Citation
Battles of England : showing the cause, conduct, and issue of every battle from 1066 to the present day

Material Information

Title:
Battles of England : showing the cause, conduct, and issue of every battle from 1066 to the present day
Creator:
Sanderson, C.
Bradbury & Evans.
Publisher:
Bradbury and Evans
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
45 p. : charts ; 19 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Literature for Children
History, Military -- Juvenile literature -- Great Britain
Baldwin -- 1863.
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London.
England -- London.

Notes

General Note:
Electronic version available on the World Wide Web as part of the PALMM Project "Preservation and Access for American and British Children's
Funding:
Brittle Books Program
Funding:
Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1850-1869 (NEH PA-23536-00).
Funding:
Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in Special Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries
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This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
026945159 ( aleph )
AAA4580 ( notis )
ALH7500 ( notis )
48224618 ( oclc )
48224627 ( oclc )
51223921 ( oclc )

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Full Text
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BATTLES OF ENGLAND.







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BATTLES OF ENGLAND.

SHOWING THE

| CAUSE, CONDUCT, AND ISSUE OF EVERY BATTLE

FROM 1066 TO THE PRESENT DAY.

COMPILED EXPRESSLY FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS.

By C. SANDERSON, L.C.P.

LONDON:
BRADBURY AND EVANS, 11, BOUVERIE STREET.
1863.



LONDON !
BRADBURY AND EVANS, PRINTERS, WHITEFRIARS.



THE SIX PERIODS OF ENGLISH HISTORY.



1.—ROMAN PERIOD.
From s.c. 52. To av. 426.

Including a period of 481 years.

2.—ANGLO-SAXON PERIOD.

From a.p. 449. To A.D. 827.
Including a period of 378 years.

3.—ANGLO-SAXON MONARCHY.

From a.D. 827, To ap. 1016.
Including a period of 189 years.

4.-ENGLAND UNDER THE DANES.
From a.p. 1016. To a.p. 1042.

Including a period of 26 years.



THE SIX PERIODS OF ENGLISH HISTORY.

5.—SAXON DYNASTY RESTORED.
- From a.p. 1042. To a.pv. 1066.

Including a period of 24 years.

6.—NORMAN PERIOD.

From A.D. 1066. To the present day.



LINES OF ENGLISH SOVEREIGNS SINCE
THE NORMAN CONQUEST.

conning

1—THE NORMANS.

The Normans were descended from Rollo, duke of Normandy
(N. France).

2—THE PLANTAGENETS.

The Plantagenets were descended from Matilda (daughter of

Henry I.) and Geoffrey Martel, count of Anjou (W. France).

3.—THE LANCASTRIANS.

The Lancastrians were descended from John of Gaunt, or
Ghent (E. Flanders), duke of Lancaster, third son of Edward III.

4.—THE YORKISTS.

The Yorkists were descended from Lionel, duke of Clarence,
second son of Edward III.
B2



4 SOVEREIGNS SINCE THE NORMAN CONQUEST.

5—THE TUDORS.

The Tudors were descended from Margaret, great grand-daughter
of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, third son of Edward II.

Margaret’s son, Owen Tudor, married Catherine, widow of Henry
V.; their son, Edmund Tudor, earl of Richmond, was the father of
Henry VII.

6.—THE STUARTS.

The Stuarts were descended from Henry VII.’s eldest daughter,
Margaret, who married James IV., king of Scotland ; their son was
James V.; he was succeeded by his daughter Mary; Mary married
Henry Stuart, earl Darnley ; their son was James I. of England,
and VI. of Scotland.

7.—HOUSE OF HANOVER.

The House of Hanover or Brunswick is descended from James
1.’s_ eldest daughter, Elizabeth, who married Frederic, count
palatine of the Rhine, and ex-king of Bohemia ; their daughter
Sophia, married Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover, or

Brunswick : their eldest son was our George I.














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MONARCH.

William I.
William IT.

Henry I.

Stephen I. .

Henry IT.

Richard I. .

John .,
Henry III.

Edward I.
Edward II.

Edward III. .

Richard II.

|
|
|
| 1272

SOVEREIGNS OF ENGLAND.

DATE OF
ACCESSION.

1066
1087

- | 00

. 1135

1154
1189
1199

1216

1307
1327
1377

es
NORMANS.
DURATION OF
REIGN. CONSORT.

21 years | Matilda, daughter ofthe earl of Flanders
13 ,,

Matilda, daughter of Malcolm, king of
an, Scotland, and grand- daughter of Ed- .

| mund Ironsides
BLOIS.
19 years | nes daughter of the count of Bou-
ogne _
PLANTAGENET.

35 years | Hleanor of Guienne. (W. France) .
ay. Berengaria of Navarre. (N. Spain)
Tw Isabel of Angouléme. (W. France)
ee Eleanor of Provence. (S8.H. France)
35 5, Eleanor of Castile. (Spain).
70 Isabel, daughter of Philip IV. of Peviise
wy Philippa of Hainault. (Belgium)
a Anne of Luxemburg. (Belgium)



NOTED CONTEMPORARIES.

———_— + -———

ee,



FRANCE. ScOTLAND. MEN oF NOTE. ee

|

Tw Shy ae er ects tee ee eee

mei, . . | Malcolm III. | Lanfranc, archbishop of Canterbury. |
Peter the Hermit. Godfrey of Bou- |

‘ illon,

Louis VI. | o Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury. |
|

Me WAL... ot uses de I es | Geoffrey of Monmouth.

; . | WilliamtheLion Becket. Breakspeare.
Phil n , te ees ; . . .| Robi Hood.
Alexander II. . Robert Fitzwalter. Steph. Langton.

Louis VILL. and IX. | Alexander III. bie of Pembroke and Leicester.

| Roger Bacon.
Philip II. and IV. .| . ; ‘ | Llewellyn. Bruce. Balliol.
Philip V. CharlesIV. | Robert Bruce | Gayeston. Spencer. William Tell.
Philip VI. and John. | David II. 4 Chaucer. W. Manny.
Charles VI... .| Robert II.. 7 W. Tyler. John Wickliffe.





| MoNARCH.

Henry IY.
Henry V. .

Henry VI.

Edward IV. .
Edward V.

Richard III.

Henry VI1.

Henry VIII.

Edward VI. .

Mary I.

Hlizabeth

James I.
Charles I.

ee



SOVEREIGNS OF ENGLAND.

DATE OF
ACCESSION.

1399
1413

1422

1461
1483

1483

1485

1509

1547

1553

1558

1603

— 1625





oT

|

DURATION OF

LANCASTRIANS.

Rerex CoNSORT.



14 years | Mary de Bohun. Jane of Navarre

9 Catherine, See of Charles VI. of
i France.

MargaretofAnjou CW. Fewice), daughter

os of René, — of Sicily

YORKISTS.

22 years | Elizabeth Woodville
9 months

iss Mec “daughter - the at of

Sycars Warwick

TUDORS.

24 years | Elizabeth, daughter of Edward IV.

Catherine of Arragon (E. Spain). Anne
Boleyn. Jane Seymour. ne of
” Cleves (Germany). Catherme How-

ard. Catherine Parr : : :

6 33

5 Philip, son to os V. —— of
" Germany .

45 5;

STUARTS.

Anne, daughter of the king of Denmark

Henrietta, ee of — bis #
France.

22 years
24 5,











FRANCE.

Charles VI.
Lf

| ! Sarlos VIL.

Louis XI.

-—-aienaeaateaateat— Ticats

~ Louis XT.
Trancis I.

Henry IT.

i}

tt Francis II. Charles | James VL, after-

| IX. Henry IU. wards James I.
Henry IV. of England .

Louis XITT.

| |

Louis XIV. . |

Pierles VIII.

NOTED CONTEMPORARIES.

_ ScoTLAND

; MEN oF NOTE.

Robert ITI.

James I.

e °
cst hig atl cenit le

James IT.

. | James Tir.

James LV.

James V. .

|
|
|
|
Mary

a

a
|
Z

|

Lt
|
|
:

Owen Glendower. Henry Percy.
Gascoigne. Whittington.
Walsingham.
§ Nevil, earl of Warwick. L. Coster.
| t Joan of Are.
Caxton.

Columbus. Vesputius. Cabot. Diaz.

Wolsey. Cranmer. Luther. Calvin.
Raphael. Copernicus. Gustavus
Vasa. ,

Kd. Seymour. ss ohn Dudley, duke
of Northumberland.

Cranmer. Latimer. Hooper. Ridley.
Cardinal Pole.

John Knox. Shakespeare. Ben Jon-
son. Spenser. Drake. Hawkins.
Sir Philip Sydney. Sir Thomas
Gresham. Camoens. Tasso.



FE’, Bacon.
Hampden.

W. Raleigh. Cervantes.
Vandyke. Rubens.

|



© Rene Re te SSE AIAGEET at East bs Serta. ern AY ch



| DATE OF
NARCH.
Monarc ACCESSION.

10 SOVEREIGNS OF ENGLAND.

Interregnum :
Cromwell, Pro- 1649
tector

Charles IT. | 1660
James. ... | 1685
William ITT. and |
Mary . . | —
|
Anne . a | 1702
|
George I. - | 1714
George IT. . «| 1727
George ITI. | 1760
George lV. . . | 1820
William IV. . | -1830
Victoria I. | 1837

DURATION OF
REIGN.



CONSORT.

11 years | Elizabeth Bouchier
3. Catherine, Infanta of Portugal ‘
4 Anne Hyde, daughter of the earl of
e Clarendon. Marie of Modena .
13 9
A ntiny Prince George of Denmark .
HANOVERIANS.
13 years | Sophia, grand-daughter of James I.
$a, Caroline of Anspach. (Germany) .
60 ,, Charlotte of Mecklenburg. (Hanover) .
a Caroline of Brunswick. (Hanover)

be
é

Adelaide of Saxe Coburg. (Germany).
Albert of Saxe Coburg. :





NOTED CONTEMPORARIES. 11



FRANCE. MEN OF NOTE.



Louis XIV. . .| Van'Tromp. Blake. Milton. Harvey. Inigo Jones.

. .| Monk. Hyde (lord Clarendon). Christopher Wren.
t . | James duke of Monmouth.

Sir Robert Boyle. John Dryden. Elias Ashmole.

-( John Churchill (duke of Marlborough). Sir Cloudesley
Shovel. Sir George Rooke. Charles Mordaunt (lord

Peterborough). Sir Isaac Newton. Steele. Addison.
Pope.

Louis XV... 4 The Pretender. Sir R. Walpole. De Foe. Dr. Watts.
Pitt. Anson. Wolfe. Clive. Hans Sloane. Hogarth.

{LouisXVI. Napoleon | Wellington. Abercrombie. Nelson. Moore. Captain
( I. Louis XVIII. . Cooke. Byron.

Charles X. . . .| Sir Walter Scott. Sir Thomas Lawrance.
Louis Philippe . . | Wilberforce. Astley Cooper. Kean. Mrs. Siddons.
Napoleon III. . .| Sir Robert Peel. Dickens. Brunel. Colin Campbell.

ent ee nen eee tt nt EL







BATTLES.

BATTLE OF HASTINGS,
Coast oF Sussex, 8S. ENGLAND, |

Fought between William, duke of Normandy, and
Harold, king of England, in consequence of William’s
~ claim to the throne, which he declared had been left
him by Edward the Confessor. In this battle Harold
was slain, William obtained a decided victory, and
was immediately acknowledged king of England.
Oct. 1066. :

CIVIL WARS,

Between Stephen, grandson of William I., and Matilda,
daughter of Henry I. Henry I. left the crown of
England to his only surviving child, Matilda; her
cousin Stephen opposing her accession, civil war ensued.
After many years of bloodshed it was agreed that
Stephen should retain the throne during his life, and



14 BATTLES.

that at his death, Henry, Matilda’s son, should succeed.
1135—1150.

BATTLE OF LEWES,

SUSSEX.

In the reign of Henry III., the barons, displeased at
the king’s partiality to foreigners, revolted; they were
headed by Simon de Montfort (earl of Leicester). The
armies met at Lewes, where the king and his son
Kdward were taken prisoners. 1264,

BATTLE OF EVESHAM,
WORCESTER.
Prince Edward, son to Henry IIL, escaped from
prison a few months after the battle of Lewes, collected

an army, defeated Montfort (earl of Leicester), and
replaced Henry III. on the throne. 1265,

BATTLE OF FALKIRK,

STIRLING, SCOTLAND.

The Scotch, weary of the yoke imposed on them by
Edward I. of England, rose in arms under William



BATTLES. 15

Wallace: the contest lasted eight years, with various
successes. In the engagement at Falkirk the Scots
were defeated, and Edward obtained the victory. 1297.

BATTLE OF BANNOCKBURN,

STIRLING, SCOTLAND.

After the death of Edward I., Robert Bruce suc-
ceeded in establishing himself on the throne of Scotland,
and had almost entirely expelled the English from that
country, when Edward II. resolved to make another
effort for its subjugation. The engagement took place
on the banks of the Bannock ; Bruce, with an army far
inferior in number to that of the English, gained a
complete victory, by which the Scottish crown was
secured to him and his descendants. June 25,1314.

HALIDOWN HILL,
NoRTHUMBERLAND.

The English nobles, wishing to regain the Scottish
lands of which they had been dispossessed in the reign of
Edward II., placed themselves under the command of
Edward Baliol and invaded Scotland by land and sea;
the Scots were defeated and Baliol crowned king at



16 | BATTLES.

Scone. He and Edward III. then formed a treaty of
alliance ; but hostilities were soon renewed, and Edward
led a large army to the Scottish border. ‘The earl of
Moray (regent during the minority of David IT.) ad-
vanced to meet him: after a desperate struggle the
Scots were totally routed, and 30,000, including the
regent, left dead on the field. July 19, 13383.

NEVILLE’S CROSS,

DuRHAM, N. ENGLAND.

David II., king of Scotland, taking advantage of
Edward III.’s absence, led a large army into England ;
Queen Philippa marched against him, and at a place
called Neville’s Cross, vanquished his army, and took
him prisoner. “ 1346.

CRESSY,

Somme, N. FRANCE.

Edward III. declared himself heir to the throne of
France, in right of his mother, Isabella, daughter of
Philip IV. ‘To enforce his claim he landed at La Hogue
(Normandy), with an army amounting to 32,000 men;
Philip VI., the reigning king of France, assembled a
large force to oppose him; the armies met on the plain



BATTLES, 17

of Cressy, where Edward gained a complete victory.
Among the slain on the French side was the king of
Bohemia, whose motto, ‘Ich Dien” (I serve), was
adopted by the Black Prince in commemoration of
the battle. It is said that cannons were first used in
this engagement. Aug. 25, 1346;

POICTIERS,
W. FRANCE.

At the expiration of the ten years’ truce, which
followed the battle of Cressy, Edward IIT. renewed his
claim to the French crown. His army, of 12,000 men,
under the command of the Black Prince, encountered
the French, amounting to 60,000 men, at Poictiers ;
the English gained a complete victory, and the French
king, John the Good, was vanquished and taken prisoner.

1356.

BATTLE OF SHREWSBURY,
, , W. ENGLAND. | a
The earl of Northumberland had greatly assisted
Henry IV. in obtaining the throne of England; but

considering that his services were insufficiently re-
Cc



18 BATTLES.

warded, he formed a conspiracy with Owen Glendower,
a Welsh nobleman, and Douglas, a Scotch nobleman,
im order to dethrone Henry, and place Edmund
Mortimer, earl of March, a descendant of Lionel, son
to Edward III., on the throne. Henry encountered the
rebels at Shrewsbury ; the earl of Northumberland was
defeated, his son Harry Hotspur slain, and the brave
Douglas taken prisoner. July 21, 1408.

BATTLE OF AGINCOURT,

Artois, N. FRANCE.

In a.p. 1415 France was in a most distressed con-
dition, owing to the civil war between the partisans of
the dukes of Orleans and Burgundy. These princes
were contending for the regency during the insanity of
the king, Charles VJ. Henry V. thought it a favourable
moment to renew the claim made by his predecessors
to the French crown; he landed with an immense army
at Harfleur (N. France), and proceeded as far as Agin-
court, where he found a French army, five times more
numerous than his own, drawn up to oppose him: the
engagement lasted but three hours, and terminated in
the total defeat of the French, whose slain are computed
at 10,000. After the battle of Agincourt, a treaty was



BATTLES, 19

formed between the English and French, in which it was
agreed that Henry should marry Catherine, daughter of
_ Charles VI., be regent of France during that king’s
lifetime, and at his death succeed to the throne.

@® Oct. 25, 1415.

“WARS OF THE ROSES.

In 1454 Richard, duke of York, descended from
Lionel, second son of Edward III., asserted his claim
to the English throne, then possessed by Henry VI., a
prince whose general incapacity made him unfit to
govern. Richard’s cause soon found its partisans, and
the country was involved in a civil war, which lasted
sixteen years. The principal engagements were:
Ist, St. Alban’s (Hertfordshire); 2, Northampton; 38,
Towton (Yorkshire); 4, Barnet (Hertfordshire) ;
‘Tewkesbury (Gloucestershire). In the last the Lancas-
trians were finally defeated, 1471. Henry VI. who |
had been confined as a prisoner in the Tower, was
found dead the next morning, and Edward, duke of
York (son of the former claimant), who had been pro-
claimed king in 1461, remained in undisputed oll
session of the throne.



20 BATTLES.

BATTLE OF BOSWORTH.

~~ Richard IIL. had committed many crimes in order to
secure to himself the English crown, of which: he had
retained possession but two years, when an insurrection
broke out, headed by Henry Tudor, earl of Richmond,
last male descendant of the house of Lancaster, An
engagement took place at Bosworth, Leicestershire, in
which Richard III. was slain, and Henry Tudor ‘pro-
claimed king by the title of Henry VII., 1485. The
battle of Bosworth terminated the civil wars of the
Roses, which had lasted for thirty years, and in which
one hundred thousand persons (most of them nobles)
are computed to have fallen.

BATTLE OF STOKE.
| Edward IV.’s brother, the duke of Clarence, left a
son who took the title of earl of Warwick. This prince
was kept close prisoner in the Tower by Henry VII.,
who feared his asserting his claim to the English
throne. In 1487 a rumour was spread that Warwick
had escaped: a youth, named Lambert Simnell, of
common parentage but engaging demeanor, was in-
structed to personate him, and by right of descent to



BATTLES. 21

claim the crown. Simnell’s pretensions were acknow-
ledged in Ireland, and he was crowned at Dublin
as Edward VI. He then crossed to England, and
advanced as far as Stoke, Nottinghamshire, where
Henry VII. gave him battle. The rebel army was
defeated, Simnelh taken prisoner and condemned to the
office of scullion in the king’s kitchen, 1487. The earl
of Warwick was detained a prisoner for fifteen years.
In 1499 he was beheaded on ‘Tower Hill.

BATTLE OF SPURS.

In 1513 Henry VIII. invaded France, and laid siege
to Thérouenne (Artois, N. France). Louis XII. marched
to its relief: his troops came in sight of the English
at a place called Guinegate (N. France), when, seized
by a sudden panic, they fled without striking a blow.
Thérouenne surrendered: a few days afterwards Henry
took Tournay. ‘The rout at: Guinegate is, from the
hasty retreat of the French cavalry, ironically called the
Battle of the sore 1618.



22 BATTLES.

BATTLE OF FLODDEN FIELD,
NoRTH OF NoRTHUMBERLAND.

During Henry’s French campaign, James IV. of
Scotland, an ally of Louis XII., invaded England, and
after taking several castles, encamped on the hill of
Flodden. The earl of Surrey advanced to meet him ; the
battle is said to have occupied but one hour: it ended
in the total defeat of the Scots, who lost ten thousand
men, among whom were their king, the archbishop of
St. Andrews, two bishops, two abbots, twelve earls,
thirteen barons, and fifty gentlemen of distinction.
Surrey was rewarded with the title of duke of Norfolk.

1518,

BATTLE OF SOLWAY MOSS,
CUMBERLAND. Noy. 24, 1542.

Henry VIII. desired a personal interview with his
nephew, James V. of Scotland, whom he wished to
adopt similar means for the furtherance of the Reformed
doctrines in the Scottish realm as had been used in
England. ,

A meeting was appointed at York, 1541; but James,
influenced by his queen and the clergy, refused to



BATTLES. 23

attend. This so offended Henry, that he declared war

against. Scotland. The followmg year an English army,
under the duke of Norfolk, advanced to the North: at
Solway Moss it was met by a body of 10,000 Scots,
who fled panic struck at sight of the English. This
defeat is said to have caused James’s death, which
happened three weeks afterwards. Dec. 14,1542.

BATTLE OF PINKIE,

MUSSELBURGH, EDINBURGH.

Somerset, protector of England during the minority
of Edward VI., advanced with a large army and fleet
against Scotland, for the purpose of compelling the
Scots to assent to the marriage of their young queen
Mary, daughter of James V., with Edward VI. of
England. Somerset gained a decisive victory Sept. 10,
1547; but his immediate recall to England prevented
him following up his success. ‘The marriage was never
effected, the infant queen being sent the following year
to France, where she was betrothed to the Dauphin,
afterwards Francis II.



24 BATTLES,

LOSS OF CALAIS,
| N, France,

Calais had remained in possession of the English since
its conquest by Edward III., av. 1347. It was kept
strongly fortified and well garrisoned until the reign of
Mary, when these necessary precautions seem to have
been neglected. The duke of Guise, general of the
French army, being informed of its defenceless state,
determined to attempt its recovery; he attacked it by
sea and land, the English governor, lord Wentworth,
was obliged to surrender, and Guise within a week
regained the fortress which for two hundred years had
been considered as impregnable. Jan. 7, 1558.

SPANISH ARMADA.

In the reign of Elizabeth no amicable feeling existed
between the courts of England and Spain. Philip IL,
king of the latter country, considered himself deeply
aggrieved by Elizabeth, who had refused him her hand
in marriage, assisted his discontented Protestant subjects
in the Netherlands, and permitted the execution of
Mary, Queen of Scots. To avenge these insults, humble
the growing power of England, and re-establish Papacy



BATTLES. 2D

within her realm, he prepared the immense armament
styled the Invincible Armada. : |

“The Spanish fleet sailed from the Tagus, May 29th.
It consisted of 180 ships, carrying 19,000 soldiers,
8000 seamen, and 2000 galley slaves; its commander
was the duke of Medina Sidonia. ‘The prince of Parma
had collected in the Netherlands a land force of 30,000
to be transported to the coast of England. Immense
efforts were made in England to collect men and ships
adequate to repel the threatened danger; our whole
fleet numbered but 181 ships, manned by 17,472
seamen: an army of 36,000 men was assembled for the
guard of the queen’s person, another of 30,000 was
stationed at Tilbury; but our chief confidence lay in
the skill and courage of the commanders. Howard of
Effingham, Drake, Hawkins, and Frobisher, directed the
naval, Huntsdon and Leicester the land operations.

The progress of the Spanish fleet was delayed by
storms, and it was not until the 19th of July that it
entered the English Channel. It proceeded to Calais,
there to await the embarkation of the troops in the
transports prepared to receive them,—the English had
followed the Armada and taken or disabled several of
its ships; and directly it cast anchor near Calais,
Effingham sent five ships into the midst .of it: the



26 BATTLES.

Spaniards in terror cut their cables and dispersed ; the
English fell on them, and the following morning a storm
came on, and drove them among the shoals and sands
of Zealand. The duke de Medina finding his fleet
completely shattered, resolved to return to Spain: to
avoid the channel he proposed to go round by Scotland.
The Armada set sail; the English pursued as far as_
Flamborough Head, where want of ammunition forced
_ them to give up the chase; storms assailed the Armada
in its progress, several ships were wrecked on the Irish
coast, and the crews treated with barbarous cruelty.
The total loss of the Spaniards was 30 large ships,
and 10,000 men.

Philip received the intelligence with equanimity,—
Elizabeth with the utmost joy: she went in state to
St. Paul’s to return thanks, and caused medals to he
struck with a fleet wrecked by a tempest on one side,
and on the reverse these words written, “‘ He blew with
His winds and they were scattered.’ May—August,
1588.

CIVIL WAR.

‘Charles I. was too anxious to extend the royal
prerogative to recognise the privileges and liberties of
the people. ‘The frequent dissolution of Parliament,



BATTLES. 27

the illegal levy of taxes, the arbitrary measures of the
Star Chamber, exasperated the Commons to rise in
open rebellion. Their leaders were Oliver Cromwell,
sir Henry Vane, lord Essex, sir Thomas Fairfax, Pym,
Hampden, and Oliver St. John; this party received the
name of Parliamentarians or Roundheads; the king’s
party, comprising the chief nobility and gentry of the
kingdom, was known by that of the Royalists or
Cavaliers.

The principal engagements were :

Edge Hill, Warwickshire, Oct. 23, 1642. Both sides
claimed the victory, but the royalists are thought to
have had the advantage.

Chalgrove Field (near Oxford), June 18, 1643. A
skirmish in which the royalists were victorious, and
Hampden, a parliamentarian leader, fell.

Marston Moor (Yorkshire), July 2, 1644. The
parliamentarians entirely victorious. ,

Naseby (Northamptonshire), June 14, 1645. The
victory of the Parliament army was complete; four
thousand five hundred royalists were taken prisoners ;
the king fled: he made many efforts to retrieve his
misfortune, but no success attending them, he’ surren-
dered, 1646, to the Scotch army, stationed at Newark.
He was afterwards sold to the Parliament for 400,000Z.,



28 , BATTLES.

and by it arraigned, tried, and convicted as a tyrant,
traitor, murderer, and a public enemy to the Common-
wealth of England: he was sentenced to death, and was
beheaded i in front of Whitehall (Westminster), Tuesday,
Jan, 30, 1649 —aged 49.

_ DUNBAR,
HADDINGTON, ‘=. SCOTLAND.

Charles II. was, at the on of his father’s execution,
residing at the Hague; he was immediately proclaimed
king in Ireland and Scotland; and in both countries
the people prepared to maintain his right by force of
arms. Cromwell marched against Ireland, compelled
the inhabitants to submit to his authority, and then,
leaving Ireton in command, hastened to Scotland, where
Charles was reigning under the title of Charles II.
Cromwell attacked the Scots at Dunbar; 3000 fell,
10,000 were made prisoners ; the artillery, ammunition
and baggage were taken by the English; and all the
country south of the Forth submitted to. Cromwell.
Sept. 3, 1650. |



BATTLES. id

WORCESTER,
W. ENGLAND.

Charles despairing of offering any effectual resistance
to Cromwell’s success in Scotland, determined to march
into England. He left Stirling at the head of 14,000
men, entered England at Carlisle, and reached Wor-
cester, where he was proclaimed king. The intelli-
gence of his arrival caused much consternation; but
Cromwell soon advanced against him at the head of
80,000 men; after five hours’ hard fighting Charles was
thoroughly defeated; 8000 of his party were: slain,
10,000 taken prisoners: it was with the greatest
difficulty that Charles effected his escape. In speaking
of this battle, Cromwell said: ‘This has been a
clorious mercy, and as ee a contest for four or five
hours, as ever I have seen.’ Sept. 3, 1651.

BATTLE OF SEDGEMOOR,

SOMERSETSHIRE, W. ENGLAND.

In 1685 James, duke of Monmouth, natural son of
Charles II., asserted his claim to the English Crown—
then possessed by James IJ. Monmouth was defeated
at Sedgemoor ; he escaped from the field, but was



30 BATTLES.

afterwards captured in the disguise of a peasant, and
executed on Tower Hill, July 5, 1685.

BATTLE OF THE BOYNE,

LEINSTER, IRELAND.

James II. retired after his dethronement to France,
where he was hospitably received by Louis XIV., who
interested himself warmly in his behalf, and made
repeated efforts both by sea and land to replace him on
the throne of his ancestors. In 1689 James quitted
France with the troops raised in support of his cause,
and proceeded .to Ireland, which still owned his authority.
His forces encountered those of William on the banks of
the river Boyne, July 1, 1690; both sides fought with
bravery, but the engagement terminated in William’s
favour. James fled to Dublin, thence to Duncannon,
where he embarked on board a French vessel, which
conveyed him to Brest (N.W. France). July 10, 1690.

BATTLE OF LA HOGUE,
N. Coast oF FRANCE.

In the spring of 1692 James, aided by Louis XIV.,
prepared to again invade England. His troops, to the



BATTLES. 31

number of 15,000 men, embarked at La Hogue, where
ships were in readiness to convey them across the
channel. The English and Dutch fleets immediately put
to sea: the engagement commenced off Cape Barfleur
(N. France), May 19th, on which, as on the two
following days, the combined forces of England and
Holland were entirely victorious, most of the French
ships being either burnt or driven aground. 1692.

WAR OF SUCCESSION.

Charles II. king of Spain being childless, France,
Austria, and Bavaria, agreed to divide amongst them, at
his death, his immense dominions. Charles, archduke
‘of Austria, was to have for his share, Spain, the Indies,
and the Netherlands; but the king was induced on his
death-bed to bequeath all his possessions to Philip,
grandson to Louis XIV., and the latter, although he
had on his marriage with the Infanta, solemnly
renounced all claim to the Spanish succession for
himself and heirs, allowed Philip to accept the bequest.
This breach of faith, and the continued support given
to the Pretender, led to the formation of the League
between the English, the Dutch, and the Emperor, for
crushing the growing power of France, and preventing



32 BATTLES,

the union of France and Spain under one government.
The English took the lead, and, under Marlborough,
gained the victories of Blenheim (Germany, 1704),
Ramillies (Netherlands, 1706), Malplaquet (Netherlands,
1709). The war was brought. to a close by the treaty
of Utrecht (Holland), by which the crown of Spain was
secured to Louis’ grandson, Philip, duke of Anjou, on
condition of his renouncing his claim to that of France.
April 14, 1713.

PRESTON,

Lak CASHIRE, N. ENGLAND.

In 1715 many people were discontented with the
government of George I.; they wished to place on the’
throne the son of James im the Chevalier St. George,
commonly called the Pretender, who had again asserted
his claims. The rebels mustered their forces, amount-
ing to 10,000 men, in Scotland; they proceeded to
England, and advanced successfully till they reached
Preston, where they were met by a strong body of the
king’s troops, and compelled to surrender. Nov. 12,

1715.



BATTLES. 33

DUMBLAIN, OR SHERIFF MUIR,

PERTH, SCOTLAND.

This battle occurred on the same day as the sur-
render at Preston between the English under the duke
of Argyle, and the Scots under the earl of Mar. Both
sides claimed the victory, but the duke of Argyle had
all the fruits of it. Nov. 12, 1715.

DETTINGEN,

GERMANY.

Charles VI., emperor of Germany, left his dominions
to his daughter, Maria Theresa, whose claims most of
the European sovereigns had promised to support in
case of their being disputed. As soon as Charles was
dead, Frederic II., king of Prussia, attempted to rob .
Maria Theresa of a part of her possessions. A civil war,
termed the Silesian war, arose, in which the French
sided with Frederic, the English with Maria Theresa.
The allied armies of England and Austria encountered
the French at Dettingen, a village on the banks of the
Mayn; the French were defeated with great loss. In
this battle George II. and his son fought in person.
June, 1743.

D



34 ; BATTLES.

CULLODEN,

INVERNESS, SCOTLAND.

In 1745 prince Charles Edward, called the young
Pretender, grandson of James II., raised a rebellion in
Scotland, where the Jacobites were numerous, and the
Hanoverian government very unpopular. He _ pro-
claimed his father king at Perth, defeated the troops of
George II. at Preston Pans (Haddington, Scotland), and
then advanced into England, as far as Derby, where he
expected to be jomed by more troops; but in this he
was disappointed, and hearing that two armies of
royalists were in his rear, he retreated with all haste
into Scotland ; he was followed closely by the duke of
Cumberland, George II.’s son, at the head of the royal
army. At Falkirk (Stirling), he gained a victory over a
- portion of the king’s troops ; he then moved northwards
to Inverness, and reached Culloden, where hearing that
the duke was approaching he prepared for battle; the
forces were very unequal, the Pretender’s amounting to
but 4000 men. ‘The battle is said to have lasted but
half an hour; it ended im the total defeat of the
Pretender, and the extinction of the hopes of the exiled
family. April 10, 1746.



BATTLES. 35

SEVEN YEARS’ WAR.

In the reign of George II., the English and French
had extensive settlements in North America; the French
possessed Louisiana and Canada, which they wished to
connect by a chain of forts, thereby cutting the
English off from the great lakes, and from the valleys
of the Mississippi and the Ohio. This and other causes
of offence gave rise to a war which broke out in 1756;
it eventually involved the whole of Europe, and was
terminated by the treaty of Paris, signed 1763. In
North America the war was at first unfavourable to the
English, but in 1759 the whole of Canada fell into
their hands, and the French power was destroyed in
that part of the American continent. In the contest
General Wolfe, the English commander, lost his life; he
fell in the moment of victory at the siege of Quebec.
September 13, 1759.

WAR OF INDEPENDENCE,
N. AMERICA.

This war was caused by an attempt made by the

English government to impose taxes on the North
D2



36 BATTLES.

American colonists, who, it was thought, ought to bear
a share of the national expenses in return for the
protection afforded them by the mother country. An
Act (called the Stamp Act) was accordingly passed by
Mr. Grenville, prime minister to George III., for
stamping their newspapers, &c., as they were stamped
in England ; this met with such opposition that it was
withdrawn, but other duties, such as those on tea, &c.,
were enforced. ‘Thirteen of the colonies formed a union
with a view of resisting these measures, and in 1775
England declared war against America. The English
generals were Howe, Burgoyne, Clinton and Corn-
wallis; the Americans were commanded by George
Washington. The first battle occurred at Bunker’s
Hill, near Boston, Massachusetts; the Americans were
defeated July 17,1775. The war lasted eight years,
and was terminated by a treaty of peace signed at
Versailles, September 3, 1783; by this treaty the De-
claration of Independence, published by the American
Congress in 1776, was acknowledged, and America was
separated from England.



BATTLES. 37

THE BATTLE OF THE NILE,
AFRICA.

After Louis XVI. of France was guillotined, Napoleon
Bonaparte was at the head of affairs in that country.
He was an ambitious man, and aimed at the sovereignty
of Europe. In 1798 he went to Egypt, whence it was his
intention to proceed to the English dominions in India ;
Lord Nelson followed him, and at Aboukir Bay gained
a signal victory over the French fleet. Aug. 1, 1798.

ALEXANDRIA,
N. Eoypr.
The French still kept possession of Egypt. In 1801
a British force was sent to expel them from that
country ; it effected its purpose, though with the loss of
its brave commander, Sir Ralph Abercrombie, who was
mortally wounded in the engagement. March 21, 1801.

TRAFALGAR,

S. Spar,

In 1804 Bonaparte was proclaimed Emperor of
France; and many European countries, fearing his power



38 BATTLES.

or seeking his protection, formed alliances with him ;
amongst those who did so were Holland, Italy, Spain,
and Portugal: England remained hostile to him and
renewed her efforts to crush his growing power. In
1805 a powerful fleet, under the command of Nelson,
attacked the combined forces of France and Spain off
Cape Trafalgar; the English were completely victorious,
and the French navy was utterly destroyed. In this
engagement Nelson was mortally wounded by a ball
from the enemy’s ships; he expired shortly afterwards
on board the “ Victory:” his last words were, ‘ 'Thank
God, I have done my duty.” October 21, 1805.

PENINSULAR WAR.

This war commenced in 1808 and terminated in the
overthrow of Napoleon, who, at its outburst, had
dominion over nearly all the continent of Kurope. In
1807 he subdued Portugal, whence the royal family
fled to Brazil. He summoned the king of Spain to
France, where he obliged him to resign his crown,
which he immediately bestowed on his brother Joseph ;
but the Spaniards, exasperated by the cruelties com-
mitted by the French, and indignant at the insult
offered their nation, prepared to resist their oppressors,



BATTLES. 39

and implored the assistance of England in the coming
struggle. The hero of the Peninsular War was Sir
Arthur Wellesley, under whom an immense force was
despatched from England to render the desired co-
operation with the Spanish arms. In Nov. 1808, Sir
John Moore, commander of the British forces in
Portugal, led his troops to the north of Spain, to join an
expedition from England ; he reached Corunna, Jan. 11,
1809 ; here he was attacked by a superior French force
under Marshal Soult. In the engagement which ensued
_ the English were victorious; but Moore fell. He was
buried the night following on the ramparts of Corunna,
January 16, 1809. ‘The other engagements in the
Peninsular War were those which occurred at Talavera,
1809 ; Cadiz, 1811; Badajos, 1811; Salamanca, 1812 ;
Vittoria, 1813; in all of which the English arms were
victorious. Napoleon’s power rapidly declined, and
in 1814 he signed his abdication at Fontainebleau
(France), and retired to the island of Elba (Mediter-
ranean). Louis XVIII. was restored to the throne of
France, and a general peace was proclaimed.



40 BATTLES.

WATERLOO,

PROVINCE OF SOUTH BRABANT, BELGIUM.

In 1815 Bonaparte escaped from Elba and landed in
the south of France; Louis XVIII. fled from Paris, and
Bonaparte resumed the government without opposition ;
the allies immediately adopted the most vigorous means
to displace him; the English and Prussians were the
first in motion. ‘To prevent their entrance into France,
Bonaparte marched into the Netherlands with 150,000
men ; the armies met on the plains of Waterloo, where
the allied forces of England and Prussia, under their
commanders Wellington and Blucher, gained a signal ~
victory. June 18, 1815. |

NAVARINO,

S. W. Morea, GREECE.

After the establishment of the Ottoman Empire in
Europe, the Greeks were subject to the Turks, by
whom they were cruelly and despotically governed. For
a period of more than three hundred years they
submitted to the yoke of their oppressors, but in 1772,
the inhabitants of the Morea rose in rebellion, and,



BATTLES. 4}

although then unsuccessful, they made from time to
time renewed efforts to recover their mdependence.
Their cause at length attracted the attention of other
countries. England, France and Russia lent their aid,
and demanded of the Sultan of Turkey the mdepen-
dence of Greece ; this being refused, war was declared ;
in 1827 the allies defeated the Turkish fleet in the Bay
of Navarino, and two years afterwards the sultan was
compelled to relinquish his claim to Greece, which was
then erected into a kingdom, under Otho the Second,
son of the king of Bavaria. Sept 14, 1829.

CHINESE WAR.

This war was caused by the English importing into
China opium, a drug prohibited by the Chinese govern-
ment on account of its pernicious effects on the people,
who are passionately addicted to its use. An English
vessel laden with opium to the value of £3,000,000,
was seized by the Chinese; in revenge, the English
blockaded Canton; the Chinese were defeated: they
agreed to pay a large sum of money by way of indem-
nification, but violated the treaty directly the British
troops were withdrawn. Lord Gough then advanced to



42 BATTLES.

Nankin ; the Chinese again submitted and consented to
the conditions of a peace by which they agreed to pay
the expenses of the war, open the ports of Amoy,
Foochew, Ningpo, and Shanghae, release all British
prisoners, and yield to the English the island of Hong
Kong. 1842,

| AFFGHANISTAN WAR.

This war was caused by the usurpation of the throne
of Caboul by Dost Mahommed, in violation of the right
of Shah Soojah, the legitimate heir. The British,
fearing for the safety of their own possessions in India,
espoused the cause of Shah Soojah, and secured his
succession, A.D. 1839. Dost Mahommed fled. In 1840
he returned with a large army; he was again defeated,
and sent prisoner to Calcutta. Shah Soojah was never
popular with the native tribes, and was maintained
on his throne only by British authority. In 184]
the Affghans, headed by Akhbar Khan, son of Dost
Mahommed, rose in open rebellion; some English offi-
cers were murdered, others made prisoners: a treaty
was afterwards concluded, and the British forces pre-
pared to leave Caboul, having received promise of a



BATTLES. 43

safe pass to Jellalabad, their own territory. On their
way thither they were attacked by the Affghans in the
mountain passes; thousands were massacred, others
perished from cold and hunger ; so that of those who left
Caboul one alone reached Jellalabad. Shah Soojah was
soon afterwards assassinated, but the war still raged. In
1842 the British avenged their slaughtered countrymen
in a decisive victory gained at Jellalabad by General
Sale over Dost Mahommed. Two other memorable
engagements occurred in this war: one at Ghuznee,
where General Nott gained a decisive victory over the
natives, and reduced the city to ashes; and the other
at Moodkee, where General Sale, who lost his life in the
action, defeated 30,000 Sikhs, 1846.

The war of the Punjaub was caused by the ageres-
sions of the Sikhs (the natives of that part of India),
who made continual encroachments on the British ter-
ritories. The chief engagements were those at Aliwal,
Jan. 15th, 1846; Sobraon, Feb. 10th, 1846; Moultan,
1848; Chillianwallah, Jan. 1849; in all of which the
British, under Lord Gough, were completely victorious.
The following March the Sikhs surrendered uncon-
ditionally, and the Punjaub was annexed henceforth to
the British dominions, A.D. 1849,



44 BATTLES,

RUSSIAN WAR.
Nicholas [., Emperor of Russia, wished to add Turkey

to his dominions, and announced to the sultan of that
country, his intention of crossing the Danube and
possessing himself of the provinces on the other side.
The sultan having solicited and obtained the aid of
England and France, war was declared. An English
fleet, under Napier, was sent to block up the Baltic Sea ;
another commanded by Dundas, was stationed in the
Black Sea; the land forces sent to the Crimea were, at
the commencement of the war, commanded by Lord
Raglan on the English, and by Marshal St. Arnaud, on
the French side. The Russian general was Prince
Menschikoff. In the north the operations of the fleet
were delayed by the ice ; in the south the cholera made
fearful havoc among our troops, whose patience in
suffering was equalled only by their bravery in warfare.
The chief engagements were :

The capture of Bomarsund and Sionititind! =
1854-55.

The Battle of Alma, September 20th, 1854.

The Battle of Balaklava, October 25th, 1854.

The Battle of Inkerman, November 5th, 1854.

The Battle of Eupatoria, February 17th, 1855.



BATTLES. 45

Town of Sevastopol taken September 8, 1855.

In these engagements the allied armies of England
and France, aided by the Sardinians, who had joined
them in the second year of the war, were victorious,
though their loss of men through sickness and the
effects of the Russian climate was great; the Emperor
Nicholas died March 2, 1855. His successor Alex-
ander II., seemed inclined for peace, and the fol-
lowing year, 1856, this disastrous war was brought to
a close: the treaty of peace was signed at Paris
March 2, 1856. By it the Russians agreed to cede
to Turkey several provinces in Bessarabia, to have only
ten ships of war on the Black Sea, to allow free access
to the river Danube, and to cease from interfering with

the Turks.

THE END,

BRADBURY AND EVANS, FRINTERS, WHITEFRIARS.







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BATTLES OF ENGLAND.

—_ a a

BATTLES OF ENGLAND.

SHOWING THE

| CAUSE, CONDUCT, AND ISSUE OF EVERY BATTLE

FROM 1066 TO THE PRESENT DAY.

COMPILED EXPRESSLY FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS.

By C. SANDERSON, L.C.P.

LONDON:
BRADBURY AND EVANS, 11, BOUVERIE STREET.
1863.
LONDON !
BRADBURY AND EVANS, PRINTERS, WHITEFRIARS.
THE SIX PERIODS OF ENGLISH HISTORY.



1.—ROMAN PERIOD.
From s.c. 52. To av. 426.

Including a period of 481 years.

2.—ANGLO-SAXON PERIOD.

From a.p. 449. To A.D. 827.
Including a period of 378 years.

3.—ANGLO-SAXON MONARCHY.

From a.D. 827, To ap. 1016.
Including a period of 189 years.

4.-ENGLAND UNDER THE DANES.
From a.p. 1016. To a.p. 1042.

Including a period of 26 years.
THE SIX PERIODS OF ENGLISH HISTORY.

5.—SAXON DYNASTY RESTORED.
- From a.p. 1042. To a.pv. 1066.

Including a period of 24 years.

6.—NORMAN PERIOD.

From A.D. 1066. To the present day.
LINES OF ENGLISH SOVEREIGNS SINCE
THE NORMAN CONQUEST.

conning

1—THE NORMANS.

The Normans were descended from Rollo, duke of Normandy
(N. France).

2—THE PLANTAGENETS.

The Plantagenets were descended from Matilda (daughter of

Henry I.) and Geoffrey Martel, count of Anjou (W. France).

3.—THE LANCASTRIANS.

The Lancastrians were descended from John of Gaunt, or
Ghent (E. Flanders), duke of Lancaster, third son of Edward III.

4.—THE YORKISTS.

The Yorkists were descended from Lionel, duke of Clarence,
second son of Edward III.
B2
4 SOVEREIGNS SINCE THE NORMAN CONQUEST.

5—THE TUDORS.

The Tudors were descended from Margaret, great grand-daughter
of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, third son of Edward II.

Margaret’s son, Owen Tudor, married Catherine, widow of Henry
V.; their son, Edmund Tudor, earl of Richmond, was the father of
Henry VII.

6.—THE STUARTS.

The Stuarts were descended from Henry VII.’s eldest daughter,
Margaret, who married James IV., king of Scotland ; their son was
James V.; he was succeeded by his daughter Mary; Mary married
Henry Stuart, earl Darnley ; their son was James I. of England,
and VI. of Scotland.

7.—HOUSE OF HANOVER.

The House of Hanover or Brunswick is descended from James
1.’s_ eldest daughter, Elizabeth, who married Frederic, count
palatine of the Rhine, and ex-king of Bohemia ; their daughter
Sophia, married Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover, or

Brunswick : their eldest son was our George I.











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MONARCH.

William I.
William IT.

Henry I.

Stephen I. .

Henry IT.

Richard I. .

John .,
Henry III.

Edward I.
Edward II.

Edward III. .

Richard II.

|
|
|
| 1272

SOVEREIGNS OF ENGLAND.

DATE OF
ACCESSION.

1066
1087

- | 00

. 1135

1154
1189
1199

1216

1307
1327
1377

es
NORMANS.
DURATION OF
REIGN. CONSORT.

21 years | Matilda, daughter ofthe earl of Flanders
13 ,,

Matilda, daughter of Malcolm, king of
an, Scotland, and grand- daughter of Ed- .

| mund Ironsides
BLOIS.
19 years | nes daughter of the count of Bou-
ogne _
PLANTAGENET.

35 years | Hleanor of Guienne. (W. France) .
ay. Berengaria of Navarre. (N. Spain)
Tw Isabel of Angouléme. (W. France)
ee Eleanor of Provence. (S8.H. France)
35 5, Eleanor of Castile. (Spain).
70 Isabel, daughter of Philip IV. of Peviise
wy Philippa of Hainault. (Belgium)
a Anne of Luxemburg. (Belgium)
NOTED CONTEMPORARIES.

———_— + -———

ee,



FRANCE. ScOTLAND. MEN oF NOTE. ee

|

Tw Shy ae er ects tee ee eee

mei, . . | Malcolm III. | Lanfranc, archbishop of Canterbury. |
Peter the Hermit. Godfrey of Bou- |

‘ illon,

Louis VI. | o Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury. |
|

Me WAL... ot uses de I es | Geoffrey of Monmouth.

; . | WilliamtheLion Becket. Breakspeare.
Phil n , te ees ; . . .| Robi Hood.
Alexander II. . Robert Fitzwalter. Steph. Langton.

Louis VILL. and IX. | Alexander III. bie of Pembroke and Leicester.

| Roger Bacon.
Philip II. and IV. .| . ; ‘ | Llewellyn. Bruce. Balliol.
Philip V. CharlesIV. | Robert Bruce | Gayeston. Spencer. William Tell.
Philip VI. and John. | David II. 4 Chaucer. W. Manny.
Charles VI... .| Robert II.. 7 W. Tyler. John Wickliffe.


| MoNARCH.

Henry IY.
Henry V. .

Henry VI.

Edward IV. .
Edward V.

Richard III.

Henry VI1.

Henry VIII.

Edward VI. .

Mary I.

Hlizabeth

James I.
Charles I.

ee



SOVEREIGNS OF ENGLAND.

DATE OF
ACCESSION.

1399
1413

1422

1461
1483

1483

1485

1509

1547

1553

1558

1603

— 1625





oT

|

DURATION OF

LANCASTRIANS.

Rerex CoNSORT.



14 years | Mary de Bohun. Jane of Navarre

9 Catherine, See of Charles VI. of
i France.

MargaretofAnjou CW. Fewice), daughter

os of René, — of Sicily

YORKISTS.

22 years | Elizabeth Woodville
9 months

iss Mec “daughter - the at of

Sycars Warwick

TUDORS.

24 years | Elizabeth, daughter of Edward IV.

Catherine of Arragon (E. Spain). Anne
Boleyn. Jane Seymour. ne of
” Cleves (Germany). Catherme How-

ard. Catherine Parr : : :

6 33

5 Philip, son to os V. —— of
" Germany .

45 5;

STUARTS.

Anne, daughter of the king of Denmark

Henrietta, ee of — bis #
France.

22 years
24 5,








FRANCE.

Charles VI.
Lf

| ! Sarlos VIL.

Louis XI.

-—-aienaeaateaateat— Ticats

~ Louis XT.
Trancis I.

Henry IT.

i}

tt Francis II. Charles | James VL, after-

| IX. Henry IU. wards James I.
Henry IV. of England .

Louis XITT.

| |

Louis XIV. . |

Pierles VIII.

NOTED CONTEMPORARIES.

_ ScoTLAND

; MEN oF NOTE.

Robert ITI.

James I.

e °
cst hig atl cenit le

James IT.

. | James Tir.

James LV.

James V. .

|
|
|
|
Mary

a

a
|
Z

|

Lt
|
|
:

Owen Glendower. Henry Percy.
Gascoigne. Whittington.
Walsingham.
§ Nevil, earl of Warwick. L. Coster.
| t Joan of Are.
Caxton.

Columbus. Vesputius. Cabot. Diaz.

Wolsey. Cranmer. Luther. Calvin.
Raphael. Copernicus. Gustavus
Vasa. ,

Kd. Seymour. ss ohn Dudley, duke
of Northumberland.

Cranmer. Latimer. Hooper. Ridley.
Cardinal Pole.

John Knox. Shakespeare. Ben Jon-
son. Spenser. Drake. Hawkins.
Sir Philip Sydney. Sir Thomas
Gresham. Camoens. Tasso.



FE’, Bacon.
Hampden.

W. Raleigh. Cervantes.
Vandyke. Rubens.

|



© Rene Re te SSE AIAGEET at East bs Serta. ern AY ch
| DATE OF
NARCH.
Monarc ACCESSION.

10 SOVEREIGNS OF ENGLAND.

Interregnum :
Cromwell, Pro- 1649
tector

Charles IT. | 1660
James. ... | 1685
William ITT. and |
Mary . . | —
|
Anne . a | 1702
|
George I. - | 1714
George IT. . «| 1727
George ITI. | 1760
George lV. . . | 1820
William IV. . | -1830
Victoria I. | 1837

DURATION OF
REIGN.



CONSORT.

11 years | Elizabeth Bouchier
3. Catherine, Infanta of Portugal ‘
4 Anne Hyde, daughter of the earl of
e Clarendon. Marie of Modena .
13 9
A ntiny Prince George of Denmark .
HANOVERIANS.
13 years | Sophia, grand-daughter of James I.
$a, Caroline of Anspach. (Germany) .
60 ,, Charlotte of Mecklenburg. (Hanover) .
a Caroline of Brunswick. (Hanover)

be
é

Adelaide of Saxe Coburg. (Germany).
Albert of Saxe Coburg. :


NOTED CONTEMPORARIES. 11



FRANCE. MEN OF NOTE.



Louis XIV. . .| Van'Tromp. Blake. Milton. Harvey. Inigo Jones.

. .| Monk. Hyde (lord Clarendon). Christopher Wren.
t . | James duke of Monmouth.

Sir Robert Boyle. John Dryden. Elias Ashmole.

-( John Churchill (duke of Marlborough). Sir Cloudesley
Shovel. Sir George Rooke. Charles Mordaunt (lord

Peterborough). Sir Isaac Newton. Steele. Addison.
Pope.

Louis XV... 4 The Pretender. Sir R. Walpole. De Foe. Dr. Watts.
Pitt. Anson. Wolfe. Clive. Hans Sloane. Hogarth.

{LouisXVI. Napoleon | Wellington. Abercrombie. Nelson. Moore. Captain
( I. Louis XVIII. . Cooke. Byron.

Charles X. . . .| Sir Walter Scott. Sir Thomas Lawrance.
Louis Philippe . . | Wilberforce. Astley Cooper. Kean. Mrs. Siddons.
Napoleon III. . .| Sir Robert Peel. Dickens. Brunel. Colin Campbell.

ent ee nen eee tt nt EL

BATTLES.

BATTLE OF HASTINGS,
Coast oF Sussex, 8S. ENGLAND, |

Fought between William, duke of Normandy, and
Harold, king of England, in consequence of William’s
~ claim to the throne, which he declared had been left
him by Edward the Confessor. In this battle Harold
was slain, William obtained a decided victory, and
was immediately acknowledged king of England.
Oct. 1066. :

CIVIL WARS,

Between Stephen, grandson of William I., and Matilda,
daughter of Henry I. Henry I. left the crown of
England to his only surviving child, Matilda; her
cousin Stephen opposing her accession, civil war ensued.
After many years of bloodshed it was agreed that
Stephen should retain the throne during his life, and
14 BATTLES.

that at his death, Henry, Matilda’s son, should succeed.
1135—1150.

BATTLE OF LEWES,

SUSSEX.

In the reign of Henry III., the barons, displeased at
the king’s partiality to foreigners, revolted; they were
headed by Simon de Montfort (earl of Leicester). The
armies met at Lewes, where the king and his son
Kdward were taken prisoners. 1264,

BATTLE OF EVESHAM,
WORCESTER.
Prince Edward, son to Henry IIL, escaped from
prison a few months after the battle of Lewes, collected

an army, defeated Montfort (earl of Leicester), and
replaced Henry III. on the throne. 1265,

BATTLE OF FALKIRK,

STIRLING, SCOTLAND.

The Scotch, weary of the yoke imposed on them by
Edward I. of England, rose in arms under William
BATTLES. 15

Wallace: the contest lasted eight years, with various
successes. In the engagement at Falkirk the Scots
were defeated, and Edward obtained the victory. 1297.

BATTLE OF BANNOCKBURN,

STIRLING, SCOTLAND.

After the death of Edward I., Robert Bruce suc-
ceeded in establishing himself on the throne of Scotland,
and had almost entirely expelled the English from that
country, when Edward II. resolved to make another
effort for its subjugation. The engagement took place
on the banks of the Bannock ; Bruce, with an army far
inferior in number to that of the English, gained a
complete victory, by which the Scottish crown was
secured to him and his descendants. June 25,1314.

HALIDOWN HILL,
NoRTHUMBERLAND.

The English nobles, wishing to regain the Scottish
lands of which they had been dispossessed in the reign of
Edward II., placed themselves under the command of
Edward Baliol and invaded Scotland by land and sea;
the Scots were defeated and Baliol crowned king at
16 | BATTLES.

Scone. He and Edward III. then formed a treaty of
alliance ; but hostilities were soon renewed, and Edward
led a large army to the Scottish border. ‘The earl of
Moray (regent during the minority of David IT.) ad-
vanced to meet him: after a desperate struggle the
Scots were totally routed, and 30,000, including the
regent, left dead on the field. July 19, 13383.

NEVILLE’S CROSS,

DuRHAM, N. ENGLAND.

David II., king of Scotland, taking advantage of
Edward III.’s absence, led a large army into England ;
Queen Philippa marched against him, and at a place
called Neville’s Cross, vanquished his army, and took
him prisoner. “ 1346.

CRESSY,

Somme, N. FRANCE.

Edward III. declared himself heir to the throne of
France, in right of his mother, Isabella, daughter of
Philip IV. ‘To enforce his claim he landed at La Hogue
(Normandy), with an army amounting to 32,000 men;
Philip VI., the reigning king of France, assembled a
large force to oppose him; the armies met on the plain
BATTLES, 17

of Cressy, where Edward gained a complete victory.
Among the slain on the French side was the king of
Bohemia, whose motto, ‘Ich Dien” (I serve), was
adopted by the Black Prince in commemoration of
the battle. It is said that cannons were first used in
this engagement. Aug. 25, 1346;

POICTIERS,
W. FRANCE.

At the expiration of the ten years’ truce, which
followed the battle of Cressy, Edward IIT. renewed his
claim to the French crown. His army, of 12,000 men,
under the command of the Black Prince, encountered
the French, amounting to 60,000 men, at Poictiers ;
the English gained a complete victory, and the French
king, John the Good, was vanquished and taken prisoner.

1356.

BATTLE OF SHREWSBURY,
, , W. ENGLAND. | a
The earl of Northumberland had greatly assisted
Henry IV. in obtaining the throne of England; but

considering that his services were insufficiently re-
Cc
18 BATTLES.

warded, he formed a conspiracy with Owen Glendower,
a Welsh nobleman, and Douglas, a Scotch nobleman,
im order to dethrone Henry, and place Edmund
Mortimer, earl of March, a descendant of Lionel, son
to Edward III., on the throne. Henry encountered the
rebels at Shrewsbury ; the earl of Northumberland was
defeated, his son Harry Hotspur slain, and the brave
Douglas taken prisoner. July 21, 1408.

BATTLE OF AGINCOURT,

Artois, N. FRANCE.

In a.p. 1415 France was in a most distressed con-
dition, owing to the civil war between the partisans of
the dukes of Orleans and Burgundy. These princes
were contending for the regency during the insanity of
the king, Charles VJ. Henry V. thought it a favourable
moment to renew the claim made by his predecessors
to the French crown; he landed with an immense army
at Harfleur (N. France), and proceeded as far as Agin-
court, where he found a French army, five times more
numerous than his own, drawn up to oppose him: the
engagement lasted but three hours, and terminated in
the total defeat of the French, whose slain are computed
at 10,000. After the battle of Agincourt, a treaty was
BATTLES, 19

formed between the English and French, in which it was
agreed that Henry should marry Catherine, daughter of
_ Charles VI., be regent of France during that king’s
lifetime, and at his death succeed to the throne.

@® Oct. 25, 1415.

“WARS OF THE ROSES.

In 1454 Richard, duke of York, descended from
Lionel, second son of Edward III., asserted his claim
to the English throne, then possessed by Henry VI., a
prince whose general incapacity made him unfit to
govern. Richard’s cause soon found its partisans, and
the country was involved in a civil war, which lasted
sixteen years. The principal engagements were:
Ist, St. Alban’s (Hertfordshire); 2, Northampton; 38,
Towton (Yorkshire); 4, Barnet (Hertfordshire) ;
‘Tewkesbury (Gloucestershire). In the last the Lancas-
trians were finally defeated, 1471. Henry VI. who |
had been confined as a prisoner in the Tower, was
found dead the next morning, and Edward, duke of
York (son of the former claimant), who had been pro-
claimed king in 1461, remained in undisputed oll
session of the throne.
20 BATTLES.

BATTLE OF BOSWORTH.

~~ Richard IIL. had committed many crimes in order to
secure to himself the English crown, of which: he had
retained possession but two years, when an insurrection
broke out, headed by Henry Tudor, earl of Richmond,
last male descendant of the house of Lancaster, An
engagement took place at Bosworth, Leicestershire, in
which Richard III. was slain, and Henry Tudor ‘pro-
claimed king by the title of Henry VII., 1485. The
battle of Bosworth terminated the civil wars of the
Roses, which had lasted for thirty years, and in which
one hundred thousand persons (most of them nobles)
are computed to have fallen.

BATTLE OF STOKE.
| Edward IV.’s brother, the duke of Clarence, left a
son who took the title of earl of Warwick. This prince
was kept close prisoner in the Tower by Henry VII.,
who feared his asserting his claim to the English
throne. In 1487 a rumour was spread that Warwick
had escaped: a youth, named Lambert Simnell, of
common parentage but engaging demeanor, was in-
structed to personate him, and by right of descent to
BATTLES. 21

claim the crown. Simnell’s pretensions were acknow-
ledged in Ireland, and he was crowned at Dublin
as Edward VI. He then crossed to England, and
advanced as far as Stoke, Nottinghamshire, where
Henry VII. gave him battle. The rebel army was
defeated, Simnelh taken prisoner and condemned to the
office of scullion in the king’s kitchen, 1487. The earl
of Warwick was detained a prisoner for fifteen years.
In 1499 he was beheaded on ‘Tower Hill.

BATTLE OF SPURS.

In 1513 Henry VIII. invaded France, and laid siege
to Thérouenne (Artois, N. France). Louis XII. marched
to its relief: his troops came in sight of the English
at a place called Guinegate (N. France), when, seized
by a sudden panic, they fled without striking a blow.
Thérouenne surrendered: a few days afterwards Henry
took Tournay. ‘The rout at: Guinegate is, from the
hasty retreat of the French cavalry, ironically called the
Battle of the sore 1618.
22 BATTLES.

BATTLE OF FLODDEN FIELD,
NoRTH OF NoRTHUMBERLAND.

During Henry’s French campaign, James IV. of
Scotland, an ally of Louis XII., invaded England, and
after taking several castles, encamped on the hill of
Flodden. The earl of Surrey advanced to meet him ; the
battle is said to have occupied but one hour: it ended
in the total defeat of the Scots, who lost ten thousand
men, among whom were their king, the archbishop of
St. Andrews, two bishops, two abbots, twelve earls,
thirteen barons, and fifty gentlemen of distinction.
Surrey was rewarded with the title of duke of Norfolk.

1518,

BATTLE OF SOLWAY MOSS,
CUMBERLAND. Noy. 24, 1542.

Henry VIII. desired a personal interview with his
nephew, James V. of Scotland, whom he wished to
adopt similar means for the furtherance of the Reformed
doctrines in the Scottish realm as had been used in
England. ,

A meeting was appointed at York, 1541; but James,
influenced by his queen and the clergy, refused to
BATTLES. 23

attend. This so offended Henry, that he declared war

against. Scotland. The followmg year an English army,
under the duke of Norfolk, advanced to the North: at
Solway Moss it was met by a body of 10,000 Scots,
who fled panic struck at sight of the English. This
defeat is said to have caused James’s death, which
happened three weeks afterwards. Dec. 14,1542.

BATTLE OF PINKIE,

MUSSELBURGH, EDINBURGH.

Somerset, protector of England during the minority
of Edward VI., advanced with a large army and fleet
against Scotland, for the purpose of compelling the
Scots to assent to the marriage of their young queen
Mary, daughter of James V., with Edward VI. of
England. Somerset gained a decisive victory Sept. 10,
1547; but his immediate recall to England prevented
him following up his success. ‘The marriage was never
effected, the infant queen being sent the following year
to France, where she was betrothed to the Dauphin,
afterwards Francis II.
24 BATTLES,

LOSS OF CALAIS,
| N, France,

Calais had remained in possession of the English since
its conquest by Edward III., av. 1347. It was kept
strongly fortified and well garrisoned until the reign of
Mary, when these necessary precautions seem to have
been neglected. The duke of Guise, general of the
French army, being informed of its defenceless state,
determined to attempt its recovery; he attacked it by
sea and land, the English governor, lord Wentworth,
was obliged to surrender, and Guise within a week
regained the fortress which for two hundred years had
been considered as impregnable. Jan. 7, 1558.

SPANISH ARMADA.

In the reign of Elizabeth no amicable feeling existed
between the courts of England and Spain. Philip IL,
king of the latter country, considered himself deeply
aggrieved by Elizabeth, who had refused him her hand
in marriage, assisted his discontented Protestant subjects
in the Netherlands, and permitted the execution of
Mary, Queen of Scots. To avenge these insults, humble
the growing power of England, and re-establish Papacy
BATTLES. 2D

within her realm, he prepared the immense armament
styled the Invincible Armada. : |

“The Spanish fleet sailed from the Tagus, May 29th.
It consisted of 180 ships, carrying 19,000 soldiers,
8000 seamen, and 2000 galley slaves; its commander
was the duke of Medina Sidonia. ‘The prince of Parma
had collected in the Netherlands a land force of 30,000
to be transported to the coast of England. Immense
efforts were made in England to collect men and ships
adequate to repel the threatened danger; our whole
fleet numbered but 181 ships, manned by 17,472
seamen: an army of 36,000 men was assembled for the
guard of the queen’s person, another of 30,000 was
stationed at Tilbury; but our chief confidence lay in
the skill and courage of the commanders. Howard of
Effingham, Drake, Hawkins, and Frobisher, directed the
naval, Huntsdon and Leicester the land operations.

The progress of the Spanish fleet was delayed by
storms, and it was not until the 19th of July that it
entered the English Channel. It proceeded to Calais,
there to await the embarkation of the troops in the
transports prepared to receive them,—the English had
followed the Armada and taken or disabled several of
its ships; and directly it cast anchor near Calais,
Effingham sent five ships into the midst .of it: the
26 BATTLES.

Spaniards in terror cut their cables and dispersed ; the
English fell on them, and the following morning a storm
came on, and drove them among the shoals and sands
of Zealand. The duke de Medina finding his fleet
completely shattered, resolved to return to Spain: to
avoid the channel he proposed to go round by Scotland.
The Armada set sail; the English pursued as far as_
Flamborough Head, where want of ammunition forced
_ them to give up the chase; storms assailed the Armada
in its progress, several ships were wrecked on the Irish
coast, and the crews treated with barbarous cruelty.
The total loss of the Spaniards was 30 large ships,
and 10,000 men.

Philip received the intelligence with equanimity,—
Elizabeth with the utmost joy: she went in state to
St. Paul’s to return thanks, and caused medals to he
struck with a fleet wrecked by a tempest on one side,
and on the reverse these words written, “‘ He blew with
His winds and they were scattered.’ May—August,
1588.

CIVIL WAR.

‘Charles I. was too anxious to extend the royal
prerogative to recognise the privileges and liberties of
the people. ‘The frequent dissolution of Parliament,
BATTLES. 27

the illegal levy of taxes, the arbitrary measures of the
Star Chamber, exasperated the Commons to rise in
open rebellion. Their leaders were Oliver Cromwell,
sir Henry Vane, lord Essex, sir Thomas Fairfax, Pym,
Hampden, and Oliver St. John; this party received the
name of Parliamentarians or Roundheads; the king’s
party, comprising the chief nobility and gentry of the
kingdom, was known by that of the Royalists or
Cavaliers.

The principal engagements were :

Edge Hill, Warwickshire, Oct. 23, 1642. Both sides
claimed the victory, but the royalists are thought to
have had the advantage.

Chalgrove Field (near Oxford), June 18, 1643. A
skirmish in which the royalists were victorious, and
Hampden, a parliamentarian leader, fell.

Marston Moor (Yorkshire), July 2, 1644. The
parliamentarians entirely victorious. ,

Naseby (Northamptonshire), June 14, 1645. The
victory of the Parliament army was complete; four
thousand five hundred royalists were taken prisoners ;
the king fled: he made many efforts to retrieve his
misfortune, but no success attending them, he’ surren-
dered, 1646, to the Scotch army, stationed at Newark.
He was afterwards sold to the Parliament for 400,000Z.,
28 , BATTLES.

and by it arraigned, tried, and convicted as a tyrant,
traitor, murderer, and a public enemy to the Common-
wealth of England: he was sentenced to death, and was
beheaded i in front of Whitehall (Westminster), Tuesday,
Jan, 30, 1649 —aged 49.

_ DUNBAR,
HADDINGTON, ‘=. SCOTLAND.

Charles II. was, at the on of his father’s execution,
residing at the Hague; he was immediately proclaimed
king in Ireland and Scotland; and in both countries
the people prepared to maintain his right by force of
arms. Cromwell marched against Ireland, compelled
the inhabitants to submit to his authority, and then,
leaving Ireton in command, hastened to Scotland, where
Charles was reigning under the title of Charles II.
Cromwell attacked the Scots at Dunbar; 3000 fell,
10,000 were made prisoners ; the artillery, ammunition
and baggage were taken by the English; and all the
country south of the Forth submitted to. Cromwell.
Sept. 3, 1650. |
BATTLES. id

WORCESTER,
W. ENGLAND.

Charles despairing of offering any effectual resistance
to Cromwell’s success in Scotland, determined to march
into England. He left Stirling at the head of 14,000
men, entered England at Carlisle, and reached Wor-
cester, where he was proclaimed king. The intelli-
gence of his arrival caused much consternation; but
Cromwell soon advanced against him at the head of
80,000 men; after five hours’ hard fighting Charles was
thoroughly defeated; 8000 of his party were: slain,
10,000 taken prisoners: it was with the greatest
difficulty that Charles effected his escape. In speaking
of this battle, Cromwell said: ‘This has been a
clorious mercy, and as ee a contest for four or five
hours, as ever I have seen.’ Sept. 3, 1651.

BATTLE OF SEDGEMOOR,

SOMERSETSHIRE, W. ENGLAND.

In 1685 James, duke of Monmouth, natural son of
Charles II., asserted his claim to the English Crown—
then possessed by James IJ. Monmouth was defeated
at Sedgemoor ; he escaped from the field, but was
30 BATTLES.

afterwards captured in the disguise of a peasant, and
executed on Tower Hill, July 5, 1685.

BATTLE OF THE BOYNE,

LEINSTER, IRELAND.

James II. retired after his dethronement to France,
where he was hospitably received by Louis XIV., who
interested himself warmly in his behalf, and made
repeated efforts both by sea and land to replace him on
the throne of his ancestors. In 1689 James quitted
France with the troops raised in support of his cause,
and proceeded .to Ireland, which still owned his authority.
His forces encountered those of William on the banks of
the river Boyne, July 1, 1690; both sides fought with
bravery, but the engagement terminated in William’s
favour. James fled to Dublin, thence to Duncannon,
where he embarked on board a French vessel, which
conveyed him to Brest (N.W. France). July 10, 1690.

BATTLE OF LA HOGUE,
N. Coast oF FRANCE.

In the spring of 1692 James, aided by Louis XIV.,
prepared to again invade England. His troops, to the
BATTLES. 31

number of 15,000 men, embarked at La Hogue, where
ships were in readiness to convey them across the
channel. The English and Dutch fleets immediately put
to sea: the engagement commenced off Cape Barfleur
(N. France), May 19th, on which, as on the two
following days, the combined forces of England and
Holland were entirely victorious, most of the French
ships being either burnt or driven aground. 1692.

WAR OF SUCCESSION.

Charles II. king of Spain being childless, France,
Austria, and Bavaria, agreed to divide amongst them, at
his death, his immense dominions. Charles, archduke
‘of Austria, was to have for his share, Spain, the Indies,
and the Netherlands; but the king was induced on his
death-bed to bequeath all his possessions to Philip,
grandson to Louis XIV., and the latter, although he
had on his marriage with the Infanta, solemnly
renounced all claim to the Spanish succession for
himself and heirs, allowed Philip to accept the bequest.
This breach of faith, and the continued support given
to the Pretender, led to the formation of the League
between the English, the Dutch, and the Emperor, for
crushing the growing power of France, and preventing
32 BATTLES,

the union of France and Spain under one government.
The English took the lead, and, under Marlborough,
gained the victories of Blenheim (Germany, 1704),
Ramillies (Netherlands, 1706), Malplaquet (Netherlands,
1709). The war was brought. to a close by the treaty
of Utrecht (Holland), by which the crown of Spain was
secured to Louis’ grandson, Philip, duke of Anjou, on
condition of his renouncing his claim to that of France.
April 14, 1713.

PRESTON,

Lak CASHIRE, N. ENGLAND.

In 1715 many people were discontented with the
government of George I.; they wished to place on the’
throne the son of James im the Chevalier St. George,
commonly called the Pretender, who had again asserted
his claims. The rebels mustered their forces, amount-
ing to 10,000 men, in Scotland; they proceeded to
England, and advanced successfully till they reached
Preston, where they were met by a strong body of the
king’s troops, and compelled to surrender. Nov. 12,

1715.
BATTLES. 33

DUMBLAIN, OR SHERIFF MUIR,

PERTH, SCOTLAND.

This battle occurred on the same day as the sur-
render at Preston between the English under the duke
of Argyle, and the Scots under the earl of Mar. Both
sides claimed the victory, but the duke of Argyle had
all the fruits of it. Nov. 12, 1715.

DETTINGEN,

GERMANY.

Charles VI., emperor of Germany, left his dominions
to his daughter, Maria Theresa, whose claims most of
the European sovereigns had promised to support in
case of their being disputed. As soon as Charles was
dead, Frederic II., king of Prussia, attempted to rob .
Maria Theresa of a part of her possessions. A civil war,
termed the Silesian war, arose, in which the French
sided with Frederic, the English with Maria Theresa.
The allied armies of England and Austria encountered
the French at Dettingen, a village on the banks of the
Mayn; the French were defeated with great loss. In
this battle George II. and his son fought in person.
June, 1743.

D
34 ; BATTLES.

CULLODEN,

INVERNESS, SCOTLAND.

In 1745 prince Charles Edward, called the young
Pretender, grandson of James II., raised a rebellion in
Scotland, where the Jacobites were numerous, and the
Hanoverian government very unpopular. He _ pro-
claimed his father king at Perth, defeated the troops of
George II. at Preston Pans (Haddington, Scotland), and
then advanced into England, as far as Derby, where he
expected to be jomed by more troops; but in this he
was disappointed, and hearing that two armies of
royalists were in his rear, he retreated with all haste
into Scotland ; he was followed closely by the duke of
Cumberland, George II.’s son, at the head of the royal
army. At Falkirk (Stirling), he gained a victory over a
- portion of the king’s troops ; he then moved northwards
to Inverness, and reached Culloden, where hearing that
the duke was approaching he prepared for battle; the
forces were very unequal, the Pretender’s amounting to
but 4000 men. ‘The battle is said to have lasted but
half an hour; it ended im the total defeat of the
Pretender, and the extinction of the hopes of the exiled
family. April 10, 1746.
BATTLES. 35

SEVEN YEARS’ WAR.

In the reign of George II., the English and French
had extensive settlements in North America; the French
possessed Louisiana and Canada, which they wished to
connect by a chain of forts, thereby cutting the
English off from the great lakes, and from the valleys
of the Mississippi and the Ohio. This and other causes
of offence gave rise to a war which broke out in 1756;
it eventually involved the whole of Europe, and was
terminated by the treaty of Paris, signed 1763. In
North America the war was at first unfavourable to the
English, but in 1759 the whole of Canada fell into
their hands, and the French power was destroyed in
that part of the American continent. In the contest
General Wolfe, the English commander, lost his life; he
fell in the moment of victory at the siege of Quebec.
September 13, 1759.

WAR OF INDEPENDENCE,
N. AMERICA.

This war was caused by an attempt made by the

English government to impose taxes on the North
D2
36 BATTLES.

American colonists, who, it was thought, ought to bear
a share of the national expenses in return for the
protection afforded them by the mother country. An
Act (called the Stamp Act) was accordingly passed by
Mr. Grenville, prime minister to George III., for
stamping their newspapers, &c., as they were stamped
in England ; this met with such opposition that it was
withdrawn, but other duties, such as those on tea, &c.,
were enforced. ‘Thirteen of the colonies formed a union
with a view of resisting these measures, and in 1775
England declared war against America. The English
generals were Howe, Burgoyne, Clinton and Corn-
wallis; the Americans were commanded by George
Washington. The first battle occurred at Bunker’s
Hill, near Boston, Massachusetts; the Americans were
defeated July 17,1775. The war lasted eight years,
and was terminated by a treaty of peace signed at
Versailles, September 3, 1783; by this treaty the De-
claration of Independence, published by the American
Congress in 1776, was acknowledged, and America was
separated from England.
BATTLES. 37

THE BATTLE OF THE NILE,
AFRICA.

After Louis XVI. of France was guillotined, Napoleon
Bonaparte was at the head of affairs in that country.
He was an ambitious man, and aimed at the sovereignty
of Europe. In 1798 he went to Egypt, whence it was his
intention to proceed to the English dominions in India ;
Lord Nelson followed him, and at Aboukir Bay gained
a signal victory over the French fleet. Aug. 1, 1798.

ALEXANDRIA,
N. Eoypr.
The French still kept possession of Egypt. In 1801
a British force was sent to expel them from that
country ; it effected its purpose, though with the loss of
its brave commander, Sir Ralph Abercrombie, who was
mortally wounded in the engagement. March 21, 1801.

TRAFALGAR,

S. Spar,

In 1804 Bonaparte was proclaimed Emperor of
France; and many European countries, fearing his power
38 BATTLES.

or seeking his protection, formed alliances with him ;
amongst those who did so were Holland, Italy, Spain,
and Portugal: England remained hostile to him and
renewed her efforts to crush his growing power. In
1805 a powerful fleet, under the command of Nelson,
attacked the combined forces of France and Spain off
Cape Trafalgar; the English were completely victorious,
and the French navy was utterly destroyed. In this
engagement Nelson was mortally wounded by a ball
from the enemy’s ships; he expired shortly afterwards
on board the “ Victory:” his last words were, ‘ 'Thank
God, I have done my duty.” October 21, 1805.

PENINSULAR WAR.

This war commenced in 1808 and terminated in the
overthrow of Napoleon, who, at its outburst, had
dominion over nearly all the continent of Kurope. In
1807 he subdued Portugal, whence the royal family
fled to Brazil. He summoned the king of Spain to
France, where he obliged him to resign his crown,
which he immediately bestowed on his brother Joseph ;
but the Spaniards, exasperated by the cruelties com-
mitted by the French, and indignant at the insult
offered their nation, prepared to resist their oppressors,
BATTLES. 39

and implored the assistance of England in the coming
struggle. The hero of the Peninsular War was Sir
Arthur Wellesley, under whom an immense force was
despatched from England to render the desired co-
operation with the Spanish arms. In Nov. 1808, Sir
John Moore, commander of the British forces in
Portugal, led his troops to the north of Spain, to join an
expedition from England ; he reached Corunna, Jan. 11,
1809 ; here he was attacked by a superior French force
under Marshal Soult. In the engagement which ensued
_ the English were victorious; but Moore fell. He was
buried the night following on the ramparts of Corunna,
January 16, 1809. ‘The other engagements in the
Peninsular War were those which occurred at Talavera,
1809 ; Cadiz, 1811; Badajos, 1811; Salamanca, 1812 ;
Vittoria, 1813; in all of which the English arms were
victorious. Napoleon’s power rapidly declined, and
in 1814 he signed his abdication at Fontainebleau
(France), and retired to the island of Elba (Mediter-
ranean). Louis XVIII. was restored to the throne of
France, and a general peace was proclaimed.
40 BATTLES.

WATERLOO,

PROVINCE OF SOUTH BRABANT, BELGIUM.

In 1815 Bonaparte escaped from Elba and landed in
the south of France; Louis XVIII. fled from Paris, and
Bonaparte resumed the government without opposition ;
the allies immediately adopted the most vigorous means
to displace him; the English and Prussians were the
first in motion. ‘To prevent their entrance into France,
Bonaparte marched into the Netherlands with 150,000
men ; the armies met on the plains of Waterloo, where
the allied forces of England and Prussia, under their
commanders Wellington and Blucher, gained a signal ~
victory. June 18, 1815. |

NAVARINO,

S. W. Morea, GREECE.

After the establishment of the Ottoman Empire in
Europe, the Greeks were subject to the Turks, by
whom they were cruelly and despotically governed. For
a period of more than three hundred years they
submitted to the yoke of their oppressors, but in 1772,
the inhabitants of the Morea rose in rebellion, and,
BATTLES. 4}

although then unsuccessful, they made from time to
time renewed efforts to recover their mdependence.
Their cause at length attracted the attention of other
countries. England, France and Russia lent their aid,
and demanded of the Sultan of Turkey the mdepen-
dence of Greece ; this being refused, war was declared ;
in 1827 the allies defeated the Turkish fleet in the Bay
of Navarino, and two years afterwards the sultan was
compelled to relinquish his claim to Greece, which was
then erected into a kingdom, under Otho the Second,
son of the king of Bavaria. Sept 14, 1829.

CHINESE WAR.

This war was caused by the English importing into
China opium, a drug prohibited by the Chinese govern-
ment on account of its pernicious effects on the people,
who are passionately addicted to its use. An English
vessel laden with opium to the value of £3,000,000,
was seized by the Chinese; in revenge, the English
blockaded Canton; the Chinese were defeated: they
agreed to pay a large sum of money by way of indem-
nification, but violated the treaty directly the British
troops were withdrawn. Lord Gough then advanced to
42 BATTLES.

Nankin ; the Chinese again submitted and consented to
the conditions of a peace by which they agreed to pay
the expenses of the war, open the ports of Amoy,
Foochew, Ningpo, and Shanghae, release all British
prisoners, and yield to the English the island of Hong
Kong. 1842,

| AFFGHANISTAN WAR.

This war was caused by the usurpation of the throne
of Caboul by Dost Mahommed, in violation of the right
of Shah Soojah, the legitimate heir. The British,
fearing for the safety of their own possessions in India,
espoused the cause of Shah Soojah, and secured his
succession, A.D. 1839. Dost Mahommed fled. In 1840
he returned with a large army; he was again defeated,
and sent prisoner to Calcutta. Shah Soojah was never
popular with the native tribes, and was maintained
on his throne only by British authority. In 184]
the Affghans, headed by Akhbar Khan, son of Dost
Mahommed, rose in open rebellion; some English offi-
cers were murdered, others made prisoners: a treaty
was afterwards concluded, and the British forces pre-
pared to leave Caboul, having received promise of a
BATTLES. 43

safe pass to Jellalabad, their own territory. On their
way thither they were attacked by the Affghans in the
mountain passes; thousands were massacred, others
perished from cold and hunger ; so that of those who left
Caboul one alone reached Jellalabad. Shah Soojah was
soon afterwards assassinated, but the war still raged. In
1842 the British avenged their slaughtered countrymen
in a decisive victory gained at Jellalabad by General
Sale over Dost Mahommed. Two other memorable
engagements occurred in this war: one at Ghuznee,
where General Nott gained a decisive victory over the
natives, and reduced the city to ashes; and the other
at Moodkee, where General Sale, who lost his life in the
action, defeated 30,000 Sikhs, 1846.

The war of the Punjaub was caused by the ageres-
sions of the Sikhs (the natives of that part of India),
who made continual encroachments on the British ter-
ritories. The chief engagements were those at Aliwal,
Jan. 15th, 1846; Sobraon, Feb. 10th, 1846; Moultan,
1848; Chillianwallah, Jan. 1849; in all of which the
British, under Lord Gough, were completely victorious.
The following March the Sikhs surrendered uncon-
ditionally, and the Punjaub was annexed henceforth to
the British dominions, A.D. 1849,
44 BATTLES,

RUSSIAN WAR.
Nicholas [., Emperor of Russia, wished to add Turkey

to his dominions, and announced to the sultan of that
country, his intention of crossing the Danube and
possessing himself of the provinces on the other side.
The sultan having solicited and obtained the aid of
England and France, war was declared. An English
fleet, under Napier, was sent to block up the Baltic Sea ;
another commanded by Dundas, was stationed in the
Black Sea; the land forces sent to the Crimea were, at
the commencement of the war, commanded by Lord
Raglan on the English, and by Marshal St. Arnaud, on
the French side. The Russian general was Prince
Menschikoff. In the north the operations of the fleet
were delayed by the ice ; in the south the cholera made
fearful havoc among our troops, whose patience in
suffering was equalled only by their bravery in warfare.
The chief engagements were :

The capture of Bomarsund and Sionititind! =
1854-55.

The Battle of Alma, September 20th, 1854.

The Battle of Balaklava, October 25th, 1854.

The Battle of Inkerman, November 5th, 1854.

The Battle of Eupatoria, February 17th, 1855.
BATTLES. 45

Town of Sevastopol taken September 8, 1855.

In these engagements the allied armies of England
and France, aided by the Sardinians, who had joined
them in the second year of the war, were victorious,
though their loss of men through sickness and the
effects of the Russian climate was great; the Emperor
Nicholas died March 2, 1855. His successor Alex-
ander II., seemed inclined for peace, and the fol-
lowing year, 1856, this disastrous war was brought to
a close: the treaty of peace was signed at Paris
March 2, 1856. By it the Russians agreed to cede
to Turkey several provinces in Bessarabia, to have only
ten ships of war on the Black Sea, to allow free access
to the river Danube, and to cease from interfering with

the Turks.

THE END,

BRADBURY AND EVANS, FRINTERS, WHITEFRIARS.

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