Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of maps
 Physical geography
 The western continent
 The discovery of America
 Discovery of America - continu...
 Maine - continued
 New Hampshire
 New Hampshire - continued
 Vermont - continued
 Massachusetts - continued
 Rhode Island
 Connecticut - continued
 New England
 New England - continued
 New England - continued
 New England - continued
 New England - continued
 New England - continued
 New England - continued
 New England - continued
 The Puritans
 The Puritans - continued
 New York
 New York - continued
 New york - continued
 New york - continued
 New york - continued
 New york - continued
 New Jersey
 Pennsylvania - continued
 Middle states
 Virginia - continued
 Virginia - continued
 Virginia - continued
 North Carolina
 South Carolina
 The western states - Ohio
 The territories
 The French war
 French war - continued
 The revolution
 Revolution - continued
 Revolution - continued
 Revolution - continued
 Revolution - continued
 Revolution - continued
 Revolution - continued
 United States after the revolu...
 Government of United States
 The state governments
 General remarks on government
 The United States
 British possessions in North...
 The Esquimaux
 Russian America
 Mexico - continued
 Mexico - continued
 Mexico - continued
 Mexico - continued
 South America. Venezuela
 New Grenada
 Peru - continued
 Peru - continued
 Buenos Ayres
 West Indies
 West Indies - continued
 The Buccaneers
 General view of America
 Chronological table
 Extent and population of western...
 Comparitive view of the population...
 Comparitive view of the population...
 Pronouncing index
 Back Cover

Group Title: The first book of history, combined with geography : containing the history and geography of the Western Hemisphere
Title: The first book of history, combined with geography
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003242/00001
 Material Information
Title: The first book of history, combined with geography containing the history and geography of the Western Hemisphere
Alternate Title: Parley's first book of history
Physical Description: 218 p., <24> leaves of plates : ill., col. maps, charts ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Goodrich, Samuel G ( Samuel Griswold ), 1793-1860
Ingham & Bragg ( Publisher )
Swan, Brewer and Tileston ( Publisher )
Publisher: Swan, Brewer and Tileston
Ingham and Bragg
Place of Publication: Boston
Publication Date: 1860, c1852
Edition: Rev. and improved ed., with important additions.
Subject: World history -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Geography -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- America   ( lcsh )
Historical geography -- Juvenile literature -- America   ( lcshac )
Maps -- Juvenile literature -- America   ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- Western Hemisphere   ( lcshac )
Geography -- Juvenile literature -- Western Hemisphere   ( lcshac )
Textbooks -- 1860   ( rbgenr )
Maps -- 1860   ( rbgenr )
Hand-colored illustrations -- 1860   ( local )
Bldn -- 1860
Genre: Textbooks   ( rbgenr )
Maps   ( rbgenr )
Hand-colored illustrations   ( local )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Ohio -- Cleveland
United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston
Statement of Responsibility: by the author of Peter Parley's tale ; for the use of schools ; illustrated by engravings and colored maps.
General Note: Maps are hand-colored.
General Note: Includes chronological table and pronouncing index.
Funding: Brittle Books Program
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00003242
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002235535
oclc - 47849823
notis - ALH5995
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Table of Contents
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    List of maps
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 14a
        Page 14b
    Physical geography
        Page 15
    The western continent
        Page 16
        Page 17
    The discovery of America
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Discovery of America - continued
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Maine - continued
        Page 24
        Page 24a
        Page 25
    New Hampshire
        Page 26
        Page 26a
    New Hampshire - continued
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Vermont - continued
        Page 30
        Page 30a
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 32a
    Massachusetts - continued
        Page 33
    Rhode Island
        Page 34
        Page 34a
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 36a
        Page 37
    Connecticut - continued
        Page 38
    New England
        Page 39
    New England - continued
        Page 40
        Page 40a
        Page 41
    New England - continued
        Page 42
        Page 43
    New England - continued
        Page 44
    New England - continued
        Page 45
        Page 46
    New England - continued
        Page 47
        Page 48
    New England - continued
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    New England - continued
        Page 52
    The Puritans
        Page 53
        Page 54
    The Puritans - continued
        Page 55
        Page 56
    New York
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 58a
    New York - continued
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    New york - continued
        Page 62
        Page 63
    New york - continued
        Page 64
        Page 65
    New york - continued
        Page 66
    New york - continued
        Page 67
    New Jersey
        Page 68
        Page 68a
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
    Pennsylvania - continued
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 78a
    Middle states
        Page 79
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Virginia - continued
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
    Virginia - continued
        Page 84
    Virginia - continued
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 86a
    North Carolina
        Page 87
        Page 88
    South Carolina
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
    The western states - Ohio
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 98a
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 100a
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 102a
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 104a
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 106a
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 108a
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 110
        Page 110a
        Page 111
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
    The territories
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
    The French war
        Page 117
        Page 118
    French war - continued
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
    The revolution
        Page 123
        Page 124
    Revolution - continued
        Page 125
        Page 126
    Revolution - continued
        Page 127
        Page 128
    Revolution - continued
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
    Revolution - continued
        Page 132
        Page 133
    Revolution - continued
        Page 134
        Page 135
    Revolution - continued
        Page 136
        Page 137
    United States after the revolution
        Page 138
        Page 139
    Government of United States
        Page 140
        Page 141
    The state governments
        Page 142
        Page 143
    General remarks on government
        Page 144
        Page 145
    The United States
        Page 146
        Page 146a
        Page 147
        Page 148
    British possessions in North America
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 150a
        Page 151
    The Esquimaux
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
    Russian America
        Page 157
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 158a
        Page 159
        Page 160
    Mexico - continued
        Page 161
        Page 162
    Mexico - continued
        Page 163
        Page 164
    Mexico - continued
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
    Mexico - continued
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
    South America. Venezuela
        Page 173
    New Grenada
        Page 174
        Page 174a
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
    Peru - continued
        Page 179
        Page 180
    Peru - continued
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
    Buenos Ayres
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 189
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
    West Indies
        Page 195
        Page 196
    West Indies - continued
        Page 197
        Page 198
    The Buccaneers
        Page 199
        Page 200
    General view of America
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
    Chronological table
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
    Extent and population of western hemisphere
        Page 209
    Comparitive view of the population of the United States
        Page 210
    Comparitive view of the population of the principal cities of the United States
        Page 211
        Page 212
    Pronouncing index
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text







OP .







Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 188, yT

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts

S Qhe "First Book of History, combined with Geography," was this day adopted as one of the
stxt books in the Grammar Schools of this city.
(Signed) EDWARD CAPEN, Secretary.

The "First Book of History combined with Geography was this day adopted as one ol
the text bonks in the Grammar Schools of this city.
".: (Signed) JOSHUA SEAVrR, Secrtary

*v400 *
'4 0^^\ ^



koi the multitude of books for instructing the young, there are not a few of an hi s
nature; but it is remarkable that History is not a universal, nor even a general study
our common schools. This cannot arise from any want of adaptation in the subject itself
Purposes of instruction; on the contrary, it is manifest, that it is peculiarly adapted
ae purposes. We do not mean to say this of history as it has been generally treated;
~t school books of this kind are but little more than extended chronological tables,
P e nothing to the reader but a tedious mass of dates and general observations. Such
Stoay be useful to people of mature age, but they neither amuse nor instruct the class
rs for whom they are designed. But of all reading, there is none that so readily
Owts the attention, and lays hold of the sympathy of children and youth, as lively narra-
i of the enterprises, adventures, dangers, trials, successes, and failures of mankind;
1i6ese it is the business of history to display. Books which treat of the works of nature
gt which exhibit geographical details, observations upon natural history, and natural
4py any or all of these will be immediately thrown aside by a child left to his
Sa book of stories, delineating events in connection with the development of
mom passions.
Then, history, when properly treated, is one of the most attractive of all studies, why is
notregularly taught in all our schools ? It is not because it is deemed less useful than,
er studies; the proper study of mankind is man," and it cannot be entered n too
Op. After possessing a knowledge of religion, and the duties we owe to God '-fur
ighbor,history is the most important of all studies. It relates to us what has been dbpe
mankind, and thus teaches us what they may do. It acquaints us with the true character
our race, and enables us to know ourselves better. It apprises us of the existence of
iand the way to shun it; it acquaints us with the existence of good, and slows us how
n it.
cannott be, therefore, that the limited use of history, in our schools, is owing to an ideak
it is useless. The fact must arise from the want of historical books, written in a style
shall render them both interesting and profitable. Such, at least, is the conviction "
.Lthor of this volume; and, believing that a First Book of History, for general use in
ihools, is much to be dsired, he has undertaken, and now offiot to the public, tihe
volume. .
aring it two things have been had, in view. In the first place; it should be useful ;
the second place, to make it 'useful, it must be entertaining. To accomplish these
the book is provided with maps, and before the pupil enters upon the history of any
country, he is to learn from them its shape, boundiries rivers, aud shores. HIe is
efly made acquainted with its present state, its towns ad 'ties, and the occupations
'ababitants. These geographical details are conveyed ~ the upil by narrating
ls through various entries, in which he take a 'part.,
ing thus, acquainted the present condition ofa' con its
h e autor has been carefi o introduce precise dates; for
e to fve any disct view of any portion of history.
select from the great mass of events those topics whid
d to improve the young reader. He has introduced
and curious particulars, for the double purpsw of e -bOk I
,- ..*'

throwing light upon the periods and events with which they are connected. A largenum
ber of engravings have been inserted, as well for illustration as for fixing certain ideas
permanently in the memory of the pupil.
A familiar style has been adopted, and the materials throughout are arranged on a new
plan. The common method is to begin at the earliest date, and follow down the train of
events to the present time. The author of this work has partially reversed this method. He
begins with the individual states of our own country, and first exhibits their present condi-
tion. He then notices a few recent events, and having fixed the attention of the reader
upon the subject, proceeds to narrate the history. Avoiding general statements, he has
Sendeavored to keep the attention and interest of the pupil alive, by descriptions, sketches,
and tales, which may at once gratify the taste and improve the understanding.
It will be observed, that, although the book contains a large quantity of matter, yet it em-
braces the history of the Western Continent only. It is believed that it will be more useful
than if it contained the history of the Eastern Continent, also, in the same number of pages.
In proportion as a work is condensed, it becomes general, and, of course, uninteresting to
children. It was deemed preferable, therefore, to give an ample history of our own Hem-
isphere, and if the plan should be approved, a second volume, embracing the history of the
Eastern Hemisphere, will be published.
WITH GEOGRAPHY, embracing the geography and history of the Eastern Hemisphere, and
PARLEY'S THIRD BOOK OF I-STORY, containing Ancient History, have been published and
extensively circulated. They are written in the same attractive style, and contain numerous
maps and engravings.

itE first-edition of this work was published in 1832, since which time it has acquired a
very.extended and constantly increasing circulation. It is now presented to the public m
a new and proved form. Within the period of twenty years, many important events
have occurred and great changes have taken place in the political geography of the West-
ern ContntC In our own country, new states have been formed, and towns and cities
have beelb $lt as if by the hand of magic. Arkansas, Michigan,'Florida, Iowa, Texas,
Wiscon4iad California, have all been added to the Union since the work was originally
written; the geographical part of it had, therefore, become exceedingly defective. To
remedy this defect, and to adapt the work to the wants of the present time, has been the
design of the reviser.
Tne plan of the work has not been materially changed. It has been improved by an
introductory treatise upon the subject of geography, with such definitions of geographical
terms as are necessary to render the work complete in itself, as a text book for schools,
upon the geography and history of the tern Continent. It contains nineteen maps,
newly engraved upon steel, and colored, which contain the names of all the places referred
to in the work, and these maps are inserted in connection with the states and countries
which thoy represent.
The work has already met with unexampled encouragement, and it is hoped that this
srpved edition may be found worthy of even more favor than the preceding ones.
stwoH, March, 16852.


Geography. Form of the earth. Motions
of the earth. The seasons. Divisions of
the earth.............................. 11
nitions .............................. 15
Its divisions...........*......*...*.....* 16
Story of Columbus. Adventures. Thoughts
of Columbus. Government of Genoa. Fer-
dinand and Isabella. He sets sail......... 18
ued.-First voyage on the ocean. Discov-
ery of land. Landing. Natives. Country.
Return to Spain. Procession. Other voy-
ages. Americus Vespucius. Divisions of
North and South America ................ 20
CHAP. 6. MAINE. Geography. Railroads. "
Business. Productions ................... 2
CHAP. 7. MAINE, continued. -Indian Old
STowi. Penobscot tribe. Settlement in
Maine. Story of the Norridgewock tribe.
P History of Maine....................... 24
;CHAP. 8. NEW HAMPSHIRE. Geography.
SIsles of Shoals. Sea serpent. Mountains.
Lakes. The Notch ...................... 26
SCHAP. 9. NEW HAMPSHIRE, continued. -
Slide of a mountain. History. Attack on
SDover ............................... 27
CHAP. 10. VERMONT.- Geography. Green
Mountains. Towns. Productions........ 29
CHAP. 11. VERMONT, continued. --Inun-
dation. Battle on Lake Champlain. Of
Bennington. Settlement............... 30
CHAP. 12. MASSACHUSETTS.- Geography.
7:Commerce. Manufactures. Boston. Rail-
S roads. Towns. Institutions ............. 31
:CHAP. 13. MASSACHUSETTS, continued.--
Centennial celebration. Settlement of Bos-
l'ton. Of Plymouth. Other settlements.
SHistory ................................. 33
fiHJAP. 14. RHor- ISLAND.- Geography.
Itoger Williams and settlement. History. 34
CHAP. 15. CONNECTICUT. Geography.
'.IAorwich Indians. New London. The
Sd1am. Towns. Manufacturers.......... 36
SlAP. 16. CONNECTICUT, continued. Mr.
Sister in the woods. History. Charter
.................. ............... 38
17. NEW ENGLAND.- Geography.
te. Connecticu.t 1iver. Anecdote.
ool houses ..........................39

CHAP. 18. NEW ENGIAND, C3ntin3ed. -
History. The Puritans. Settlement. Plym-
outh Rock. Samoset. Massasoit. 'Anee-
dote. Other settlers. Salem. Boston. Der*
chester. Lady Arabella Johnson ......... 40
CHAP. 19. NEW.ENGLAND, continued.-
Two colonies, Plymouth and Massachusetts.
Sir Henry Vane. Ann Hutchinson. In-
dians. Capture of Mystic. Union of colo-
nies for defence.....*.................... 42
CHAP. 20. NEW ENGLAND, continued.-
Hatred of the Indians. King Philip excites
them to war ..........................,. 44
CHAP. 21. NEW ENGLAND, continued.-
Springfield burnt. Slaughter at Muddy
Brook. War in Maine. New Hampshire.
Attack on Brookfield. The Narragansetts.
Death of Philip..........................45
CHAP. 22. NEW ENGLAND, continued.-
Charters of the colonies taken away. An-
dros imprison sj sent to England. Sup-
posed witchc I Salem ................ 47
CHAP. 23. NEWe NGLAND, continued.-
War between England and France. At-
tack on Haverhill. Story of Mr. Dunstan.
Mrs. Dunstan. Queen Anne's War. At-
tack on Deerfield. Port Royal taken.
Peace. Canada taken by the British .... 49
CHAP. 24. NEW ENGLAND, continued.--
Indian war in Maine. King George's war.
Capture of Louisburg. Peace. French and
Indian war. Treaty of Paris. Trouble be-
tween the American colonies and England,
beginning the revolution ................. .5
CHAP. 25. THE PURITANS.-- Tiir char-
acter. Object in coming to America. Per-
secution of the Baptists .... o.. s ..... 5
CHAP. 26. THE PURITANS, c~dftued. -
Persecution of the Quakers. Reflections.
Sabbath morning in the forests. Other
sketches ................................. 5
CHAP. 27. NEW YORK. Geography. Ca-
nals and lakes. New York city. Passage
up the Hudson .*.......*................ $7
QCAP. 28. NEW YORK, continued. Al-
bany. Trenton Falls, and sad accident.
New York Indians. Salt Wells. Niagara
Falls. Stories. Internal Improvements.
History .............................. ..
CHAP. 29. NEW YORK, continued.--Erie
Canal. History of settlement. Dutch,
Indian wars. Surrender to the English,
under the Duke of York ................ 6

~7 __ ____ _1__111__1*__1

''~B~LM'IIL~L~d.~_.~__yL~i~~ ly I$~....r-i -Ll---- ---I- -- --- ..1- --~.- ------- _~_.--- ----II~_~ ~~_~__~~ ~L~i~ ~__ __~.L-C .-_-~ ~e


CHAP. 30. NEW YORK, continued. -The
FiveNations ............................ 64
CHAP. 31. NEW YORK, continued.- Leis-
ler. Burning of Schenectady. Governor
Sloughter. Exploits of Peter Schuyler.. 66
CHAP. 32. NEW YORK, continued. Pi-
rates. Robert Kidd. Persecution of the
negroes. Tolmonwilemon. Peace of 1747. 67
CHAP. 33. NEW JERSEY. Geography.
Passaic Falls. Canals. History. Settle-
ment. Division into East and West Jer-
sey. Battle of Monmouth............... 68
CHAP. 34. PENNSYLVANIA. Geography.
Philadelphia. Independence. Fairmount
Waterworks. Girard College. Travels.
Roads. Bridges. Quakers. Germans.
Alleghany Mountains. Pittsburg. Alle-
ghany City. Coal Mines. Canals........ 70
CHAP. 35. PENNSYLVANIA, continued. -
History. William Penn. Settlement.
Penn comes to America. Founds Phila-
delphia. Returns to England. Rapid set-
tlement of Pennsylvania. Penn again
visits his colony. Death of Penn. Char-
acter. Indians.......................... 72
CHAP. 36. DELAWARE. Geography.
Size and situation. Travels. Breakwater.
Revolutionary war. Delaware regiment.
Settlement. Paradise Point. Indians.
Governor Risingh. Peter Stuyvesant.
Capture of the Dutch. History.......... 74
CHAP. 37. MARYLAND. Geography.
Mason and Dixon's dne. Baltimore.
Trade with the west. Naval school. Cli-
mate.................................... 75
CHAP. 38. MARYLAND, continued. -
- North Point. War with England. Wash-
ington burnt. Baltimore. Lord Balti-
more. Settlement. Indian villages. Sit-
uation of the colonists. Death of Lord
Baltimore. His character. History..... 77
view. Geography. History............. 79
CHAP. 40. VIRGINIA.- Geography.
Travels. Manners. Customs. Planta-
tions. Climate. Face of the country.
Natural curiosities. Ancient mounds.
Springs.............. .................. 79
CHAP. 41. VIRGINIA, continued.-Jef-
ferson. Washington. Jamestown. In-
dians. Spaniards. Chesapeake Bay. In-
dian chiefs. Settlement on Jaiies River.
John Smith. His adventures. Conduct.
Powhatan. Pocahontas................. 11
CHAP. 42. VIRGINIA, continued. State
of the colony under Smith's government.
The colonists dig for gold. Reflections.
Smith chosen president. Pocahontas.
Misery of the colonists. Lord Delaware. 84
CHAP. 43. VIRGINIA, continued.- The

I I I ,-----. ~,~- ---------~--- FeL1L-L-----~-1*----------~-~--

colony flourishes. Captain Argal. Mar-
riage of Pocahontas. Death. First slaves
in the colonies. Opecancanough. Slaugh-
ter of the colonists. Vengeance of the
English. History....................... a
raphy. Travels. Plantations. Forests.
Tar. Gold digging. Towns. Produc-
tions. Settlement by Episcopalians. Sit-
uation of the colony. Other settlers. ;Or-
igin of the names North and South Caro-
lina. Indians. The Six Nations. His-
tory....... aA................ ...... ...., i7.
phy. Voyage. Charleston. Planters.
Trade of Charleston. Puritans. French
Protestants. History....... ............69
CHAP. 46. GEORGIA. Geography. Face
of the country. Savannah. Improve-
ments. Okefinoke Swamp. Settlement
of Georgia. Situation of the colony. At-
tacks of Spaniards. General Oglethorpe. 91
CHAP. 47. FLORIDA. Geography. Dis-
covery. Settlement. History. Semi-
noles. Key West.................. .. 93
CHAP.48. ALABAMA.-- Geography. His-
tory. ................. ................ 94
CHAP. 49. MISSISSIPPI. Geography.
History.. .............................. 95
CHAP. 50. LOUISIANA. Geography.
New Orleans. Battle of New Orleans.
History ............................... 95
CHAP. 51. TEXAS. Geography. His-
tory......................... .......... 97
SGeography. Mississippi Valley. Trav-
els on the Ohio River. Railroads, cities,
and towns. Education. History........ ?
CHAP. 53. INDIANA. Geography. Trav-
elsontheOhio. History................100
CHAP. 54. ILLINOIS.-- Geography. Trav-
els on the Ohio. The Mississippi River.
Illinois River. Canals. Lake Michigan.
Chicago. Prairies. History............ 102
CHAP. 55. WISCONSIN. Geography.
History... ............................. 104
CHAP. 56. MICHIGAN. Geography.
Lakes. Travels....................... 06
CHAP. 57. IowA. -Geography. Indian
tribes................................. 108
CHAP. 58. MIsSOURI. -Geography. St.
Louis. History. Santa Fe Commerce.
Schools. Principal towns............... 110
CHAP. 59. ARKANSAS.- Geography. Al-
ligators.............. .................. 110
CHAP. 60. TENNESSEE. Geography.
History................................. l11
CHAP. 61. KENTUCKY.- Geography. Lou
isville. Mammoth Cave. History....... 111







62. CaLIFORNIA. Geography.
to ry ....................... ...... 113
63. TvE TERRITORIES. Geogra-
y. Indian territory. Missouri Terri-
ry. Minnacota. New Mexico. Utah.
egon. Indians. Animals. Travels of
ew"is and Clarke. Government... ....* 113
P. 64. THE FRENCH WAR. Geog.
pahy. Colonies. French. English.
George N ashington. Governor Dinwiddie.
Fort Du Quesne. General Braddock. Ex-
edition against Fort Niagara. Crown
int................................... 117
CHAP. 65. FRENCH WAR, continued. -
England and -France declare war. Fort
William Henry. Louisburg. Du Quesne.
Ticonderoga. Death of Lord Howe. Cap-
ture of Fort Frontenac. Quebec. Mont-
Scalm. Death of Wolfe. Montreal taken.
French possessions ceded to the Brit-
ish. ................................... 119
ment of Great Britain. People of Amer-
ica. General Gage. Quarrels........... 123
CHAP. 67. REVOLUTION. Tax on tea.
New laws. Cargoes of tea destroyed.
Port Bill passed. Town meetings........ 125
eCHAP. 68. REVOLUTION, continued. -
State of the country. General Gage. Bat-
tle of Lexington. Excitement of the
people ................. ............ ... 127
CHAP. 69. REVOLUTION, continued. -
State of the country. Power of England.
:-Resolution of the Americans. Ticonde-
oga. Crown Point. Battle of Bunker
i............................ ........ 129
AP. 70. REVOLUTION, continued. -
Continental Congress. Declaration of In-
dependence. Washington crosses the
Delaware. General Howe. General Bur-
goyne. Battle of Saratoga. Surrender of
Burgoyne............................ 132
CHAP. 71. REVOLUTION, continued. -
Government of France. Great Britain.
Battle of Monmouth. Destruction of
SWyoming.............................. 134
R AP. 72. REVOLUTION, concluded. -
General Sullivan. Indians. Count Ro-
'Ahambeau. Benedict Arnold. Story of
SMajor Andre. North and South Carolina.
SWashington. Surrender of Lord Corn-
rpllis................................... 136
SREVOLUTION. -Washington chosen presi-
ent. His death. Character. John Adam
osen president. District of Columbia... 138
A. 5.........E S .........G.. ..... 140


ERNMENT.... ................*..... ..... 144
dents. War with England. War with
Mexico................................ 145
flections.............................. 116
NORTH AMERICA. Divisions. Geogra-
phy. Travels. Lakes. Canals. Montreal,
St. Lawrence. Quebec. Newfoundland.
Nova Scotia. New Brunswick. Prince
Edward's Island. Climate. History.
King William's, Queen Anne's, King
George's, and the old French wars.
History....... .......... ...... ........ 149
phy. Country of the Esquimaux. Dogs.
Reindeer. Origin ................. ..... 152
CHAP. 81. GREENLAND.-Whaling voy-
age. Islands of ice. White bears. De-
scription of the Greenlanders. Navigators.
Animals. Settlement. Captain Ross.... 153
CHAP. 82. ICELAND.- Country. Proverb.
People. Habits. Mount Hecla. Skaptar
Yokul. An eruption. Aurora Borealis.
Discovery. Settlement. History........ 155
CHAP. 83. RussIAN POSSESSIONS. ...... 157
CHAP. 84. MEXICO. Voyage to Mexico.
Vera Cruz. Travelling. City of Mexico.
Cathedral. Gold. Ancient ruins. Santa
Fe. Travels and trade. Caravans........ 157
CHAP. 85. MEXICO, continued. Popu-
lation. Indians. Tenuchtitlan. Spaniards.
Cortez. Capture of Tabasco. Indian attack.
Treaty of peace. Mexican warriors...... 161
CHAP. 86. MEXICO, continued. Coony
at Vera Cruz. Message from Montezuipa.
Cortez sets out from Tenuchtitlan. Tlas-
cala. Slaughter at Cholula. Tenuchtitlan.
Montezuma and Cortez................... 163
CHAP. 87. MEXIco, continued. Religion
of the Mexicans. Temples. Montezuma
taken. Governor of Cuba. Narvaez. Span-
iards attacked by Mexicans. Deathof Mon-
tezuma. Retreat of the Spaniards........ 165
CHAP. 88. MEXICO, continued. -- Small-
pox. Quetlevaca. Guatimozin. Attack
on Tenuchtitlan. Torture of Guatimozin
and his minister. Government of Mexico.
City of Mexico. Fate of Cortez. History.
U. S. war. Conquests by U. S. Peace. 168
CHAP. 89. GUATIMALA. Mountains.
Mahogany and logwood. City of Guati-
mala. Other towns. Government. J-is-
tory. Mosquito Indians. Origin. Ancient
palaces, carvings, temples.. ............. 171
--Geography. Climate. History. Earth-
quake. Sinmon Bolivar......... ....s.... 1W



CHAP. 91. NEW GRENADA. Geography.
Falls of Tequendama. History........... 174
CHAP. 92. ECUADOR.- Geography. The
Andes. Chimborazo. Cotopaxi. Mines.
History. ............ ............... 175
CHAP. 93. PERU.-Geography. Climate.
Productions. Animals. Division. Lima.
Quicksilver and other mines. Cuzco. Pi-
zarro.................................. 177
CHAP. 94. PERU, continued.- Second ex-
pedition to Peru. Foundation of the em-
pire. Reception of the Spaniards. The
Inea. Procession. Atahualpa taken pris-
oner.................................... 179
CHAP. 95. PERU, continued. -Treatment
of the Inca. His death. Quito taken. Con-
quest of leru. Lima founded. Death of
izarro. History. Constitution formed.. 181
CHAP. 96. BOLIVIA.- Geography. Andes.
Mines. Potosi. Discovery of the mines.
Other towns. Constitution. Peru and
Buenos Ayres........................... 183
CHAP.. CHILI. Geography. Travels.
Vineyards. Andes. St. Jago. Araucani-
ans. Death of Valdivia. History. Juan
Fernandez. Robinson Crusoe........... 183
CHAP. 98. PATAGONIA. Geography.
Country. Inhabitants. Giants. Huts. Os-
triches. Terra del Fuego. People. Dis-
covery. Straits of Magellan............. 185
CHAP. 99. BUENOS AYRES. -Gography.
P Travels. Islands near Cape Horn. Trav-
.? selling. Anecdotes. Wild animals. Con-
'ors. Pampas. Buenos Ayres. Face of
%,6f1ountLy. Soil. Towns. People. Dis-
covery. Indians. Jesuits, History. Gov-
ernment. Death of Francia. ............ 186




CHAP. 100. PARAGUAY. Geography.
History..................... ............ i89
CHAP. 101. URUGUAY. Geography.
History .............................. 18
CHAP. 102. BRAZIL. -Geography. Trav-
els. Rio Janeiro. Harbor. People. Ex-
tent. Population. Indians. Vegetation.
Discovery. Landing of Cabral. San Sal-
vador. The Dutch. History. Government. 189
CHAP. 103. GUIANA. Geography. Di-
visions. Climate. Indians. Poison.
Vampires. Snakes. Story of Captain
Waterton. Discovery of Guiana by Vas-
co Nunes. Sir Walter Raleigh. El Do-
rado. Settlers in Dutch Guiana. History. 192
CHAP. 104. WEST INDIES. Geography.
Vessels. Havana. Trade. Fruit. Cli
mate. Cuba. Discovery of Cuba. Don
Jago de Velasquez. Indians. History of
Hayti. Columbus. Anecdote. Disturb-
ances. Christophe. Independence of
Hayti. Division. Massacres. Porto Rico.
Jamaica. Discovery. History. Hurri-
canes. .* ** ***....*........ t**......** ** 196.
CHAP. 105. WEST INDIES, continued. -
Inhabitants. Spaniards. Pirates. Baha-
mas. Cat Island. Columbus. Caribbee
Islands. Discovery. History............ 197
Fame. Pierre le Grand. Organization.
Morgan. Bartholomew. His adventures. 199
CA ................................... 201
CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE ................. 205
PRONOUNCING INDEX ... ...........**... 21



. 86

OHIO, 98
INDIANA, .. 10
WISCONSIN, ... ... 104
MICHIGAN, . .. 106
IOWA, 108
*- ^^M.. \



1. HISTORY is a narrative of past
ents, and this book contains a brief
ont of the principal events which
Occurred on the western continent
its discovery by Christopher Co-
bu in 1492. It commences with
oig. the present condition of the
frent countries which occupy this
iment, |Vd especially that of the
d States. But, in order that we
clearly understand the history of
py county, we must first obtain a
knowledge of its geography.
2. Geography is a science, the gen-
rI object of which is, as its name im-
to describe the earth on which
live; but, as the earth and sea are
ly considered the great compo-
t parts of the terraqueous globe a
ription o both of them is usua]i
d in this science.
Our globe forms but a small p
universe. This word, universe
rally used to signify the collec-
all created things, and we fre-
Jeak of the world in the same
? 2. What is geography?
n of the word universe f

sense; but, in geography, the term
world generally refers to the earth
4. In the sacred history of the crea-
tion, it is recorded, that "God made
lights in the firmament of the heaven,
to give light upon the earth, to divide
the day from the night, and to be for
signs and for sedbons, and for days and.
years. He made the greater light to
rule the day, and the lesser light to rule'
the night. He made the stirs also."
5. These lights, obeying certain laws
of motion, are made subservient to the :
great purposes for which they were
created. To explain laws is the
province of Astronomy; t it is im-
portahat we should kn a few facts
coi the earth, when we vieg it
as the planets belonging to
Inni m.t
system is composed o* (
snat which is in the centre .
maviy ets, withktheir m or seo-
ondary planets; aid the co Thr
earth and the otheroplanets derive their .
light and t from the sun, aroqa

4. What does S pture record f the "lig
the firmament" ? 5. How do these lights
the purposes for which they were created ?
is astronomy? 6. Of what is the solar qstoS



which they revolves in their respective
paths or orbits.
S7. Vast and magnificent as the solar
system seems to the human mind, it
forms but a small part of the heavenly
bodies, which occupy the infinite regions
of space. Stars surround it on all sides,
which are at so remote a distance from
it as far to exceed finite calculation;
and each of these stars is supposed to
be a separate sun, the centre oifa sys-
tem like our own.
8. The figure of the earth is nearly
that of a globe or sphere, as is proved
by its circular shadow upon the moon
when that planet is eclipsed, and by
the experience of many navigators who
have sailed round it.

9. If we leave, in our imagination
our planet, the earth, and view.
one of the orbs in space, we shal
it turning round upon its axis
twenty-four hours, causing the suc
sion of day and night to those who li
upon its surface. We shall also see
moving in its orbit around the gre
centre of the system at the rate of mo.
than a million and a half miles a da
or between forty and fifty miles f<
every breath we draw, and completir
this revolution in the space of one yea
This motion around the sun is of su<
a nature as to cause the regular succe
sion of the seasons, Spring, Summe
Autumn, and Winter.

Spring begins March 21.


S Autmn begin ember 21.
*^ The ns. 1
10. The ax w ich has just been iorth to south, around which it
mezsitiq is ani Imaginary line passing volves, somewhat as a wheel turns i
the centre of the globe from its axle, while at the same tim
? 7. What is said of the stars ? 9. What is related of the earth's motion ? I
a related of the fgure of the earth do these motions cause? 10. Describe wh
A. ..'" -





~% '5


3?sA in its orbit, as has been al-
gated; as a ball discharged from
turns over and over in 'he air,
the same time goes forward to its



11. Now, if we draw near to the
Inet once more, still supposing our-
Aves as viewing it from a distance, we
ad the surface to consist of unequal
.ions of land and water. But, un-
-we. have given names to these, and
e, fixtd upon some method of meas-
Soff the surface of the globe, we
ot speak definitely of the different
ts that present themselves to our
12. Since there is no beginning or end
a circle, nor to a spherical surface,
1 we begin to mark it off by lines, so
a cannot well describe the various por-
of land and water on the earth's
ace until we have divided it by lines
will indicate the relative position
its parts. The great dividing lines
we resort.to for this purpose are
Sof them arbitrary, that is, selected
the sake of convenience, while oth-'
end upon the relative positions
sun and earth.
If we turn our eyes agaif to the

by the axis of the earth. 11. Of what
surface of the earth consist? 13. De-


earth, we shall see that one portion of;
it always points towards a particular
part c~ the heavens, and, if we
stand upon this point upon the
surface, we should see a particular4*t4
which we term the North Star, directly
over our heads. As this would appear
in the same place, that is, directly above
us, in every part of the earth's orbit,
we may give a name to this portion of
the earth, namely, the north; and the
point directly opposite on the other side
we may call the south. Here, then,
we have two fixed points from which
to reckon. But now we may draw a
line round the earth so as to be just
between, or equidistant from, these two
points; and as this will divide the sur-
face into two equal parts, we may call
it the equator, or the divider.
14. If we look at the globe once
more, we shall see where this line di-
vides the land as well as the water, and,
as we have named our two points the
north and south poles, we can now
say whether a portion of ld or water
is north or south of the e iator. But
then this is too vague and indefinite.

We therefore divide the circumference
of the earth, at the poles, mito 360
parts, or degrees. Then, as onemuarter
of this circle, or 90 degrees, will 'he

scribe what is meant by the equat r. 14. .4 h j

.. *? .* **' ^ "

r~-a~ I I

7 r~

'~r -;~-~~~ -*----~-nn--*IT-~r1





space between the equator and either
* pole, no place upon the earth's surface
ean be more than 90 degrees from the
15. Thus, if we fix our eyes upon
Philadelphia, we see that it is 400 from
the equator, and we say that it is in 400
north latitude, because it is in the
northern hemisphere, and so far from
the equator. Reckoning in the same
way, we shall find Cape Horn in lati-
tude about 55* south. But as the earth
turns round, we find there are other
places appearing in succession in pre-
cisely the same latitude; that is, a circle
drawn round the earth parallel, to the
equator, will be, in all its parts, equi-
distant from the equator, or in the same
latitude. Hence, when we have ascer-
tained the latitude of a place, we have
not definitely fixed its position upon the
earth's surface, and we therefore resort
to a second mode of division. In this
we are guided by the sun, for we see
this body always rising in the same, or
nearly the same, part of the heavens.
This we cA the East, and the place
where he sets we call the West.
16. If we return to our position away
from the earth, we see it turning on its
Saxis, from west to east, and the shadow
line which divides the earth from north
to south, receding as the light of the sun
advances upon its surface, from east to
west. This dividing line is continually
changing; so it will not answer our pur-
pose, but it may give us the idea of east
and west, and suggest the division of the
earth into Eastern and Western hemi-
17. This division of the globe, like
the division of an apple into two parts,
we may make where we ple e; or we
is meant by degrees? 15. Describe what is
meant by latitude. 16. What is meant by
Eastern and western hemispheres ? 17. What by


may take some prominent place on
earth's surface, as some mountain, so
volcano, or great city, and imagine:
line passing through the object selec
and drawn round the globe through t
poles, dividing its surface into two eq
parts. Then those parts of the e
towards the sun's rising, from the obj
selected, will be in the eastern he
sphere; and those in the opposite dir
tion, in the western hemisphere; that
supposing we reckon half round th
globe in both directions. Such lin
are employed by geographers, which
they name meridians of longitude.
18. Of these meridians we may hav
an indefinite number, since.every pl
has its meridian; but it is necessary
take one as a starting pointS and tha
which passes through Greenwich, ne
London, is generally selected, on
count of the great importance of th
city. From this we reckon half rou
the earth, or 1800 east, and the ssm
number of degrees west; and in d
scribing the position of places, we sa
they are so many degrees east or we
from London. With these two sets o
lines, parallels of latitude and meridi
of longitude, we can define exactly any
19. Besides the general name of par-
allels, which we give to the circles run-
ning east and west around the globe!
parallel to the equator, four of these
circles have particular names. One, at
the distance of 23J north of the equa-
tor, is called the northern tropic, or the
tropic of Cancer; and a second circle, as
far south of the equator, is called the
southern tropic, or he tropic of Capri*
corn. Besides these, there are two cir-
cles, each 23 from the poles of the

meridians of longitude ? 18. From what place is
longitude usually reckoned ? 19. What names
are given to the four great circles on the globeli

s.. L









e, called polar circles; the one near
|oAwrth pole being distinguished as the
and the one near the south pole
the antarctic circle.

ci '1
" ^l&y


thus divided into northern and southern,
eastern and western hemispheres, we
may proceed to represent it by an arti-
ficial globe, or by a picture, oI map upon
a plane surface. In drawing a map of
the globe, we are obliged to represent the
hemispheres in separate circles, since we
can delineate upol paper no more of an
object than what we can take in at once
with the eye in one position.
22. Let us suppose, then, one of these
maps before us, and the great dividing
lines, the parallels and the meridians, to
be already drawn. [.ee Map of the
World.f We shall find it convenient to
number the parallels, on the outer circle
of the hemispheres, which is the merid-
ian that divides the globe; and as we
reckon from the equator towards the
poles, the figures which indicate latitude
will increase upwards on the northern
hemisphere, and downwards on the south-
ern. The meridians of longitude may be
conveniently numbered, at the equator,
on the map of the world, and at the top
and bottom of other maps. When the
degrees of longitude increase towards
the right, they are in east, and when
they increase towards the left, they are
in west longitude.
23. The top of a map is always north,
the bottom south, the right hand east,
and the left hand west.

1. PHYSICAL geography treats of the
earth, as it proceeded from the hands
of the Creator.
circles ? 22. Describe the lines upon the map of
the world. 23. Which part of the map is north
south ? east ? west ?
1. What is physical geography? 2. Of wptM

-bsrb h oe.21 ndaigampo

I eCribe the zones. 21. In drawing a map of
Sglobe or world, why is it represented by two






20. These four circles are the limits
ithe five different zones. The broad-
Szone, as we shall see by a little ex-
ation, is between the two tropics,
This is called the torrid zone. Be-
en the northern tropic and the arctic
le is the northern temperate zone;
in the corresponding place south of
equator is the southern temperate
e. North of the arctic circle is the
rthern frigid, and south of the antarc-
0 circle is the southern frigiZ zone.
These names, torrid, temperate, and
fri'gd,' correspond to the temperature,
or diffeient degrees of heat and cold, in
the different regions to which they are
respectively applied.
S21. Having supposed the earth to be



2. The surface of the earth consists
of unequal portions of land and water.
3. Large continuous masses of land
are termed Continents. There are two
continents; the eastern, which includes
Asia, Africa, and Europe; and the
western, which includes North and
South America. Tne terms eastern
and western refer to the meridian of
the Ferro Isles, from which longitude
was formerly reckoned.
4. Smaller portions of land, sur-
rounded by water, are termed Islands.
A considerable number of islands clus-
tered together is called an Archipelago;
as, the West Indies.
5. A part of a continent running out
into the sea, so as to be nearly insulated,
and connected with the main land by a
narrow neck, is named a Peninsula,
which signifies almost an island; as,
South America.
6. A narrow neck of land connecting
two large masses is denominated an
Isthmus. Thus the Isthmus of Panama
joins North and South America.
7. Inferior projections of land into
the sea are variously named Capes,
Promontories, Points, and Headlands;
as, Cape May.
8. When the land rises above the
'' general level of the country, it is called
Hill or Mountain; and the low ground
between the mountains is termed a Val-
ley. A mountain which throws out fire
is termed a Volcano.
9. The continuous body of water
which environs the land constitutes,
properly speaking, a vast single Ocean;

does the surface of the earth consist ? 3. What
are continents ? How many continents are there ?
4. What are islands ? What is an archipelago ?
6. What is a peninsula? 6. What is an isth-
mus ? 7. What are capes, promontories, points,
and headlands ? 8. What is a mountain ? a val-
Jet? a volcano ? 9. What is an ocean ? 10. What


is a sea ? What is a gulf or bay ? 11. What is
strait? 12. What is a lake ? 13. What is
river ? 14. What is a frith ?
1. See Map of the World. How is the eqpl


but it is convenient to regard it as d
vided into partial oceans, each of whid
has its separate name; as, the AtlantiJ
the Pacific.
10. A smaller extent of water, ea
pecially if it penetrate far into the inte
rior of a continent, is termed a Sea; as
the Caribbean Sea. The more partia
intrusion of an ocean or sea into th
land is termed a Gulf or Bay; as, thi
Gulf of Mexico, the Bay of Fundy.
11. A narrow passage connecting tw
seas together, or a bay with the mai
ocean, is styled a Strait; as, Behring'
Strait. It is also sometimes called
12. A large inland body of water, no
connected with the ocean, or only corn
municating with it by means of a rivei
is termed a Lake; as, Lake Superior.
13. A River is a body of water flow
ing from elevated ground towards th
sea. The place where it rises is terms
its source.
14. A Frith is a narrow sea which re
ceives the waters of some large river.
15. Having made these introductory
remarks to enable you to understand
the meaning of the geographical term
which will frequently occur in this bool
I shall now proceed to speak of thl
geography and history of the sevsrd
states and countries in America.

1. IF you look at the map of thj
Western Hemisphere, you will see thi
it represents one half of the earth's su|


,ABetween the two great oceans,
tic and the Pacific, you will
Q the continent of America. It is
into two parts, called North and
SAmerica, which are connected
o narrow Isthmus of Darien or
This, continent is remarkable for
Auaerous and extensive lakes, its
cent rivers, and its lofty moun-
Lake Superior is the largest
in the world. The St. Lawrence,
Mississippi, the Orinoco, the Ama-
F, and the La Plata, are all of them
mighty rivers, and several of them sur-
pM in size all the rivers of the eastern
ptinent. The Amazon alone, with
I .branches, spreads over a country
1pll in extent to all Europe. The
Wdes, with the Cordilleras and Rocky
Eountains, constitute the longest chain
.,mountains in the world; it being
erky eleven thousand miles in length,
pluding its windings. Many of their
pe are glittering with perpetual snow;
pae of them pour forth torrents of fire
04 melted lava; and some contain im-
lnse treasures of gold, silver, and
kr metals.
It is but little more than three
p~dred and fifty years since the people
,EEurope, Asia, and Africa were to-
iy ignorant of the existence of this
Ot continent; yet the lakes, the riv-
t the mountains, and the plains had
p.ted for ages. The sun had shone
-#em by day, and the moon by
summer had visited the land
rs and fruits, and winter had

eica bounded ? What ocean separates
coast of America from Europe and
What ocean separates the western coast
? What isthmus connects North and
&rica? 2. For what is America re-
I What is said of its lakes, rivers, and
i 3. How long has this country been

covered it with frost and snow. The
earthquake had shaken the hillr and
the whirlwind had rent the forests. All
the great works of nature had gone on
from the creation, though civilized man
was not there to witness them.
4. At what time or from what quar-
ter the Indians came to America, it is
impossible to tell. It is generally sup*
posed that, two or three thousand years
ago, some small tribes came from the
north of Asia, across Behring's Straits,
and thus gradually peopled the whole
continent. But this is mere conjecture,
and their entire history, from their first
arrival in the country to the discovery
of America, is involved in mystery.
5. In various parts of the country,
there are mounds, evidently constructed
by men many hundred years ago. It is
certain that they were not constructed
by the wandering tribes who inhabited
the country when our forefathers came
here; but who raised them, how long
they have existed, and what is their
story, we cannot tell. It is probable that
great events have happened -that em-
pires have risen, flourished, and gone to
decay--during the many ages over
which time has thrown an everlasting
6. It appears that whole races of ani
mals have lived in America of which
nothing remains but their bones. The
gigantic mastodon, which was four time
as large as an elephant, once roamed, in
great numbers, through the forests; and
other animals, as well as trees and plants,
now unknown, were common ia ithe
country. We must recollect, that from
the creation of the world to th ye: ar
1492, a period of more than five thousand

known to the Europeans? 4. Whit is tit
of the Indians? 6. What of the mobdS
6. What of the animals that formerly livn ,LT


years, all that took place upon this vast
continent is hidden from the view of
man, and only known to that Being who
knoweth all-things.

1. I HAVE told you that America was
discovered by Christopher Columbus, in
1492. I will now tell you the story of
Columbus, and give you an account of
his discovery. This celebrated man was
born at Genoa, in Italy, in the year 1435.
He was brought up a sailor, and was
very expert in managing boats and vessels
upon the water. He made a great many
short voyages in the Mediterranean Sea,
and sailed to the northern seas of Eu-
rope, which was then deemed a remark-
able enterprise.
2. After this, he returned to Italy, and
engaged in the war against the Venetians
and Turks. One day, he was cruising
in a vessel off the coast of Portugal,
where he met with a Venetian ship; an
engagement immediately followed, in
which the sailors on both sides fought
with the greatest spirit. At length,
Columbus was on the point of boarding
the Venetian vessel, when his own took
fire. In a moment, the fire was commu-
nicated to the Venetian vessel: it spread
from sail to sail, till the whole rigging,
masts, spars, and ropes were involved in
one sheet of flame.
8. The vessels were soon on the point
of sinking. The sailors, therefore, were
compelled to leap into the sea, and being

1. When and by whom was America discov-
ered ? When and where was Columbus born ?
What is said, of his early history ? 2. What
happened to Columbus when off the coast of Por-
bgal? 8. How did he reach the shore 4. What


was known of navigation at this time ? 6. What
discoveries had been made ? 6. What places did


near six miles from the coast, they
all drowned except Columbus. He,
the greatest presence of mind, seize
upon an oar, and did not despair of sa
ing his life. He was a good swimmer
and, supported by the oar, he succeeded
in reaching the land.
4. He was now in Portugal, and after
recovering from his fatigue, he went to
Lisbon, the capital. Here he became
acquainted with several Portuguese sail.
ors, who were then the best navigators
in the world. You must know that, at
this time, there were no large ships, and
people were not accustomed to sail out
fearlessly upon the broad ocean, as now;
nobody had ever crossed the great At-
lantic, and the people of Europe, who
had only sailed timidly along the shores
of the eastern continent, did not know
that such a country as America existed.
5. The shape of the earth was at this
time unknown; some persons supposed
it flat, but nobody knew that it was
round. But the art of navigation was
rapidly advancing; seamen were ven-
turing farther on the deep, and an ardent
desire to explore the unknown ocean
was kindled. This curiosity had been
greatly stimulated by the discovery, by
the Portuguese, of Madeira and Porto
Santo, lying to the north-west of Africa.
It was at this period that Columbus
reached Lisbon, where he soon after
married the daughter of a celebrated
navigator, who was one of the discover-
ers of these islands.
6. -His imagination was captivated
with the idea of seeing these places, and
accordingly he visited them. For sev-
eral years after this, he was engaged in
carrying on a profitable trade between
Madeira, the coast of Africa, the Azores,
and Canaries; but during all this time,


mind was active and increasing in
wedge. Whatever he learned he
ays remembered; and, never being
isfied with the information he had
ed, he constantly desired to know
7. At this period, the people of Europe
Had considerable trade with India, but
vesselss ever having passed round the
.-Cape of Good Hope, the people did not
know the shape of Africa, nor did they
.know that they could go from Europe to
India by water. They therefore sent
their goods across the Mediterranean, to
-the ports of Egypt, whence they were
taken by land to the Red Sea. Here
they were transported in vessels, which
sailed through the Straits of Babelman-
del, and across the Indian Ocean to
India. By the same route goods were
returned to Europe.
8. This method of conducting so im-
portant a commerce was expensive and
'tedious. The people therefore were
very anxious to find some way of going
to India by sea. This great subject oc-
cupied the attention of all Europe, and
Columbus, in particular, dwelt upon it
with the most intense interest. He
studied books; he consulted maps; and
often, while his little vessel was plough-
ing the sea, he would revolve in his
mind all the facts which he had col-
lected relating to it.
S9. At night, when the stars shone
down upon his ship, floating like a speck
. on the bosom of the mighty ocean, he
looked up and mused, with curious won-
:der, upon the heavenly bodies. From
These contemplations, his mind descend-
Sed to the earth, and strove to solve the
i-i mysteries that involved it. Was it a
S~olU s visit? 7. How was the merchandise
f Euo u conveyed to India at this time ?
L,', What Pubjct occupied the attention of the
Soigte of Europe at tl-' period? .9. What did
r 1 *

vast plain, stretching out to a boundless
extent? Or was it a globe, swung in
the heavens, and revolving, like a plan-
et, around the sun ? After a great deal
of reflection, Columbus adopted this lat*
ter idea, and, applying it to the question -
of reaching India by water, he concluded
that, if he sailed across the Atlantic in a
westerly direction, he should at length
come to India.
10. Full of this notion, he went to a
learned physician in Florence, and con-
sulted him upon the subject. This man
perceived the force of his reasoning, and,
believing his views to be correct, exhort-
ed him to make a voyage for the pur-
pose of ascertaining the fact. Strength-
ened by this counsel, Columbus resolved
to enter upon the grand scheme of sail-
ing westward upon the Atlantic, to dis-
cover what might lie beyond it. He
immediately made known his views to
the government of Genoa, with a request
that they would fit out a small fleet, in
which he might make the desired voy-
age. But these men, being ignorant,
rejected the offer with contempt.
11. He next applied to the court
of Lisbon, who listened attentively to
his scheme, and then meanly fitted out
a vessel, and despatched it privately,
with a view of anticipating Columbus in
his great project. But the commander
of the vessel was incompetent to the
enterprise which he had undertaken,
and soon came back, having made no
12. Disgusted with this trick, Colum.
bus set out for Madrid, the capital of
Spain. The king who the* reigned was
Ferdinand, and his queen was Isabella.

Columbus think of the form of tha, earth?
How did he think India might be re &ed ?
10. To whom did he first offer his services to un-
dertake the voyage? 11. To whom did he next
apply? 12. With what success did he meet ia



Here he was favorably received, and
his project was listened to with atten-
tion. But the counsellors of the king
were narrow-minded men, and made
very absurd objections to the project.
One said it would take too long a time;
another, that Columbus could not be
wiser than every body who had lived
before him; and a third concluded that,
if the world was round, Columbus would
find a constant descent on the other side
of it, and would either slip off the globe,
or, at any rate, never return in safety.
13. Such shallow objections were
made to the forcible arguments of Co-
lutnbus; and, as the most ignorant are
usually the most obstinate, he found
it impossible to change their opinion.
Having spent five years in tedious en-
deavors, he at length received a posi-
tive refusal, and was about to leave the
country, and offer his project to Eng-
land, when an unexpected change took
place in his favor. Two of his friends
made a final effort with the king and
queen, and, representing his views with
great force of reasoning, they at length
consented to give him the desired assist-
ance. Accordingly, three small vessels,
with ninety men, were fitted out, and on
the 3d of August, 1492, Columbus, with
his little f1bet, set sail from Palos in

1. THE adventurers proceeded in the
first place to the Canary Isles. These
they left on the 6th if 8tember, and,
sailing in a westerly d tion, launched

'Spai)? 13. How did he finally succeed? When,
and from what place, did he sail ?
1,2, 3. To what place did the adventurers first


forth upon the bosom of the unknown
deep. They soon lost sight of land
and nothing could be seen but the skies
above and the water spread out around
them. They were going where no huo
man being had ever been; they knew
not what was before them. A solemn
mystery hung over the sea, and, as they
advanced on their voyage, they could
not tell what dangers they might en-
2. To a bold man, like Columbus,
these things rendered the voyage in the
highest degree interesting. But most
of the sailors were ignorant and super-
stitious, and they soon began to be very
much afraid. But Columbus reasoned
with them, and persuaded them to con-
tinue the voyage.
3. Thus they proceeded for several
weeks, constantly sailing in a westerly
direction; but Columbus had great diffi-
culty with his men. They were exceed-
ingly alarmed at the idea of being at
such a vast distance from home, upon
an unknown sea; and he was obliged to
use various arts to prevent their setting
out to return. At length, their fears
were so much excited, that both the
officers and men, on board the three ves-
sels, positively refused to go any far-
ther. They even thought of throwing
Columbus overboard; and perhaps they
would have executed this design, if he
had not found means to pacify them.
He proposed that they should go on for
three days more, and if, by that time,
they did not discover land, he promised
to return. This was deemed a reason*
able proposition, and they all agreed
to it.
4. According they proceeded, and
very soon they met with floating. sea

proeeed Where are the Canary Isli Rlkl-4
some lth&e a ntures othe voyagai bVha* did
: .


._ _-~ -.- ~ -~-- ~ -



and saw birds in the air. Some
these appeared to be weary, and
d upon the masts of the vessels.
e they remained all night, bit in
Morning they departed, and flew to
West. All these things made the
ors beli ve that land was near; and
ir hopes and expectations were soon
sed to the highest pitch.
| 5. One night, as Columbus was stand-
upon the deck of his vessel, looking
t upon the sea, he thought he discov-
Oped a light. He mentioned it to some
bf the men, and they, too, thought they
apuld see it. There was now no sleep
n' board the vessels. Both sailors and
officers were gathered upon the decks,
or distributed among the rigging, strain-
g their eyes to discover land. At
ogth it was two o'clock in the morning,
een a man, stationed on the top of the
in the forward vessel, exclaimed,
and! land!" This was soon com-
anicated to the others, and the most
vely joy filled the breasts of all the
.* 6. The morning came, and assured
them that their hopes were realized.
The shore lay before them in the dis-
jtmee, and the sun shone down upon it,
06eming in their eyes to give it an as-
ct of peculiar beauty. Deeply affect-
I with gratitude to that Being who had
me them safely over the waves, and
owned their bold adventure with suc-
,they knelt down, and offered to
aen their warmest expressions of
If Having approached the shore, Co-
s and some of his officers entered
d went towards the land. They
that it was covered with woods,
with hills and valleys, and
rivers. As they came near,
|hidicated their approach to land?
the discovery of land. 8 De-

they saw a multitude of people almost
naked,tand of a red color, collected upon
the shore. These were attracted by the
strange spectacle before them. They
had never seen vessels or white men
before; and, when the Spaniards ap-
proached the island, with colors flying
and amid bursts of martial music, their
astonishment knew no bounds.
8. At length, the boat reached the
shore. Columbus, richly dressed, and
having a drawn sword in hi; hand, first
sprang from the boat, and set his foot
upon the earth. His companions fol-

Columbus taking Possession of the Country.
lowed, and, kneeling down, kissed the
ground to express their joy and grati-
tude. The Spaniards now erected a
cross, before which they perfoi reli-
gious worship, and Columbus thin t
possession of the country in the iine
of the king and queen of Spain. These
events took place on the 11th of Octo-
ber, 1492. The island they discovered
was one of the Bahamas, new called Cat
Island. It was called Guanahani by the
natives, but Columbus gavo it the name
of St. Salvador.
9. The Spaniards now began to ex-
scribe the landing of Columbus. When did these
events take place? What place did thct dis-
cover? 9. What was the appearance of the



amine the place they had discovered.
They found it to be quite fertile; but
the animals, trees, and plants were such
as they had never seen in Europe. The
people attracted their chief attention.
These were of a copper color, nearly
naked, and the men had no beards.
Their hair was decorated with feathers,
and shells and gold plates were sus-
pended from their ears and noses. They
received the Spaniards with the greatest
respect, and seemed to consider them a
superior race of beings. They looked
with amazement upon the ships, and,
when they saw a cannon fired, they
were struck with fear and wonder.
10. At night, some of the Indians
went to the vessels, and, in the morning,
Columbus returned with them to the
island. He now asked the-people where
they obtainet4 the gold which they used
for ornaments. In reply, they pointed
to the south, and intimated that there
S was a large island there, where there
was a great deal of gold. Columbus
immediately determined to go there, and,
taking seven of the Indians as guides,
he set off with the fleet. After touch-
ing at two or three islands, he at length
reached Cuba. Having remained here
some time, and having had several in-
terviews with the natives, he proceeded
to Hayti.: Leaving thirty-eight of his
men on the island, he set out on his
return; and, after many dangers, he
reached Palos, on the 15th of May,
1493, after an absence of nine months
and eleven days.
11. He was received with the greatest
honor by the people; and, as he trav-
elled across the country to visit the king

country? What of the people ? How did
they receive the Spaniards ? 10. Where did
Columbus go to seek for gold ? Where is
Cuba ? Hayti? When did he arrive in Spain ?
I1, How was he received by the people ?

and queen, and tell them of his disco
ery, the inhabitants flocked with eag
curiosity to see him. When he came
the city of Barcelona, where the kin
resided, a grand procession was f6rm
in the following manner:-
12. First came the Indians that Co
lumbus had brought with him, dressed
in the manner of their country; after
them was carried all the gold that had
been procured by the expedition;: ext
followed some persons bearing chests
of pepper, bales of cotton, paroquets,
stuffed birds, and quadrupeds, Indian
corn, cane poles twenty-five feet long,
and many other curious things, which
had been brought from the new world.
Lastly came Columbus.
13. The whole procession moved
through the city to a public square,
where the king and queen were senate
on a splendid throne. Here they re-
ceived Columbus with the greatest marks
of honor. He then gave an account of
his voyage to the king and queen, and
those around him. They listened with
breathless attention, for Columbus was
an eloquent man, and his story was one
of the deepest interest.
14. The king was so much delighted
that he ordered a new expedition to be
immediately fitted out, and gave the com-
mand of it to Columbus. But to make
sure of the discoveries that might be
made, he sent to the Pope of Rome, re-
questing a grant of all the land west of
the Atlantic Ocean. With this request
the pope complied, and on the 25th of
September, the fleet, consisting of seven,
teen vessels and 1500 men, set sail from
the port of Cadiz.
15. I have not room to tell you the

12. Describe the procession. 13. How did the
king and queen receive him? 14. What grant
did the king obtain of the Pope of Rome
What is said of the second voyage? 15. How

\i* '






history of Columbus. It is enough
y that he made four voyages to
rica, including the first. He dis-
ed many of the West India islands,
during his last voyage touched upon
6. Many adventurers now came to
erica, and among the rest, there was
Italian, called Americus Vespucius.
ving sailed along the coast, and ascer-
ed the existence of the continent, he
turned to Spain, and gave an account
iis discoveries. In consequence of
hs, his name was given to the new
17. This continent, concerning the
discovery of which I have just been
telling you, is divided into two portions,
orthAmerica and South America.
Aorth America is now occupied by Rus-
in America, British America, Green-
!fid, the United States, Mexico and
.Guatemala. South America includes,
$t the present day, New Grenada, Ven-
ezuela, English Guiana, Dutch Guiana,
'French Guiana, Brazil, Paraguay, Ur-
uguay, Buenos Ayres, Patagonia, Bo-
lvia, Chili, Peru, and Ecuador. I will
,now tell you of the geography and his-
tory of the United States, commencing
with Maine.

S1. THE State of Maine is about as ex-
tensive as all the rest of New England,
1bt a great portion of the interior and
many voyages did Columbus make? 16. Why
Was the continent called America ? 17. How is
the continent of America divided ? What coun-
ties in North America ? In South America ?
1. How is Maine bounded on the north ? On
a19 On the south? On the west? In
tof Maine are the principal towns and
4.' : :* ....*

northern part is still covered with forests.
It is distinguished for its many excellent
harbors, and the people are extensively
engaged in ship building and the lumber
trade. You will observe on the map,
that nearly all the towns and villages lie
in the southern portion, towards tie eea-
board. As you go from the sea to the
interior, the soil grows better; some of
the most fertile parts of the state are yet
almost a wilderness.
2. There are a great many lakes in
this state, which abound in fish. There
are a multitude of streams and rivers;
these afford many excellent mill seats.
There are a great many bays, rivulets,
and islands along the shore. If you were
to go to Maine in the summer, you would
see many things to delight you. The
little green islands scattered along the
coast are very beautiful; some of them
have very hidsome houses upon them.
You would find the Kennebec and Pe-
nobscot to be large rivers, with many
handsome villages and towns upon their
3. You would see a great many deep
forests, and several pleasant towns. At
Gardiner you would see one of the pret-
tiest churches in New England; and
Portland you would find to be a flourish-
ing city, extensively engaged in com-
merce. A railroad connects it with
Boston, and one is in progress extending
through Maine and New Hampshire,

villages ? 2. Name the principal lakes jn Main.
What is a lake? Name the principal rivers a
Maine. What is a river ? Descr be the Penob-
scot River; that is, tell where rises, which
way it flows, and the bay or ocean into which it
empties. Describe the Kennebec in the same
manner; the Androscoggin; and the Saco.
What bays upon the coast of Maine ? What is
a bay ? What islands upon the coast of Maine?
What is an island ? 3. Describe the following
places; that is, tell where they are situated and
what is said of them: Gardiner; Portland;

4 -.


which will terminate at Montreal. Oth-
ers have also been constructed to Lewis-
ton, Waterville, Bath, Hallowell, and
other places.
4. J,*travelling through Maine, you
would not see as many manufactories as
in some of the other New England States;
but you would see at Orono, Machias,
and also at Calais a great many saw mills,
employed in sawing logs into boards and
planks. You would see many of the
men cutting down trees in the woods;
: at Bangor, Portland, Belfast, Bath,
' *"Wiscasset, and other places, you would
notice a great many vessels; some of
them loaded with lumber, and some with
firewood. At Thomaston and Camden
you would notice that some of them
were loaded with lime, which is manu-
factured at these places.
5. If you were to ask some person
where these vessels were going, he would
tell you that some of them were bound
to Boston, some to New York, some to
Charleston, and some to other places.
The firewood is carried chiefly to Bos-
ton ; the lumber is carried to almost all
the seaports of the United States and the
West Indies.
6. You would observe, also, in Maine,
~~pme very good farms; and you would
see a great many fields planted with
corn, or sown with wheat and rye, where
the ground is almost covered with
stumps. If you were to inquire of the
owner, he would tell you, that, ten or fif-
teen years ago, his whole farm was cov-
ered with thick forests. The trees have
been cut down, and the land, by patient

Lewiston; Waterville; Bath; Hallowell. 4. Oro-
no; Machias; Calais; Saco; Bangor; Belfast;
Wiscasset; Thomaston; Camden. 6. Where are
the products carried from these places ? Look
on the map of the United States, and describe
the course of a vessel in sailing from Bangor to
Bostia to Now York; to Charl %ston. 6. What

labor, has been changed from a wilder
ness into meadows and wheat fields.
7. If you should happen to be i4
Maine in the winter, you would find th
snow very deep, and the air exceedingly
cold. It would be well, while you are
travelling, to cover your ears with fur,
and take care to be well wrapped upil
or your face and fingers would freeze]i
Perhaps you will see people on the'
rivers cutting blocks of ice, which
they are going to send to Charleston,
New Orleans, the West Indies, and other
hot countries, to be used in summer.
8. If you should chance to be in the
northern or middle parts of the state
you might have an opportunity of seeing
the Indians kill a moose. This animal,
the largest of the deer kind, is found in
no part of the United States except
Maine, and even there they are scarce.
They were once common in all the
northern parts of New England.

1. IN the Penobscot River, forty miles
from the mouth, there is a little island,
called Indian Old Town. If you go
there, you will see about three hundred
Indians. They live in small houses, or
huts, built of sticks and boards, and cul-
tivate the land, catch fish, and hunt wild
animals. They are the remains of a
great tribe, the Penobscots, that once
inhabited a large extent of country in
2. You will observe among the In-
dians one man, whom they call chief.
is said of the farms in Maine ? 7. What of the
winter? 8. What of moose?
1. What of the Indians in Maine? Describe
the picture. 2, 3 4, 5, 6. Relate the story which

I c

I I.b 583, M Sq. W. 2.9,600

X A I We*E-

S ~ ~ ACI& of-ma"e s
11 4 60

fom 7-0 Greemridi ____8

ff you ask him to tel
the Penobscot tribe, h
tat there were onc
of them. They, wil
=gnV years ago, poss
ia Maine.

Penobscot Chief tell
3. There were the
in this country. There
and no villages, except
of Indian huts, calle
Indians did not cut dow
had no horses, and the
imals but dogs.
4. The whole count
was covered with forest
ests there we're a g
panthers, wildcats, wol
foxes, rabbits, beaver
mals. The Indians tI
vate the land, except,
raised a little corn and
They lived almost e
wild animals, which
their bows and arrow
5. But, at length,
came, and they began
trees, and build house
they erec ed saw mills


1 you the story of cleared the land, and raised wheat, and
e will inform you rye, and corn. At length, more white
Many thousands people came, and they built more houses,
th other Indians, and cut down more trees, and cultivated
esed all the lands more land.
6. And so the white men increased,
and they spread their towns and villages
over the land. And the Indians went
away, or they died; for their forests
were cut down, and they could not live
with the white people. Thus the Pe-
nobscot tribe, which once contained many
S thousands, is now reduced to a small
number. Other tribes, once numerous
and powerful, are now extinct. Such
would be the story that the Indian
chief would tell you, and it would be all
7. As early as the year 1607, about
n of his Tribe. one hundred English people came to
Maine, and began a settlement at the
in no white men mouth of the River Kennebec. The
'e were no towns greater part were soon discouraged, and
t small collections fifty-five returned in the vessel that
I wigwams. The brought them over.
n the trees; they 8. There were at this time none but
y had no tame an- Indians in all New England, except the
white people of whom I am speaking.
ry, far and wide, These were pretty well treated by the
sts. In these for- natives; but they found the winter ex-
reat many bears, cessively severe, and the next year they
ves, deer, moose, all returned to England in a vessel that
s, and other ani- came to bring them provisions.
ien did not culti- 9. The-Norridgewock tribe of Indians
perhaps, that they preserved, for many years, a story about
Sa few pumpkins, these settlers, which I will tell you.
entirely upon the The white people were jealous of the
they killed with Indians, and wished to get rid of them.
s. So they one day employed a large num-
some white men ber of them to take hold of a rope, and
to cut down the draw a cannon into the fort. When a
ses. Pretty soon great many had taken hold, and the rope
3, and then they was drawn in a straight line, the white

the ladian would probably tell. 7,8. What is said

of the settlement in Maine commenced in 1607 i
9. What story used to be told by the Norridge-

..1,-,~....~,~I ..~.,.- -.--. ~-- ~r~


people fired the cannon, and killed all
the Indians. This is the story; if it
is truethe white people behaved very
10. It was in the year 1623, above
two hundred years ago, that the first
white men settled permanently in Maine.
This settlement was made on the Saco,
and several houses were built.
11. Mote white people went from
' Massachusetts, and other places, and
settled in various parts of Maine. In
1652, Maine was united with Massachu-
setts, and continued to be so till the year
1820, when it became an independent
state. It has now a governor and a
legislature of its own; they meet once
a year at Augusta, the capital; and
there they make laws for the state.

1. THERE are many very interesting
things in New Hampshire. About elev-
en miles to the east of Portsmouth are
some islands, called the Isles of Shoals.
One of the largest belongs to New
Hampshire. It is called Star Island,
and on it is a little town called Gosport.
The people are all fishermen, and are
occupied chiefly in catching codfish.
2. These codfish are caught with
hooks and lines. They are then carried
ashore and dried. A sea serpent is said
wock Indians? 10. When and where was the
first permanent settlement in Maine made?
11. When was it united with Massachusetts?
When did it become an.independent state ?
What is the capital, and where is it situated ?
1. How is New Hampshire bounded ? What
is the capital ? What mountains in the state ?
What rivers? What islands near the coast?

to have been seen by several people
near these shores, many years ago. H.

Catching Codfish.
came so near to a boat, that a man in
it could have struck him with an oar.
His color was nearly black. He seemed
larger round than the body of a man,
and about as long as the mast of a large
3. This state is sometimes called the
Switzerland of America, because it is
so mountainous. It has also been called
the Granite State, from the immense
quantities of granite which are found
there. The people are chiefly'engaged
in agriculture. The land upon the banks
of the rivers is fertile, and many of the
hillsides afford good pasturage for cattle.
4. Railroads extend from Boston
through several parts of the state.
Nashua and Nashville are large manu-
facturing towns. The city of Manches-
ter, situated on the Merrimac River,
is beautifully laid out, and is fast in-
creasing in wealth and population. The
extensive manufacteries erected on the
bank of the river a.re worthy of a visit.
2. Describe the picture. 3. What is said c f the
face ot the country ? Of the soil? 4 Describe
the following places ; that 's, tell where they are
situated and what is sai of them: N ashus I





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Concord, the capital, contains an elegant
granite State House, and is a pleasant
5. There are many other pleasant
towns in New Hampshire., Exeter, the
seat of hillips Academy, is a thriving
place. S one of the most impor-
tant tow e state. It is situated
at the fai 7 the Cocheco River, and
has some of the largest cotton manufac-
tories in the country. Great Falls is also
a large manufacturing place. Ports-
mouth is the only seaport in the state.
6. At Franconia, in Grafton county,
there are some very celebrated iron
works. There are mines of iron there,
and the people get great quantities of it.
They make it into stoves, kettles, hollow
ware, and casting for machinery. The
mountains aroundchis place are very
wild and beautiful. At Hanover is
Dartmouth College, an old and respec-
table seminary, where a great many
young men are educated.
7. There are several very fine lakes
in New Hampshire. If you should ever
travel in this state, you will find the
country very hilly, and very interesting.
Most of the people are engaged in farm-
ing. They have a great many horses
cattle, and sheep.
8. As you pass along, you will some-
times find yourself on the top of a high
hill. You will see around you a great
many other hills; and in the distance
you will observe the tops of blue moun-
tains. By and by, you will descend into
a valley. You will see the streams run-
ning rapidly down the sides of the hills,
and at the bottom of the valley you will
frequently find a sheet of bright water,
sparkling like a mirror.
Nashville ? Manchester ? Concord? 5. Exe-
ter ? Dover ? Great Falls ? Portsmouth ?
6. Franconia ? H over ? 7. What lakes in
Klew Hampshire? 8. Describe the scenery.

9. Before you retu: n, you must visit
Lake Winnipiseogee. It is really one
of the most delightful lakes in the world.
I suppose you have heard a great deal
about Loch Lomond in Scotland; but I
assure you, Lake Winnipiseogee is much
more beautiful. It contains numerous
islands, and is surrounded by a country
abounding in the wildest scenery.
10. After you have seen this lake,
you should visit the White Mountains.
These are the highest in the United
States east of the Mississippi, except
Mount Black, in North Carolina, said
to be a few feet higher. Mount Wash-
ington, the tallest p(ak, is more than six
thousand feet above the level of the sea.
11. It is a delightful thing to travel
about these mountains in summer. A
great many people visit them every year,
and they all come back much gratified
with their journey. Among the moun-
tains, there is a place called the Notch.
Here the mountain seems to be divided
into two parts, from the top to the bot-
12. This chasm affords a passage
through which the River Saco runs.
There is also a road through it, and, as
you pass along, you will be astonished
at the mighty rocks that lie heaped up
on both sides of you.

1. A FEW year since, an awful event
occurred at the Notch in the White
Mountains. An immense mass of rocks,
earth, and trees, of several acre in ex-
9. Describe Lake Winnipiseogee. 10. What is
said of the White Mountains ? 11, 12. What of
the Notch ?
1, 2, 3, 4. What event once occurred at the



tent, slid down from the height into the
valley. It is scarcely possible to de-
scribe the scene. The mountains were
shaken for several miles around. The
air, put in motion by the falling mass,
swept by like a hurricane. The noise
was far louder than thunder. Rushing
down to the bottom of the valley, the
rocks overturned and buried every thing
before them.
2. The bed of the River Saco was
filled up; the road was covered over;
and acres of ground, before fit for culti-
Svation, now exhibited a confused mass
of. rocks split and shivered, and trees
torn up by the roots, their trunks broken
into a thousand pieces.
3. There is a circumstance of pain-
ful interest connected with this event.
There w." on the si djpf the valley, a
small house, belonging% a man of the
Same of Willey. He, with his wife and
.two or three children, was in this house
when the mountain began to slide down.
They heard the dreadful sound, and ran
out of the house to save themselves.
.' -'" I

Slide in the White Mountains.
4. But alas! the avalanche of rocks
and earth swept over and buried them
in the ruins. The house stood safe and
untouched, and, if they had remained
Notch ? 6. When and where was the first set-

in it, they, too, had been saved. Thc
house, I believe, is still standing.
5. Somewhat more than two hundred
years ago, New Hampshire, like Maine,
was covered #rithforests, and inhabited
by, Indians h~j t iA 1623, some English
people ca;r ia built ^jufon Pis.
cataqua River, which w Mason
Hall. The same year s W the peo-
ple went farther up the river, and settled
at Cocheco, now called Dover.
6. In 1641, New Hampshire was
united with Massachusetts, but in thirty-
eight years after, that is, in 1679, the
King of England separated it from Mas-
sachusetts. It then became a royal
province; the governor being appointed
by the King of England.
7. In 1775, New Hampshire, with the
other colonies, engaged in the revolution.
A constitution, or form of government,
was then adopted by the people, which
remained till 1783. At that time, a new
constitution was formed, which remains
in force to this day. The early history
of New Hampshire is full of incidents
relating to the wars with the Indians.
I shall have occasion to notice some of
these when I come to give an account
of New England.
8. I will, however, tell you one of
these stories now. In 1689, the savages
made a dreadful attack upon Dover.
They had been provoked by the white
people, and they determined on revenge.
But they pretended to be friendly, and
on the fatal night sent their women to
get lodgings in the houses of the white
people. These were admitted, and, when
all was quiet, they softly opened the
doors. The. Indians then rushed in,
killed twenty persons, carried twenty-
tlement in New Hampshire ? 6. What event
occurred in 1641 ? -In 1679 ? 7. In 1755 ? In 1783 ?
8. What occurred in Dover m 1G89 ? Describe
the attack.





e away as prisoners, and fled with
ch rapidity as to escape from the peo-
e who came to attack them.

Vermont, as you see by the map, from
New Hampshire on the east. Thisiver
runs through a valley of several hiles
in width, which is very rich and beahti-
ful. The meadows here are exceed-
ingly fine. Very large crops of corn,
wheat, and oats are cultivated in the
valley. All of the river is in New
Hampshire, which extends to its western
bank; so that the Connecticut is really
not a river of Vermont, though it is as
near to it as it possibly can be.
2. Vermont has several very pleas-
ant towns along the Connecticut River.
iBrattleboro' is one of the pleasantest
towns in the state. It has several
manufactories, and is a place of much
business. Bellows Falls is situated
where the river tumbles very pictur-
esquely over some rocks.
3. There are a great many mills at
this place, and there a bridge over
the cataract, from which you can look
down upon the whirling water. There
were once a great many salmon in Con-
necticut River, and the Indians, about
one hundred years ago, used to kill a
great many of them with spears, as they
attempted to ascend the falls. They
were very expert at this, and would
often take several of them in the course
of an hour. You can see now sonie
1. How is Vermont bounded ? What is said
f the Connecticut River ? Name the rivers in this
state. 2. Where is BTattleboro'? What is said


figures, which the Indians cut in the
rocks near the river, below the bridge.
4. Windsor is a very pleasant town,
and has considerable busir.ess. If you
ever go to Windsor, I hope you will go
to the top of Ascutney Mountain. It is
very lofty, and, when you are on the
top, yAu can see all around you to an
immense distance. You will also find,
quite on the summit of this mountain,
a beautiful little lake of clear water.
5. In going from the eastern to the
western part of Vermont, you will cross
a great many mountains. These are
called the Green Mountains. There-is
a range of them running through Ver-
mont, from north to south. They spread
over all the middle parts of this state.
The railroads which cross them pass
through many pleasant and flourishing
6. At Burlington you will find f 4
steamboat ready to carry you on Lake
Champlain towards Canada. You will
be very much pleased with Burlington,
for it is one of the handsomest towns in
New England. It is situated on the
shore of the lake, of which you have a
fine prospect from the town. At this
place is a college, called the University
of Vermont. You will also find a col-
lege at Middlebury. In this town there
are a great many manufactories, and a
quarry, where they obtain very hand-
some, colored marble.
7. Montpelier is a handsome tcwn,
and there the legislature meets, once a
year, to make laws for the state. In
passing through Vermont, you will per-
ceive that most of the people are farm.
ers. They raise a great many horned
cattle, and sheep, and hogs, and horses,
The horses are very fine ones. Many
of Bellows Falls? 4. Where is Windsor I
5. What mountains in Vermont ? 6. Describe Bur.
lington; Lake Champlain; Middlebury. 7. Mont

of the beautiful horses you see in New
York, Boston, and Hartford, come from
8. During the winter, the weather is
cold, and the snow falls to a great depth.
It is sometimes four or five feet deep.
The people have four or five months'
fine sleighing. Although the ai very
sharp, yet the winter is a merry season
in this state. The children ride on their
sleds down the hills, and the people glide

Winter in Vermont.
swiftly over the hills and valleys in their
sleighs. It is in summer one of the most
beautiful of the New England States.

1. MANY years ago, a very singular
event occurred in Vermont. There was
a very large pond, or lake, in the north-
western part of the state; it was three
miles long, and one wide. One day,
some men were at work at a bank of
earth, at the end of this pond.
2. Suddenly the bank gave way, and
the water came rushing out at the place
pelier, the capital. 8. What is said of the winter
a Vermont?


with great violence. For several miles
it rolled on in a torrent, sweeping off
mills, houses, barns, and cattle, and
barely T e abitants time to es-
till the whole pond
ere the pond used
t nly the bed of a

3. Duri 1814, there was
a famous battle t on Lake Chamn
plain, between some American and Brit-
ish ships, which took place in sight of
Bu igton. There were thousands of
p re along the shore to witness it.
'tre were several American vessels
and several British vessels engaged in
the battle. The American ships were
commanded by Commodore Macdon-
4. They fought each other with can-
non for more than two hours. At length
the British ships were beaten, and the
Americans took nearly all of them.
This happened during the late war with
England, of which I shall tell you more
before I get through the book.
5. In August, 1777, there was a cel-
ebrated battle fought at Bennington.
General Stark, with some New Hamp-
shire and Vermont troops, attacked some
British soldiers, commanded by Colonel
Baum, at that place.
6. The British troops were dressed
in fine red coats and white pantaloons.
They had beautiful music, and their
officers were mounted on fine horses.
But the Vermont and New Hampshire
men were not regular soldiers; they
were farmers, and mechanics, and mer-
chants, who went to war merely to drive
these British soldiers from the country.
7. ThO Americans were dressed in
their common clothes. The British
troops, who were so finely attired, de-
3, 4. Describe the battle of Lake Champlain in
1814. 6, 6, 7, 8. Describe the battle of Benning.

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sed them. They called them Yan-
ees, and laughed at their homespun
ss. But when the battle began, the
ughter of the British troops was over.
he Americans fell upon them, and killed
a great many of them, and by and by the
British fled.
It8. As they were running away, they
.set a good many more British soldiers.
Thinking themselves now strong enough
to beat the Americans, they went back,
and began to fight again. But the
Americans attacked them with such
vigor, that soon seven hundred of the
British were killed and wounded. Col-
onel Baum was killed, and the rest of the
British ran away. This battle took
place during the revolutionary war, of
which I shall tell you more by and by.
9. Vermont was not settled by the
white people till some time after the
other New England States. There was
a fot built near Brattleboro', in 1724,
called Fort Dummer. The remains of
it are still to be seen. It was built to
protect the people who had settled there
from the Indians.
10. Vermont was settled principally
by people from Connecticut. They first
established themselves along the Con-
necticut River, and afterwards in other
parts of the state. They had a good
many skirmishes with the Indians, and
for a long time there was a great dispute
whether the land belonged to New York
or New Hampshire.
11. It was decided in England, in
1764, that it belonged to New York, and
consequently, the government of that
colony began to sell the land to any per-
sons who would buy it. The settlers
thought this very unjust, and determined
to resist. New York then sent troops
into Vermont, and there was some fight-
ton. Where is Bennington ? 9,10. What of the
eariy settlements of Vermont? 11. What took


ing. These difficulties were not settled
till years after.
12. During the revolutionary war,
Vermont was independent, and in 1791
it became one of the United States. It
is now little more than one hundred
years since this state was a mere wilder.
ness, occupied only by scattered tribes
of savages, bears, and wolves. Now, it
has a great many flourishing towns, and
cultivated farms, on the tops of the hills,
in the valleys, and along the rivers and

1. MASSACHUSETTS is not a large
state, but there are a great many people
in it. Those who live along the sea-
board, at Boston, Salem, Marblehead,
Gloucester, New Bedford, Nantucket,
and other places, own a great many
ships, brigs, sloops, and schooners.
Some of these ships are sent to England,
and other parts of Europe, and they
bring back various kinds of goods.
% 2. Other ships are sent to China, and
they bring back tea. The trade carried
on by these ships is called commerce.
Some of the vessels go to a great dis-
tance to catch whales, for their oil. Oth-
er vessels go out to catch codfish anl
mackerel. A great many sloops, and
schooners, and brigs, go to New Y :rk,

place in 1764 ? 12. When did N ermont bowom
one of the United States ?
1, 2. How is Massachusetts bounded ? What
is the capital ? What rivers in Massachusetts
Describe them. What capes ? Where is Bostin
situated ? Salem ? Marblehead ? Gloucester ?
New Bedford? Nantucket? Where are the
vessels sent from these places ? Look on the
Map of the World, and describe the course of a
vessel from Boston to England; to China; to
New York; to Philadelphia; to Charlesto; to

Philadelphia, Charleston, New Orleans, Coclituate, and a
and other places, naments its centre
3. They carry a good many articles
away which are not wanted in Massa-
chusetts, and get, in exchange for them,
other articles that are wanted there.
So, you see, there are a great many
people constantly occupied in managing
these ships. You may often see several
hundred vessels of various kinds at
4. In those parts of the state remote
from the sea, the people of Massachu-
setts are chiefly occupied in agriculture.
There are a great many very fine farms,
and the people manage them extremely
well. There are also very extensive Boys playing oI
manufactories in Massachusetts. 7. The State I
5. Lowell is remarkable for its rapid ated, and it has
growth, and the variety and perfection When I was young
of its manufactures. Immense quantities to the top of the Sta
of broadcloths, carpets, and cotton cloth there is a splendid
are here manufactured. There are man- the ocean, with a
factories at Waltham, Taunton, Canton, it, and I could se4
Ware, Springfield, Framingham, Fall towns all around B
River, Fitchburg, Pawtucket, and other down upon the city
places. The goods manufactured in all that was going
these places are chiefly carried to Bos- 8. There are a
ton, and are thence taken to New York, some buildings in
Philadelphia, Charleston, New Orleans, is the Quincy Marl
and various foreign markets, there is a more be
6. Boston is the largest city in New world. The Trer
England. There are many interesting Chapel, St. Paul's
things in Boston. The Common is a Church, the Bost
very beautiful place. It is delightful to Merchants' Excha
see it covered with people men, women, States Custom Hot
and children, on a pleasant summer edifices.
evening. How pleased the boys are to 9. Boston is con
get around the Frog Pond, and throw cipal cities and to
sticks into it, so that they may see the wealth, and with ot
dogs jump in, swim about, and get them! well-constructed ra
It is now filled with water from Lake wealthy city, and m
engaged in commer
New Orleans. 3, 4. What is the occupation of distinguished for c
the people ? 6. Name the principal manufactur- fractures; Lynn for
Ing towns, and tell where each. of them is situ-
ated. 6. What is said of Boston Name some of the principal build

beautiful fountain am


i Boston Common.
louse is finely situ-
a good appearance.
;, I used to like to go
ite House, from which
prospect. I could see
great many islands in
e a great many fine
oston, and I could look
itself, and see almost
on in the streets.
Great many hand.
Boston, among which
ket. I do not think
autiful market in the
nont House, King's
Church and Trinity
ton Athenaeum, the
nge, and the United
ise, are very elegant

nected with the prin-
wns in the common-
her statea3by several
ilroads. Salem is a
any of the people are
ce. Newburyport is
commerce and manu-
the manufacture of
ngs. 7, 8, 9. Of Salem I

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s; New Bedford and Nantucket for
e whale fishery; and Worcester is
,ted for being the place where a great
y railroads connect with each other.
sachusetts abounds in beautiful cities,
$pwns, and villages, and in travelling
jrough it, you will observe a great num-
er of churches and school houses.
10. At Cambridge there is a college,
Called Harvard University. The library
contains near one hundred thousand vol-
nmes. Another college is located at
Amherst, and one also at Williamstown.
Great attention is paid to education, and
common schools are supported by law in
every city and town in the state.
11. It is not so cold in Massachusetts,
during the winter, as in Vermont and
Maine. The snow is not so deep, and
there is not so much sleighing. If you
ever travel through the state, you will
find it very hilly. There are a great
many railroads; yet, if you wish to see
the country, you had better travel in
some other way. Near Northiapton is
.a high mountain, called Holyoke. From
the top of it you can look down upon
Connecticut River, winding through
meadows so ric and beautiful, that they
seem like a rpet woven with various
bright colot.

1. ON the 17th day of September,
1830, there was a great parade in Bos-
ton. There were the governor of the
state, and the mayor of the city, and the
Of Newbkryport ? Of Lynn? Of New Bedford
and Nan~ucket? Of Worcester, and other
places ? 10. What colleges in the state ? What
it said of education ? 11. What of the winter in
Massachusetts ? Of the scenery from Mount
1, 2, 3. When was Boston settt 4. 4, 5, 6, 7,
8 *'"* Y

. ]

celebration o tme settlement otr ioason.
3. Now you will be curious to know
what all this parade was about. I will
tell you. It was to celebrate the settle-
ment of Boston, which took place just
two hundred years before; that is, on
the 17th of September, 1630.
4. Ten years before, in 1620, some
persons had come from England, and
settled at Plymouth. At that period,
many of the people in England were per-
secuted, and could not be happy there.
They chose, therefore, to come to Amer-
ica, and live in the woods, with Indians
and wild beasts around them, rather thaA
stay there.
5. Accordingly, fifteen hundred pere
8, 9. Give an account of the settlement of Bow


president of Harvard College, and a
great many other men; and then there
were a great many children, little boys
and girls, from all the schools in Bos-
2. It was a very bright day, and they
all assembled on the Common. There
were a great many thousand people be-
sides, who came to look on. I was there
myself, and I was delighted at the long
rows of good little boys and girls. By
and by, the men all went in a long pro-
cession to the Old South Church, and
there Mr. Quincy delivered an oration.


sons came over in 1630, and settled at
Charlestown, Dorchester, Roxbury, and
other places& A man by the name of
Blackstone came to the place where
Boston now stands, and liking it pretty
well, he tola some of the people about it,
and they went and settled there.
6. The first settlers here suffered a
great deal. They had poor, miserable
huts to live in, and in winter the weather
was excessively cold. They were almost
starved, too, for want of food. A great
many of them died from hunger, cold,
and distress.
7. Such is a brief sketch of the first
settlement of Boston. What a wonder-
ful change-has taken place in two hun-
dred years! The spot where Boston
stands was then a wilderness. The
hills and the islands were covered with
trees, and the Indians were living all
around. Now, the Indians are all gone,
and there are about one hundred and
forty thousand people living in this
e place; and in the towns around it there
are at least as many more.
8. The forests have all been cut
Down, the hills have been levelled, the
valleys have been filled up; houses,
churches, and other public edifices, now
statd on the very places which were
then occupied by Indian wigwams. The
bay, where then you could see only a
few Indian canoes, is now covered with
hundreds of vessels; and in the streets
you hear the noise of a thousand wheels,
where then were heard only the cries of
wild beasts and savage men.
9. -Such ace the mighty changes that
have taken place in this country since it
was settled by the white people. It is
very interesting to look around, and see
the present condition of towns, cities, and
countries. But I think it is still more
interesting to go back and study the

ton and the places in its vicinity. 10. When and

history of places, and see what happen
there iV times that have gone by.
10. The first settlement in New En
land was made at Plymouth, in 16 ,
The settlers were English people, called
Puritans. Within ten years after, Sa&;
lem, Dorchester, Charlestown, and Bo0i
ton were settled. A great many people
came over from England, and thus the
colony grew very rapidly.
11. They had a great many difficulties
to encounter. Before they ceuld raise
grain to make bread, they were obliged
to cut down trees and till the land.
They had also to build houses, to make
roads, and defend themselves against the
Indians. Their condition was indeed a
very hard one, and some of the people
who came over died from want and
fatigue, as I have said before.
12. Many of them were killed by the
savages; but in spite of all these evils, the
colony continued to increase. The white
people penetrated farther into the inte-
rior, cutdown the trees, built towns and
villages, and soon spread themselves over
the whole country that is now called
13. But after a while, the revolution-
ary war broke out, and then the people
had to defend themselves against Brit-
ish soldiers. I shall tell you all about
this war by and by. I shall tell you of
the battles of Lexington, and of Bunker
Hil, and many other interesting things.

1. RHODE ISLAND is the smallest of
the United States; but there are a great
where was the first settlement in New England
made ? 11, 12. What difficulties were settlers
obliged encounterer ?
1. How is Rhode Island bounded ? What is


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inany manufactories there, and the peo-
ple carry on a good deal of commerce.
At North Providence there are some
very extensive cotton manufactories.
These are situated on the falls of the
Pawtucket River.
2. Providence, one of the capitals, is
a large city, situated at the head of Nar-
raganset Bay, and is extensively en-
gaged in trade and commerce. Brown
University, one of the best colleges in
the country, is located in this city. The
people are distinguished for their gen-
erous support of common schools. If
you ever visit Providence, you should
go and see the Arcade. This is a very
beautiful building, where you can pur-
chase almost every kind of elegant mer-
3. At Providence you can take the
steamboat and go to Newport, where the
legislature also meets. You will sail
down Narraganset Bay, which, I think,
is one of the most beautiful bays in the
world. As you go along, you will see
Bristol on your left. It is a very pleas-
ant town, and there are a number of
beautiful houses there.
4. Near Bristol, you can see a hill
called Mount Hope. This is very cele-
brated for having been the residence of
a famous Indian chief, named Philip.
His story is very interesting, and I shall
tell it to you by and by.
5. You will find Newport very pleas-
antly situated. It has rather a venera-
ble appearance. It stands upon a large
island, called Rhode Island. This gave
name to the state. Newport is resorted
to by many people in summer, for its
healthy and pleasant sea breezes.
6. The first white man that settled in
Rhode Island was Roger Williams. He
raid of it ? What of North Providence ? What
re the capitals ? 2, 3, 4, 6. What is said of
providence Of Bristol ? Of Newport? 6, 7,

was a clergyman, and lived in Boston;
but he did not think exactly as ihe other
clergymen of Boston did, and so he was
banished from Massachusetts.

Roger Williams emigrating to Rhode Island.
7. He went away with his family into
the woods. After travelling a consider-
able time, he stopped, and began to build
himself a house. Here he made a set-
tlement, and called it Providence. This
took place in 1636, and was the 'first
settlement in Rhode Island. He was
kindly treated by the Indians, who
seemed pleased at his arrival among
8. The colony, thus begun, increased
rapidly, and in the revolutionary war
it united with the other colonies in the
struggle for freedom. It became one
of the United States in 1790.

1. CONNECTICUT, with the exception
of Rhode Island, is the smallest of the
New England States; but it has more
8. What of the first settlement? When did
Rhode Island become one of the United States
1, 2. How is Connecticut bounded? Wha



Inhabitants than any of them, except
Massactusetts and Maine. The country
is very hilly, but it abounds in streams
and rivers, and is generally quite fertile.
2. The people are very industrious.
A great many of them are occupied in
cultivating the land, and they cultivate
it very well. They raise a good many
Cattle, horses, hogs, sieep, and some
grain, and kitchen vegetables, A great
many of the people are occupied in
manufactories, and a considerable num-
ber are engaged in commerce. Almost
every person in the state is busy about
3. Let us suppose that we begin at
the eastern part of the state, and travel
through it. We will commence our
journey at Norwich. This town is situ-
ated on the Thames, and we shall see
quite a number of vessels there, engaged
in carrying on trade with New York,
Philadelphia, and Charleston. There
are several falls in the river at Norwich,
and these afford fine mill seats, where
there are some very extensive cotton
manufactories. A railroad connects this
place with Worcester and Boston, and a
steamboat runs from Norwich to New
4. The country around Norwich was
once occupied by a celebrated tribe of
Indians, called Mohicans. These Mo-
hicans were once at war with some other
Indians. One night several of these
Indians had encamped on the top of
some lUgh rocks.
5. Their enemies discovered their
situation, and secretly encircled them
on all sides but one. On that side was
a steep precipice, at the foot of which
was the river. When the morning
are the capitals ? What is said of Connecticut ?
3. What rivers ;~ the state ? What is said of
Norwich ? Where is the River Thames ? 4, 6,
I. What is said of the Mohican Indians?

came, the party of Indians first men.
tioned were about to depart, when they
discovered that they were surrounded
by their foes.
6. They made a short resistance, but,
perceiving that they were outnumbered
by their enemies, they leaped over the
rocks, and were killed by the fall.
7. Having examined Norwich, we
will take a boat and go down the River
Thames, to New London. At this place
we shall see a good many vessels.
Among them we may see a large ship
fitting out to go to the Pacific Ocean, to
catch whales.
8. We shall, perhaps, see another
vessel, that has just come back from a
whaling voyage, after an absence of
three years. If she is not unloaded, we
shall find, on board of her, about two
thousand barrels of sperm oil and a
good deal of whalebone. The oil is
used for burning in lamps, and the
whalebone is for umbrella frames, and
many other purposes.
9. Near New London we shall see
two forts. One of them is called Fort
Trumbull, and the other Fort Griswold.
The latter is situated in Groton, just
across the River Thames.
10. I will tell you an odd story of
what happened in Groton about the
year 1812. There was war, then, be-
tween our country and Great Britain.
There were several British ships in
sight, and it was expected they would
soon make an attack upon the forts. A
company of soldiers from Hartford oc-
cupied a house in Groton as their-bar-
11. Tne night, as they were asleep,
there was a sudden cry of alarm among
the soldiers. They seized their arms,
and rushed out of the barracks. The
7, 4. Of New London? 9. What forts in the
vicinity ? 10, 11, 12. Relate the incident that


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Irums were beat, the sentinel fired his
gun, and all supposed that the British
were now about to make the expected
attack. Some of the men declared they
could see the enemy landing, and others
thought they could hear the roar of
cannon in the distance.
12. The officers assembled, and in-
quired into the matter. They soon dis-
covered that the British had nothing to
do with the alarm. It seems that one
of the soldiers, whose name was Tom
Stire, while he was sleeping with the
rest, fell into a dream. He dreamed
-that the British were coming, and in his
sleep he exclaimed, Alarm alarm!
the enemy are coming!" This occa-
sioned the whole disturbance.
13. After we have examined New
London, we will go to Hartford. This
is a very fine city, situated on Connecti-
Cut River. We must visit the Deaf
and Dumb Asylum, where we shall see
about one hundred and fifty deaf and
dumb pupils, who are taught to read
and write, and who can converse by
signs almost as well as we can by talk-
ing. We shall also see at Hartford a
place for persons who are insane, called
the Retreat. Here they are taken care
of, and many of them are cured. Be-
fore we leave the city, we must go to
Trinity, formerly called Washington,
College, which is a fine institution.
14. After leaving Hartford, we will
go to Middletown, which is beautifully
situated on Connecticut River. Here is
the Wesleyan University. On our way
from Hartford, we shall pass through
Wethersfield, a pleasant place, where
the people raise many thousand bushels
of onions every year. These onions are
sent to all parts of the country. Some

occurred in Groton. 13. What is said of Hart-
ford 14. Of Middletown? Of Wethersfield?

of them go as far as Charlc ton, New
Orleans, and the West Indies.
15. After leaving Middletown, we
shall pass through Durham, where the
people make an immense quantity of
shoes. At length we shall arrive at
New Haven, which is one of the hand.
somest cities in New England.
16. At New Haven we shall see Yale
College. This consists of several brick
buildings, in which there are three or
four hundred students. We must go
into one of these buildings and see the
cabinet. -This is a collection of beauti-
ful minerals from all parts of the world.

View in New Haven.
17. It is very interesting to examine
this cabinet, for we shall see stones in it,
which have been brought from various
parts of Europe, Asia, Africa, and Amer-
ica. There are two stone pillars there,
which came from the famous Giant's
Causeway, in Ireland.
18. There are also some specimens
of stones which fell from the air in
Connecticut, many years ago. These
stones formed a part of a vast red
meteor that flew along the sky, and
finally exploded with a great noise.
The stones fell in the town of Weston.

Of Durharm? 16, 17, 18. Of New Haven I

MYC-LIY~_ 1_ ~I~- I~Il I -- ~. 1~.~~-~___I




19. If we travel in other parts of the
state, we shall find many of the people
busily engaged in manufacturing cotton
and woollen goods, and various kinds
of tin, iron, brass, and other wares.
Many of them travel to the Southern
and Western States, and even as far as
Mexico, to sell the articles that are made
in this state.

1. THE first house built in Connecti-
cut by the white men was erected at
Windsor, in 1633, by some people from
Massachusetts. Two years after, about
sixty persons came from Massachusetts,
and settled at Windsor, Hartford, and
Wethersfield. They went across the
wilderness, instead of going round by
water, as the first settlers had done.
2. The next year some more persons
removed from Massachusetts. They,
to6, went by land through the woods.
There were then, of course, no roads;
the whole space was an unbroken forest.
They had nothing to guide them but
a pocket compass, which they carried.
They had a number of cows with them,
which they drove through the woods; and
they subsisted principally on their milk
during their long and difficult journey.
3. I will tell you a story of what hap-
pened at Wethersfield a few years after
that place was settled. A very respec-
table man lived there, whose name was
Chester. One day he went into the
woods to see about his cattle.
4. By and by, he set out to return,
but he soon discovered that be. had lost

13. Name some of the principal manufactures.
1, 2. What is said of he early history of Con-
setticut ? 3,4. 5, 6, 7 8, 9. Relate the story

his way. He wandered about for a great
while, hoping every moment to get out
of the woods; but the farther he went,
the thicker were the trees, and the deep-
er was the forest.
5. He now grew very anxious, for the
night was approaching. He hallooed
and shouted for help, but no one came.
At length it was night, and the forest all
around was covered with darkness. The
wanderer listened, but he could hear no
human voice; he could hear only the
howling of wild beasts.
6. He climbed a tree, and there he re-
mained, in great anxiety, till morning.
Worn out with watching and fatigue, and
faint for want of food, Mr. Chester still
made exertions to escape. He ascended
to the top of a hill, and there he obtained
a sight of the country all around.
7. But it was one boundless forest on
all sides. He was now in the greatest
distress. The weather was cloudy; he
could not see the sun, so as to direct his
course, and he had no hope but to lie
down and perish in the wilderness.
8. But at this moment his ear caught
a distant sound. He listened attentively;
it was the beat of a drum'. He heard a
shout and a call. He answered, and
soon he was in the arms of his friends,
who had come in search of him. The
people of Wethersfield had felt great
anxiety for his absence, and imagining
that he was lost in the woods, the men
had set out in various directions to look
for him.
9. By this means he was discovered
and taken back to his family. His grave.
stone is still to be seen in the burying
ground at Wethersfield. The place where
he was lost is called Mount Lamentation.
You will pass it on the road from Hart-
ford to New Haven.
10. At Hartford there is a celebrated
about Mr. Chester. 10, 11, 12. What is said of


,called the Charter Oak. There is
'.story of that tree, which I will tell
9on In the year 1686, James II., King
,1 England, sent Sir Edmund Andros
t6 take away the charters of the Amer-
.can colonies. These charters were
apers, signed by the king, granting
the colonies certain privileges; and the
.people of the colonies did not wish to
give them up.
11. Sir Edmund Andros came to Hart-
ford to get the charter of Connecticut.
Some of the people being assembled at
evening, the charter was brought in.
Sir Edmund was present, and was about
to take the charter away, wllen the
lights were all suddenly blown out, and
the people were left in the dark.
12. By and by the candles were lighted
again; but the charter was gone, and it
could not be found. Sir Edmund was
therefore obliged to go away without it.
After a long time, the charter was
found in a hollow place in this old oak

tree, standii
the city. I
i ot when tl

Sthe Charter C
taken away an


carter Oak, at Hartford.
ng in the southern part of
t was hid there by Captain
who took it, and carried it
he lights were blown out.

ak? By whom was the charter
d placed in the tree ?

1. I HAVE now given you some account
of the six states which bear the general
title of New England. In travelling
through this portion of our country, you
will observe that it is generally hilly,
and is crossed by a range of mountains,
extending from the north-eastern part
of Maine to the south-western part of
2. The climate is not extremely hot,
nor extremely cold. Snow begins to fall
about the 1st of December. Spring re-
turns in April. There is usually sleigh-
ing in all parts of it, for a few weeks
during the winter. In summer the
weather is delightful. There are plenty
of strawberries, cherries, currants, and
other berries, and in the autumn there
are apples, pears, peaches, walnuts and
chestnuts, and melons in abundance.
3. The largest river is the Connecti-
cut. It is a beautiful stream, and waters
four of the New England States. There
is not a river on the globe whose banks
afford more charming scenery than this.
I have seen the Thames in England, the
Rhone in France, and the Rhine in
Germany; and they are all less pleasing
to my eye than this.
4. You should see this river in June.
The meadows and mountains along its
borders are then in their glory. If you .
are there in May, you will see the fish-
ermen, with their long nets, catching
shad, for which this river is famous. In
former times there were a great many
salmon* also in this river; but for some
reason or other they have entirely de-
serted it. I suppose they wentfaway on
1. What is said of the face of the country in
New England ? 2. Of the climate ? Of fruits
3, 4. Of the Connecticut River ? What two states
does it separate ? What two states does it inter*


account of the locks and canals that have
been built upon it.
5. Not many years since, salmon were
often taken as far up as Vermont. They
even used to ascend the little streams
that come down from the mountains, and
were often caught in them. An old gen-
tleman told me, that, many years ago, he
was travelling at night, on horseback,
among the mountains in that state. As
his horse was going through a small
stream that ran across the road, he heard
a great pounding and plashing in the
water. He went to the spot, and there he
found a salmon that weighed nine pounds,
which had got into a shallow place, and
could not get out. He easily caught it
with his hands, and then carried it home.
6. In travelling through -New Eng-
land, you will observe a great many
school houses, by which you may know
that the children are well educated; and
you will see a great many churches and
meeting houses, by which you will un-
derstand that the people are attentive to
7. There are still a good many forests
and much unoccupied land in New Eng-
land. But a great part of its surface is
under cultivation. There are more than
7ne thousand towns and villages scat-
tered over its hills, valleys, and plains, and
there are about three million inhabitants
within its borders. The people are gen-
erally industrious, and are engaged in
the various pursuits of agriculture, com-
merce, and manufactures.
8.. Such is New England now; but
what was it more than two hundred years
ago ? A mere wilderness, inhabited by
bears, wolves, and other wild beasts, and
by scattered tribes of Indians, who lived
sect ? Relate the story of catching salmon.
6. What is said of school houses and churches ?
7 Of the population ? 8. Of the condition of
New England two hundred years ago ?


in wigwams, hunted with bows and at'
rows for subsistence, and were constantly
slaying each other in battle.
9. What a great change has taken
place in a short space of time! Yet
many interesting things have happened
within these two hundred years. It is
pleasant to go back and trace the history
of former times. Theie is no part cf
our country not a town or village --
that has not some interesting story con-
nected with it.
10. I shall endeavor to collect the most
amusing and instructive portions of New
England history, and tell what I have to
say in such a manner as to please you.
You are now acquainted with the geog-
raphy of this section of the country; I
shall therefore take you back at once
to the period when our forefathers first
landed upon these shores.

1. MORE than two hundred years ago,
there were in England a great many
people called Puritans. They were not
happy in England, for they had peculiar
opinions about religion. They were
cruelly treated, and some of them at
length fled from the country. They went
first to Holland, but finally they conclud-
ed to go to America.
2. They set out in two vessels, but one
of them was leaky, and went back. They
all entered the other ship, and after a
long and stormy passage, they reaiicd a
broad harbor. They then sent some
people ashore, to examine the country.
These found some Indian corn in baskets,
buried in the sand. They also discov.

1. What were the people called who first set-
tied ia New England ? 2, 3. What is said of
^ .-^. ~_~~~~k- -


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IW2 '-rikq j f ;I-f0_._ W

I rt I I Is, ~ ~ ~ i


7 i
cl;:A-I -r:A u""'I' I



d Indian burial-places, surrounded by
cks stuck in the ground.
8. One night, the exploring party built
'fire in the woods, and slept by the side
it. In the morning, some arrows,
pointed with eagles' claws, and sharp
pieces of deer's horns, fell among them.
These were sent by some Indians who
came to attack them. The white men
fired their guns at them, and the Indians
ran off in great alarm. At this time the
savages had no guns, and they imagined
tha fire of the musket was lightning,
and te report thunder. No wonder
they ere afraid of people who, as they
belied, made use of thunder and
4. -ving examined the shores, the
ts pitched upon a place where
evey included to settle. December 22,
162. titey landed on a rock there, and
Scate the place Plymouth. It was win-
en they arrived, and the country
had a ost dreary aspect. There were
ho h es to receive them; there were
no f nds to welcome them; there was
nothing before them but a gloomy forest,
inhabited by savages and wild beasts.
SThere was nothing behind them but the
vast ocean, rolling between them and
their native land. This little colony con-
sisted of one hundred persons. They
were divided into nineteen families, and
each family built itself a log house.
5. For some time, the settlers were
not visited by any of the Indians. They
faw a few soon after their landing, but
1iese ran away as if they were very much
lghtened. One day, however, an In-
iat came among them, saying, in Eng-
Sish, Welcome, Englishmen! Welcome,
Eng' en!"
6 D is surprised the white people
~very The Indian told them that
their 4ge and settlement ? When and
where d they settle? 6, 6. What is related



his name was Samoset, and that he had
learned to speak English of the fishermen
he had seen upon the coast.
7. After some time, an Indian chief,
called Massasoit, came near to the settle-
ment, with some of his men. He was
a sort of king, and ruled over several
tribes. He was at first afraid to go down
into the village, but by and by he went
down, and the people saluted him with a
drum and fife, which he liked very much.

Making a Treaty with Massasoit.
8. Then he went into the governor's
house, where he ate a very hearty din-
ner, and drank a prodigious draught of
rum. He then made a treaty with the
white people, and agreed to be at peace
with them. This treaty he and his
descendants kept faithfully for fifi ,
9. I will now tell you of two wbi t
men that got lost in the woods. It wa,.
winter, and it was snowing very fast. :';
The snow had covered up the path, and
they could not find their way Iack to
the village. At length, night came on;
and as it grew dark, they heard a dread-
ful howling near them.
10. They were very much alarmed,
for they did not know what wild l~sts
might be in the woods. All night they

of Samoset? 7, 8. Of Massasoit? 9, 10. Re.



.r I
( 0-u..~.L 11 IL.rdd

- P .. --



continued in the storm, shivering with
cold, and frightened at the wild sounds
they heard. At length, the morning
came, and they reached the settlement.
I suppose the noise they heard was the
howling of wolves.
11. The settlers found their situation
/extremely uncomfortable. The winter
was very severe, their houses were mis-
erable, and they were destitute of all
those conveniences which they had been
accustomed to enjoy in England. Borne
down with suffering, many of them were
taken sick, and when the spring arrived,
half of their number had died.
12. Notwithstanding these discoura-
ging circumstances, other persons came
out from England and joined the settlers,
so that, in ten years after, the whole
numl*r amounted to thfee hundred. In
the year 1630, more than fifteen hun-
dred persons came from England, and
settled at Boston, Dorchester, Salem, and
other places in the vicinity.
13. These people were .nearly all
Puritans, but many of them possessed
wealth, and had been brought up in a
very delicate manner. Their sole object
in coming to America was to enjoy their
religious opinions without restraint. But
they had not foreseen the sufferings that
were before them.
14. The winter set in with unusual
severity. The snow fell to a great depth,
and the cold became intense. Assembled
in log houses, which afforded but a poor
shelter from the driving blasts, the emi-
grants had to endure hunger as well as
cold. Their stock of provisions became
nearly exhausted, and many of them

late the story of men lost in the woods, to illus-
trate the trials of the early settlers. 11. What
hardships did they endure? 12. How did the
uattlement of Plymouth increase in ten years ?
Where were settlements made in 1630 ? 13. What
Induced them to come to America ? 14. What

were compelled to subsist on clamn ;
muscles, nuts, and acorns.
15. Unable to sustain these privations,
many of them died. Among these was
one woman whose fate has always excit.
ed peculiar sympathy. This was Lady
Arabella Johnson. Her father was a
rich man in England, and she had been
brought up in the enjoyment of every
16. But in America she was deprived
of the common comforts of life. Her
delicate frame could not endure these
trials. Although her husband came with
her, and great care and kindness were
bestowed upon her, yet in about a month
after her arrival, she died.
17. Such were the sufferings that at-
tended the first settlers in New England.
Yet these were sustained with the utmost
fortitude. Those who died left a state
of sorrow, in the consciousness of having
done their duty, and the strong hope of
entering a state of peace beyond the
grave. Those who lived prayed to
Heaven for strength to support them in
their troubles, and their prayers seemed '
to be answered.
18. Thus prepared for life or death,
they continued to struggle with their
misfortunes, with a degree of firmness
which we cannot fail to admire


1. I HAVE now told you something
about the two colonies of Plymouth and
Massachusetts. The settlement at Plym-
outh was the first permanent English
settlement in New England. The colony
hardships did they endure ? 15, 16. Relate the
story of Arabella Johnson.
1. From what was Massachusetts named!



Massctchusetts was so named from a
ive Indian tribe. This colony in-
ased much more rapidly than Plym-
2. Such favorable accounts were given
it in England, that many persons of
itinction came from that country, and
settled in Boston and other parts of the
colony. Among these was Sir Henry
Vane. He was but twenty-five years
id when he arrived, but he was so grave
hat he won the hearts of the people, and
they made him governor.
3. You will recollect it was in the
year 1633 that the first settlement was
made in Connecticut. In 1636, Roger
Williams was banished from Massachu-
setts, and he settled in Rhode Island.
New Hampshire was first settled in 1623,
and Maine in the same year. In 1638
a settlement was made at New Haven,
which was afterwards called the colony
of New Haven. Vermont was not set-
'tied till 1724.
4. About the year 1635, a woman,
whose name was Ann Hutchinson, began
to preach strange doctrines in Massachu-
setts. She had a pleasing address and
Fluent speech; and she persuaded many
persons to believe as she did. Among
these was Sir Henry Vane.
5. By and by, some of the principal
people assembled to consider the subject.
They talked a great deal about it, and
sornm of them became very angry. At
length, Ann Hutchinson's doctrines were
condemned by a majority, and she was
banished from the colony. Sir Henry
SVane was very much displeased at this;
Ia he went back to England, and after
several years he was executed, by hav-
ing his head cut off, for high treason
against his king and country.
S 6. For a long time, the Indians did
$ What is said of Sir Henry Vane ? 3. When
wer the several colonies settled ? 4, 5. What is

not molest the inhabitants of the Plym.
outh and Massachusetts colonies. The
treaty made with Massasoit, as before
stated, was faithfully observed by them;
but the Pequods, who lived in Connecti-
cut, troubled the people there very much.
In 1637, they killed three men at Say-
brook, and at Wetlersfield they killed
six men, three women, and twenty cows.
7. These things caused great alarm.
Consequently some of the people met
at Hartford to consider what should be
done. It was determined to send a body
of men against the Indians. About
ninety white men and seventy friendly
Indians were soon assembled. They
were all placed under the command of
Captain Mason.
8. They entered some boats at Hart-
ford, and went down the Connecticut
River to Saybrook. Here they resolved
to make a sudden attack upon Mystic,
an Indian fort, situated where Stonington
now stands. This was one of the prin-
cipal places belonging to the Indians.
9. They reached the spot about day-
break. The Pequods had no suspicion
that an enemy was near. But by and
by, a dog barked, and then one of the
Indians, who saw the white men, gave
the alarm. At this instant the soldiers
fired upon the Indians. Many of the
savages were killed; but very'soon the
rest recovered from their astonishment,
and then they fought bravely.
10. They shot their arrows and guns
at the white men, and hurled stones and
sticks at them with the greatest fury.
The Indians were far more numerous
than tlre white men, and the latter were
at length nearly exhausted. At this
moment, Captain Mason ordered their
fort to be set on fire. The flames caught

said of Ann Hutchinson ? 6, 7, 8, 9, JO, 11, 12.
What is related of their troubles withthe Pequod
Indians? Where is Saybrook ? Wethersfleld

- 11 -1 -- ___ -. 01 ii, .- I- I --k. -,-. I I I I ll OWNSOMb;~P



quickly, and, spreading from wigwam to
wigwam, soon set them all in a blaze.
11. It was an awful scene, and the
struggle was soon terminated. Seventy
wigwams were reduced to ashes, and six
or seven hundred Indians were killed
either by the bullets or the fire.
12. This dreadful event alarmed the
Pequods, and they fled, with their chief,
Sassacus, to the west. They were fol-
lowed by the white men, who overtook
them in a swamp near Fairfield. Here
a battle was fought, and the Indians
were entirely defeated. This was fol-
lowed by a treaty with the remaining
Indians, and-the Pequods gave the colo-
nies no more trouble.
13. In 1643, the four colonies of
SPlymouth, Massachusetts, Connecticut,
and'New Haven entered into an agree-
ment for purposes of mutual defence.
They were led to do this by fear of the
Indians, who were now very unfriendly,
and who watched every opportunity to
do the white people mischief.

1. WE now approach a period of great
interest in the history of New England.
The Indians perceived that the English
were rapidly increasing in numbers,
while they themselves were as fast di-
minishing. They foresaw that, in a
short time, the English colonies would
overspread the whole land, while they
should themselves be driven back into
the wilderness.
2. This excited their jealousy, and
led them bitterly to hate the English.

Ltonington? Fairfield ? 13. What event took
Ildace in 1643 ?
1, 2, 3. Relate what is said of the feelings of


- ~ -~.


Besides this, quarrels pccasio: ally aro
between the white inhabitants and th6
savages. Whether these originated with
the English or the Indians, the latt6i
were always sure to be thought in the
wrong, and were punished by the white
people accordingly.
3. In short, the Indians had discov-
ered that the English, being wiser and
more artful than they, were likely soon
to become their masters; and the hatred
thus excited was aggravated by acts of
injustice and oppression, committed on
the part of the English towards the sav-
4. There lived, about this time, in
Rhode Island, an Indian, who was called
King Philip by the English. He was
chief of the Wampanoags, and lived at
Mount Hope, near Bristol. The coun-
try was then called Pokanoket.
5. Philip, being a man of great sa-
gacity, saw that, unless the English col-,
onies were checked, the Indians would,
in the course of a few years, cease to
exist as independent tribes. After re-
flecting upon these things, he resolved
to make one great effort to drive the
English from the land, and free his
country from such dangerous intruders.
6. Accordingly he visited, in secret,
several of the tribes in New England.
He conversed with the chiefs, and told
them that, if they remained inactive, in
a few years the beautiful rivers, and
hills, and forests, which had descended
from their fathers, would ease to be
their inheritance. He described the
English as crafty, longsighted, and
greedy, who added township to town-
ship, and colony to colony, and who
would never be content until they pos-

the Indians when they perceived the rapid in-
crease of the white men. 4. Who was King
Philip ? 5. What resolution did he adopt il
reference to the white men ? 6, 7. What means


%sed every foot of land east of the
7. He prophesied the gradual de-
ease, and the final extinction, of all
lose tribes who once reigned over the
hole land. He told them that their

rtulip addressing te Inalan unlers.
forests would be cut down, that their
hunting' grounds would be soon taken
from them, that their warriors would be
slain, their children wander forth in pov-
erty, their chiefs be beggars, and their
Tribes be scattered and lost like the au-
tumn leaves.
8. To remedy these evils, Philip pro-
posed that a mighty effort should be
made, by all the tribes in New England,
to destroy the English. He had little
difficulty in bringing the chiefs into his
schemes. A general effort was agreed
upon, and soon the war began.
9. In June, 1675, as the people of
Swanzey, in Plymouth colony, were
returning home from church, a sudden
attack was made by some Indians upon
them. At this period, the Indians were
supplied with muskets, powder, and ball,
and they had learned to use fire-arms
with considerable skill.
S10. In a few moments, therefore, eight
an'did he adopt to carry his resolution into
eftet & What did he propose ? 9, 10. When

or nine of the inhabitants of Swanzey
were killed. The country was immedi-
ately alarmed, and the people flew to
the succor of the inhabitants from all
quarters. An attack was made upon
the Indians the next morning, and sev-
eral of- them were killed.
11. This resolute conduct awed the
Indians; and Philip himself, expecting
an attack, fled from Mount Hope with
his warriors. It was soon ascertained
that they had gone to a swamp in Pocas-
set, now Tiverton. The white people
followed them thither, and, entering the
swamp, pursued them till night. They
were then obliged to retreat.
12. The English, finding it impossible
to encounter the enemy in the swamp,
determined to surround it, and starve
them out. But Philip guessed their
design, and privately stole away with
his men.

1. I CAN hardly tell you all that hap
opened during the bloody war that fol-
lowed. In all parts of New England,
the Indians seemed to be moved by a
spirit of deadly revenge. They set the
town of Springfield on fire, and no less
than thirty houses were consumed.
2. About eighty young men were at.
tacked at Muddy Brook, as tl;ey were
employed in transporting some grain
from Deerfield to Hadley. They had
no idea that an enemy was at hand.
They had stopped a moment with their
and how did the war commence? Where is
Swanzey ? 11, 12. What was the result of the
attack the next morning Where is Mount
Hope? Tiverton ?
1. What event occurred at Springfield? Where
is Springfield ? 2, 3. At Muddy Brok Whm

teams, and were gathering some grapes
by the roadside.
8. Sudden as the thunderbolt the sav-
age yell broke upon their ears. They
were immediately surrounded by the
Indians; and, having no arms, they were
incapable of defence. Seventy of them
were shot down, and these were all
buried in one grave.
4. In New Hampshire and Maine,
the Indians fell upon the towns, set the
houses on fire, and killed the inhabitants.
At Saco, Dover, Exeter, and other
places, they committed the most dreadful
5. In Massachusetts, they attacked
Quaboag, now Brookfield, and burnt all
the houses except one, in which the in-
habitants had taken refuge. This they
also assailed; and for two days, inces-
santly, they poured their musket shot
upon it. A great multitude of balls
passed through the sides of the house,
but only one person in it was killed.

Indians blesieging a Bo .
6. Finding it impossible to destroy
the people in this way, they attempted
Is Deerfield ? Hadley ? 4. What events in New
Hampshire and Maie ? Where i Sao? Do-
ver ? Exeter? For what are these places now
distinguished? (See New Hampshire and Maine.)
5 68, 7 & Descrbe the attack o'the Indians up-


---- ----- ---'


to set fire to the house. With
poles, they thrust against it fire
and rags dipped in brimstone. Thy
shot arrows of fire upon it, and f
they loaded a cart with flax and to,
set it on fire, and pushed it against the
7. The curling flame was soon coa-.
municated to the building; and now,
feeling certain of their prey, the savage
took their station so that they might cut
down those who should attempt to as-.
cape. But in this moment of peril, the
white men were saved, as if by the hand
of Heaven. A sudden shower fell upes
the flames, and at once extinguished
8. Soon after, Major Willard, with
some soldiers, came to their relief. He
attacked the Indians, killed a number
of them, and the rest fled.
9. At length it was thought necessary
to humble the Narragansetts. They
were a powerful tribe in Rhode Island,
and occupied a fort of great strength.
Near two thousand white men went
against them. The fort was built on
a hill in the centre of a swamp, and in
it there were four thousand Indian war-
10. There was but one entrance (l
the fort. This was accidentally discov-
ered by the white men, and they gal-
lantly rushed in to attack the enemy.
But the Indians met them, and many
of the English were killed. They were
at length obliged to retreat; but, by and
by, some Connecticut troops entered the
fort on the opposite side, and at the same
moment the attack was vigorously 're-
newed at the entrance.
11. The Indians were now cut down
with dreadful slaughter. The fort was
taken, and six hundred wigwams were

onBrookleld. Where sBrook&l id 9,1C U


on fire, and burnt to the ground.
Than one thousand of the Indian
iors were killed, and three hundred
taken prisoners.
12. Such were some of the events
this remarkable war. For near two
almost every part of New Eng-
Swas a scene of bloodshed. But,
hough the Indians killed great num-
of white people, yet their own loss
~as far greater. In truth, they never
vered from the many reverses which
ey experienced.
13. Although there were, perhaps, ten
fmes as many of them as of the white
-people, yet such *ere the superior skill
anid management of the latter, that the
Jndians were effectually defeated, and
Their power in New England was finally
', 14. At length the war was closed by
the death of Philip. He was found in a
swamp near Mount Hope, with several
either Indians. Captain Church, with a
Sfew white men, surrounded the swamp
,'at night.
15. When the morning came, Philip,
perceiving that he could not escape,
'rushed towards the spot where some of
-the white men lay. An English soldier
)levelled his gun, but it missed fire. An
Jndian, who was of the party, took de-
'berate aim, and shot the chief through
"be heart. Thus fell the most celebrated
t all the Indian chiefs. From this time,
the Indians, finding further resistance
.ain, began to submit to the English.
AThe struggle was continued a while in
S.Maine, but that soon ended, and no gen-
eral effort was ever after made, on the
of the Indians, to subdue the Eng-

S10. This war, the story of which I

have just related, continued from the
year 1675 till 1678. About six hundred
white men were killed in the struggle,
thirteen towns were destroyed, and six
hundred dwelling houses burnt. These
were dreadful losses to the poor colo-
nists, but the unhappy Indians suffered
still more.
17. Their chiefs and their principal
men were nearly all killed. Their wig.
wams were burnt; they were driven
from their homes; and now, defeated
and subdued, their situation was one
which may well excite our pity. Sav-
age life, in its happiest state, is a mis-
erable condition; but the New England
Indians had now lost their independence,
and all that savages hold most dear.
18. From that period they rapidly di-
minished; most of the tribes are now
extinct, and a few hundreds are all that
remain of a mighty people, that once
threatened to drive our forefathers from
this land.

1. goON after Philip's war, the colo-
nies began to be involved in difficulty
with England. The King of England
claimed these colonies as his own, atd
he, with the Parliament, made certain
laws respecting trade and comm-rce
with America.
2. Now, it was pretended that the col-
onies had violated these laws, and there-
fore the king determined'4o take away
their charters. These charters 'tf
great importance, for they gave^J 'l-
onies many privileges. The l who

Describe the losses of the golonist Of the
Indians. 18. What was .their condition from
this time ?
1, 2. In what trouble- re the coloibi it.

,, .. -- I _. .-

, 13. Describe the attack made upon the Nar-
uiiett Indians. 115. What event closed
S war ? 16. How Id id the wr continue?

L _.,^ ., . . I'l




reigned in England at the time was
James II. He sent Sir Edmund Andros
over to this country, to take away the
charters of all the New England colo-
nies, except Plymouth.
3. He also appointed Sir Edmund
governor over all the colonies whose
charters he thus proposed to take away.
Accordingly he came. I have told you
how the charter of Connecticut was hid
in an oak tree; but Sir Edmund assumed
the government of the New England
colonies, although he could not find that
4. At first he governed the people
pretty well; but by and by, he did many
things which displeased them very much.
Many unjust and oppressive laws were
passed, and the people saw that Sir
Edmund had no regard to their happi-
ness and prosperity in his administration.
5. Sir Edmund began to rule in 1686.
Two years after, the news arrived that
James II., King of England, had become
so unpopular as to be obliged to leave
the country, and that a new king, Wil-
liam IlI., had taken his place on the
throne. This news gave the colonies
great joy, for they hated James II. on
account of his conduct towards them, and
especially on account of the governor,
Sir Edmund Andros, whom he had sent
to rule over them.
6. Under the excitement of this joy,
the people of Boston seized Sir Edmund
and abdut fifty of his associates, and put
them in prison. There they remained
for some time; they were then sent to
v Ived with England during the reign of James
II. Whom did he send to take away the char-
ters ? What is a charter ? Answer. A writing
bestowing privileges or rights. 3. Whom did the
king appoint governor ? 4. How did he admin-
liter the government ? 6. What event occurred
In England in 1688 ? How was the news of this
revolution received in this country? 6. What
was dlne with Sir Edmund and his associates ?



England, to be tried for their
7. I will now relate what may
to you very strange. In the year 1
two children of Mr. Parris, a minister
Salem, Massachusetts, were taken sial.
They were affected in a very singular
manner, and the physicians were sent for.
They were at a loss to account for tbe'
disorder, and one of them finally said
they must be bewitched..
8. The children, hearing this, aad
being in great distress, declared that an
Indian woman, living in the house, had
bewitched them. Mr. Parris believed
what the children said; the Indian wo-
man was accused of the crime, and, in a
state of agitation and alarm, partially
confessed herself guilty. This affair ex-
cited great attention; many people came
to see these little children, and they
were very much pitied.
9. By and by, other children ima-
gined that they were affected in a similar
manner, and they said that they were
secretly tormented by an old woman in
the neighborhood. All these things
were believed, and more children and
several women soon declared themselves
bewitched. They charged several per-
sons with being the authors of their
10. They pretended that these per-
sons entered their rooms through key-'
holes, or cracks in the window, pinched
their flesh, pricked them with needles,
and tormented them in the most cruel
manner. Nobody could see these tor-
mentors but the sufferers themselves,
although several persons might be in the
room where one of the bewitched was
wailing and shrieking, from the pinches
of the witch.
11. Strange as it may seem, this mat.
7, 8,9, 10, 11, 12,18, 14, 16. Give an asoount
of the Salem 'witohc


,instead of being regarded as a delu-
Swas thought to be founded in reality.
people in those days believed that
evil sometimes gave to certain per-
great power for plposes of evil.
persons were qjf. deal with
devil, and they wer ~iidered very
S12. The business they were supposed
arry on with him was called witch-
and any person under their influ-
e was said to be bewitched. In Eng-
find, Parliaitent had thought it neces-
ity to make severe laws against witch-
oraft. Several persons there had been
Condemned and executed under those
ws. It was now thought proper to
roceed in a similar manner at Salem.
Accordingly, those persons accused of
practising witchcraft upon their neigh-
t`ors were put in prison, and a court was
formed to try them.
S13. Many of them were examined
ind found guilty, and some, under the
influence of a distempered imagination,
confessed that they were guilty. The
business at length refhed a very alarm-
lIng height. Nineteen persons had been
ifxecuted, one hundred and fifty were in
Prison, and many more were accused.
1-' 14. In this state of things, the people
bgan to doubt the correctness of their
proceedings. They examined the sub-
Smore carefully, and were very soon
fltisfed that they had acted rashly.
lie judges of the court also began to
e different views of the subject.
ose who were brought to trial were
before acquitted, and those in prison
5. Thur ended this extraordinary
on. We at the present day, who
that there is no such thing as
craft, cannot but wonder that our
should have believed in it, and
many persons should have been

hung for a crime that was only imagi-
nary. But we should remember that it
was a common error of that age.
16. It was not an invention of their
own. They receive their notions from
England, and it watpatural that they
should act agreeabl them. We must
do them the justice tjy, however, that
they very soon disc red their eiror,
and expressed their sorrow for it.


1. SOON after the accession of Wil-
liam II. to the throne of England, a
war broke out between that country and
France. At this time, the French had
several settlements in Canada, extending
along the River St. Lawrence, and in-
cluding Montreal and Quebec. They
had also several forts on Lake Cham-
plain and Lake George.
2. The war between France and Eng-
land, in Europe, of course extended to
their American colonies. The French
from Canada, assisted by large numbers
of Indians, invaded several parts of New
England, burnt the -houses of the inhab-
itants, killed many of the people, and
carried large numbers of men, women,
and children into captivity.
3. The cruelties practised during this
war almost exceed belief. Towns were
1. What war occurred soonafter the accesson
of William III.? Note. When James II. abdi-
cated the throne, he led to France. The king
of that country lent him an army to assist hi
in his attempts to regain the throne. Thli.led
to a war between France and England, whs
extended to the colonies in this coAutry. Whei
had the French settlements in tis country
Describe the River St. Lawrence. WhV e i
Montreal ? Quebec ? Lake Chamaplin ? Lake
George ? 2, 8. What was done by the Frea

II_)~___-. 1I~;~~_L~.-~f it --Yin....14el~- LP-~L ~I~YL-~ PLlil_~-.--~_-~L~YPI~LY-I~


attacked at midnight, and in midwin-
ter; the people were often killed in
their beds, and those whose lives were
spared were torn from their homes, and
obliged to endure Sufferings worse than
death. The history of these things is
too painful for my little readers; I will,
therefore, only tell them one story of this
cruel war.
4. In the winter of 1696, a party of
Indians made an attack on the town of
Haverhill, Massachusetts. Among the
people of that town was a Mr. Dunstan.
He was in a field at work, when the news
of the attack reached his ears. He im-
mediately started, and ran to his house
to save his family. He had seven chil-
dren, and these he collected for the pur-
pose of taking them to a place of safety
before the Indians should arrive.
5. His wife was sick, and she had an
infant but a week old. lie now hurried
to her, but before she could get ready to
leave the house, Mr. Dunstan perceived
that a party of the savages were alreily
close to his dwelling. Expecting that all
would be slain, he ran to the door and
mounted his horse, with the intention of
taking one of his children, -the one
that he' loved best, and flying with
it to a place of safety.
6. But which should he take ? Which
of his seven children should he leave to
the savages ? He could not decide, and
therefore, telling the children to run for-
ward, he placed himself between them
and the Indians. The savages dis-
charged their guns at him, but they did
not hit him. He had a gun too, and he
fired back at them.
7. Then he hurried his little children
along, loaded his gun as he went, and
fired at his pursuers. Thus he pro-
ceeded for more than a mile -protect-

and Indians? I 6, 6, 7. 89, 10, 11. Relate the


ing his little family, defending himuj
and keeping the enemy at a distanom.
At length, he reached a place of safety
and there, with feelings of joy whi&h

Mr. Dunstan saving his Children.
cannot be described, he placed his chil-
dren beyond the reach of the Indians.
8. But Mrs. Dunstan was destined to
undergo the severest trials. Although
she was very ill, the savages compelled
her, with the nurse and her little infant,
to go with them. They soon left the
town of Iaverhill, and set out to go to
the homes of the Indians. These were
at the distance of one hundred and fifty
miles. You must recollect that it was
winter, and the journey was to be per-
formed on foot through the wilderness.
9. Mrs. Dunstan and the nurse were
soon overcome with fatigue. The In- -
dians, perceiving that the little in-
fant occupied much of their attention,
snatched it from the mother, ar d killed
the little innocent by striking it against
a tree. After a toilsome march and the
greatest suffering, Mrs. Dunstan and her
companion completed the journey.
10. But now the Indians concluded
to remove to a distant place, and these
two women were forced to accompany

story of Mr. Dunsta and his family. 11


When ti 3y reached the end of
Journey, they discovered they were
undergo severe torture. They there-
e determined, if possible, to make their
S11. One night, Mrs. Dunstan, the
e, and another woman, rose secretly
while the Indians were asleep. There
ere ten of them in the wigwam where
ey were. These the women killed
ilth their own hands, and then departed.
After wandering a long time in the
ds, they reached Haverhill, and Mrs.
)unstan was restored to her family.
This is a strange story, but I believe it
Sis perfectly true.
12. A few years after the war of
which I have just been telling you,
another war occurred between England
and France, which extended to the col-
onies in this country, and occasioned
,great distress. It was called Queen
Ane's war. This war commenced in
1702, and the French and Indians-im-
mediately invaded New England. In
1704, a party of French and Indians
made an attack on Deerfield. It was at
pight, and in the midst of winter. All
.the people were. asleep; they had no
tear that an enemy was at hand. The
Sudden yell of the savages burst on their
bars, and they then knew the dreadful
scene that was coming.
13. The town was set on fire, forty-
en of the people were killed, and one
Hundred men, women, and children were
' carried into captivity. Among these
were Mr. Williams, a clergyman, and
Swife and five children. They set out
war occurred in 1702 ? Note. England,
ll and Germany formed an alliance against
in 1701, to prevent the union of France
lae The war whih followed in 1702, i
in English histories by the name of "the

on foot, and began their journey through
the snow.
14. On the second day, Mrs..Williams,
who was in bad health, was very weary,
and unable to keep up with the rest.
Her husband was not allowed to assist
her, and she seemed to be on the point
of fainting frotn weakness and fatigue.
At this time, one of the Indians came up
to her and killed her.
15. The other party then went on, but
seventeen other persons were killed by
the savages before they arrived in
Canada. Mr. Williams was kindly
treated by the French people there, and
after two years he returned, with fifty-
seven other captives, to Deerfield. He
was minister of that town for twelve
years after his return, and then died.
16. This story affords a fair example
of the cruelties of this war. It continued
till the year 1713. The people of the
colonies suffered very much; they made
several attempts to take Canada from
the French. Queen Anne sent over a
considerable number of troops to assist
them in doing so. But this project
failed. They, however, took Port Royal,
now called Annapolis, in Nova Scotia.
17. At length, in 1713, the French
and English made peace witJ other
in Europe, and the war c there,
and in the colonies also. PFin this
time, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland
belonged to the English. Canada Spil
belonged to the French, and continued
so till the year 1763, when it was ceded
to the British; and it has since remained
subject to that government. *
war of the Spanish succession," In this coun-
try it was called Queen Anne's war." 12,18, 14,
1l. Relate the attack on Deerfeld. 16. How long
did the war continue ? 16,17. What was the m
sult of the war



1. I ml sorry that I have but little to
tell you about this period, except tales
of war. It is painful to read the history
of times, gone by, and learn what dread-
ful sufferings have been endured by the
generations that have lived before us.
But painful as it is, we must still read
it. It may teach us the sad conse-
quences of war, and show us how much
better it is to be always at peace.
2. In the past ages of the world, kings,
and generals, and great men have been
fond of making war, and I am afraid
that some people are disposed to applaud
them for it. But the wisest and best
of men look upon all wars as evils, and
they deem those persons very wicked
who promote a war that can safely be
3. About the year 1722, the Indian
tribes in Maine, and along the eastern
and northern border, made war upon the
English settlers. These Indians often
attacked the people in Maine, Massa-
chusetts, and New Hampshire, and an-
noyed them very much. But in 1725,
this war ceased.
4. In 1744, England and France were
agyi involved in strife. George II.
was then King of England, and this war
is called King George's war, or the war
of the Austrian succession. The most
important event to New England, that
took place during this period, was the
capture of Louisburg. This was a very
strongly-fortified town, belonging to the
French, on the Iland of Cape Breton,
in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

1. In reading the history of wars, what lesson
ean we learn? 2. How do wise and good men
regard wars? 8. What troubles occurred with
the In j 1722 ? 4. When did King George's
Var oomil? What important event oc-


5. Here they kept many ships,
in time of war, these drove away
English and American sailors, who we
to the banks of Newfoundland to ca
codfish. To take Louisburg was, there-
fore, a great object. To accomplish this,
the colonies united, and sent about four
thousand three hundred men against it,
under the command of Sir William Pep-
perell. They went in twelve ships and
some smaller vessels.
6. They arrived at Louisburg the
last of April, 1744. They were occu-
pied fourteen days in drawing their can-
non across a swamp, so as to bring them
near the town. They then besieged it;
that is, they surrounded it both by land
and water. They also made freqoert
attacks upon the soldiers in the forts.
7. This continued till the 15th June,
when the French commander requested
them to stop, and on the 19th he sur-
rendered the place into the hands of the
Americans. Thus Louisburg and the
Island of Cape Breton came into the
possession of the English.
8. In 1748, France and England
again made peace, and the colonies once
more enjoyed tranquillity. But this did
not last long. A still more extensive
and important war was at hand. This
commenced in 1755, and it is called in
this. country the French and Indian
war. I have seen many of the old
soldiers that were engaged in it, and
they have told me many stories about
it. I shall tell you some of these by
and by.
9. But as several colonies besides those
of New England were engaged in this
war, and as it was carried on chiefly in
Canada, and along the remote parts of
curred during this war ? 6, 7. Describe the
capture of Louisburg. 8. When did the war ter.
minate ? What war was commenced in 17665
10. What places became subject to Great Britail.


country, it does not seem proper to 14. But these feelings were no secu-
an account of it while I am only rity against,injustice. The British Par.
g you the history of New England. lament passed a series of acts relating
I have told you about the other to America, from 1760 to 177.0, which
nies, I shall give youi an account of roused the indignation of the people,
French war. and brought on the revolutionary war.
0. I need only say now, that New New. England took a leading part in
gland took an active part in it, and this noble struggle.
her soldiers contributed very much 15. I shall have occasion to tell you
the success of the British arms. The many interesting things that happened
ole of Canada was conquered by the in this section of the county during
|ai.h and from that time to the pres- that war. But as the whole nation was
t, it. tog-:her with Nova Scotia, New- engaged in it, I shall defer my account
ndlaind. and Cape Breton, has been of it till I have told you the history of
ect to Great Britain. This war was the other colonies.
Ised by a treaty of peace, made at
raris, in 1763. -
11. It was about the time that this
Veace was concluded, that the people of CHAPTER XXV.
erica began to be agitated by the THE PURITANS
;ming revolution. The conduct of the / ,
lristh king and Parliament was marked 1. As stated in the preceding chap-
1ith seltrihness from the first settle- ter, the separate history of the New
ient of the country. England colonies properly closes about
12. I mean by this, that in the laws the time of the last French war. They
ey had passed, the regulations they then began to act in concert with the
Made, and the officers they had other colonies, and from that period their
appointed, oIr America, they had it less history is soon lost in that of the nation.
' view 1o promote the happiness and But before that time, the history of New
prosperity of the colonies, than to make England is but little connected with the
.tem profitable to England, the mother other parts of the country.
euntry. 2. The Dutch, having settled New
S13. Yet. in spite of this unjust policy, York, interrupted the intercourse ble-
ze people here loved and honored the tween New England and the more south-
J'g, and cherished the strongest attach- ern English colonies; but they were not
nt to 01d England. Many of the more separated by this circumstance than
iabitants had come from that country, by difference of character. New Eng.
d the rest haddescended from Eng- land was settled almost wholly by the
emigrants. England was, therefore, Puritans.
ays spoken of as Home, the Mother 3. These were very peculiar people.
ntr, the Land of their Fathers.
sch tender epithets did the colo- towards England ? 14. What'aused the revo.
express the affection they felt for lutionary war
.' 1. When did the people of New England be-
gin to act in concert with the other colonies
close of this war ? 11, 12. What new 2. What tended to interrupt th course be.
es agitated the people soon after the treaty tween New England and the Crolonies at
in 1763 13. How did the people feel the south ? 3, 4, b, 6, 7/WhWsaid of the


They held religion to be of the greatest
importance. They loved the services
of religion, and it was one of their great-
eat enjoyments to meet together and
worship in their own way. They spent
much time in praying to God in secret.
They read the Scriptures with a deep
and careful interest, and they held'it to
be the great business of this life to make
preparation for another.
4. Such were the views and feelings
of the Puritans. In England, they were
miserable, for they could not indulge
their religious feelings, and express their
religious opinions in peace. They were
ridiculed, despised, and persecuted. To
them, therefore, the wilderness of Amer-
ica was a better place than England;
for there, in the woods, they could as-
semble together, and worship God in
S.eir own way, without reproach and
*hoot opposition.
S 6. In coming to this country, there-
S. oe, the principal object of these people
was to enjoy their religion. Being all
of one mind, they seemed not to foresee
that future generations would be divided
in opinion; and, taking the example of
the Jews, they proposed to form a com-
munity as nearly as possible according
to the nsient Jewish system.
6. te time after the colonies were
sett1, persons came among them, and
begah to preach doctrines different from
their own. The Puritans had never
thought of allowing people to enter the
colonies, and utter sentiments and opin-
ions different from those held by the
S first settlers.
7. They had no idea of free toleration
to all religions; they therefore commit-
ted the same error that had driven them
S from England. They withheld charity
from their opponents; they gave them

hard names; they imprisoned
ished some, and put others to
8. I have told you how
liams was expelled, and I will
you some other things of a s
ture. About the year 1650,
sons in the Plymouth and
colonies adopted the sentiments
Baptists, and were, of course,
municated from the churches to
they belonged. '
9. After this, Mr. Clark, a
clergyman of Rhode Island, came
Massachusetts, with two other Bap
named Holmes and Cranfield. One
bath morning, as they had assembled
worship, they were seized by the
officers, and forcibly carried to the
gregational Church, where they w
kept during the service. Mr.
refused to take off his hat; so he f
with it on, and when the minister beagi I
to pray, he took a book out of his pocket,
and amused himself with reading. When
the service was done, he addressed the
people, and explained his conduct
10. These three Baptists were tried
by a court, a fortnight after this, and
sentenced as follows: Mr. Clark was
to pay a fine of about one hundred dol-
lars, Mr. Holmes'about one hundred and
fifty, and Mr. Cranfleld about twenty-
five dollars. In case they refused, they
were to be publicly whipped. They al
refused; but Mr. Clark's fine was pri-
vately paid by his friends. C'anfleld
was released, and Holmes suffered the
sentence of the court.
11. He received a'number of cruel
lashes upon the naked back, which he
endured with great fortitude. Two of
his friends were present, and after the
punishment was over, they shook hands
with him, and praised him for his cour-

P itas .? 10, 11, 12. elate s e f te II reeda*p f the i Pauitas boards the Bptist






cy. For this act, these
and sentenced to pay
to be publicly whipped.
however, paid by their

some of the proceed-
*aptists; but still more
taken in respect to the
f ase I will now give you

fist Quakers that came into
usetts were Mary Leisher and
Austin, who reached Boston, from
d, by way of the West Indies, in
They brought with them some
books, which the deputy gov-
caused to be burnt by the hang-
while the women themselves were
An prison. Here they were kept
ie confinement for five weeks, no
n being permitted to converse with
even through the window. They
e finally sent back to the West In-
Sin a ship, and the .jailer kept their
and Bible for his trouble.
2. A short time after this, eight other
'~takers came to Boston, who were im-
r diately put in prison, where they
*ire kept eleveif weeks. Very severe
i'" ws were then passed, banishing all
takers from the colony, upon pain of
;death. But the greater the cruelty with
Which they were treated, the more they
flocked to the colonies.
3, At length, four of them, who had
ben banished, having returned, were
a apprehended, convicted, and sentenced
to death. They were then led out,

1. 2, & How did the Puritans treat the Qua-


and executed, agreeably to the sentence.
They died with great courage, and de-
clared to the people, who were assem-
bled, that they rejoiced in their death,
and thanked God that he had given
them this opportunity to attest the truth
and sincerity of their faith. Thus they
died triumphing, at the very gallows,
over their persecutors.
4. These cruelties had an effect di-
rectly opposite to that intended by the
Puritans. It led the people in the first
place to pity them, then to defend, and
finally to agree -with them. Instead,
therefore, of suppressing either the Bap-
tists or the Quakers, the laws and pro-
ceedings against them actually induced
a great many persons to join those
sects .
5. It is very certain that the New
England fathers made great mistakes in
this matter; but we must consider tfBt -
these things happened almost two h9iS'
dred years ago. The idea, now so com-
mon, and now so clear to us all, that
every person has a right to worship God
in his own way, had not then entered
into the minds of men. Our forefathers
were not alone in their narrow views;
all over the world mankind were in
darkness on this subject.
6. The shadow has indeedT passed
away from our' own country. Here,
every man may freely choose in what
manner he will hold communion with
his God. But in many parts of the
world, even now, there are persons who
suffer much on account of their faith.
There are, I think, even in our own
land, at this very day, those who are
spoken of unkindly and uncharitably,
because of their religion.
7. Let us not, therefore, think too
kers ? 4. What effect did their cruelties have I
6, 6. What can be said in extenuation of their
faults 7,8,9. Describe the vigtaee, the Wit


harhly of the New England fathers for
their limited views upon this subject.
Let us look rather at their virtues; their
patience under misfortune; their steady
endurance of cold, hunger, want, and
privation; their deep and fervent piety;
their strict observance of what they
deemed right; and their stern rejection
of whatever they thought wrong.
8. Let us look also at the wisdom of
these men. tThey immediately established
schools for the education of all classes
This was a noble thought, and one that
had not yet entered into the heads of
the wisest men in Europe. Observe
their courage, vigor, and enterprise in
war; how ready they all were to assem-
ble at the moment of danger, whether it
came from their savage or civilized foes I
9. Consider their self-denial. The la-
bhs of th field, the services of religion,
the calls of war, and their domestic
duties, engaged their whole attention.
They had no amusements; they had
parted with them all. They were brave,
stern men, ready to die, if God so or-
dained it; yet resolute in discharging all
the duties of life so long as it lasted.
10. To give you a more lively idea of
the ehbrcer of our New England an-
-sketch a picture of what
might seen, in any of the New
SEngland vi 8es, in the earlier part of
their history.
11. We will suppose it to be the morn-
ing of the Sabbath. Surrounded by a
few houses, some of them built of logs,
S and some of .boards, is a small brown
building, wtltet a steeple; this is the
meeting hos. At the appointed hour,
the worshippers are u en gathering to
the church from varionu.quarters.
19. But each man carries avrn, and
wnr his shoulder he has ta trappings
en t he iesfet.al of. the Prisams. Wh0
3L Describe As picture. 13,14, I, 16. Why

of a soldier. The gun ae 4
together near the meetingwg
and one man is stationed the

A new Jnglana uluroa in early Times.
the alarm, if the Indians are seen to
approaching the spot. Thus prep
to fly to the defence of their houses a2
their families, they enter the house of
God, and there they worship. How
powerful must have been the motive.
which drove our fathers from England'
into the wilderness, to live a life like this
13. I will sketch another picture. We
will suppose it to be a week day -a day
of labor. You sal man going with his
scythe into the d; but he is armed
with a musket. You see a man plough.
ing, and another hoeing his corn; they
have each muskets lashed to their backs.
14. You see a man on horseback,
going from one village to another; he.
too, is armed. You see a man removing
with his family to some distant settle-
ment; he is provided with the mans of
instant defence.
15. Thus lived our N.w England
fathers for more than one generation.
They were in a state of constant prepa-
ration for attack; always supposing that
the next instant an Indian mrow, or an

did they go constantly armed ? 17. What effeo


t be in the air, speed-
yaim to the heart.
this all. Thewoods were
male. At night, the
cbpose about the houses and
carry off a sheep or a
traveller on foot lingered in
Sunset, he heard the howl
gry beasts upon his track;
bear crossed his path, turn-
ha wistful look; or a pan-
on him from the branches
ged oak; or the lonely cry of
at filled his ears.
people living under circum-
e these, surrounded by dangers,
Soil, strangers to relaxation and
ent; living partly on the flesh
which they hunted in the woods,
y upon the fruits yielded by the
to their own labor; were likely to
great courage, sternness, and de-
f character. And such, indeed,
leading peculiarities of the New
d settlers.
There can be no doubt that many
blessings, in New England, have
tided to us from the Pilgrim Fa-
The abundance of our schools,
ove and reverence' felt for religion,
as consequences of these, the intel-
ligence and morality of the people gen-
aly, are things for which we have to
thank the piety and wisdom of the Pu-

1. NEW YORK is the richest and most
polplous of the United States. Its ter-
ritory is very extensive,,but it is not so
did their trials and sufferings have upon their
character? 18. What are some of the blessings
transmitted t) us by the Puritans ?
1. How is New York bo mded ? What is said

large as some of the other states. The
land is in general fertile, and some of it
is exceedingly so. The means of water
communication in this state are unri.
called: in the eastern part is the Hud-
son River, which is navigated by sloops
and steamboats for one hundred and sixty
miles. On the east and north are Lakes
George and Champlain, the St. Law-
rence, and Lake Ontario. On the west
is Lake Erie.
2. The Erie Canal extends the whole
length of the state, from east to west,
and connects the waters of the great lakes
with tde Hudson. This river and canal
are connected, by branch canals, with the
Delaware, Susquehanna, and Alleghany
Rivers on the south, and with Lakes
Champlain and Ontario on the north.
Besides these, there are, in the interior,.,
a great number of smaller streams an-iO 1
lakes, navigable by boats. I belie
there is not a spot of the same exteitfn
the earth more favored by water com-
munication than the State of New
3. The produce of almost every portion
of the state may be easily carried to the
city of New York, which is the largest
city in North America, and one of the
greatest commercial places in th*IWod.
It contains upwards of 500&O inhabit-
ants. Situated at the math of the
Hudson River, it receives not only the
produce of the State of New York, but
of other states bordering on the great
lakes. This produce is sent in vessels to
Boston, Charleston, New Orleats, Cali- '
fornia, Liverpool, Havre, a* parts
of the world.

of it? Describe tha owns of water ecormuni.
cation. 2. Describe t lirie Canal. i
other waters are the Erie Canal an&'4: I
River connected? 3. To what great cxjAN "''
produce of the state mostly carried? WThaig
said of New York city ? To what places is the



4. There are many curious things to
be seen in the city of New York. We
must visit Broadway, which is one of the
finest streets in the world. Here we
shall see a great many ladies and gentle-
men, very gayly dressed, and we shall
see some old women sitting down on the
pavements, with oranges, and apples, and
nuts to sell. And we shall see a great
many coaches, omnibuses, and drays, in
the streets, and we must be very careful
that we are not knocked down and run
over by some of them.
5. We must stop and admire the City
Hall, which is an elegant buildpg of

valy nau men w XOrL
white urble. In the Park we shall see
a be~&l fountain, supplied by the
Croton Aqwhuct. This aqueduct is for-
ty-one hiles Jong, and supplies the city
with an abundance of excellent water.
The Merchant' Exchange in Wall Street,
Trinity Church in Broadway, and the
Custom House, are splendid and costly
6. We must now go down into Pearl
Street, and there we shall see the mer-
chants so busy, and in such a hurry, that
they almost run over each other. There
**JMkought to New York sent? 4, 6.
sfome of the curious thing to be seen i
Mh dty of New York? 7. What s said of the

we shall hear a great rattling
and we shall see every body wi
fast, and as eat tumbling abao
boxes, bags, and barrels. After
must go to the Battery, which
some promenade on the board
Bay. Here we shall see a mu
vessels from all parts of the world
masts look like a forest stripped 0
These, and the steamboats co
crossing the river and bay, and
ally arriving from distant cities or
ports, show the extensive trade and
merce of this great city.
7. The State of New York is rema
able for the natural objects which attr
the attention of the traveller. The a
nery along the Hudson is unrivalled

ecenery on tne eMo,
its beauty. It was upon this river that
steamboats were first brought into use
They were invented by the celebrated
Robert Fulton, of New York, in the
year 1803. There was but one beat on
the river for a long time. But now there
are a great many. Sometimes one of
these boats carries more than a thousand
passengers. They are very rapid, and
will go from Albany to New York, a

Hudson River? Whatisits course Where does
itempty? What is sid of its scenery? Of the

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one hundred and fifty miles,
e hours. *
*eghtful to go up the Hudson
these boats. Let us suppose
e a trip, in this state, from
of New York to Niagara Falls.
e go, dashing through the water
-#tyle, passing some of the most
scenery in the world; and by
we come to the Palisadoes, which
high, perpendicular rocks, on
eat side of the river. In some
they rise to the height of 500 feet.
We soon arrive at West Point,
there is an excellent academy, in
ch young men receive a military
cation. Soon after leaving this place,
h Newburg, of which we have a
view from the river. We next come
;Poughkeepsie, one of the handsomest
in the state. After this, we come
the Catskill Mountains. These are
blue mountains, which seem to reach
the clouds. A great many travellers
escend them, and they tell us that the
rpe=pect from them is truly sublime.
There is here a beautiful little cascade,
where the water falls almost three hun-
dred feet over the rocks. These moun-
tains afford many picturesque views.
They used to be inhabited by many wild
animals, such as deer, wolves, and cougars.
10. It is nut many years since, that
two huntsmen were searching for game
among these mountainrwhen, coming to
a hill, they agreed to pass around it, one
going one way, and the other going the
other way. At length, one of them
heard the report of a gun. He ran to
the spot, but could see nothing of his
steamboats? 8, 9. In sailing up the Hudson
River, what are some of the objects to attract
our attention ? Name some of the places which
we should pass, and notice their situation upon
the map. 10. Relate the story of the two hunts-

companion He found his dog, at length,
torn in pieces; and by and by saw a
cougar or panther, with the body of his
friend, in the top of a tree. He fired his
gun, and the animal dropped with his
prey to the ground. The dog of the
huntsman now attacked the wounded
animal, but was instantly killed by a
stroke of his paw. The man soon pro-
cured help at a neighboring village.
The party found the cougar dead, and
by it the body of the unfortunate sports-
man, who was also dead.


1. ON passing Catskill we proceed to
Hudson, a flourishing city on the east
bank of the river. It is built principally
on the slmunit of a hill, and commands a
fine project. The people are largely
engaged in trade id the whale fishery.
We next arrive at Albany, the capital
of the state, where we shall see many
elegant public buildings, and find the
people busily engaged in receiving and
forwarding merchandise by several ca-
nals and railroads. We will here take
the'cars for Buffalo, stopping at some of
the intermediate stations, and occasion-
ally leaving the road to visit objects of
interest and curiosity.
2. On arriving at Schnectady, one
of the oldest towns in the state, and the
seat of Union College, we will leave the
cars and proceed to Saratoga Springs.
This is the most popular watering-place
in the ,United States, and one of the most
celebrated in the world. It is a great
resort for invalids, who come to drink
1. What is said of Hudson ? Of Albany, the
capital? In which part of the state is Bualo 1
2. Schenectady? What is said of it ? Of Sara

the mineral waters, and for persons of
pleasure from all parts of the country.
3. Returning to Schenectady, we will
resume our journey. On arriving at
Utica, we shall be surprised to find so
large and beautiful a city. The build-
ings are principally built of brick, and
many of them are very elegant. We
must now go in a carriage, about twelve
miles north of Utica, and see Trenton
Falls. A small river here tumbles over
the rocks, and presents several exceed-
ingly beautiful. cascades. A very sad
accident happen ad here a few years ago.
A young lady, from New York, came
with some of her friends to see the cata-
ract. She was standing on the edge of
one of the highest rocks, and her friends
were at a little distance. Suddenly she
disappeared from theil view. They ran
to the spot, and looked over the preci-
pce. She had fallen to a great depth
below, and had been instantljkilled.
4. We must be ptticular to go and
see the Indians at V!fnon, about seven-
teen miles west of Utica. There are
near one thousand of them, and they are
the remnants of two famous tribes, that
once inhabited this part of the state.
These Indians are called Oneidas and
1' Tuscaroras; they are partly civilized,
for they till the land, go to meeting, and
live peaceably. They are, however, a
degraded people, and will rather excite
your pity thap your respect. We shall,
perhaps, on our way, meet with other
Indians, the poor remains of the cele-
brated tribes which I shall have occasion
to mention by and by, under the name
of the Five Nations.
5. Resuming our journey, we shall
son arrive at the flourishing town of
toSSprinpe? & OfUtlca? OfTnmto Falls ?
aat the accidet described is amid
at the Indians at Vernon? l s
Whee is Auburn Cansadal ^ t is


Syracuse.,' This place and the
ing villages are noted for
works. The salt is manuf
water taken from salt springs, w
found here in great abundance.
leaving Syracuse, we shall pass
Auburn and Canandaigua to
This city owes its rapid growth
present greatness to the vast water
created by the falls in the Genesee
We may here visit the largest flour
in the world.
6. We next proceed to Buffalo,
great commercial city of the La
Here we shall see steamboats, school
and sloops, constantly arriving and
parting, laden with produce and merch
dise from various ports. .We may ta
the cars for Niagara Falls, where we shal
witness the sublimest cataract in tht
world. These falls are formed by sa
immense mass of water, which comes
from the great lakes, and pours over the
rocks to the depth of a hundred and fifty

rlul 01 nugar..
feet. The roar of these waters is like
thunder. Sometimes it is heard at the
distance of many miles. The earth
trembles around, and a thick cloud of
'apor rises high into the air, stretching
itself far away over the hills and valleys.

aid of Rochester? 6. Of Buffalo Of Niagass


few years ago, some people
a large vessel, and placed in it
bear and otter animals. They
ought it near the falls, and left it
Swift current. Many thousands
le were there to see the sight.
vessel was instantly drawn along by
nt towards the falls; it came to
'edge of the rocks, and down, down it
and was broken into a thousand
The poor bear went over with it.
a long time he was buried in the
,but at length he rose upon the
e, and then sprang ashore.
I will tell you another story of these
There was an Indian sleeping in
canoe, on the lake. He was not far
the falls, but the canoe was tied,
d he felt safe. But by and by, the
was loosed by some accident, and
canoe floated out upon the water. It
t silently along, and the Indian still
tin ued to sleep. Soon the current
' egan to take the boat towards the falls.
went more and more rapidly, and soon
ras near the cataract. At this moment
%Qe Indian awoke; he saw his situation,
Sd knew that it was vain to struggle
against his fate. He therefore seated
iLmself erect, wrapped his blanket closer
foundd his body, and, folding his arms,
went down with the thundering tide.
9. After crossing the Suspension
Bridge, which is eight hundred feet
long, forty feet wide, and two hundred
and thirty feet above the water, and vis-
iting other objects of curiosity, we may
return to Buffalo. Thence we go to
Dunkirk by steamboat on Lake Erie,
where we can take the cars for New
York city on the New York and Erie
Falls ? 7, 8. What is said of the vessel and oa.
aoe that went over the falls? 9. Where is
Dunkirk ? What railroad from Dunkirkto the
dty of New York ? By what other route can
we return? Loolk on the map and dearibe

<- k'

Railroad. We may, if we prefer, return
by way of Lake Ontario to Ogdensburg,
thence to Montreal by steamboat on the
St. Lawrence; or by railroad to Bur-
lington, Vermont. From this place we
can cross Lake Champlain in a steam-
boat to Whitehall; thence by canal boat
and railroad to Troy, a beautiful city on
the Hudson, six miles above Albany,
from which place we can return by the
Hudson River Railroad to New York.
10. By the time we return, we shall
be satisfied that the State of New York
abounds in interesting objects. The
western part of the state will fill us with
surprise. It now presents many large
towns, and a multitude of thriving vil-
lages; yet it has been almost wholly set-
tled within the last fifty years. A more
thriving, intelligent, and happy people, it,
would be difficult to find. Fifty years
ago, there was not a house in Rochester,
and it h ow more than thirty thousand
inhabitants. Utic had then scarcely
fifty houses; but wrhas now more than
seventeen thousand people. Buffalo has
more than forty thousand inhabitants,
and is constantly increasing in its trade
and commerce.
11. The increase of population in this
part of thh state seems, indeed, quite
magical. I recollect a story of something
that happened near Rochester, within
the last thirty-five years. Two persons
were travelling on horseback through
the woods in winter, guided only by a
horse path. The snow had recently
fallen to a great depth, and they
length lost their way. They unddA
to retrace their steps; but night came
on, while they were still in the midst of
the forest.
12. They knew they were at a con.
them. W i aid of he western part of
the etaU 11, .3, 14, 16. Relate the stoq
of the puIui nm r Boohester.
1 b

____- ____ ___


siderable distance from any settlement,
and had no hope of reaching a house
during the night. It therefore became
apparent that they must spend it in the
woods. But as the sun went down, the
cold increased, and in a short time it
was exceedingly severe. The horses
were worn out with fatigue, and the
travellers began to fear that they should
be frozen. They looked about for the
shelter of a rock, or some other place,
but nothing of the kind presented itself.
Their situation was now alarming; they
could not proceed, and to remain idle
was certain death.
13. At length one of them recollected
that he had a small tinder-box in his
pocket. This le took out, and the trav-
ellers set about making preparations to
'build a re, with great alacrity. They
got together the bark of some trees, and
some dry branches; they the began to
prepare the tinder-box, but on examining
it, the tinder was entirely gone.
14. There was, however, in the box,
a small piece of linen rag, the edges of
( which were burnt. These edges were
carefully rolled together, and with a
trembling hand the sparks of fire were
struck upon them. Again and again the
effort was made, but without success.
With feelings of the deepest anxiety, the
travellers bent over the box. Life and
death were on the issue. If te spark
caught, they were safe; if not, they must
perish. To suh a narrow point is hu-
man fortune oflt reduced.
14. The fliaisaow struck with great-
er force. The re descends in a shower,
but without vail Again, again, and
again they make the trial, and they are
on the pqot of giving themselves up in
blow is tr ; its
by the thbij ad a
Sra96Se, agrm of


utes the travellers ae
selves by a bright blaze I
remained during the night.
morning, they mounted their
reached the place of their

NEW TORK-CowrTwwisv
1. I THINK you cannot fail to
the great Erie Canal, in the S
New York. It is three hundred
sixty-two miles in length; it is
feet wide, and has eighty-three
It is one of the longest canals in.
world, and it is certainly one of the
useful. It is frozen up in winter,
during the spring, summer, and
many hundreds of boats, loaded
produce and goods of all kinds, aI
passing to and fro upon it.
2. This canal was begun in 1817, ad
finished in 1825. It was made by the
people of New York. Many men were
occupied, for eight years, in digging the
earth, in cutting through the rocks, and
in building walls and dams for the locks
The whole cost of the canal was eight
million dollars. They have since been
obliged to enlarge it, to accommodate the
increasing business.
3. I will now tell you the early his.
tory of this great state. In the year
1609, Henry Hudson, an English navi-
gator, was employed by some Dutch
people to go on a voyage of discovery.
He came to America, and discovered the
river which now bears his name. He
sailed up as far as Albany, and went in
his boat a little farther.
4. He saw, then, along the banks of
ijr eis aid of the sztSt of th rie Oadll
J.ll wu it built? 3. Whn and by whoa
W oZew York discovred ? 4. What oheap


r nothing but trees and Indians,
animals. What a change has
ace! The island at the mouth
river, which was then covered
'th trees and shrubs, is now the
a mighty city; and the banks of
udson, then so solitary, are now
ed over with towns, cities, villages,
Country seats.
SFive years after Hudson's discov-
some Dutch people came to Albany,
,commenced a settlement. This was
th year 1614, six years before the
arrived at Plymouth. It was
first settlement made in New York.
ut the same time, they built a few
es on an island called by the Indians
hattan, where the city of New York
6. You will observe that New York
settled by Dutch, not English peo-
e. They came from Holland, or the
etherlands, and the colony, which in-
ased rapidly, was claimed by that
7. n 1643, a war %roke out with the
pndians. The Dutch governor employed
"a brave captain, by the name of Under-
ill, to go against them. He had been
a soldier in Europe, and knew well how
to conduct the business of war. He took
,rith him one hundred and fifty men, and
they had a great many battles with the
Indians. The latter were defeated, and
four hundred of them were killed during
the war.
8. In 1646, a severe battle was fought
with the Indians, near Horseneck.
Great numbers were killed on both
sides, but the Dutch were victorious.
The dead bodies were buried at a place
called Strickland's Plain, and one hun-

has since taken place? 5. When was Abany
settled ? 7. What event occurred with t In-
dians in 1643? 8. In 1646 ? 9. What disputes

dred years afterwards the graves were
still to be seen.
9. There were some disputes between
the people of New England and those
of New York about the boundary of
their territories. At length the Dutch
governor went to Hartford, where he
met some people sent by the New Eng-
land colonies, and they came to an agree-
ment about the land. #But King Charles
of England said that the Dutch had no
right to any of the land, and granted what
the Dutch had settled to his brother,
the Duke of York and Albany.
10. In 1664, the duke sent Colonel
Nicholls with three ships to New York.
On his arrival, he commanded the people
to surrender the town. They refused at
first, but in a little while they gave it up,
and he took possession of it. The name
of this place, which was before called
Manhattan, was then changed to New
York, ail the place on the Hudson
where the first settlement was made,
which had been called Fort Orange, was
called Albany. These names have since
been retained.

11. In 1673, the city of New 1
was retaken by the Dutch. The
did they have with the people of New Engi
10. What event occurred in 1664? 11 InN

- I- -


and city were surrendered by the treach-
ery of John Manning, the commanding
officer, without firing a gun. The next
year, peace was concluded between Eng-
land and Holland, and the colony was
restored to the English.
12. The Duke of York and Albany,
the former proprietor, now came again
into possession of the colony, and sent
Sir Edmund Andros, afterwards the ty-
rant of New England, to govern it. IIe
was succeeded by other governors; and
in 1682, the people were permitted to
meet and choose representatives.
13. These representatives assembled
and made laws, which could not go into
force till they were ratified by the duke.
This arrangement was satisfactory to the
people, and the colony now felt the bless-
ings of good government.


1. I WILL now tell you about the In-
dians in the northern part of New York.
The interior of the country was origi-
nally inhabited by five nations, called
the Senecas, Cayugas, Onondagas, Onei-
das, and Mohawks. These nations were
friendly to the English colonies, and
being very powerful, they protected the
inhabitants from the French settlements
in Canada.
2. At length the French governor, De
la Barre, being afraid of these Indian
tribes, raised an army of seventeen hun-
dred men, and went against them. But

12. Whom did the Duke of York send to govern
the colony after it was restored to the English ?
When were the people permitted to choose rep-
resentatives ?
1. What is said of the Indians in the northern
part of New York ? 2, 3. What is said of De la

his troops suffered very much from hard
ship and sickness, and many of then
3. Being surrounded by his enemies
he was now obliged to ask peace of the
savages whom he had come to destroy:
lie sent to the chiefs of the Five Na
tions, requesting them to come and see
him, and three of them came. A circle
was formed, consisting of the French
officers and chiefs, and then De la Barre
addressed the ohief of the Onondagas as
follows : -
4. Chief, listen to what I have to say.
I am sent to this country by a great king,
who commands many armies. lie is
good to his friends, but lie is terrible to
his enemies. What are ye, his friends
or his enemies? I tell you that ye are
his enemies.
"You protect the English, and you
fight for them. You have made a league
with them for peace and war. You have
led them into the country, and shown
them the trading grounds of the French,
and now they carry away the furs which
the French ought to get.
5. Such is your conduct, and that of
the Five Nations; and what shall the
king, my master, do to you for these
things? He can send an army into this
land, that shall scatter your tribes, as the
dry leaves of autumn are scattered by
the whirlwind; and this he will do, un-
less you change your conduct, and instead
of enemies become his friends."
6. Garrangula, the Onondaga chief,
knew perfectly well the distress of the
French army. He therefore heard this
haughty speech with contempt. After
walking six times around the circle, he
made the following reply, in which you
will perceive he calls De la Barre Yon,

Barre and the Indians? 4, 5, 6. Relate the
speech of De la Barre. 6. How did the Onon.


* ndio, and the English governor Cor-

. 7. "Yonnondio, I honor you, and the
warriors that are with me honor you.
Your interpreter has finished your speech;
1 now begin mine. My words make
haste to reach your ears; hearken to
them. Yonnondio, you must have be-
lieved, when you left Quebec, that the
sun had consumed all the forests which
render our' country inaccessible to the
French ; or that the great lakes had over-
flowed their banks and surrounded our
castles, so that it was impossible for us
to get out of them.
8. "Yes, Yonnondio, you must have
dreamed so; and the curiosity of so great
a wonder has brought you so far. Now
Syou are undeceived; for I, and the war-
riors here present, are come to assure
you that the Senecas, Cayugas, Onon-
dagas,Oneidas, and Mohawks are yet
9. "I thank you, in their name, for
bringing back into their country the pipe
of peace, which your predecessor received
from their hands. It was happy for you
that you left under ground that murder-
ing hatchet, which has been so often dyed
in the blood of the French. Hear, Yon-
ancdio; I do not sleep; I have my eyes
open; and the sun which enlightens me
discovers to me a great captain, at the
head of a company of soldiers, who
speaks as if he was dreaming. He says
that he only came to smoke the great
pe of peace with the Onondagas. But
Garrangula says, that he sees the con-
; that it was to knock them on the
if sickness had not weakened the
arms of the French.
10. "We carried the English to our

SIP shief receive the speech? 7,8,9, 10, 11.

lakes, to trade with the Utawawas, and
Quatoghies, as the Adisomdoes brought
the French to our castles, to carry on a
trade which the English say is theirs.
We are born free; we neither depend
on Yonnondio nor Corlear. TWe may
go where we please, and buy and sell
what we please. If your allies are your
slaves, use them as such; command them
to receive no other but your people.
11. "Hear, Yonnondio; what I say is
the voice of all the Five Nations. When
they buried the hatchet at Cadaracai, in
the middle of the fort, they planted the
trec of peace in the same place, to be
there carefully preserved, that instead of
a retreat for soldiers, the fort might be
a rendezvous for merchants. Take care
that the many soldiers who appear there
do not choke the tree of peace, and pre-
vent it from covering your country and
ours with its branches. I assure you
that our warriors shall dance under its
leaves, and will never dig up the hatchet
to cut it down, till their brother Yonnon-
dio, or Corlear, shall invade the country
which the Great Spirit has given to our
12. De la Barre heard this scornful
speech with shame and rage. But know-
ing his weakness, he was obliged to make
peace. Not long after, another French
governor went against these Indians,
with a still larger army than.that of De
la Barre. But the cunning Indians con-
cealed themselves till the French wer
near, and then suddenly fell upon their
army, and obliged them to retreat out of
their country. These wars made the
Five Nations hate the French, and at-
tached them to the English colonies.

What was his reply 12. What was the rmu
of this interview ?



1. IN the year 1685, the Duke of York
succeeded his brother, Charles II., and
became King of England, under the title
of James II. I have told you before
that this king was hated by the English
people, and he was equally disliked in
the colonies.
2. He claimed absolute authority over
the American people. This caused him
to be much disliked by them. They were
therefore very much rejoiced when the
news came, in 1689, that he had been
driven from the throne, and that Wil-
liam, Prince of Orange, had succeeded
3. Elated by this news, and stimulated
by the example of the people at Boston,
who had seized and imprisoned Andros,
they began to make preparations to de-
pose the governor, whose name was
4. Alarmed at this, he fled by night,
and the chief magistracy was assumed
by a militia captain, whose name was
Leisler. He was a weak man, and
managed the affairs of the colony very
5. While the settlement was suffering
from the troubles occasioned by Leisler's
administration, war was declared be-
tween England and France. This was
King William's war, of which I have
told you something in the history of New
England. Count Frontenac was now
governor of Canada.
6. In the winter of 1690, he sent a

1. When did James II. become King of Eng-
land? 2. Why was he disliked by people in
Americal How was the news of his leaving the
throne received ? 3, 4. What events took place
on hearing that William III. had succeeded him ?
5. Who was governor of Canada at this time?
6, 7, 8, 9, 10. Relate the destruction of Schenec-



small party of Frenct soldiers and hI.
dians to attack Albany. These concluded
to destroy Schenectady first. The pem
ple of Schenectady had been warned of
their danger, but they would not believe
that men would come from Canada, a
distance of two or three hundred miles,
through the deep snows of winter, to
molest them.
7. But they were fatally de:eived.
On a Saturday night, the enemy came
near the town. They divided themselves
into small parties, so that every house
might be attacked at the same instant.
Thus prepared, they entered the place
at about eleven o'clock.
8. The inhabitants were all asleep,
and stillness rested upon the place. With
a noiseless step, the enemy distributed
themselves through the village, and at a
given signal, the savage war whoop was
sounded. What a dreadful cry was this
to the startled fathers and mothers of
this unhappy town!
9. It is scarcely possible to describe
the scene that followed. The people,
conscious of their danger, sprang from
their beds, but were met at the door,
and slaughtered by the savages. Every
house was set on fire; and the Indians,
rendered frantic by the wild scene, ran
through the place, slaying those they
chanced to meet.
10. Sixty of the people were killed,
and twenty-five were made prisoners.
Some attempted to escape, but, as they
were naked, and the weather was ex-
tremely severe, and as thty had a con-
siderable distance to go befc:-e they could
reach a place of security, a part only
arrived in safety, while twenty-five lost
their limbs by the cold.
11. To avenge these cruelties, and
others of a similar nature committed in
tady. 11. What did the people of New York an
New England determine to do to avenge these


New England, an attack upon Canada I
iwas determined upon. An army, raised
in New York and Connecticut, proceed-
-ed as far as Lake Champlain, but finding
-ao boats to take them across, they were
obliged to return. Thus the whole ex-
ipedition failed, and this was attributed to
the imbecility of Leisler.
12. It was about this time, that King
William sent Colonel Henry Sloughter to
be governor of New York. But he was
totally unfit for the office. Whenr he
.arrived, Leisler refused to give up his
.authority. He sent two messengers,
*however, to confer with Sloughter, who
were immediately seized by the governor,
and put in prison as rebels.
13. This alarmed Leisler and his as-
lciates, and they attempted to escape.
But he, with his son-in-law Milborne,
wa taken, tried, and condemned to death,
for high treason. The governor, how-
.ever, refused to sign the warrant for their
execution, as he did not wish to sacrifice
two men who had been rather weak than
14. But the enemies of Leisler and
Milborne contrived a plot for their de-
:truction. They made a great feast, and
invited Governor Sloughter to go and
.partake of it. He went; and when he
was intoxicated with wine, they asked
Jim to sign the death warrant of the two
rsoners. This he did, and before he
recovered his senses, Leisler and
Milborne were executed. Thus, through
his folly and wickedness, two men suf-
fered an ignominious death.
15. In 1691, Governor Sloughter died.
The same year, a man by the name of
Peter Schuyler, at the head of three
hundred Mohawk Indians, went to make

,Iltiss ? What was the success of the expedi-
. 12,13, 14. What occurred between Colonel
W hter and Leisler ? 1. Describe Peter
Ikhyler's expedition.

an attack upon the French settlements
at the north end of Lake Champlain.
A body of about eight hundred men were
sent from Montreal against him. With
these, Schuyler and his Mohawks had
several battles, in all of which they were
successful. They killed more cf the
enemy than the whole number of thcir

1. IN 1692, Colonel Fletcher was made
governor of New York, and in 1698, he
was succeeded by the Earl of Bellamont.
About this time, the American seas were
very much infested with pirates. These
bold men attacked shch ships as they met
with on the ocean, plundered them of
whatever they wanted, and either mur-.
dered the crew and took the ships, or
sunk them both together.
2. Governor Bellamont was particu-
larly charged, by the English govern-
ment, to clear the American seas, if pos-
sible, of these desperate men. But the
necessary ships not being furnished, he
and some other individuals determined
to fit out a vessel on their own account,
and send it against the pirates.
3. They accordingly procured a ship
of war, and gave the command of it to
a sea captain, whose name was Robert
Kidd. But when he got out upon the
water, Kidd determined to become a pi-
rate himself. He proposed the plan to
his men, and they consented to it.
4. So he became one of the most in-
famous pirates that was ever known.
He attacked many vessels upon the At-
lantic and Indian Oceans, and after three
years returned. After burning his ship,
1. What is said of the pirates ? 2. What
measures were adopted to take them 83, 4, 6


Kidd went to Boston, where he was seen
in the streets. He was soon seized and
carried to England, where he was tried,
condemned, and executed.
5. I suppose you have heard a great
many stories of Captain Kidd. It is said
that he buried a great deal of gold in
pots, somewhere along the coast. A
great many attempts have been made to
find this gold, but without success. I
suspect that Kidd and his sailors spent
all the money so wickedly got, and never
buried any of it.
6. I must now pass over a considera-
ble space of time, during which nothing
of very great importance occurred in
this colony. Though several governors
had been sent from England, most of
them were utterly unworthy of the trust.
7. About the year 1736, circumstances
occurred in the city of New York, which
it is painful to dwell upon. Some per-
sons of very bad character circulated a
report that the negroes, of whom there
were a good many in the city, had formed
a plot to burn the town, and make one
of their number governor.'
8. A great many fires had taken place,
and these led the people to believe that
the rumor was true. Many of the ne-
es were therefore arrested and put in
Other accusers now came for-
wa and so strong was the prejudice
against the negroes, that, when the trial
came on, all the lawyers offered their
services to plead against them.
9. Thus left without defence, these
unhappy people were all condemned.
Fourteen were burnt to death, eighteen
were hung, and seventy-one were trans-
ported out of the country I It is grati-
fying to feel sure that, in our day, the
weakest and most defenceless are not
Relate the story of Robert Kidd. 7, 8, 9. What
snfort:ate event occurred in New York about
the year 17361r ,What governor was appoint-

exposed to such cru:lty and inju.
10. In 1743, George Clinton was sent
over as governor of the colony. He wu
warmly received by the people, and his
administration was, on the whole, accept-
able to them. In 1745, during George
II.'s war, New York was much distressed
Sby the incursions of the Indians.
11. Saratoga was destroyed, and other
parts of the colony suffered very much.
Some of the Indians came to Albany,
and concealing themselves in the neigh-
borhood, lay in wait to take prisoners
One savage, bolder than the rest, called
Tolmonwilemon, came within the city it,
self, and carried off people by night.
12. In 1746, New York united with
the eastern colonies in an expedition
against Canada, but the project totally
failed. The next year, the welcome
news of peace between England and
France arrived, and the colony was re-
lieved from the distresses brought upon
them by the war.
13. I have thus told you of some of
the principal events in the history of New
York, up to the time of the French war,
which commenced in 1755. From that
time the colonies acted in concert; and
I shall therefore leave the separate his-
tory of New York here, and give you a
view of what remains to be said of it, in
the general account of the French wr
and the American revolution.

1. I WILL now tell you about New Je*.
sey. It is not a large state, but in trav-
ed in 1743 ? 11, 12, 13. What troubles occurred
with the French and Indians during the war o
George II.
1. How is New Jersey bounded ? Where I

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a ~ 2ItIIL'aa. r.
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-^/w.Trl 'Vi L', ,'W']. t] -
frz7tt at f~~ 6. '. Ililil i.



S<-:11, <>r 1 I" di1




ailing through it we shall see many things
shat are interesting. We must start from
New York in a steamboat, and cross the
Hudson River to Jersey City. This is
done in a few minutes. Then we get
into the cars, and ride nine miles, over a
railroad, to Newark.
2. This is a beautiful city, with several
handsome churches, and many handsome
houses. We shall see many of the peo-
ple busy in making shoes, gigs, coaches,
omnibuses, stages, and wagons. Newark
is the largest city in the state; it has
nearly forty thousand inhabitants. The
whole of Northern New Jersey is as busy,
with its various manufactures, as a hive
of bees.
3. We must not omit to make an ex-
cursion from Newark to Paterson, to see
the Passaic Falls. These are formed by
the Passaic River, which rolls over the
rocks to the depth of seventy-two feet.
The spectacle is very brilliant and beau-
tiful. Paterson is a brisk manufacturing
town, situated near the cataract.
4. We may then leave Newark by a
railroad, and soon arrive at Elizabeth-
town. In passing along, we shall observe
many fine orchards; and if it is autumn,
we shall see abundance of very excellent
apples. The cider made here is very
5. On arriving at Elizabethtown, we
shall be struck with the beauty of the
place. But we shall not be allowed to
stop long, as the conductor of the cars is
in a great hurry; when he rings the bell,
the.passengers jump into the cars, and
away we go.
S6. We shall pass through New Bruns-
wick, upon the railroad, and travelling
on a few miles, we shall at length reach
Jersey City ? Newark ?,2. What is said of New-
ark ? 3. Where is Paterson ? What is said of
the Passaic Falls ? 4. Where is Elizabethtown ?
6. New Brunswick ? Princetop ? 7. Trenton ?


-I"-~- _b .-- ~ ---~L -r


Princeton. Here we shall coserve a
large building, with a green lawn in front,
covered with shady trees. Thisis Prince-
ton College, which is quite celebrated,
and a great many young men are cdu-
cated here.
7. After leaving Princeton, we shall
soon arrive at Trenton, which is beauti-
fully situated on the Delaware. W3 shall
here notice a fine bridge across this
river. I think we had better take the
steamboat now, and go down the Dela-
ware to Philadelphia; though we can,
if we choose, go on in the cars, as there
are two railroads from Trenton to Phil-
8. We shall be delighted with this
part of our journey. On both sides of
the river we shall see many very hand-
some towns. Those on the west side
belong to Pennsylvania, those on the
east to New Jersey. Among other in-
teresting things, we shall see, at Bor-
dentown, the house formerly occupied
by Joseph Bonaparte.
9. Joseph Bonaparte, who died in
1846, was a brother of the famous Na-
poleon Bonaparte, and was once King
of Naples and afterwards of Spain. The
house, which is large, and quite different
from other houses in the state, is now a
place of public resort. There is a very
lofty tower on the grounds, called an
observatory, from the top of which there
is a very extensive and beautiful proos
10. A very common way of ira ruling
across this part of New Jersey, now, is,
to leave New York in a steamboat, which
carries us up the River Raritan to Am-
boy: at this place we may get into the
railroad cars, and go to Camden, where
Describe the Delaware River. 8, 9. What shall
we see at Bordentown ? 10. Describe the route
from New York to Philadelphia, by way of Am.
boy. Where does the Raritan empty? Where


there is a ferry boat ready to take us
to Philadelphia.
11. By this route we pass through
Burlington, where, by taking a steam-
boat, we can reach Philadelphia in a
short time. If we go into the market
* at Philadelphia, we shall observe large
quantities of fine apples, pears, peaches,
and other fruits. Many of these things
are brought from that part of New Jer-
sey which lies on the Delaware, opposite
to Philadelphia.
12. If we stay some time in the State
of New Jersey, we shall observe that the
people differ considerably from those of
New England. This difference is owing
to the difference of origin. The people
of New England are descended entirely
from the English, while those of New
Jersey are the mixed descendants of
English, Dutch, Danes, Germans, and

Settlement of Elizabethtown.
13. The first settlement in this state
was made by the Danes, in 1624. Some
Dutch dhd Swedes soon after made set-

the hands of the English, and the nex
year a settlement was made at Elih
bethtown, by three men, who purchase
the land of the Indians.
14. The same year, Sir George Car.
teret was appointed governor, and the
colony received the name of Jersey, in
compliment to him, who was a native of
the Island of Jersey, on the northern
coast of France.
15. In 1676, the province was divided
into East and West Jersey, and so con*
tinued until 1702. The government
was then surrendered to Queen Anne,
of England, and East and West Jersey
were united, under the title of New Jer-
sey. From this date to the revolution-
ary war, very little happened in this
colony, the story of which would be in-
teresting to you.


1. THIS is a large, wealthy, and flour-
ishing state, and our travels through it
will afford us much gratification. We
must examine Philadelphia, in the first
place. It is situated between the Dela-
ware and Schuylkill Rivers, about six
miles above their confluence, and, in my
opinion, is the handsomest city in the
United States. The streets are straight,
and cross each other at right angles.
The public squares are ornamented with
fountains and beautiful shade t:ees.
2. There are many beautiful buildings

elements in the territory. The popula- made ? When did New Jersey become an Eng.
tion was, however, very small. In 1664, lish colony ? 14. From what did New Jersey de-
New Jersey came, with New York, into rive its name ? 15. What event occurred is
1676? In 1702?
i Camden ? Burlington ? 11. What are some 1. What is said of Pennsylvania ? Name
*f the products of New Jersey? 12. From what the boundaries. What's the capital ? Nam
nations die the people in New Jersey originate ? I the principal rivers. Where is Philadelphia I
13. When sad by whom was the first settlement i 2. Describe the objects of interest in this city.

L "- "I'


the city, among which we may men-
on the Custom House, (formerly the
united States Bank,) the Mint, and the
change. The Old State House, in
chestnut Street, is distinguished for
being the place in which the Declaration
of Independence was adopted by Con-
gress, on the 4th of July, 1776. The
Hall of Independence presents the same
appearance in its furniture that it did
on that eventful day. It contains, also,
a statue of Washington, and several ine
8. We must go and see the Fairmount
Waterworks, about two or three miles
out of the city. These are situated on
the Schuylkill River. Here are several
large wheels, which are so contrived as
to force the water from the river up into
a reservoir, on the top of a high hill.
From thence the water flows to the city,
and supplies the whole place.
4. A little way from Fairmount we
shall see Girard College. The build-
ings are of white marble, and are very
beautiful. The college, which is ir a
highly flourishing condition, was founded
by thie late Stephen Girard for the edu-
cation of orphan boys, and was organ-
ized in 1847.
5. We will now leave Philadelphia,
and set out for Pittsburg. If we go in
a carriage, we shall travel over excellent
roads, with fine stone bridges, and we
shall see a great many large farms, with
abundance of excellent cattle. As we
pass along, we shall notice a great many
Quakers, and I think you will be much
pleased with them. They are very friend-
ly, and dress in a singular manner. We
'shall also meet with a good many people
who can talk nothing but German. Some
entire villages are composed of Ger-
mans and. their descendants, who have
I What is said of the Fairmount Waterworks ?
Of Girard College? 5, 6. Where is Pittsburg ?

almanacs, newspapers, and some books,
printedjn their language.
6. At length, we shall reach the Alle.
ghany Mountains. These consist of a
great many separate ranges. We shall
first go over one, and then another, and
another, and another. Some of thtu
are very high, and their sides ai, ex.-
ceedingly steep. After travellirg a
whole day, we shall find that we have
passed over these lofty mountains. They
were once inhabited by many wild ani-
mals; and deer and elk are still found
there, as well as wolves and foxes. The
wildcat and cougar are also occasionally
met with. After crossing the mountains,
we shall soon arrive at Pittsburg.
7. But the easiest and quickest route
to Pittsburg is by the Columbia and
Pennsylvania Railroads. Taking the
cars at Philadelphia for Harrisburg, we
shall pass through Lancaster, an ancient
manufacturing place, but now one of
the most beautiful cities in the country.
Harrisburg, the capital of the state, is
situated on the Susquehanna River.
Formerly the route from this place was
by the Pennsylvania Canal and the Por-
tage Railroad; but we shall now take the
cars upon the Pennsylvania Central Road,
and, after passing through several pleas-
ant towns and villages, and crossing the
Alleghanies, we shall arrive at the end
of our journey.
8. Pittsburg, situated at the confluence
of the Alleghany and Monongahela Riv.
ers, which here unite to form the Ohio,
is one of the largest manufacturing cities
in America. It has a direct trade, by
means of the Ohio and Mississippi Riv.
ers, with New Orleans, St. Louis, and
the intermediate places. Alleghany City,

Name some of the things to be seen in going
there from Philadelphia. 7. Describe the route
by the Columbia and Pennsylvania Railroads.
Describe Lancaster, Harrisburg. 8. What is


Birmingham, Beaver, Lawrenceville,
Temperanceville, and other towns and
villages in the vicinity, all situated in
the midst of inexhaustible mines of coal
and iron, are largely engaged in manu-
factures, and are very flourishing places.
Great attention is paid here to the edu-
cation of youth.
9. We shall hardly have time to de-
scribe all the interesting things to be
seen in Pennsylvania. There are the
Lehigh and Schuylkill coal mines, from
which the people get a great deal of

Mining Coal.
coal, which is carried down in little cars,
on railroads, to the canals, and put into
boats, or into cars on the Reading Rail-
road, and then carried to Philadelphia
and other places.
10. Reading, Pottsville, Honesdale,
all situated in the coal region, are flour-
ishing towns. There are several fine
canals in the state, many railroads, and
some of the most beautiful rivers in the
world. The banks of the Schuylkill, the
Juniata, and the Susquehanna, are truly
enchanting during the summer. On the

said of Pittsburg ? Birmingham ? Beaver ?
Lawrenceville ? Temperanceville ? 9. Describe
the pic-e. 10. Where is Reading ? Pottsville ?
Honeedale? What is said of the face of the
sontry ? Of the climate? The soil?

whole, we shall find Pennsylvania a
most interesting state. It is not so cot
there in winter as in New England
Many parts of it are fertile and highly
cultivated, and the comforts and luxuries
of life are very cheap and abundant.

1. I WILL now tell you the history of
Pennsylvania; but I must begin with
William Penn, for he was the chief in-
strument of its settlement. He was thw
son of a British admiral, and lived in
London. He was educated as a lawyer,
but he joined the Quakers, then an ob-
scure and persecuted sect.
2. In 1681, King Charles granted to
him a large tract of land between New
Jersey and Maryland. This included
Pennsylvania and Delaware. In the fall
of the same year, a good many persons,
chiefly Quakers, to whom he had sold
some of the land, set out in three ships,
ard came to America. These people
serled on the Delaware River, near
where Philadelphia now stands.
3. They brought with them a letter
from Penn to the Indians. In this he
said to them, "that the great God had
been pleased to make him concerned in
their part of the world, and that the king
of the country where he lived had given
him a great province therein ; but that
he did not desire to enjoy it without
their consent; that he was a man of
peace, and that the people whom he
sent were men of the sams dispositi n;
and, if any difference should happen .e-
tween them, it might be adjusted by an
1, 2. What is said of William Penn? When
and by whom was the first settlement made
Where did they settle ? 3. Recite Willin .


qual number of men, chosen on both
4. In the fall of 1682, Penn himself
came to the colony with two thousand
emigrants. While he was in the coun-
g, he met some of the Indian chiefs,
Made a treaty with them. His mild

Penn making a Treaty with the Indians.
and gentle manners made a great im-
pression on the savages.
5. He walked with them, sat with
them on the ground, and ate with them
of their roasted acorns and hominy. At
this they expressed great delight, and
soon began to show how they could hop
and jump. Penn, it is said, then got up
and began to hop, too, and soon showed
'that he could beat them all. Whether
this is true or not, I cannot say; but it
is certain the Indians long remembered
him with feelings of love and veneration.
6. Penn also marked out the plan of
a great city, to which he gave the name
o" Philadelphia, by which is meant the
SLcity of brotherly love." Before the end
f the year, this place contained eighty
lWldings. In 1684, Penn returned to
England, leaving the province in a hap-
py and prosperous condition.
in's letter to the Indians. 4, 5. What is said
a found ? When did he return to England?

t f9, / Pe svstt tecln h tct i

7. No part of America xas settled
more rapidly than Pennsylvania. The
soil was fertile, the climate mild and
agreeable, and the deer and other wild
animals were abundant. The govern-
ment, too, arranged by Penn, was just
and liberal, giving perfect freedom to
every man to worship God in his ( wn
8. Thus at peace among themselves,
the Indians being made their friends by
justice and gentleness, the people of this
colony afforded a striking contrast to the
less fortunate settlements in the north
and east. Attracted by the favorable
circumstances I have mentioned, numer-
ous emigrants flocked to Pennsylvania;
and In four years after Penn received
the grant, the province contained twenty
settlements, and the city of Philadelphia
two thousand inhabitants.
9. In 1699, Penn returned to the prov-
ince. He found some uneasiness among
the people, to remove which he gave
them a new charter in 1701. This was
submitted to the assembly chosen by the
people, and accepted. But the inhabit-
ants in that part of the province which
now forms the State of Delaware did
not like the charter, and refused to ac-
cept it.
10. They were therefore separated
from Pennsylvania, in 1703, and had a
distinct assembly, chosen by the people,
who made their laws. The same gov-
ernor, however, presided over Pennsyl-
vania and Delaware.
11. Penn soon returned to England,
and never visited America again. He
died in 1718, leaving behind him the
character of a truly pious and good man.
.He was twice imprisoned in England,
7, 8. What was the condition of the colony?
9. When did Penn give them a new charter?
10, What place was separated from Pedhsylva
nia? 11. When did Penn die? What is said


by the government, for his religious
opinions; and his enemies accused him
of very wicked conduct. But he lived
to see every suspicion wiped away from
his reputation; and his life teaches us
that the world fails not to honor a man
of active kindness, piety, and truth.
12. IIi# colony continued to flourish,
and its increase in population was un-
exampled. The Indians, conciliated by
kindness, remained for seventy years at
peace with the inhabitants; and thus,
until the French war, nothing occurred
in Pennsylvania to interrupt her pros-

1. TuHI is the smallest state in the
Union, except Rhode Island; but it is
beautifully situated along the western
shore of Delaware Bay, and, like every
other part of our country, affords inter-
esting topics of geography and history.
In our travels through it, we shall ob-
serve some of the finest wheat fields in
the world.
2. At Wilmington, on the Brandy-
wine, we shall see extensive manufac-
tories of paper, and some of the best flour
mills in the country. Newcastle, Dela-
ware City, and Dover, which is the seat
of government, are very pleasant towns;
and if we proceed to Lewistown, at the
southern part of the state, we shall see
the people engaged in making salt from
sea water. The Delaware and Chesa-
peake Canal crosses the northern part
of the state, from Delaware Bay to Ches-
apeake Bay. One portion of this canal
of his character? 12. Of the conduct of the
Indians? .
L. ~i said of Delaware ? How is it
boundW What is said of Wilmington ?

is called the Deep Cut, where it paeana
for a distance of four miles, through a

jIne Lmp lau on me vanu.
hill ninety feet high. A bridge of a
single arch crosses it.
3. At the mouth of Delaware Bay,
and near Cape Henlopen, we shall ob-
serve an immense wall of stone in the
sea, called a breakwater. This was built
by the government of the United States,
to protect vessels, which may be at
anchor in the bay, from the waves that
roll in from the ocean during storms,
and from the ice that comes floating
down from the rivers in the spring.
This breakwater is near three quarters
of a mile in length, and is a truly grand
and useful work. The stone for it was
brought from a great distance some
of it from Massachusetts, and some from
other places.
4. In the revolutionary war, the peo-
ple of this little state put forth their
whole strength for the cause of liberty.
The Delaware regiment was reckoned
the finest in the whole army. In the
famous battle of Camden, in South Can-
olina, 1780, the Delaware troops, with
some belonging to Maryland, were corn-
Where is it situated ? Where is Newcastle ?
Delaware City ? Dover? 3. What capes at the
mouth of the Delaware Bay? What is ai
of the breakwater? 4. What is said of tbs

handed by a French
ralb. This brave m
rn eleven places, and
He was so impressed
conduct of his Delawa
soldiers, that with his
expressed his regard f
S5. But it is not m'
you of the revolution
must take you back t
date. More than tw
ago, there lived in
king, named Gustavus
der his patronage, s
Finns, or Finlanders,
and landed at Cape H
It was a beautiful sp
green trees, beneath
wild deer, with their y
people were so charm
that they called it Par
6. They now proce
Ae bay, and had som
ffe Indians. The la
kindly, and sold them
of the water. The s
lished themselves near
Stalled the country Nei
| 7. But the colony
to enjoy its fine lands
Iite in peace. The
rritory, and after a
various ways, finally b
Castle. A man by th
asm ilh n governor of t
S8. One day, he pro]
lander of the Dutch
en l visit. This
win went, accom
n. They were re
and treated with


officer, named De But, disregarding this, they treacherously
lan was wounded took possession of the fort, and made
died on the field. prisoners of the garrison.
with the gallant 9. The governor of New York at this
Lre and Maryland time was Peter Stuyvesant, whom his-
dying breath he tory describes as possessing a pretty hot
'or them. temper. Such a man was not likely to
y intention to tell permit the treachery of Risingh to go
ary war now. I unavenged. So he fitted out an arma-
to a much earlier ment, which went against the Swedes
o hundred years in several vessels, in the year 1655.
Sweden a famous 10. There was considerable fighting;
Adolphus. Un- but the Dutch were victorious, and hav-
ome Swedes and ing taken the Swedish forts, they allowed
came to America, a few of the inhabitants to remain, and
[enlopen, in 1627. sent the rest prisoners to Holland. The
pot, covered with settlement continued in the hands of the
which sported the Dutch till 1664, when it came into the
young fawns. The possession of the English, with the sur-
ed with the place, render of New York.
adise Point. 11. In 1682, the territory was pur-
eeded farther up chased by William Penn, and until
e intercourse with 1703, formed a part of Pennsylvania.
tter treated them At that time, it was partially separated
land on both sides from that colony, having a distinct as-
ettlers now estab- sembly chosen by the people, though
Wilmington, and the same governor that ruled over Penn-
w Sweden. sylvania ruled also over Delaware. The
was not permitted colony remained in this situation till
and delightful cli- 1775, when it became an independent
Dutch claimed the state.
annoying them in ----
uilt a fort at New
name of Risingh CHAPTER XXXVII.
he Swedish colony. MARYLAND.
posed to the com-
fort to pay him a 1. MARYLAND is divided, by Chee.
vas accepted, and peake Bay, into two parts, called the
panied by thirty Eastern and Western Shores. In trav-
ceived with kind- selling through this state, we shall find

great hospitality.

an account of them. When did the English take
possession of it? 11. When did William Penn
purchase the territory? When did it become a
part of PennsylVtnia ? An independent state ?
1. How is Maryland bounded ? What bay in-
tersects it ? What is the face of the country in

conduct of the people of Delaware during the
a 9olutionary war? 5. When and by whom was
E elaware settled ? 6. Where did they settle, and
hat did they call the country ? 7. What trou-
e did they have with the Dutch? 8,9,10. Give


that the land on both sides of the bay is
generally level, or moderately uneven.
If we proceed into the more western
parts, between the Potomac River and
Pennsylvania, we shall find hills, moun-
tains, and valleys.
2. There was, for many years, a dis-
pute about the boundary of this state,
between the heirs of William Penn,
proprietor of what is now the State of
Pennsylvania, and the heirs of Lord
Baltimore, proprietor of what is now
the State of Maryland. In 1762, Mr.
Charles Mason, of the English Royal
Observatory, London, and Mr. Jeremiah
Dixon, were appointed to run a line be-
tween the lands of the two parties. This
line was called Mason and Dixon's
3. In the states north of Maryland,
slavery is not authorized by law. The
people there consider it a great evil,
and have taken care to abolish it. But
in Maryland, and the states south of it,
the laws permit people to hold slaves.
Many persons, even there, believe it
wrong; but it has been long practised.
There are many thousands of slaves in
the country, and it is, therefore,' not
easy to devise any plan by which they
can safely be set free.
4. We shall observe many fine wheat
fields in Maryland, and many planta-
tions of tobacco. This plant is culti-
vated in rows, like Indian corn, and it
has broad leaves, like the mullein. We
shall notice that almost all the labor in
the fields is performed by the negroes.
5. You will be delighted with Balti-
more. It is a large and beautiful city,

the western part ? Where is the Potomac Riv-
r ? 2. What dispute arose between the heirs of
William Penn and the heirs olLord Baltimore?
What was the result of it ? 3. What is said of
sivery r 4. What products shall we see in Ma-
rylan.d 6. What is said of Baltimore ? 6. What

a -

and contains many finm buildings. The
Roman Catholic CatLedral is one at
the most beautiful churches in Americq
From the number of monuments in Bal-
timore, it is sometimes called the Monu.
mental City. There is a tall one, with
a statue of Washington on the top, that
you cannot fail to admire.
6. After seeing the rest of the city,
you should go to Howard Street, where'
you will notice a great many wagons,
loaded with flour. Baltimore is one of
the greatest flour markets in the world.
Thousands and thousands of barrels are
brought here every year from various
parts of Maryland, and from Delaware,
Pennsylvania, Virginia, and the Western
States. It is then sent in ships to New
York, Boston, Charleston, and various
foreign countries.
7. I must tell you that there is a
great trade between Baltimore and th_
states west of the Alleghany Mountaini
The western people buy a great many
goods at Baltimore, and send in return
a great deal of western produce. There
is, therefore, a vast deal of travelling

back and forth, and h
are constantly occupied

is said of the flour market

hundreds of cars
in transporting

t? 7. What ii aii

goods and produce t
market. WLen the B
Railroad is completed,
larest route from tl
Atlantic to the Wester
S8. The scenery up
truly magnificent. 0:
Iore, we pass over
W"iaduct," a granite
lixty-five feet above th
arrive at Ellicott's Mill
quantities of flour a:
Sassing through Frede
-ether at right angles
*Harper's Ferry, in Vii
Sery here will be sur
The passage of the
'he Blue Ridge, at this
Ws one of the most s
in nature. Proceeding
drivingg towns and vill
I -ve at Cumberland, wi
A' stated on the north 1
,tac. From this place
soon be completed to tl
'i 9. There are many
Maryland. Annapolis,
Sgunment, has a hands
here is a Naval Sd
toung men are educa
i the navy.
e 10. The climate of
Agreeable. The winter
#ad often, when the
: of New England are
reeks and inlets along
kre covered with flock

e Baltimore and Ohio R
6e route to the Ohio Riv
"it's Mills ? Where is Fr
gr's Ferry? In what st
oegh w'ich the road pas
iA of Maryland? Wh
Shat is said of the climb


o and from this CHAPTER XXVIII
altimore and Ohio
it will form the MARYLAND-CONTINUED.
he waters of the 1. BALTIMORE is situated on the River
'n States. Patapsco, which enters Chesapeake Bay,
on this route is about fourteen miles from the city. On
n leaving Balti- the northern side of this river is a piece
the "Carrollton of land running into the bay, called
bridge elevated North Point. You should visit this spot,
.e water, and soon for a famous battle was fought there on
Is, where immense the 12th of September, 1814. At that
re manufactured. time, our country was at war with Eng-
ericktown, a beau- land. A great many English soldiers
eets crossing each and ships were sent over to fight with
, we proceed to our people.
rginia. The sce- 2. On the 23d of August, they made
e to delight you. an attack on the city of Washington,
Potomac through and as there were few American troops
place, is regarded there, they burnt the Capitol, and sev-
tupendous scenes eral other public buildings, and the presi-
g through several dent's house. The president himself was
ages, we shall ar- obliged to ride very fast, to keep out of
which is beautifully their way.
bank of the Poto- 3. After they had done this, the Brit-
ce the road will ish went to attack Baltimore. They
he Ohio River. entered the mouth of the Patapsco with
pleasant towns in a fleet of sixty ships, and on the day
the seat of gov- above mentioned, six thousand troops
me State House. were landed at North Point.
hool here, where 4. Now, the people of Baltimore were
ted to be officers not in the humor for having their city
taken by the British soldiers; so there
Maryland is very was a great bustle in the streets. Men
r is never severe, were seen running to and fro, with mus-
rivers and lakes kets in their hands, and countenances
frozen over, the full of resolution. The merchants left
Chesapeake Bay their counting rooms; the lawyers, their
s of wild water- offices; the mechanics, their various em-
ployments; the drums beat; the es
screamed; and, assembled under the
railroad? 8. Describe command of their leaders, the bravest .
er. Where are Elli- and best men in the city went down to
redericktown ? Har- meet the enemy.
eata ia CumberlaTl

ses ? 9. What is the
lere is it situated?
late ?

1, 2, 3, 4, 6. Where is Baltimore situated I
Describe the battle which took place at North

5. They met, and there was hard dred Catholic emit
fighting. The cannon roared, and the the land on the C
musketry rent the air for a long time. 9. When they ar
Many brave men fell on both sides, the Potomac River
But the Americans, being few in num- village there, call
ber, were obliged to retreat. General village they purcl
Ross, the British leader, was killed; and thus obtained
and finding, by the experiment they had could build better
made, that the people of Baltimore were acquired some good
inclined to treat them too roughly, the cultivated. Their
British went away, ships, sailors, sol- very comfortable.
diers, and all. 10. The colonist
6. In one of the public squares of deer in the woods,
Baltimore, they have erected a beauti- along the shores o
ful marble monument, to commemorate fowl were also nu
this event, with the names of those who countless flocks of
were killed in this battle. Such are the water, and sett
some of the brave deeds that took place islands; and their
in Maryland during the last war with wild geese at the
England. Let us now contemplate the and rivers.
period when the white people first set- 11. The colony
tied upon these shores. consequence of its
7. More than two hundred years ago, the liberal policy
the Catholics in England were perse- These Catholics di
euted as the Puritans had been before, who differed fror
One of them, Lord Baltimore, deter- opinion. Lord B
mined, therefore, to come to America. Williams, of Rh(
Accordingly he went to Virginia, which have discovered,
had now been settled for some time. that every man ha
But he found the people there as little God as he pleases.
disposed to treat the Catholics kindly as and Maryland, at
in England. So he went back*to Eng- joyed the blessing
land, and begged the king to give him a freedom.
charter of the land lying on Chesapeake 12. Yet the cole
Bay, then occupied only by the In- now telling you, h
dians. bles. A man by t
8. This request was granted; but be- stirred up the In
for the business was completed, he died. they made war c
H*on, Cecil, also called Lord Balti- continued for sevei
more, determined to carry into effect the ple suffered great d
' plans of his father. So he obtained the same Clayborne in
grant for himself, and in 1634 sent his tlers to rebel aga
brother, Leonard Calvert, with two hun-

9. what adi they do o
the Potomac? 10.W
11. What is said of tb
ernment ? 12. Wha

rants, to settle upon
rived at the mouth of
, they found an Indian
led Yoamaco. This
iased of the savages,
good shelter, till they
houses. They also
S.land, which had been
situati n was therefore

s found plenty of wild
and abundance of fish
f the bay. The sea-
merous. There were
ducks skimming along
ling down around the
e were numbers of
mouths of the creeks

flourished, as well in
pleasant situation as
of its government.
d not persecute those
n them in religious
altimore, and Roger
ode Island, seem to
about the same time,
is a right to worship
Thus Rhode Island
this early date, en-
s of entire religious

ny, whose story I am
iad its share of trou-
he name of Clayborne
lians to hostility, and

ral years, and the poo
distress. In 1645,
duced some of the set-
inst their rulers, and
*n arriving at the mouth of
hat did they find for food P
e liberal policy of the goev
t troubles did they haw

Point. 6. What has been done to commemorate
the event Z 7, 8. Give an account of the .early
settlement of Maryland. When was it settled ?

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'Calvert, the governor, was obliged to fly
to Virginia. But the next year, the re-
volt was suppressed. Governor Calvert
returned, and the colony once more en-
joyed a state of peace.
13. In 1666, the colony contained
,about twelve thousand inhabitants. In
1676, Lord Baltimore, the founder of
the colony, died, leaving behind him the
enviable character of a wise and good
man. He was succeeded by his son
Charles, as proprietor of the colony, who
possessed the amiable qualities of his
14. In 1689, King William assumed
the government of the colony; but in
1716 it was restored to Lord Baltimore,
and continued in the family till 1775.
The people then engaged with the other
-olonies in the revolution, and Lord
Baltimore's claims ceased.

1. I HAVE now given you a brief
ketch of the geography and history of
the five Middle States. These are
classed together merely on account of
-their situation, and not because of any
similarity either in the history or the
.manners of the people. They were set-
'tied at different times, by people from
different countries, who came for differ-
ent purposes;-some for trade, some
improve their fortunes, and some for
gious peace.
2. We do not find so much resem-
W e among the people of these five
with the Indians? 13. How many inhabitants
were therein 1666? Who succeeded Lord Bal-
timpre? 14. What change took place in the
!r rnment in 1689? In 1716 ?
1. What is said of the Middle States ? 3. What

states as exists among the people of
New England. Their houses, dress,
manner of tilling the land, thoughts,
feelings, and opinions differ in different
parts of this section of the Union.
3. If you will look at the map, you
will observe, that the three largest cities,
and three of the finest rivers in the
Union, are in these states. Now.York
is the largest city on the American con-
tinent, and the IHudson is one of lih:
finest rivers in the world for i.vigat.iai
4. In point of soil and clin nli the "
states doubtless surpass all the others sit-
uated upon the Atlantic. They are gen-
erally very fertile, producing grain and
fruit in the greatest perfection and abun-
dance. They are equally removed from
the severe winters of the north, and the
burning summers of the south.
5. Thus happily placed in the heart
of the country, they are growing in
population and wealth. Previous to the
French war, which has been before men-
tioned, these states never acted in con-
cert. They were then separate colonies,
with separate interests. They have,
therefore, no common history until the
year 1756, when they united with the
other colonies, to resist the French and
Indians. The history of that war will
be given hereafter.

1. WE have now reached Virginia,
one of the oldest states in the Union.
In travelling through the country, we
shall see that, in most places, the houses

large cities in these states ? Walt rivers ?
4. What is said of the soil and climate ? 5. When
did these states first act in concert ?
S1, 2. How is Virginia bounded ? Name the


'Calvert, the governor, was obliged to fly
to Virginia. But the next year, the re-
volt was suppressed. Governor Calvert
returned, and the colony once more en-
joyed a state of peace.
13. In 1666, the colony contained
,about twelve thousand inhabitants. In
1676, Lord Baltimore, the founder of
the colony, died, leaving behind him the
enviable character of a wise and good
man. He was succeeded by his son
Charles, as proprietor of the colony, who
possessed the amiable qualities of his
14. In 1689, King William assumed
the government of the colony; but in
1716 it was restored to Lord Baltimore,
and continued in the family till 1775.
The people then engaged with the other
-olonies in the revolution, and Lord
Baltimore's claims ceased.

1. I HAVE now given you a brief
ketch of the geography and history of
the five Middle States. These are
classed together merely on account of
-their situation, and not because of any
similarity either in the history or the
.manners of the people. They were set-
'tied at different times, by people from
different countries, who came for differ-
ent purposes;-some for trade, some
improve their fortunes, and some for
gious peace.
2. We do not find so much resem-
W e among the people of these five
with the Indians? 13. How many inhabitants
were therein 1666? Who succeeded Lord Bal-
timpre? 14. What change took place in the
!r rnment in 1689? In 1716 ?
1. What is said of the Middle States ? 3. What

states as exists among the people of
New England. Their houses, dress,
manner of tilling the land, thoughts,
feelings, and opinions differ in different
parts of this section of the Union.
3. If you will look at the map, you
will observe, that the three largest cities,
and three of the finest rivers in the
Union, are in these states. Now.York
is the largest city on the American con-
tinent, and the IHudson is one of lih:
finest rivers in the world for i.vigat.iai
4. In point of soil and clin nli the "
states doubtless surpass all the others sit-
uated upon the Atlantic. They are gen-
erally very fertile, producing grain and
fruit in the greatest perfection and abun-
dance. They are equally removed from
the severe winters of the north, and the
burning summers of the south.
5. Thus happily placed in the heart
of the country, they are growing in
population and wealth. Previous to the
French war, which has been before men-
tioned, these states never acted in con-
cert. They were then separate colonies,
with separate interests. They have,
therefore, no common history until the
year 1756, when they united with the
other colonies, to resist the French and
Indians. The history of that war will
be given hereafter.

1. WE have now reached Virginia,
one of the oldest states in the Union.
In travelling through the country, we
shall see that, in most places, the houses

large cities in these states ? Walt rivers ?
4. What is said of the soil and climate ? 5. When
did these states first act in concert ?
S1, 2. How is Virginia bounded ? Name the


are scattered, and that the land, instead
of being divided into small farms, is laid
out in extensive plantations of several
hundred acres each. Instead of mead-
ows, apple orchards, and small patches
of rye, Indian corn, and flax, we shall
see vast plains covered with crops of to-
bacco, wheat, and hemp. We shall see,
that the whole labor of the field is per-
formed, on these plantations, by the ne-
groes. The planters themselves have
large houses, and live in excellent style.
2. We shall not meet with many tav-
erns ; it may, therefore, be convenient to
stop for a night at a planter's house. We
may be sere of a hearty welcome, and
the liberal host will take nothing in pay-
ment. If it is autumn, he will probably
invite us to go the next day in chase of
deer. There are a great many of these
animals still in Virginia, and the plant-
ers hunt them on horseback, with packs
of hounds. We must take care that our
travels do not take place in the summer,
for then it is very hot in Eastern Vir-
ginia. We hnd better go in the winter,
and thus, while New England is buried
up in snow drifts, we may travel at our
ease in the Southern States.
8. Virginia may be divided into three
parts. That which lies towards the sea-
coast is level and sandy; that which lies
east of the Blue Ridge is hilly, and that
which lies west of it is mountainous. In
the western part of the state, there are
fewer negroes, and the white people
labor on the farms.
4. There are several remarkable cu-
riosities in this state. One is a Natural
Bridge, composed of rocks. It is two
hundred and fifteen feet high, and its
average width is eighty-five feet. A
principal What mountains? In travel-
liag thQr e country, what shall we observe
3. Into what three parts may Virginia be di-
vied s 4, 6. Namb some of the natural coriol-


little river flows beneath it at the buttem
Wier's Cave is an astonishing work f
nature. It consists of several spacious
caverns in the rocks, more than two
thousand feet in length. The sides an
covered with beautiful crystals. If yoe
enter the cave with a light, it is reflected
by these crystals, and you will be aston-
ished at the wonderful brilliancy of the
5. There are several other caves i
Virginia, one of which is called the
Blowing Cave. From this so powerful
a stream of air issues, as to blow down
the grass and weeds to the distance of
sixty feet from the mouth.
6. The principal springs of fashiona-
ble resort are the White Sulphur Springs
in the county of Greenbrier, and the
Warm and Hot Springs in Bath county.
Thousands of people annually visit them
in search of health or amusement.
7. In the western part of the state,
near the Ohio, is a remarkable mound
of earth, filled with human bones. It
is seventy feet high, and three hundred
feet across at the bottom. This won-
derful hill must have been built long be-
fore the white people came to Ameris.
It is probable, indeed, that it was coo
structed many ages since, even before the
race of savages with which we are ac-
quainted occupied the country. It was
no doubt, the work of a people who lived,,
flourished, and passed away, leaving no
record behind them but these mounds
to tell that they ever existed.
8. Richmond, the seat of government
in Virginia, is the largest city in
state. It is situated at the head of
water on the falls of James River,
has excellent facilities for commerce
manufactures. Large cotton and wool'
ties to be en in the stap. What ids
the spring ? 7. What a remzrksl amdd
in the western pat of he state ? & What

len factories, iron works, and flour mills
have recently been erected. Great quan-
tities of flour, hemp, and tobacco, the
Staples of Virginia, are sent down James
River from Lynchburg to this place by
a canal, called James River and Kenawha
. 9. In going south from Baltimore, we
Son take passage in a steamboat upon
the Chesapeake Bay, and go to Norfolk
and Portsmouth, situated upon the Eliz-
abeth River. Norfolk has a fine harbor,
and more foreign trade than any other
lace in the state. At Portsmouth you
till see a United States Navy Yard and
,Dry Dock. From this place we can
.take the cars for Weldon, in North Car-
imina, and unite with the route through
* ashington, Petersburg, and Richmond.


1. BEFORE we leave Virginia, we
%Must visit Monticello, the seat of the late
'homas Jefferson. He was once presi-
t of the United States, as I shall
ve occasion by and by to tell you.
Died on the 4th of July, 1826.
2. There is another place in this state
,t we must not fail to visit. This is
pleasant hill, called Mount Vernon.
General Washington lived, and at
little distance from the house where
dwelt is a tomb, in which his body
s. I shall have many things to
Syou of this great and good man.
4ied in the year 1799. I recollect
the event happened, though I was
a child. Such was the sorrow of
capital of Virginia ? What is said of ?
SNorfolk; Portsmouth. Where is
r F what are Monticello and Mount

the people, when the sad news came,
that the bells were tolled, and every
body went into mourning.
3. In the south-eastern part of the
state is a place called Jamestown. It
is on a little island in James River, about
thirty miles from its mouth. The place
is now in ruins; but, if you visit it, you
will desire to know its history. An an-
cient churchyard, the crumbling chim-
ney of a church, a few traces of old
houses and rude fortifications, will make
you feel that there is an interesting story
connected with them.
4. The story is indeed interesting,
and I will now tellyou a part of it; I am
sorry that I have not room for thq whole.
I must commence at a period when no
English settlement had been made in .
America. This vast country, now occu-
pied by more than twenty-three millions
of people, was then a wide hunting
ground for the Indians. They alone
dwelt in its valleys, roamed over its
hills and mountains, and sailed upon its
rivers and bays.
5. The Spaniards had penetrated into
South America, and found countries
abounding in silver and gold. Stories
of their success were circulated through-
out Europe, and the spirit of adventure
entered into many minds. In England
a company was formed for making a
settlement in North America; and, hav-
ing obtained a grant of land, they de-
spatched three ships, with one hundred
and five adventurers, for the new world.
6. After sailing across the Atlantic, a
storm drove them into the mouth of
Chesapeake Bay. On approaching the
land, they discovered a large and beau-
Vernon celebrated ? 3. What is said of James-
town ? 4. What was the condition of the coun-
try before it was settled by the Europeans
6. What induced the English to settle in Vir
ginia ? 6, 7. Ge an account of their voyage



8g o


tiful river, which they determined to
escend. They had several interviews
with the Indians, who received them
1 1

Interview wits to Indians on ames tmver.
kindly. One day, as some of them were
ashore, an Indian chief came to them,
with a bow and arrow in one hand and
a pipe in the other, and asked them for
what purpose they came.
7. They replied, by signs, that they
wished to settle on the lands in peace,
and so the chief received them well.
Another chief offered them as much
land as they desired, and sent them a
deer, as a mark of good will.
8. On the 13th. of May, 1S07, the
emigrants landed, and began their estab-
lishment. It was on an island in the
river. The river they called James
River, and the village they called James-
town. This, was the first permanent
Englishaestlement in North America;
and the ruins I have described are the
remains of the ancient town which these
people built.-
9. The colonists soon began to expe;
'ience difficulties which they had not
foreseen. The provision they brought
with them were at length exhausted;
and, having planted thin they were

sad settlmt. 8. ad where did they
ommapOe t liU 19.What dielel-


in great want of food. Besides ti
climate being hot and damp, many of
them were taken sick, and in the course
of four months, fifty of them died.
10. They were now in great distress,
and hardly knew what to do. In this '
emergency, they consulted one of their
number, named John Smith. He was
certainly one of the most extraordinary
men that ever lived. At the age of
fifteen, he left England, and travelled
on foot through Spain, France, and Ger-
11. Here he entered the army of the.*'
Emperor of Austria, and at length oi',
trained the command of a troop of hor.
One day he challenged a Turk to figlat.
with him. This was accepted, and,'
mounted on fine horses, the two combat-
ants met in the field. After a desperate
struggle, Smith killed the Turk. Not
satisfied with this, he challenged anoth-
er, and finally a third, and killed these,
as he had done the first.
12. After this, he was in a battle with
the Turks, and, being wounded, was
taken by the latter, and sent prisoner ito
onstantinople. Here he was made a'
ve, and was treated cruelly by his
'taster; but his mistress took compas.L
sion on him, and sent him to her brother,
who lived at a great distance, requesting.
that he might be treated kindly. But
her directions were not followed, an8
Smith received the same harsh treat-
ment as before.
18. Irritated by this, he slew his ne
master. He then travel in vario
countries, meeting with slnge dv
tures wherever he went., finally
turned to England, and joid the ex
edition to Virginia. While they were
ties did the colonists experience ? 10. What
aid of John Smith? 11, 12. What aentue,
did he have while in the Aumtjs anry
18. What happened to him during Y aprge te


S he emigrants became jealous of
'4, and put him in confinement. In
tds condition he remained until the dis-
tress of the colony rendered his assist-
s ace necessary.
14. They then granted him a trial;
and being acquitted, he immediately
adopted measures for remedying the
existing evils. He set about building
| fort, to protect the people from the In-
dian, and made long journeys into the
wilderness, to procure corn and other
; fld of the natives.
L~,On one occasion, he obtained an
l made of skins, and stuffed with
This the savages reverenced very
;uh; and, in order to get it back, they
Save him as much corn as he asked for.
16. Nothing could exceed the bold-
aem and enterprise of this singular man,
"et it must be confessed that his conduct
was not always regulated by justice or
Struth. In his intercourse with the say-
he resorted to stratagem or vio-
if he could not succeed in his
by other means. It was partly on
'account that the Indians began to
the white people; and Smith him-
nearly fell a victim to the feelings
revenge which he had excited.
17. He went one day to explore the
e River Chickahominy. Having as-
ed as far as he could in a boat, he
it in charge of his men, and pro-
along the bank of the river, with
white men and two Indian guides.
t not long aer he was gone, the sav-
who w l lurking in the woods,
snded men in the boat, and
They then pursued Smith, and,
coming up with him, killed his
companions with their arrows,
him. But with an un-
1l, 16. What is said of him in
DifeU I rs with the Indians? 17, 18, 19,


daunted spirit, he fired upon his enemies,
and, tying one of the Indian guides to
his side, he continued to retreat towards
the boat. Awed by his bravery, the
savages kept aloof; but at length he
came to a place where he sank in the mire.
19. Being unable to extricate himself
his enemies now seized him, and took
him in triumph to Powhatan, their king.
A council was now held, to determine
what should be done with the prisoner,
and it was decided that he should die.
He was accordingly brought forth, and,
being laid on the ground, his head was
placed upon a stone.
20. Powhatan claimed the honor of
killing him. He took a large club, and,
raising it high in the air, was about to
give the fatal blow, when his daughter

Pocahontamsaving Smith.
Pocahohtas, moved by pity, rushed to the
prisoner, and sheltered his body by her
own. The astonished chief brought his
club slowly to the ground, and a sUR
of surprise burst from the lipi ,ihte
savages who stood- around.
21. The chief now raised his daugh-
ter, and, seeming to be touched by that
pity which had affected her so much,
gave Smith his liberty, an sent him
back to Jamestown.
20, 21. Relate a #dvntmure with Powhatau as
Pocahontas. -

^ -'

n_ _~__ rm r ~~T


1. On his return to Jamestown, Smith
found the number of colonists reduced
to thirty-eight. They were so disheart-
ened, that most of them had determined
Sto abandon the settlement, and go back
to England. Smith remonstrated, but
they would not stop. They entered a
small vessel, and prepared to sail down
the river. He determined that they
should not go; so he pointed the guns
of the fort at the vessel, and threatened
to sink her, if they did not return.
Alarmed at this, they gave up their
project, and came ashore.
2. The colony was.now almost in a
starving condition; but Smith, by this
time, had acquired such a reputation for
courage among the Indians, that they
did not dare to refuse supplies. Poca-
hontas, too, the beautiful Indian girl
who had saved his life, continued to be
his friend, and sent him such articles as
were most needed. Thus the colony
wa able to subsist till Captain Newport,
who brought out the first settlers, re-
turned to the colony, bringing with him
a quantity of provuman and one hun-
dred and twenty persons.
& Now that the danger was over, the
colonists would no longer submit to the
government of Smith. Disorder and
confusion among the people soon fol-
owed. About the same time, the pas-
son for gold, which had induced many
of the settlers to come to the country,
as again excited. Some particles of
lieow shining earth were found in the
u a little stream, north of James-
town. Captivated with the idea of get-
ting nddenly rich, the colonists left their
L What w the oonditiom of tMhe semi s
hs t to Jmestow? 2. How did lith
Malsr selaase to the colony 4, Relate
,,..;d,' U

proper employment, and went to dig
what they supposed to be gold.
4. Smith endeavored to dwMab
them, but they would not listen to him
Nothing was thought of, or talked of,
but gold. So they all went to killing
the ship with the earth, which they sup-
posed to contain particles of that precious
metal. At length she was loaded, and
sailed for England. When she arrived
there, the cargo was examined, and found
to be nothing but common mud, filled
with little pieces of shining stone.
5. There is a lesson to be drawn from
this point of history. "All is not gold
that glitters," says the proverb; and r
the Virginians found it. I hope my
readers, if they are ever tempted by any
shining prospect to depart from the path
of duty, will recollect that what seem
to be gold often proves to be only vulgar
6. Smith, finding that he could not
be useful, left the colonists digging for
gold, and went himself to explore the
coasts of the Chesapeake Bay. Having
been absent some time, he returned, anda
after a while went again to traverse the
wilderness. He often met the Indians,
and traded with some, fought with some,
and again went back to the settlement,
leaving with the natives an awful im-
pression of his valor.
7. He was now chosen president, andI
the people submitting to his authority,
order was soon restored. Habits of h-
dustry were resumed, and peace ao4
plenty soon smiled upon the colony.
8. In 1609, the London Company
out nine ships, with nine hundred
grants to the colony. On board of
of these vessels there were some o
the aesount of diggig gold. 6a did dm .
do whilA the oloists twh rmeirU4 a
7. What was the eondltoa of the esoay w
Smith was prsddent S. What is relate er
-- J


appointed to rule over them. This, un-
happily, was driven by a storm upon the
Bermudas, and detained for a long time.
The other vessels arrived safely; but the
persons who came in them were of a
vicious-character, and refused to permit
Smith to govern them. He determined,
however, that he would be obeyed, and
accordingly he seized upon several of
them, and put them in prison. This
alarmed the rest, and order was again
9. It was about this time that the
Indians, fearing that the white people
would become too powerful, determined
de make a sudden attack upon them, and
kill them all Pocahontas heard of this
scheme, and resolved, if possible, to save
the English. Accordingly, one dark and
stormy night, she left her father's wig-
wam, and went alone, through the for-,
eats, to Jamestown. Here she found
Smith, and apprised him of the threat-
ened danger. She then returned, and
Smith took immediate measures to put,
the colonyin a state of defence.
10. The Indians, finding the people
Watchful and prepared, gave up their
reject. Thus again did Pocahontas
save the life of Smith, as well as the lives
af all the white people in the colony.
11. About this time, Smith received
I dangerous wound, which obliged him
go to England, to consult a surgeon.
Indians, finding the only man they
was gone, attacked the colony,
cutting off their supplies, reduced
to the greatest extremity.
a Such, in a short time, was their
e codition, that they devoured
skins of their horses, the bodies of
Indians they had killed, and the
of their dead companions. In six
met eat aI 1000 9,10. What service
t render the colony when the In-
teded to attack them? 11,12, 18. What

months, their number was reduced, from
more than five hundred, to sixty.
13. At this time, the persons who
had been wrecked at Bermuda arrived;
but they, with the other settlers, all
agreed that it was best to quit the set-
tlement, and return to England. Ac-
cordingly they sailed down the river for
that purpose. Fortunately, they were
met by Lord Delaware, who had come
in a vessel from England, loaded with
provisions. This revived their courage,
and they went back to Jamestown.


1. THE colony now began to enjoy
more favorable prospects. Lord Dela-
ware, who was governor, restored order -
and contentment by his mild and gentle
conduct, and the Indians were once
more taught to respect and fear the
English. In 1611, new settlers arrived,
and other towns were founded; and un-
der a succession of wise governors, Vir-
ginia became a flourishing and extensive
2. In 1612, Captain Argal went on a
trading voyage up the Potomac, and
heard that Pocahontas was in the neigh-
borhood. He invited her to come on
board his vessel, and she came. He
then detained her, and carried her to
Jamestown. He knew that Powhatan
loved his daughter, and thought, while
she was in the possession of the Eng-
lish, that he would be afraid to do them

was the condition of the colony after Smith ha
returned to England? Why did they not retn
to England?
1. What wa the condition of the colony undel
Lord Delaware? 2, 8. Relate the adventure o

' 85

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