Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Parley tells how America was first...
 Parley describes the inhabitan...
 Columbus sets sail to return to...
 Columbus prepares for another...
 Parley tells how Columbus discovers...
 Parley tells how Columbus was robbed...
 Parley tells how Columbus was ship-wrecked,...
 Parley tells of Ovando's cruel...
 Parley describes the trees, plants,...
 Parley tells of the conquest of...
 Parley relates how pizarro discovered...
 Parley describes the natural beauties...
 Parley tells of the first English...
 Parley tells of the original native...
 Parley tells about the United...
 Parley tells about New South...
 Parley describes the inhabitants,...
 Back Cover

Title: Tales about America and Australia
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003253/00001
 Material Information
Title: Tales about America and Australia
Alternate Title: Parley's tales about America and Australia
Physical Description: iv, 207 p., 2 leaves of plates : ill., col. maps ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Goodrich, Samuel G ( Samuel Griswold ), 1793-1860
Wilson, T., 1810-1875 ( Editor )
Williams, Samuel, 1788-1853 ( Illustrator )
Billing ( Printer , Stereotyper )
Darton & Hodge ( Publisher )
Publisher: Darton and Hodge
Place of Publication: London
Manufacturer: Billing, Printer and Stereotyper
Publication Date: 1862
Edition: New ed., brought down to the present time / -- revised by T. Wilson.
Subject: Voyages and travels -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Indians -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- America   ( lcsh )
Discovery and exploration -- Juvenile literature -- America   ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- Australia   ( lcsh )
Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1862   ( rbbin )
Bldn -- 1862
Genre: Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding)   ( rbbin )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
England -- Guildford
Statement of Responsibility: by Peter Parley ; with illustrations by S. Williams.
General Note: Peter Parley was a pseudonym used by S.G. Goodrich.
Funding: Brittle Books Program
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00003253
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002235657
oclc - 39183873
notis - ALH6120
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Page i
    Title Page
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Parley tells how America was first discovered and about Columbus the discoverer
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Parley describes the inhabitants
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Columbus sets sail to return to Spain, and encounters a dreadful storm
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Columbus prepares for another voyage
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Parley tells how Columbus discovers the continent of America
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Parley tells how Columbus was robbed of the honour of giving his name to America
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Parley tells how Columbus was ship-wrecked, and also of the manner of his death
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Parley tells of Ovando's cruel treatment of Anacaona, the princess of Hayti
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Parley describes the trees, plants, and flowers of the new world
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
    Parley tells of the conquest of Mexico
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
    Parley relates how pizarro discovered and conquered Peru
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
    Parley describes the natural beauties of America
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
    Parley tells of the first English colony in America
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
    Parley tells of the original native Americans
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
    Parley tells about the United States
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
    Parley tells about New South Wales
        Page 176
        Page 176a
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
    Parley describes the inhabitants, vegetables, and animals of Australia
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

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Now that I have given you an account of
European cities in my "Tales about Europe,"
I shall now furnish you with some descrip-
tion of America, with its flourishing cities,
and its multitude of ships, its fertile fields, its
mighty rivers, its vast forests, and its mil.
lions of happy and industrious inhabitants,
of which I am quite certain you must be
very curious to know something, when you
are told that though the world has been


created nearly six thousand years, and many
powerful nations have flourished and decayed,
and are now scarcely remembered, yet it is
only three hundred and seventy years tgo
since it was known that such a country as
America existed.
It was in the year 1492, which you know
is only 870 years since, on the third of
August, a little before sunrise, that Chris-
topher Columbus, undertaking the boldest
enterprise that human genius ever conceived,
or human talent and fortitude ever accom-
plished, set sail from Spain, for the discovery
of the Western World.
I will now give you a short account of
Columbus, who was one of the greatest men
the world ever produced. He was born in
the city of Genoa, in Italy; his family were
almost all sailors, and he was brought up for
a sailor also, and afterbeing taughtgeography
and various other things necessary for a sea
captain to know, he was sent on board ship
at the age of fourteen. Columbus was tall,
muscular, and of a commanding aspect; his
hair, light in youth, turned prematurely grey,


and ere he reached the age of thirty was
white as snow.
His first voyages were short ones, but
after several years, desiring to see and learn
more of distant countries, and thinking there
were still new ones to be discovered, he went
into the service of the King of Portugal and
made many voyages to the western coast of
Africa, and to the Canaries, and the Madeiras,
and the Azores, islands lying off that coast,
which were then the most westerly lands
known to Europeans.
In his visits to these parts, one person
informed him that his ship, sailing out
farther to the west than usual, had picked
up out of the sea a piece of wood curiously
carved, and that very thick canes, like those
which travellers had found in India, had
been seen floating on the waves; also that
great trees, torn up by the roots, had often
been cast on shore, and once two dead bodies
of men, with strange features, neither like
Europeans nor Africans, were driven on the
coast of the Azores.
All these stories set Columbus thinking




and considering that these strange things had
come drifting over the sea from the west, he
looked upon them as tokens sent from some
unknown countries lying far distant in that
quarter: he was therefore eager to sail away
and explore, but as he had not money enough
himself to fit out ships and hire sailors, he
determined to go and try to persuade some
king or some state to be at the expense of
the trial.
First he went to his own countrymen the
Genoese, but they would have nothing to
say to him: he then submitted his plan to
the Portuguese, but the King of Portugal,
pretending to listen to him, got from him his
plan, and perfidiously attempted to rob him
of the honour of accomplishing it, by send-
ing another person to pursue the same track
which he had proposed.
The person they so basely employed did
not succeed, but returned to Lisbon, execrat-
ing a plan he had not abilities to execute.
On discovering this treachery, Columbus
quitted the kingdom in disgust and set out
for Spain, to. King Ferdinand and Queen


Isabella. He was now so poor that he was
frequently obliged to beg as he went along.
About half a league from Palos, a sea-port
of Andalusia in Spain, on a solitary height,
overlooking the sea-coast, and surrounded
by a forest of pines, there stood, and now
stands at the present day, an ancient convent
of Franciscan friars.


A stranger, travelling on foot, accompanied
by a young boy, stopped one day at the


gate of the convent, and asked of the porter
a little bread and water for his child.-That
stranger was Columbus, accompanied by his
son Diego.
While receiving this humble refreshment,
the' guardian of the convent, Friar Juan
Perez, happening to pass, was taken with
the appearance of the stranger, and being an
intelligent man and a painted with geo-
graphical science, he 1'tame interested with
the conversation of Columbus, and was so
struck with the grandeur of his project that
he detained him as his guest and invited a
friend of his, Martin Alonzo Pinzon, a resi-
dent of the town of Palos, to come and hear
Columbus explain his plan.
Pinzon was one of the most intelligent
sea captains of the day, and a distinguished
navigator. He not only approved of his
project, but offered to engage in it, and to
assist him.
Juan Perez now advised Columbus to re-
pair to court. Pinzon generously furnished
him with the money for the journey, and
the friar kindly took charge of his youthful


son Diego, to maintain and educate him in
the convent, which I am sure you will think
was the greatest kindness he could have done
him at that time.
Ferdinand and Isabella gave him hopes
and promises, then they made difficulties and
objections, and would do nothing. At last,
after waiting five years, he was just setting
off for England, where he had previously sent
his brother Bartholomew, when he was in-
duced to wait a little longer in Spain.
This little longer was two years, but then
at last he had his reward, for queen Isabella
stood his friend, and even offered to part
with her own jewels in order to raise money
to enable him to make preparations for the
voyage, so that he contrived to fit out three
very small vessels which altogether carried
but one hundred and twenty men.
Two of the vessels were light barques, or
barges built high at the prow and stern, with
forecastles and cabins for the crew, but were
without deck in the centre; only one of the
three, the Santa Maria, was completely
decked ; on board of this, Columbus hoisted



his flag. Martin Alonzo Pinzon commanded
the Pinta, and his brother, Vincente Yanez
Pinzon, the Nina. He set sail in the sight of
a vast crowd, all praying for the success, but
never expecting and scarcely hoping to see
either him or any of his crews again.
Columbus first made sail for the Canaries,
where he repaired his vessels: then taking
leave of these islands, he steered his course
due west, across the great Atlantic ocean,
where never ship ha loughed the waves
No sooner had they lost sight of land
than the sailors' hearts began to fail them,
and they bewailed themselves like men con-
demned to die: but Columbus cheered them
with the hopes of the rich countries they
were to discover.
After awhile they came within those re-
gions where the trade-wind, as it is called,
blows constantly from east to west without
changing, which carried them on at a vast
rate; but he judiciously concealed from his
ignorant and timid crews the progress he
made, lest they might be alarmed at the speed


with which they were receding from home.
After some time, they found the sea covered
with weeds, as thick as a meadow with grass,
and the sailors fancied that they should soon
be stuck fast,-that they had reached the end
of the navigable ocean, and that some strange
thing would befal them.
Still, however, Columbus cheered them
on, and the sight of a flock of birds encou-
raged them : but when they had been three
weeks at sea and no land appeared, they
grew desperate with fear, and plotted among
themselves to force their commander to turn
back again, lest all their provisions should be
spent, or, if he refused, to throw him over-
Columbus, however, made them a speech
which had such an effect upon them that
they became tolerably quiet for a week
longer; they then grew so violent again that
at last he was obliged to promise them that
if they did not see land in three days, he
would consent to give it up and sail home
But he was now almost sure that land


was not far off: the sea grew shallower, and
early every morning flocks of land birds
began to flutter around them, and these all
left the ship in the evening, as if to roost on
shore. One of the vessels had picked up a
cane newly cut, and another a branch
covered with fresh red berries; and the air
blew softer and warmer, and the wind began
to vary.
That very night, Columbus ordered the
sails to be taken in, and strict watch to be
kept, in all the ships, for fear of running
aground; he and all his men remained stand-
ing on the deck, looking out eagerly: at
length he spied a distant light; he showed it
to two of his officers, and they all plainly
perceived it moving, as if carried backwards,
and forwards, from house to house.
Soon after the cry of Land! land!" was
heard from the foremost ship, and, at dawn
of day, they plainly saw a beautiful island,
green and woody, and watered with many
pleasant streams, lying stretched before them.
As soon as the sun rose, the boats of the
vessel were lowered and manned, and Colum-


bus, in a rich and splendid dress of scarlet,
entered the principal one. They then rowed
towards the island, with their colours dis-
played, and warlike music, and other martial

Columbus was the first to leap on shore,
to kiss the earth, and to thank God on his
knees: his men followed, and throwing
themselves at his feet they all thanked him
for leading them thither, and begged his
forgiveness for their disrespectful and unruly





THE poor inhabitants, a simple and inno-
cent people, with copper-coloured skins and
long black hair, not curled, like the negroes,
but floating on their shoulders, or bound in
tresses round their heads, came flocking
down to the beach and stood gazing in silent
The dress of the Spaniards, the whiteness
of their skins, their beards, their arms, and
the vast machines that seemed to move upon
the waters with wings, which they supposed
had, during the night, risen out of the sea,
or come down from the clouds; the sound
and flash of the guns, which they mistook
for thunder and lightning: all these things
appeared to them strange and surprising;


they considered the Spaniards as children of
1I the sun, and paid homage to them as gods.
The Europeans were hardly less amazed
at the scene now before them. Every herb,
and shrub, and tree, differed from those
which flourished in Europe: the inhabitants
appeared in the simple innocence of nature,
entirely naked; their features were singular,
but not disagreeable, and their manners
gentle and timid.

The first act of Columbus was to take
solemn and formal possession of the country



in the name of his sovereign ; this was done
by planting the Spanish flag on the coast,
and other ceremonies, which the poor natives
looked upon with wonder, but could not un-
Nor could there be an act of greater cruel-
ty and injustice; for the Spaniards could not
have any right to drive these gentle and
peaceful inhabitants (as they afterwards did)
from their peaceful abodes, which had been
theirs and their fathers before them, perhaps
for thousands of years, and in the end,
utterly to destroy them, and take their land
for themselves.
After performing this ceremony, of which
Columbus himself could not foresee the con-
sequences to the Indians, for he was very
kind to them, he made them presents of
trinkets and other trifles, with which they
were greatly delighted, and brought him in
return the fruits of their fields and groves,
and a sort of bread called cassada, made
from the root of the yuca; with whatever
else their own simple mode of life might


Columbus then returned to his ship, ac-
companied by many of the islanders in their
boats, which they called canoes; these simple
and undiscerning children of nature having
no foresight of the calamities and desolation
which awaited their country.
* This island was called by the natives
Guanahini, and by the Spaniards St. Salva-
dor: it is one of that cluster of West India
Islands called the Bahamas, and if you look
on the map you will see that it is the very
first island that would present itself to a
ship sailing direct from Spain.
Columbus did not continue his voyage for
some days, as he wished to give all his sailors
an opportunity of landing and seeing the
wonders of the new-discovered world, and to
take in a fresh supply of water, in which
they were cheerfully assisted by the natives,
who took them to the clearest springs and
the sweetest and freshest streams, filling
their casks and rolling them to the boats, and
seeking in every way to gratify (as they be-
lieved) their celestial visitors.
Columbus having thus refreshed his crews,


and supplied his ships with water, proceeded
on his voyage. After visiting several smaller
islands he discovered a large island which
the natives called Cuba, and which still
retains that name. This was so large an
island that he at first thought it to be a new
In proceeding along the coast, having
observed that most of the people whom he
had seen wore small plates of gold by way
of ornament in their noses, he eagerly in-
quired, by signs, where they got that precious
The Indians, as much astonished at his
eagerness in quest of gold as the Europeans
were at their ignorance and simplicity,
pointed towards the east, to an island which
they called Hayti, in which this metal was
more abundant.
Columbus ordered his squadron to bend
their course thither, but Martin Alonzo Pin-
zon, impatient to be the first who should
take possession of the treasure which this
country was supposed to contain, quitted his
companions with his ship, the Pinta, and


though Columbus made signals to slacken
sail, he paid no regard to them.
When they came in sight of Hayti, which
you will see was no great distance, if you
look on the map, Columbus having had no
sleep the night before, had gone to his cabin
to lie down and rest himself, having first
given the charge of the vessel to an experi-
enced sailor.
This careless man, (this lazy lubber, the
sailors would call him,) instead of performing
his duty, and watching over the safety of
the ship and the lives of his companions,
which were entrusted to him, deserted his
post and went to sleep,leaving the vessel to
the management of a young and thoughtless
The rapid currents which prevail on that
coast soon carried the vessel on a shoal, and
Columbus was roused from his sleep by the
striking of the ship and the cries of the ter-
rified boy.
They first endeavoured, by taking out an
anchor, to warp the vessel off, but the
-strength of the current was more than a



match for them, and the vessel was driven
farther and farther on the shoal; they then
cut awaythe mast and took out some of the
stores to lighten her; but all their efforts
were vain.
Before sunset the next evening the vessel
was a complete wreck. Fortunately the
Nina was close at hand, and the shipwrecked
mariners got on board of her; the inhabitants
of the island came in their canoes and assisted
them in preserving part of their stores.
They found Hayti a very beautiful island,
and were treated with the greatest kindness
by the inhabitants; but, though delighted
with the beauty of the scenes which every-
where presented themselves, and amazed at
the luxuriance and fertility of the soil, Co-
lumbus did not find gold in such quantities
as was sufficient to satisfy the avarice of his
followers; he was nevertheless anxious to
prolong his voyage, and explore those magni-
ficent regions which seemed to invite them
on every hand.
But as the Pinta had never joined them
again after parting from them, he had no


vessel now left but the Nina ; he did not
therefore think it prudent to pursue his dis-
coveries with one small vessel, and that a
very crazy one, lest, if any accident should
befal it, he might be left without the means
of returning to Europe, and both the glory
and benefit of his great discoveries might
be lost; so he determined to prepare for his
But as it was impossible for so small a
vessel as the Nina to contain the crew of
the ship that was wrecked in addition to its
own, Columbus was greatly perplexed what
to do.
Many of his men were so delighted with
the island and its inhabitants, that they
begged of him to let them remain there, and
Columbus consented to leave forty of them
on the island, while he and the remainder
made the voyage back.
He promised to return to them speedily.
He now built them a fort with the timber
of the wreck, and fortified it with the guns
of the Santa Maria, and did every thing in
his power to provide for their comfort



during his absence, particularly enjoining
them to be kind and peaceful towards the
This was the first colony of Europeans
that settled in the new world, and Columbus
gave it the name of Navidad.




HAVING obtained a certain quantity of the
precious metals, and other curious produc-
tions of the countries he had discovered, he
set sail to recross the wide Atlantic Ocean.
It was the second day after they had left
the island that they saw a sail at a distance,
which proved to be the Pinta.
On joining the admiral, Pinzon made
many excuses and endeavoured to account for
his desertion, saying he had been separated
by stress of weather. Columbus admitted
his excuse, but he ascertained afterwards that
Pinzon parted company intentionally, and
had steered directly east in quest of a region



where the Indians had assured him that he
would find gold in abundance.
They had guided him to Hayti, where he
had been for some time, in a river about fif-
teen leagues from the part of the coast where
Columbus had been wrecked.
He had collected a large quantity of gold
by trading with the natives, and on leaving
the river he had carried off four Indian men
and two girls, to be sold in Spain.

Columbus immediately sailed back for this
river, and ordered the four men and two girls


to be dismissed well clothed and with many
presents, to atone for the wrong they had ex-
perienced. This resolution was not carried
into effect without great unwillingness and
many angry words on the part of Pinzon.
Columbus, being now joined by the Pinta,
thought he might pursue his discoveries a
little further, and on leaving this part of the
coast he took with him four young Indians
to guide him to the Carribean Islands, of
which they gave him a very interesting
account, as well as of another island said to
be inhabited by Amazons.
A favourable breeze, however, sprang up
for the voyage homewards, and seeing gloom
and impatience in the countenances- of his-
men, he gave up his intention of visiting
these islands, and made all sail for Spain, the
young Indians having consented to accom-
pany him that they might learn the Spanish
language, and be his guides and interpreters
when they should return.
His voyage homeward was much more-
tedious; for those trade winds which had
wafted him so rapidly westward, across the



Atlantic, still blew from east to west, and
Columbus did not then know that their in-
fluence only extends to a certain distance on
each side of the Equator, so that if he had
sailed a little farther north, on his return, he
would very likely have met with a south-
west wind, which was just what he wanted.
On the 12th of February they had made
Such progress as led them to hope they
should soon see land. The wind now came
on to blow violently; on the following
evening there were three flashes of lightning
in the north-east, from which signs Colum-
bus predicted an approaching tempest.
It soon burst upon them with frightful
violence. Their small and crazy vessels were
little fitted for the wild storms of the Atlan-
tic ; all night they were obliged to scud
under bare poles, at the mercy of the ele-
ments; as the morning dawned there was a
transient pause and they made a little sail,
but the wind rose with redoubled fury from
the south and increased in the night, threat-
ening each moment to overwhelm them or
dash them to pieces.


The admiral made signal-lights for the
Pinta to keep in company, but she was sepa-
rated by the violence of the storm, and her
lights gleamed more and more distant till
they ceased entirely.
When the day dawned the sea presented
a frightful waste of wild and broken waves.
Columbus looked round anxiously for the
Pinta, but she was nowhere to be seen, and
he became apprehensive that Pinzon had
borne away for Spain, that he might reach it
before him, and by giving the first account
of his discoveries, deprive him of his fame.
Through a dreary day the helpless bark
was driven along by the tempest.
Seeing all human skill baffled and con-
founded, Columbus endeavoured to propi-
tiate heaven by solemn vows, and various
private vows were made by the seamen.
The heavens, however, seemed deaf to their
vows: the storm grew still more furious, and
every one gave himself up for lost.
During this long and awful conflict of the
elements, the mind of Columbus was a prey
to the most distressing anxiety.


He was harassed by the repinings of his
crew, who cursed the hour of their leaving
their country.
HHe was afflicted also with the thought of
his two sons, who would be left destitute by
his death.
But he had another source of distress
more intolerable than death itself. In case
the Pinta should have foundered, as was
highly probable, the history of his discovery
would depend upon his own feeble bark.
One surge of the ocean might bury it for
ever in oblivion, and his name only be re-
corded as that of a desperate adventurer.
At this crisis, when all was given up for
lost, Columbus had presence of mind enough
to retire to his cabin and to write upon
parchment a short account of his voyage.
This he wrapped in an oiled cloth, which
he enclosed in. a cake of wax, put it into a
tight cask, and threw it into the sea, in
hopes that some fortunate accident might
preserve a deposit of so much importance to
the world.
But that being which had preserved him


through so many dangers still protected him ;
andehappily these precautions were super-
At sunset there was a streak of clear sky
in the west; the wind shifted to that quarter,
and on the morning of the 15th of February
4hey came in sight of land.
The transports of the crew at once more
beholding the old world, were almost equal
to those they had experienced on discovering
the new. This proved to be the island of
St. Mary, the most southern of the Azores.
After remaining here a few days, the wind
proving favourable he again set sail, on the
24th of February.
After two or three days of pleasant sailing,
there was a renewal of tempestuous weather.
About midnight of the 2d of March the
caravell was struck by a squall, which rent all
her sails and threatened instant destruc-
tion. The crew were again reduced to
despair, and made vows of fasting and pil-
The storm raged through the succeeding
,day, during which, from various signs they



considered that land must be near. The
turbulence of the following night was dread-
ful; the sea was broken, wild, and moun-
tainous, the rain fell in torrents, and the
lightning flashed and the thunder pealed from
various parts of the heavens.
In the first watch of this fearful night, the
seamen gave the usual welcome cry of land
--but it only increased their alarm, for they
dreaded being driven on shore or dashed
upon the rocks. Taking in sail, therefore, they
endeavoured to keep to sea as much as pos-
sible. At day-break on the 4th of March
they found themselves off the rock of Cintra
at the mouth of the Tagus, which you know
is the principal river of Portugal.
Though distrustful of the Portuguese, he
had no alternative but to run in for shelter.
The inhabitants came off from various parts
of the shore to congratulate him on what
they deemed a miraculous preservation, for
they had been watching the vessel the whole
morning with great anxiety, and putting up
prayers for her safety. The oldest mariners
of the place assured him that they had never


during the whole course of their lives known
so tempestuous a winter.
Such were the difficulties and perils with
which Columbus had to contend on his
return to Europe. Had one tenth part of
them beset his outward voyage, his factious
crew would have risen in arms against the
enterprise, and he never would have disco-
vered the new world.
The king of Portugal must have been
greatly mortified when he heard of the arri-
val of Columbus and the wonderful disco-
veries he had made, for he could not but
reflect that all the advantages of these disco-
veries might have belonged to him if he had
not treated Columbus as he did.
But notwithstanding the envy which it
was natural for the Portuguese to feel, he was
allowed to come to Lisbon, and was treated
with all the marks of distinction due to a
man who had performed things so extraor-
dinary and unexpected. The king admitted
him into his presence, and listened with ad-
miration to the account which he gave of his
voyage, while Columbus enjoyed the satis-



faction of being able to prove the solidity of
his schemes to those very persons who had
with disgraceful ignorance rejected them as
the projects of a visionary adventurer.
Columbus was so impatient to return to
Spain that he remained only five days in
Lisbon. On the 15th of March he arrived
at Palos, seven months an4 eleven days from
the time when he set out from thence upon
his voyage.
When the prosperous issue of it was
known, when they beheld the strange people,
the unknown animals, and singular produc-
tions brought from the countries he had
discovered, the joy was unbounded; all the
bells were rung, the cannons were fired, and
he was welcomed with all the acclamation
which the people are ever ready to bestow
on great and glorious characters. They
flocked (in crowds to the harbour to see him
land, and nothing but Columbus and the
New World, as the Spaniards called it, was
talked of.
He was desired by Ferdinand and Isabella
in the most respectful terns to repair to


court, that they might receive from his own
mouth, an account of his wonderful disco-
On his arrival at Barcelona the king and
queen received him clad in their royal robes,
seated upon a throne, and surrounded by
their nobles.

When he approached, they commanded
him to take his seat upon a chair prepared
for him, and to give a circumstantial account
of his voyage, which he related with a gra.
vity suitable to the dignity of the audience



he addressed, and with that modesty which
ever accompanies superior merit.
Every mark of honour that gratitude or
admiration could suggest, was conferred
upon him; his family was ennobled, and, as
a mark of particular favour, Isabella ap-
pointed his son Diego, the boy, who, you
remember, had been left at the convent,
page to prince Juan, the heir apparent, an
honour only granted to sons of persons of
distinguished rank.
The king and queen, and, after their
example, the courtiers treated him with all
the respect paid to persons of the highest
rank. Yet some of these courtiers were his
bitterest enemies, and did every thing they
could, in his absence, to poison the minds of
the king and queen against him, and to
cause his downfall.
The favour shown Columbus by the so-
vereigns insured him for a time the caresses
of the nobility, for in court every one is
eager to lavish attentions upon the man
" whom the king delighteth to honour."
At one of the banquets which were given



hm occurred the well known circumstance
of the egg.

A shallow courtier present, impatient of
the honours paid to Columbus, apd meanly
jealous of him as a foreigner, abruptly asked
him, whether he thought that, in case he
had not discovered the Indies, there would
have been wanting men in Spain capable of
the enterprise.
To. this Columbus made no direct reply
but, taking an egg, invited the company to
make it stand on one end. Every one



attempted it, but in vain; whereupon he
struck it upon the table, broke one end, and
left it standing on the broken part; illus-
trating, in this simple manner, that when he
had once shown the way to the new world,
nothing was easier than to follow it.




COLUMBUS was now anxious to set out on
another voyage to proceed with his disco-
veries, and the king and queen gave orders
that every thing should be done to further
his wishes.
By his exertions a fleet of seventeen sail,
large and small, was soon in a state of
forwardness; labourers and artificers of all
kinds were engaged for the projected colo-
nies, and an ample supply was provided of
whatever was necessary for the cultivation of
the soil, the working of the mines, and for
traffic with the natives.
He now found no difficulty in getting
sailors to accompany him, and the account



he gave of the countries he had discovered,
and particularly the intelligence that they
abounded with gold, excited the avarice and
rapacity of the Spaniards, and numbers of
needy adventurers of ruined fortunes and
desperate circumstances, were eager to share
in the spoil.
Many persons of distinction, thinking to
become rich by the same means, also volun-
teered to enlist, and many got on board of
the ships by stealth, so that about 1500 set
sail in the fleet, though only a thousand
were originally permitted to embark.
The departure of Columbus on his second
voyage presented a brilliant contrast-to his
gloomy embarkation at Palos.
There were three large.ships of heavy
burden and fourteen smaller vessels, and the
persons on board, instead of being regarded
by the populace as devoted men, were looked
upon with envy as favoured mortals, des-
tined to golden regions and delightful climes,
where nothing but wealth, and wonder, and
enjoyment awaited them.
At sunrise the whole fleet was under sail,.


on the 13th of October he lost sight of the
Island of Ferro, and, favoured by the trade
winds, was borne pleasantly along, till, on
the 2nd of November, a lofty island was des-
cried to the west, to which he gave the name
of Dominica, from having discovered it on
the Lord's day.
As the ships moved gently onward, other
islands arose to sight, one after another,
covered with forests and enlivened by the
flight of parrots and other tropical birds,
while the whole air was sweetened by the
fragrance of the breezes which passed over
In one of these islands, to which the
Spaniards gave the name of Guadaloupe,
they first met with the delicious fruit, the
Anana or pine-apple.
Columbus now sailed in the direction of
Hayti, to which he had given the name of
Hispaniola, where he shortly arrived.
In passing along the coast he set on shore
one of the young Indians who had been
taken from that neighbourhood and had
accompanied him to Spain. He dismissed



him finely apparelled, and loaded with trin-
kets, thinking he would impress his coun-
trymen with favourable feelings towards the
Spaniards, but he never heard anything of
him afterwards.
When he arrived on that part of the
island where he had built the fort and taken
leave of his companions, the evening grow-
ing dark, the land was hidden from their
sight. Columbus watched for the dawn of
day with the greatest anxiety; when at last
the approach of the morning sun rendering
the objects on shore visible, in the place
where the fort had stood, nothing was to be
seen. -2 human being was near, neither
Indiamr nor European; he ordered a boat
to be.-4anned, and himself went, at the
head of a party, to explore how things really
The crew hastened to the place where the
fortress had been erected; they found it
burnt and demolished, the palisades beaten
down, and the ground strewed with broken
chests and fragments of European garments.
The natives, at their approach, did not


welcome them as they expected, like friends,
but fled and concealed themselves as if
afraid to be seen.
Columbus, at length, with some difficulty,
by signs of peace and friendship, persuaded
a.few of them to come forth to him. From
them he learned, that scarcely had he set
sail for Spain, when all his counsels and
commands faded from the minds of those
who remained behind. Instead of culti-
vating the good-will of the natives, they
endeavoured, by all kinds of wrongful
means, to get possession of their golden
ornaments and other articles of value, and
seduce from them their wives and daughters,
and had also quarrelled among themselves.
The consequences of this bad conduct
were what might have been expected: some
died by sickness caused by intemperance,
some fell in brawls between themselves about
their ill-gotten spoil, and others were cut off
by the Indians, whom they had so shame-
fully treated, and who afterwards pulled
dawn and burnt their fort.
The misfortunes which had befallen the



Spaniards in the vicinity of this harbour
threw a gloom over the place, and it was
considered by the superstitious mariners as-
under some baneful influence. The situa-
tion vas low and unhealthy, and not capa-
ble cf improvement; Columbus therefore de--
termined to remove the settlement.
With this view he made choice of a
situation more healthy and commodious
than that of Navidad, and having ordered
the troops and the various persons to be
employed in the colony to be immediately
disembarked, together with the stores, am.
miunition, and all the cattle and live-stock,
he traced out the plan of a town in a large
plain near a spacious bay; and obliging
every person to put his hand to the work,
the houses were soon so far advanced as to
afford them shelter, and forts were con-
structed for their defence.
This rising city, the first that Europeans
founded in the new world, he named Isa-
bella, in honour of his patroness the Queen
of Castile.
As long as the Indians had any prospect


that their sufferings might terminate by the
voluntary departure of the invaders, they
submitted in silence, and dissembled their
sorrow; but now that the Spaniards had
built a town-now that they had dug up
'the ground and planted it with corn -it
became apparent that they came not to visit
the country, but to settle in it.
They were themselves naturally so ab-
stemious and their wants so few, that they
were easily satisfied with the fruits of the
island, which, with a handful of maize or a
little of the insipid bread made of the cas-
sava root, were sufficient for their support.
But it was with difficulty they could
afford subsistence for the new guests. The
Spaniards, though considered an abstemious
people, appeared to them excessively voraci-
ous. One Spaniard consumed as much as
several Indians; this keenness of appetite
appeared so insatiable, that they supposed
the Spaniards had left their own country be-
cause it did not produce enough to gratify
their immoderate appetites, and had come
among them in quest of nourishment.



Columbus having taken all the steps
which he thought necessary to ensure the
prosperity of his new colony, entrusted the
command of the military force to Margaritta,
and set sail with three vessels to extend his
discoveries; but, after a long and tedious
voyage, in which he endured every hardship,
the most important discovery he made was
the island of Jamaica.
Having been absent much longer than he
had expected, he returned to his new settle-
ment, but the colonists had become refrac-
tory and unmanageable.
No sooner had he left the island on his
voyage of discovery, than the soldiers under
Margaritta dispersed in straggling parties
over the island, lived at discretion upon the
natives, wasted their property, and treated
that inoffensive race with the insolence of
military oppression.
During the absence of Columbus, several
unfavourable accounts of his conduct had
been transmitted to Spain, and these accu-
sations gained such credit in that jealous
court, that Aguado, a person in every way


unsuited for the purpose, was appointed to
proceed to Hispaniola to observe the con-
duct of Columbus.
This man listened with eagerness to every
accusation of the discontented Spaniards,
and fomented still further the spirit of dis-
sension in the island.
Columbus felt how humiliating it must be
if he remained in the island with such a
partial inspector to observe his motions and
control his authority; he therefore took the
resolution of returning to Spain, in order to
lay a full account of his transactions before
Ferdinand and Isabella.
Having committed the government of the
colony during his absence to Don Bartho-
lomew, his brother, he appointed Roldan
Chief Justice, a choice which afterwards
caused great calamities to the colony.
On his arrival in Spain, Columbus ap-
peared at court with the confidence of a
man, not only conscious of having done no
wrong, but of having performed great ser-
Ferdinand and Isabella, ashamed of hav-



ing listened to ill-founded accusations, re-
ceived him with such marks of respect as
silenced the calumnies of his enemies, and
covered them with shame and confusion.
The gold, the pearls, and other commo-
dities of value which he had brought home,
and the mines which he had found, fully
proved the value and importance of his dis-
coveries, though Columbus considered them
only as preludes to future and more import-
ant acquisitions.




COLUMBUS, having been furnished with six
vessels of no great burden, departed on his
third voyage. He touched at the Canaries
and at the Cape de Verd islands; from
the former he despatched three ships with
a supply of provisions for the colony of
Hispaniola; with the other three he con-
tinued his voyage to the south.
Nothing remarkable occurred till they
were within five degrees of the line; then
they were becalmed, and the heat became so
excessive, that the wine casks burst and
their provisions were spoiled.
The Spaniards, who had never ventured


so far to the south, were afraid the ships
would take fire, but they were relieved in
some measure from their fear by a season-
able fall of rain.
This, however, though so heavy and in-
cessant that the men could hardly keep the
deck, did not greatly mitigate the heat,
and Columbus was at last constrained to
yield to the importunities of his crew, and
to alter his course to the north-west, in order
to reach some of the Caribbee islands, where
he might refit and be supplied with pro-
On the 1st of August, 1498, the man sta-
tioned at the round-top surprised them with
the joyful cry of Land!" They stood
towards it, and discovered a considerable
island, which the admiral called Trinidad, a
name it still retains, and near it the mouth
of a river, rolling towards the ocean such a
vast body of water, and rushing into it with
such impetuous force, that when it meets the
tide, which on that coast rises to an uncom-
mon height, their meeting occasions an extra-
ordinary and dangerous swell of the waves.


In this conflict, the irresistable torrent of
the river so far prevails, that it freshens the
ocean many leagues with its flood.
Columbus, before he could perceive the
danger, was entangled among these adverse
currents and tempestuous waves; and it
was with the utmost difficulty that he es-
caped through a narrow strait, which ap-
peared so tremendous, that he called it
"The Dragon's Mouth."
As soon as his consternation permitted
him to reflect on an appearance so extraor-
dinary, he justly concluded that the land
must be a part of some mighty continent,
and not of an island, because all the springs
that cW rise, and all the rain that could
fall on an island, could never, as he calcu-
lated, supply water enough to feed so pro-
digiously broad and deep a river; and he
was right, the river was the Oranoko.
Filled with this idea, he stood to the
west, along the coast of those provinces
which are now known by the name of Paria
and Cumana. He landed in several places,
and found the people to resemble those of


Hispaniola in their appearance and manner
of life.
They wore as ornaments small plates of
gold and pearls of considerable value, which
they willingly exchanged for European toys.
They seemed to possess greater courage and
better understandings than the inhabitants
of the islands.
The country produced four-footed animals
of several kinds, as well as a great variety of
fowls and fruits.
The admiral was so much delighted with
its beauty and fertility, that, with the warm
enthusiasm of a discoverer, he imagined it
to be the Paradise described in Scr ture.
Thus Columbus had the glory disco-
vering the new world, and of conducting the
Spaniards to that vast continent which has
been the seat of their empire and the source
of their treasure, in that quarter of the
globe. The shattered condition of his ships
and the scarcity of provisions, made it now
necessary to bear away for Hispaniola,
where he arrived wasted to an extreme
degree with fatigue and sickness.


Many revolutions had happened in that
country during his absence, which had lasted
more than two years.
His brother, whom he had left in com-
mand, had, in compliance with advice which
he had given him before his departure, re-
moved the colony from Isabella to a more
commodious station on the opposite side of
the island, and laid the foundation of St.
Domingo, which long continued to be
the most considerable town in the new
Such was the cruelty and oppression with
which the Spaniards treated the Indians,
and so intolerable the burden imposed upon
-them, that they at last took arms against
their oppressors; but these insurrections
were not formidable. In a conflict with
timid and naked Indians, there was neither
danger nor doubt-of victory.
A mutiny which broke out among the
Spaniards, was of a more dangerous nature,
the ringleader in which was 'Francisco
Roldan, whom Columbus, when he sailed
for Spain, had appointed chief judge, and


whose duty it was to have maintained the
laws, instead of breaking them.
This rebellion of Roldan, which threatened
the whole country with ruin, was only sub-
dued by the most wise and prudent conduct
on the part of Columbus; but order and
tranquillity were at length apparently re-
As soon as his affairs would permit, he
sent some of his ships to Spain, with a
journal of the voyage \vhi'ch he had made,
and a description of the new continent
which he had discovered, and also a chart
of the coast along which he had sailed, and
of which I shall have something more to
tell you plt i-ntily.
He at the same time sent specimens of
the gold, the pearls, and other curious and
valuable productions which he had acquired
by trafficking with the natives.
He also transmitted an account of the
insurrection in Hispaniola, and accused the
mutineers of having, by their unprovoked
rebellion, almost ruined the colony.
Roldan and his associates took care to


send to Spain, by the same ships, apologies
for their mutinous conduct, and unfortu-
nately for the happiness of Columbus, their
story gained most credit in the court of Fer.-
dinand and Isabella.
By these ships Columbus granted the
liberty of returning to Spain to all those,
who, from sickness or disappointment, were
disgusted with the country. "A good num-.
ber of such as were most dissatisfied, em-
braced this opportunity of returning to Eu-
rope. The disappointment of their unrea-
sonable hopes infladfed their rage against
Columbus to the utmost pitch, and their
distress made their accusations be believed.
A gang f these disorderly ruffians, who
had been shipped off to free the island from
their seditions, found their way to the court
at Grenada. Whenever the king or queen
appeared in public, they surrounded them,
insisting, with importunate clamours, on the
payment of arrears due to them, and de-
manding vengeance on the author of their
These endeavours to ruin Columbus were


seconded by Fonseca, who was now made
bishop of Badajos, and who-was entrusted
with the chief direction of Indian affairs.
This man had always been an implacable
enemy of Columbus, and with others of his
enemies who were about the court, having
continual access to the sovereign, they were
enabled to aggravate all the complaints
that were urged against him, while they
carefully suppressed his vindications of him-
By these means Ferdinand was at last in-
duced to send out Bobadilla, an officer of the
royal household, to inquire into the conduct
of Columbus, and if he should think the
charges against him proved, to supersede
him in his command, that is, to send him
home, and make himself governor in his
stead; so that it was the interest of the
judge to pronounce the person guilty whom
he was sent to try.
On his arrival he found Columbus absent
in the interior of the island; and as he had,
before he landed, made up his mind to treat
him as a criminal, he proceeded at once,


-without any inquiry, to supersede him in his
He took up his residence in Columbus'
house, from which the owner was absent,
seized upon his arms, gold, plate, jewels,
books, and even his letters and most secret
manuscripts, giving no account of the pro-
perty thus seized, but disposing of it as if
already confiscated to the crown; at the
same time he used the most unqualified
language when speaking of Columbus, and
hinted tat he was empowered to send him
home in chains; thus acting as if he had
been sent out to degrade the admiral, not
to inquire into his conduct.
As soon as Columbus arrived from the
interior, Bobadilla gave orders to put him in
irons and confine him in the fortress, and so
far from hearing him in his defence, he
would not even admit him to his presence;
but having collected from his enemies what
he thought sufficient evidence, he determined
to send both him and his brother home in
The charge of conducting the prisoners to


Spain was committed to Alonzo Villejo,
a man of honourable conduct and generous
feelings. When Villejo entered with the
guard to conduct him on board the caravel,
SColumbus thought it was to conduct him to
the scaffold. "Villejo" said he, "whither
are you taking me ?" "To the ship, your
excellency, to embark,"'replied the other.
"To embark !" repeated the admiral, ear-
nestly, "Villejo, do you speak the truth?"
"By the life of your excellency," replied the
honest officer, "it is true."
With these words the admiral was com-
forted, and felt as restored from death to life,
for he now knew he should have an oppor-
tunity of vindicatinghis conduct. The cara-
vel set sail in October, bearing off Columbus
shackled like the vilest criminal.
The worthy Villejo, as well as Andries
Martin, the master of the caravel, would
have taken off his irons, but to this he
would not consent. "No," said he proudly,
"their majesties commanded me, by letter,
to submit to whatever Bobadilla should order
in their name; by their authority he has put


upon me these chains; I will wear them till
they shall order4them to be taken off, and I
will afterwards, preserve them as relics and
memorials of the reward of my services."

The arrival of Columbus, a prisoner and
in chains, produced almost as great a sensa-
tion as his triumphant return on his first
A general burst of indignation arose in


Cadiz and in Seville, which was echoed
through all Spain, that Columbus was,
brought home in chains from the world he
had discovered.
The tidings reached the court of Grenada,
and filled the halls of the Alhambra with
murmurs of astonishment.
On the arrival of the ships at Cadiz, Co-
Inmbus, full of his wrongs, but not knowing
how far they had been authorized by his
sovereigns, forbare to write to them; but he
sent a long letter to a lady of the court,
high in favour with the queen, containing,
in eloquent and touching language, an ample
vindication of his conduct.
When it was read to the noble-minded
Isabella, and she found how grossly Colum-
bus had been wronged, and the royal autho-
rity abused, her heart was filled with sym-
pathy and indignation.
Without waiting for any documents that
might arrive from Bobadilla, Ferdinand and
Isabella sent orders to Cadiz, that he should
be instantly set at liberty, and treated with
-all distinction, and sent him two thousand


ducats to defray his expenses to court.
They wrote him a letter at the same time,
expressing their grief. at all that had hap-
pened, and inviting him to Grenada.
He was received by their majesties with
the greatest favour and distinction. When the
queen beheld this venerable man approach,
and thought on all he had deserved and all,
he had suffered, she was moved to tears.
Columbus had borne up firmly against
the injuries and wrongs of the world, but
when he found himself thus kindly treated,
and beheld tears in the benign eyes of Isa-
bella, his long suppressed feelings burst
forth, he threw himself upon his knees, and
for some time could not utter a word for the
violence of his tears and sobbings.
Ferdinand and Isabella raised him from
the ground and endeavoured to encourage
him by the most gracious expressions.
As soon as he had recovered his self-pos-
session, he entered into an eloquent and
high-minded vindication of his conduct, and
his zeal for the glory and advantage of the
Spanish crown.


The king and queen expressed their indig-
nation at the proceedings of Bobadilla, and
promised he should be immediately dismissed
from his command.
The person chosen to supersede Bobadilla
was Nicholas de Ovando. While his depar-
ture was delayed by various circumstances,
every arrival brought intelligence of the dis-
asterous state of the island under the admi-
nistration of Bobadilla.
He encouraged the Spaniards in the exer-
cise of the most wanton cruelties towards the
natives, to obtain from them large quantities
of gold. "Make the most of your time,"
he would say, "there is no knowing how
long it will last;" and the colonists were not
backward in following his advice. In the
meantime the poor Indians sunk under the
toils imposed upon them, and the severities
with which they were enforced.
These accounts hastened the departure of
Ovando, and a person sailed with him, in
order to secure what he could of the wreck
of Columbus' property.




I HAVE told you that Columbus, as soon as
he arrived at Hispaniola, after discovering
the new continent, sent a ship to Spain with
a journal of the voyage he had made, and a
description of the new continent which he
had discovered, together with a chart of the
coast of Paria and Cumana, along which he
had sailed.
This journal, with the charts and descrip-
tion, and Columbus' letters on the subject,
were placed in the custody of Fonseca, he
being minister for Indian affairs.


No sooner had the particulars of this dis.
cover been communicated by Columbus,
than a separate commission of discovery,
signed by Fonseca, but not by the sove-
reigns, was granted to Alonzo de Ojeda, who
had accompanied Columbus on his second
voyage, and whom Columbus had instructed
in all his plans. Ojeda was accompanied on
this voyage by a Florentine, whose name
was Amerigo Vespucci.
To these adventurers Fonseca communi-
cated Columbus' journal, his description of
the country, his charts, and all his private
This expedition sailed from Spain while
Columbus was still at Hispaniola, and
wholly ignorant of what was taking place;
and Ojeda, without touching at the colony,
steered his course direct for Paria, following
the very track which Columbus had marked
Having extended their discoveries very
little farther than Columbus had gone be-
fore them, Vespucci, on returning to Spain,
published an account of his adventures and


discoveries, and had the address and confi-
dence so to frame his narrative, as to make
it appear that the glory of having discovered
the new continent belonged to him.
Thus the bold pretensions of an impostor
have robbed the discoverer of his just re-
ward, and the caprice of fame has unjustly
assigned to him an honour far above the
renown of the greatest conquerors that of
indelibly impressing his name upon this
vast portion of the earth, which ought in
justice to have been called Columbia.
Two years had now been spent in soli-
citing the favour of an ungrateful court,
and notwithstanding all his merits and ser-
vices, he solicited in vain; but even this
ungracious return did not lessen his armour
in his favourite pursuits, and his anxiety to
pursue those discoveries in which he felt he
had yet only made a beginning.
Ferdinand at last consented to grant him
four small vessels, the largest of which did
not exceed seventy tons in burden; but,
accustomed to brave danger and endure
hardships, he did not hesitate to accept the


command of this pitiful squadron, and he
sailed from Cadiz on his fourth voyage on
the 9th of May.

Having touched, as usual, at the Canaries,
he intended to have sailed direct for this
new discovered continent; but his largest
vessel was so clumsy and unfit for service,
that he determined to bear away for His-
paniola, in hopes of exchanging her for
some ship of the fleet that had carried out


The fleet that had brought out Ovando
lay in the harbour ready to put to sea, and
was to take home Bobadilla, together with
Roldan and many of his adherents, to be
tried in Spain for rebellion. Bobadilla was
to embark in the principal ship, on board of
which he had put an immense amount of
gold, which he hoped would atone for all
his faults.
Among the presents intended for his
sovereign was one mass of virgin gold,
which was famous in the Spanish chroni-
cles; it was said to weigh 3600 castillanos.
Large quantities of gold had been shipped
in the fleet by Roldan and other adventurers
-the wealth gained by the sufferings of the
unhappy natives.
Columbus sent an officer on shore to re-
quest permission to shelter his squadron in
the river, as he apprehended an approaching
storm. He also cautioned them not to let
the fleet sail, but his request was refused by
Ovando, and his advice disregarded.
The fleet put to sea, and Columbus kept
his feeble squadron close to shore, and


sought for shelter in some wild bay or river
of the island.
Within two days, one of those tremendous
storms which sometimes sweep those lati-
tudes gathered up, and began to blow.
Columbus sheltered his little squadron as
well as he could, and sustained no damage.
A different fate befel the other armament.
The ship in which were Bobadilla, Rol-
dan, and a number of the most inveterate
enemies of Columbus, was swallowed up
with all its crew, together with the prin-
cipal part of the ill-gotten treasure, gained
by the miseries of the Indians.
Some of the ships returned to St. Do-
mingo, and only one was able to continue
her voyage to Spain; that one had on board
four thousand pieces of gold, the property
of Columbus, which had been recovered by
the agent whom he sent out with Ovando.
Thus, while the enemies of the admiral
were swallowed up as it were before his eyes,
the only ship enabled to pursue her voyage
was the frail bark freighted with his pro-




COLUMBUS soon left Hispaniola where he
met with so inhospitable a reception, and
steering towards the west, he arrived on the
coast of Honduras. There he had an inter-
view with some of the inhabitants of the
continent, who came off in a large canoe;
they appeared to be more civilized than any
whom he had hitherto discovered.
In return to the inquiries which the Spa-
niards made with their usual eagerness, where
the Indians got the gold which they wore
by way of ornaments, they directed him to
countries situated to the west, in which gold


was found in such profusion that it was
applied to the most common uses.
Well would it have been for Columbus
had he followed their advice. Within a day
or two he would have arrived at Yucatan;
the discovery of Mexico and the other opu-
lent countries of New Spain would have
necessarily followed, the Southern Ocean
would have been disclosed to him, and a
succession of splendid discoveries would
have shed fresh glory on his declining age.
But the admiral's mind was bent upon
discovering the supposed strait that was to
lead to the Indian Ocean. In this naviga-
tion he explored a great extent of coast
from Cape Gracios A Dios till he came to a
harbour, which on account of its beauty and
security, he called Porto Bello.
On quitting this harbour he steered for
the south, and he had not followed this.
course many days when he was overtaken by
storms more terrible than any he had yet
For nine days the vessels were tossed
about at the mercy of a raging tempest.


The sea, according to the description of
Columbus, boiled at times like a cauldron,
at other times it ran in mountain waves
covered with foam: at night the raging
billows sparkled with luminous particles,
which made them resemble great surges of
For a day and a night the heavens glowed
like a furnace with incessant flashes of light-
ning, while the loud claps of thunder were
often mistaken for signal guns of their foun-
dering companions.
In the midst of this wild tumult of the
elements, they beheld a new object of alarm.
The ocean, in one place, became strangely
agitated; the water was whirled up into a
kind of pyramid or cone; while a livid cloud,
tapering to a point, bent down to meet it;
joining together, they formed a column,
which rapidly approached the ship, spinning
along the surface of the deep, and drawing
up the water with a rushing sound, it passed
the ship without injury.
His leaky vessels were not able to with-
stand storms like these. One of them


foundered, and he was obliged to abandon
With the remaining two he bore away for
Hispaniola, but in the tempest his ships
falling foul of each other, it was with the
greatest difficulty he reached the island of
His two vessels were in such a shattered
condition, that, to prevent them from sink-
ing, and to save the lives of his crews, he
was obliged to run them on shore.
Having no ship now left, he had no means
of reaching Hispaniola, or of making his
situation known. In this juncture he had
recourse to the hospitable kindness of the
natives, who, considering the Spaniards as
beings of a superior nature, were eager, on
every occasion to assist them.
From them he obtained two canoes, each
formed out of a single tree hollowed with
fire. In these, which were only fit for
creeping along the coast, two of his brave
and faithful companions, assisted by a few
Indians, gallantly offered to set out for
Hispaniola; this voyage they accomplished


in ten days, after encountering incredible
fatigues and dangers.
By them he wrote letters to Ovando.
describing his situation and requesting him
to send ships to bring off him and his crews;
but what will you think of the unfeeling
cruelty of this man, when I tell you that he
suffered these brave men to wait eight
months before he would give them any hopes
of relieving their companions: and what
must have been the feelings of Columbus
during this period.
At last the ships arrived which were to
take them from the island, where the un-
feeling Ovando had suffered them to languish
above a year, exposed to misery in all its
various forms. When he arrived at St.
Domingo, Ovando treated him with every
kind of insult and injustice. Columbus sub-
mitted in silence, but became extremely im-
patient to quit a country where he had been
treated with such barbarity.
The preparations were soon finished, and
he set sail for Spain with two ships, but
disaster still pursued him to the end of his


course. He suffered acutely from a painful
and dangerous disease, and his mind was
kept uneasy and anxious by a continued suc-
cession of storms. One of the vessels being
disabled, was forced back to St. Domingo,
and in the other he sailed 700 leagues with
jury-masts, and reached with difficulty the
pert of St. Lucar in Spain, 1504.
On his arrival he received the fatal news
of the death of his patroness queen Isabella,
from whom he had hoped for the redress of
his wrongs.
He -applied to the king, who, instead of
confirming the titles and honours which he
had formerly conferred upon him, insulted
him with the proposal of renouncing them
all for a pension.
Disgusted with the ingratitude of a mo-
narch whom he had served with fidelity and
success, eAjausted with the calamities which
he had endured, and broken with infirmities,
this great and good man breathed his last at
Valladolid, A. D. 1506, in the 69th year of
his age.
He was buried in the cathedral at Seville,


and on his tomb was engraved an epitaph
commemorating his discovery of a New

Christobal Colon, obiit 1506,

A Cataiilla a aton
!euba ontura tria Colan.*

Thus much for Columbus; those who are
the greatest benefactors of mankind seldom
meet with much gratitude from men in their
lives; they must look to God for their re-
ward, and leave future generations to d"
justice to their memory.
It was very unfortunate for the natives of
America, that the country fell into the hands
of such a cruel, covetous, and bigoted
nation as the Spaniards were. Their thirst
for gold was insatiable, and the cruelties
they exercised upon the natives are too hor-
To Castile and to Leon
Columbus gave a New World.


rible to recite. After the death of Colum-
bus, the Indians were no longer treated with
gentleness, for it was his defence of the pro-
perty and lives of these harmless natives that
brought down upon his head such bitter
hatred. You will now look into your map
and follow Columbus in some of his disco-
veries. You will see a great number of
islands extending in a curve from Florida,
which is the southernmost part of the United
States, to the mouth of the river Oronoko
in South America; and, as Columbus firmly
believed these islands, when he discovered
them, to be a part of India, the name of
Indies was given to them by Ferdinand and
Isabella; and, even after the error was de-
tected, and the true position of the new
world ascertained, the name has remained,
and the appellation of Indies is given to the
country, and that of Indians to the inha-




COLUMBUS discovered and gave names to
some of these islands, and on several of
them he settled colonies, and did all he
could to make them the abodes of peace and
On his taking leave of them for the last
time, Ovando continued governor of Hayti.
The cruelties exercised by this unfeeling
man it would take a volume to describe, but
I will mention only one or two instances.
When the natives were unable to pay the
tribute which he exacted from them, he
always accused them of insurrection, and it


was to punish a slight insurrection of this
kind in the eastern part of the island that
he sent his troops, who ravaged the country
with fire and sword. He showed no mercy
to age or sex, putting many to death with
horrible tortures, and brought off the brave
Catabanama, one of the five sovereign ca-
ziques of the island, in chains to St. Do-
mingo, where he was ignominiously hanged
by Ovando, for the crime of defending his
territory and his native soil against usurping
But the most atrocious act of Ovando,
and one that must heap odium on his name,
wherever the woes of the gentle natives of
Hayti are heard of, was the cruelty he was
guilty of towards the province of Xaragua
for one of those pretended conspiracies.
Ovando set out at the head of nearly four
hundred well armed soldiers, seventy of
whom were steel-clad horsemen; giving out
that he was coming on a visit of friendship,
to make arrangements for the payment of
SBehechio, the antieut cazique of the pro-


vince, was dead, and his sister, Anacaona,
wife of the late formidable chief Caonabo,
had succeeded to the government.
She was one of the most beautiful females
in the island; of great natural grace and dig-
nity, and superior intelligence; her name
in the Indian language signified "Golden

She came forth to meet Ovando, according
to the custom of her nation, attended by her
most distinguished subjects, and her train of
damsels waving palm branches, and dancing
to the cadence of their popular ayretos.


All her principal caziques had been assem-
bled to do honour to the guests, who, for
several days were entertained with banquets,
and national games and dances.
In return for these exhibitions, Ovando
invited Anacaona, with her beautiful daugh-
ter Higuenamata, and her principal subjects,
to witness a tilting match in the public
When all were assembled, and the square
crowded with unarmed Indians, Ovando gave
a signal, and instantly the horsemen rushed
into the midst of the naked and defenceless
throng, trampling them under foot, cutting
them down with their swords, transfixing
them -with their lances, and sparing neither
age nor sex.
Above eighty caziques had been assembled
in one of the principal houses: it was sur-
rounded by troops, the caziques were bound
to the posts which supported the roof, and
put to cruel tortures, until in the extremity
of anguish they were made to admit as true
what their queen and themselves had been
charged with.


When they had thus been made, by tor-
ture, to accuse themselves, a horrible punish-
ment was immediately inflicted. Fire was
set to the house, and they all perished miser-
ably in the flames.
As to Anacaona, she was carried to St.
Domingo, where, after the mockery of a
trial, she was pronounced guilty on the tes-
timony of the Spaniards, and was barba-
rously hanged by the people whom she had
so long and so greatly befriended.
After the massacre of Xaragua, the de-
struction of its inhabitants went on. They
were hunted for six months amid the fast-
nesses of- the mountains, and their country
ravaged by horse and foot, until, all being
reduced to deplorable misery and abject sub-
mission, Ovando pronounced the province
restored to order; and in remembrance of
his triumph, founded a town near the lake,
which he called Santa Maria de la Verdadera
Pas (St. Mary of the true peace.)
Such was the tragical fate of the beautiful
Anacaona, once extolled as the Golden Flower
of Hayti; and such the story of the delight-

ful region of Xaragua, which the Spaniards,
by their own account, found a perfect para-
dise, but which, by their vile passions, they
filled with horror and desolation.
After this work of destruction, they made
slaves of the remaining inhabitants, and di-
vided them amongst them, and many of the
sanguinary contests among themselves arose
out of quarrels about the distribution.
SWe cannot help pausing to cast back a
look of pity and admiration over these beau-
tiful but devoted regions.
The white man had penetrated the land I
In his train came avarice, pride, and am-
bition; sordid care, and pining labour, were
soon to follow, and the paradise of the Indian
was about to disappear for ever.




WHEN once the way had been pointed out,
it was easy for other navigators to follow,
and accordingly many Spaniards undertook
voyages of further discovery.
Among others,.Yanez Pinzon, one of the
brave companions of Columbus, undertook a
voyage to the new world in 1499.
This navigator suffered much from storms,
and having sailed southward, he crossed the
equator and lost sight of the polar star.
The sailors were exceedingly alarmed at
this circumstance, as the polar star was
relied upon by them as one of their surest
guides; not knowing the shape of the earth,


they thought that some prominence hid this
star from their view.
The first land that Pinzon discovered,
after crossing the line, was Cape St. Augus-
tine, in eight degrees south latitude, the
most projecting part of the extensive coun-
try of Brazil.
As the fierceness of the natives made it
unsafe to land on this coast, he continued his
voyage to the north-west, and fell in with
the mighty river Amazon, which is. nearly
under the equinoctial line.
The mouth of this river is more than
thirty leagues in breadth, and its waters
enter more than forty leagues into the ocean
without losing its freshness.
He now recrossed the line, and coming
again in sight of the polar star, he pursued
his course along the coast, passed the mouth
of the Oronoko, and entered the Gulph of
Paria, after which he returned to Spain.
Ojeda also undertook a voyage expressly
to found a settlement; but as the character
of the Spaniards was now well known to the
inhabitants of these parts, they determined


to oppose their landing, and being a numer-
ous and warlike people, Ojeda nearly lost his
life in the attempt.
Many of his companions were slain; the
survivors, however, succeeding in making
good their retreat on board the ships.
Shortly afterwards he landed on the east-
ern side of the Gulph of Darien, and built a
fortress which they called San Sebastian.
Ojeda had with him in this expedition
Francisco Pizarro, about whom I shall have
to tell you something more presently.
About the same time another Spaniard,
of the name of Nicuessa, formed a settle-
ment on that part of the coast, and built a
fortress there, which he called Nombre de
Dios, not very distant from the harbour of
Thus, by degrees, the whole coast of Ame-
rica, on the side of the Atlantic, was disco-
vered and explored.
But the Spaniards did not know that in
the part where they were, it was only a
narrow neck of land (which you know is
called an Isthmus) that separated them from


another vast ocean; and this, when they
discovered the ocean on the other side, was
called the Isthmus of Darien.
I will now give you a short account of the
discovery of this ocean.
Nothing having been heard of Ojeda and
his new colony of San Sebastian, another
expedition, commanded by Enciso, set sail
in search of them.
Among the ship's company was a man, by
name Vasco Ninez de Balboa, who, although
of a rich family, had, by his bad habits, not
only become very poor, but also very much
in debt.
To avoid being thrown into prison for the
debts that he owed, he contrived to get on
board Enciso's ship, concealed in a cask,
which was taken on board the vessel as a
cask of provisions.
When the ship was far from St. Domingo,
Balboa came out from his cask to the asto-
nishment of all on board.
Enciso at first was angry at the way he
had escaped from the punishment which his
bad conduct had deserved; yet, as he thought


that he might be of service to him, he par-
doned him.
The settlement of St. Sebastian, however,
had been broken up, the Spaniards having
suffered much from the repeated attacks of
the natives, who would no longer patiently
submit to their unjust treatment.
Soon after Enciso arrived at Carthagena
he was joined by Pizarro, with the wretched
remains of the colony; he determined never-
theless, to continue his voyage to the settle-
Upon his arrival there he found Pizarro's
-account was too true, for where St. Sebastian
had stood, nothing was to be seen but a heap
of ruins.
Here misfortune followed misfortune, his
own ship was wrecked and then he was at-
tacked by the natives.
In despair at these disasters Enciso was
at a loss what to do, or where to go, when
Balboa advised him to continue his course
.along the coast in Pizarro's little vessel.
He stated that he had once before been
-on an expedition in this same gulf, and on


the westerIsad1 e he well remembered an In-
dian village, on the banks of a river, called
by the natives Darien.
Enciso pleased with Balboa's advice, re-
solved to take possession of this village, and
to drive out all the Indians.
Arrived at the river, he landed his men,
and, without giving the unfortunate people
of the village any notice, he attacked them,
killed several, drove the rest out, and robbed
them of all their possessions.
He then made the village the chief place
of his new government, and called it Santa
Maria del Darien. Balboa assisted in this
work of cruelty and injustice.
The Spaniards had not been long here
when they became tired with Enciso, and
they refused to obey him, and sent him off
in a ship to Spain. Upon his departure,
Balboa took the command.
In one of his expeditions into the interior
parts of the country in search of gold, he
first heard of a sea to the west, as yet un-
known to Europeans.
He had received a large quantity of gold


from an Indian cazique, or chief, and was
weighing it into shares for the purpose of
dividing it among his men when a quarrel
arose as to the exactness of the weight.
One of the sons of the Indian cazique
was present, and he felt so disgusted at the
sordid behaviour of the Spaniards that he
struck the scales with his fist and scattered
the glittering gold about the place.

Before the Spaniards could recover from
their astonishment at this sudden act, he said
to them, why should you quarrel for such a


trifle? If you really esteem gold to be so
precious as to abandon your homes, and
come and seize the lands and dwellings of
others for the sake of it, I can tell you of a
land not far distant where you may find it in
"Beyond those lofty mountains," he con-
tinued, pointing to the south, "lies a mighty
sea, all the streams that flow into which
down the southern side of those mountains,
abound in gold, -and all the utensils the
people have, are made of gold."
Balboa was struck with this account of the
young Indian, and eagerly inquired the best
way of penetrating to this sea, and this land
of gold.
The young Indian warned him of the
dangers he would meet with from the fierce
race of Indians inhabiting these mountains,
who were cannibals, or eaters of human flesh,
but Balboa was not to be deterred by ac-
counts of difficulties and dangers.
He was, besides, desirous of getting pos-
session of the gold, and of obtaining, by the
=merits of the discovery, the pardon of the


King of Spain, for taking from Enciso the
command of the settlement.
He resolved, therefore, to penetrate to
this sea, and immediately began to make
preparations for the journey.
He first sent to Hispaniola for an ad-
ditional number of soldiers, to assist him in
the perilous adventure, but instead of receiv-
ing these, the only news that reached him
by the return of his messengers was, that he
would most probably have the command of
Darien taken from him, and be punished for
assisting to dispossess Enciso.
This news made him determine no longer
to delay his departure. All the men he
could muster for the expedition amounted
only to one hundred and ninety; but these
were hardy and resolute, and much attached
to him. He armed them with swords and
targets; cross-bows and arquebusses; be-
sides this little band, Balboa took with him
a few of the Indians of Darien whom he
had won by kindness, to serve him.
On the 1st of September, 1513, Balboa set
out from Darien, first to the residence of the


Indian cazique, from whose son he first
heard of the sea.
From this chief he obtained the assistance
of guides and some warriors, and with this
force he prepared to penetrate the wilderness
before him.
It was on the 6th of September that he
began his march for the mountains-which
separated him from the great Pacific Ocean,
he set out with a resolution to endure pati-
ently all the miseries, and to combat boldly
all the difficulties that he might meet with,
and he contrived to rouse the same determi-
nation in his followers.
Their journey was through a broken rocky
country covered with forest trees and under-
wood, so thick and close as to be quite
matted together and every here and there
deep foaming streams, some of which they
were forced to cross on rafts.
So wearisome was the journey, that in four
days they had not advanced more than ten
leagues, and they began to suffer much from
They had now arrived in the province of

a warlike tribe of Indians who, instead of
flying and hiding themselves, came forth to
the attack. They set upon the Spaniards
with furious yells, thinking to overpower them
at once. They were armed with bows and
arrows, and clubs made of paln-wood almost
as hard as iron. But the fir~t shock of the
report from the fire-arms of the Spaniards
struck them with terror. They took to
flight, but were closely pursued by the
Spaniards with their blood-hounds. The
Cazique and six hundred of his people were
left dead upon the field of battle.
After the battle the Spaniards entered the
adjoining village, which was at the foot of
the last mountain that remained to be
climbed; this village they robbed of every
thing valuable. There was much gold and
many jewels.
Balboa shared the booty among his band
of followers. But this victory was not
gained without some loss on the side of the
Balboa found that several of his men had
been wounded by the arrows of the Indians,


and many also, overcome with fatigue, had
fallen sick, these he was obliged to leave
in the village, while he ascended the moun-
At the cool and fresh hour of day-break he
assembled his scanty band, and began to
climb the height, wishing to reach the top
before the heat of noon.
About ten o'clock they came out from the
thick forest through which they had been
struggling ever since day-break: the change
from the closeness of the woods to the
pleasant breeze from the mountain, was
delightful. But they were still further en-
couraged. "From that spot" exclaimed one
of the Indian guides, pointing to the height
above them "may be seen the great sea of
which you are in search."
When Balboa heard this, he commanded
his men to halt, and forbade any one to stir
from his place. He was resolved to be the.
first European who should look upon that
sea, which he had been the first to discover.
Accordingly he ascended the mountain
height alone, and when he reached the


summit he beheld the wide sea glittering in
the morning sun.
Balboa called to his little troop to ascend
the height and look upon the glorious pros-
pect; and they joined him without delay.
"Behold, my friends," said he, "the re-
ward of all our toils, a sight upon which
the eye of Spaniard never rested before."
He now took possession of the sea-coast
and the surrounding country in the name of
the king of Spain.
He then had a tree cut down, and made
into the form of a cross, and planted it on
the spot from which he had first beheld the
sea. He also made a mound by heaping up
large stones upon which he carved the
names of the king of Spain.
The Indians saw all this done, and while
they helped to pile the stones and set up
the cross, they little thought that they were
assisting to deprive themselves of their
homes and their country.
You remember the noble reproof of Canute
in the "History of England," to his flatter-
ers, when they assured him that even the


waves of the sea would obey him: but this
arrogant and weak minded Spaniard waded
into the waves of the great Pacific Ocean, up
to his knees, and absurdly took possession
of it in the name of the Spanish monarch.

Balboa was some time employed in fight-
ing with the Indian tribes that inhabited the
sea-coast, and in hunting them with blood-


He soon made these helpless people sub-
mit. From them he got some further ac-
counts of the rich country which the Indian
prince had mentioned, and which proved
afterwards to be Peru.
He now quitted the shores of the Pacific
Ocean on his return across the mountains of
Darien. His route homewards was different
from that which he had before pursued, and
the sufferings of his troops much greater.
Often they could find no water, the heat
having dried up the pools and brooks.
Many died from thirst, and those who sur-
vived, although loaded with gold, were ex-
hausted for want of food; for the poor
Indians brought gold and jewels, instead of
food, as peace offerings to the Spaniards.
At length, after much slaughter of the
Indians that dwelt in the mountains, and
burning of the villages, Balboa and his
troops arrived at Darien; having robbed the
Indians of all the gold and silver they could
find. The Spaniards at Darien received
with great delight and praise the news of his
success and discovery-a discovery gained


at the expense of much unnecessary cruelty
and injustice.
He now despatched a ship to Spain, with
the news of his discovery, and by it he sent
part of the gold he had carried 6ff from the
different Indian tribes.
A few days before this ship reached Spain
a new governor had been sent out, by name
Padrarias Davila, to take Balboa's place, and
with orders to punish Balboa for his conduct
to Enciso.
But when he arrived at Darien, and saw
how much the discoverer of the Pacific was
beloved by all the Spaniards of the settle-
ment he hesitated through fear, and finally
resolved to defer the execution of the orders
which he had brought with him.
Davila permitted Balboa to depart from
Darien for the purpose of building brigan-
tines with a view to navigate and explore the
Pacific Ocean. Three years had elapsed
since he discovered this ocean,-and with
joy he now prepared to build the ship's which
were to be the first belonging to Europeans
to sail upon it.

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