircases, fronts and porticoes, which
you would only forget if you read, and very
likely skip altogether.

Dublin has not many manufactures. The
tabbinet or poplin used for ladies’ dresses
is, however, one with which you should be
acquainted. It was introduced into Ireland
by some French refugees many years ago.
The poplins are sent principally to England
and Scotland; but they have sometimes
orders from different continental countries ;
excepting from France, where there is a pro-
hibitory duty on this article of manufacture.

The Botanical Gardens are well worth
seeing, and their situation is very good. I
must not forget to mention St. Patrick’s
church; an ancient, if not a handsome
building. It stands in an old part of Dub-
lin; was built in 1190, and dedicated to
the patron saint of Ireland.

Christ Church Cathedral also is interest-
ing from historical associations, one of which

I
98 STORIES OF IRELAND.

I will tell you. It was here that Lambert
Simnel was crowned. And now, unless you
know who Lambert’ Simnel is, I shall not
have told you anything interesting, so I will
give you an account of this young impostor.
Lambert Simnel lived in the time of King
Henry VIL, and pretended to be a nephew
of Edward IV., who was considered by many
people, lawful heir of the throne of England.
Henry VIL gained possession of it rather
in a doubtful way, by killing the celebrated
King Richard IIL in the battle of Bosworth
Field. This nephew of Edward IV. had
been prisoner in the Tower so many years
that many persons forgot his existence, until
it entered into the head of a baker’s son—
this same Lambert Simnel—to personate
the prince. He was brought over to Dublin
by a priest, who gave out that the Earl of
Warwick (such was the name of the prince,)
had just made his escape from the Tower.
The Irish were ready enough to believe the
tale; and a great many received Lambert
Simnel as their sovereign, and proclaimed
him king of England and Ireland. He was
young and handsome, and played his part so
well that he deceived the people thoroughly.
In vain did King Henry take the earl out of
the Tower, and make him ride about London
STORY OF LAMBERT SIMNEL. 99

to convince his subjects of their mistake ;
and at last Simnel was solemnly crowned in
Dublin Cathedral, The struggle was a short
one, and the matter ended more peaceably
than could have been expecte@. Henry sent
Sir Richard Edgecomb to Dublin, with a
proclamation of free pardon to those con-
cerned in the rebellion; and some time
afterwards, when the people were quiet, the
king sent to Ireland to summon the Irish
lords to London; that he might, in person,
receive homage from them. They obeyed,
and went to an entertainment provided for
them at Greenwich Palace by the king;
when, to their great mortification, they saw
Simnel waiting upon them at dinner as a
common servant;—he to whom they had
knelt as their sovereign! Henry not having
thought it worth while to punish Simnel’s
folly more severely, had made him a servant
in the palace kitchens; and I think-it was a
good reproof to the nobles for being so hasty
in believing the tale of this young impostor.

In St. Anne’s Church, in Dublin, are the
remains of Mrs. Hemans, the poetess.

St. Michael’s Church is remarkable for its
vaults, which possess the singular property of
preserving the bodies they contain from decay.
In one vault is the body of a man laid there

12
100 STORIES OF IRELAND.

200 years ago, which is still perfect ; the nails
continue on the hands, and the flesh and skin
remain on the bones. Much might be told
you of Dublin; but, in a little work like
this, it is necessary to select information most
likely to interest you. I will not, therefore,
make any further remarks on this county.
The county of East Mxarn is bounded
on the north by Louth, Monaghan and Cavan ;
on the south by Kildare and King’s County ;
and on the west by West Meath. Its capital
town is Trim. Dangan, about seven miles
from Trim, is the property of the Marquis
of Wellesley. The Duke of Wellington—a
name known to every English child—passed
his early boyhood here; but he left Ireland
so very young, that there is but little asso-
ciation of his name with that country. The
duke was not, however, born at Dangan.
His native place is Dublin. The county
of Meath contains two of the noted Round
Towers—one at Kells, and one at Donagh-
more; and about four miles from the town
of Navan is the celebrated Hill of Tara.
Here, it is supposed, stood the Hall of Tara,
the palace of the ancient kings of Ireland;
and here they were crowned. The seat or
throne was a black stone, called Lea-Fail; and
said to have been brought from Spain, ages
MOORE, THE POET. 101

ago. This stone, it is supposed, was carried
away among other spoils, by the Scots, in one
of their invasions of Ireland, and used as the
coronation seat of the Scotch kings at Scone
Abbey, in Scotland; until Edward 1., King of
England, robbed the Scotch of their treasure,
and carried it away to Westminster Abbey,
where it still exists; and on that very stone
—properly decked out, of course—all our
kings and queens are crowned to this day.
Moore, a native of Ireland, has, in one of
his Irish Melodies, immortalized this spot.
The verses you may have heard, and, now
that you know what and where Tara is, they
will be appreciated by you:
“The harp that once thro’ Tara halls
The soul of music shed,

Now hangs as mute on Tara's walls
As if that soul were fled.”

It must be very interesting to see the site
of this early Irish city, although, in the
poet’s words,

‘‘No more to chiefs and ladies bright
The harp of Tara swells.”

The harp alluded to was in use amongst
the Irish from a very early period in their
history. An ancient historian, named Diodo-
rus Siculus, mentions the priests who fre-

13
102 STORIES OF IRELAND.

quented groves and round temples with harps
in their hands. These round temples, doubt-
less, were the round towers, The Irish ap-
pear to have had two kinds of harps; a small
harp, with single chords, used in religious
services; and a larger harp, with double
chords, most likely used in battle.

On the banks of the river Boyne, between
the towns of Slane and Drogheda, is a very
extraordinary mound, called the Tumulus or
Tomb of New Grange. This is, no doubt,
one of the remains of the Druids’ temples:
it is nearly seventy feet high, and covers
two acres of ground: it is composed of small
stones, heaped one on another, covered with
earth, A gentleman who required some
stone, for repairing a road, a great many
years ago, was the first to discover the inte-
rior of this wonderful Tumulus; but it had
been resorted to for stones for many cen-
turies. The chamber isa circle; and here, the
Druids, no doubt, performed their religious
services : it was, indeed, their inner temple
for their secret rites. Opposite the entrance
are three cavities, each of which formerly
contained oval basins; and in one the basin
stillremains. At the first examination of the
cave several bones were found, and the skele-
tons of two human bodies tolerably perfect.
SIEGE OF DROGHEDA. 103

The inland county of Wrst MzarH is
bounded on the east by Meath, on the south
by King’s County, on the west by Roscom-
mon (from which it is separated by the river
Shannon), on the north-west by Longford,
and on the north by Cavan. It has many
ruins and remains of the early inhabitants ;
but its natural beauties are more numerous
than those of East Meath. Lough Ree is an
extremely picturesque and beautiful lake.

The county of Loura—the smallest in
Ireland—is bounded on the north by the
Bay of Carlingford and the county of Ar-
magh, on the south by Meath, on the east
by the Irish Sea, and on the west by Meath
and Monaghan.

Drogheda, the capital, is noted for a siege
that it endured in the year 1649 ; when Oliver
Cromwell began his career in Ireland by an
assault on the town. He landed in Dublin
with 8000 foot and 4000 horse-soldiers ; and
proceeded to Tredagh, the ancient name of
Drogheda, which was garrisoned by but 2500
foot and 300 horse-soldiers. Cromwell resolv-
ing to besiege the town, caused a battery to
be erected, and made a breach in the wall.
The garrison defended themselves bravely,
being determined not to deliver up the town.
Twice they repulsed the enemy; but oY
104 + §$TORIES OF IRELAND.

well was not to be discouraged, and on his
third attempt to enter the town was successful.
Quarter, as it is called in the language of
war—that is to say, ife—was offered to those
who would lay down their arms; but as soon
as full entrance was gained into the town,
Cromwell issued commands for a general
massacre. His own account of the matter is
this. “The governor, Sir Arthur Aston, and
divers officers being there, our men were
ordered by me to put them all to the sword ;
and, indeed, that night they put to sword
about two thousand men.” After a horrid
description, he says, ‘‘ When they submitted
themselves, their officers were knocked on
the head; and every tenth man of the
soldiers killed, and the rest shipped off to
Barbadoes.”* He writes, a few days after-
wards, thus—‘I pray God, as these mercies
flow in upon-you, He will give you a heart
to improve them to his glory; because He
alone is the Author of them.”

Strange it seems to us in our peaceful
days, when we can only look on war with
horror, to hear Cromwell speak of it as
the work of God! and certainly we cannot
but feel sorry that so great a man, as he

* Barbadoes is one of the West India Islands, and produces
a great deal of cotton, sugar, and some ginger.
CROMWELL. 105

undoubtedly was in many respects, should
have outdone even the usual cruelties of war
in this memorable siege. The Romans, who
knew not God and worshipped false deities,
might have preached him, even before the
coming of Jesus Christ, a sermon of peace
and mercy; and their actions were often far
more gentle than those of Cromwell at this
time. It was not only in the first excite-
ment of rushing into the town that the poor
inhabitants were cut off, but the butchery
lasted for five days. It is said that Crom-
well’s heart was at last touched by the sight
of a dead mother stretched along the path,
and a living infant lying at her breast, vainly
trying to draw sustenance from her. The
parliament, when news arrived in England
from Cromwell, giving a description of the
massacre, ordered a day of thanksgiving to be
set apart for the mercy vouchsafed; and,
doubtless, many sincere thanks arose; for
the oppression and evils under which they
had suffered, during Charles the First’s
reign, were great. Yet, great as was the
need of deliverance which they might have
felt for their country, the means were
scarcely warrantable for those who had read
in the bible, “I say unto you, that ye resist
not evil; that if any smite thee on thy right


106 STORIES OF IRELAND.

cheek, thou shalt offer him the other also.”
“Love your enemies,” said that same bible
which Cromwell read. ‘Do good to them
that hate you.” I do not know how Crom-
well interpreted those words; but it appears a
strange way of showing his love to his fellow
creatures, by butchering them in the manner
he did. Some persons apologize for him, by
saying that the Old Testament was Cromwell’s
text book. The Puritans and Independents,
as they were called, used to march to battle
to the music of hymns and psalms: so that,
in spite of some acts of cruelty, we cannot
but hope that they were sincere in their belief,
that they were fighting for the cause of the
Lord. The great mistake seems to have been
—carrying on war at all; for there is some-
thing in the excitement of such times which
carries men on to acts of wholesale cruelty,
at which, in private or in calmer moments,
they would shudder. This is the best excuse
we can offer for Oliver, at the siege of Drog-
heda, that he was enthusiastically carried
away by a sense of the importance of the
cause in which he fought, and determined to
“root out the Stuarts from the land” —the
enemies of God, as he termed them. One
of the historians of that dreadful siege, says :

‘I went to visit the garrison of Dundalk,
CROMWELL. 107

and on my return I found a party of the
enemy retired within a hollow rock, which
was discovered by us, who saw five or six of
them at the mouth of the cave. The rock
was so thick, that we thought it best to
reduce them by smoke. After some of our
men had spent some time endeavouring to
smother them by fire placed at the mouth of
the cave, we crawled into the rock.” This
did not appear to answer, one of the fore-
most men receiving a pistol-shot in his head ;
and they found that the smoke came out of
some crevice in the rock, which accounted
for the failure. “So,” says Ludlow, “I
ordered those places to be stopped, and
another smother to be made, About an hour
and a half after, one of the men groaned
strongly, then weaker; whereby we presu-
med our work was done: yet we continued
the fire till midnight.” The storming of
Drogheda was but the first of a series of
terrible acts. The Irish peasants have yet an
expression in use—“ The curse of Cromwell
be upon you.” Of the old walls and forti-
fications of Drogheda there are still a few
remains.

The battle of the Boyne, a river which
runs through Louth, is commemorated by an
obelisk erected on its banks, This battle was
108 STORIES OF IRELAND.

the decisive one that was fought between
James II. and William III. The Boyne is a
beautiful and picturesque river. The depth
is considerable; its width near the field of
battle is seldom less than fifty or sixty yards.
Accounts of battles, however exciting, are
not profitable: and, except to lead you to
hate war, and to give you needful historical
information, I would never willingly touch
upon the subject. This battle, like many
others, have been called “glorious.” The
glory of killing our fellow-creatures is, how-
ever, very questionable.

James, in spite of the assistance he recei-
ved from Louis XIV., was entirely defeated,
and obliged to retreat from the country.
James had few personal friends : he disgusted
even his Irish allies—the men who approved
his cause, despised their ruler. A Roman
Catholic historian says, “ Nature made him
a coward, a monk, and a gourmand.” There
certainly seem to have been very few things
to admire in the king’s character; though
he was, on the whole, a good husband and
an affectionate father.

The battle of the Boyne decided the fate
of the Stuarts: who were, as a family, sin-
gularly unfortunate; and, we must confess,
singularly unfit to rule a great nation. Their

a CT
BATTLE OF THE BOYNE. 109

gteat mistake, whence arose so many of
their great misfortunes, was a love of un-
limited power, and the erroneous notion that
since kings were God’s deputies on earth,
as such, they could do no wrong.

There is no doubt, little as we can ad-
mire the means used to effect the change,
that the Revolution was a blessing to the
kingdom. William III. was not a bigot ;
and many of the afflictions of the people
during the Stuart reign, had arisen from
the intolerance of different religious per-
suasions that abounded. He was, moreover,
a wise ruler, and a good king. The obelisk
on the Boyne stands on a rock which juts
a little way out into the current of the river,
CHAPTER IX.

Queen’s County—Dun-a-mase Rock—King’s County—Origin
of its Name—Kildare—Race Ground—Turf Cutting—May-
nooth—County of Carlow—River Barrow—Carlow Castle—
Milford Flour-Mills—Town of Leighlin—County Wicklow
—Phoula Phooka—Glendalough and its Ruins — Moore,
and the Meeting of the Waters—Gold Mines of Wicklow.

QueEn’s County is a tract of country
which received its name in compliment to
Queen Mary, in the fifth year of her reign.
It is an inland county; bounded on the
north by King’s County, on the west by
Tipperary and King’s County, on the east
by Carlow and Kildare, and on the south
by Carlow and Kilkenny.

The capital is Maryborough, a place of
little note; but distant from it, about four
miles, is the celebrated rock of Dun-a-mase.
The ruins of a castle stand on this lonely
tock, in the midst of a plain. The county
is generally flat and uninteresting.

Kine’s County is called after Philip of
Spain, who was the husband of our first
Queen Mary, known in history as Bloody
Mary; that same king, who afterwards in
Queen Elizabeth’s reign, sent the mighty
|
KILDARE. 111

fleet to subdue England. Its boundaries
are Kildare on the east, Meath and West
Meath on the north, the beautiful river
Shannon on the west, and the Queen’s
County on the south, King’s County
abounds in ruined castles. Philip's Town
was the former, and Tullamore is the present
capital. There is a great quantity of waste
land and bog, both in King’s and Queen’s
Counties, and not many objects of interest.

Kitpare is bounded on the north by
Meath, on the east by Dublin and Wicklow,
on the south by Carlow, and on the west by
King’s and Queen’s Counties.

Kildare, its ancient capital, is now but a
small village, though it was once a bishopric.
The principal race-ground in Ireland—Cur-
ragh, of Kildare, is near the town; it is a
fine down, six miles in length, and two in
breadth, and is noted for the extreme soft-
ness of the turf.

Turf forms a very important article in the
support of the Irish; and the Bog of Allen,
in Kildare, supplies a large quantity. I
described the nature of bogs to you in
another part of this book. The cutting
of the turf for fuel, is done by means of a
narrow spade, called a slane, with a ledge at
either edge.

K2
112 STORIES OF IRELAND.

The great Roman Catholic College at
Maynooth, which contains between four and
five hundred students, is in this county.

The county of Cartow is very small;
bounded on the north and north-west by
Queen’s County and Kildare, on the west
by Kilkenny, and on the east and south-east -
by Wicklow and Wexford.

The capital, Carlow, is situated on the
river Barrow. ‘The only ancient part of
Carlow, is its Castle; which, after having
endured many sieges, and withstood the
effects of time and war, was destroyed by
a medical man, who meant to use it for
the residence of his insane patients. For
some purpose of his own, he applied gun-
powder to the foundations, and in a moment
it was blown up, and but two of its towers
were left.

The Irish ascribe a great deal of evil to
Cromwell; some with justice; some, no doubt,
without cause, as in this case. A traveller
asked an old man one day the reason of
the breach in the wall of Carlow Castle;
“Crumell! Oliver Crumell did it!” said the
man; “the crafty, cunning Crumell planted
his cannon in the weakest part of the wall.”

Carlow is one of the most fertile and best
cultivated counties in Ireland, and has been


MILFORD FLOUR MILLS. 113

called the “garden of Erin.” Its soil is
peculiarly adapted for corn, and a great many
flour mills are found in most parts of this
district. The Carlow butter is also famous.
The establishment of Milford is one of the
most important in Ireland: it is situated
about four miles from Carlow, on the Barrow,
in a lovely valley, through which the river
runs; and is surrounded by high mountains.
The factory has not the common appearance
of one, but its walls are like those of a castle,
and the roof flat; so that at a distance it has
a very pleasing effect. Plantations of fine
trees are growing up around it. The cotta-
ges are neat, and the hedges (an unusual
sight in Ireland) well-trimmed and kept.
This mill was established many years ago for
the purpose of grinding corn into flour, and
also for the manufacture of oatmeal. The
mill is worked by water; and the supply is
80 good, even in the hottest day of summer,
that a great deal often runs to waste.

The old town of Leighlin is dwindled to
a small village: it has a cathedral ; but it is
very plain, and remarkable for nothing but a
large stone font for baptism.

The county of Wicktow is bounded by
Wexford and St. George’s Channel on the
south and east, Dublin on the north, and

K3
114 STORIES OF IRELAND.

Carlow and Kildare on the west. This is a
very beautiful part of Ireland: mountains,
valleys, rivers, and torrents, abound. Its
capital is Wicklow; a place of little impor-
tance. The waterfall of Phoula Phooka, in
this county, is noted; and terminates in a
whirlpool, of depth, it is said, unfathomed :
its summit is crossed by a bridge of a
single arch, which crosses from rock to rock.
Phoula Phooka is the name given to several
cataracts, 150 feet in height and 40 in
breadth, over which the waters of the river
Liffey are precipitated.

The ruins of the seven churches of Glen-
dalough are situated in a valley in the
county of Wicklow. There is one of the
celebrated round towers on the borders of
the lake, which is very picturesque, and
almost enclosed by mountains. The city of
Glendalough, meaning the glen of the two
lakes, owes it origin, it is believed, to one of
the numerous Irish saints, called St. Kevin,
who founded an abbey there, early in the
sixth century. This abbey grew quite into
a city—a school for learning—a college for
religion—and an hospital for the sick. The
city is now a heap of ruins: the entrance to
it is through two ivy-covered arches. The
round tower has seven windows, and its
height is 110 feet.
GOLD MINES OF WICKLOW. 115

You need not be very deeply read in
poetry to have seen one of Moore’s noted
Trish melodies ; beginning,

“There is not in the wide world a valley so sweet,
As that vale in whose bosom the bright waters meet,”
Moore was, as I have told you, a native of
Ireland, and we must make allowance for
his partiality for his own country, for his
praises of Avoca; but many travellers have
felt and expressed great disappointment in
the meeting of the waters. The two rivers,
Avonmore and Avonbeg, meet here ; and,
after their junction, take the name of Avoca,
This is the “sweet vale of Avoca,” whose
praises have beeri sung by the poet. There
are copper mines, at a place called Cronbane,
in this county. Arklow, a sea-port town, is
beautifully situated near the mouth of the
river Avoca, which is crossed by a handsome
bridge of nineteen arches,

You will be rather surprised to hear of
gold mines in Treland. Near the Croghan
mountains, however, is a district called the
Wicklow gold mines; and gold has certainly
been, at different times, collected by the
peasants. The origin of the discovery of this
treasure, is variously told: some say that a
certain schoolmaster, who was perpetually
walking about by the sides of the streams,
116 STORIES OF IRELAND.

and was reckoned quite mad, gradually grew
rich; but at length the secret was discovered,
and people flocked around the place in great
numbers. It does not appear that gold was
found, in any quantity, until the year 1796;
when a man, crossing a brook, found a piece
in the stream, which weighed about half an
ounce. This news soon spread, and a grand
search began: in less than two months, it is
said that 2500 ounces were collected by the
peasants from the mud of Ballinvalley stream.
Soon after, the government took possession of
the ground ; but the produce was very small,
and the mine was abandoned. Now and
then, for more than fifty years, peasants
have found morsels of the precious metal.
It is a pity that some attempts have not
been made to trace the gold to its source in
the mountain bed; but they merely collect
it from the clay that borders the stream.
The gold is obtained only by continual
washings; and it is supposed that there is
no regular vein in the mountain, but that
the fragments had existed in a part of the
mountain now crumbled away. With this
little account of the gold-seeking, for gold-
finding it cannot very often be called, we
will conclude the account of the county of
Wicklow.
CHAPTER X.

County of Longford—Eageworthstown —Curious Steeple=
The Edgeworth Family —Pallas—Oliver Goldsmith —De-
serted Village—A Curious Adventure—Goldsmith’s Vanity
Tae county of Lonarorp is bounded on

the south and east by West Meath, on the

west by Roscommon, and on the north by
the counties of Cavan and Leitrim.

I do not know of any thing in the county
itself likely to interest you. It is flat, and
contains large districts of bog. Longford is
the capital, and is a neat, clean town. There is
a place in Longford called Edgeworthstown,
which 1 shall just name to you. The name
of Edgeworth is known to most children ; for
a lady of that name devoted much of a long
life to their amusement and instruction,
Edgeworthstown is an estate belonging to the
Edgeworth family ; and it is here that Miss
Edgeworth wrote so many of the stories in
which you, and, no doubt, your papa and
mamma, in their childhood, have delighted.
T allude to Frank, Harry and Lucy, Rosa-
mond, and many other tales. Miss Edge-
worth was not a native of Ireland; she went
118 STORIES OF IRELAND.

to reside there when she was about 12 years
old. Her father, Richard Lovell Edgeworth,
was also an author, and a very clever,
‘ inventive.man. There is a curious church
at Edgeworthstown; the steeple of which
he contrived to build without scaffolding ;
and, when completed, it was drawn out just
like a telescope, and fixed in its place, to
the great marvel of the people who were
assembled to see the feat. The steeple is
formed of metal. Richard Lovell Edgeworth
did a great deal for the neighbourhood
where he lived. Besides draining and culti-
vating the bog and waste land, he expended
much time and labour on the minds of the
people. In his memoirs, begun by himself
and finished by his daughter Maria, you
would find many very interesting and enter-
taining subjects. Miss Edgeworth is only
lately dead. She is described as having been
a cheerful, bright, amiable old lady, but a
few years since: and her faculties seem to
have been good to a very late period of her
life; for, not long before her death, she
wrote a tale, called “ Orlandino,” for young
persons. Her younger brother now lives at
Edgeworthstown, and she resided with him
and his family for many years.

At Pallas, a small town in Longford, Oliver
OLIVER GOLDSMITH. 119

Goldsmith was born. You have very likely
heard of some of his works; and, if not,
you will have pleasure in reading them when
you are older. The poem called “The
Deserted Village,” is a great favourite with
many young persons.

‘Sweet Auburn,” as he calls it in the first
line, is now generally believed to be the
village of Lissoy ; to which place Goldsmith’s _
father removed when he was very young.
The description of the clergyman applies to
his brother, who lived in the Parsonage-
House, in Lissoy, now in ruins.

“‘A man he was to all the country dear,
And passing rich with forty pounds a year.

His house was known to all the vagrant train ;
He chid their wanderings but relieved their pain.
At church, with meek and unaffected grace,

His looks adorned the venerable place ;

Truth from his lips prevailed with double sway ;
And those who came to scoff, remained to pray.
The service passed, around the pious man

With ready zeal each honest rustic ran ;

E’en children followed with endearing wile,

And pluck’d his gown, to share the good man’s smile.”

You can fancy the whole scene in the church-
yard—can you not, from these simple lines ?
He tells of the schoolmaster in another part
of the poem.
120 STORIES OF IRELAND,

“A man severe he was, and stern to view;
I knew him well, and every truant knew.”
I dare say young Oliver played the truant
sometimes, for he does not appear to have
been a very studious boy. I will not quote
any more of the “ Deserted Village” to you
here, but advise you to read it for yourselves,
This, as well as “The Traveller,” is worth
your reading; and will, perhaps, gain
Goldsmith rather more favour in your eyes
than the old-fashioned Geography and Eng-
lish History, which, with alterations, are
still used in schools. His father, who was
very poor, had great difficulty in giving
Oliver a good education: but his talents,
which, in spite of his unsettled turn and
odd manner, began to appear, induced his
parents to make great efforts to do so.
Before being sent to College, he went to
study with a Mr. Hughes, at Edgeworths-
town. It is related of him, that on his way
thither, he inquired of an itinerant fencing
master, which was the best house on the
road, meaning the best inn; and that the
man, pretending to misunderstand him, sent
him mischievously to the squire’s house.
With all the importance of a youth, who
for the first time found himself his own
master, with a little money in his pocket,
GOLDSMITH, — 121

Goldsmith made the best of his way to the
great house. He left his horse to a servant,
who, supposing the young man to be come
on a visit to his master, was not surprised.
Straightway he marched into the house, where
he found the owner, and pompously ordered
him to prepare a good supper. The gentle-
. Man at once saw Goldsmith’s mistake, and
resolved to keep up the joke, after having
discovered his name, and recollecting the
father of the youth, A grand supper was
provided, and Goldsmith invited the host and
his wife and daughter to sup with him.
After a merry evening, he retired to rest,
ordering a hot cake'for breakfast ; and it was
not until the next morning, when he called
for his bill, that he discovered his error, I
cannot assure you that this story is altogether
true, but I think it likely that there may be
some foundation for it. Nor do I think it more
improbable than one for the truth of which I
can vouch, and which will at least show you
how important it is to be polite to all, even
to those whom we may consider our inferiors ;
and how foolish and disgusting is assumption
in any one, especially in a young person,
Two young men, clerks in an office, went
a ride one holiday, to see a nobleman’s seat.
They had hired a horse and gig’ for the occa-
L
122 STORIES OF IRELAND.

sion, and felt very important as they drove up
to the Lodge gate and asked admittance. It
was opened by anold man not very handsomely
attired, in a well-worn greyish suit, who had
a hatchet in his hand, and a shabby old
hat on his head. He preceded them up the
drive, and when they came to another gate,
the lads commanded him to open it also.
He obeyed; and as they drove behind him,
they made several very silly and impertinent
remarks on his personal appearance, laugh-
ing heartily at their own wit.

They viewed the house and grounds; and
on coming down stairs, a servant met them,
and showed them into a breakfast parlour,
where a good luncheon was set out, and
where the shabby old man stood. “ Sit down,
gentlemen, sit down,” said the ‘old chap,”
(as they had called him), with a polite bow.
“Take some luncheon, gentlemen ; Lord-—
desires it.” They looked at one another in
amazement; but the shabby gentleman still
persisting, they sate down to table with the
noble owner of the mansion, who thus gave
them a lesson, which I should think they have
never forgotten. They said that this forced
meal was a very awkward affair, and a sore
punishment to them, but there was no help
for it.
GOLDSMITH. 123

Goldsmith, after spending some time under
Mr. Hughes’ care, went to Dublin, the capi-
tal of Ireland, and entered Trinity College
in that town. Here he quarrelled with his
tutor: and selling his books and part of his
clothes, ran away from college, and began a
wandering life. He soon spent his money,
and was so reduced that a handful of pease
given him by a poor girl, was most gratefully
received, After consideration he went back to
college, however, and was reconciled to his
tutor. He then resolved to try the medical
profession, and studied for it at Edinburgh.
On the evening of his arrival there, he went
out for a walk, after having engaged a lodging,
telling his landlady that he should be home
to supper, but in his careless way quite forgot
the name both of landlady and street. Hap-
pily, he met the porter who had carried his
luggage thither for him; or in a large town
like Edinburgh, his chances of finding his
lodging would have been very small.

Goldsmith was a good-natured man, but
vain, and fond of applause. He had some
very bad habits; was fond of gambling,
and occasionally drank more wine than was
good for him ; he was also extravagant in the
extreme. He had a great desire to travel, and
after plunging hirhself in poverty, set out on

L2
124 STORIES OF IRELAND,

foot to make the tour of Europe, with a suit
of clothes, a spare shirt, and a German flute.
He had a good voice, and a little skill in
music; and his flute-playing generally pro-
cured him a night’s lodging. In this way
he travelled over the greater part of the
Continent. He was plain in his person, but
exceedingly fond of fine clothes. A curious
anecdote is told of him, which will show both
his vanity and good nature. Two gentlemen,
a Colonel Moore and a Mr. Burke, were
going to dine with the great painter, Sir
Joshua Reynolds. On their way to his house
they observed Goldsmith standing near a
crowd of people, who were looking at some
foreign women in Leicester Square, in London.
“Now,” said Mr. Burke to Colonel Moore,
“see what passes between Goldsmith and me
at Sir Joshua’s.” They passed on, and arrived
at the house before Goldsmith, who came soon
after; and on his arrival, Burke pretended to
receive him very coolly. This vexed poor
Goldsmith, and he begged Burke to tell him
if he had offended him. After much pressing,
Burke consented, and related having seen him
in the Square; “And did you not,” said
Burke, “exclaim ‘How stupid the crowd must
be, to be staring with admiration at those
painted Jezebels, whilst a man of my talents is
DEATH OF GOLDSMITH. 125

passed by unnoticed.’” Goldsmith was horror-
struck, and said, “Surely, surely, my dear
friend, I did not say so!” “Nay,” replied
Burke, “if you had not said so, how should
Thave known it?” “That's true,” said Gold-
smith, ingenuously, ‘I do recollect that
something of the kind passed through my
mind, but I did not think that I had uttered
it.” He died at the age of forty-six, and a
monument is erected to him in Westminster
Abbey.

It is to be lamented, that a man possessed
of such talent as Goldsmith, should have
given himself up to the indulgence of bad
habits, which certainly prevented his writing
so much or so usefully as he might have
done—which kept him in poverty, injured
his health, and finally, ,shortened his life,
Besides the works and poems I have men-
tioned, he was the Author of a tale called
the “ Vicar of Wakefield” and several Plays.

L3
CHAPTER XI ‘

Kilkeriny—History of Strongbow—Kilkenny Castle—Kilkenny
Coal—Caves of Dunmore—Stalactites—Story of an Idiot Girl
—Wexford—Rebellion—Lord Edward Fitzgerald —Lobster
Fishing—Sea Goose,

Kirxenny is bounded on the north by
Queen’s County, on the south by Waterford—
from which it is separated by the River
Suir, on the west by Tipperary, and on the
east by Carlow and Wexford. Kilkenny, its
capital, has a famous castle standing on a hill
that overlooks the Nore; it is now put into
complete repair, and bears few marks of age ;
but it is said to have been built by Strongbow;
of whom, especially in Irish history, you
will often read. Strongbow, whose original
name was Richard de Clare, and who obtained
the title of Strongbow, from his skill in the
use of his bow-and-arrow, lived in the reign
of Henry II. He was very energetic in
helping Dermot, Prince of Leinster, to re-
gain possession of his crown, which his
subjects had taken from him. Strongbow
married Eva, daughter of Dermot, and became
a very powerful person in Ireland, even after
its conquest by Henry IL.
KILKENNY. 127

From the turrets of the Castle of Kilkenny
is a beautiful prospect; and what has been
noticed by travellers, is the singular effect
of a large number of houses, from the chim-
neys of which no smoke issues—one of the
marvels .attributed to the city, in an old
rhyme, which says,

“ Fire without smoke, earth without bog,
Water without mud, air without fog,
And streets paved with marble.”

The coals which are found in the Kilkenny
coal mines, give no smoke. There are few
bogs in the neighbourhood. Fogs are rare;
and many clear streams run into the river.
Kilkenny has a Cathedral, next in impor-
tance to that of Christ-Church, in Dublin.
It contains many curious monuments and
old tombs; one to the memory of Margaret
Fitagerald, wife of the Earl of Ormond,
who was more like a man than a woman;
she is said to have excelled her husband in
warlike deeds, and a stone chair is shown
at Bally-Ragget Castle, where she used to
view the hanging of her prisoners. I must
tell you that the Kilkenny coal to which
I just referred, is very valuable for many
purposes. It gives out neither flame nor
smoke. It is composed of carbon, dark grey
ashes, or metallic oxides, and sulphur; and
128 STORIES OF IRELAND.

the ingredient called ditumen, which abounds
in our English coal, is entirely wanting in
that found at Kilkenny. It is very useful
for steam engines. Coal is formed from
vegetable matter, excluded from the air.
You may often, indeed, see the texture of
wood in coal. The Kilkenny coal, however,
is not suitable for fires in houses, on account
of the great quantity of gas which is formed
during its ignition or burning, called car-
bonic acid gas; which being much heavier
than the air of the atmosphere, sinks, and
is necessarily breathed by persons in the
room. If inhaled in any quantity, it pro-
duces heaviness and stupor; and in close
rooms would have the same effect as fumes
of charcoal, which you know are very dan-
gerous.

The marble quarry at Kilkenny, is worth
notice; very handsome black marble is pro-
cured from it. About four miles from
Kilkenny, are the celebrated caves of Dun-
more. The principal cave is a large oval
pit, the sides of which contain different spars
and crystals, Stalactites are constantly
formed from the dripping of the water
through the calcareous earth. The alabaster
taken out of these caves is extremely beauti-
ful, and almost transparent.
IDIOT GIRL, 129

In that interesting work on Ireland by
Mr. and Mrs. Hall, from which I have
extracted many things which I thought
would interest you, they give an account
of the great kindness of the Irish to idiots,
called by them “innocents” or “naturals ;” |
but it is very uncommon to see an idiot un-
kindly treated or ridiculed in Ireland. There
is an affecting story told of a poor-idiot
girl who had a baby, which did not inherit its
mother’s idiocy, but was a bright, happy,
intelligent little thing. Mary loved it, and
it seemed as if the birth of this child aroused
her faculties. She used to wash and keep it
very clean, and dress it up in scraps of finery
and ribbons, as a child would deck out a doll.
At last it caught that dreadful disorder, the
small-pox, and Mary was told to let it lay
quietly on its little bed; but the poor idiot,
thinking the marks on her baby’s skin
were dirt spots, got it out of the cabin,
flew with it to the sea shore, and began to
scrub it with wet sand to clean it. In
another day, the blue-eyed baby was dead ;
it died on its idiot mother’s arms while she
was asleep. The woman who took care of
them, (an aunt of the girl’s) thought it would
be kindness to move it away whilst Mary
slept ; but when the girl awoke, she did not
130 STORIES OF IRELAND.

forget her baby. For many days she touched
no food, and wandered about crying “ba ba.”
She asked every one she met—“have ye
seen my child? Oh lady! have ye got my
child?” Poor Mary! it must have been a
heart-breaking sight to see almost the only
pleasant feeling to which she was alive,
changed to deep daily sorrow. I do not
know of any thing else connected with this
county at all likely to interest you; and we
will therefore proceed to the last in the
province of Leinster, the name of which is
WExrorb.

Its boundaries are St. George’s Channel on
the east, the Atlantic on the south, Wicklow
on the north, Carlow and Kilkenny on the
west. New Ross, one of its principal towns,
is, notwithstanding its name, a very ancient
place. The Barrow, on which it stands, is
here of great width, and large quantities
of salmon are caught. The early history
of Ross, is one continued page of wars,
rebellion, and sieges; but I will only give
you the particulars of the memorable rebel-
lion of 1798. In 1791, a society was formed
in Dublin, called by the name of the United
Irishmen ; whose secret object was to collect
into different associations, those of their
countrymen who desired to throw off the
REBELLION. 131

government of England, and to become a
republic. There had been a great revolution
or change in the government of France
at that time, and Ireland wished to follow
her neighbour’s example. This wish was
not confined to the poorer classes, but
many educated and sensible men joined the
society. As in France, a body called the
National Guard was formed; and a corres-
pondence began between France and Ireland,
of which, however, England soon heard.
The first step that Government took, was to
suspend the Habeas Corpus Act. But you
will want very likely to know, what that act
was, As the law then existed, it prevented
any person from being imprisoned without
being made acquainted with the cause of his
imprisonment; nor might he be detained in
prison without being brought to trial. This
law was made because people used in former
times frequently to be kept in confinement
for years, or perhaps for their whole lives,
without being informed what their crime was,
nor even brought to trial. However, govern-
ment has sometimes, as in this case, ordered
the Habeas Corpus Law to be suspended;
and during such suspension, a person may be
committed to prison and kept there without
any reason being given to him. All who
132 STORIES OF IRELAND.

were suspected at this time of any knowledge
of the plot, were seized and imprisoned; and
some were cruelly flogged and ill treated, to
make them own all they knew of the matter.
Thus the whole plot was discovered, and
thirteen of the conspirators arrested; some
of them gentlemen of respectability.

The county of Wexford was the principal
scene of rebellion, and many battles were
fought between theroyalists and revolutionists,
the last of which was that which took place
at Vinegar Hill, where the republican party
was defeated. Lord Edward Fitzgerald, a
young nobleman of great promise, took a
very active part in the rebellion, He was
taken prisoner in Dublin, in the house of
a man of the name of Murphy, where he lay
concealed. The twomen who went to capture
him, burst into the little bed-room where he
was sleeping—partly dressed; but Lord
Edward, who was armed with a dagger,
killed one of the officers and severely in-
jured another. A third entered, hearing the
struggle: ‘and seeing Lord Edward and Mr.
Ryan struggling on the floor, fired a pistol at
the former; the ball entered his shoulder,
and a short time after, Lord Edward died of
the wound in Newgate prison in London. He
was an affectionate son and a good husband,
LOBSTER FISHING. 133

and some of his letters are very affecting ;
they speak so tenderly of little domestic
matters at a time when his mind and time
must have been full of the subject of rebel-
lion and warfare,

The county of Wexford lies directly
opposite to that of Cardiganshire, in Wales ;
and, unlike some other near neighbours, the
inhabitants of these two counties have lived
on terms of friendship from a very early
period. Their friendship was once inter-
rupted, however, by Dermot Mac Morogh,
King of Leinster, running away with the
wife of a Welsh Prince, called O'Rourke, in
the reign of Henry IT. of England.

The old town of Fethard, though now only
asmall village, was once a place of import-
ance. It is lamentable to know, that on this,
as well as on many other parts of the Irish
coast, the people, from ignorance or want of
spirit, neglect a valuable means of subsistence,
The fishing there is very good, but at present
they only attend to lobster catching. The
lobster pots are baited with putrid fish ; and
certainly this, and the ropes and buoy
attached to the lobster pots, frighten other
fish away. The bay of Bannon abounds in ¢
sea fowl, and amongst them is one of which
134 STORIES OF IRELAND.

you may have heard strange tales, called the
barnacle or sea goose. I will give you the
true history of this bird, and then it may
amuse you to hear the opinion which nat-
uralists of early time formed of this curious
creature. The barnacle is like a wild goose ;
it feeds on the roots of a grass which is full of
saccharine juice ; and does not, like other sea
fowl, feed on fish. It therefore has a more
delicate flavour than most other sea-birds,
the flesh of which is generally rank and
disagreeable. But it was believed—not by
the Irish only, but by the English, that this
bird was the production of a shell fish, called
a barnacle. The shell supposed to produce
the goose, is frequently found on the coast of
Ireland, sticking to logs of wood and other
substances; it is fastened by a fleshy mem-
brane at one end, and from the other a sort
of fibre proceeds, which coils round the shell,
and by very strong fancy may be said to
resemble feathers. With the story of the
barnacle, I dare say you are acquainted; but
I will just tell you what an old botanist says
of it; “What mine eyes have seen, and
mine hands have touched, I will declare;” and
he forthwith declares for truth that he saw a
wild goose just proceeding from a barnacle


SEA GOOSE. 135

shell, and dropping into the sea. This tale
of Gerald, the botanist, was once believed ;
and with it we will close our account of
Wexford and the province of Leinster. |

ee

M2
CHAPTER XII.

Waterford—Lismore Castle—Mount Melleray—Monastery—
Cork—Emigrant Ship—Provision Merchants—Temperance
Societies—Father Mathew—Youghall—Sir Walter Ra-
leigh’s History—Potatoes—Tobacco.

Tue Province of Munster contains six
counties. We will begin with that of
Warterrorp: its boundaries are those of
Cork on the west, Kilkenny and Tipperary
on the north, Wexford on the east, and St.
George’s Channel on the south. Its capital,
Waterford, is one of the oldest cities in
Treland: it has a fine harbour, situated on
the southern bank of the river Suir, about
sixteen miles before it flows into the sea.
This river Suir is navigable for extremely
large ships, its waters being deep enough to
allow vessels of 1000 tons burden to unload
at the quay. The quay is a mile long, and,
on the side next the river, is a fine broad
pathway. The city has a cheerful appearance,
and commands a fine view of the Commeragh
Mountains: it has an old cathedral and a
monastery,

Near Dunmore, in this county, and not
many miles from the city of Waterford, is a
MOUNT MELLERAY. 137

very curious Druids’ altar, consisting of
fourteen perpendicular stones. There are
some important copper mines also in the
county, but few objects of natural beauty.
There is an unusual scarcity of trees; and
the whole district has a barren, uninteresting
appearance. The castle of Lismore is, how-
ever, beautifully situated, and is said to have
been originally built by King John. The
town of Lismore, on the river Blackwater,
which once was a rich and powerful city,
is now poor and deserted. Amongst the
mountains near Lismore is the town of Cap-
poquin, where is the singular settlement called
Mount Melleray. In the year 1831, some
monks came over from France, and obtained
a lease of 500 acres of mountain land at very
low rent. It was a barren heath; but they
have industriously worked and improved it ;
being helped by the peasants, and aided by
contributions from different people. Soon
after they arrived, they printed bills, pro-
mising to offer up different prayers to the
Virgin Mary, for those who would give them
money to build. In this catholic country,
the request was not in vain; and they have
raised a chapel, a dormitory, a refectory, and
farm-house: all from stones picked off the
land. Lady Chatterton gives an interesting
M3
138 STORIES OF IRELAND.

account of her visit to these monks, whose
number, at the time, was about 70. She says,
that they live on vegetables, never eating
either meat or eggs, and having but two meals
a day. They observe almost continual si-
lence; they rise at two in the morning, both
summer and winter; and do not breakfast
until eleven in the forenoon, How melancholy
it is to think that these poor monks are trying
to merit heaven by their hard lives and many
penances! while they neglect the only way in
which man can be reconciled to God. I must
not omit to tell you that Robert Boyle, the
celebrated philosopher, was born at Lismore
Castle in 1626; he was the fourteenth child
of the Earl of Cork.

The county of Cork is the largest in
Treland ; and larger than any English county,
with the exception of York. It is bounded
on the north by Tipperary and Limerick,
on the north-east by Waterford, on the north-
west by Kerry, and on the south by the Ocean.
Like Yorkshire, it is divided into Ridings, the
east and west. The usual landing-place of
travellers to Ireland is the capital town of the
county, which also bears the name of Cork.
The town of Cove and Spike Island are at
the entrance of the harbour. Unfortunately,
one of the most striking things on landing
CORK. 139

in Ireland is the number of beggars. All
travellers are alike struck with this; and it
is a very melancholy sort of welcome to the
island.

The town of Cork is a thriving one ; but its
public buildings are not either very numerous
or handsome. The jails of Cork are clean
and airy, and are generally well managed. It
is sad to think that hundreds of deserving,
honest Irishmen, fare worse than the dishonest
criminals; but it is true. Whilst the poor
and honest labourer is living in a mud cabin,
his fare—watery potatoes, the prisoner is in a
clean, comfortable building, with two pounds
of bread allowed him, in addition to his fare
of well-cooked potatoes. Still freedom, even in
rags—and, above all, with a clear conscience, is
better than the walls or the fare of a palace,
if that palace be a prison. Some of the old
national customs prevail, particularly at Cork.
I will mention one or two to you. May
eve, or the last day of April, is called
Nettlemas night. Boys parade the streets
with great bunches of nettles, stinging their
playmates, and slyly trying to touch strangers.
This custom is peculiar to Cork, as well as
the burning of the Christmas candle. A
tallow candle, made with three ends, is lit on
Christmas Eve, to burn till midnight. This
140 STORIES OF IRELAND.

is, no doubt, in commemoration of the
Trinity. It is extinguished at twelve o’clock,
and kept during the year as a protection
against evil spirits.

There is one circumstance which must
always make Cork a melancholy place—that
is, its being the grand starting-point for
emigrants; or people leaving their own for
foreign countries. Poverty, alas! is the cause
of most emigrations, and in Ireland especially
so. Mrs. Hall gives a touching account of the
departure of an emigrant ship, which she her-
self witnessed. It was bound to Australia,
which is a large island, lying in the Southern
Pacific Ocean, and affords great temptation
to the poor unemployed people; for labour is
there very valuable, and most industrious,
steady men can get employment and food in
Australia, who must starve in their own
country. Think, however, of a band of
exiles, 200 in number, and the melancholy
crowd—collected to bid their friends adieu.
Mothers hanging on their sons’ necks; fathers
—old white-headed men—weeping for their
departing children! “Ah,” said one old
woman in the group, “ all’s gone when you're
gone, Dennis. Sure you was all I had left
of seven sons. Oh! Dennis, Dennis, don’t
forget your mother—your poor ould mother !”




























KILLARNEY.

;HE UPPER LAKES OF
EMIGRANT SHIP. 141

Dennis held his poor mother in his arms till
she fainted; and then, lifting her tenderly
into a car which had brought his luggage to
the ship, said to a poor weeping girl—* I’ll
send home for you both, Peggy; only be a
child to her, and then you'll be my own.”
Some bore little relics in their hands, of their
dear old home—a bunch of meadow-sweet,
or a sprig of fading hawthorn. One little
girl had a gay goldfinch in her hand—most
had something to remind them of dear
Treland. The final parting is described as
dreadful. Shrieks and prayers mingled in
one great cry from those on the quay and
those on shipboard, until a band struck up
a lively tune. The plank was withdrawn—
the steamer which was to convey the emi-
grants to Plymouth, previously to theirsailing
for Australia, moved on. Some fell down,
heart-broken, on deck; others waved hats and
handkerchiefs, as farewells ; the band played
louder; the drum beat noisily; and still a
feeble voice was heard: ‘Dennis, don’t forget
your ould mother.” This is not an uncommon
scene ; but it is a very distressing one.

The trade of Cork is extensive ; it exports
a great deal of butter, salt meat, and also live
stock. The shipping of the pigs at Cork is a
very amusingsight, Butter is brought to Cork


142 STORIES OF IRELAND.

market in little barrels or firkins; the quality
and weight of which is examined by a butter
inspector. Cork butter is very salt, for it is
usually sent a considerable distance. The
provision-merchants’ cellars are worth seeing.
Kohl, the German traveller, was especially
struck with them—the masses of ham and the
sides of bacon, ranged in low rows, in ex-
quisite neatness and order. Itisa melancholy
thought that the poor Irishman stands in
need of the provision he thus sends to other
countries ; and that he never tastes the meat
of the pig he has fed and nurtured within
his cabin walls.

One provision establishment at Cork has a
patent for preserving food ; which is packed,
in a most wonderful manner, in tin or pewter
cases ; and milk and cream thus packed, have
been known to keep good for years. Captain
Ross, who made a noted voyage to the
Arctic regions, bought some provisions here
in 1820; and he declared that, in 1833, they
were opened, and in most cases were perfectly
good. Of course, all air has to be very
carefully excluded, and, indeed, exhausted
from the vessels, or it would be impossible
to preserve the food thus.

The city of Cork has the honour of having
greatly forwarded the Temperance cause ; at
FATHER MATHEW. 143

the head of which was the Rev. Theobald
Mathew, a friar of the order called Capuchin.
Father Mathew, as he was called, was born at
Cork. He lived privately in that town until
about 20 years ago; when, struck with the
evils of drunkenness which abounded in his
native country, he, and some other benevolent
persons, began the difficult work of inducing
persons to break off their old intemperate
habits. Thus the Teetotal Society became
established in Ireland. Teetotal is a word in
constant use among the Irish, and signifies—
entirely. Teetotal, or entire abstinence from
all intoxicating drinks, was found to answer
much better with the drunkards than a partial
abstinence. Whisky-shops were in many cases
closed, and converted into coffee-houses ; and
travellers all agreed, that whereas drunken
Irishmen were once more common on the
roads than sober ones, an intoxicated person
had become a rare sight. Car drivers and
boatmen would not often be found to accept
liquor; and certainly, under the blessing of
God, Father Mathew’s labours were very suc-
cessful. The pledge administered to the per-
son is engraved on a medal, which he keeps,
and is in these words: ‘I promise to abstain
from all intoxicating drinks, &c., except
used medicinally, and by order of a medical
144 STORIES OF IRELAND,

man; and to discountenance the cause and
practice of intemperance.”

Those who have seen Mr. Mathew, describe
him as avery pleasing man. His countenance
mild and gracious; his manner persuasive,
simple, easy, and humble without affectation.

The mild air of the village of Cove, distant
about ten miles from Cork, is much recom-
mended for invalids. The Rev. Charles
Wolfe, author of those celebrated lines on
the death of Sir John Moore, died here, of
consumption, in 1823.

As Cork is the common landing-place of
travellers, cars for their accommodation
abound there. They are of three kinds:
the covered car; the inside jaunting car;
and the outside jaunting car. These draw-
ings will give
you a good
idea of the
covered car

generally
in use; as
also of that
where _ the

travellers
szsit back to





<
YOUGHALL. 145

quantity of
rain that
falls in Ire-
land,. ren-
ders the
travelling
in open
carriages
rather dis-
agreeable ;
neverthe-
less, it is
the most common mode. Some of the car
drivers are very droll fellows, and stories of
their fun and mirth might amuse you ; but my
chapter on this large county is already long.
and there is yet more to be written about it.
The town of Youghall is celebrated as
being the place where the first potatoe was
planted in Ireland, about 1586, by Sir
Walter Raleigh, one of the many favourites
of Queen Elizabeth, and the bitter enemy
of the unfortunate Earl of Essex. Sir
Walter* Raleigh’s end was as unfortunate as
that of Essex. Perhaps you would be
interested in a short account of his’ history,
connected as it is with that of Ireland. He
was born in the county of Devonshire, and

owed his introduction to court to a well-
N


146 STORIES OF IRELAND.

known circumstance. Elizabeth’s old gov-
erness, Kate Ashley, however, being related
to Sir Walter Raleigh, and having great
influence with the Queen through life, may
be considered more truly as the cause of
Raleigh’s advancement. Through her, and
before his appearance at court, he had
obtained a good post in Ireland, as Com-
mander of part of her Majesty’s army there ;
and very cruel he was in his treatment of
the poor natives. The origin of the quarrel
at the time of Raleigh’s first career in Ireland,
was between two Earls, the Earls of Desmond
and Ormond, about the boundaries of their
estates. The King of Spain, the bitter foe
of Elizabeth, sent over troops to assist the
Earl of Desmond, against Ormond, who was
related to the Queen of England. The Earl
of Desmond was, however, entirely defeated,
and obliged to flee to the woods; the
Spaniards laid down their arms, but Raleigh
commanded every one of them to be shot;
an act which is a great blot on his character.
The distress and famine that followed this
rebellion was terrible. Munster became
almost a desert. In order to re-people it,
forty new lordships were created out of the
vacant lands, and let to English nobles. Sir
Walter Raleigh obtained the grant of the land
SIR WALTER RALEIGH. 147

at Youghall, in which place he often resided.
Here he planted the first potatoe, which he
brought over from North America, where he
and his brother had tried to form a colony
some years before.

After the Irish rebellion he came over to
England; and one day, as the old story says,
meeting the Queen in her daily walk, and
seeing her hesitate to cross a muddy spot,
Raleigh threw off a fine plush cloak, and
reverently spreading it on the ground, be-
sought her Majesty to tread upon it, which
she did.

Sir Walter was at one time of his court
life very imperious, and had many enemies.
He possessed, says one of his historians, the
art of enemy making. His impertinence was
very disgusting. He was staying once at the
house of a great and influential lady, who
was a notable and active housewife; and like
ladies of that day, used to superintend the
concerns of her kitchen, and it appears even
of her farm, with great sharpness. Sir
Walter’s apartment was next to hers, and
early in the morning he heard her ask of her
maid, “Are the pigs served?” Just before
a grand stately dinner, she entered the dining
hall with great dignity, where her guests
were all assembled; when Sir Walter directly

n2
148 STORIES OF IRELAND.

asked ‘ Madam, are the pigs served ?” .“* You
know best,” returned the stately Dame, “ if
you have had your breakfast.” The house in
which Raleigh lived at Youghall, is called
Myrtle Grove, owing to the beautiful myr-
tles which grow there, some of them to the
height of twenty or thirty feet. Amidst the
pleasures of a courtier’s life, Raleigh preser-
ved his zeal for American discoveries, and
again set out in 1583 for that country; but
this expedition was more unfortunate than
the first; two out of five vessels returned
home in consequence of sickness, and two
were wrecked. On another occasion he was
more successful, and the new country he
discovered was named Virginia, in allusion to
the maiden Queen of England. You may see
the part of North America to which I allude
on a map. Soon after these successes he
was driven from court, and retired to his
Irish property, where he and the Poet Spenser
lived on terms of great intimacy ; but his dis-
grace did not last long at this time, and he
afterwards made several important discoveries
of land hitherto unknown to the English. He
treated the natives of Guiana, the name
given to the country he discovered, with
great kindness ; very different from the man-
ner in which he served the poor Spaniards
SIR WALTER RALEIGH. 149

in Ireland. The disgraces and reconciliations
of Raleigh were frequent; but he out-lived
his fickle mistress. I James the First’s
reign, his enemies got up a story against
him, and he was tried for treason. Misfor-
tune seems to have been of service to
Raleigh, for he behaved patiently and mode-
rately under much injustice. He spent
twelve years in the Tower of London, with
the sentence of death hanging over him;
and here he wrote many beautiful little
poems, and some larger and more important
works. His “ History of the World” is a
very curious production. At length he was
released from prison for the purpose of
working a gold mine, of which he professed
to know in Guiana. This,tempted James,
who was fond of money; but he was not
pardoned—merely let loose for a time. The
expedition failed. The Spaniards had, since
Raleigh’s last visit, obtained large posses-
sions ‘in Guiana, and had built a town pear
the very gold mine he sought; and on his_
return to England he was tried again for
the same offence alleged against him fifteen
years before, and executed in the sixty-sixth
year of his age. Whether Ireland has to
thank Raleigh for the introduction of the
potatoe or not, is, I think, doubtful. It
n3
150 STORIES OF IRELAND.

certainly never was intended to form the
principal part of man’s food, as it does, and
has done that of the Irish. It has been
called a lazy plant, and the great ease with
which it may be cultivated has no doubt led
the poor Irish to depend too much upon it, .
and to neglect much soil which might, with
proper care, be more usefully employed.

It is curious to read the different accounts
of the potatoe given by old writers. Old
Gerard, an English herbalist, says in 1590,
“The potatoe roots are of mighty nourishing
parts, though somewhat windy; but being

_roasted in the embers, they do lose much
of their windiness, especially when sopped
in wine. Of these roots may be made con-
serves; no less toothsome, wholesome, and
dainty, than quinces. They are used to be
eaten in ashes, and some do infuse and sop
them in wine, and others do boil them in
prunes and eat them.” Ben Jonson, a poet
and a writer of plays, about this period,
speaks of lark, sparrow, and potatoe pies;
and during James the First’s reign, they
were sold at two shillings a pound. Sir
Walter brought tobacco over from Virginia,
as well as the potatoe; and it is said that
Sir Walter Raleigh’s servant going into
his master’s study one day, and seeing
TOBACCO. 151

him for the first time smoking, and en-
veloped with smoke, threw the contents of
a tankard of ale in his face, fearing his
master was on fire inside. So much for
tobacco, potatoes, and the unfortunate Sir
Walter Raleigh.
CHAPTER XIII.

Cork continued—Kilcolman—Spenser, the Poet—Faery Queen
—Bantry Bay—County Kerry —Lakes of Killarney—Beauti-
ful Evergreens—Gap of Dunloe—Echo—Eagle Capturing— ;
Irish Wake.

We have not yet concluded the interesting
county of Cork. Kilcolman Castle, in this
county, was the residence of Spenser, the
poet; where he composed his celebrated
poem, called “The Faery Queen.” Spenser
first visited Ireland in 1580, as secretary to
the Lord Deputy, Grey de Wilton; and
some years afterwards, received a grant of
land out of the Munster estate. During the
first four years of his quiet residence here,
he wrote the first three books of his poem.
These he conveyed to England, in company
with his friend, Sir Walter Raleigh; and
they were printed and published in London.
On his return to Ireland, he married an Irish
lass of mean birth, as he says, whose name
was Elizabeth; and, in the succeeding six
years, he wrote three more books of his
SPENSER, THE POET. 153

poem. Raleigh introduced him to Elizabeth,
who was so pleased with his poetry, that
she ordered him to have £100 given him.
Burleigh, her Lord Treasurer, indignantly
said, “All this for a song!” ‘“ Well, then,”
said Elizabeth, “give him what is reason.”
Burleigh, therefore, gave him nothing; on
which the poor poet addressed these witty
lines to her Majesty :

“ I was promised, on a time,

To have reason for my rhyme:
Since that time, until this season,
I have had nor rhyme nor reason.”

So, at last, he gained his £100. She is
very improperly extolled in the poem, and
made the subject of most absurd, if not
impious praises. She is called Gloriana!
and I cannot tell you what other fanciful
names, by Spenser.

The Tyrone rebellion, which broke out
during Spenser’s residence in Ireland, was
a great calamity for him. His house at
Kilcolman was plundered and burnt, and his
youngest child perished in the flames. He,
with his wife, and remaining children, were
driven to London; where, in spite of his
talents, he died in poverty, and I believe in
actual want, in a poor lodging. It is possible
154 STORIES OF IRELAND.

that the concluding books of the poem were
burnt at the time of the fire, as it is evidently
imperfect; but, to modern readers’ taste, it
is still long and tedious.

The far-famed Bantry Bay is a beautiful
spot, and is memorable in history for having
twice been entered by a French fleet: once,
for the aid of James IL ; and once, at the
time of that rebellion, in which Lord Edward
Fitzgerald was concerned.

The County of Kerry is bounded on the
north by the Shannon, on the east by Cork
and Limerick, and on the west and south by
the Atlantic Ocean. Its capital is Tralee, on
the Tralee Bay ; but the county is principally
noted for its beautiful lakes, which I will
endeavour to describe to you. These lakes
are three in number:—the Upper, Middle,
and Lower Lakes. The Upper Lake is the
smallest of the three, and much narrower
than the others. It is in the midst of moun-
tains, and very picturesque. The variety of
foliage on the hill-side is very striking, and
is caused by the mixture of a tree-shrub,
called Arbutus Unedo. Pliny, an historian,
says, it is called Unedo, because having eaten
one of its berries, you will never desire to
eat another. The Arbutus grows in nearly
COUNTY KERRY. 155



all parts of Ireland, but nowhere in such
profusion as in Killarney. There is one in
the neighbourhood of Killarney, the stem of
which is seven feet in circumferance. Its
leaves are of a brilliant green. It strikes its
roots apparently into the very rocks, and fills
up spaces that would otherwise be barren.
Its flower is not unlike that of the lily of the
valley, and the fruit resembles the wood-
strawberry in colour. In October, when the
156 STORIES OF IRELAND.

flowers hang in drooping clusters, and the
bright scarlet berries of last year still remain
on the boughs, it is very striking and beau-
tiful. All evergreens grow luxuriantly in
Ireland. » The lauristinus, cedar, cypress,
holly, and magnolia, all flourish and attain a
much greater size than in England.

The Killarney lakes lie in a’crescent, round
the foot of the highest group of mountains in
Kerry, called Macgillicuddy’s Reek. Reek,
is a word probably derived from the German
Reeken, which signifies any thing piled up
to a great height; and is applied to ricks
of hay. The Pass is extremely grand, and
is from three to four miles in length. The
rocks are covered with turf-mould, and often

, look perfectly black. The hollows are covered
with bog, and every crevice seems filled with
the same substance. The Gap of Dunloe
is, perhaps,“one of the greatest wonders of
Killarney. A small river runs over the rocks
down this gap; and in the middle of the
valley spreads out into a basin, which forms
two little Lakes. The upper part of the
gap is called the Dark Valley. The channel
that leads to the Middle, or Tore Lake, is
very beautiful ; and about midway is the far-
famed Eagle’s Nest, the most extraordinary
of the echoes in which Killarney abounds.
»

ECHO. 157

This rock derives its name from having long
been the favourite residence of the royal
birds; it is 1700 feet high, and thickly clad
with evergreens. The echo is described, by
those who have heard it, as very remarkable.
A single note played on a bugle is caught
up by another ; loudly first, then softly, then
loudly again, and then, as if by a hundred
musical instruments. The firing of a cannon
makes a most extraordinary report; the
echoes all seem to awake and join together
in one mighty sound, louder and louder, until
they drop to a gentle lull.

As a further description of the scenery of
Killarney, would, I fear, be rather tedious to
you, I will give you an account of the mode
of capturing eagles. Between the middle
and last week in June, the eagle hunters go
forth, as the young eagles are considered
by that time old enough to be taken from
the nest. These nests are on high inacces-
sible rocks, not to be reached by climbing ;
and, therefore, the hunters are lowered in
baskets, from the upper edge. The time
that they select is when the old birds are
absent from the nest in search of food. These
nests are built of old and young twigs,
curiously twisted, and resting on the platform
of some projecting rock. Underneath is a

0
158 STORIES OF IRELAND.

perpendicular cliff, several hundred feet in
depth; and far below, gleams the crystal
water of the lake. Hanging by an old knot-

ted rope, hovers over this frightful abyss, a

human creature. He plants one foot on the
ledge of rock, and slightly bends; partly in
order to protect himself from the fierce old
eagle, which often returns before he expects
it, and partly to master the young birds.
With his right hand he makes a cut at the
old bird, with his rusty sabre or pistol, and
often she bites the blade sharply with her
crooked beak; when all of a sudden a whiz
and a fluttering noise is heard—it is the old
mother returning to her nest. The conflict
is now pretty sharp, and often dangerous ;
but the excitement seems to be very pleasant
to old hunters.

There is an old pair of eagles, in Killarney,
which have thus been deprived of their young
for more than 20 years. It is wonderful, that
they do not seek another nest, but still
continue to inhabit the same spot. It is
said, that when a tame eagle recovers its
liberty, and returns to its old haunts, it is
immediately attacked and destroyed by the
wild birds. Eagles prefer hares to goats,
but they will devour either. The male and
female birds, except when there are young
EAGLE CAPTURING. 159

ones in the nest, usually hunt together; and
having driven their prey into some wild
rocky place, the one flies above, and the
other below, so that should the hare or goat
attempt his escape, he would fall into the
talons of one or other of the eagles.

The abbey of Mucross, in the county of
Kerry, is still in comparative repair. The
dormitory, kitchen, refectory, and cellars,
are in a state of tolerable preservation. The
great fire-place of the refectory, shows that
the monks liked good cheer; or what is
more worthy of them, that they loved to
entertain the strangers who travelled about;
and who were always sure to find a home, for
the night, in the monastery or convent. |

As I have nothing more to tell you about
Kerry, I will here give you an account of

_an Irish wake, or funeral. The Irish will
save up their money for a “ dacent” funeral,
though they will save for no other purpose.
To die without the priest is considered, by
the ignorant people, very dreadful. In every
case of serious illness, the priest is immedi-
ately summoned ; and if they can but confess,
and receive the last service of the Roman

Catholic Church—that of extreme unction, e

as it is called—they will’ die in peace. ©
Alas! too often a false peace! As soon
02

.

.

%¢
160 STORIES OF IRELAND.

as the corpse is laid out, the wake begins.
The body, laid out on a table or bed, is
covered with white linen, and adorned with
black ribbons, if the party is married; with
white, if unmarried; and with flowers, if a
child. Close by the corpse are plates with
snuff and tobacco, and around are lighted
candles. Then the women of the house
range themselves ; and the “keen” or funeral
song begins. Keen is derived from the
Irish word caoine. They rise all at once,
moving their bodies backwards and forwards,
and then begin their cry. During the pauses
of the women’s wailing, the men joke and
talk together. The talking and laughing
are, indeed, very unfit for the room where
death, in all its solemnities, is present; and
intoxication, at such times, is not uncommon,
although, thanks to the Temperance Move-
ment, less usual than formerly. The keener
is paid from 5s, to 20s. Thus they

“ Live upon the dead,
By letting out their sorrows by the hour,
To mimic sorrow, when the heart’s not sad.”

The wake lasts two, and sometimes three days.
_ CHAPTER. XIV.

Limerick—Its Manufactures—Salmon Fishing—County a
—Shannon’s Mouth—Tipperary—Clonmell—Bianconi
—Stalactite Caves—Cashel Ruins—Origin of the ad
Whiteboys, &c. &c.—Conclusion. '

Limerick is bounded on the north by
the River Shannon, on the south by Cork,
on the west by Kerry, and on the east by
Tipperary. The capital, Limerick, standing
on the King of Rivers, as the Shannon
is called, has been the scene of many
interesting historical events. The castle
has endured, for more than six centuries, ”
amidst many rebellions, battles, and sieges ;
but I think you have heard, already, too
much of sieges, to wish me to relate the
particulars of any more. This city has long
been noted for three things: Limerick lasses,
Limerick gloves, and Limerick hooks. The
Limerick women are, I believe, remarkably
handsome. The Limerick glove trade is now
very small. A glover in the town has been
known to excuse himself for his want of
punctuality in attending to an order, by say-
ing that the truth was, the gloves were not yet

03
162 STORIES OF IRELAND.

arrived from Cork, where the Limerick gloves
(so called) are now almost entirely made.
The leather of the best Limerick gloves is
extremely fine, and the workmanship delicate.
I remember, when a child, possessing a pair,
that was contained in a walnut shell. The
Limerick fishing hooks are made of the finest
steel, and are much admired by anglers.

The River Shannon abounds in salmon
and trout. Years ago, salmon was sold in
Limerick market at a penny per pound; and
apprentices used to stipulate, that they
should not be forced to eat that fish for
dinner more than three times a week. Since
railways and steamers have offered such facil-
ities for exporting salmon to England, the
price has been much higher. There are some
curious Druidical remains in the county of
Limerick; but, as they do not materially
differ from those I have mentioned, I will
not describe them.

The county of Cuare is bounded on the
east and south by Lough Derg and the
Shannon; on the north and north-east by
Galway; and on the west by the Atlantic.
Ennis is the coulity town, but it is not a
particularly interesting place in any way.
There are many ruins of monasteries scat-
tered throughout the county; but the
BIANCONI CARS. 163

Shannon is the most important feature that
it contains. The mouth of this river is ex-
tremely grand. The inhabitants of the
neighbourhood point to a part of the river,
over which the tide rushes with great vio-
lence, and declare that a lost city lies buried
beneath the waves, and that its turrets and
towers act as breakwaters.

The inland county of Tirrerary is bounded
on the north by Galway and King’s County,
on the south by Waterford, on the east by
King’s and Queen’s Counties, and on the
west by Cork, Limerick, and Clare. The
old capital, Tipperary, is not a place of so
much importance as Clonmell. Clonmell
has been rendered famous of late years, by
the exertions of a Mr. Charles Bianconi, a
native of Milan, in Italy. He came over to
Ireland about fifty years ago, and began
trade as a picture dealer, in a small way.
By habits of industry, having saved a little
money, he thought he would set up a
public car, that might accommodate the
poorer classes, as he proposed a much lower
fare than that of the stage coaches. He
has now as many as forty-five cars running
daily, and charges from a penny to twopence
an hour.

The caves of Tipperary are famous; they
164 STORIES OF IRELAND.

are in the south of the county, where it
borders Cork. The hill in which the caves
exist, is nearly the centre of a valley,
which divides the Galtee and Knockmele-
down mountains. Stalactites hang from the
roof, and a sparry substance covers many
parts of the floor. These caves are very


CASHEL RUINS. 165

extensive and beautiful. Water filters
through the roof, containing carbonate of
lime, held in solution, (to use a chemical
term) by carbonic acid; and this gas gradu-
ally passing with the water into the atmos-
phere, this calcareous substance. is left.
These stalactites and stalagmites are, some
of them, of a very singular shape. The
-drawing of that part called the curtains,
which fall from the roof, are so transparent,
that a hand may be seen through them.
They fall in folds just like drapery, and are
considered by all travellers who have seen
them, to be most extraordinary.

The rock of Cashel, in Tipperary, is a
striking object; on its summit are the
remains of a monastery. There was once
an important city here; but it is dwindled
to a thousand houses—time-worn, and mostly
thatched. At Cashel, Henry II. received
the homage of Donald O’Brien. It was
once the see of an archbishop. Tipperary
has been notorious for disturbances for
many years; but I will not burden you
with details of the riotous proceedings of
the Whiteboys, so called from wearing the
shirt outside their coats, that they might be
the more easily distinguished at night; nor
of the Steelboys, who said that they would
166 STORIES OF IRELAND.

pay their farm rent in steel ; nor the “ Peep
of Day Boys,” who owe their title to the
custom of visiting houses at daybreak, in
search of arms. The River Suir runs through
the county of Tipperary, the last of Ireland’s
thirty-three counties,
Goncluding Bemarks,

However much there may be to interest
you in the Irish country, I can quite under-
stand that there is a little lingering dislike,
in your minds, to the Irish people. Dislike
it can scarcely be called. We cannot be said
to like or dislike that of which we know
nothing; and it is possible that you know
as little of the inhabitants of Ireland, as you
do, or as you did, of Ireland itself. You
may have been accosted by Irish reapers
in your walks in summer, or by Irish
beggars in the street—poor miserable half-
starved men and women, dragging troops of
children after them; or, you may have heard
read in the newspaper, such an advertise-
ment as this, “‘ Wanted a good plain cook,”
&., &e.; ending with the note, “ No Irish
need apply.” You may have wondered, as
I have often done when a child, why such
an interdiction should be laid on the chil-
dren of a sister country—why they should be
forbidden to enter English homes; and you
may, very likely, think that such an inter-
diction does not speak much better for our
charity and love, than the Americans’ objec-
tion to negroes. Yet we are, very properly,
168 STORIES OF IRELAND.

horrified at the unchristian spirit of those
who rail off separate seats for negroes, even
in the house of God.

Dislike, I repeat, we can scarcely call our
feelings towards the Irish. In nine cases out
of ten, where these feelings exist, we shall
find that they arise from ignorant prejudice.
Prejudice is a bad thing; and it is not the
part of a wise man, woman, or child, to
cherish it. If we like or dislike, let us have
a reason for so doing. And now let us look
a little at the Irish people. We have seen
that the country contains something better
than bogs; it may be, that it contains some-
thing better than beggars.

That beggars are numerous in Ireland,
no one can deny; but the poverty that has
given rise to beggary, is not altogether the
fault of the Irish poor. It is impossible to
enter into the question here; but don’t look
upon it as acrime. It is a mistake to do so.
A word or two about this troublesome class
of persons—and troublesome they certainly
are. Travellers who first land at Cork, can
scarcely fail to smile at the wit and drollery
of some of these ragged and miserable
objects. “You've lost all your teeth,” a
gentleman said to one. “Time for me to *
lose ’em, when I’d nothing for them to do,”
CONCLUDING REMARKS, 169

he replied. The reapers or harvesters who
come over to our country, often beg for
money to buy forks with, if they are, as
is too often the case, in great poverty; and
thus, in England, we are often assailed by
their requests for these implements, at the
beginning of the- hay harvest. They are
sometimes very importunate, and not unfre-
quently impudent; but the Teapers are not
all alike. Nor are Irish beggars, so far as
I have observed, more saucy than the English
mendicants.

The Irish are accused again of being a lazy
set of people. There are, I have no doubt,
many half-starved .desponding creatures in
Ireland, as well as in England, who can
scarcely labour when they have work to do;
but at the time of the Irish famine, a
visitor in the country saw about a thousand
persons employed in harvesting the crops ;
the women at fourpence, the men at eight-
pence a day, (poor payment at harvest time !)
and yet at this miserable rate of wages, they
laboured cheerfully and industriously ; earn-
estly begging at the end of the harvest for
“more work.” The Irish who emigrate to
America, are, with very few exceptions, hard-
working, thrifty people. Mr. Tuke, a gentle-
man who interested himself greatly in the

P
170 STORIES OF IRELAND.

people, once asked an Irish farmer, why he
did not employ his little capital and labour
in his own country. The farmer answered,
that he would gladly remain in his native
isle, if he could hire land at a fair rent
there, and be sure that he might have a
lease long enough to enable him to enjoy
the fruits of his toil. High rents, the cause
of so much Irish distress, are not exactly
Trish faults, you see; at all events, not
faults of the labouring classes. An engineer
on a railway, being asked if the Irish
labourer would work as well as the English
man, replied, “ Yes, when he gets plenty of
beef into him.” But how can we expect
the starving Irish labourer to work as
heartily, as the well-fed, muscular English
peasant? So much for the charge of
indolence.

A farmer in a village in England, has been
in the habit, for fifty years, of employing
Trish labourers at harvest time, principally
from the county of Mayo; and he declares
that he has never known an act of dishonesty
in a single individual, though they have
lived on his premises, with many temptations
before them. A gentleman in Leicester-
shire, who has long employed Irish reapers,
gives a similar account of their honesty.
CONCLUDING REMARKS. 171

In 1846 he received a letter from one of the
poor Connaught men, stating that he and
his companions were quite unable, this year,
to get money for their voyage to England ;
and entreated him to send them a pound
or two, to bring some of them over. He
ventured to do so; the reapers came, and
faithfully paid their debt by their labour.
Not only so, they sent some of their earn-
ings home, to bring their friends over to the
English hatvest.

A Lincolnshire farmer, at the end of
harvest, found when his Irish labourers had
departed, that he had paid them a sovereign
more than their due. A neighbour of his, to
whom he named the circumstance, said, “ Ah!
you will never see either your money or your
Trish friends again ;” but he was mistaken.
In a very few days came a letter with a post-
office order for one pound, stating that they
had found out the mistake. A short time
after, a party of men called on a farmer,
for whom they had been in the habit of
working in previous years, and asked for
employment. He was from home, but his
wife kindly spoke to them, and told them
that they had already engaged a sufticient
number of reapers, and invited them to
partake of some dinner. After dinner, as

P2
172 STORIES OF IRELAND.

they went along the road from the house,
they saw a small field of corn that wanted
cutting; and immediately put in their sickles,
and finished the reaping without waiting for
any acknowledgment. The post-office records
in the money-order office show many acts of
generosity and frugality, and will prove that
the Irish are not al/ reckless, as they are
so often called. The Irish labourers, within
ten months of that year of great distress,
1847, sent home—in sums varying from two
shillings and sixpence to five pounds—
£1042 10s. 2d. Other instances might be
given ; but these will surely show you, that
they are, when uot crushed by want of daily
bread, nor irritated by cruelty and oppres-
sion, a frugal, warm-hearted people. Some .
of the letters from the emigrants to those
at home, show their constancy and affection
in a very pleasing light.

Irish servants have a bad name—and it
must be confessed, that both in Ireland and
England they often merit it ; but look at the
true cause of this. Those employed by the
middle class of Irish families, are taken
from the very lowest and poorest of the
country: they are ill fed, ill lodged, ill
paid. The mistress of a house, a rich
tradesman’s wife, sometimes gives her servant
CONCLUDING REMARKS. 173

of all work, but four pounds a year; and
the poor maid to wash, to cook, iron,
clean, scour, and wait on company.
Such an one, in England, would be well
fed, and get from eight to fourteen pounds a
year.
“One day, a farmer’s wife was complaining
of the hardness of the times; and a lady
said to her, ‘Why don’t you send Margaret
to service, at Mrs. M’s? Are you too proud?”
Mrs. M., I should tell you, was the wife of
a man who owned three hundred acres of
land, kept his car, and drank wine on
Sundays. ‘No ma’am,’ replied the mother,
‘she’d have three—may be four pounds a
year: but then she’d have breakfast at nine
o'clock. The food is locked up, so that if
she were fainting, she could not get a bit of
bread till the parlour dinner is over, and
"that is five o’clock.’ The wages they get is
too little to clothe them. They deny them-
selves food to get dress, and often learn to
steal. Food is a great temptation to a
faint hungry girl, when she sees it; and
two meals a day is too little to work upon.”
The reason why Irish servants, who come
over to England for places, so often fail, is,
undoubtedly, because they are so ill-trained
in their native country, except in quite the
P3
174 STORIES OF IRELAND.

upper classes 6f society. But that they do
sometimes prove faithful and valuable, there
is no denying.

I will tell you a story about an Irish
servant, which appeared in Chambers’s Edin-
burgh Journal, some years ago, but which
I think it likely you may never have read;
and remember, that many such instances
might be given. On the truth of this, how-
ever, you may depend. A lady in London
advertised for a housemaid, adding the usual
posteript, “No Irish need apply.” Spite of
this postscript, an Irish girl did apply; a
decent respectable looking lass, but with
the fault of being an Irish woman, “I
told you, no Irish need apply,” said the lady.
“ Tt was on the paper, ma’am, I know,” said
the girl; ‘but I thought if I did my work
well, and had a good character, no one would
refuse me bread, because of my country.”
The lady, in the end, engaged her. This
lady, like many more, mistrusted and disliked
the Irish. Poor Kitty! she often cried her-
self to sleep—she did so wish to please.
It was not hard work made her cry, but the
mistress’s particularity. The polished stoves,
the polished mirrors, the quietness required
of her, and the clock-like regularity of the
house, overcame her. Then her fellow-

.
CONCLUDING REMARKS. 175

servants set her wrong instead of right;
and, worse still, laughed at her afi at her
country. Oh! i a sorrowful twelve
months, that first, but Kitty did not fail; and
gradually her desire to please was understood
and appreciated.

Two little children caught the scarlet fever,
and the nurse, afraid of catching it, left her
charge. ‘I am not afraid,” said Kitty, “and
sure Godcan keep the sickness fronfme by their
bedside as well as from my own.” Accor-
dingly, night and day, she watched by them ;
and when they recovered, they were so at-
tached to her, that they begged their mamma
to let her continue their nurse. For five years
she retained her place, when a master carpen-
ter asked her to marry him: and as he
intended to go to America the following
spring, Kitty decided to remain with her
“darlings” until then. In the mean time the
poor lady’s husband fell into trouble, and lost
his property ; and one day, Mrs. L. put the
faithful Kitty’s wages into her hands, saying
that she could no longer afford to keep a nurse,
and that Kitty therefore must go. ‘“ Cathe-
rine,” said the lady, “stood without answering
till I had done speaking, and then replied, ‘Is
it to leave you, ma’am, you want me, and the
176 STORIES OF IRELAND.

young mastervand miss? Ah! then, what
have Tone to make you think I’ve no
heart in my bosom? I’ be no burden to
you, but I’ll never leave you. Leave you in
your trouble! Sure it’s neither peace nor
rest I'd have night nor day to think it’s my
two hands you’d be wanting; and as to
Robert Miller, he’ll be better by himself for
a year or two at first, and so I told him to
day where parted. I’ll never leave the
mistress in her trouble, Robert, I said, and if
it is any bar, I'll give you back your promise ;
and he would not hear of that. Time and
distance are nothing to true hearts 3 and
if he forgets me, why, I’m doing my duty.
Still I'll never leave you in your trouble.’ ”
The lady said that her generous sacrifice
drew more tears from her eyes than her great
sorrows. The children were delighted to
find that Kitty would accompany them to the
cottage. She had saved in service about
fifteen pounds, every farthing of which she
laid out at the auction of the furniture, in
buying such things as she believed her mistress
was most fond of, and then entreated her to
forgive the liberty she had taken, saying that
she had but given back what was their own.
Kitty’s purpose remained firm for three years ;

CONCLUDING REMARKS. ¢ 177

and at the end of that time, when Mr. L.
received some property at the death of a rela-
tion, Kitty performed her promise to her
lover, and left her beloved mistress.

This is not a tale, but a fact; and I do
not think you would find its generosity
surpassed by any act of the best trained
English servant in the world. We may
indeed learn lessons from many nations which
have had fewer advantages than ourselves,
and blush at our own prejudices and unchari-
tableness. Ireland needs improvement ; her
people are still, many of them, ignorint,
superstitious, and uncultivated; but when
we consider the great disadvantages under

which she has long laboured—the prevalence -

of Popery, and the distress and poverty
which even in the present time oppress her
inhabitants, we cannot wonder at occasional
outbreaks of religion and anger, from un-
taught and misguided men, who principles
are not firm.

The Irish assassinations of which you may
have heard, have been very much confined to
one district, and leave the greater part of
Treland as free from the charge of murder as
most parts of England; and it is ungenerous
and unwise to judge of a whole nation from

wd
. P ,

od ;

178 « STORIES OF IRELAND.

the acts of a few solitary individuals, Let
us then freely admire and love that which is .
loveable and beautiful in the Irish character ;
and wherever it is deficient, let us pity and
love still, remembering that they are our
fellow creatures, and not inferior to ourselves
in the sight of Him who created them for
his glory, and who, in giving us greater ad-
vantages than He has given our neighbour,
has done so that we might diffuse them, and
extend whatever benefit we possess to those
less happily circumstanced. Do not suppose
that I feel so enthusiastically about Ireland
as to lead you to think that she has no
faults, or, that what faults she has are

- chargeable to others alone. Human nature

is the same in Ireland as in England, and its
great corruption is visible there as well as
here; but I want to guard you against
prejudice, and early to enlist your interests
and affections in a country whose very
sufferings should move you to love and com-
passion ; and where, in spite of many faults,
there are some fine traits of character, and
many redeeming virtues, to make you think
well of Ireland after all.

The history of all Roman Catholic coun-
tries will contain much that is of a gloomy
*
er

CONCLUDING REMARKS. 17

©
character; and in our efforts to benefit Ire-
* land, let us remember that the surest way
to free them from their many superstitions
and errors, will be to give them the Bible,
and to instruct them in its saving truth, for
the entrance of that Word giveth light.



THE END.