Front Cover
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Chapter I
 Chapter II
 Chapter III
 Chapter IV
 Chapter V
 Chapter VI
 Chapter VII
 Chapter VIII
 Chapter IX
 Chapter X
 Chapter XI
 Chapter XII
 Chapter XIII
 Chapter XIV
 Concluding remarks
 Back Cover

Title: Stories of Ireland and her four provinces
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003425/00001
 Material Information
Title: Stories of Ireland and her four provinces
Series Title: Stories of Ireland and her four provinces
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Geldart, Thomas
Publisher: Jarrold and Sons
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: 1857
Edition: Second
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00003425
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA4678
ltuf - ALH0546
oclc - 23706744
alephbibnum - 002230198

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Half Title
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Table of Contents
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    List of Illustrations
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Chapter I
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Chapter II
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Chapter III
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Chapter IV
        Page 54
        Page 54a
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 60a
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Chapter V
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 72a
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 74a
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Chapter VI
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 78a
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    Chapter VII
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
    Chapter VIII
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
    Chapter IX
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
    Chapter X
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
    Chapter XI
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
    Chapter XII
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 140a
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
    Chapter XIII
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
    Chapter XIV
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
    Concluding remarks
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
    Back Cover
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
Full Text







AVTZOX O "0mfl 07 flOF l," "-WD TE U STRlTrrnNO,"

Stwurb Etbimti.



A preface to Stories of Ireland" appears desirable,
as the author can claim but little originality in writing
of a country which she has never seen. The present
work is, in reality, but a condensation of much that
has already been published of that interesting island;
a condensation and adaptation to the ideas and tastes
of young persons. Very few children, it is presumed,
would sit down of their own free will to read Hall's
Ireland; and yet from this, and some other books of
travel, much that this little volume contains is bor-
rowed-dressed, perhaps, in simpler language; but, it
is to be hoped, not the less attractive to a child. Many
difficulties have presented themselves, not because the
subject is devoid of interest, but on account of the
apathy with which English children are accustomed
to regard Ireland, together with a too general preju-
dice against its inhabitants. Should the writer of
the following pages have succeeded in awakening
some tender and brotherly feelings to the poor Irish,
she will feel that a great object is achieved, even if
the name of every county be not indelibly engraved
on the memory of the youthful reader.

May, 1857.


The portion d Irelmd-The rly iabaiMtte-TViit of
the Phoumidu-Chide d Druide-Viet of Mile e-
The five King-Demsh mi hid--Brion the br --C-
quest of Ireland-Ware-- billion ..................

Di)isions of Ireland-Northern Diviion-Dooneal Bop-
Lough ErnO-A Fairy Tall-Belly.hmoBm-The Pallf, 9

The County of Lodoonedrr-Derry-The Revolutio-J4m
II.-Flight from Whiteall-Shutting the Gate ige of
Derry-Dreadhl Sufrrin-Walker, the Priet Soldi--
Faminet-Rli .....................................

Antrim-Belst-Botemnil Gardeun-Manecture of Line
-Cottage Cultiation of Flax-Deu ek Fatory-Lough
eugh-Petrifed Wood -Carrickferu ................ 1

Antrim ontinued-- int'l Cameway-Tale of the Idiot Boy
-Dunme Cautle-Coauty of Down-Hitory of St
Prtriek-T River ~ .......................... 4

Tyrme-The Story of the O'Nies-Their Quoml-Shsme's
Viit to Quoee lieb~lth--Hgh O'Niel--apicion of him
-The Rebellion--Eax-His Minion to Irelnd-He
fails-Hi disagre-Hounjoy's Crnelty-O'Niel is de-
feited-Hui pudoo-New Tellera-CI-Monghn--
Enikellen-Bound Tower, and their Origin .......... 61


Province of Comnaught-Couty of Leitrim-Irish Cabin-
ItsTeanlmt-FaniteF -FmineB-Frightful senee-Det
fomn Staration-Mr. Kohl's description of a Cabin .... 66


lipo-Cong Abbey-Burial-plce of the loat King-The
famolu Robber-Speed of his Horne-His Exploits-Cstle-
bar Baee-Isle of Achill-Coracles--SBeal Ronommon
-Oalway-Beemblanoe to Spanish Towm ............ 76


Dublin-Public Buildings-Botanical arden-Christ-Church
Cathedrl--Story of Lambert Simnel-EEut Meath-Dan-
gan-Duke of Wellington-West Math-Louth-Siege of
Droghed-Cromwell-Battle of the Boyne ............ 84


Queen's County-Dan-a-meMe Rock-King's Cunty-Origin
of its Name-Kildare-Rae Ground-Turf Cutting-May.
nooth-ounty of Curlow-Biver Barrow-Carlow Castle-
Milford Flour-Mills-Town of Leighlin-County Wicklow
-Phoul Phooks-Glendalough and its Reins-Moore,
ad the Meting of the Waters-old Mines of Wielow.. 9g


County of Leglbod-BRgoortahown-Ceorios Steple-
The Edgworth Puaily-Plau-Oliver GoMdmith-De-
ertid llage-A Curiou Adventune-Goldmth' Veity
-Death .......................................... 1l

Killkey-History of StroIgbow-Kilkeimy Catle-Kil.
kenny Coal-CaaM of Dunmore-Stalectite-Story of an
Idiot Girl-Weford-Rebellion-Lord Edward itgaMld
-Lobster Fihing-Sa Go ...................... 114


Watertfod-Liomore Cuatlo-Mount Mellerny-Monatery-
Cork-Emigrant Ship-Provison MerFhants-Tempeaie
Societie--Father Mathew-YoughlUl-- ir Walter Re-
leigh's History-Potatoes-fobaoo ................ 124

Cork ntinued-iK.i]nm -Spener, the Poet-Fairy Quee
-Bentry By-County Kerry-LTkes of KllMaMy-B-De
tiful Evergreens-Gap of DIloe-Echo-Eale Captarig
-Iris Wake .................................... 140

Limerick-Its Manfctatre-Selmen Vihib -Coonty Clar
-Shannon'e Mouth-Tipperary-Clnmell-Biae oni Can
-Stalbtte C -CSahe uino -Origin of the Nioe of
Whiteboys, &c. &e.-Conluion .................... 149

Concluding Bemarks ................................ 166

list d 6101*p.r

City Of Loadondourwy (Protispi.e)
maxPl ant .............................. a L
GianteCuaueway ........................ 42
BoundTowers ..... :--***---** 61
Irish Cabin .............................. 61
Corele ................................ 76
Doosegha, inhtheIdofh .............. 78
Irish CA .......................... 132,133~
Tlhe Upper Lakes ............ 140 /
ArbutusUnedo .......................... 143
Tippearyaven ........................ 162 1


P4 O jar rse biut.

The poitioa of Ikold-Thl eary inbt ta-Viult o the
Phsidua-Chiea and Drid-Visit of MilOsa--Thse
Kinge-D-ni mehief--Brien the Bmre-ConquMt of In-

IsNaDUCroBR chapters are usually dul
affairs; nor can I promise that mine shall be
an exception, because in anything of which
we know so little, we are not naturally dis-
posed to feel interest. I do not think that I
shall be supposing a very unlikely case, if I
believe that you are somewhat ignorant about
Ireland "Can there be anything interesting
to tell about that country?" has been said to
me more than once; and perhaps you are
thinking much in the same way, as you look
at the title of this book. Stories of the little
merry Laplanders and their rein-deer, or of
the Greenlanders in their snow houses; stories
of Italy with its fine blue sky and its old


cities and empires, its towns buried for years
beneath the lava of its burning mountain,
and then discovered fresh and bright as if laid
there but yesterday; stories of Spain with
the romantic associations and tales connected
with it; of Portugal with its fruits; of
France with its gay, care-nought people:-
to such stories you would like to listen.
But of Ireland! with its "wet bogs," its
"riotous people," its poor distressed beggars,
you do not care to read. The very names
frighten you--such outlandish names I and
to have to learn thirty-two such, disheartens
you at the outset We shall see, however,
whether there is not more to be known of
Ireland than relates to bogs and beggars.
It is a pity, at all events, to live in ignorance
of so near a neighbour; a neighbour, too,
which England has, by her own free will,
taken the charge of; whether to her benefit
or not, remains a matter of question with
wiser heads than yours or mine.
Ireland is, as you may see on the map, an
island by itself. It is bounded on the west by
the Atlantic Ocean, on the east by the Irish
Sea, and the St. George's Channel, which also
divides its south-eastern coast from England,
and on the north by the Northern Channel
Of the early history of Ireland there is not-



much known; we cannot even be certain
what people first inhabited it, but very lely
a people called Celts, as in the case of Britain.
The Celts were a race who came from the
Orders of the Euxene and Caspian Seas, for
which you must look on the map of Asia.
The Celtic language is still spoken by the
lower orders of the Irish, and is also sup-
posed to be the origin of the languages used
in Wales, in some parts of Scotland, and the
north of France. Another ancient people
visited Ireland from a country called Phoe-
nicia. The Phoenicians, who were great
traders and navigators, and whose country
was situated on the eastern extremity of the
Mediterranean Sea, were always useful to
those people amongst whom they took up
their abode. They did not plunder and lay
whole countries waste as most other nati( l
in old times did, but they were peace-Mt F"
in their conduct, and always tried to impreye
the state of the inhabitants. They induced
such people to trade with them, to exchange
the produce of their countries for that which
they offered in return.
There were amongst them rich merchants,
clever artisans, apd even manufacturers, and
they used to go and reside with less civilised
and instructed people, and teach them different

16 sroai or IzLaM.
arts and trades. If Ireland were inhabited
at at the time of the Phnician' first
visit, it must have beengaly by savages.
We have no history, however, of this time,
and can only infer that the thenicians resided
there from different articles that have been
discovered. Weapons, gold ornaments beau-
tifully wrought, and such as were in use
amongst the Phoenician and other countries
of Asia, have been dug out of the bogs, and
remains of old roads have been found to
exist The Round Towers of which I shall
have occasion to speak to you, and which are
evidently relics of Eastern workmanship, and
used by the worshippers of fire, resemble
some still standing in Persia and India.
Long before the time called the Christian
era, which you should understand means the
birth of Jesus Christ, a band of warriors from
the north of Spain, called Milesians, after
their leader Milesius, made themselves mas-
ters of Ireland. They were divided into
tribes, each ruled by a chief, but these chiefs
did not make the laws. These were made by
the Druids. The Druids were priests as well
as law-givers, and exercised great influence
over Ireland as well as England, in early
times. It was a custom with the Druids to
sacrifice their first-fruits to their idols; th-Vt'



early corn, fruit, and other produce of the
earth, as well as the firstborn of the animps,
and even of the human family, were offered
up to their gods. Then came the Romans:
but the country does not appear to have been
to their taste, for they never settled there.
They put an end to the Druids' rule, however,
and gave Ireland the name of Hibernia. A
long time after came a people called Scoti,
but the Milesians did not wish for their com-
pany, and persuaded their visitors to go
further north, telling them of a fine country
they would find there. So the Scythians or
Scoti having staid a little while, and married
some Irish women, went away to the west of
Scotland, where they founded the kingdom
of the Scots. Ireland was originally divided
by the Milesians into five provinces--Ulster,
Munster, Cnnaught, Leinster, and Meath.
Meath was the province where the princi-
pal sovereign resided; but each province had
a king subject to the king of Meath. These
five kings were always quarrelling and at war.
They were still a very ignorant, uncultivated
race, as you may suppose when I tell you
that the chiefs lived in wicker huts covered
with straw, rushes, and sods. The people
generally wore sheep-skins; those of higher
k, however, were clad in gayer clothes.

18 eToBBue OF ImLAND.

Then at last came St. Patrick, whose history
I I give you hereafter; this was about the
fifth century. The Danes also, who left no
known country untouched, paid Ireland one
of their unfriendly visits in the year 717.
By Danes you should understand Northmen,
not the inhabitants of Denmark alone, but a
wandering race from several of the northern
countries of Europe. They always treated
the Christians, wherever they found them,
very cruelly, and set fire to the churches
and monasteries as soon as they saw them.
Indeed, there seemed no end to the mischief
they wrought, and we never hear of any
good they did to the countries they invaded.
A Norwegian Chief, called Turgesius. in
about the year 850, made himself king of
Ireland, and obliged the old Irish kings to
pay him very heavy sums, in what was called
tribute. He also raised a tax called nose
money, because those who would not pay it
were condemned to have their noses cut off.
So much for the Danes. After they had been
settled about 200 years in Ireland, Brien the
Brave, king of Munster, subdued the Danes,
and became king of all Ireland; but Brien was
defeated again in his old age, and fell in bat-
tle at a place called Clontarf. It would tin
you to read of all the conflicts of the next few

coaqOWr or InmMAD. 19
year with the Danes, nor could I, in a little
book like this, write fully on the subject
At the time when Henry IL was king of
England, a king of Leinster, who was dethro-
ned, took refuge in our country, and king
Henry promised to help him to recover his
kingdom, if he would help the English to
conquer the rest of the country.
The full particulars of the conquest of
Ireland I must omit; but you will remember,
however, that this country was united to
Ireland, in the reign of Henry IL Still there
was no peace in the island. The rebellions
that broke out were endless, not only in
Henry's, but in succeeding reigns. At the
time of the civil wars, and after Charles I.
was beheaded, the English Parliament created
Cromwell lord lieutenant of Ireland, and
commander of the army in that country.
The Irish generally took the part of Charles
IL, and were anxious to restore him; so they
were not prepared to receive Cromwell as a
friend, nor did his conduct in Ireland do
much to conciliate them, as you will see here-
after, when I have occasion to tell you of
some of the sieges in which he was engaged.
I shall not, in this introductory chapter,
give you an account of the rebellions so
common in the Island. It seemed for a

20 WroaRI or IuULA D.

long while as if it never would be settled;
old chiefs and descendants of chiefs and
kings were for ever struggling to throw off
the English government; and certainly the
English did not treat their conquered neigh-
bours with justice, but seemed to think they
had a right to oppress and tyrannise; but
you will see instances of this in the course
of this little work, and I will not make the
introductory chapter any longer.


DiUam of boI"l-oarthen DiUa-1)iaspl flap-
Lo*Ah Em-A airy TAl-Zh*.abdum-The PuiO-.

I TOLD you that Ireland was divided into
provinces, but it has still another division,
each province containing several counties.
Ulster, the most northerly province, has nine
counties; Leinster, twelve; Munster, six;
and Connaught, five. The division of Meath
does not now exist. There are thirty-two
counties in all, you will find, if you add
them up. Let me now explain to you the
meaning of the word province.
Very early in the history of Ireland, we
read of its divisions into separate kingdoms,
each having different laws, and a different
kind of government. Ulster, Munster, Con-
naught, and Leinster, are the remains of
these petty kingdoms. When the English
sirst began to interfere with their neighbour
Ireland, they subdivided each province into
counties. I believe that king John of Eng-
land was the first to introduce this division,
which was not completed until .00 years


afterwards. This division into counties was
made for the purpose of holding assizes, and
appointing sheriffs to execute the king's
writs and orders, as in England. Such a
division has long ceased to have any con-
nection with the title of Earl or Count.
Ulster, the most northerly division, con-
tains nine counties. We will begin as we
did in Stories of England, with the county
which lies nearest to the north; that county is
called DONEGAL. You must not be surprised
to find the names more difficult to remember
than those of your own country, but do not be
discouraged. Your ear is less familiar with
them, and this is the great cause of the diffi-
culty. If you can only associate some subject
of interest with each difficult name, you will
find the difficulty wonderfully vanish.
Now for the first hard name, Donegal. Its
land is little cultivated, and barren mountains
and bogs cover the greater part. I will explain
a bog to you; with a mountain you are
familiar. A large portion of Ireland is more
or less bog or morass. The very hills, tops of
rocks and caves, are covered with bog. Bogs
arise from the decay of plants in the vicinity
of springs, and the extreme dampness of the
climate of Ireland is one, although not the
only, cause of this phenomenon. In a dry

DOmK AL BOe. 2

country, decayed gras and plants change into
earth and dust, and thus no bogs are formed;
but in Ireland, where from the continual mois-
ture the process of decay is slower, a large
portion, which in some situations would fly
away in dust, is here kept moist and fixed. A
young bog, that is, a bog growing where the
plants are yet loose, is called a quaking bog.
When the bog grows older, and a considerable
mass is formed, it is called a peat bog. As a
bog is formed of different kinds of plants, so
the produce is of course different. The turf
obtained from a dry bog, by cutting with a
spade or slane, is called slane turf. Bogs are
a source both of wealth and poverty to the
Irish; they supply them with fuel it is true,
but they cover much land that might be
more profitably used in cultivation; they spoil
the water of the rivers, and fill the air with
an unpleasant smell They do not, however,
all produce good fuel; such bogs as are
adapted for this purpose should be carefully
worked, and others drained and cultivated.
Bog-wood dug out of the morasses is used by
the Irish for many things; articles of furniture
may be made of it, and it is even employed
in building. I have seen some beautiful
ornaments made of bog-wood, which resemble
ebony when thus wrought; they are used in

24 aTronR or numAD.
the form of bracelets, brooches, and ear-drops,
and are a handsome M jet Although thi
wood is at first soft and wet, it becomes in
time almost hard as iron. Some, which
more elastic, is used for making ropes. There
is also a sort of yellow fat substance found
in bogs, in which the Irish soak rushes, and
are thus supplied with candles. I have said
a great deal about bogs, a subject of which
I dare sy you have never thought at all; or
if you have done so, I do not suppose it has
excited much interest in your mind. Donegal
is not the only county, however, in which
bogs abound; they are indeed very common
in many parts of Ireland. But Donegal has
some beautiful lakes, which are at least more
interesting to see than the bogs. The capital
town is Donegal The highest of its moun-
tains, called Errigal, rises 2463 feet above
.AJiea. Lough Erne washes the southern
border of the county, and Lough Foyle and
Swilly are also connected witiit. The word
Lough means the same as Lake The lakes
in all parts of Ireland are not called so, but
you must understand the meaning of the
word when you see it.
The town of Ballyshannon is situated on
the northerly bank of Lough Erne, and is a
neat, pleasant place. The belief in fairies

and witches is common, even at the present
day, in most parts of Ireland, although far
les so than formerly. In Donegal it sees
especially so. There is something very
charming to children in fairy tales. I have
seldom known a child who did not take
delight in the mysterious and impossible
doings of those imaginary little creatures.
You would be plentifully treated with fairy
tales if you were to visit Ireland; the thing
to be lamented is, that the poor ignorant
peasants believe in these fairies and witches;
and amusing as it may be to hear such tales,
it is sad to see how this belief influences their
character. A lady, mfich acquainted with the
Irish, says, that when she was young she
remembers to have seen a woman who, it was
believed, lived with the fairies for many years.
She was then old and decrepit, with very
light blue eyes, which had a wild, wandering
look about them. Molly the Wise, as she
was called, wa always sure of food and a
reception; the food was abundant, but the
reception not a hearty one, for Molly was
more feared than loved. She was an object
of dread, for they imagined she knew all that
passed concerning them. It was in vain the
poor little old thing denied this-they were
certain of it Yet presence was considered
40 c

20 STOanM or InLAID.

"lucky," and she was often forced to do what
she disliked, in consequence of their belief
She was pleased to attend weddings and
funerals, but hated every thing belonging to
the sea with a determined hatred; yet every
new boat must first go to sea with Molly
the Wise," to insure it against wreck.
Molly did not much like talking of when
she was with the "good people," as they call
the fairies; but a quarter of a pound of
tobacco and an ounce of tay" would bribe
her to do so sometimes. She would crouch
close into a corner of a large chimney, like
an old cat; her back hunched up, and her
arms clinging round her knees, on which
she rested her chin; and then, without
fixing her eyes on any one or any place,
would wander on in her story, which she
told in a low monotonous wail Sometimes
her eyes would settle for a moment on a
person, and if they happened to rest on any
of the young ones, you weascertain to see
them grow fidgetty and move their seat.
Now do you really wish to hear the nonsense
that Molly the Wise would talk? There is a
saying, "that all work and no play makes
Jack a dull boy;" and perhaps you will say
that all sense and no nonsense will make
Stories of Ireland a ver l book; so I will

indulge you with Molly the Wise's history of
what she did when she lived with the good
people. "The way of it," she said, "was
this. When we lived by the Slaney, by the
would Tower built by King John, my father
and brothers were always out earning their
bread; and there's a spot there, where long
ago, they say, a boy was drowned; but he
was not drowned, not he indeed! but was
taken by the good people; it is n't all of them
that have power to take them thro' the weather,
only when they make marriages with the
other spirits that live among the things at
the bottom of the many waters, and then
one helps the other. Tit for tat, you see;
so I used to be then in the boat with them,
sometimes minding one thing and sometimes
another, with plenty of heart, that kept my
eyes and feet dancing the length of a summer
day. And so it was, one midsummer night,
and we crossing over in the cobble,just to be in
time for the dinahun of the bonfire, and my
father and uncle, out of respect to the poor
boy that was drowned in it, raised their oars
as they passed over the place where he was
lost, and if I had done what I ought to do,
(mind this, girls, for Molly the Wise is talking
to you) no harm could have come to me; but
I did n't, and w ing a song, and my
wV c2


father and uncle were looking at me, and
thinking how purty I looked with the moon-
light settling on my face, and-I was gone.
Then they took on, and thought I was strug-
gling; now at this side of the boat, then on
that, there was a sort of foam, like silver;
and though the blue river was so clear they
could see far down into it, they could not see
me." And where were you, Molly dear, tell
us, tell us all about it? "Is it where I was?
I'll tell ye what's fitting, without questions,
I was away and I am here now, and that's
enough for you. I was away seven years,
and they kept me night and day to mind the ,f
childer, and dress the queen." Oh! Molly,*.
what sort of dress had she? "Why, ye don't
suppose its trusting to one sort of dress she'd
be of a day; no, no, ten sometimes. One
day she'd be dressed all in diamonds in the
morning, and spiders' webs in the evening.
It's like any earthly queen she is in her little
ways and all, and full up of l kinds of love
and divarshun, and I almost danced the ten
toes off striving to plase her and the childer.
Oh I then, it's them that was childer: talk of
education, they were born lamed, and never a
wink of sleep did they get, at night dancing
on the sands of the sea, or in a ring on the
softest grass, and to flying on

x*' -.'

rushes, which they turn into horse, and
whisp thro' a key or a latch hole, hundreds
of them. I had, while with them, white bread
and cruddy cream, and beautiful flowers."
ihe manner of her getting away was this.
O1e night she was very lonesome, the queen
having goneto her"divarshun," andshe began
thinking of her people and her country, and
how she never had the power to say a prayer
since she came to the place, for when she
turned her thoughts to a prayer she fell asleep.
Just then she dropped down on her knees and
tried to pray, and her uncle came, her own
c vncle, who had been in the boat with her
Sight she was taken, and had been dead
years, and he gave her a blessed herb,
and as she had it in her fingers, back came
the queen and court, like a flash of lightning.
And the queen made a grab at the herb, and
her uncle told her to go on and pray, and
she did, and found herself at the door of her
father's house, bat he was in his grave. So
she went and sate on his grave, and there
was no flax on the wheel, nor "tater" in the
garden; no turf in the rick, only a swallow
with its young in the hole of the wall. And
her heart was near "burstin," and she wished
herself back with the good people, for the
world was hard c had no friends.
M cc3

30 sToaIrs OF rmLAND.
I may as well tell you here, that the peasan-
try believe, that if a child is praised without
the person who praises him, adding, God
bless him," he is "overlooked." Such is the
expression, but they mean that the prai-
unlucky, and some misfortune will befal
child. You know there is no such thing as
luck; nothing happens or comes by chance,
but all things are under the control of a good
and wise God. There are people even in
England, and some who ought to know better
too, who talk of signs, and good luck, and
bad luck, and act as if they believed in it
too. There is less excuse for them than f
the poor ignorant Irish.
I should tell you that near the
Ballyshannon is a very great natural wonder,
called "the PulKs." It is formed by a
mountain torrent, which runs for a mile
through a ravine, and presents quite a series
of cascades, caves, cliffs, and rocks, clad with
beautiful ferns and many mountain plants.
The whole course of the river is shaded by
woods, which gives a very beautiful effect.
A bed of limestone seems to have been cleft
thirty to forty feet deep, and here the river
foams and rushes along. I have made rather
a long chapter on Donegal, with my fairy tale.
The next may be les mg, but you tU4
try and recollect wh. l tell you.


SConty ofd Loondoary-Drry-The Revoltion-4Jmc
II.-Flight from Whitehll--Shttin the Ot.-SieUg of
Drry-Dladl SudW ria-n-Wdlker, the Prit Soldi-
Tax next county of which I shall tell you
is LONDONDERRY. Tyrone bounds it on the
south and south-west, Antrim on the east,
the Atlantic Ocean on the north, and Done-
gal county on the west. The chief town'is
SLondonderry, or Derry, famous for a siege
thich took place at the time of the Revolu-
'" Ron in 1689.
Derry is built on a hill which it almost
covers, and around a large portion of the hill
flow the waters of Lough Foyle. Look now
at your map, that you may better understand
the situation of the town, and its fitness to
endure the siege. The appearance of Derry,
:even at the present day, is very imposing.
The houses rise in tiers one above another,
and the lofty spire of the old cathedral tops
all The thick high wall and well-preserved
towers look even now capable of defence.
There is a broad walk on the walls neatly
gravelled. The custom of enclosing ancient

Y "

cities with walls for defence was universal in
old times, when quarrels and wars seemed to
be the rule, peace and amity the exception.
To those of you who have not read much
history, it may be as well to give a little
account of the circumstances of that period,
which is called in English history, the Revo-
lution. A Revolution in this sense, means
a change from one kind of government, or
from one governor, to another.
James IL, son of the unfortunate king
Charles L, of whom you have heard, was
never a popular monarch; he was a Roman 4
Catholic, feared by the Protestants, and sus- e
pected by the Papists. He was a weaken
obstinate man, and seems to have learned i
little wisdom from the misfortunes of his
family. His tyranny and misgovernment
arose, however, in part, from the very absurd
view which he held, in common with his pre-
decessors, that a king being God's vice-gerent
on earth, could do no gong, forgetting that
the infallibility of Gd was not to be assu-
med by any creature, however exalted, even
though he wore a crown.
Being the son of a king, and descended
from a long and noble line, does not of neces-
sity make a man fit to rule a great nation.
Many who would in private life have lived

JAM I. 33
and died respected, have not had the qualities
essential to govern a great nation, and thus
it happens that you hear of the apparent
contradiction, "a good man, but a bad king."
James appears to have been a kind husband
and father, but certainly was one of the worst
kings that ever sate on the English throne.
He was twice married; and his first wife left
him two daughters, Mary and Anne, who
were educated as Protestants, and to whom
therefore the Protestant party looked with
hope and affection. They both married
Protestant princes. Mary's husband was
) William, Prince of Orange, and Stadtholder
4 Holland, afterwards William IIL, and
nephew of James II.; and the Princess Anne
married Prince George of Denmark. James'
second wife, Mary Beatrice, of Modena, a
country in Italy, lived for some years on very
good terms with her step-daughters, Mary
and Anne; but the birth of a son, known in
history as the Pretender, appeared to excite
great fears in the minds of all zealous
Protestants, who thus saw their hopes of
Protestant rulers extinguished.
There was a foolish story of the prince
being introduced into the palace in a warm-
ing-pan, which was believed, or at least
listened to, by the princesses; and an unkind

feeling sprung up in their minds against the
innocent brother, as well as the father.
Although England gained much by the
Revolution, we cannot admire the spirit
either of Mary or Anne, in thus coolly usur.
ping the throne of their father and brother.
When the birth of a prince was announced,
the chief men of the kingdom turned their
thoughts to the Prince of Orange, and wrote
to entreat him to come over to England, and
save them from the Popish rule.
James was terribly alarmed when he found
one loud cry for William sounding through
the kingdom, and yet more so, when news
was brought him of William's actual arrive
in Torbay, in Devonshire, on 5th Nov., 1688.
And now one cannot help pitying the poor
king; who on hearing that even his favourite
daughter Anne had espoused William's cause,
exclaimed, My very children have forsaken
me." Mary's conduct might have been a
little more dignified; even though she thought
it right to obey her husband, it was scarce
necessary to show such very childish joy as
she did when she took possession of the
forsaken apartments in her father's palace of
Whitehall, whence queen Mary Beatrice and
her infant son had escaped. All the particu-
lars of this flight you may read in history;

BI5N or Dn ?T.

I must hasten to the siege of Derry, to
which I have been long in coming, you will
But these particulars were necessary for
you to learn, in order that you might know
the circumstances which led to the Revolu-
tion, and then you can better appreciate
the conduct of the Derry men in this noted
siege. The Protestants of Ireland, no less
than those of England, were extremely anx-
ious for William to reign. They looked
to him as their deliverer from the horrors
they anticipated from the continuance of a
popish line of kings. It is not for ns to
judge of William's motives in this case. He
may have been influenced by a desire to
promote the Protestant religion; but there is
season to fear that ambition had also some
share in his usurpation of the crown.
Just at the time of these disturbances in
England, there was a report that a great
massacre or wholesale murder of the Protes-
tants in Ireland was intended by the Papists;
and James who had fled to France, was now
about to land in Ireland with an army of
French allies, hoping to subdue that part of
his dominions, and to regain possession of
his crown. He first directed his attention to
the North of Ireland, and part of his army

38 eTOaRIu or ILAuD.

was advancing to Derry, with very little fear
of resistance, and was actually within eight,
when eight or nine lads, apprentice boys,
shut the gates and refused admission. This
act appeared madness at the time, so little
preparation had been made for a siege, and
so suddenly was the resolution taken. The
spirit of the 'prentice boys spread; men of
note caught it; and within a very brief period
a band of armed men was formed and disci-
plined, to man the walls and endure a siege.
I told you of the rumour of a massacre;
many Protestants had resolved to take refuge
in Derry, and this act of the 'prentice boys
quickened their zeal. The news of Derry's
intended siege spread like wildfire through
the northern counties. Protestants of all
grades fled to it. Arms and ammunition
were by degrees, though not without diffi-
culty, conveyed thither. Ample time was
given for these preparations, for the month
of April had far advanced before they were
exposed to any serious danger.
Meanwhile James IL actually reached the
walls, expecting quiet possession, when the
'prentice boys, a "tumultuous rabble," so
the king called them, rushed to their bas-
tions (a kind of bulwark or fortress) and
fired their cannon on histroops, killing, it is


said, a captain who stood near the king's
person. James in his own account, says,
" that he endeavoured to bring the rebels to
a sense of their duty, by unwearied forbeart
ance." He called the garrison obstinatet
wretches," who neither offered to surrender
nor capitulate, and whose answers were
nothing but cannon and musket shot.
The king remained in the camp opposite
to Derry until the middle of June. The
Governor Lundy was very anxious to open
the gates and sacrifice the cause; but at the
moment when they were deliberating, Adam
Murray, a medical man who had been absent
from Derry, arrived, and encouraged the
citizens to persevere. On the 19th of April,
poor Lundy, whose conduct and advice had
made him very unpopular, was obliged to flee
from the walls in disguise, with a load of
matches on his back. Major Henry Baker
and George Walker were appointed to suc-
ceed him as Governors. The garrison was
formed into eight companies, the treacherous
had been expelled, the timid withdrawn, and
the town was now left to its own resources.
But the citizen-soldiers were badly armed,
and ill provisioned; the town was crowded,
with no one of experience to direct them.
They had no engineers, few horses, and no


forage; not a gun well mounted, and nothing
indeed to cheer them, but, as General Walker
said, that great confidence and dependance
upon Almighty God that He would take
care of and preserve them." At this period
it appears, that there were 30,000 living
beings encompassed by the walls in a space
of a few acres.
The first attack or sortie from the garrison,
took place on 21st of April. Colonel Murray
with his own hand killed the French General
Mammon, and the sword by which he fell
is still retained by Murray's descendants.
This success animated the citizens, and no
difficulty was found in procuring men for a
sortie. (Sortie is a French word, signifying
to go out.) In times of siege a certain
number of men are sent out from the garri-
son to fight the enemy hand to hand.
The resolution of the Derry men soon
became known in England, and Major Kirk
was sent with men, arms, and provision, but
the passage up the Foyle was arrested by the
enemy. Kirk continued to communicate
with the city, informing the garrison that
he had stores and victuals for them. He
sent a little boy as messenger, who carried
the letter made up in a cloth button, and as
in conveying a reply he was taken prisoner,

he contrived to swallow it. Kirk, however,
made no persevering efforts to relieve the
starving garrison; he set sail, coolly advising
them to husband their provisions well;
advice which they had melancholy cause to
follow. Even then they were dreadfully
reduced, living on salted and dried hides,
horse flesh, dogs, cats, and mice; yet still
declaring they would eat one another rather
than yield.
Disease added its terrors to those of famine;
yet half-dead men, shrunk and feeble, kept
walking through the city, and threatening
death to any who would speak of a surrender.
One dying man declared he had fed on
nothing but starch for four days. On the
1st of July, Rosen, who commanded the
Irish and French forces, collected from the
neighboring counties of Antrim, Tyrone,
and Donegal, e4ery Protestant he could find,
and before daybreak the miserable garrison
heard a sad sound of groans and cries. As
morning dawned, what a spectacle was before
them! Old decrepit men and women, infant
children and helpless beings, to the number
of some thousands, were pushed onwards at
sword's point to the walls, with an intimation
from Rosen, that if they were not taken in
they should be left there to perish. I must


tell you, in justice to James, that he quite
disapproved this cruel measure, and at once
issued orders to Rosen to desist. Rosen
had, however, assembled above 4000 before
the courier reached him.
The poor people within, mistaking their
friends for their enemies, began in despair to
fire on them, so that Rosen was obliged to
send the 4000 back again; but of that
number many starved by the way, and many
found their homes burnt in their absence.
Alas for war and its cruel, heartless conse-
quences! When the wretched crowd were
suffered to withdraw from the trenches, the
garrison, wishing to get rid of some of the
useless inhabitants of the town, sought to
mix some of the townspeople with them, but
the trick failed; they were found out, and
driven back. King James says, "the town
was reduced to so great extremity, that the
intruders were known at once by their wan
and lean countenances and nauseous smell,
that made every one think they had the
plague; and some fell down on the strands."
The priest soldier, as he was called, George
Walker, was a very important character; he
kept up the spirit of the besieged with un-
wearied patience, and was their priest and
their pastor as occasion required. He would

go about, now with the sword, and now with
the bible, urging on the inhabitants to stand
fast. He was certainly an extraordinary
character, and although we cannot understand
the kind of religion which could influence a
man in such a course, we may well believe
in its sincerity. He had no honour, and no
wealth to gain from his endurance, and we
can but admire the courage, both of the
priest soldier and the poor citizens, in this
memorable siege. The siege lasted one
hundred and nine days: thousands died of
famine and disease, and many fell by the
shot of the enemy. Relief, however, came
at the moment when it was most needed.
"We only reckoned," says Walker, "on two
days' life." Think of the delight of the
perishing creatures, when from the housetops
their eyes beheld the glad sight of ships on
the Lough, ships laden with provisions!
Could it be? yes; their signals were
answered, their deliverers were at hand.
But their troubles were not yet over; they
had to bear the misery of hope deferred;
still in the hour of famine, to see the food,
as it were, and not to taste it. You know it
is no easy matter to convey provision into a
garrison. The great hope of the troops
without the walls, was in the starvation of



those within, for they had seen enough of
their endurance to know that they would die
rather than yield. Mackenzie, one of the
leaders, gives a touching account of the
scene. Our spirits sunk, and our hopes
were expiring," he says; "at last the boom
the enemy had laid across the Lough was
broken, and slowly, but surely, the ships
sailed to their quays. Then what joy there
was, the bells of the battered Cathedral rang
a merry, grateful peal, bonfires were kindled,
cannons thundered when the craving hunger
of the multitude was satisfied." Can you
not picture the crowding of the starving men,
women, and children, around the boats, and
the thankful expressions of the mother as
she fed her poor faint child, and the hope
and joy that sprung up in every breast, as
they each secured the long-desired food!
Surely you will never now forget the county
and town of Londonderry, and its beautiful
Lough Foyle.


Antim-Belt--BotniWl GOade-Manufttam of Lin-
Cottge cultivation of Fla-Dmumk Fatory-Lough Ne~a
-Petri&d wood--Carieck us.

The County of Antrim is bounded on the
north by the Northern Ocean, on the east
and north-east by the North Channel, on the
south-east by Belfast Lough and the river
Lagan, on the south-west by Lough Neagh,
and on the west by the County of London-
derry. It is encompassed by waters, as you
will see if you look on the map; and hence
its name, Endrium, or the habitation of
waters. The county town is Carrickfergus;
but Belfast is a place of much greater im-
portance, being the grand seat of the linen
trade, and having several manufactures of
cotton, cambric, sail-cloth, and glass. Bel-
fast is a sea-port town, and, although it
contains many inhabitants, is one of the
cleanest and healthiest manufacturing places
in the kingdom. It has been called a "clean
Manchester." There are many fine public
buildings, and some Botanical Gardens about
a mile from the the town, where young men


44 s8ToBIs OF IUrIL D.
are instructed, to fit them to become experi-
enced gardeners. The Linen Hall at Belfast
is a plain building; but it leads me here to
speak of the manufacture of flax
From a very early period in the history of
Ireland, linen has been manufactured. The
native Irish used to wear saffron-coloured
shirts, which were of this material In the
reign of Elizabeth we read that the Irish
chiefs presented themselves at Court in
" Erin's yellow vesture," and induced spinners
from France and the Netherlands to come
and settle in Ireland. The unfortunate Earl
of Stafford, who was beheaded in the reign
of Charles I., exerted himself very much in
promoting the cultivation of flax in Ireland.
He caused flax seed to be brought over from
Holland. He expended 30,000 (a large
sum in those days,) of his private fortune in
the business. The cruel wars which so soon
followed, put a stop to the trade for a time,
but his efforts were not altogether fruitless.
After Charles IL was restored to the throne,
it was again carried on through the efforts of
the Duke of Ormond. Soon after a company
of French Refugees, who were compelled to
leave their own country, came over to Ireland,
and introduced the manufacture of that beau-
tiful article called damask; and to them also


we are indebted for the first improvement in
bleaching linen.
You know, I have
no doubt, that linen is
made from the fibres
of the flax plant, which
bears a pretty blue
flower, and grows three
or four feet in height.
The flax fields, at the
flowering season, are
very gay and pretty.
The cultivation of this
plant and its prepara-
tion formed at one time
great part of the occu-
pation of the small
farmer and cottager.
When the petals of
the pretty blue flow-
er dropped off, and the
state of the seed-pod
showed that the plant
was ripe, it was pulled
in small handfuls at a
time, and laid two and
two on the ground
across each other; after
it was stacked came "U "rA "r.

46 sBITORB or ImmLAD.

the process of rippling," (ie.) drawing the
flax through an iron comb fixed in a block
of wood; they then steeped, or as they call
it, "bogged it" In bogging, heavy stones
were placed over it in the water to prevent its
being disturbed, and it was then left to decay.
After it had been "bogged" long enough,
according to the cottage plan, it was either
dried in the open air, or over a low fire;
when dry, the bundles were placed on some
"wattles," laid beneath the thatch for that
purpose, to wait for the time of scutchingg,"
or they were housed in a barn. "Scutching"
was done on the back of a chair; the person
who scutched, beating the flax with one hand
with a heavy instrument, and with the other
drawing it gradually back as it was beaten.
The flax dresser used to go about from house
to house with his hackle on his back, and
was always a welcome visitor. The hackle is
a tool consisting of a number of sharp steel
spikes in a wooden frame. Then came the
boiling or scalding the thread to make it
soft; and after it was thoroughly free from
harshness, it was taken to running water,
dried on the grass, boiled again and again in
pure water, spun into thread, and then sent
to the loom of the rustic weaver.
The spinning of flax by means of the

XAN WAOTrU or LU N.. 47

wheel, is now very little done. Machinery is
introduced for the purpose of spinning it
into yarn. The flax, after being hackled, is
divided into two parts; the finer is called the
line, and the coarser the tow: the line is used
for the manufacture of fine linen and damask,
the tow is employed for commoner purposes.
Then, after the linen is manufactured,
comes the bleaching. In order to make the
cloth perfectly white, it must be exposed, for
a long time, to the open air. This is done
by spreading it on the grass; generally near
the banks of a river. The bleaching districts
in Ireland have a bright, cheerful look. The
buildings around are generally white-washed,
and kept very clean. The process of bleach-
ing is tedious, and the particular description
of it would not interest you. The timd it
takes is from two to three months, and the
spring and autumn seasons are generally
preferred for the purpose.
There is a damask manufactory at Ardoyne,
three miles from Belfast. I will endeavour
to describe the process to you. The yan, on
being received from the spinner, boiled and
bleached in the manner I have told you,
is very carefully sorted, the fine hanks being
all put with those of the same quality. It
is then separated into two portions, the warp

and weft; the warp being put longitudinally
or lengthwise in the loom, and the weft is
woven into it The latter is given to the
families of the workmen, and wound upon
little wooden spools, called bobbins or reels,
which are fixed in the shuttle, and with which
the weaver must be kept constantly supplied.
The warp is measured before being removed
to the loom, by the revolutions of a warping
mil," or wooden cylinder, five yards in
circumference. When in the loom, every
four threads are passed through the several
splits of a hanging reed or scale, which pre-
serves the warp in the right width, and presses
the weft together when inserted by the shuttle.
Again the threads are passed through smaller
bead-like objects formed of glass, and fastened
to cords suspended from some machinery
above, retained in their place by leaden
weights at the end. The warp is now ready
for the pattern. Damask table cloths have,
you know, very pretty patterns of different
designs; sometimes a group of flowers, some-
times a landscape. These are first sketched
on plain paper, and thence traced on sheets
of design paper, the whole surface of which
is covered with engraved lines crossing each
other. Vermilion, or lake, is then applied;
such a number of smaller squares formed by

the lines being covered with the paint as will'
serve to form the pattern sketched. The
design is then transferred to a series of cords,
placed perpendicularly in a wooden frame;
each cord representing the space contained
between two of the perpendicular lines of the
design paper. A thin wooden instrument,
called a "needle," with another cord attached,
is passed under a cord in the frame, once for
every small square in the corresponding spaces
of the painted pattern, which is covered, and
over those representing the squares left blank.
By means of the cords attached to the needle
thus interwoven, a coarse loose texture is
formed, containing the design accurately
transferred, but this is not the damask.
The cordage is next fixed to the "cutting
machine," where, by more cords connected
with wires and moved by a cylinder, a
circular steel punch, half an inch long, is
obtruded from a plate of steel full of holes,
so as to give a single punch for every square
of the paper covered by paint. The move-
able plate is then placed in the perforatorr,"
over a stout card a foot and a half long, and
three inches and a half broad; against which
it is forced by a screw, so that a perforation
or hole is formed in the card by every punch
contained in the plate. Thus the pattern is

50 eTaiu 0 ow m ADn.

trnsfered to many hundred cards in small
portions, each representing the space con-
tained between two of the horizontal lines
of the design paper, while the circular per-
forations correspond to the painted squares,
and the rest of the card to those left vacant.
The cards being laced together, the pattern
is ready, and is removed to a machine, which
is erected on a stage above the workman's
head.* It consists of an iron frame, con-
taining a moveable grating and a succession
of perpendicular and horizontal wires, the
former passing through the latter and having
the cords suspended from them, to which are
fastened the little glass nails, through which,
you must remember, the threads of the warp
are passed. Close to the ends of the horizon-
tal wires, which project a little way from the
frame, is placed a square cylinder full of holes,
like those on the pattern cards, to the size
of which the sides correspond. The cards are
now placed on the cylinder, so that one of
them covers the side next the wires. The
machine is set in motion by a lever, raised
and lowered by the workman's foot, when
the horizontal wires being forced against the
card, such of them as come in contact with
the plain spaces are pressed back, and with
Thi mode of weaving is called "A Jaquard."


them the perpendicular wires connected with
the warp beneath, while the other horizontal
wires, entering the holes of the card and cylin-
der, leave thosewhich pas downwards through
them unmoved. The grating is then raised,
and catching by their bent tops the wires
which have not been forced backwards, raises
those threads of the warp which pass through
the mails, and leaves an opening for the weft
between the raised threads and the rest of
the warp. The shuttle having been passed
four times through this opening, and each
thread of weft closely beaten into the fabric
by the hanging reed, the machine above is
lowered by the lever; when the cylinder
partly revolves, another card is presented to
the wires, and the same operation is repeated.
Thus the pattern is gradually formed by the
passage of the weft below certain raised por-
tions of the warp; the four threads, passing
through a single glass mail, being once raised
for every hole in the cards, or every square of
the paper covered with paint; while for every
card, or every space contained between two
of the horizontal lines of the paper, four
threads of weft are inserted. Now I do not
suppose that you will find this very easy to
understand; you will have to read it over and
over again, and be sure you know the meaning

52 BroNIBm or In LD.

of the first part of the process, before you
go on to another. Take a damask cloth or
dinner napkin, and examine it and ask your
mamma, or your teacher, to read the account of
its manufacture to you; and in time, though
not without attention, you will understand
something about it-at least, try. I shall
have but little in my Stories of Ireland to
tell you of manufactures. That of flax is in-
deed the only one for which Ireland is famous.
I must say a few words about the beauti-
ful Lough Neagh, between the counties of
Antrim and Londonderry. It is the largest
lake in the United Kingdom, and there are
few larger in Europe. It is formed by the
confluence or meeting of the Blackwater, the
Bann, and five other rivers. It is twenty
miles in length, twelve in breadth from east
to west, and eighty miles in circumference.
The Lough Neagh pebbles are well known;
most of them are cornelian, calcedony, quartz,
or opal. The Lough is very beautiful near
the town of Antrim; elsewhere it is bare of
trees, but here it is finely wooded, and the
islands are very picturesque.
"Petrified wood" is found in large quanti-
ties also in the vicinity. These petrifactions
are composed of portions of the stems and
roots of trees, most generally holly and oak,

which to the eye look in a natural state,
but are found to consist of stone, either
partially, or entirely. For a long time, be-
cause the process of this petrifaction could
not be understood, the fact was denied and
doubted, and naturalists maintained that no
change in the substance could have taken
place, and that it merely resembled wood.
It is believed now that the power of petri-
faction is in the soil There appears to be
no evidence that the waters of Lough Neagh
have the peculiar property of converting
wood into stone, as was originally believed,
as different articles that have been put into
the lake, and along its banks, have not been
thus acted on.
Carrickfergus is one of the oldest towns
in Ireland; of its ancient fortifications some
remains exist, and the "north gate" is
almost perfect. It is a neat, clean town, and
a large portion of it is called the Scotch
quarter, a great many of the inhabitants
being of Scottish descent.
I must conclude my account of Antrim in
another chapter, as I shall have to tell you
a great deal about one of the most remarkable
natural curiosities in the whole country.


Antrim otinued-.Gifts Cuawm-Tal of the Idiot Boy-
Dnilue COutlo-Couty of Down-Risto of St. Ptriek-
The Binr BaUn.

You have no doubt heard of the Giant's
Causeway; it is on the north coast of the
county of Antrim, and near the town of
Bushmills. It projects from a steep coast
into the sea to an unknown extent, and is
composed of pillars of basalt. There are
many objects of interest and wonder in the
neighbourhood, besides the Giant's Cause-
way; caves and rocks in abundance. Port-
boon cave is very beautiful. Boats may row
into it a few yards, but the swell of the sea
there is sometimes dangerous. The stones,
of which the roof and sides are composed,
are rounded; the inner recess is like an isle
of a Gothic cathedral, and the walls are
slimy to the touch.
But the Causeway is the great point of
attraction, and I will try and give you as
good an idea of it as I can; but never having,
seen it, I am only able to do so from op1-
lecting the accounts which travellers have


written of this extraordinary place. On the
side of a hill is the pert called the Giant's
Organ, a fine colonnade of natural pillars
laid open in the centre of a cliff, and one
hundred and twenty feet in height; its name
is very appropriate, it really looks like an
organ. The guides have plenty of stories to
tell of the reasons for the wonderful natural
objects around. They believe that they were
the work of spirits of different kinds, and
very gravely tell you so. Another curious
object is the "chimney tops." Three pillars,
the tallest of which is forty-five feet high,
stand on a rock some distance from the cliff
A few years ago, a poor idiot boy was depri-
ved by death of his only parent, a mother.
The woman was buried; and some of the
neighbours, anxious to withdraw the lad from
her grave, where he used to sit and weep, told
him his mother was not there, but was gone
up to heaven. Gone up I" he said, "what
gone up as high as that organ ?" "Ay, higher
than that," they said. "As high as the chim-
neys?" "Yes, higher stilL" He shook his
head and said, innocently, that there was
nothing higher. Next evening they took
him some potatoes to the place where he had
46t since the funeral, but they could not
1Ind him. Before night closed in, the poor

6 sreOB or m nLAND.
boy was seen weeping on the top of those
fearful columns, "the chimneys," clapping
his hands and crying aloud. The neighbours
were terribly frightened; they could not
imagine how he got there, and not one dared
peril his life to save him. It grew dark, and
the boy cried louder still. They shouted to
him, begging him to keep quiet until morn-
ing, and to cling closely to the columns;
some agreed to watch at the foot of the chim-
neys, so that if he fell, they might help him.
They were hard-working people, however,
and quite overcome with fatigue, they forgot
their watch and fell asleep. The sun was
high when they awoke, and when they looked,
the idiot boy was gone. They rushed to the
scattered masses of rock around the chimneys,
expecting to see his mangled corpse; but they
sought in vain, for there was no trace of him.
"Is it a dream?" they asked, as they pro-
ceeded homewards. The first object that
they saw on their return, was the poor idiot
safe and sound in body, except for the
scratches and bruises he had received from
the sharp stones. "Ah I" said one of the
men, "but those whom God keeps, are well
kept. How did ye get down, my bonny
man?" I could na' find my mammy," sai
the boy, crying bitterly; I cried to her, but

I could na' find her." It is said that these
chimney tops were battered by one of the
slugs of the Spanish Armada, whose men in
the night-time mistook them for a Castle.
The Spanish Armada was that great fleet sent
out by Philip of Spain to conquer England,
in the time of Queen Elizabeth. The Cause-
way itself consists of three parts-the Little
Causeway, the Middle Causeway, and the
Great Causeway-each jutting out into the
sea; the greater is to be seen 300 yards at
Slow water, the others not half as far.
Each pillar of the Causeway is worth
notice, looking like a distinct piece of work-
manship, regularly divided and jointed, as
though the hand of man had formed it.
All the points of interest in the Causeway
have names given them, and they are all
called the works of the Giant; there is the
Giant's Loom, the Giant's Theatre, the
Giant's Pulpit, &c. The Guides would tell
you that when the Irish Giant, Fin Mac
Cool, was wishing to fight the Scotch Giant,
Benandonna, and invited him over to receive
the beating he intended for him, the Irish
Giant thought it only polite to hinder the
stranger wetting the sole of his foot, so built
a bridge for him across the sea, all the way
to Staff, (one of the Scotch Islands,) over

which the Giant came, to get broken bones.
I have given you a very faint description of
this great work of the Almighty, but I believe
had I seen it, I should still have been unable
to do it justice, it is so very wonderful
The last object of interest in the county,
that I shall name, is Dunluce Castle, standing
on a rock, which rises one hundred feet above
the sea. The sides of the rock appear as if
they formed part of its walls, whilst its base,
from the constant action of the waves,
abounds in curious caverns.
The County of DowN is bounded on the
east and on the south by the Irish sea, on
the north by Antrim and Belfast Lough, and
on the west by the county of Armagh. Its
principal towns are Newry, Downpatrick,
Bangor, and Dromore. It derives its name
from the Irish word Dunmer, a hilly country.
Nery is a flourishing town; it has manu-
factures of linen, and some good buildings.
Downpatrick is, however, the county or
capital town; an ancient place, and noted
for being the burial-place of the Patron
Saint of Ireland, called St. Patrick. Ireland
is a Catholic country, and hence you hear
a great deal of saints, as well as of giants,
spirits, and fairies. I will tell you a little
about this Patrick. For a long time in the

early history of the Island, the only religion
taught was by the Druids. One of the
accounts of St. Patrick runs thus-About
the time that the Romans left England, an
Irish King named Mac Nial invaded France,
and carried off a great many captives to
Ireland. Amongst these was a youth about
16 years of age, who was sold as a slave,
and employed by his master to keep sheep.
His name was Patrick. Young Patrick, as
he used to watch his sheep, and wander
forth with them over hills and through
forests, used to reflect on the idolatrous
worship of the poor Irish, and thought how
sad it was that they should sacrifice their
little innocent children, and how foolish it
was in them to worship stone images instead
of bending the knee to the true God. For
about six years, Patrick remained in slavery
in Ireland, when he managed to make his
escape and return to France.
There is something very noble in Patrick's
conduct; he did not forget the country where
he had been in bondage, and after many
years' study he asked permission of the Pope
to revisit Ireland, and teach the natives
something about the God he worshipped.
The Pope, whom the Catholics consider as
the father of the church, (as the Italian word

60 8roaNsu or IRVIsAN.

Papa signifies) gave his consent; and Patrick
came over to Ulster about the year 432, with
a few companions to help him in the work
of instructing the ignorant natives. He had
learned their language, and by his mild and
earnest discourse he soon made many converts.
He then proceeded to Tara, in the county
of Meath, of which place I will tell you
presently. Here the King resided; and
Patrick preached to him and many chiefs,
who listened respectfully to him. Soon the
religion of the Druids was at an end; human
sacrifices were done away with; the Christian
religion spread throughout the country, and
was soon established there. The form of it,
I mean. Religion is a personal affair, and a
country cannot be said truly to be religious,
unless every inhabitant of it were subject to
the will of God, and lived according to the
requirements of the gospel. When peace and
holiness influence all men, when we all are
found loving our neighbour as ourselves, and
God above all, we may be called a christian
country. So when you hear of the establish-
ment of religion in a country, you will see
how far the phrase may be understood.
The Druids did not much oppose the
doctrines of Patrick, although once or twice
they tried to take his life. Monasteries


-- -- r


~~-.~-=----~~--c~I~s- 1--
4 ---;-T.r-



HISro or r. PATBIax. 61

were now founded in many parts of the
island, and they were soon filled. Patrick
himself was a great scholar; .and from his
works has been gathered much of what we
know of the Irish at this early period.
This is the simple history of a simple plain
man, called by those who would rather exalt
the creature than the Creator, Saint Patrick.
The worship of saints and angels is a sign of
the corruption which crept into the church;
when it began to think less of Christ, it felt
the need of other intercessors with God, and
in its foolish pride put mortals in the plcee
which can but be occupied by Him who is
the only Advocate with the Father. Some
historians say that Patrick was born in
Britain, and was taken captive to Ireland by
some Danish pirates or sea robbers, at the
age of sixteen. There are many versions of
his history, and it is impossible to discover
which is the true one. They are all liable
to mistake.*
SAmoongt many curious stories told of St. Ptrick, by the Irsh,
it I said that he balehed oal frogs and tode from Irelsmd, or as
the old vrse h it,
"Tws on the top of this high hill
St. Patrick reached his osit;
He drive the fI ito the bogs,
And balsedl the Tanarit."
Whether the moisture of the climate prevent the exsteece of ser-
pent and tods in Irelad, s a quetio; but frogs re bow about
Scommuon some districts of Ireland s in Englnd. There are
no moles in the oonutry.

62 serDIs or ImiND.
The great object of attraction in Down-
patrick is the Cathedral, a modern and
elegant building. The River Bann, in the
county of Down, was once noted for its pearl
fisheries, and I believe pearls are still occa-
sionally found there. They come from a
fresh-water muscle, in shape and colour like
the sea muscle, but of a very flat, insipid
taste. The common mode of fishing for
pearls in the Bann is simple enough. In
the warm weather, when the river is low and
clear, the poor people wade in the water;
add some with their toes, others with sharp
sticks thrust into the opening of the shells,
take them up. This can only be done in
shallow water, whereas the large muscles and
the greater quantities are found in deep
smooth water. In the pearl fisheries in the
East and West Indies, they fish by means
of diving, sometimes sixty feet under water.
Pearls are thought to be the result of disease
in a particular kind of oyster. The principal
pearl fisheries are in the East and West
Indies. In the bay of Panama, in South
America, are some islands called the Pearl
Islands; and many pearls are procured


Tyrone-The Story of the O'Neils-Their Quarml-S-ue's
Visit to Quem Elibeth-Hugh O'Neil-Suspicion of him-
The Rbellion--Eex--His Mission to Ireland-He fail.-
His disgrace-Mountjoy' cmelty-O'Neil is deeated-His
pardon-News tellers -OCan-Monaghsn-Eniskellen-
Round Towern, and their origin.

The county of TYRONE is entirely inland,
and is bounded by Londonderry on the
north, Fermanagh and Monaghan on the
south, Donegal and Fermanagh on the west,
and Armagh and Lough Neagh on the east.
You have many of you heard, I suppose,
of the Tyrone Rebellion, which began in the
timeof Queen Elizabeth. It arose in a quarrel
between the O'Neils, who were of the ancient
royal race of Ireland, and traced back their
ancestry earlier than the days of St. Patrick.
Shane and Matthew, two half brothers, were
constantly fighting and quarrelling about
titles and possessions, till at last Matthew
was murdered, as many people believed, by
his brother. Matthew left two sons, Hugh
and Cormac, who were for a long time resi-
dent in England, whither they fled after their

64 srTOa1E or MMAND.

father's death, leaving Shane O'Neil chief of
the counties about which there had been so
much dispute. This Shane took rather too
much on himself, it appears; behaving just
as the old kings of Ulster had done, and
acting according to the old laws of Ireland
in carrying on wars without permission of
the Lord Lieutenant, who was placed by the
English at Dublin to carry out the laws of
England in the country; and to see, in fact,
that the Irish remained faithful subjects.
Of course, Shane's conduct gave great
offence, and he was summoned to Dublin to
give an account of himself; but he was
rather too prudent to trust himself to the
mercy of the Lieutenant away from his own
home, so he shrewdly invited his lordship to
Strabane, in Tyrone, where he lived, begging
him to do him the honour of standing god-
father to a little boy who was just born.
The Lieutenant went to O'Neil, and they
became great friends after this; Shane having
treated him very nobly and hospitably. The
chief being quite encouraged by getting the
Lieutenant into good humour, thought he
would venture on a visit to London to see
Queen Elizabeth, that he might tell her his
case, and why he considered he had a greater
right to the estate of his father than his


brother's children. The fact was, that Shane
suspected what I believe was the truth, that
Matthew was not really his own brother;
and, if so, he had more right to inherit his
father's property than Matthew, or Matthew's
children. Shane's visit was quite a pleasure
to Queen Elizabeth, who was always fond
of novelty and show; and Shane went in
great state and parade to the court. He
rode into London, richly dressed, and fol-
lowed by a great many foot-guards, habited
in the fashion of their country, in large
loose saffron-coloured linen garments, under
which the officers wore armour, with a sword,
shield, and a weapon like a battle-axe, about
four feet long. The common men only wore
the saffron-coloured linen, and a belt round
the waist. They had long flowing beards,
and no covering to their heads. It pleased
Queen Elizabeth to receive Shane O'Neil
most graciously. She set him quite at ease
about his title and estates, confirming his
right to them, to his great satisfaction; so
that he returned to Ireland in good spirits,
and, for a short time, went on peaceably
enough. But, on some slight pretence, he
broke his oaths of allegiance, and the whole
Province of Ulster was again in arms. A
chief of the name of O'Donnel, son-in-law


of Shane, distinguished himself in these
In the mean time, Matthew's sons had
grown to be young men; and Hugh, the
elder of them, being very handsome, which
was always a recommendation to Elizabeth,
became a great favourite of hers. She made
him captain of a troop of horse; and when
Shane died, she bestowed on him the title of
Earl of Tyrone, and restored to him some of
the estates, which, through his uncle's re-
bellion, had been forfeited to the crown.
Shane, I should tell you, was stabbed
at a banquet; some say, by his son-in-law,
O'DonneL Hugh lived on his estate in
Ireland for some time, in peace; and acted
dutifully and loyally enough to please his
royal mistress.
You have read, no doubt, of the Spanish
Armada; that great fleet which Philip III.,
of Spain, proposed sending to England to
conquer it. This Spanish Armada met with
great misfortunes; and was, finally, scattered
entirely. Very stormy weather arose, and
some of its vessels were wrecked on the Irish
coast The Earl of Tyrone, out of a feeling
of common humanity, treated the poor
Spaniards, thus cast on shore, very kindly;
and this treatment caused his enemies to


report to the Queen that Hugh was taking
part with Philip, the Spanish King, against
her. A son of Shane O'Neil made this
accusation, which so incensed the Earl of
Tyrone, that he caused his cousin to be
strangled. When he had once thus given
way to the spirit of revenge and murder, he
became ungovernable, and agreed with other
chiefs of Ulster, to try and recover the
throne of their ancestors-in short, to throw
off allegiance to Elizabeth.
And now they really did apply to Philip,
who was ready enough to assist them against
his enemy-England. War began-not only
in Ulster, but other provinces; and again the
whole country was in confusion. Such was
the state of things when Queen Elizabeth sent
over the Earl of Essex with a large army, to
put an end to the rebellion. This Earl had
been a great favourite with the fickle Queen,
but was losing her confidence very rapidly at
this time. It is not unlikely that his enemies
(of which he had many, as all favourites have)
were very anxious to have Essex dispatched
on this mission, in which they were certain
he would fail, from want of experience and
caution. During the consultation which
took place in the Queen's Cabinet, as to the
proper person to send to Ireland to quell the

68 SroINm or mELAND.

disturbances, Essex interfered with a great
deal of warmth. Elizabeth, affronted at his
positive tone, reproached him rather sharply,
on which, he so far forgot himself as to turn
his back on her Majesty, with a very rude
speech. The Queen forgot herself in like
manner, you will say, and gave him a sound
box on the ear. He was so enraged that he
grasped his sword-hilt, and, but for the inter-
ference of the Lord Admiral, Sir Robert Cecil,
some serious mischief might have ensued.
However, Essex swore that he would not
have taken that blow from king Harry, her
father, and that it was an indignity he neither
could nor would endure from any one. He
then muttered something about a "king in
petticoats," and rushed away from Court in
high displeasure. He remained away for five
months, and then the quarrel was made up,
and his appointment to the office of Lord
Deputy took place. It appears that Essex
offended the Queen, in this Irish mission, in
three points. He treated with Tyrone for a
six weeks' truce, when she ordered him to
fight. He appointed a friend of his, Master
of the Horse, contrary to her Majesty's order,
and marched into another part of Ireland,
instead of proceeding directly against Tyrone
as he was commanded, thus losing a great

V - I

BssME. 69
part of his army from fatigue and famine.
Elizabeth wrote many angry letters to Fsex;
and at last he was so alarmed by their tone,
that he resolved to return to England and
plead his own cause. He arrived in London
about ten in the morning; and breathless as
he was, untidy in dress, and his very face
bespattered with mud, he rushed into her
bed-chamber, flung himself on his knees
before her, and covered her hands with kisses.
The Queen, who was only just risen, with her
hair all about her face, was rather surprised,
as you may suppose, but gave him a kinder
reception than he expected, so that Essex
left her quite encouraged; but poor Essex
had enemies, who did not fail to foment the
Queen's anger against him, and in the evening
he found her stern and distant in her manner.
The next day he was summoned before the
Council to answer for his disobedience whilst
in Ireland, his bold letter from thence, and
finally, for his daring to appear in her
Majesty's bed-chamber. This last affront
was not to be forgiven; the vain old Queen
of sixty-eight was not pleased to be seen, by
her favourite, with her thin grey hair un-
covered by one of her eighty wigs; unpainted,
and unadorned. Essex was placed in con-
finement, and fretted himself really ill. He

had often feigned sickness to excite her com-
pa n; but it was too late for that now.
In vrn he wrote her pathetic letters, and
earnest apologies: Elizabeth was not to be
moved. After a few months' imprisonment
he was released, but not permitted to ap-
proach court: and had this proud and self-
willed man chosen to content himself with a
private life, there is no doubt but that he
might have ended his days in peace. After
a while, however, he grew dissatisfied; "I
will not," he said, "be pushed down into
private life." His house now became quite
a place of meeting for discontented and dis-
loyal subjects; but the great cause of offence
-that which might be said to seal his fate-
was a speech he made, in which he publicly
called his Queen an old woman, as crooked
in mind as she was in body." This speech
was reported to Elizabeth, who cherished it
in her memory. Essex collected about three
hundred followers, who determined to force
their way into the Queen's presence; but
the insurrection was soon stopped, and Essex
again lodged in the Tower; and very soon
afterwards was sent to the block. This was
the end of Essex; sad enough, as the end of
a favourite in history usually is.
We have wandered far from the Tyrone

rebellion in Ireland to the Tower of London;
and now let us see what sort of Dputy
was Lord Mounjoy, the successor of Isex.
The Irish heard that this same Lord was
but a "bookish man," and were disposed to
laugh at him at first; but they soon found
that they had little cause for laughter. He
pursued the rebels with fire and sword, killing
without mercy, cutting. down corn, burning
houses, and causing famine and suffering
throughout the country where he marched.
He made it a practice, too, to destroy the
ploughs and other implements of husbandry,
so that the poor people had no means left
of cultivating the soil when war had done
its worst.
Fynes Morrison, an eye-witness, gives a
dreadful account of the sufferings of the Irish
at this time, and concludes a melancholy
description by saying, No sight was more
common than that of wasted counties, especi-
ally of towns, and multitudes dead in the
ditches, their mouths all coloured green with
nettles and docks they had eaten, and such
things as they could tear above ground."
Many of the rebel chiefs fled to Spain, and
the poor people dispersed among the moun-
tains. O'Neil himself went to Dublin to
make submission to Earl Mountoy. Queen

72 JtoaRms or muZLAD.

Elizabeth, who was greatly worried by these
Irish rebellions, and by the death of her
favourite Essex, had died a few days prior to
O'Neil's submission, and James was not
likely to be very merciful to the rebel chief.
However, O'Neil accompanied Mo nijoy to
London; there, on bended knees, to ask the
king's forgiveness: whereupon his life was
granted him, and his estates partially re-
stored. He lived only a short time in Ireland,
however; for being suspected of intentions
to rebel, he was compelled to flee to Spain,
and all his property and estates were confis-
cated to the king. These are the principal
incidents relative to that celebrated Tyrone
rebellion, of which you will often hear, and
they will, I hope, be sufficient to impress
the name of Tyrone on your memory.
There are many ruined castles in Tyrone,
and, indeed, throughout Ulster generally;
which may be accounted for by the state of
warfare into which the province was so
frequently plunged.
During the wars of the O'Neils every one
was of course very anxious to hear the news.
There were no newspapers in those days, and
the want was supplied by a class of men called
news men, or news tellers. These persons
used to go up and down the country, collecting



news, and would go and relate it to the
farmers or private gentlemen, where they,
were sre to find a ready welcome, and bed
and board at least. I dare ay their news
was not always to be depended upon exactly,
but perhaps as much so as many things we
read in newspapers now-a-days. This chapter
on Tyrone is already sufficiently long, but
we have not yet quite finished with Ulster.
Omagh and Strabane are the principal towns
of Tyrone, but I do not know of anything
in their history likely to interest you.
AJoGH is bounded on the north by
Tyrone and Lough Neagh, on the north-east
by Down, on the south and west by Mona-
ghan and Louth. Its capital, Armagh, is
built on the sides of a steep hill. It is a
neat, clean town, and the streets are paved
with marble, of which most of the houses are
likewise built There is a fine old Cathedral
here, which is said to have been founded by
St. Patrick. Nial, one of the very early
kings of Ulster, is buried near Armagh.
He fought and conquered the Danes, and
after a great victory over them, he ordered
one of his captains to pursue the enemy over
a river-the river Callan. The waters were
swollen with heavy rains, and the poor
captain was carried away. As no one ran to

74 9TroaBi or mBIANP.
his relief, Nial himself plunged into the
current, and was drowned.
Of CAvai County I have really nothing to
tell you that is likely to be interesting. It
is bounded on the north by the county of
Fermanagh; on the east and north-east by
parts of Longford, Meath, and West Meath.
Cavan and Belturhet are the only towns of
importance or size, and a large portion of this
district is uncultivated bog and mountain.
The county of FERMANAOH, the last of the
nine counties of Ulster, is bounded on the
north by Tyrone and Donegal, on the east
by Monaghan, and on the south by Cavan.
This county abounds in lakes, of which
the beautiful Lough Erne is the most im-
The town of Enniskillen, the capital of
Fermanagh, is situated on an island between
the upper and lower lake, Lough Erne. This
town is noted for its defence against James
the Second's army at the battle of the Boyne,
which I will notice in the proper place
There are many islands on Lough Erne, as
many, it is said, as there are days of the
year; all of these are green and verdant,
but that of Devenish is the most interesting.
Devenish contains the remains of seven
churches and a round tower, the most perfect
of its kind in Ireland.



I promised to give you an account of these
round towers, which have often pussled
travellers and persons curious in antiquities
Without giving you all the opinions and
conjectures that have been formed about
them, I will tell you that they are considered
by the best authorities as having been the
work of those Phoenicians who were the
early settlers in Ireland.
That the ancient Irish worshipped fire, is a
fact fully established, and they were doubt-
less taught this worship by their visitors
from the East, where it was prevalent The
old Irish name Cillcagh, indeed quite bears
out this idea. Cillcagh is a compound of two
words, meaning fire and divinity; its deriva-
tion is the same as the Hindoo word Coill,
from Challana, to burn. That they were
also used for burial places is evident from
some discoveries of bones and skeletons with-
in the walls. There are but eighty-three
towers now remaining; twenty in a perfect,
and sixty-three in a decaying state. Those
that are in good repair vary in height from
70 to 130 feet, and are divided into several
stories; they are from 8 to 15 feet in
diameter. The door is as high as six, some-
times sixteen feet from the ground. Each
floor is lit by a single window. The whole

76 rrorBs or rIBLAD.

has a roof of stone-work of a conical shape.
The drawing of one Tower will give you
an idea of almost all of them, for they ap-
pear only to have varied in small particulars,
such as height, or the number of windows.
These temples of the early, fire-worshippers
make us regret that a people so learned as
the Phoenicians, who taught all else so well,
could teach the Irish nothing about the true
The drawings annexed will show you the
resemblance that exists between the round
towers in India and those remaining in


Prove of ConnanghtCoMty IAitri--Irih CMba-
Its Taunt-FPwnitre-Fine-Frlghthl eams-Dth
om 8tWratiU-Mr. IKol'Z s dcripti c a Ma.(

Tas province of Connaught contains five
counties. LEITrr, the most northerly, is
bounded on the north by Donegal Bay; on
the west by Sligo and Roscommon; on the
east by Cavan and Fermanagh; and on the
south by Longford. It is a very long,
narrow county, being forty-six miles in
length, and from two to sixteen in breadth.
It has no towns of any note, but its county
or capital town is called Carrick-on-Shannon.
In the province of Connaught, the distress
and poverty of which you have frequently
heard is very melancholy to witness, and
even a description, falling, as it does, very
far short of the reality, might make you sad.
But although it is not an amusing subject,
it is one which I would have you think of; it
is a bad plan, at all times, to avoid matters
that are distressing, and to say, that as we
cannot help Ireland, it is no use to think
about it. Had every one thought thus,

78 rTOnma or IDLAND.

slavery would never have been abolished;
and if none will think on the subject of Ire-
land's distress, no improvement will ever
take place in the country. Happily some-
thing has been done, and more still might
be done to improve her condition.
The fact is, that we have thought too little
about her; and yet she has a claim upon
England, for did not England of her own
accord take charge of Ireland when she con-
quered her? The Romans, who made great
conquests in different parts of the world, used
to say that as soon as they had conquered a
nation, they considered themselves no longer
its enemies, but that they should thence-
forward become as brothers, and work to-
gether for one another's good. Well would
it be if nations now adopted the same plan;
but England has not acted thus to Ireland.
You cannot understand the great political
questions which have puzzled wiser brains
than yours or mine; but you can understand
this, that we have neglected the claims of our
neighbours, and whilst we have sent the bible
to the heathen, taken interest in the abolition
of slavery in foreign countries, and spent
much money for schemes abroad as well as at
home, we have looked on Ireland as a very
troublesome beggar, and have taken but little
pains to improve it; but you shall hear what



kind of distress exists, and then ask your-
selves if you have thought of it as you ought.
You can, most of you, remember the year
1847, when there was such a dreadful famine
in Ireland. I will tell you a little of that
presently; but let us look at the lives the
poor Irish lead in a common way, when
there is no such particular pressure as that
of which I speak. You will often hear it
said that there is quite as much distress and
poverty in England as in Ireland. First of
all, I do not believe this is the case; or, how
is it that we did not suffer from the famine
as the Irish did, for corn was dear all the
world over? and secondly, if there were,
which there is not, it would be no reason
for our refusing to pity and to help our
neighbours as far as possible.
Look now at this drawing; this is an
Irish cabin, by no means of the worst class,
as I will describe to you bye and bye.
How should you like to spend a night
there? Why, your papa's horse is better
lodged by far; nay, the pigs in the sties are
almost as well or better covered than the Irish
poor. There is frequently, in cabins like
this, no window, and only a hole in the roof,
and an old wicker basket on it for a chimney;
the light and air enter where they can, and

80 BTORIis o I rAND.

how they can, and the rain finds easy entrance
enough through the holes in the roof, the wet
often standing in great pools on the foor.
One room is all that such cabins contain;
there a whole family eat and sleep. Their
beds are straw or heather, laid on the floor,
and covered with an old rug or blanket, if
such a thing remain, and if not, with the
clothes of the family. But besides the father
and mother, and six or seven children, crow-
ded into this little room, there is another
occupant. I have seen fowls in the poor
English cottages, and very much I have dis-
liked the sight, but the Irish share their bed
and food with their pig. Even the pig, how-
ever, is a less common sight than it was, for
the pig is sold in times of great distress and
starvation. The furniture of these cabins
consists of an iron pot, to boil potatoes in; a
rude dresser, sometimes; two or three very
rough stools; a table, (but not always that);
a basket, into which the potatoes are thrown
when dressed; and now and then, a poor
truckle bed in the corner. Outside, and often
in the very front of the door, is the dung
heap; and you may easily imagine that with
such a crowd within, and polluted air without,
sickness and disease abound. And what is
their food? you will ask. Potatoes princi-

rlIGHnrTL eaZam. 81

pally, and butter-milk; bacon very rarely,
and occasionally a cabbage. I am speakingof
those who can get food at al It is not un-
common-indeed, it is very common, for the
poor creatures to be without even coarse fare
like that I have described. The potato is the
great article of diet in Ireland. I cannot ex-
plain to you how it is that they depend so on
this root, which never was intended by Provi-
dence to form the principal food of man; it
is very well, combined with other food, but
does not contain nourishment enough in itself.
Yet the Irish are content if they can find
sufficient potatoes, and seem to have little
ambition beyond. This is not natural to
them, however. If you set an Irishman down
to a dinner of soup or meat, he will not tell
you that he prefers potatoes, but poor fellow,
he has so long been living in poverty, and is
so crushed and disheartened by it, that he has
lost that energy and desire for improvement
natural to more healthy minds. A prisoner
does not enjoy his liberty at first. I have
even heard of one sighing, after a long con-
finement, to be taken back to the gloomy jail.
Well, when the potato crop is less plenti-
ful, or when, as has been the case of late
years, the potato itself is bad and unwhole-
some, you will easily see how bad is the

82 sTroms or IanNLD.

Irishman's case. The little bit of land
attached to his miserable cabin, is covered
entirely with that plant; it is his all, and if
that fails throughout the country, he is ruined.
Great efforts are being made to induce the
farmers to sow oats and turnips, and other
seed instead of the potato; but so ignorant
are the farmers and cottiers of farming, that
they have been known to sow the turnip-seed
like grass, and having omitted to hoe it, the
root has been as thin and taper as a radish.
A gentleman who went over to Ireland to
ascertain the amount of distress, and to make
a report to a committee formed in England
to relieve it, in 1847, says in his journal, that
the labourers were willing to work, but could
find no employment. Many assured him
that they should thankfully take six-pence a
day or less, but could not obtain it. A quart
of meal was in some cases all that was given
to a full-grown man for a day's work.
During that awful time the roads were
strewed with dead bodies, and several cab and
coach drivers assured the writer, that in the
dark they had even driven over them. In
the neighbourhood of one town, 140 bodies
had been found by the road side. In some
cases it has been known, that where all other
members of a family have died, the last


wretched survive has earthed up his cabin-
door that dogs and pigs might not come in,
and then laid himself down to die. Think
of ten thousand people in one district, within
forty-eight hours' journey of London, living
or rather starving upon sea-weed, sand eels,
and turnip-tops.
The landlords, distressed by the same
scarcity that affected the tenants, were in
some instances very hard-hearted. Instances
have been known of unroofing the cabins,
in order to drive the poor creatures out of
them. The account which one poor woman
gave was very touching; she was living in
Mullarogue, in the county of Mayo, with her
husband, when the landlord came about ten
days before Christmas and turned the people
out of the cabins, pulling down the roofs.
That night they had no tent nor shelter, but
such as they made out of wood and straw
that the drivers threw down when they drove
them from the place. It was a night of high
wind, but their wailing could be heard for
some distance. They implored the driver for
mercy, but in vain. A poor man on the sea
shore, close to this village, was picking up
shell-fish or sea-weed to appease his hunger,
and was seen to stagger and fall. Another
man who saw it carried him into his hut,

84 IronIs or miLAND.
but it was too late, he was dead He was
one of the ejected tenants of Mullarogue.
Fever of a fery dreadful kind then made
its appearance, and thousands died with all
the horrors of pestilence, added to those of
I promised to give you a description of a
hut, of a worse kind than that which you
have just looked at Here is the account
which Kohl, the German traveller, gives of
such a dwelling.-
Let the traveller look where he is going,
or he may make a false step; the earth may
give way under his feet, or he may fall into
what-an abyss ? a cavern? a bog? No, into
a hut; a human dwelling-place, which he had
overlooked, because the roof was level with the
ground I Of what is this composed? The
wall of the bog often forms two or three
sides of it, whilst sods taken from the surface,
form the remaining part, and the roof. Win-
dow there is none, chimneys are not known;
light, smoke, pigs, and children, all pass out
and in at the only opening-the door I When
I have entered, I have had to do it on all
fours. You may conceive a family of six
or eight-men, women, and children, kneel-
ing or squatting by the peat fire, or lying
on the damp ground; they are in rags and

IasH rAmmf. 85

tatters, some even entirely naked. I asked
one poor man, on what he and his family
subsisted. He pointed to some withered
turnip-tops. Upon these' he said. And
what else 'Yonder,' he replied, 'is one of
the family seeking for sea-weed.' 'And
are there many so badly off?' Yes ; worse,
aback in the mountain; they are dying
there every day.'"
Now for what purpose do you suppose I
have told you these sad stories of famine and
misery ? Not alone to impress the name of
this county upon your minds; still less, to
pass away an idle half-hour, or to gratify
mere curiosity.
This is not a tale, remember; it is sad,
serious fact. It has occurred too, within a
distance of comparatively few miles from
your very doors.
I know, moreover, that you are at an age
when the heart is tender, and when associa-
tions made are strong; I want, therefore, to
encourage you, thus early in life, in love and
pity, instead of scorn, contempt, and aver-
sion to those suffering people. They are not
greater sinners than the people of England
because they suffer such things; and there
is no telling to what deeds of mercy your
early feelings of benevolence and love of

86 REsOB o IRLA mD.
your neighbour. may lead. You are children
now, but you will be men and women soon.
May you be useful, active, and tender-
hearted; after the example of Him who
went about doing good.
I will just say in conclusion, that these
remarks on the famine and distress of this
part of the Island, apply equally to almost
all Connaught. I introduce them here, be-
cause Leitaim is so devoid of all interest of
any other aid.


Slio-Cong Abbey-Bruil-plm of the lut King-The hAno
Bobba-BSpe of his Hore-His Exploita-Cotlbar BRa
-Ile of Aehill-Cornolow-Se-Roommon--alwwy-
BRemblsnc to Spaih Town.

SLIo is bounded on the east by Leitrim,
on the north.by the Atlantic Ocean, on the
west and south by Mayo county, and on the
south-east by Roscommon.
The capital, Sligo, is a sea-port; but it
has little trade. Its Abbey has long been
famous, and the ruins are very interesting.
It has once or twice been destroyed by fire,
but has been restored. The steeple is entire;
and each little pillar in the Abbey is differ-
ently and beautifully ornamented. There
are several vaults in the ruin; and many
skulls, portions of bones and coffins have
been discovered. The county of Sligo
abounds in mountains and lakes; but like
several other counties in Connaught, there is
little beyond the poverty of its inhabitants
to notice-and that is a melancholy subject.
MAYo, the adjoining county, is bounded on
the east by Sligo and Roscommon, on the

88 sroaSi or ImrZLx.

south by Galway, and on the north and west
by the Atlantic Ocean.
Before I refer particularly to Castlebar, its
principal town, I will tell you of the old
town of Cong, distant from it twelve miles,
and noted for its Abbey. Here Roderic
O'Connor, the last of the Irish kings, passed
the concluding fifteen years of his life, and
is said to be buried.
The last Abbot of Cong was interred among
the ruins about twenty years since; and here
also are the remains of a noted robber, whose
name was Mac Namara. There are many
marvellous tales told of this man: and of
a very swift horse he possessed, whose feats
seem almost to have surpassed those of Dick
Turpin's Black Bess. One evening he invited
some gentlemen from Munster to dine with
him at his house, near Cong. After having
dinner and plenty of wine, they all retired
to rest for the night Mac Namara went to
his room as if for the same purpose; but
instead of going to bed, he got Binnish, his
noted horse, ready; and set off to the house
of one of his guests, in the county of
Clare, which he robbed, and then returned
to Cong the same night, as swift as the
wind. He arrived just in time to see the
guests go to the breakfast table, where he


joined them in capital spirits; the poor
robbed man little thinking what his host had
been after all night. Mac Namara had a
passage underground from his house to the
Town Cros of Cong; andin this place he and
his followers often secreted themselves. At
last he had to take his trial for one of his
robberies, but contrived to get off, some one
of influence interfering on his behalf; at
which he testified his joy by springing up
over the spikes of the dock, hand-cuffed and
fettered as he was, to the great astonishment
of judge and jury.
The situation of Cong Abbey is very
beautiful. The village stands on a small
peninsula that juts out into Lough Corrib.
The capital town of Mayo, called Castlebar,
is a neat and thriving place, but the suburbs
are very wretched. The mountains are pic-
turesque, and there are some fine lakes in the
neighbourhood. Castlebar was famous for
a battle fought there in 1798, called the
Castlebar Races.
The town of Newport-Mayo is second in
importance. There is a great deal of fish
caught here; both trout and salmon. The
boats at Newport-Mayo seem to be like those
used by the ancient Irish: they are made of
wooden laths covered with canvass; and the

90 voaUIS or IAND.

stem is almost as broad as the stern. The
size is usually large enough to contain four
men; but they are extremely light, rising
and falling with every wave, and have never
been known to upset. These kinds of boats,
called coracles, are of ancient origin; they
were used by the Irish in their invasions,
before the Romans left Britain.
About sixteen miles from Newport is
the Island of Achil, which abounds in
beauty and interest. This is the largest
island off the Irish coast. The dwellings
of the islanders are very curious; they are
heaps of rough stones, procured from the
beach, and without cement of any kind;
their roofing is fern, heath, and shingles. In
the village of Dooagha, which consists of
forty cabins, there is not a single chimney;
nor is there one tree in the whole place,
though there are signs of its having been
once a thick forest It is full of lakes.
The foxes are so abundant that the lambs
are never safe. There are many seals among
the rocks, and plenty of ravens and eagles.
I wonder if you ever saw a seal; it
is a strange looking creature. Seals, in
general, prefer cold climates; but are caught
off the coast of Scotland, as well as Ireland.
They belong to that tribe of animals called

asphiious, living either on land or in the
water. They are usually found in the sea, but
are known to.inhabit very large fresh water
lakes, and are caught in those of Ladoga and
Onega, in Russia. The form of their bodies
is something like a fish; the hind feet are at
the extremity of the body, and serve the
purpose of a fin. The fore feet are adapted
for swimming, and the toes are furnished
with claws, and united by a membrane.
The tail is very short; the eyes are large
and prominent; and they can open and shut
their nostrils at pleasure. They feed chiefly
on crabs, small fish, and sea birds. They
are very fond of their young; and often,
when badly wounded, carry them off in
their mouths. They live in herds or
families along the sea shore, and sleep on
rocks or ice banks. The full-grown bottle-
nose seal, as it is called, grows from eleven
to eighteen feet in length; but common
seals are but from four to six feet long.
They become very fat; their oil is of great
use; and the skins are used by trunk makers,
hatters, and saddlers. The Greenlanders
and Finlanders, people who inhabit countries
at the north of Europe, are very expert
seal hunters. There are seals kept at the
Zoological Gardens in London; so you


must remember to go and look at them if
you visit that interesting place.
RoscoMoN is bounded on.the north by
Leitrim, on the north-west by Mayo and
Sligo, on the south and south-west by Gal-
way, and on the east by Longford, West
Meath, and King's County.
Roscommon, the capital, is a small and
poor town. Boyle is a large town, and has
the remains of a very ancient Abbey. Ath-
lone, in the south of the county, is noted as
being the scene of some battles between
James IL and William III. The beautiful
river Shannon forms the eastern boundary of
the county of Roscommon. The Shannon's
source is in a deep hollow, near the base of
the Culkagh mountains, in Leitrim. This
gulf, though not twenty feet in diameter, is
so deep that a line of two hundred yards has
not reached the bottom.
The last county in the province of Con-
naught is GALWAY; it is bounded on the
north by Roscommon and Mayo, on the
east by Tipperary and King's County, on the
south by Clare and Galway Bay,.and on the
west by the Atlantic Ocean. The capital town
is Galway; and many travellers have been
much struck with its resemblance to a Spanish


town. Galway was in early times a famous
trading port with Spain; a country to the
south of the continent of Europe. Several
Spanish families settled here; and this may
account for the style of the buildings being
so different to that of any other town in
Ireland. Mr. Inglis, a traveller, who has
written an account of his visit to Ireland,
said that he found here even more to remind
him of Spain than he had been led to expect:
-wide entries and broad stairs, as in Cadiz
and Malaga; arched gateways with outer and
inner railings, and a little sliding wicket in
several doorways peculiar to that country.
There is a manufacture of marble at Galway,
which I must mention. That marble which is
obtained near the town is black. The quarries
are on the banks of Lough Corrib. Some
of the blocks are very large. The first pro-
cess in obtaining the marble is that of strip-
ping, as it is called; for the marble does not
lie at the surface, but is embedded in rocks
of limestone, sometimes two or three feet
thick; this is done by aid of gunpowder, and
called blasting the rock. When the rubbish
is removed, the marble is easily got at. It
lies as smooth and even as a table, and in
slabs of different thickness. This is not
the only kind of marble found in Connaught.

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