Citation
The first book of history, combined with geography

Material Information

Title:
The first book of history, combined with geography containing the history and geography of the Western Hemisphere
Caption title:
Parley's first book of history
Creator:
Goodrich, Samuel G ( Samuel Griswold ), 1793-1860
Ingham & Bragg ( Publisher )
Swan, Brewer and Tileston ( Publisher )
Place of Publication:
Boston
Cleveland
Publisher:
Swan, Brewer and Tileston
Ingham and Bragg
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Edition:
Rev. and improved ed., with important additions.
Physical Description:
218 p., <24> leaves of plates : ill., col. maps, charts ; 19 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
World history -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Geography -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- America ( lcsh )
Historical geography -- Juvenile literature -- America ( lcshac )
Maps -- Juvenile literature -- America ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- Western Hemisphere ( lcshac )
Geography -- Juvenile literature -- Western Hemisphere ( lcshac )
Textbooks -- 1860 ( rbgenr )
Maps -- 1860 ( rbgenr )
Hand-colored illustrations -- 1860 ( local )
Bldn -- 1860
Genre:
Textbooks ( rbgenr )
Maps ( rbgenr )
Hand-colored illustrations ( local )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Ohio -- Cleveland
United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Maps are hand-colored.
General Note:
Includes chronological table and pronouncing index.
Funding:
Brittle Books Program
Statement of Responsibility:
by the author of Peter Parley's tale ; for the use of schools ; illustrated by engravings and colored maps.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
026905794 ( ALEPH )
47849823 ( OCLC )
ALH5995 ( NOTIS )

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PARLEY’S FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.






er lRST BOOK,OF HISTO By,

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY;

THE HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY

OF

THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE.

FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS. ~
BY THE AUTHOR OF PETER PARLEY’S TALES

(ILLUSTRATED BY ENGRAVINGS AND COLORED MAPS.

REVISED AND IMPROVED EDITION, —

WITH IMPORTANT ADDITIONS.

, BOSTON: 7,
SWAN, BREWER AND TILESTON.
CLEVELAND: |
INGHAM AND BRAGG.
| 1860.



ako = oi Hie



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1858, =9
JENKS, HICKLING, AND SWAN,

in the Clerk’s Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts.
¢

CITY OF BOSTON.

In Scnoot Commirrer, Marcu 30, 1882.
The “ First Book of History, combined with Geography,” was this day adopted as one of the
text books in the Grammar Schools of this city.
(Signed) EDWARD CAPEN, Secretary.



4 |
CITY OF ROXBURY.

In ScHoot ComMiTTEE, JANUARY 28, 1852
The “ First Book of History combined with Geography ” was this uay adopted as one of
the text books in the Grammar Schools of this city.

(Signed) JOSHUA SEAVER, Seerctary



PREFACE.





Among the multitude of books for instructing the young, there are not a few of an hia
torical nature ; but it is remarkable that History is not a universal, nor even a general study
in our common schools. This cannot arise from any want of adaptation in the subject itself
to the purposes of instruction; on the contrary, it is manifest, that it_is peculiarly adapted
to these purposes. We do not mean to say this of history as it has been generally treated ;
for most school books of this kind are but little more than extended chronological tables,
and offer nothing to the reader but a tedious mass of dates and general observations. Such
works may be useful to people of mature age, but they neither amuse nor instruct the class
of readers for whom they are designed. But of all reading, there is none that so readily
attracts the attention, and lays hold of the sympathy of children and youth, as lively narra-
tives of the enterprises, adventures, dangers, trials, successes, and failures of mankind ;
and these it is the business of history to display. Books which treat of the works of nature
and art, which exhibit geographical details, observations upon natural history, and natural
philosophy — any or all of tnese will be immediately thrown aside by a child left to his
choice, for a book of stories, delineating events in connection with the development. of
human passions.
If, then, history, when properly treated, is one of the most attractive of all studies, why is
It not regularly taught in all our schools? It is not because it is deemed less useful than
other studies ; “the proper study of mankind is man,” and it cannot be entered upon too
_ soon. After possessing a knowledge of religion, and the duties we owe to God and our
q neighbor, history is the most important of all studies. It relates to us what has been done
_ by mankind, and thus teaches us what they may do. It acquaints us with the true character
P of our race, and enables us to know ourselves better. It apprises us of the existence of
’ evil, and the way to shun it; it acquaints us with the existence of good, and shows us how
to attain it.

It cannot be, therefore, that the limited use of history, in our schools, is owing to an idea
that it is useless. The fact must arise from the want of historical books, written in a style
which shall render them both interesting and profitable. Such, at least, is the conviction of
_ the author of this volume ; and, believing that a First Book of History, for general use in
our schools, is much to be desired, he has undertaken, and now offers to the public, the
present volume. :

In preparing it, two things have been had in view. In the first place, it should be usefu. ;
and in the second place, to make it useful, it must be entertaining. To accomplish these
ends, the book is provided with maps, and before the pupil enters upon the history of any
state or country, he is to learn from them its shape, boundaries, rivers, and shores. He 1s
then briefly made acquainted with its present state, its towns and cities, and the occupaticns
of its inhabitants. These geographical details are conveyed to the pupil by narrating
upposed travels through various countries, in which he takes a part.

_ Ihe pupil, being thus acquainted with the present condition of a country, is then told its
history, ‘The author has been careful to introduce precise dates; for without them, it would
be impossible to give any distinct view of amy portion of history. But he has sought more
__ assiduously to select from the great mass of events those topics which would be most caleu-
lated to please and to improve the young reader. He has introduced many tales, anecdotes,
ventures, and curious particulars, for the double purpose of enlivening the book, and

oe














6 PREFACE.

throwing light upon the periods and events with which they are connected. A large num
ber of engravings have been inserted, as well for illustration as for fixing certain ideas
permanently in the memory of the pupil.

A familiar style has been adopted, and the materials throughout are arranged on a new
plan. ‘The common method is to begin at the earliest date, and follow down the train of
events to the present time. The author of this work has partially reversed this method. He
begins with the individual states of our own country, and first exhibits their present condi-
tion. He then notices a few recent events, and having fixed the attention of the reader
upon the subject, proceeds to narrate the history. Avoiding general statements, he has
endeavored to keep the attention and interest of the pupil alive, by descriptions, sketches,
and tales, which may at once gratify the taste and improve the understanding.

It will be observed, that, although the book contains a large quantity of matter, yet it em-
braces the history of the Western Continent only. It is believed that it will be more useful
than if it contained the history of the Eastern Continent, also, in the same number of pages,
In proportion as a work is condensed, it becomes general, and, of course, uninteresting to
children. It was deemed preferable, therefore, to give an ample history of our own Hem-
isphere, and if the plan should be approved, a second volume, embracing the history of the
Eastern Hemisphere, will be published.

Nore. Since the above was written, Paritey’s Seconp Book or History, COMBINED
WITH GrogRaPHy, embracing the geography and history of the Eastern Hemisphere, and
Parvey’s Tuirp Boox or History, containing Ancient History, have been published and
extensively circulated. They are written inthe same attractive style, and contain numerous
maps and engravings.



PREFACE TO THE REVISED EDITION.

Tue first-edition of this work was published in 1832, since which time it has acquired a
very.extended and constantly increasing circulation. It is now presented to the public m
a new and improved form. Within the period of twenty years, many important events
have occurred, and great changes have taken place in the political geography of the West-
ern Continent. In our own country, new states have been formed, and towns and cities
have been built as if by the hand of magic. Arkansas, Michigan, Florida, Iowa, Texas,
Wisconsin, and California, have all been added to the Union since the work was originally
written ; the geographical part of it had, therefore, become exceedingly defective. To
remedy this defect, and to adapt the work to the wants of the present time, has been the
design of the reviser. ‘

The plan of the work has not been materially changed. It has been improved by an
introductory treatise upon the subject of geography, with such definitions of geographical
terms as are necessary to render the work complete in itself, as a text book for schools,
upon the geography and history of the Western Continent. It contains nineteen maps,
newly engraved upon steel, and colored, which contain the names of all the places referred
to in the work, and these maps are inserted in connection with the states and countries
which they represent.

The work has already met with unexampled encouragement, and it is hoped that this
improved edition may be found worthy of even more favor than the preceding ones.

Boston, March, 1852.



s





CHAP. 2.

CHAP. 11.

~
Pace
CHAPTER 2. IntRopvcTION. — History.
Geography. form of the earth. Motions
of the earth. ‘The seasons. Divisions of
the earth..ccece eee@eeeezeoeep eee eoeee eee veeasee2ee2 @ ll
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. — Defi-

nitions @eeeeeeeeoeaeeoee eee ese02 008 £2 E888 828088

CHAP. 3. THE WESTERN CONTINENT. —
ERE Pc, oo kd Dcce be obese soesee canted
CHAP. 4. Tue Discovery oF AMERICA. —
Story of Columbus. Adventures. Thoughts
of Columbus. Government of Genoa. Fer-
dinand and Isabella. He sets sail....cesee

CHAP. 5. Discovery or AMERICA, contin-
ued. — First voyage on the ocean. Discov-
eryofland. Landing. Natives. Country.
Return to Spain. Procession. Other voy-
ages. Americus Vespucius. Divisions of
North and South America ....0.ccecessece

CHAP. 6. Mainr.— Geography. Railroads.
Business. Productions ..cccccccsee sevecs

CHAP. 7 MaIne, continued. — Indian Old
Towu. Penobscot tribe. Settlement in
Maine. Story of the Norridgewock tribe.
History of Maine...seececcccvcescecs

CHAP. 8 New HAampsuHire. — Geography.
Isles of Shoals. Sea serpent. Mountains.
Lakes. The Notch eeeeoee 2Geeeoea ©2828 EAE

GHAP. 9. New HAmpsHIRE, continued. —
Slide of a mountain. History. Attack on
ko ecgeeed @eeeeono2eeeeeeeoneeeeneee

CHAP.10. Vermont. — Geography. Green
Mountains. Towns. Productions........ 29

VERMONT, continued. — Inun-
dation. Battle on Lake Champlain. Of
Bennington. Settlement. ...ccccccceccccce

CHAP. 12. MassacuusEtts. — Geography.
Commerce. Manufactures. Boston. Rail-
roads. Towns. Institutions ...cceccccece

CHAP. 13. MASSACHUSETTS, continued. —
Centennial celebration. Settlement of Bos-
ton. Of Plymouth. Other settlements.
History e@eesneeae eae eve see ee eeeteseoeseeeosecned

CHAP. 14. Ruorx Istanp. — Geography.
Roger Williams and settlement. History.

CHAP. 15. CoNnnecTiIcuT. — Geography.
Norwich Indians. New London. The
dream. Towns. Manufacturers........0.

CHAP. 16. CoNnNeEcTICUT, continued. — Mr.
Chester in the woods. History. Charter

a eeeaeeeegeeeeoeae tee 28 C8 ©SGSHCECHBSBSEH88E88E

CHAP. 17. New ENGLAND. — Geography.
Climate. Connecticut River. Anecdote.
School houses eeversreeaecenaeocroaoaeseseoesenoeeecsé 39

16
16

20
#
20

e@ecee 24

26

27

30

31

33
34

38

35

CONTENTS.



Paes

CHAP. 18. Nrw ENaranp, continged. =
History. The Puritans. Settlement. Plym-
outh Rock. Samoset. Massasoit. Anee-
dote. Other settlers. Salem. Boston. Der.
chester. Lady Arabella Johnson ......006

CHAP. 19. Nrw,ENGULAND, continued. —
Two colonies, Plymcuth and Massachusetts.
Sir Henry Vane. Ann Hutchinson. In-
dians, Capture of Mystic. Union of colo-
nies for defence. ss .csecseccoccesedvevecse

CHAP. 20. New ENGLAND, continued. —
Hatred of the Indians. King Philip excites
them to war © COSHSHTHEFCESEOOCHEEHOHTHAHSEHEEHEOEOKSHHSE.

CHAP. 21. NErw ENGLAND, continued. —
Springfield burnt. Slaughter at Muddy
Brook. War in Maine. New Hampshire.
Attack on Brookfield. The Narragansetts.
Death of Philip..... oeccedpnseepen

CHAP. 22. New ENeGuanp, continued. —
Charters of the colonies taken away. An-
dros imprisoned, and sent to England. Sup-
posed witchcraft at Salem .......sseeeeces

CHAP. 23. Nrw ENGLAND, continued. —
War between England and France. At-
tack on Haverhill. Story of Mr. Dunstan.
Mrs. Dunstan. Queen Anne’s War. At-
tack on Deerfield. Port Royal taken.
Peace. Canada taken by the British ....

CHAP. 24. Nrw ENGLAND, continued. —
Indian war in Maine. King George’s war.
Capture of Louisburg. Peace. French and
Indian war. Treaty of Paris. Trouble be-
tween the American colonies and England,
beginning the revolution ....sssccoscccecs

CHAP. 25. Tue Purirans. — Their char-
acter. Object in coming to America. Per-
secution of the Baptists ..cceccescccccccee Ja

CHAP. 26. THE PurRITANS, continued. —
Pergecution of the Quakers. Reflections.
Sabbath morning in the forests. Other
sketches ened es a

CHAP. 27. New Yorx.— Geography. Ca-
nals and lakes. New York city. Passage
up, the Hudson osescccicetheasecebaned stent

CHAP. 28 NEw York, continued. — Al-
bany. Trenton Falls, and sad accident.
New York Indians. Salt Wells. Niagara
Falls. Stories. Internal Improvements.
HIStory .scccccceccccsccevcccsescesescocs OF

CHAP. 29. New York, continued. — Erie
Canal. History of settlement. Dutch.
Indian wars. Surrender to the English,
under the Duke of York eocccceessvccces Gd

42

48

47

49

54

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8
CHAP. 30. New York, continued. — The

MP TERTIUS «ch ote ody ec 0b ssdesengsegusbins
CHAP. 31. New York, continued.— Leis-

ler. Burning of Schenectady. Governor

Sloughter. Exploits of Peter Schuyler..

CHAP. 32. New York, continued. — Pi-
rates. Robert Kidd. Persecution of the
negroes. Tolmonwilemon. Peace of 1747.

CHAP. 33. Nrew JERsEY. — Geography.
Passaic Falls. Canals. History. Settle-
ment. Division into East and West Jer-
sey. Battle of Monmouth........ccesece

CHAP. 34. PENNSYLVANIA. — Geography.
Philadelphia. Independence. Fairmount
Waterworks. Girard College. Travels.
Roads. Bridges. Quakers. Germans.
Alleghany Mountains. Pittsburg. Alle-
ghany City. Coal Mines. Canals........

CHAP. 35. PENNSYLVANIA, continued. —
History. William Penn. Settlement.
Penn comes to America. Founds Phila-
delphia. Returns to England. Rapid set-
tlement of Pennsylvania. Penn again
visits his colony. Death of Penn. Char-
acter. MERSIN Lak Go vba @ 06 W.oralchsindiece‘e 0

CHAP. 36. DELAWARE. — Geography.
Size and situation. Travels. Breakwater.
Revolutionary war. Delaware regiment.
Settlement. Paradise Point. Indians.
Governor Risingh. Peter Stuyvesant.
Capture of the Dutch. History..........

CHAP. 37 Maryann. — Geography.
Mason and Dixon’s .ine. Baltimore.
Trade with the west. Naval school. Cli-

TACO cee es eeeeee res ese see eee eeeoeveaneseeve

CHAP. 38. MARYLAND, continued. —
—— North Point. War with England. Wash-
ington burnt. Baltimore. Lord Balti-
more. Settlement. Indidn villages. Sit-
uation of the colonists. Death of Lord
Baltimore. His character. History.....

CHAP. 39. MippLEe States. — General
view. Geography. History........sceee

CHAP. 40. Vuirainta. — Geography.
Travels. Manners. Customs. Planta-
tions. Climate. Face of the country.
Natural curiosities. Ancient mounds.

Springs. .ccee. @eeeeoe eee oes SR ete ee

CHAP. 41. VIRGINIA, continued. —Jef-
ferson. Washington. Jamestown. In-
dians. Spaniards. Chesapeake Bay. In-
dian chiefs. Settlement on James River.
John Smith. His adventures. Conduct.
Powhatan. Pocahontas......ccsccsccess

CHAP. 42. Virani, continued. — State
of the colony under Smith’s government.
The colonists dig for gold. Reflections.
Smith chosen president. Pocahontas.
Misery of the colonists. Lord Delaware.

CHAP. 43. Virarnia, continued. — The

CONTENTS.

colony flourishes. Captain Argal. Mar-
riage of Pocahontas. Death. First slaves
in the colonies. Opecancanough. Slaugh-
ter of the colonists. Vengeance of the

64

66 English. History.....s.secee phiehesae we
CHAP. 44. Norry Carona. — Geog-
raphy. ‘Travels. Plantations. Forests.
67 Tar. Gold digging. Towns. Produe-

tions. Settlement by Episcopalians. Sit-
uation of the colony. Other settlers. .Or-
igin of the names North and South Caro-
lina. Indians. The Six Nations. His-

TOLY..ccecce eeeeee See ee lees eeeoeee yee eee

CHAP. 45. Sovurn Carona. — Geogra-
phy. Voyage. Charleston. Planters.
Trade of Charleston. Puritans. French
Preflestamts, * TIStorys ss nes.eeeesn ces dt

CHAP. 46. Gzoraia.—Geography. Face
of the country. Savannah. Improve-
ments. Okefinoke Swamp. Settlement
of Georgia. Situation of the colony. At-
tacks of Spaniards. General Oglethorpe.

CHAP. 47. Fioripa.— Geography. Dis-
covery. Settlement. History. Semi-
Holes.) Key West, ones is civ vediv dcensineed

~CHAP.48. ALABAMA.— Geography. His-
SOET. cae candceke chadnachavb’dde satcaemen
CHAP. 49. Muississrppr. — Geography.
PEISCONG 0k 5b.das 0 sabi op od-vensnn e@eeeneseeee ee
CHAP. 50. Lovistana. —, Geography.
New Orleans. Battle of New Orleans.
FEAGOy nside nc cas vnanrend 44 opens cab ote

CHAP. 51. Trxas.— Geography. His-

COTY... cece eroeeeseeceeneseeses eres

CHAP.52. Tur WEsTERN STATES. .
— Geography. Mississippi Valley. Trav-
els on the Ohio River. Railroads, cities,
and towns. Education. History........

CHAP. 53. Inprana.— Geography. Tray-
els on the Ohio. History......02 ceeccece

CHAP. 54. Ini1no1s.— Geography. Tray-
els on the Ohio. . The Mississippi River.
Illinois River. Canals, Lake Michigan.
Chicago. Prairies. History.....

CHAP. 55. Wisconsin. — Geography.
History..++ee. Seeeeeseee eee eee eeeoeoeseteoeess

CHAP. 56. MicuiGan. — Geography.
Lakes. AURVOURGES « « SEND ERO es Co edn e odk

CHAP. 57. Iowa. — Geography. Indian

LDOG 0s tec tees eseeeee eee eeuceo eee

CHAP. 58. Muissourt.—Geography. St.
Louis. History. Santa Fe Commerce.
Schools. Principal towns......sccseseee

CHAP. 59. ARrxkKANsas.— Geography. Al-

68

72

74

75



79

81

CHAP. 60. TENNESSEE. — Geography.
History..ceccccece eeeeeeeeeeeseeoeoeeeeeeene
CHAP. 61. Kentucky.— Geography. Lou
isville. Mammoth Cave. History. aeeoee

84

a7.

91

93
94
95

95
97

3°
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100

102 |

104
206
108

120

ligatorasssscseeeicconswevecces eeeeeeeeee 119

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_VHAP. 62. Carirornia, — Geography.
my History....... C2OHRCCHOER LOL ETE SEES DEL LEe 1 3
CHAP. 63. Te Trrritorizs. — Geogra-
| phy. Indian ferritorys Missouri Terri-
tory. Minnesota. New Mexico. Utah.
_ Oregon. Indians. Animals. Travels of
Lewis and Clarke. Government.....-++. 113

CHAP.64. Tur Frencu War. —Geog-
taphy. Colonies. French. English.
George Washington. Governor Dinwiddie.
Fort Du Quesne. General Braddock. Ex-

edition against Fort Niagara. Crown

Tc dh stueb'n's oc anab sembeos chiara 117

| CHAP. 65. Frencu War, continued. —
e Rogiand and France declare war. Fort
William Henry. Louisburg. Du Quesne.
Ticonderoga. Death of Lord Howe. Cap-
ture of Fort Frontenac. Quebec. Mont-
calm. Death of Wolfe. Montreal taken.
French possessions ceded to the Brit-

ish. OPS SSEHESHHOSHCHSHSESHESHSSHEFFESSCHH SESS EAEEEES 119

CHAP. 66. Tue Revonurtion. — Parlia-
ment of Great Britain. People of Amer-
ica. General Gage. Quarrels......secoee 123

CHAP. 67. RevoLtuTion.— Tax on tea.
New laws. Cargoes of tea destroyed.
Port Bill passed. Town meetings........ 125

CHAP. 68. ReEvouvrTion, continued. —
State ofthe country. General Gage. Bat-
tle of Lexington. Excitement of the
RIUEG 6 Oboe osc ccdbsben tbs eves codes 127

CHAP. 69. REVOLUTION, continued. —
State of the country. Power of England.
Resolution of the Americans. Ticonde-

'. Yoga. Crown Point. Battle of Bunker

ay ‘Hill. CHSHSOCH OSHS EHS EOHEH EEE HHH EEK EEE COL OSE 129

_ CHAP. 70. Revo.tvurtion, continued. —
- Coatinental Congress. Declaration of In-
dependence. Washington crosses the
Delaware. General Howe. General Bur-
oyne. Battle of Saratoga. Surrender of
MENTO. in 0:6 060 cadebenccnecvccccksgt one

CHAP. Yi. REVOLUTION, continued. —
_\' Government of France. Great Britain.
Battle of Monmouth. Destruction of
Wyoming....... 200000 2e2COe COOOL P0088 134

CHAP. '2. ReEvoLvuTION, concluded. —

_ General Sullivan. Indians. Count Ro-

_chambeau. Benedict Arnold. Story of

Major Andre. North and South Carolina.

Washington. Surrender of Lord Corn-
so 6's oe eeeeoeoe eG C8CR CHSC HBSEHE*OESE 136

| CHAP. 73. Unirep STATES AFTER THE
_ » REVoLUTION. —Washington chosen presi-
dent. Hisdeath. Character. John Adams
‘chosen president. District of Columbia... 138

HAP. 74. Government OF THE UNITED
: STATES, @eeeree ese teeeoeen ov o8 bodece eeeeeed 140

CHAP. 75. Tue Stare Governments... 142



A, CONTENTS. 9

CHAP. 76. GENERAL REMARKS ON Govy-
ERNMENT. s ca sewhis oo cSiwdwsieetes cdcbes Ok

CHAP. 77% Tue Unirep Srarss. — Presi-
dents. War with England. War with

PA GEIGG ccubiddeccde bie d Jee deecren tens ] 5

CHAP. %8& Tue Unirep STateEs. — Re-

foetiods. «Fi seeder dae od doo cddoedwuusia 146

CHAP. 79. British Possessions IN
Nortn America. — Divisions. Geogra-
phy. Travels. Lakes. Canals. Montreal,
St. Lawrence. Quebec. Newfoundland.
Nova Scotia. New Brunswick. Prince
Edward’s Island. Climate. History.
King William’s, Queen Anne’s, King
George’s, and the old French wars.
History. voonercpecipc csiccbemsbhoesesbenede S40

CHAP. 80. THE Esquimaux.—Geogra-
phy. Country of the Esquimaux. Dogs.
Reindeer. OrigiNn..ccccosrcvsevecctscece 152

CHAP. 81. GREENLAND. — Whaling voy-
age. Islands of ice. White bears. De-
scription of the Greenlanders. Navigators.
Animals. Settlement. Captain Ross.... 153

CHAP. 82. IceLAnp.— Country. Proverb.
People. Habits. Mount Hecla. Skaptar
Yokul. An eruption. Aurora Borealis.
Discovery. Settlement. History........ 155

CHAP. 83. RussiANn POSSESSIONS. ecccee 157

CHAP. 84. Mexico.— Voyage to Mexico.
Vera Cruz. Travelling. City of Mexico.
Cathedral. Gold. Ancientruins. Santa
Fe. Travels and trade. Caravans...eses. 157

CHAP. 85. Mexico, continued. — Popu-
lation. Indians. Tenuchtitlan. Spaniards.
Cortez. Capture of Tabasco. Indian attack.
Treaty of peace. Mexican warriors....... 161

CHAP. 86. MeExtco, continued. — Ccrony
at Vera Cruz. Message from Montezuma.
Cortez sets out from Tenuchtitlan. Tlas-
cala. Slaughter at Cholula. Tenuchtitlan.
Montezuma and CorteZ...cccccccccescsseee 16d

CHAP. 87. Mexico, continued. — Religion
of the Mexicans. Temples. Montezuma
taken. Governor ofCuba. Narvaez. Span-
iards attacked by Mexicans. Death of Mon-
tezuma. Retreat of the Spaniards........ 165

CHAP. 88. Mexico, continued. -- Small-
pox. Quetlevaca. Guatimozin. Attack
on Tenuchtitlan. Torture of Guatimozin
and his minister. Government of Mexico.
City of Mexico. Fate of Cortez. History.
U.S. war. Conquests by U. 8. Peace. 168

CHAP. 89. GuvuATIMALA. — Mountains.
Mahogany and logwood. City of Guati-
mala. Other towns. Government. His-
tory. Mosquito Indians. Origin. Ancient
palaces, carvings, temples...ccecsceccvsee L7l

CHAP.90. SouTH AMERICA. VENEZUELA.

— Geography. Climate. History. Earth-
quake. Simon Bolivar..eccece 06d cde siede

EE Se Se ee

>

Bl



TT <== ——<"

10 CONTENTS.

CHAP. 91. New Grenapa. — Geography.
Falls of Tequendama.

CHAP. 92. Ecuapor.— Geography. The
Andes. Chimborazo. Cotopaxi. Mines.
History. POSSSHE CESSES CHESSER EEHEHE SEES

CHAP. 93. eet ee Cetreane. Climate.
Productions. Animals. ivision. Lima.
Quicksilver and other mines. Cuzco. Pi-

ZArrO.cececs eee Seees@ Sees eee eee ees eeon 2200

‘CHAP. 94. Peru, continued.— Second ex-
pedition to Peru. Foundation of the em-
ire. Reception of the Spaniards. The
nea. Procession. Atahualpa taken pris-

ONEL. cocccecece eaeeeee eee eee tee eee ©eee8s

CHAP. 95. Peru, continued. —Treatment
of the Inca. His death. Quito taken. Con-
quest of l’eru. Lima founded. Death of
Pizarro. History. Constitution formed..

CHAP. 96. Botivia.— Geography. Andes.
Mines. Potosi. Discovery of the mines.
Other towns. Constitution. Peru and
BURNS AG IGcs6s ohne cvericones iuetcvevs

CHAP. 97. Cuin1.— Geography. Travels.
Vineyards. Andes. St. Jago. Araucani-
ans. Death of Valdivia. History. Juan
Fernandez. Robinson Crusoe.....ssesees

CHAP. 98. Paraconia. — Geography.
Country. Inhabitants. Giants. Huts. Os-
triches. Terra del Fuego. People. Dis-
covery. Straits of Magellan.......secees

CHAP.99. Burnos Ayres. — Geography.
Travels. Islands near Cape Horn. Tray-
elling. Anecdotes. Wild animals. Con-
dors. Pampas. Buenos Ayres. Face of
the country. Soil. Towns. People. Dis-
covery. Indians. Jesuits. History. Gov-
ernment.

History......0..06 174

175

177

179

181

183

183

185

Death of Francia...ccccscccese 186

| CHAP. 100. Paracuay. -— Geography.
BLIGROS. 0 15 8 esi dsverne evecee cocccsceccee
CHAP. 101. Urnuauay. — Geography.

History. Pee SSSSSseFeS Sete B® Oeeenet ee eee sens

CHAP.102. Brazit.—Geography. Trav-
els. Rio Janeiro. Harbor. People. Ex-
tent. Population. Indians. Vegetation.
Discovery. Landing of Cabral. San Sal-
vador. The Dutch. History. Government.

CHAP. 103. Gurana.—Geography. Di-
visions. Climate. Indians. oison.
Vampires. Snakes. Story of Captain
Waterton. Discovery of Guiana by Vas-
co Nunes. Sir Walter Raleigh. El Do-
rado. Settlers in Dutch Guiana. History.

CHAP. 104. West Inpres. — Geography.
Vessels. Havana. Trade. Fruit. Cli
mate. Cuba. Discovery of Cuba. Don
Jago de Velasquez. Indians. History of
Hayti. Columbus. Anecdote. Disturb-
ances. Christophe. Independence of
Hayti. Division. Massacres. Porto Rico.
Jamaica. Discovery. History. Hurri-
CAULE« o> veers ss citscedd ccctissevcdssiliusees

CHAP. 105. West Innis, continued. —
Inhabitants. Spaniards. Pirates. Baha-
mas. Cat Island. Columbus. Caribbee
Islands. Discovery. History....e.+seee.

CHAP. 106. Tue BuccanerErs. — Origin.
Fame. Pierre le Grand. Organization.
Morgan. Bartholomew. His adventures.

CHAP. 107%. GENERAL VIEW OF AMERI-

189
189

189

192

195

197

199

CAy! von spect cde ch eiutd 60. uéeeien tildsewena tee
CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE seco ceccccesecsces 20
TABLES OF EXTENT AND POPULATION... 208
Pronouncine INDEX se veeeeccccsreccoene 213



LIST OF MAPS.

FHE EASTERN AND WESTERN HEMI-

SNR 955 Sp Le erp, aay
MAINE, PALE II 00% 8, ee
-\NEW HAMPSHIRE, . . . . . %
VER eS ee
MASSACHUSETTS, . .... 2 »« .@
BeOOR ISLAND, .. se.e>.) 1.08 OR
CONMMOTIOUT, O° he eR gg
HEW ENGUAND, . .:-. . . 40
Ns 0 PR, gg
NEW JERSEY, PENNSYLVANIA, DEL-
AWARE, AND MARYLAND, :. . 68
MIDDLESTATES, . .....%

SOUTHERN STATES, orang: oes
MS ick Os igo xd een eit ee
Wawa Rr pagn ds Qh Dae
MNO. ct ae ce 5, at
WIBCONBIN 2) 62 E60 S005) ya t's ee
TGA AD OTe 106
or mes Yaa . 108
WESTERN STATES, . . . . . lb
UNITED STATES, ... - . M6
NORTH AMERICA, . . . . 266
MEXICO, TEXAS, GUATIMALA, AND
WEST INDIMS, .. EG 2.4 (a
SOUTH AMERICA, . (°° % “sae.

16





THE FIRST BOOK |
COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

~

CHAPTER I.
INTRODUCTION.

1, History is a narrative of past

_ events, and this book contains a brief
- account of the principal events which
_ fave occurred on the western continent

~_

ati aa
J




_ Siace its discovery by Christopher Co-

wmbus in 1492. It commences with
nowing the present condition of the
ifferent countries which occupy this
ntinent, and especially that of the
ted States. But, in order that we
may clearly understand the history of
any country, we must first obtain a
knowledge of its geography.

2. Geography is a science, the gen-
eral object of which is, as its name im-
plies, to describe the earth on which

we live; but, as the earth and sea are

generally considered the great compo-
nent parts of the terraqueous globe, a

_ description of both of them is usually
_ included in this science.



3. Our globe forms but a small part
of the universe. This word, universe,

is generally used to signify the collec-
tion of all created things, and we fre-
‘quently speak of the worjd in the same

1 What is history? 2. What is geography?

@ What is the “meaning of the word universe?

i
Seale he. ae
94 aS Aes
‘ay, ‘ 4 ¥ ; Ay, ‘ .
Re ae eee ‘
(ee (Or aks
t

" 7 a ah x
be ae aS to eg
ne ce





OF HISTORY,





sense; but, in geography, the term
world generally refers to the earth
only.

4, In the sacred history of the crea-
tion, it is recorded, that “God made
lights in the firmament of the heaven,
to give light upon the earth, to divide
the day from the night, and to be for
signs and for seasons, and for days and.
years. He made the greater light to :
rule the day, and the lesser light to rule of
the night. He made the stars also.” |

d. These lights, obeying certain laws
of motion, are made subservient to the
great purposes for which they were
created. ‘To explain these laws is the
province of Astronomy; but it is im-
portant that we should know a few facts
concerning the earth, when we view it
as one of the planets belonging to the
solar system.

6. This system is composed of the
sun, which is in the centre; the pri-
mary planets, with their moons, or sec-
ondary planets; and the comets. The
earth and the other*planets derive their
light and heat from the sun, around























4. What does Scripture record of the “lights in
the firmament’? 5. How do these lights ser
the purposes for which they were created? What
is astronomy? 6. Of what is the solar systom



Bet
sf

EE aR



12 THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

which they revolvs in their respective
paths or orbits.
7. Vast and magnificent as the solar

“system seems to the human mind, it

forms hut a small part of the heavenly
bodies, which occupy the infinite regions
of space. Stars surround it on all sides,
which are at so remote a distance from
it as far to exceed finite calculation ;
and each of these stars is supposed to
be a separate sun, the centre of a sys-
tem like our own.

8. The figure of the earth is nearly
that of a globe or sphere, as is proved
by its circular shadow upon the moon
when that planet is eclipsed, and by
the experience of many navigators who
have sailed round it.

ee z %
” eye,






9. If we leave, in our imagination,
our planet, the earth, and view it a
one of the orbs in space, we shall §
it turning round upon its axis every
twenty-four hours, causing the succes
sion of day and night to those who live
upon its surface. We shall also see it
moving in its orbit around the great
centre of the system at the rate of more
than a million and a half miles a day,
or between forty and fifty miles for
every breath we draw, and completing
this revolution in the space of one year.
This motion around the sun is of such
a nature as to cause the regular success
sion of the seasons, Spring, Summer,
Autumn, and Winter.

Spring begins March 21.

ule

Autumn begins’. Sey tember 21.
_*
BJ The Seasons.

10. The axis, which has just been
mentioned, is an imaginary line passing
through the centre of the globe from

(E85 Raramapes emer

eomposed ? 7. What is said of the stars?
§. What is related of the figure of the earth?





RQ vke



Winter begins December 21

orth to south, around which it re
volves, somewhat as a wheel turns upoa
its axle, while at the same time if

9. What is related of the earth’s motion? Wha
do these motions cause? 10, Deseribe what

Oat eae
‘ ‘ +






rouresses in its orbit, as has been al-
ady stated; as a ball discharged from

rife turns over and over in ‘he air,
and at the sanie time goes forward to its



11. Now, if we draw near to the
planet: once more, still supposing our-
| Pelves as viewing it from a distance, we
find the surface to consist of unequal
portions of land and water. But, un-
ii we have given names to these, and
have fixed upon some method of meas-
“uring off the surface of the globe, we
“cannot speak definitely of the different
j Bjects that present themselves to our
_ view.
_ 12. Since there is no ) beginning or end
_ to a circle, nor to a spherical surface,
till we begin to mark it off by lines, so
_ we cannot well describe the various por-
tions of land and water on the earth's
surface until we have divided it by lines
that will indicate the relative position
of its parts. The great dividing lines
which we resort.to for this purpose are
_ some of them arbitrary, that is, selected
§ for the sake of conyenience, while oth-
3 depend upon the relative positions
the sun and earth.
3. If we turn our eyes again to the


















meant by the axis of the earth. 11. Of what
doe: the surface of the earth consist? 13. De-

t
COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY 13

earth, we shall see that one portion of
it always points towards a_ particular
part ¢° the heavens, and, if we could»
stand upon this point upon the earth’s
surface, we should see a particular stax,
which we term the North Star, directly
over our heads. As this would appear
in the same place, that is, directly above
us, in every part of the earth’s orbit,
we may give a name to this portion of
the earth, namely, the north; and the
point directly opposite on the other side
we may call the south. Here, then,
we have two fixed points from which
to reckon. But now we may draw a
line round the earth so as to be just
between, or equidistant from, these two
points ; and as this will divide the sur-
face into two equal parts, we may call
it the equator, or the divider.

14. If we look at the globe once
more, we shall see where this line di-
vides the land as well as the water, and,
as we have named our two points the
north and south poles, we can now
say whether a portion of land or water
is north or south of the equator. But
then this is too vague and indefinite.



We therefore divide the circumference

‘of the earth, at the poles,“ into 360

parts, or degrees. Then, as one quarter
of this circle, or 90 degrees, will be the



scribe what is meant by the equator. 14. What





14

space between the equator and either
pole, no place upon the earth’s surface
ean be more than 90 degrees from the
equator.

15. Thus, if we fix our eyes upon
Philadelphia, we see that it is 40° from
the equator, and we say that it is in 40°
north latitude, because it is in the
northern hemisphere, and so far from
the equator. - Reckoning in the same
way, we shall find Cape Horn in Jati-
tude about 55° south. But as the earth
turns round, we find there are other
places appearing in succession in pre-
cisely the same latitude; that is, a circle
drawn round the earth parallel, to the
equator, will. be, in all its parts, equi-
distant from the equator, or in the same
latitude. Hence, when we have ascer-
tained the latitude of a place, we have
not definitely fixed its position upon the
earth’s surface, and we therefore resort
to a second mode of division. In this
we are guided by the sun, for we see
this body always rising in the same, or
nearly the same, part of the heavens.
This we call the East, and the place
where he sets we call the West.

16. If we return to our position away
from the earth, we see it turning on its
axis, from west to east, and the shadow
line which divides the earth from north
to south, receding as the light of the sun
advances upon its surface, from east to
west. This dividing line is continually
changing ; so it will not answer our pur-
pose, but it may give us the idea of east
‘and west, and suggest the division of the
earth into Eastern and Western hemi-
spheres.

17. This division of the globe, like
the division of an apple into two parts,

we may make where we pleage s or we

is meant by degrees? 15. Describe what is
meant by latitude. 16. What is meant by
eastern and western hemispheres? . 17. What by

#

ia
ee

ee rake eee



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

may take some prominent place on th
earth’s surface, as some mountain, som
volcano, or great city, and imagine’
line passing through the object selected
and drawn round the globe through the
poles, dividing its surface into two equa
parts. Then those parts of the ea
towards the sun’s rising, from the objec
selected, will be in the eastern hemi
sphere; and those in the opposite direg
tion, in the western hemisphere ; that is
supposing we reckon half round the
globe in both directions. Such line
are employed by geographers, whicl
they name meridians of longitude.

18. Of these meridians we may have
an indefinite number, since every place
has its meridian; but it is necessary t
take one as a starting pointsand tha
which passes through Greenwich, near
London, is generally selected, on
count of the great importance of that
city. From this we reckon half round
the earth, or 180° east, and the same
number of degrees west; and in de
scribing the position of places, we say
they are so many degrees east or west
from London. With these two sets of
lines, parallels of latitude and meridians
of longitude, we can define exactly any
locality.

19. Besides the general name of par-
allels, which we give to the circles run-
ning east and west around the globe
parallel to the equator, four of these
circles have particular names. One, at
the distance of 233° north of the equa.
tor, is called the northern tropic, or the
tropic of Cancer; and a second circle, as

far south of the equator, is called the

southern tropic, or the tropic of Capri-
corn. Besides these, there are two cir-
cles, each 234° from the poles of the



meridians of longitude? 18. From what place is
longitude usually reekoned? 19. What nameg
are given to the four great circles on the globe?






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as the antarctic circle.



Zones.

of the five different zones.

and this is called the torrid zone.

-eircle is the northern temperate zone;
and in the corresponding place south of
the equator is the southern temperate
zone. North of the arctic circle is the

northern frigid, and south of the antarc-

tic circle is the southern frigid zone.
These names, torrid, temperate, and
_ frigid, correspond to the temperature,
or diffeient degrees of heat and cold, in
the different regions to which they are
respectively applied.

21. Having supposed the earth to be

y 20. Describe the zones. 21. In drawing a map of
the globe or world, why is it represented by two

eo -
COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

earth, called polar circles; the one near
the north pole being distinguished as the
arctic, and the one near the south pole

20. These four circles are the limits
The broad-
est zone, as we shall see by a little ex-
amination, is between the two tropics,
Be-
{ween the northern tropic and the arctic

15

thus divided into northern and southern,
eastern and western hemispheres, we
may proceed to represent it by an arti-
ficial globe, or by a picture, or map upon
a plane surface. In drawing a map of
the globe, we are obliged to represent the
hemispheres in separate circles, since we
can delineate upon paper no more of an
object than what we can take in at once
with the eye in one position.

22. Let us suppose, then, one of these
maps before us, and the great dividing
lines, the parallels and the meridians, to
be already drawn. [ee Map of the
World.) We shall find it convenient to
number the parallels, on the outer circle
of the hemispheres, which is the merid-
ian that divides the globe; and as we
reckon from the equator towards the
poles, the figures which indicate latitude
will increase upwards on the northern
hemisphere, and downwards on the south-
ern. The meridians of longitude may be
conveniently numbered, at the equator,
on the map of the world, and at the top
and bottom of other maps. When the
degrees of longitude increase towards
the right, they are in east, and wlien
they increase towards the left, they are
in west longitude. |

23. The top of a map is always north,
the bottom south, the right hand east,
and the left hand west. G

ans

CHAPTER Ti.
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.
1. PHYSICAL geography treats of the

earth, as it proceeded from the hands
of the Creator.



circles? 22. Describe the lines upon the map of
the world. 23. Which part of the map is north?
south? east? west?

1. What is physical geography? 2. Of what



a
16 THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

2. The surface of the earth consists || but it is convenient to regard it as de
of unequal portions of land and water. _|| vided into partial oceans, each of which
3. Large continuous masses of land || has its separate name; as, the Atlantic,
are termed Continents. There are two || the Pacific. 4
zontinents; the eastern, which includes 10. A smaller extent of water, es.
Asia, Africa, and Europe; and the || pecially if it penetrate far into the inte-
western, which includes North and || rior of a continent, is termed a Sea; as,
South America. e terms eastern || the Caribbean Sea. The more partial
and western refer to the meridian of || intrusion of an ocean or sea into the
the Ferro Isles, from which longitude || land is termed a Gulf or Bay; as, the
was formerly reckoned. Gulf of Mexico, the Bay of Fundy. —
4, Smaller portions of land, sur- 11. A narrow passage connecting two
rounded by water, are termed Islands. || seas together, or a bay with the main
A considerable number of islands clus- || oceam, is styled a Strait; as, Behring’s
tered together is called an Archipelago; || Strait. It is also sometimes called ¢
as, the West Indies. Channel. |
do. A part of a continent running out 12. A large inland body of water, not)
into the sea, so as to be nearly insulated, || connected with the ocean, or only com!
and connected with the main land by a || municating with it by means of a riven)
narrow neck, is named a Peninsula, || is termed a Lake; as, Lake Superior. |
which signifies almost an island; as, 13. A River is a body of water flow:
South America. ing from elevated ground towards the
6. A narrow neck of land connecting || sea. The place where it rises is termed)
two large masses is denominated an || its source. |

Isthmus. Thus the Isthmus of Panama 14, A Frith is a narrow sea which re
joins North and South America. ceives the waters of some large river. —
7. Inferior projections of land into 15. Hawing made these introductory

the sea are variously named Capes, || remarks to enable you to understand
Promontories, Points, and Headlands ; || the meaning of the geographical terms .
as, Cape May. which will frequently occur in this book)
8. When the land rises above the |/I shall now proceed to speak of the
general level of the country, it is called || geography and history of the sevaral)
a Hill or Mountain; and the low ground || states and countries in America.
between the mountains is termed a Val-

ley. A mountain which throws out fire Pee
as termed a Volcano.
9. The continuous body of water CHAPTER III.

which environs the land constitutes,|| THE WESTERN CONTINENT, |

properly speaking, a vast single Ocean ; 1. Ir you look at the map of the |

Western Hemisphere, you will see thal
it represents one half of the earth’s sur)



does the surface of the earth consist? 38. What
are continents ? How many continents are there ? |
4, What are islands? What is an archipelago? ,
6. What is a peninsula? 6. What is an isth- || isasea? Whatisagulfor bay? 11. What is i
mus? 7. What are capes, promontories, points, || strait? 12. What is a lake? 18. What isa
and headlands? 8. What is a mountain? a val- || river? 14. What isa frith? >»
key? avoleano? 9. What is an ocean? 10. What 1. See Map of the World. Howis the cont —













ee ae
Pe
ite”
et
sy
r
rf

*

we. Between the two great oceans,
the Atlantic and the Pacific, you will
observe the continent of America. It is
d ivided into two parts, called North and
‘South America, which are connected
by the narrow Isthmus of Darien or
Panama.
_ 2. This, continent is remarkable for
‘its numerous and extensive lakes, its
Magnificent rivers, and its lofty moun-
tains. Lake Superior is the largest
lake in the world. The St. Lawrence,
the Mississippi, the Orinoco, the Ama-
zon, and the La Plata, are all of them
_maghty rivers, and several of them sur-
_ pass in size all the rivers of the eastern
continent. The Amazon alone, with
its branches, spreads over a country
equal in extent to all Europe. The
Andes, with the Cordilleras and Rocky
Mountains, constitute the longest chain
of mountains in the world; it being
_hearly eleven thousand miles in length,
including its windings. Many of their
tops are glittering with perpetual snow;
some of them pour forth torrents of fire
and melted lava; and some contain im-
-mense treasures of gold, silver, and
other metals.
__ 8. It is but little more than three
hundred and fifty years since the people
of Europe, Asia, and Africa were to-
tally ignorant of the existence of this
vast continent; yet the lakes, the riv-
ers, the mountains, and the plains had
existed for ages. The sun had shone
upon them by day, and the moon by
“night; summer had visited the land
Sea ters and fruits, and winter had









nent of America bounded ? What ocean separates
‘sme eastern coast of America from Europe and
"Africa ? What ocean separates the western coast
from Asia? What isthmus connects North and
‘South America? 2. For what is America re-
Markable? What is said of its lakes, rivers, and
tains? 3. How long has this country been

= ee

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

17

covered it with frost and snow. The
earthquake had shaken the hills, and
the whirlwind had rent the forests. All
the great works of nature had gone on
from the creation, though civilized man
was not there to-witness them.

4. At what time or from what quar-
ter the Indians came to America, it is
impossible to tell. It is generally supe
posed that, two or three thousand years
ago, some small tribes came from the
north of Asia, across Behring’s Straits,
and thus gradually peopled the whole
continent. But this is mere conjecture,
and their entire history, from their first
arrival in the country to the discovery
of America, is involved in mystery.

). In various parts of the country,
there are mounds, evidently constructed
by men many hundred years ago. It is
certain that they were not constructed
by the wandering tribes who inhabited
the country when our forefathers came
here; but who raised them, how long
they have existed, and what is their
story, we cannot tell. It is probable that
great events have happened — that em-
pires have risen, flourished, and gone to.
decay — during the many ages over
which time has thrown an everlasting
oblivion.

6. It appears that whole races of ani-’
mals have lived in America of which
nothing remains but their bones. The
gigantic mastodon, which was four times
as large as an elephant, once roamed, in
great numbers, through the forests; and
other animals, as well as trees and plants,
now unknown, were common in the
country. We must recollect, that from
the creation of the world to the year
1492, a period of more than five thousand
et
known to the Europeans? 4. What is said
of the Indians? 65. What of the mounds ?
6. What of-the animals that formerly lived ig
America? ‘



18

years, all that took place upon this vast
continent is hidden from the view of
man, and only known to that Being who
knoweth all-things.

seo enepersarst,

CHAPTER IV.
THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA.

1. I HAVE told you that America was
discovered by Christopher Columbus, in
1492. I will now tell you the story of
Columbus, and give you an account of
his discovery. This celebrated man was
born at Genoa, in Italy, in the year 1435.
_ He was brought up a sailor, and was
very expert in managing boats and vessels
upon the water. He made a great many
short voyages in the Mediterranean Sea,
and sailed to the northern seas of Eu-
rope, which was then deemed a remark-
able enterprise.

2. After this, he returned to Italy, and
engaged in the war against the Venetians
and Turks. One day, he was cruising
in a vessel off the coast of Portugal,
where he met with a Venetian ship; an
engagement immediately followed, in
which the sailors on both sides fought
with the greatest spirit. At. length,
Columbus was on the point of boarding
the Venetian vessel, when his own took
fire. In a moment, the fire was commu-
nicated to the Venetian vessel: it spread
from sail to sail, till the whole rigging,
masts, spars, and ropes were involved in
one sheet of flame.

3. The vessels were soon on the point
of sinking. The sailors, therefore, were
compelled to leap into the sea, and being

1, When and by whom was America discoy-
ered? When and where was Columbus born?
What is said of his early history? 2. What
happened to Columbus when off the coast of Por-
tugal? 3. How did he reach the shore? 4. What

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,




near six miles from the coast, they were
all drowned except Columbus. He, with
the greatest presence of mind, seized
upon an oar, and did not despair of say-
ing his life. He was a good swimmer,
and, supported by the oar, he succeeded
in reaching the land. a

4, He was now in Portugal, and after
recovering from his fatigue, he went to
Lisbon, the capital. Here he became
acquainted with several Portuguese saile
ors, who were then the best navigators
in the world. You must know that, at
this time, there were no large ships, and
people were not accustomed to sail out
fearlessly upon the broad ocean, as now;
nobody had ever crossed the great At-
lantic, and the people of Europe, who
had only sailed timidly along the shores
of the eastern continent, did not know
that such a country as America existed.

5. The shape of the earth was at this
time unknown; some persons supposed
it flat, but nobody knew that it was
round. But the art of navigation was
rapidly advancing; seamen were ven-
turing farther on the deep, and an ardent
desire to explore the unknown ocean
was kindled. This curiosity had been
greatly stimulated by the discovery, by
the Portuguese, of Madeira and Porto
Santo, lying to the north-west of Africa.
It was at this period that Columbus
reached Lisbon, where he soon after
married the daughter of a celebrated
navigator, who was one of the discover-
ers of these islands.

6. His imagination was captivated
with the idea of seeing these places, and
accordingly he visited them. For sev-
eral years after this, he was engaged in
carrying on a profitable trade between
Madeira, the coast of Africa, the Azores,
and Canaries; but during all this time,

was known of navigation at this time? 5. What —
discoveries had been made? 6. What places did



his mind was active and increasing in
knowledge. Whatever he learned he
always remembered ; and, never being

gained, he constantly desired to know
- more.
_ 1, At this period, the people of Europe
had considerable trade with India, but
no-vessels ever having passed round the
_ Cape of Good Hope, the people did not
know the shape of Africa, nor did they
know that they could go from Europe to
India by water. They therefore sent
their goods across the Mediterranean, to
the ports of Egypt, whence they were
_ taken by land to the Red Sea. Here
they were transported in vessels, which
sailed through the Straits of Babelman-
del, and across the Indian Ocean to
India. By the same route goods were
returned to Europe.

8. This method of conducting so im-
portant a commerce was expensive and.
tedious. The people therefore were
very anxious to find some way of going
to InJia by sea. This great subject oc-
cupied the attention of all Europe, and
Columbus, in particular, dwelt upon it
with the most intense interest. He
studied books; he consulted maps; and
often, while his little vessel was plough-
ing the sea, he would revolve in his
mind all the facts which he had col-
lected relating to it.

9. At night, when the stars shone
down upon his ship, floating like a speck
on the bosom of the mighty ocean, he
looked up and mused, with curious won-
der, upon the heavenly bodies. From
these contemplations, his mind descend-
ed to the earth, and strove to solve the
mysteries that involved it. Was it a





Columbus visit? 7. How was the merchandise
of Euroxe conveyed to India at this time?
B. What subject occupied the attention of the
people ef Europe at ‘g period? 9. What did

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

satisfied with the information he had |

19

vast plain, stretching out to a boundless
extent? Or was it a globe, swung in
the heavens, and revolving, like a plan-
et, around the sun? After a great deal
of reflection, Columbus adopted this late

ter idea, and, applying it to the question =~

of reaching India by water, he concluded
that, if he sailed across the Atlantic in a
westerly direction, he should at length
come to India.

10. Full of this notion, he went to a
learned physician in Florence, and con-
sulted him upon the subject. This man
perceived the force of his reasoning, and,
believing his views to be correct, exhort-
ed him to make a voyage for the pur-
pose of ascertaining the fact. Strength-
ened by this counsel, Columbus resolved
to enter upon the grand scheme of sail-
ing westward upon the Atlantic, to dis-
cover what might lie beyond it. He
immediately made known his views to
the government of Genoa, with a request
that they would fit out a small fleet, in
which he might make the desired voy-
age. But these men, being ignorant,
rejected the offer with contempt.

11. He next applied to the court
of Lisbon, who listened attentively to
his scheme, and then meanly fitted out -
a vessel, and despatched it privately,
with a view of anticipating Columbus in
his great project. But the commander
of the vessel was incompetent to the
enterprise which he had undertaken,
and soon came back, having made no
discovery.

12. Disgusted with this trick, Colume
bus set out for Madrid, the capital of
Spain. The king who theg reigned was
Ferdinand, and his queen was Isabella.

Columbus think of the form of the earth?
How did he think India might be reached ?
10. To whom did he first offer his services to un
dertake the voyage? 11. To whom did he next
apply? 12. With what success did he meet in



+

20

Here he was favorably received, and
his project was listened to with atten-
tion. But the counsellors of the king
were narrow-minded men, and made
very absurd objections to the project.
One said it would take too long a time ;
another, that Columbus could not be
wiser than every body who had lived
before him; and a third concluded that,
if the world was round, Columbus would
find a constant descent on the other side
of it, and would either slip off the globe,
or, at any rate, never return in safety.
13. Such shallow objections were
made to the forcible arguments of Co-
lumbus; and, as the most ignorant are
usually the most obstinate, he found
it impossible to change their opinion.
Having spent five years in tedious en-
deavors, he at length received a posi-
tive refusal, and was about to leave the
country, and offer his project to Eng-
land, when an unexpected change took
place in his favor. Two of his friends
made a final effort with the king and
queen, and, representing his views with
great force of reasoning, they at length
consented to give him the desired assist-
ance. Accordingly, three small vessels,
with ninety men, were fitted out, and on
the 3d of August, 1492, Columbus, with
his little fleet, set sail from Palos in

pais “$i

——
CHAPTER V.

DISCOVERY OF AMERICA —conrInvEp.

1. Tue adventurers proceeded in the
first place te the Canary Isles. These
they left on the 6th of September, and,
sailing in a westerly direction, launched

‘

‘Spain? 13. How did he finally succeed ? When,
end from what place, did he sail ?
1,2, 3. To what place did the adventurers first



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTURY,

forth upon the bosom of the unknown
deep. They soon lost sight of Jand,
and nothing could be seen but the skieg
above and the water spread out around
them. They were going where no hu
man being had ever been; they knew
not what was before them. A solemn

| mystery hung over the sea, and, as they

advanced on their voyage, they could
not. tell what dangers they might en-
counter.

2. To a bold man, like Columbus,
these things rendered the voyage in the
highest degree interesting. But most
of the sailors were ignorant and super-
stitious, and they soon began to be very
much afraid. But Columbus reasoned
with them, and persuaded them to con-

‘tinue the voyage.

3. Thus they proceeded for several
weeks, constantly sailing in a westerly
direction ; but Columbus had great diffi-
culty with his men. They were exceed-
ingly alarmed at the idea of being at
such a vast distance from home, upon
an unknown sea; and he was obliged to
use various arts to prevent their setting
out to return. At length, their fears
were so much excited, that both the
officers and men, on board the three ves-
sels, positively refused to go any far-
ther. They even thought of throwing
Columbus overboard ; and perhaps they
would have executed this design, if he
had not found means to pacify them.
He proposed that they should go on for
three days more, and if, by that time,
they did not discover land, he promised
to return. This was deemed a reasons
able proposition, and they all agreed
to it. 4

4, Accordingly they proceeded, and
very soon they met with floating sea.



proceed? Where are the Canary Isles? Relate
some of the adventures of the voyage. 4. What did 5


































weed, and saw birds in the air. Some
of "these appeared to be weary, and
‘settled upon the masts of: the vessels.
Be ere they remained all night, bat in
the morning they departed, and flew to
the west. “All these things made the
_Bailors belizve that land was near; and
their hopes and expectations were soon
/ raised to the highest pitch.

9. One night, as Columbus was stand-
} * upon the deck of his vessel, looking
- out upon the sea, he thought he discov-
ered alight. He mentioned it to some
_ of the men, and they, too, thought they
could see it. There was now no sleep
on board the vessels. Both sailors and
‘officers were gathered upon the decks,
or distributed among the rigging, strain-
“ing their eyes to discover land. At
' length it was two o’clock in the morning,
when a man, stationed on the top of the
mast in the forward vessel, exclaimed,
: “Zand! land!” This was soon com-
: Municated to the others, and the most
lively joy filled the breasts of all the
seamen.

6. The morning came, and assured
them that their hopes were realized.
_ The shore lay before them in the dis-
tance, and the sun shone down upon it,
seeming in their eyes to give it an as-
pect.of peculiar beauty. Deeply affect-
ed with gratitude to that Being who had
_ borne them safely over the waves, and
| rowned their bold adventure with suc-
cess, they knelt down, and offered to
/ Heaven their warmest expressions of
thanksgiving.

_ 7. Having approached the shore, Co-
tumbus and some of his officers entered

Tees:

Y 4

: mm
i

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

Nene
'



" ’
2
e

21

they saw a multitude of people almost -
naked,sand of a red color, collected upon
the shore. These were attracted by the
strange spectacle before them. ‘They
had never seen vessels or white men
before; and, when the Spaniards ap-
proached the island, with colors flying
and amid bursts of martial music, their
astonishment knew no bounds.

8. At length, the boat reached the
shore. Columbus, richly dressed, and
having a drawn sword in hig hand, first
sprang from the boat, and set his foot
His companions fol-

upon the earth

~ Columbus taking Possession of the Country.
lowed, and, kneeling down, kissed the
ground to express their joy and grati-
tude. The Spaniards now erected a
cross, before which they performed reli-
gious worship, and Columbus then took
possession of the country in the name
of the king and queen of Spain. These
events took place on the 11th of Octo
ber, 1492. The island they discovered
was one of the Bahamas, new called Cat
Island. It was called Guanahani by the
natives, but Columbus gave it the name_
of St. Salvador.

9. The Spaniards now began to ex-

scribe the landing of Columbus. When did these
events take place? What place did thew dis-

cover? 9. What was the appearance of the



92 THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

amine the place they had discovered.
They found it to be quite fertite ; but
the animals, trees, and plants were such
as they had never seen in Europe. The
people attracted their chief attention.
These were of a copper color, nearly
naked, and the men had no beards.
Their hair was decorated with feathers,
and shells and gold plates were sus-
pended from their ears and noses. They
received the Spaniards with the greatest
respect, and seemed to consider them a
superior race of beings. They looked
with amazement upon the ships, and,
when they saw a cannon fired, they
were struck with fear and wonder.

10. At night, some of the Indians
went to the vessels, and, in the morning,
Columbus returned with them to the
island. He now asked the people where
they obtained the gold which they used
for ornaments. In reply, they pointed
to the south, and intimated that there
was a large island there, where there
was a great deal of gold. Columbus
immediately determined to go there, and,
taking seven of the Indians as guides,
he set off with the fleet. After touch-
ing at two or three islands, he at length
reached Cuba. Having remained here
some time, and having had several in-
terviews with the natives, he proceeded
to Hayti. Leaving thirty-eight of his
men on the island, he set out on his
return; and, after many dangers, he
reached Palos, on the 15th of May,
1493, after an absence of nine months
and eleven days. :

11. He was received with the greatest
honor by the people; and, as he tray-
elled across the country to visit the king



country? What of the people? How did

they receive the Spaniards? 10. Where did |

Columbus go to seek for gold? Where is
Cuba? Hayti? When did he arrive in Spain ?
11, How was he received by the people ?

and queen, and tell them of his discoy
ery, the inhabitants flocked with eager
curiosity to see him. When he came to.
the city of Barcelona, where the king
resided, a grand procession was formed
in the following manner : —

12. First came the Indians that Co-
lumbus had brought with him, dressed
in the manner of their country ; after
them was carried all the gold that had
been procured by the expedition ; = ext
followed some persons bearing chests

| of pepper, bales of cotton, paroquets,

stuffed birds, and quadrupeds, Indian
corn, cane poles twenty-five feet long,
and many other curious things, which
had been brought from the new world,
Lastly came Columbus.

13. The whole procession moved
through the city to a public square,
where the king and queen were seated —
on a splendid throne. Here they re-—
ceived Columbus with the greatest mazks
of honor. He then gave an account of
his voyage to the king and queen, and
those around him. They listened with
breathless attention, for Columbus was
an eloquent man, and his story was one
of the deepest interest.

14. The king was so much delighted
that he ordered a new expedition to be
immediately fitted out, and gave the com-
mand of it to Columbus. But to make
sure of the discoveries that might be
made, he sent to the Pope of Rome, re-
questing a grant of all the land west of
the Atlantic Ocean. With this request
the pope complied, and on the 25th of
September, the fleet, consisting of sevens
teen vessels and 1500 men, set sail from
the port of Cadiz.

15. I have not room to tell you the





12. Describe the procession. 13. How did the
king and queen receive him? 14. What grant
did the king obtain of the Pope of Rome?
What is said of the second voyage? 15. How













whole history of Columbus. It is enough
‘to say that he made four voyages to
America, including the first. He dis-
covered many of the West India islands,
and during his last voyage touched upon
the continent.
_ 16. Many adventurers now came to
_ America, and among the rest, there was
an Italian, called Americus Vespucius.
_ Having sailed along the coast, and ascer-
tained the existence of the continent, he
returned to Spain, and gave an account
of his discoveries. In consequence of
this, his name was given to the new
world.
17. This continent, concerning the
discovery of which I have just been
telling you, is divided into two portions,
_ North America and South America.
North America is now occupied by Rus-
sian America, British America, Green-
land, the United States, Mexico and
Guatemala. South America includes,
at the present day, New Grenada, Ven-
ezuela, English Guiana, Dutch Guiana,
French Guiana, Brazil, Paraguay, Ur-
uguay, Buenos Ayres, Patagonia, Bo-
livia, Chili, Peru, and Ecuador. I will
now tell you of the geography and his-
tory of the United States, commencing
with Maine.

eee

CHAPTER VI.
MAINE.

1. Tue State of Maine is about as ex-
tensive as all the rest of New England,
but a great portion of the interior and

many voyages did Columbus make?
was the continent called America? 17. How is
the continent of America divided > What coun-
tries in North America? In South America ?

1. How is Maine bounded on the north? On
the east? On the south? On the west? In
what part of Maine are the principal towns and

16. Why

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

23

northern part is still covered with forests,
It is distinguished ‘or its many excellent
harbors, and the prople are ex‘ensively
engaged in ship building and the lumber
trade. You will observe on the map,
that nearly all the towns and villages lie
in the southern portion, towards tke e¢a-
board. As you go from the sea to the
interior, the soil grows better; some of
the most fertile parts of the state are yet
almost a wilderness.

2. There are a great many lakes in
this state, which abound in fish. ‘There
are a multitude of streams and rivers ;
these afford many excellent mill seats.
There are a great many bays, rivulets,
and islands along the shore. If you were
to go to Maine in the summer, you would
see many things to delight you. The
little green islands scattered along the
coast are very beautiful; some of them
have very hahdsome houses upon them.
You would find the Kennebec and Pe-
nobscot to be large rivers, with many
handsome villages and towns upon their
banks.

3. You would see a great many deep
forests, and several pleasant towns. At
Gardiner you would see one of the pret-
tiest churches in New England; and
Portland you would find to be a flourish-
ing city, extensively engaged in com-
merce. A railroad connects it with
Boston, and one is in progress extending
through Maine and New Hampshire,



villages ? 2. Name the principal lakesin Maine.
What is a lake? Name the principal rivers im
Maine. Whatis ariver? Descr be the PFencb-
scot River; that is, tell where * rises, which
way it flows, and the bay or ocean into which it
empties. Describe the Kennebec in the same
manner; the Androscoggin; and the Saco.
What bays upon the coast of Maine ? What is
a bay? What islands upon the coast of Maine?
What isan island? 3. Describe the following
places ; that is, tell where they are situated and
what is said of them: Gardiner; Portland;





24

which will terminate at Montreal. Oth-
ers have also been constructed to Lewis-
ton, Waterville, Bath, Hallowell, and
other places.

4. In travelling through Maine, you
would not see as many manufactories as
im some of the other New England States;
but you would see at Orono, Machias,
and also at Calais a great many saw mills,
employed in sawing logs into boards and
planks. You would see many of the
men cutting down trees in the woods;
_ and at Bangor, Portland, Belfast, Bath,
~ Wiscasset, and other places, you would
notice a great many vessels; some of
them loaded with lumber, and some with
firewood. At Thomaston and Camden
you would notice that some of them
were loaded with lime, which is manu-
factured at these places.

5. If you were to ask some person
where these vessels were ebding, he would
tell you that some of them were bound
to Boston, some to New York, some to
Charleston, and some to other places.
The firewood is carried chiefly to Bos-
ton ; the lumber is carried to almost all
the seaports of the United States and the
West Indies.

6. You would observe, also, in Maine,
some very good farms; and you would
sce a great many fields planted with
corn, or sown with wheat and rye, where
the ground is almost covered with
stumps. If you were to inquire of the
owner, he would tell you, that, ten or fif-
teen years ago, his whole farm was cov-
ered with thick forests. The trees have
been cut down, and the land, by patient



Lewiston ; Waterville; Bath ; Hallowell. 4. Oro-
no; Machias; Calais; Saco; Bangor; Belfast ;
Wiscasset; Thomaston; Camden. 6. Where are
the products carried from these places? Look
on the map of the United States, and describe
the course of a vessel in sailing from Bangor to
Bost¢n; to New York ; to Charl :ston. 6. What

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,



labor, has been changed from a wilder
ness into meadows and wheat fields. |

7. If you should happen to be in
Maine in the winter, you would find the
snow very deep, and the air exceedingly
cold. It would be well, while you are
travelling, to cover your ears with fur,
and take care to be well wrapped up,
or your face and fingers would freeze,
Perhaps you will see people on the
rivers cutting blocks of ice, which
they are going to send to Charleston,
New Orleans, the West Indies, and other
hot countries, to be used in summer.

8. If you should chance to be in the
northern or middle parts of the state,
you might have an opportunity of seeing
the Indians kill a moose. This animal,
the largest of the deer kind, is found in
no part of the United States except
Maine, and even there they are scarce.
They were once common in all the
northern parts of New England.

erence ae

CHAPTER VII.
MAINE—ConrTinveEp.

1. In the Penobscot River, forty miles
from the mouth, there is a little island,
called Indian Old Town. If you go
there, you will see about three hundred
Indians. They live in small houses, or
huts, built of sticks and boards, and cul-
tivate the land, catch fi8h, and hunt wild
animals. They are the remains of a
great tribe, the Penobscots, that onze
inhabited a large extent of ccuntry in
Maine. |

2. You will observe among the In-
dians one man, whom they call chief,



is said of the farms in Maine? 7. What of the
winter? 8. What of moose?

1. What of the Indians in Maine? Describe
the picture. 2,34, 5,6. Relate the story which






















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7iLongitude W.from 70 Greenwich SE GR PE, ee ee ey See ck Soe |









ff you ask him to tell you the story of

the Penobscot tribe, he will inform you
that there were once many thousands

of them. They, with other Indians,

many years ago, possessed all the lands
in Maine.



3. There were then no white men
in this country. There were no towns
and no villages, except small collections

of Indian huts, called wigwams. The
Indians did not cut down the trees ; they
had no horses, and they had no tame an-
imals but dogs.

4. The whole country, far and wide,
was covered with forests. In these for-
ests there were a great many bears,
panthers, wildcats, wolves, deer, moose,
foxes, rabbits, beavers, and other ani-
mals. The Indians then did not culti-
vate the land, except, perhaps, that they
raised a little corn and a few pumpkins.
They lived almost entirely upon the
wild animals, which they killed with
their bows and arrows.

5. But, at length, some white men
eame, and they began to.cut down the
trees, and build houses. Pretty soon
they erected saw mills, and then they



the Indian would probably tell. 7,8. Whatis said

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPREY. yi

cleared the land, and raised wheat, and
rye, and corn. At length, more white
people came, and they built more houses,
and cut down more trees, and cultivated
more land.

6. And so the white men increascd,
and they spread their towns and villages
over the land. And the Indians went
away, or they died; for their forests
were cut down, and they could not live
with the white people. Thus the Pe-
nobscot tribe, which once contained many
thousands, is now reduced to a small
number. Other tribes, once numerous
and powerful, are now extinct. Such
would be the story that the Indian
chief would tell you, and it would be all
true.

7. As early as the year 1607, about
one hundred English people came to
Maine, and began a settlement at the
mouth of the River Kennebec. The
greater part were soon discouraged, and
fifty-five returned in the vessel that
brought them over.

8. There were at this time none but
Indians in all New England, except the
white people of whom I am speaking.
These were pretty well treated by the
natives; but they found the winter ex-
cessively severe, and the next year they
all returned to England in a vessel that
came to bring them provisions. .

9. The-Norridgewock tribe of Indians
preserved, for many years, a story about
these settlers, which I will tell you.
The white people were jealous of the
Indians, and wished to get rid of them.
So they one day employed a large num-
ber of them to take hold of a rope, and
draw a cannon into the fort. When a
great many had taken hold, and the rope
was drawn in a straight line, the white

of the settlement in Maine commenced in 1607}
9. What story used to be told by the Norridge-



26

people fired the cannon, and killed all
the Indians. This is the story; if it
is true,the white people behaved very
wickedly.

10. It was in the year 1623, above
two hundred years ago, that the first
white men settled permanently in Maine.
This settlement was made on the Saco,
and several houses were built.

11. More white people went from
Massachusetts, and other places, and
settled in various parts of Maine. In
1652, Maine was united with Massachu-
setts, and continued to be so till the year
1820, when it became an independent
state. It has now a governor and a
legislature of its own; they meet once
a year at Augusta, the capital; and
there they make laws for the state.

—_@¢—

CHAPTER VIII.
NEW HAMPSHIRE.

1. THeRE are many very interesting
things in New Hampshire. About elev-
en miles to the east of Portsmouth are
some islands, called the Isles of Shoals.
One of the largest belongs to New
Hampshire. It is called Star Island,
and on it is a little town called Gosport.
The people are all fishermen, and are

2. These codfish are caught with
hooks and lines. They are then carried
ashore and dried. A sea serpent is said



wock Indians? 10. When and where was the
first permanent settlement in Maine made?
11. When was it united with Massachusetts?
When did it become an,independent state?
What is the capital, and where is it situated ?

1. How is New Hampshire bounded? What

is the capital? What mountains in the state? |
What islands near the coast? |

What rivers?



occupied chiefly in catching codfish.

THE FIRST BOOK oF HISTORY,

to have been seen by several people,
near these shores, many years ago. He



Catching Codfish.

came so near to a boat, that a man in
it could have struck him with an oar.
His color was nearly black. Hé seemed
larger round than the body of a man,
and about as long as the mast of a large
vessel. .

3. This state is sometimes called the
Switzerland of America, because it is
so mountainous. It has also been called
the Granite State, from the immense
quantities of granite which are found
there. The people are chiefly’engaged
in agriculture. The land upon the banks
of the rivers is fertile, and many of the
hillsides afford good pasturage for cattle.

4, Railroads extend from Boston
through several parts of the state.
Nashua and Nashville are large manu-
facturing towns. The city of Manches-
ter, situated on the Merrimac River,
is beautifully laid out, and is fast in-
creasing in wealth and population. The
extensive manufactcries erected on the
bank of the river ave worthy of a visit.



9. Describe the picture. 8. What is said face ot the country? Of the soil? 4 Descr:be
the following places ; that ‘s, tell where they are
situatedy and what is sa‘i of them: Nashuel















i Longitude E.from Washing ee aa IG See ae



Al

Seale of Miles
10

oa
Lt ip en) eine ,.

“eeet

LD) wnbar DIES




Mason Y
oO FU
Nashua

Ce ee ome cmc bm tee

Lon Situile








_ Concord, the capital, contains an elegant
_ granite State House, and is a pleasant
e town.

5. There are many ‘other pleasant
towns in New Hampshire. Exeter, the
seat of Phillips Academy, is a thriving
place. Do is one of the most impor-
tant town e state. It is situated
at the fal the Cocheco River, and
has some of the largest cotton manufac-
tories in the country. Great Falls is also
a large manufacturing place. Ports-
mouth is the only seaport in the state.

- 6. At Franconia, in Grafton county,
there are some very celebrated iron
works. There are mines of iron there,
and the people get great quantities of it.






| _ They make it into stoves, kettles, hollow

ware, and castij for machinery. The
mountains around“this place are very
wild. and beautiful. At Hanover is
Dartmouth College, an old and respec-
table seminary, where a great many
young men are educated.

7. There are several very fine lakes
in New Hampshire. If you should ever
travel in this state, you will find the
country very hilly, and very interesting.
Most of the people are engaged in farm-
ing. They have a great many horses,
eattle, and sheep.

8. As you pass along, you will some-
times find yourself on the top of a high
hill. You will see around you a great
many other hills; and in the distance
you will observe the tops of blue moun-
tains. By and by, you will descend into
a valley. You will see the streams run-
ning rapidly down the sides of the hills,
and at the bottom of the valley you will
frequently find a sheet of bright water,
sparkling like a mirror.



Nashville? Manchester? Concord? 65. Exe-
ter ? Dover? Great Fails ? Portsmouth ?
6. Franconia ? Hahover ? 7. What lakes in
New Hampshire? 8. Describe the scenery.

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY. 27

9. Before you retuzn, you must visit
Lake Winnipiseogee. It is really one
of the most delightful lakes in the world.
I suppose you have heard a great deal
about Loch Lomond in Scotland ; but I
assure you, Lake Winnipiseogee is much
more beautiful. It contains numerous
islands, and is surrounded by a country
abounding in the wildest scenery.

10. After you have seen this lake,
you should visit the White Mountains.
These are the highest in the United
States east of the Mississippi, except
Mount Black, in North Carolina, said
to be a few feet higher. Mount Wash-
ington, the tallest peak, is more than six
thousand feet above the level of the sea.

11. It is a delightful thing to travel
about these mountains in summer. A
great many people visit them every year,
and they all come back much gratified
with their journey. Among the moun-
tains, there is a place called the Notch.
Here the mountain seems to be divided
into two parts, from the top to the bot-
tom. )

12. This chasm affords a passage
through which the River Saco runs.
There is also a road through it, and, as
you pass along, you will be astonished
at the mighty rocks that lie heaped up
on both sides of you.

conan mnaw

CHAPTER IX.
NEW HAMPSHIRE—ConTINvED

1. A FEW years since, an awful event
occurred at the Notch in the White
Mountains. An immense mass of rocks,
earth, and trees, of several acres in ex-
Lees
9. Describe Lake Winnipiseogee. 10. What ig
said of the White Mountains? 11, 12. What of
the Notch ?

1, 2, 3,4. What event once occurred at the °

ee ee a a |

ee



Sone sete

28

tent, slid down from the height into the
valley. It is scarcely possible to de-
scribe the scene. The mountains were
shaken for several miles around. The
air, put in motion by the falling mass,
swept by like a hurricane. The noise
was far louder than thunder. Rushing
down to the bo:tom of the valley, the
rocks overturned and buried every thing
before them.

2. The bed of the River Saco was
filled up; the road was covered over ;

_and acres of ground, before fit for culti-

vation, now exhibited a confused mass

.of rocks split and shivered, and trees

torn up by the roots, their trunks broken
into a thousand pieces.

3. There is a circumstance of pain-
ful interest connected with this event.
There was, on the sidejof the valley, a
small house, belonging’ to a man of the

name of Willey. He, with his wife and
. two or three children, was in this house

when the mountain began to slide down.
They heard the dreadful sound, and ran

out of the house to save themselves.



Blide j in-the White Mountains.

4, But alas! the avalanche of rocks
and earth swep’: over and buried them
in the ruins. The house stood safe and
untouched, and, if they had remained

Notch? 5. When and where was the first set-



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,



in it, they, too, had been saved. The
house, I believe, is still standing.

5. Somewhat more than two hundred
years ago, New Hampshire, like Maine,
was covered with forests, and inhabited
by. Indians 3) but in 1623, some, English
people — ‘and built on Pise
cataqua River, which ae Mason
Hall. The same year s of the peo-
ple went farther up the river, and settled

at Cocheco, now called Dover.
6. In 1641, New Hampshire was




united with Massachusetts, but in thirty-
eight years after, that is, in 1679, the
King of England separated it from Mas-

sachusetts. It then became a royal
province ; the governor being appointed
by the King of England.

7. In 1775, New Hampshire, with the
other colonies, engaged in the revolution.
A constitution, or form of government,
was then adopted by the people, which
remained till 1783. At that time, a new
constitution was formed, which remains
in force to this day. The early history
of New Hampshire is full of incidents
relating to the wars with the Indians.
I shall have occasion to notice some of
these when I come to give an account
of New England.

8. I will, however, tell you one of
these stories now. In 1689, the savages
made a dreadful attack upon Dover.
They had been provoked by the white
people, and they determined on revenge.
But they pretended to be friendly, and
on the fatal night sent their women to
get lodgings in the houses of the white
people. These were admitted, and, when
all was quiet, they softly opened the
doors. The. Indians then rushed in,
killed twenty persons, carried twenty~

tlement in New Hampshire? 6. What event
occurred in 1641? In 1679? 7. In 1755? In 1783?
8. What occurred in Dover in 1689? Describe
the attack.






such rapidity as to escape from the peo-
' ple who came to attack them.



1, Connecticut River separates
_ Vermont, as you see by the map, from
_ New Hampshire on the east. - Thisiriver
_ runs through a valley of several ‘miles
) in width, which is very rich and beauti-
. ful. The meadows here are exceed-
_ ingly fine. . Very large crops of corn,
_ wheat, and oats are cultivated in the
valley. All of the river is in New
Hampshire, which extends to its western
bank ; so that the Connecticut is really
not ariver of Vermont, though it is as
near to it as it possibly can be.
2. Vermont has several very pleas-
_ ant towns along the Connecticut River.
_ Brattleboro’ is one of the pleasantest

towns in the state. It has several
_ manufactories, and is a place of much
business. Bellows Falls is situated
where the river tumbles very pictur-
esquely over some rocks.

3. There are a great many mills at
this place, and there bridge over
the cataract, from which you can look
down upon the whirling water. There
were once a great many salmon in Con-
necticut River, and the Indians, about
one hundred years ago, used to kill a
great many of them with spears, as they

attempted to ascend the falls. They
were very expert at this, and would
often take several of them in the course
of an hour. You can see now sonie



' 1. How is Vermont bounded? What is said
of the Connecticut River ? Name the rivers in this
state. 2. Where is Brattleboro’? What is said

(

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

29

figures, which the Indians cut in the
rocks near the river, below (ne bridge.

4. Windsor is a very pleasant town,
and has considerable busiress. If you
ever go to Windsor, I hope you will go
to the top of Ascutney Mountain. It is
very lofty, and, when you are on the
top, you can see all around you to an
immense distance. You will also find,
quite on the summit of this mountain,
a beautiful little lake of clear water.

do. In going from the eastern to the
western part of Vermont, you will eross
a great many mountains. These are
called the Green Mountains. There is
a range of them running through Ver-
mont, from north to south. They spread
over all the middle parts of this state.
The railroads which cross them pass
through many pleasant and flourishing
towns.

6. At Burlington you will find a
steamboat ready to carry you on Lake
Champlain towards Canada. You will
be very much pleased with Burlington,
for it is one of the handsomest towns in
New England. It is situated on the

shore of the lake, of which you have a —

fine prospect from the town. At this
place is a college, called the University
of Vermont. You will also find a col-
lege at Middlebury. In this town there
are a great many manufactories, and a
quarry, where they obtain very hand-
some, colored marble.

7. Montpelier is a handsome tcwn,

and there the legislature meets, once a
year, to make laws for the state. In
passing through Vermont, you will per-
ceive that most of the people are farm-
ers. ‘hey raise a great many horned
cattle, and sheep, and hogs, and horses.
The horses are very fine ones. Many



of Bellows Falls? 4. Where is Windsor?
5. What mountains in Vermont? 6. Describe Bur
lington ; Lake Champlain; Middlebury. 7. Mont



*



80 THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY, —

of the beautiful horses you see in New
York, Boston, and Hartford, come from
Vermont.

8. During the winter, the weather is
cold, and the snow falls to a great depth.
It is sometimes four or five feet deep.
The people have four or five months’
fine sleighing. Although the airlis very
sharp, yet the winter is a merry season
in this state. The children ride on their



Winter in Vermont.
swiftly over the hills and valleys in their

sleighs. It is in summer one of the most
beautiful of the New England States.



pee ee

CHRAPTER XI.
VERMONT—ConrinveEp.

1. Many years ago, a very singular
event occurred in Vermont. There was
a very large pond, or lake, in the north-
western part of the state; it was three
miles long, and one wide. One day,
some men were at work at a bank of
earth, at the end of this pond.

2. Suddenly the bank gave way, and
the water came rushing out at the place
eee

pelier, the capital. 8. What is said of the winter
fa Vermont?



with great violence. For several mites —
it rolled on in a torrent, sweeping off
mills, houses, barns, and cattle, and
barely. givane the inhabitants time to es-
stop till the whole pond
Vhere the pond used
w.only the bed of a








@ the’ year 1814, there was
a famous battle fought on Lake Chame
plain, between some American and Brit
ish ships, which took place in sight of
Burlington. There were thousands of
people along the shore to witness it,
ere were several American yessels
and several British vessels engaged in
the battle. The American ships were
commanded by Commodore Macdon-
ough. |

4. They fought each other with can-
non for more than two hours. At length
the British ships were beaten, and the
Americans took nearly all of them.
This happened during the late war with
England, of which I shall tell you more
before I get through the book.

d. In August, 1777, there was a cel-
ebrated battle fought at Bennington.
General Stark, with some New Hamp-
shire and Vermont troops, attacked some
British soldiers, commanded by Colonel
Baum, at that place.

6. The British troops were dressed
in fine red coats and white pantaloons.
They had beautiful music, and their
officers were mounted on fine horses.
But the Vermont and New Hampshire
men were not regular soldiers; they
were farmers, and mechanics, and mer-
chants, who went to war merely to drive
these British soldiers from the country.

7. The Americans were dressed in
their common clothes. The British
troops, who were so finely attired, de-

oscil —p an gP a cis A aCe OE IES Ck
3,4. Describe the battle of Lake Champlain in
1814. 5, 6,7, 8. Describe the battle of Benning.





4 Longitude E. from Washington i





cap trcea7?,
=\- = 3



te,
%,
a



rah ey. f e
ters
oO



Pp
BORAT ISLE
nepury” 5



.



Qwy
offi

tee,
ee. 3
4,
ecanes te eT ieee Be LN OR Mea,

Serre

bridge x am
harnay,
Â¥ Se Y
eg ae : Sc Nor r ch Ye
OOdS toc Sif “Hanover

Zo p
f
yy

| |

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:
woth Hartland &) |

° J |

gy < is" A \
Windsor |.
ge “





f @% Fe
°
























A

t




ey Mt



foci





“eg a
“Wethersear

/,

seen parereoeereens

=—
COTt

'
i |
Charlestown i
.)
\
|
|

Scale of Miles.
rat PO — ae
10 20











c 8

spised them. They called them Yan-
_kees, and laughed at their homespun
dress. But when the battle began, the
laughter of the British troops was over.
_ The Americans fell upon them, and killed
_ a great many of them, and by and by the
_ British fied.

_ 8, As they were running away, they
_ met a good many more British soldiers.
_ Thinking themselves now strong enough
to beat the Americans, they went back,
and began to fight again. But the
Americans attacked them with such
vigor, that soon seven hundred of the
British were killed and wounded. Col-
onel Baum was killed, and the rest of the
British ran away. This battle took
place during the revolutionary war, of
which I shall tell you more by and by.

9. Vermont was not settled by the
white people till some time after the
other New England States. There was
_ afort built near Brattleboro’, in 1724,
— called Fort Dummer. The remains of
it are still to be seen. It was built to
protect the people who had settled there
from the Indians.

10. Vermont was settled principally
by people from Connecticut. They first
established themselves along the Con-
necticut River, and afterwards in other
parts of the state. They had a good
many skirmishes with the Indians, and
for a long time there was a great dispute
whether the land belonged to New York
or New Hampshire.

11. It was decided in England, in
1764, that it belonged to New: York, and
consequently, the government of that
colony began to sell the land to any per-
sons who would buy it. The settlers
thought this very unjust, and determined
to resist. New York then sent troops
into Vermont, and there was some fight-



ton, Whereis Bennington? 9,10. What of the
eariy settlements of Vermont? 11. What took

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY. 81

ing. These difficulties were not scttled
till years after.

12. During the revolutionary war,
Vermont was independent, and in 1791
it became one of the United States. It
is now little more than one hundred
years since this state was a mere wilder-
ness, occupied only by scattered tribes
of savages, bears, and wolves. Now, it
has a great many flourishing towns, and
cultivated farms, on the tops of the hills,
in the valleys, and along the rivers and
lakes.

eo ipeemns

CHAPTER XII.
MASSACHUSETTS.

1. MAssacnuseTTs is not a large
state, but there are a great many people
in it. ‘Those who live along the sea-
board, at Boston, Salem, Marblehead,
Gloucester, New Bedford, Nantucket,
and other places, own a great many
ships, brigs, sloops, and_ schooners.
Some of these ships are sent to England,
and other parts of Europe, and they
bring back various kinds of goods.

' 2. Other ships are sent to China, and
they bring back tea. The trade. carried
on by these ships is called commerce.
Some of the vessels go to a great dis-
tance to catch whales, for their vil. Oth-
er vessels go out to catch codfish and
mackerel. A great many sloops, and
schooners, and brigs, go to. New Y:ak,



place in 1764? 12. When did Vermont bereme
one of the United States?

1, 2. How is Massachusetts bounded? What
is the capital? What rivers in Massachusetts?
Describe them. What capes? Where is Boston
situated? Salem? Marblehead? Gloucester?
New Bedford? Nantucket? Where are the
vessels sent from these places? Look on the
Map of the World, and describe the course of a
vessel from Boston to England; to China; ta
New York; to Philadelphia; to Charleston; ts



82

Philadelphia, Charleston, New Orleans,
and other places.

3. They carry a good many articles

away which are not wanted in Massa-
chusetts, and get, in exchange for them,
other articles that are wanted there.
So, you see, there are a great many
people constantly occupied in managing
these ships. You may often see several
hundred vessels of various kinds at
Boston.
- 4, In those parts of the state remote
from the sea, the people of Massachu-
setts are chiefly occupied in agriculture.
There are a great many very fine farms,
and the people manage them extremely
well. There are also very extensive
manufactories in Massachusetts.

5. Lowell is remarkable for its rapid
growth, and the variety and perfection
of its manufactures. Immense quantities
of broadcloths, carpets, and cotton cloth
are here manufactured. There are man-
ufactories at Waltham, Taunton, Canton,
Ware, Springfield, Framingham, Fall
River, Fitchburg, Pawtucket, and other
places. The goods manufactured in
these places are chiefly carried to Bos-
ton, and are thence taken to New York,
Philadelphia, Charleston, New Orleans,
«ad various foreign markets. .

6. Boston is the largest city in New
England. There are many interesting
things in Boston. The Common is a
very beautiful place. It is delightful to
see it covered with people— men, women,
and children,—on a pleasant summer
evening. How pleased the boys are to
get around the Frog Pond, and throw
sticks into it, so that they may see the
dogs jump in, swim about, and get them!
Tt is now filled with water from Lake



New Orleans. 3,4. What is the occupation of
the people? 5, Name the principal manufactur-
ing towns, and tell where each of them is situ-
ated. 6. What is said of Boston? Name some

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,



Cochituate, and a beautiful fountain op
naments its centre.



7. The State House is finely situ-
ated, and it has a good appearance.
When I was young, I used to like to go
to the top of the State House, from which
there is a splendid prospect. I could see
the ocean, with a great many islands in
it, and I could see a great many fine
towns all around Boston, and I could look
down upon the city itself, and see almost
all that was going on in the streets. |

8. There are a great many hand-
some buildings in Boston, among which
is the Quincy Market. I do not think
there is a more: beautiful market in the
world. The Tremont House, King’s
Chapel, St. Paul’s Church and Trinity
Church, the Boston Atheneum, the
Merchants’ Exchange, and the United
States Custom House, are very elegant
edifices.

9. Boston is connected with the prin-
cipal cities and towns in the common-
wealth, and with other states, by several
well-constructed railroads. Salem is a
wealthy city, and many of the people are
engaged in commerce. Newburyport is
distinguished for commerce and manu-
factures; Lynn for the manufacture of

of the principal buildings. 7, 8, 9. Of Salem?








ee = ae mes may me @




peer Sy;
iam ee A on wtih

A gf et

54 iS “ Wns ‘i
tt ben adilie Ficdhbing
Sr onkacte aay, eee te era ea ecHut.

Oo y v7) O

Baran ay (oF rtuce on

f arate
? ee ce

Fat










DAN

sete” Zonk :




pete: eee, SQMeT SOO 4 i 4% S } ig = Y ae

eS a rr




a

bi os }
| | = 10 20 30 40 rs
|
|
1

tude West st fiom a Gretnwich |

a





shoes ; New Bedford and Nantucket for
‘the whale fishery; and Worcester is
noted for being the place where a great
many railroads connect with each other.
~ Massachusetts abounds in beautiful vities,
towns, and villages, and in travelling
through it, you will observe a great num-
ber of churches and school houses.

_ 10. At Cambridge there is a college,
ealled Harvard University. The library

- eontains near one hundred thousand vol-

umes. Another college is located at
Amherst, and one also at Williamstown.
Great attention is paid to education, and
common schools are supported by law in
every city and town in the state.

11. It is not so cold in Massachusetts,
during the winter, as in Vermont and
Maine. The snow is not so deep, and
there is not so much sleighing. If you
ever travel through the state, you will
find it very hilly. There are a great
many railroads; yet, if you wish to see
the country, you had better travel in
some other way. Near Northampton is
a high mountain, called Holyoke. From
the top of it you can look down upon
Connecticut River, winding through
meadows so ric//and beautiful, that they
seem like a gArpet woven with various
bright colo

a

CHAPTER XIIL
MASSACHUSETTS —CoOnNnTINUED.

1. On the 17th day of September,
1830, there was a great parade in Bos-
ton. There were the governor of the
state, and the mayor of the city, and the

Of Newburyport? Of Lynn? Of New Bedford
and Nantucket? Of Worcester, and other
places? 10. What colleges in the state ? What
is said of education? 11. What of the winter in
Massachusetts? Of the scenery from Mount
Holyoke?

1, 2, 3. When was poate settled? 4, 5, 6, 7,

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY. 33

| president of Harvard College, and a

'great many other men; and then there
were a great many children, little boys
and girls, from all the schools in Bos-
.

. It was a very bright day, init they
at” assembled on the Common. There
were a great many thousand people be-
sides, who came to look on. I was there
myself, and I was delighted at the long
rows of good little boys and girls. By
and by, the men all went in a long pro-
cession to the Old South Church, and
there Mr. Quincy delivered an oration.



Celebration of the Settlement of Boston.

3. Now you will be curious to know
what all this parade was about. I will
tell you. It was to celebrate the settle-
ment of Boston, which took place just
two hundred years before; that is, on
the 17th of September, 1630.

4. Ten years before, in 1620, some
persons had come from England, and
settled at Plymouth. At that period,
many of the people in England were per-
secuted, and could not be happy there.
They chose, therefore, to come to Amer-
ica, and live in the woods, with Indians
and wild beasts around them, rather thaa
stay there.

5. Accordingly, fifteen hundred pers

8, 9. Give an account of the settlement of Bow







34

sons came over in 1630, and settled at
Charlestown, Dorchester, Roxbury, and
other places. A man by the name of
Blackstone came to the place where
Boston now stands, and liking it pretty
well, he told some of the people about it,
and they went and settled there.

6. The first settlers here suffered a
great deal. They had poor, miserable
huts to live in, and in winter the weather
was excessively cold. ‘They were almost
starved, too, for want of food.
many of them died from hunger, cold,
and distress.

7. Such is a brief sketch of the first
settlement of Boston. What a wonder-
ful change has taken place in two hun-
dred years! The spot where Boston
stands was then a wilderness. The
hills and the islands were covered with
trees, and the Indians were living all
around, Now, the Indians are all gone,
and there are about one hundred and
forty thousand people living in this
place; and in the towns around it there
are at least as many more.

8. The forests have all been cut

down, the hills have been levelled, the.

valleys have been filled up; houses,
churches, and other public edifices, now
stand on the very places which were
then occupied by Indian wigwams. The
bay, where then you could see only a
few Indian canoes, is now covered with
hundreds of vessels; and in the streets
you hear the noise of a thousand wheels,
where then were heard only the cries of
wild beasts and savage men.
_ 9.°Such are the mighty changes that
have taken place in this country since it
was settled by the white people. It is
very interesting to look around, and se
the present condition of towns, cities, and
countries. But I think it is still more
interesting to go back and study the



ton and the places in its vicinity. 10, Whenand

tile.

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,






history of places, and see what happened
there ig times that have gone by.

10. The first settlement in New Eng.
land was made at Plymouth, in 1620,
The settlers were English peopl, called
Puritans. Within ten years after, Sa.
lem, Dorchester, Charlestown, and Boas
ton were settled. A great many people
came over from England, and thus the ©
colony grew very rapidly. |

11. They had a great many ¢ifficulties —
to encounter. Before they cculd raise
grain to make bread, they were obliged —
to cut down trees and till the land.
They had also to build houses, to make
roads, and defend themselves against the
Indians. Their condition was indeed a
very hard one, and some of the people —
who came over died from want and
fatigue, as I have said before.

12. Many of them were killed by the
savages ; but in spite of all these evils, the
colony continued to increase. ‘The white
people penetrated farther into the inte-
rior, cut.down the trees, built towns and
villages, and soon spread themselves over
the whole country that is now called
Massachusetts.

13. But after a while, the revolntion-
ary war broke out, and then the people
had to defend themselves against Brit-
ish soldiers. I shall tell you all about
this war by and by. I shall tell you of
the battles of Lexington, and of Bunker
Hiil, and many other interesting things.

we Qe

CHAPTER XIV.
RHODE ISLAND.

1. Raove Isianp is the smallest of
the United States; but there are a great



where was the first settlement in New England
made? 11, 12. What difficulties were settlers
obliged to encounter ?

1. Howis Rhode Island bounded? What ts







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many manufactories there, and the peo-
ple carry on a good deal of commerce.
At North Providence there are some
very extensive cotton manufactories.
These are situated on the falls of the
Pawtucket River.

2. Providence, one of the capitals, is
a large city, situated at the head of Nar-
raganset Bay, and is extensively en-
gaged in trade and commerce. Brown



University, one of the best colleges in

the country, is located in this city. The
people are distinguished for their gen-
erous support of common schools. If
you ever visit Providence, you should
go and see the Arcade. This is a very
beautiful building, where you can pur-
chase almost every kind of elegant mer-
chandise.

3. At Providence you can take the
steamboat and go to Newport, where the
iegislature also meets. You will sail
down Narraganset Bay, which, I think,
is one of the most beautiful bays in the
world. As you go along, you will see
Bristol on your left. It is a very pleas-
ant town, and there are a number of
beautiful houses there.

4. Near Bristol, you can see a hill
called Mount Hope. This is very cele-
brated for having been the residence of
a famous Indian chief, named Philip.
His story is very interesting, and I shall
tell it to you by and by.

d. You will find Newport very pleas-
antly situated. It has rather a venera-
ble appearance. It stands upon a large
island, called Rhode Island. This gave
name to the state. Newport is resorted
to by many people in summer, for its
healthy and pleasant sea breezes.

6. The first white man that settled in
Rhode Island was Roger Williams. He

said of it? What of North Providence? What
rre the capitals? 2, 3,4,5. What is said of
Providence? Of Bristol? Of Newport? 6, 7,

sf

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

35

was a clergyman, and lived in Boston;
but he did not think exactly as the other
clergymen of Boston did, and so he was
banished from Massachusetts.



7. He went away with his family into
the woods. After travelling a consider-
able time, he stopped, and began to build
himself a house. Here he made a set-
tlement, and called it Providence. This
took place in 1636, and was the first
settlement in Rhode Island. He was
kindly treated by the Indians, who
seemed pleased at his arrival among
them.

8. The colony, thus begun, increased
rapidly, and in the revolutionary war
it united with the other colonies in the
strugele for freedom. It became one
of the United States in 1790.

$=

CHAPTER XV.
CONNECTICUT.
1. CoNNECTICUT, with the exception

of Rhode Island, is the smallest of the
New England States; but it has more

8. What of the first settlement? When did
Rhode Island become one of the United States
1,2. How is Connecticut bounded? Wha



86

Mhabitants than any of them, except
Massachusetts and Maine. The country
is very hilly, but it abounds in streams
and rivers, and is generally quite fertile.

2. The people are very industrious.
A great many of them are occupied in
cultivating the land, and they cultivate
it very well. They raise a good many
' tattle, horses, hogs, sieep, and some
grain, and kitchen vegetables, A great
many of the people are occupied in
manufactories, and a considerable num-
ber are engaged in commerce. Almost
every person in the state is busy about
something.

3. Let us suppose that we begin at
the eastern part of the state, and travel
through it. We will) commence our
journey at Norwich. This town is situ-
ated on the Thames, and we shall see
quite a number of vessels there, engaged
in carrying on trade with New York,
Philadelphia, and Charleston. There
are several falls in the river at Norwich,
and these afford fine mill seats, where
there are some very extensive cotton
manufactories. A railroad connects this
place with Worcester and Boston, and a
steamboat runs from Norwich to New
York.

4, The country around Norwich was
once occupied by a celebrated tribe of
Indians, called Mohicans. These Mo-
hicans were once at war with some other
Indians. One night several of these
Indians had encamped on the top of
wome high rocks.

5. Iheir enemies discovered their
situation, and secretly encircled them
on all sides but one. On that side was
_ @ steep precipice, at the foot of which
was the river. When the morning



are the capitals? What is said of Connecticut?
3. What rivers *n the state? What is said of
Norwich? Where is the River Thames? 4, 5,
6 What is said of the Mohican Indians?

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,



came, the party of Indians first men.
tioned were about to depart, when they
discovered that they were surrounded
by their foes.

6. They made a short resistance, but, —
perceiving that they were outnumbered
by their enemies, they leaped over the
rocks, and were killed by the fall.

7. Having examined Norwich, we
will take a boat and go down the River
Thames, to New London. At this place
we shall see a good many vessels.
Among them we may see a large ship
fitting out to go to the Pacific Ocean, te
catch whales.

8. We shall, perhaps, see another
vessel, that has just come back from a
whaling voyage, after an absence of
three years. If she is not unloaded, we
shall find, on board of her, about two
thousand barrels of sperm oil and a
good deal of whalebone. The oil is
used for burning in lamps, and the
whalebone is for umbrella frames, and
many other purposes.

9. Near New London we shall see
two forts. One of them is called Fort
Trumbull, and the other Fort Griswold.
The latter is situated in Groton, just
across the River Thames. .

10. I will tell you an odd story of
what happened in Groton about the
year 1812. ‘There was war, then, be-
tween our country and Great Britain.
There were several British ships in
sight, and it was expected they would
soon make an attack upon the forts. A
company of soldiers from Hartford oc-
cupied a house in Groton as their- bar-
racks.

11. One night, as they were asleep,
there was a sudden cry of alarm among
the soldiers. They seized their arms,
and rushed out of the barracks. The

7, 8. Of New London? 9. What forts in the
vicinity? 10, 11, 12. Relate the incident that

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jrums were beat, the sentinel fired his
gun, and all supposed that the British
were now about to make the expected
attack. Some of the men declared they
could see the enemy landing, and others
thought they could hear the roar of
cannon in the distance.

12. The officers assernbled, and in-
quired into the matter. They soon dis-
covered that the British had nothing to
do with the alarm. It seems that one
of the soldiers, whose name was Tom
Stire, while he was sleeping with the
rest, fell into a dream. He dreamed
that the British were coming, and in his
sleep he. exclaimed, “Alarm! alarm!
the enemy are coming!” This occa-
sioned the whole disturbance.

13. After we have examined New
London, we will go to Hartford. This
is a very fine city, situated on Connecti-
éut River. We must visit the Deaf
~ and Dumb Asylum, where we shall see
about one hundred and fifty deaf and
dumb pupils, who are taught to read
and write, and who can converse by
signs almost as well as we can by talk-
ing. We shall also see at Hartford a
place for persons who are insane, called
the Retreat. Here they are taken care
of, and many of them are cured. LBe-
fore we leave the city, we must go to
Trinity, formerly called Washington,
College, which is a fine institution.

14. After leaving Hartford, we will
go to Middletown, wliich is beautifully
situated on Connecticut River. Here is
the Wesleyan University. On our way
from Hartford, we shall pass through
Wethersfield, a pleasant place, where
the people raise many thousand bushels
of onions every year. ‘These onions are
sent to all parts of the country. Some



pecurred in Groton. 13. What is said of Hart-
ford? 14. Of Middletown? Of Wethersfield ?



COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY. 37

of them go as far as Charleston, New
Orleans, and the West Indies.

15. After leaving Middletown, wa
shall pass through Durham, where the
people make an immense quantity of
shoes. At length we shall arrive at
New Haven, which is one of the hand-
somest cities in New England.

16. At New Haven we shall see Yale
College. This consists of several brick
buildings, in which there are three or
four hundred students. We must go
into one of these buildings and see the
cabinet. \'This is a collection of beauti-
ful minerals from all parts of the world.

02 scare
i

———



View in New Haven. _

17. It is very interesting to examine
this cabinet, for we shall see stones in it,
which have been brought from various
parts of Europe, Asia, Africa, and Amer-
ica. There are two stone pillars there,
which came from the famous Giant’s
Causeway, in Ireland.

18. There are also some specimens
of stones which fell from the air in
Connecticut, many years ago. These
stones formed a part of a vast red
meteor that flew along the sky, and
finally exploded with a great noise.
The stones fell in the town of Weston.



Of Durham? 16, 17, 18. Of New Haven?



88 THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

19. If we travel in other parts of the
state, we shall find many of the people
busily engaged in manufacturing cotton
and woollen goods, and various kinds
of tin, iron, brass, and other wares.
Many of them travel to the Southern
and Western States, and even as far as
Mexico, to sell the articles that are made
in this state.

on ncaetprmernsees

CHAPTER: XVI,
CONNECTICUT—Continvx3p.

1. THE first house built in Connecti-
cut by the white men was erected at
Windsor, in 1633, by some people from
Massachusetts. Two years after, about
sixty persons came from Massachusetts,
and settled at Windsor, Hartford, and
Wethersfield. They went across the
wilderness, instead of going round by
water, as the first settlers had done. ©

2. The next year some more persons
removed from Massachusetts. They,
too, went by land through the woods.
There were then, of course, no roads ;
the whole space was an unbroken forest.
They had nothing to guide them but
a pocket compass, which they carried.
They had a number of cows with them,
which they drove through the woods; and
they subsisted principally on their milk
during their long and difficult journey.

3. I will tell you a story of what hap-
pened at Wethersfield a few years after
that place was settled. A very respec-
table man lived there, whose name was
Chester. One day he went into the
woods to see about his cattle.

4. By and by, he set out to return,
but he soon discovered that he. had lost
Se aa
13. Name some of the principal manufactures.

1, 2. What is said of -he early history of Con-
pecticut? 2,4 5, 6, 7 8, 9. Relate the story

his way. He wandered about for a greac
while, hoping every moment to get out
of the woods; but the farther he went,
the thicker were the trees, and the deep-
er was the forest.

0. He now grew very anxious, for the
night was approaching. He _ hallooed
and shouted for help, but no one came.
At length it was night, and the forest all
around was covered with darkness. The
wanderer listened, but he could hear ne
human voice; he could hear only the
howling of wild beasts.

6. He climbed a tree, and there he re-
mained, in great anxiety, till morning.
Worn out with watching and fatigue, and
faint for want of food, Mr. Chester still
made exertions to escape. He ascended
to the top of a hill, and there he obtained
a sight of the country all around.

7. But it was one boundless forest on
all sides. He was now in the greatest
distress. The weather was cloudy; he
could not see the sun, so as to direct hig
course, and he had no hope but to lie
down and perish in the wilderness.

8. But at this moment his ear caught
a distant sound. He listened attentively ;
it was the beat of adrum. He hearda
shout and a call. He answered, and
soon he was in the arms of his friends,
who had come in search of him. The
people of Wethersfield had felt great
anxiety for his absence, and imagining
that he was lost in the woods, the men
had set out in various directions to look
for him.

9. By this means he was discovered
and taken back to his family. His grave-
stone is still to be seen in the burying
ground at Wethersfield. The place where
he was lost is called Mount Lamentation.
You will pass it on the road from Hart.
ford to New Haven.

10. At Hartford there is a celebrated

mtr inn esp Ga RN iS Sk
about Mr. Chester. 10, 11, 12. What is said of





COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

tree, called the Charter Oak. There is
a story of that tree, which I will tell
yon In the year 1686, James II., King
of England, sent Sir Edmund Andros
t» take away the charters of the Amer-
scan colonies. These charters were
papers, signed by the king, granting

the colonies certain privileges ; and the

people of the colonies did not wish to
give them up.

11. Sir Edmund Andros came to Hart-
ford to get the charter of Connecticut.
Some of the people being assembled at
evening, the charter was brought in.
Sir Edmund was present, and was about
to take the charter away, wlien the
lights were all suddenly blown out, and
the people were left in the dark.

12. By and by the candles were lighted
again; but the charter was gone, and it
could not be found. Sir Edmund was

_ therefore obliged to go away without it.

After a long time, the charter was
found in a hollow place in this old oak



tree, standing in the southern part of
the city.. It was hid there by Captain
Wadsworth, who took it, and carried it
off, when the lights were blown out.

the Charter O2k? By whom was the charter

taker away and placed in the tree?

:

33

CHAPTER XVII.
NEW ENGLAND.

1. [HAVE now given you some account
of the six states which bear the general
title of New England. In travelling
through this portion of our country, you
will observe that it is generally hilly,
and is crossed by a range of mountains,
extending from the north-eastern part
of Maine to the south-western part of
Connecticut.

2. The climate is not extremely hot,
nor extremely cold. Snow begins to fall
about the Ist of December. Spring re-
turns in April. ‘There is usually sleigh-
ing in all parts of it, for a few weeks
during the winter. In summer the
weather is delightful. There are plenty
of strawberries, cherries, currants, and
other berries, and in the autumn there
are apples, pears, peaches, walnuts and
chestnuts, and melons in abundance.

3. The largest river is the Connecti-
cut. Itis a beautiful stream, and waters
four of the New England States. There
is not a river on the globe whose banks
afford more charming scenery than this.
I have seen the Thames in England, the
Rhone in France, and the Rhine in
Germany; and they are all less pleasing
to my eye than this.

4, You should see this river in June.
The meadows and mountains along its
borders are then in their glory. If you
are there in May, you will see the fish-
ermen, with their long nets, catching
shad, for which this river is famous. In
former times there were a great many
salmon also in this river; but for some
reason or other they have entirely de-
serted it. I suppose they went away on

1. What is said of the face of the country in
New England? 2. Of the climate? Of fruits?
d, 4. Of the Connecticut River ? What two states
does it separate? What two states dues it inter





40 THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

account of the locks and canals that have
been built upon it.

5. Not many years since, salmon were
often taken as far up as Vermont. They
even used to ascend the little streams
that come down from the mountains, and
were often caught inthem. An old gen-
tleman told me, that, many years-ago, he
was travelling at night, on horseback,
among the mountains in that state. As
his horse was going through a small
stream that ran across the road, he heard
a great pounding and plashing in the
water. He went to the spot, and there he
found a salmon that weighed nine pounds,
which had got into a shallow place, and
could not get out. He easily caught it
with his hands, and then carried it home.

6. In travelling through New Eng-
land, you will observe a great many
school houses, by which you may know
that the children are well educated; and
you will see a great many churches and
meeting houses, by which you will un-
derstand that the people are attentive to
religion.

_%. There are still a good many forests
and much unoccupied land in New Eng-
land. Buta great part of its surface is
under cultivation. ‘There are more than
me thousand towns and villages scat-
tered over its hills, valleys, and plains, and
there are about three million inhabitants
within its borders. The people are gen-
erally industrious, and are engaged in
the various pursuits of agriculture, com-
merce, and manufactures.

8. Such is New England now; but
what was it more than two hundred years
ago? A mere wilderness, inhabited by
bears, wolves, and other wild beasts, and
by scattered tribes of Indians, who lived



sect? 5. Relate the story of catching salmon.
6. What is said of school houses and churches ?
7 Of the population? 8. Of the condition of
New England two hundred years ago?

in wigwams, hunted with bows and ar
rows for subsistence, and were constantly —
slaying each other in battle. |

9. What a great change has taken ©
place in a short space of time! Yet
many interesting things have happened
within these two hundred years. It is
pleasant to go back and trace the history
of former times. There is no part ct —
our country — not a town or village —«
that has not some interesting story ¢ con-
nected with it.

10. I shall endeavor to collect the most ©
amusing and instructive portions of New
England history, and tell what I have to
say in such a manner as to please you.

You are now acquainted with the geog- |

raphy of this section of the country; I
shall therefore take you back at once
to the period when our forefathers first
landed upon these shores.

canon y-ormeee

CHAPTER XVIII.
NEW ENGLAND—ConrTINVvVED.

1. More than two hundred years ago,
there were in England a great many
people called Puritans. They were not
happy in England, for they had peculiar
opinions about religion. They were
cruelly treated, and some of them at
length fled from the country. They went
first to Holland, but finally they conclud-
ed to go to America.

2. ‘They set out in two vessels, but one
of them was leaky, and went back. They
all entered the other ship, and after a—
long and stormy passage, they reatlied a
broad harbor. ‘They then sent some
people ashore, to examine the: country.
These found some Indian corn in baskets,
buried in the sand. They also discov-

1. What were the people called who first sets
tled in New England? 2,3. What is said of

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{







red Indian burial-places, surrounded by

sticks stuck in the ground.

3. One night, the exploring party built

a fire in the woods, and slept by the side

of it.

In the morning, some arrows,
pointed with eagles’ claws, and sharp

_pieces of deer’s horns, fell among them.

These were sent by some Indians who

came to attack them. ‘The white men
_ fired their guns at them, and the Indians
van off in great alarm. At this time the
_ savages had no guns, and they imagined

;

--entigrants pitched upon a place where

ne

|
,

that the fire of the musket was lightning,
and the report thunder. No wonder
they were afraid of people who, as they
believed, made use of thunder and
lightning.

4, Having examined the shores, the

they concluded to settle. December 22,
1620, they landed on a rock there, and
ealled the place Plymouth. It was win-
ier when they arrived, and the country
had a most dreary aspect. ‘There were
no houses to receive them; there were
no friends to welcome them; there was
nothing before them but a gloomy forest,
inhabiféd by savages and wild beasts.
There was nothing behind them but the
vast ocean, rolling between them and
their native land. This little colony con-
sisted of one hundred persons. They
were divided into nineteen families, and
each family built itself a log house.

). For some time, the settlers were
not visited by any of the Indians. They

_ saw a few soon after their landing, but

these ran away as if they were very much
frightened. One day, however, an In-
dian came among them, saying, in Eng-

lish, * Welcome, Englishmen! Welcome,

Englishmen !”
6. ‘Ehis surprised the white people
very much. ‘The Indian told them that

their voyage and settlement? 4. When and
where did they settle? 5,6. What is related

COMBINED WITH “GEOGRAPHY.

| drum and fife, which he liked very much.

4]

his name was Samoset, «nd that he had
learned to speak English of the fishermen
he had seen upon the coast.

7. After some time, an Indian chief,
called Massasoit, came near to the settle-
ment, with some of his men. He was
a sort of king, and ruled over several
tribes. He was at first afraid to go down
into the village, but by and by he went »
down, and the people saluted him with a









Making a Treaty with Massasoit.
8. Then he went into the governor’s

| house, where he ate a very hearty din-

ner, and drank a prodigious draught of
rum. He then made a treaty with the
white people, and agreed to be at peace
with them. This treaty he and_ his”
descendants kept faithfully for fifty
years. |

9. I will now tell you of two white
men that got lost in the woods. It was
winter, and it was snowing very fast.
The snow had covered up the path, and
they could not find their way back te
the village. At length, night came on;
and as it grew dark, they heard a dread-
ful howling near them.

10. They were very much alarmed,

for they did not know what wild beasts

might be in the woods. All night they

of Samoset? 7, 8 Of Massasoit? 9,10. Re





42

continued in the storm, shivering with
cold, and frightened at the wild sounds
they heard. At length, the morning
eame, and they reached the settlement.
I suppose the noise they heard was the
howling of wolves.

11. The settlers found their situation
extremely uncomfortable. The winter
was very severe, their houses were mis-
erable, and they were destitute of all
those conveniences which they had been
accustomed to enjoy in England. Borne
down with suffering, many of them were
taken sick, and when the spring arrived,
half of their number had died.

12. Notwithstanding these discoura-
ging circumstances, other persons came
out from England and joined the settlers,
so that, in ten years after, the whole
number amounted to thfee hundred. In
the year 1630, more than fifteen hun-
dred persons came from England, and
settled at Boston, Dorchester, Salem, and
other places in the vicinity.

13. These people were nearly all
Puritans, but many of them possessed
wealth, and had been brought up in a
very delicate manner. Their sole object
in coming to America was to enjoy their
religious opinions without restraint. But
they had not foreseen the sufferings that
were before them.

14. The winter set in with unusual
severity. The snow fell to a great depth,
and the cold became intense. Assembled
in log houses, which afforded but a poor
shelter from the driving blasts, the emi-
grants had to endure hunger as well as
cold. Their stock of provisions became
nearly exhausted, and many of them



late the story of men lost in the woods, to illus-
trate the trials of the early settlers. 11. What
hardships did they endure? 12. How did the
&:ttlement of Plymouth increase in ten years ?
Where were settlements made in 1630? 13. What
induced them to come to America? 14. What

rrr eee enn eee aaspe seinnenthnnunnvensenngeemnsingsiduenunds tonne ne Feoe ieee mente



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

were compelled to subsist on clams
muscles, nuts, and acorns.

15. Unable to sustain these privatiens,
many of them died. Among these wag
one woman whose fate has always excit-
ed peculiar sympathy. This was Lady
Arabella Johnson. - Her father was a
rich man in England, and ske had been
brought up in the enjoyment of every
luxury.

16. But in America she was deprived
of the common comforts of life. Her
delicate frame could not endure these
trials. Although her husband came with
her, and great care and kindness were
bestowed upon her, yet in about a month
after her arrival, she died.

17. Such were the sufferings that at-
tended the first settlers in New England.
Yet these were sustained with the utmost
fortitude. Those who died left a state
of sorrow, in the consciousness of having
done their duty, and the strong hope of
entering a state of peace beyond the
grave. Those who lived prayed to
Heaven for strength to support them in
their troubles, and their prayers seemed
to be answered.

18. Thus prepared for life or death,
they continued to struggle with their
misfortunes, with a degree of firmness
which we cannot fail to admire

inner pcomnaes

CHARTER: XIX.
NEW ENGLAND—ConrTinvep.

1. I HAvE now told you something
about the two colonies of Plymouth and
Massachusetts. The settlement at Plym-
outh was the first permanent English
settlement in New England. The colony

hardships did they endure?
story of Arabella Johnson.
1. From what was Massachusetts named ‘

15, 16. Relate the





;



of Masi:iachusetts was so named from a
native Indian tribe.
creased much more rapidly than Plym-
—outh.

This colony in-

2. Such favorable accounts were given
of it in England, that many persons of
distinction came from that country, and
settled in Boston and other parts of the
colony. Among these was Sir Henry
Vane. He was but twenty-five years
old when he arrived, but he was so grave
that he won the hearts of the people, and
they made him governor.

3. You will recollect it was in the
year 1633 that the first settlement was
made in Connecticut. In 1636, Roger
Williams was banished from Massachu-

setts, and he settled in Rhode Island.

New Hampshire was first settled in 1623,
and Maine in the same year. In 1638
a settlement was made at New Haven,
which was afterwards called the colony
of New Haven. Vermont was not set-

“tled till 1724.

4, About the year 1635, a woman,
whose name was “ Hutchinson, began

to preach strange doctrines in Massachu-

setts. She had a pleasing address and
fluent speech; and she persuaded many
persons to believe as she did. Among
these was Sir Henry Vane.

5. By and by, some of the principal
people assembled to consider the subject.
They talked a great deal about it, and
sonve of them became very angry. At
length, Ann Hutchinson’s doctrines were
condemned by a majority, and she was
banished from the colony. Sir Henry
Vane was very much displeased at this ;
so he went back to England, and after
several years he was “executed, by hav-
ing his head cut off, for high treason
against his king and country.

Bae

2 What is said of Sir Henry Vane? 3. When
#er2 the several colonies settled? 4,5. What is

6. For a long time, the Indians did

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY. 43

not molest the inhabitants of the Plym-
outh and Massachusetts colonies. The
treaty made with Massasoit, as before
stated, was faithfully observed by them;
but the Pequods, who lived in Connecti-
cut, troubled the people there very much.
In 1637, they killed three men at Say-—
brook, and at Wethersfield they killed
six men, three women, and twenty cows.

7. These things caused great alarm.
Consequently some of the people met
at Hartford to consider what should be
done. It was determined to send a body
of men against the Indians. About
ninety white men and seventy friendly
Indians were soon assembled. They
were all placed under the command of
Captain Mason.

8. They entered some boats at Hart-
ford, and went down the Connecticut
River to Saybrook. Here they resolved
to make a sudden attack upon Mystic,
an Indian fort, situated where Stonington
now stands. This was one of the prin-
cipal places belonging to the Indians.

J. They reached the spot about day-
break. The Pequods had no suspicion
that an enemy was near. But by and
by, a dog barked, and then one of the
Indians, who saw the white men, gave
the alarm. ‘At this instant the soldiers
fired upon the Indians. Many of the
savages were killed; but very’soon the
rest recovered from their astonishment,
and then they fought bravely. pes
10. They shot their arrows and guns
at the white men, and hurled stones and
sticks at them with the greatest fury.
The Indians were far more numerous
than the white men, and the latter were
at length nearly exhausted. At this
moment, Captain Mason ordered their
fort to be set on fire. The flames caught

said of Ann Hutchinson? 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12.
What is related of their troubles with the Pequod
Where is Saybrook?

Indians ? Wethersfield ?







44

quickly, and, spreading from wigwam to
wigwam, svon set them all in a blaze.

11. It was an awful scene, and the
struggle was soon terminated. Seventy
wigwams were reduced to ashes, and six
or seven hundred Indians were killed
either by the bullets or the fire.

12. This dreadful event alarmed the
Pequods, and they fled, with their chief,
Sassacus, to the west. They were fol-
lowed by the white men, who overtook
them in a swamp near Fairfield. Here
a battle was fought, and the Indians
were entirely defeated. This was fol-
lowed by a treaty with the remaining
Indians, andthe Pequods gave the colo-
nies no more trouble.

13. In 1643, the four colonies of
Plymouth, Massachusetts, Connecticut,
and New Haven entered into an agree-
ment for purposes of mutual defence.
They were led to do this by fear of the
Indians, who were now very unfriendly,
and who watched every opportunity to
do the white people mischief.

—

CHAPTER XX.
NEW ENGLAND—ConrTiINUED.

1. WE now approach a period of great
interest in the history of New England.
The Indians perceived that the English
were rapidly increasing in numbers,
while they themselves were as fast di-
minishing. They foresaw that, in a
short time, the English colonies would
overspread the whole land, while they
should themselves be driven back into
the wilderness.

2. This excited their jealousy, and
led them bitterly to hate the English.





Stonington? Fairfield?
place in 1643 ?
1, 2, 8. Relate what is said of the feelings of

13. What event took







THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

Besides this, quarrels gccasio: ally arosé
between the white inhabitants and the
savages. Whether these originated with
the English or the Indians, the latter
were always sure to be thought in the
wrong, and were punished by the white
people accordingly.

3. In short, the Indians had discoy-
ered that the English, being wiser and
more artful than they, were likely soon
to become their masters ; and the hatred
thus excited was aggravated by acts of
injustice and oppression, committed on
the part of the English towards the say-
ages.

4. There lived, about this time, in
Rhode Island, an Indian, who was called
King Philip by the English. He was
chief of the Wampanoags, and lived at
Mount Hope, near Bristol. The coun-
try was then called Pokanoket.

5. Philip, being a man of great sa-
gacity, saw that, unless the English col-
onies were checked, the Indians would,
in the course of a few years, cease te
exist as independent tribes. After re-
flecting upon these things, he resolved
to make one great effort to drive the
English from the land, and free his
country from such dangerous intruders.

6. Accordingly he visited, in secret,
several of the tribes in New England.
He conversed with the chiefs, and told
them that, if they remained inactive, in
a few years the beautiful rivers, and
hills, and forests, which had descended
from their fathers, would cease to be
their inheritance. ‘He described the
English as crafty, longsighted, and
greedy, who added township to town-
ship, and colony to colony, and who
would never be content until they pos-
se > A eee fe ee
the Indians when they perceived the rapid in-
crease of the white men. 4. Who was King
Philip? 5. What resolution did he adopt in
reference to the white men? 6, 7, What meas

:





sessed every foot of land east of the
udson.

7. He prophesied the gradual de-
crease, and the final extinction, of all
those tribes who once reigned over the
whole Jand. He told them that their

Philip addressing the Indian Chiefs.

forests would be cut down, that their
hunting’ grounds would be soon taken
from them, that their warriors would be
slain, their children wander forth in pov-
erty, their chiefs be beggars, and their
tribes be scattered and lost like the au-
tumn leaves.

8. To remedy these evils, Philip pro-
posed that a mighty effort should be
made, by all the tribes in New England,
to destroy the English. He had little
difficulty in bringing the chiefs into his
schemes. A general effort was agreed
upon, and soon the war began.

9. In June, 1675, as the people of
Swanzey, in Plymouth colony, were
returning home from church, a sudden
attack was made by some Indians upon
them. At this period, the Indians were
supplied with muskets, powder, and ball,
and they had learned to use fire-arms
with considerable skill.

10. In a few moments, therefore, eight



are did he adopt to carry his resolution into
effect? 8. What did he propose? 9, 10, When

’

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY. 43

or nine of the inhabitants of Swanzey
were killed. The country was immedi-
ately alarmed, and the people flew to
the succor of the inhabitants from all
quarters. An attack was made upon
the Indians the next morning, and s¢ve
eral of. them were killed.

11. This resolute conduct awed tas
Indians ; and Philip himself, expecting
an attack, fled from Mount Hope witb
his warriors. It was soon ascertained
that they had gone to a swamp in Pocas-
set, now Tiverton. The white people
followed them thither, and, entering the
swamp, pursued them till night. They
were then obliged to retreat.

12. The English, finding it impossible

| to encounter the enemy in the swamp,

determined to surround it, and starve
them out. But Philip guessed their
design, and privately stole away with
his men.

—

CHAPTER ‘XXI.
NEW ENGLAND—ConrTiNnveED.

1. I can hardly tell you all that hap-
pened during the bloody war that fol-
lowed. In all parts of New England,
the Indians seemed to be moved by a
spirit of deadly revenge. They set the
town of Springfield on fire, and no less
than thirty houses were consumed.

2. About eighty young men were at+
tacked at Muddy Brook, as they were
employed in transporting some grain
from Deerfield to Hadley. They had
no idea that an enemy was at hand.
They had stopped a moment with their
and how did the war commence? Where is
Swanzey? 11, 12. What was the result of the
attack the next morning? Where is Mount
Hope? Tiverton?

1, What event occurred at Springfield ? Where
is Springfield? 2,3. At Muddy Brook? Whers





46

teams, and were gathering some grapes
Ly the roadside.

8. Sudden as the thunderbolt the sav-
age yell broke upon their ears. They
were immediately surrounded by the
{ndians; and, having no arms, they were
incapable of defence. Seventy of them
were shot down, and these were all
buried in one grave.

4, In New Hampshire and Maine,
the Indians fell upon the towns, set the
houses on fire, and killed the inhabitants.
At Saco, Dover, Exeter, and other
places, they committed the most dreadful
outrages.

5. In Massachusetts, they attacked
Quaboag, now Brookfield, and burnt all
the houses except one, in which the in-
habitants had taken refuge. This they
also assailed; and for two days, inces-
santly, they poured their musket shot
upon it. A great multitude of balls
passed through the sides of the house,
but only one person in it was killed.



6. Finding it impossible to destroy
the people in this way, they attempted

is Deerfield? Hadley? 4. What events in New
Hampshire and Maine? Where is Saco? Do-
ver? Exeter? For what are these places now
distinguished? (See New Hampshire and Maine.)
5 6,7. 8 Describe the attack o' the Indians up-

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,




to set fire to the house, With long_
poles, they thrust against it firebrands
and rags dipped in brimstone. They
shot arrows of fire upon it, and finally ~
they loaded a cart with flax and tow,
set it on fire, and pushed it against the
house.

7. The curling flame was soon com-.
municated to the building; and now,
feeling certain of their prey, the savages
took their station so that they might cut
down those who should attempt to es-
cape. But in this moment of peril, the
white men were saved, as if by the hand
of Heaven. A sudden shower fell upon
the flames, and at once extinguished
them.

8. Soon after, Major Willard; with
some soldiers, came to their relief.. He
attacked the Indians, killed a number
of them, and the rest fled.

9. At length it was thought necessary
to humble the Narragansetts. They
were a powerful tribe in Rhode Island,
and occupied a fort of great strength.
Near two thousand white men went
against them. The fort was built on
a hill in the centre of a swamp, and in
it there were four thousand Indian war-
riors.

10. There was but one entrance {fo
the fort. This was accidentally discoy-
ered by the white men, and they gal-
lantly rushed in to attack the enemy.
But the Indians met them, and many
of the English were killed. They were
at length obliged to retreat; but, by and
by, some Connecticut troops entered the
fort on the opposite side, and at the same
moment the attack was vigorously *re-
newed at the entrance.

“11. The Indians were now cut down
with dreadful slaughter. The fort was »
taken, and six hundred wigwams were



on Brookfield. Where is Brookfield? 9,10, 12







“get on fire, and burnt to the ground.
More than one thousand of the Indian
warriors were killed, and three hundred
_ were taken prisoners.

12. Such were some of the events
of this remarkable war. For near two

ears, almost every part of New Eng-

d was a scene of bloodshed. But,

‘although the Indians killed great num-
bers of white people, yet their own loss
was far greater. In truth, they never
recovered from the many reverses which
they experienced.

13. Although there were, perhaps, ten
times as many of them as of the white
people, yet such were the superior skill
and management of the latter, that the
Indians were effectually defeated, and
their power in New England was finally
overthrown.

14. At length the war was closed by

» the death of Philip. He was found in a
swamp near Mount Hope, with several
other Indians. Captain Church, with a
few white men, surrounded the swamp
at night.

15. When the morning came, Philip,
perceiving that he could not escape,
rushed towards the spot where some of
the white men lay. An English soldier
levelled his gun, but it missed fire. An
Indian, who was of the party, took de-
liberate aim, and shot the chief through
the heart. Thus fell the most celebrated
of all the Indian chiefs. From this time,
the Indians, finding further resistance
vain, began to submit to the English.
The struggle was continued a while in
Maine, but that soon ended, and no gen-
eral effort was ever after made, on the
om of the Indians, to subdue the Eng-

ish.

16. This war, the story of which I

12, 13. Describe the attack made upon the Nar-
tagansett Indians. 14,15. What event closed
the war? 16. How long did the war continue ?



COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.





47

have just related, continued from the
year 1675 till 1678. About six hundred
white men were killed in the struggle,
thirteen towns were destroyed, and six
hundred dwelling houses burnt. These
were dreadful losses to the poor colo-
nists, but the unhappy Indians suffered
still more.

17. Their chiefs and their principal
men were nearly all killed. Their wig-
wams were burnt; they were driven
from their homes; and now, defeated
and subdued, their situation was one
which may well excite our pity. Sav-
age life, in its happiest state, is a mis-
erable condition ; but the New England
Indians had now lost their independence,
and all that savages hold most dear.

18. From that period they rapidly di-
minished ; most of the tribes are now
extinct, and a few hundreds are all that
remain of a mighty people, that once
threatened to drive our forefathers from
this land.

—~—

CHAPTER XXII.
NEW ENGLAND—ContTinvep.

1. Soon after Philip’s war, the colo-
nies began to be involved in difficulty
with England. The King of England
claimed these colonies as his own, and
he, with the Parliament, made certain
laws respecting trade and comm:rce
with America.

2. Now, it was pretended that the col-
onies had violated these laws, and there-
fore the king determined to take away
their charters. These charters were of
great importance, for they gave the col-
onies many privileges. The king whe

Describe the losses of the colonists. 17. Of the
Indians. 18. What was their condition from
this time ?

1, 2. In what trouble were the colonists in



4 THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY, .

reigned in England at the time was
James II. He sent Sir Edmund Andros
over to this country, to take away the
charters of all the New England colo-
nies, except Plymouth.

3. He also appointed Sir Edmund
governor over all the colonies whose
charters he thus proposed to take away.
Accordingly he came. I have told you
how the charter of Connecticut was hid
in an oak tree ; but Sir Edmund assumed
the government of the New England
colonies, although he could not find that
charter.

4. At first he governed the people
pretty well; but by and by, he did many
things which displeased them very much.
Many unjust and oppressive laws were
passed, and the people saw that Sir
Edmund had no regard to their happi-
ness and prosperity in his administration.

5. Sir Edmund began to rule in 1686.
Two years after, the news arrived that
James II., King of England, had become
so unpopular as to be obliged to leave
the country, and that a new king, Wil-
liam III., had taken his place on the
throne. This news gave the colonies
great joy, for they hated James II. on
account of his conduct towards them, and
especially on account of the governor,
Sir Edmund Andros, whom he had sent
to rule over them.

6. Under the excitement of this joy,
the people of Boston seized Sir Edmund
and about fifty of his associates, and put
them in prison. There they remained
for some time; they were then sent to



y‘ lved with England during the reign of James
IL.? Whom did he send to take away the char-
ters? What is a charter ? Answer. A writing
bestowing privileges or rights. 3. Whom did the
king appoint governor? 4. How did he admin-
ister the government? 65. What event occurred
in England in 1688? How was the news of this
zevolution received in this country? 6, What
was done with Sir Hdmund and his associates?





i




England, to be tried for their miscon
duct. "{

7. I will now relate what may
to you very strange. In the year 1692,
two children of Mr. Parris, a minister in
Salem, Massachusetts, were taken sick.
They were affected in a very singular
manner, and the physicians were sent for.
They were at a loss to account for the
disorder, and one of them finally said
they must be bewitched.

8. The children, hearing this, and
being in great distress, declared that an
Indian woman, living in the house, had
bewitched them. Mr. Parris believed
what the children said; the Indian wo-
man was accused of the crime, and, ina
state of agitation and alarm, partially
confessed herself guilty. This affair ex-
cited great attention; many people came
to see these little children, and they
were very much pitied.

9. By and by, other children ima-
gined that they were affected in a similar
manner, and they said that they were
secretly tormented by an old woman in
the neighborhood. All these things
were believed, and more children and
several women soon declared themselves
bewitched. They charged several per-
sons with being the authors of their
distress. °

10. They pretended that these per-
sons entered their rooms through key- —
holes, or cracks in the window, pinched
their flesh, pricked them with needles,
and tormented them in the most cruel
manner. Nobody could see these tor-
mentors but the sufferers themselves,
although several persons might be in the
room where one of the bewitched was
wailing and shrieking, from the pinches
of the witch.

11. Strange as it may seem, this mat-

7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12,18, 14,16, 16. Give an account
of the Salem itchonnle





ter, instead of being regarded as a delu-

_ sion, was thought to be founded in reality.
The people in those days believed that

the devil sometimes gave to certain per-
‘sons great power for purposes of evil.
These persons were said to deal with
the devil, and they were considered very
wicked.

12. The business they were supposed
to carry on with him was called witch-
craft, and any person under their influ-
ence was said to be bewitched. In Eng-
land, Parliament had thought it neces-
sary to make severe lawsagainst witch-
craft. Several persons there had been
condemned and executed under those
laws. It was now thought proper to
proceed in a similar manner at Salem.
Accordingly, those persons accused of
practising witchcraft upon their neigh-
hors were put in prison, and a court was
formed to try them. :

13. Many of them were examined
and found guilty, and some, under the
influence of a distempered imagination,
confessed that they were guilty. The
business at length reathed a very alarm-
‘ing height. Nineteen persons had been
executed, one hundred and fifty were in
prison, and many more were accused.

14. In this state of things, the people
began to doubt the correctness of their
proceedings. They examined the sub-

_ ject more carefully, and were very soon

* satisfied that they had acted rashly.
The judges of the court also began to
take different views of the subject.
Those who were brought to trial were
therefore acquitted, and those in prison
were released.

15. Thus ended this extraordinary
delusion. We at the present day, who
know that there is no such thing as
witchcraft, cannot but wonder that our
ancestors should have believed in it, and
that many persons should have been

4

COMBINED WI1H GEOGRAP TY.





49

hung for a crime that was only imagi-
nary. But we should remember that it
was a common error. of that age.

16. It was not an invention of their
own. They received their notions from
England, and it was natural that they
should act agreeably to them. We must
do them the justice to say, however, that
they very soon discovered their error,
and expressed their sorrow for it.

—~—

CHAPTER XXIII.
NEW ENGLAND—ConrTiInvueEpD.

1. Soon after the accession of Wil-
liam III. to the throne of England, a
war broke out between that country and
France. At this time, the French had
several settlements in Canada, extending
along the River St. Lawrence, and in-
cluding Montreal and Quebec. They
had also several forts on Lake Cham-
plain and Lake George.

2. The war between France and Eng-
land, in Europe, of course extended to
their American colonies. The French
from Canada, assisted by large numbers
of Indians, invaded several parts of New
England, burnt the houses of the inhab-
itants, killed many of the people, and
carried large numbers of men, wonien,
and children into captivity.

8. The cruelties practised during this
war almost exceed belief. ‘Towns were

1. What war occurred soon.after the accession
of William III.? Note. When James II. ‘abdi-
cated the throne, he fled to France. The king
of that country lent him an army to assist him
in his attempts to regain the throne. This led
to a war between France and England, which
extended to the colonies in this country. Where
had the French settlements in this country ?
Describe the River St. Lawrence. Where is
Montreal? Quebec? Lake Champlain? Lake
George? 2,3, What was done by the French



50

attacked at midnight, and in midwin- |! ing his little family, defending himself,

ter; the people were often killed in
their beds, and those whose lives were
spared were torn from their homes, and
obliged to exdure sufferings worse than
death. The history of these things is
too painful for my little readers; I will,
therefore, only tell them one story of this
eruel war.

4. In the winter of 1696, a party of
Indians made an attack on the town of
Haverhill, Massachusetts. Among the
people of that town was a Mr. Dunstan.
He was in a field at work, when the news
of the attack reached his ears. He im-
mediately started, and ran to his house
to save his family. He had seven chil-
dren, and these he collected for the pur-
pose of taking them to a place of safety
before the Indians should arrive.

5. His wife was sick, and she had an
infant but a week old. He now hurried
to her, but before she could get ready to
leave the house, Mr. Dunstan perceived
that a party of the savages were already
close to his dwelling. Expecting that all
would be slain, he ran to the door and
mounted his horse, with the intention of
taking one of his children,—the one
that he» loved best,—and flying with
it to a place of safety.

6. But which should he take? Which
of his seven children should he leave to
the savages? He could not decide, and
therefore, telling the children to run for-
ward, he placed himself between them
and the Indians. The savages dis-
charged their guns at him, but they did
not hit him. He had a gun too, and he
fired back at them.

7. 'Then he hurrisd his little children
along, loaded his gin as he went, and
fired at his pursuers. Thus he pro-
ceeded for more than a mile — protect-



and Indians? 4, 6, 6,7, 8,9, 10, 11. Relate the

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY, :

and keeping the enemy at a distance,
At length, he reached a place of safety,
and there, with feelings of joy which



Mr. Dunstan saving his Children.

cannot be described, he placed his chil
dren beyond the reach of the Indians.

8. But Mrs. Dunstan was destined to
undergo the severest trials. Although
she was very ill, the savages compelled
her, with the nurse and her little infant,
to go with them. They soon left the
town of Haverhill, and set out to go to
the homes of the Indians. These were
at the distance of one hundred and fifty
miles. You must recollect that it was
winter, and the journey was to be per-
furmed on foot through the wilderness.

9. Mrs. Dunstan and the nurse were
soon overcome with fatigue. The In-
dians, perceiving that the little in-
fant occupied much of their attention,
snatched it from the mother, ard killed
the little innocent by striking it against
a tree. After a toilsome march and the
greatest suffering, Mrs. Dunstan and her
companion completed the journey.

10. But now the Indians concluded
to remove to a distant place, and these
two women were forced to accompany



story of Mr. Dunstan and his family. 13

f

a |



.









em. When th2y reached the end of
their journey, they discovered they were
to undergo severe torture. They there-
fore determined, if possible, to make their
“escape.
di. One night, Mrs. Dunstan, the
nurse, and another woman, rose secretly
while the Indians were asleep. There
were ten of them in the wigwam where
they were. These the women killed
with their own hands, and then departed.
After wandering a long time in the
woods, they reached Haverhill, and Mrs.
Dunstan was restored to her family.
This is a strange story, but I believe it
is perfectly true.

12. A few years after the war of
which I have just been telling you,
another war occurred between England
and France, which extended to the col-
onies in this country, and occasioned
great distress. It was called Queen
Anne’s war. This war commenced in
1702, and the French and Indians im-
mediately invaded New England. In
_ 1704, a party of French and Indians

made an attack on Deerfield. It was at

night, and in the midst of winter. All
the people were asleep; they had no
fear that an enemy was at hand. The
sudden yell of the savages burst on their
ears, and they then knew the dreadful
scene that was coming.
', 13. The town was set on fire, forty-
seven of the people were killed, and one
hundred men, women, and children were
carried into captivity. Among these
were Mr. Williams, a clergyman, and
his wife and five ehildren. They set out

What war occurred in 1702? Note. England,
_ Holland, and Germany formed an alliance against
_ France in 1701, to prevent the union of France
‘| ond Spain. The war whi?h followed in 1702. is
i ‘known i in English histories by the name of “ the

»



COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY. 51

on foot, and began their journey through
the snow.

14. On the second day, Mrs. Williams,
who was in bad health, was very weary,
and unable to keep up with the rest.
Her husband was not allowed to assist
her, and she seemed to be on the point
of fainting from weakness and fatigue.
At this time, one of the Indians came up
to her and killed her.

15. The other party then went on, but
seventeen other persons were killed by
the savages before they arrived in
Canada. Mr. Williams was kindly
treated by the French people there, and
after two years he returned, with fifty-
seven other captives, to Deerfield. He
was minister of that town for twelve
years after his return, and then died.

16. This story affords a fair example
of the cruelties of this war. It continued
till the year 1713. The people of the
colonies suffered very much; they made
several attempts to take Canada from
the French. Queen Anne sent over a
considerable number of troops to assist
them in doing so. But this project
failed. They, however, took Port Royal,
now called Annapolis, in Nova Scotia.

17. At length, in 1713, the French
and English made peace with each other
in Europe, and the war ceased there,
and in the colonies also. From this
time, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland
belonged to. the English. Canada still
belonged to the French, and continued
so till the year 1763, when it was ceded
to the British ; and it has since remained
subject to that government. ’

war of the Spanish succession.” In this coun-
try it was called ‘‘ Queen Anne’s war.” 12,13, 14,
15. Relate the attack on Deerfield. 16. How long
did the war continue? 16,17, What was the rev
sult of the war?

e



52

CHAPTER XXIV.
NEW ENGLAND—ConrTinveED.

1. I £m sorry that I have but little to
tell you about this period, except tales
of war. It is painful to read the history
of times. gone by, and learn what dread-
ful sufferings have been endured by the
generations that have lived before us.
But painful as it is, we must still read
it. It may teach us the sad conse-
quences of war, and show us how much
better it is to be always at peace.

2. In the past ages of the world, kings,
and generals, and great men have been
fond of making war, and I am afraid
that some people are disposed to applaud
them for it. But the wisest and best
of men look upon all wars as evils, and
they deem those persons very wicked
who promote a war that can safely be
avoided.

8. About the year 1722, the Indian
tribes in Maine, and along the eastern
and northern border, made war upon the
English settlers. These Indians often
attacked the people in Maine, Massa-
chusetts, and New Hampshire, and an-
noyed them very much. But in 1725,
this war ceased.

4, In 1744, England and France were
again involved in strife. George I.
was then King of England, and this war
is called King George’s war, or the war
of the Austrian succession. The most
important event to New England, that
took place during this period, was the
capture of Louisburg. This was a very
strongly-fortified town, belonging to the
French, on the Island of Cape Breton,
in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

1, In reading the history of wars, what lesson
ean we learn? 2. How do wise and good men
regard wars? 3. What troubles occurred with
the Indiangin 1722? 4. When did King George’s
war co! ? What important event oc-

THE FIRST BOOK uF HISTORY,



5. Here they kept many ships, and
in time of war, these drove away the
English and American sailors, who went
to the banks of Newfoundland to catch
codfish. To take Louisburg was, there-
fore, a great object. To accomplish this, ~
the colonies united, and sent about four
thousand three hundred men against it,
under the command of Sir William Pep-
perell. They went in twelve ships and
some smaller vessels.

6. They arrived at Louisburg the
last of April, 1744. They were occu-
pied fourteen days in drawing their can-
non across a swamp, so as to bring them ~
near the town. They then besieged it;
that is, they surrounded it both by land
and water. They also made frequyeut
attacks upon the soldiers in the forts.

7. This continued till the 15th June,
when the French commander requested
them to stop, and on the 19th he sur-
rendered the place into the hands of the
Americans. Thus Louisburg and the
Island of Cape Breton came into the
possession of the English.

8. In 1748, France and England
again made peace, and the colonies once —
more enjoyed tranquillity. But this did
not last long. A still more extensive
and important war was at hand. This
commenced in 1755, and it is called in —
this. country the French and Indian
war. I have seen many of the old
soldiers that were engaged in it, and
they have told me many stories about
it. I shall tell you some of these by
and by.

9. But as several colonies besides those
of New England were engaged in this
war, and as it was carried on chiefly in —
Canada, and along the remote parts of



curred during this war? 5,6, 7. Describe the
capture of Louisburg. 8. When did the war ter:
minate? What war was commenced in 1755?
“10, What places became subject to Great Britain.







the country, it does not seem proper to

ive an account of it while I am only
‘telling you the history of New England.
After I have told you about the other
colonies, I shall give you an account of
the French war.

10. I need only say now, that New
England took an active part in it, and
that her soldiers contributed very much
to the success of the British arms. The
whole of Canada was conquered by the
English, and from that time to the pres-
ent, it, together with Nova Scotia, New-
foundland, and Cape Breton, has been
subject to Great Britain. This war was
closed by a treaty of peace, made at
- Paris, in 1763.

11. It was about the time that this
peace was concluded, that the people of
America began to be agitated by the
coming revolution. The conduct of the
British king and Parliament was marked
with selfishness from the first settle-
ment of the country.

12. I mean by this, that in the laws
they had passed, the regulations they
had made, and the officers they had

- appointed, for America, they had it less
in view to promote the happiness and
prosperity of the colonies, than to make
them profitable to England, the mother
country.

18. Yet, in spite of this unjust policy,
the people here loved and honored the
king, and cherished the strongest attach-
ment to Old England. Many of the
inhabitants had come from that country,
and the rest had,descended from Eng-
lish emigrants. England was, therefore,
always spoken of as Home, the Mother
Country, the Land of their Fathers.
By such tender epithets did the colo-

‘nies express the affection they felt for
England.
at the close of this war? 11,12. What new

troubles agitated the people soon after the treaty
| of peace in 1763? 18. How did the people feel

Â¥
7 :

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.





ad

14. But these feelings were no secu-
rity against injustice. The British Par.
liament passed a series of acts relating
to America, from 1760 to 1770, which
roused the indignation of the people,
and brought on the revolutionary war.
New. England took a leading part in
this noble struggle.

15. I shall have occasion to tell you
many interesting things that happened
in this section of the country during
that war. But as the whole nation was
engaged in it, I shall defer my account
of it till I have told you the history of
the other colonies.

—~—

CHAPTER XXV.
THE PURITANS.,

1. As stated in the preceding chap-
ter, the separate history of the New
England colonies properly closes about
the time of the last French war. They
then began to act in concert with the
other colonies, and from that period their
history is soon lost in that of the nation.
But before that time, the history of New
England is but little connected with the
other parts of the country.

2. The Dutch, having settled New
York, interrupted the intercourse -be-
tween New England and the more south-
ern English colonies ; but they were not
more separated by this circumstance than
by difference of character. New Eng-
land was settled almost wholly by the
Puritans. }

8. These were very peculiar people.



towards England? 14. What caused the revo-
lutionary war ?

1. When did the people of New England be-
gin to act in concert with the other colonies?
2. What tended to interrupt the intercourse be-
tween New England and the ae colonies at
the south? 8, 4, 6,6, 7“ What said of the





sl

They held religion to be of the greatest
importance. They loved the services
of religion, and it was one of their great-
est enjoyments to meet together and
worship in their own way. ‘They spent
much time in praying to God in secret.
They read the Scriptures with a deep

and careful interest, and they held’it to
be the great business of this life to make

preparation for another.

4. Such were the views and feelings
of the Puritans. In England, they were
miserable, for they could not indulge
their religious feelings, and express their
religious opinions in peace. They were
ridiculed, despised, and persecuted. To
them, therefore, the wilderness of Amer-
ica was a better place than England;
for there, in the woods, they could as-
semble together, and worship God in

‘their own way, without reproach and
without opposition.

5. In coming’ to this country, there-
fore, the principal object of these people
was to enjoy their religion. Being all
of one mind, they seemed not to foresee
that future generations would be divided
in opinion; and, taking the example of
the Jews, they proposed to form a com-
munity as nearly as possible according
to the ancient Jewish system.

6. Some time after the colonies were
settled, persons came among them, and

began to preach doctrines different from
their own. The Puritans had never
thought. of allowing people to enter the
colonies, and utter sentiments and opin-
ions different from those held by the
first settlers,

7. They had no idea of free toleration
to all religions; they therefore commit-
ted the same error that had driven them
from England. They withheld charity
from their opponents; they gave them



Puritans? 8,9, 10, 11, 12. Relate some of the



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,













hard names ; they imprisoned s
ished some, and put others to d :

8. I have told you how Roger’
liams was expelied Vall I will now
you some other things of a similar
ture. About the year 1650, several
sons in the Plymouth and Massachuset
colonies adopted the sentiments of th
Baptists, and were, of course, exec
municated from the churches to whi
they belonged.

9. After this, Mr. Clark, a Bapt
clergyman of Rhode Island, came in
Massachusetts, with two other Ree
named Holmes and Cranfield. One Sab-
bath morning, as they had assembled for
worship, they were seized by the publie
officers, and forcibly carried to the Con-
gregational Church, where they were
kept during the service. Mr. Clark
refused to take off his hat; so he sat
with it on, and when the minister began
to pray, he took a book out of his pocket,
and amused himself with reading. When
the service was done, he addressed the
people, and explained his conduct.

10. These three Baptists were tried
by a court, a fortnight after this, and
sentenced as follows: Mr. Clark was
to pay a fine of about one hundred dol-
lars, Mr. Holmes‘about one hundred and
fifty, and Mr. Cranfield about twenty-
five dollars. In case they refused, they
were to be publicly whipped. 'They all
refused; but Mr. Clark’s fine was pri-
vately paid by his friends. Cranfield
was released, and Holmes suffered the
sentence of the court.

11. He received a number of cruel
lashes upon the naked back, which he
endured with great fortitude. T'wo of
his friends were present, and after the
punishment was over, they shook handg
with him, and praised him for his cour-



proceedings ef the Puritans towards the Baptista %










1 constancy. For this act, these
e tried and sentenced to pay

hillings, or to be publicly whipped.
s were, however, paid by. their

uch were some of the proceed-
t the Baptists; but still more
ps were taken in respect to the
ers. Of these I will now give you
account.

" CHAPTER XXVI.
TE E PURITANS—ConrTINvED.

Tue first Quakers that came into
Massachusetts were Mary Leisher and
Anna Austin, who reached Boston, from
England, by way of the West Indies, in
1656. They brought with them some
Quaker books, which the deputy gov-
ernor caused to be burnt by the hang-
man, while the women themselves were
t in prison. Here they were kept
in close confinement for five weeks, no
person being permitted to converse with
them even through the window. They
were finally sent back to the West In-
dies, in a ship, and the jailer kept their
beds and Bible for his trouble.

2. A short time after this, eight other
Quakers came to Boston, who were im-
mediately put in prison, where they
were kept elever’ weeks. Very severe
laws were then passed, banishing all
Quakers from the colony, upon pain of
death. But the greater the cruelty with
which they were treated, the more they
flocked to the colonies.

3. At length, four of them, who had
been banished, having returned, were
apprehended, convicted, and sentenced
to death. They were then led out,

1, 2, 3. How did the Puritans treat the Qua-

a

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.





55

j and executed, agreeably to the sentence.

They died with great courage, and de-
clared to the people, who were assem-
bled, that they rejoiced in their death,
and thanked God that he had given
them this opportunity to attest the truth
and sincerity of their faith. Thus they
died triumphing, at the very gallows,
over their persecutors.

4, These cruelties had an effect di-
rectly opposite to that intended by the
Puritans. It led the people in the first
place to pity them, then to defend, and
finally to agree -with them. Instead,
therefore, of suppressing either the Bap-
tists or the Quakers, the laws and pro-
ceedings against them actually induced
a great many persons to join those
sects.-

5. It is very certain that the New
England fathers made great mistakes in
this matter; but we must consider that
these things happened almost two hun-
dred years ago. The idea, now so com-
mon, and now so clear to us all, that
every person has a right to worship God
in his own way, had not then entered
into the minds of men. Our forefathers
were not alone in their narrow views;
all over the world mankind were in
darkness on this subject.

6. The shadow has indeed passed
away from our own country. Here,
every man may freely choose in what
manner he will hold communion with
his God. But in many parts of the
world, even now, there are persons who
suffer much on account of their faith.
There are, I think, even in our own
land, at this very day, those who are
spoken of unkindly and uncharitably,
because of their religion.

7. Let us not, therefore, think toa

kers? 4. What effect did their cruelties have?
5, 6. What can be said in extenuation of theif
faults? 7, 8,9. Describe the virtues, the wis



harshly of the New England fathers for || of a soldier. The guns are all j
their limited views upon this subject. || together near the meeting-house
Let us look rather at their virtues; their || and one man is stationed there to

patience under misfortune ; their steady
endurance of cold, hunger, want, and
privation ; their deep and fervent piety ;
their strict observance of what they
deemed right; and their stern rejection
of whatever they thought wrong.

8. Let us look also at the wisdom of
these men. “They immediately established
schools for the education of, all classes.
This was a noble thought, and one that
had not yet entered into the heads of
the wisest men in Europe. Observe
their courage, vigor, and enterprise in
war ; how ready they all were to assem-
ble at the moment of danger, whether it
came from their savage or civilized foes !

9. Consider their self-denial. The la-
bors of thé field, the services of religion,

duties, engaged their whole attention.
They had no amusements; they had
parted with them all. They were brave,
stern men, ready to die, if God so or-

dained it; yet resolute in discharging all |

the duties of life so long as it lasted.
10. To give you a more lively idea of

the character of our New England an- |
cestorsyE will sketch a picture of what |

might have been seen, in avy of the New
England villages, in the earlier part of
their history.

11. We will suppose it to be the morn- |

ing of the Sabbath. Surrounded by a
few houses, some of them built of logs,
and some of boards, is a small brown
building, without a steeple; this is the
meeting house. At the appointed hour,
the worshippers are seen gathering to
the church from various quarters.

12, But each man carries a gun, and
over his shoulder he has the trappings

dom, and he self-denial of the Puritans. 10,
41,12 Describe the picture. 13, 14, 15,16. Why

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISiORY,









A New England Church in early Times,

the alarm, if the Indians are seen to be
| approaching the spot. Thus prepared

|| to fly to the defence of their houses and
the calls of war, and their domestic |

their families, they enter the house of
God, and there they worship. How
| powerful must have been the motive
| which drove our fathers from England
into the wilderness, to live a life like this!

13. I will sketch another picture. We
will suppose it to be a week day —a day
of labor. You sée a man going with his
scythe into the field; but he is armed
with a musket. You see a man plough-
ing, and another hoeing his corn; they
have each muskets lashed to their backs.

14. You see a man on horseback,
going from one village to another; he,
too, is armed. You see a man removing
with his family to some distant settle-
ment; he is provided with the méans of
instant defence.

15. Thus lived our New England
fathers for more than one generation.
They were in a state of constant prepa-
ration for attack ; always supposing that
the next instant an Indian arrow, or an





did they go constantly armed? 17. What effect


















bullet, might be in the air, speed-

deadly aim to the heart.

was this all. The woods were

d animals. At night, the

uld come about the houses and

ad often carry off a sheep or a

Tf a traveller on foot lingered in

est till sunset, he heard the howl

hungry beasts upon his track ;
aps a bear crossed his path, turn-

; with a wistful look; or a pan-

glared on him from the branches

me aged oak; or the lonely ery of
wildcat filled his ears.

. A people living under circum-

unces like these, surrounded by datigers,

ured to toil, strangers to relaxation and
musement ; living partly on the flesh
deer, which they hunted in the woods,
partly upon the fruits yielded by the

s to their own labor; were likely to

ssess great courage, sternness, and de-

cision of character. And such, indeed,
were leading peculiarities of the New
ingland settlers.

18. There can be no doubt that many
of our blessings, in New England, have
descended to us from the Pilgrim Fa-
thers. The abundance of our schools,

_ the love and reverence felt for religion,
and, as consequences of these, the intel-
ligence and morality of the people gen-
erally, are things for which we have to
thank the piety and wisdom of the Pu-
ritans.

=———

CHAPTER XXVIII.

NEW YORK.

1. New York is the richest and most
populous of the United States. Its ter-
ritory is very extensive, but it is not so



did their trials and sufferings have upon their
eharacter? 18, What are some of the blessings
transmitted t> us by the Puritans ?

1. How is New York boinded? What is said







|| lakes.



COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY. 57

large as some of the other states. The
land is in general fertile, and some of it
is exceedingly so. The means of water
communication in this state are unri-
valled: in the eastern part is the Hud-
son River, which is navigated by sloops
and steamboats for one hundred and sixty
miles. On the east and north are Lakes
George and Champlain, the St. Law-
rence, and Lake Ontario. On the west
is Lake Erie.

2. The Erie Canal extends the whole
length of the state, from east to west,
and connects the waters of the great lakes
with the Hudson. This river and canal
are connected, by branch canals, with the
Delaware, Susquehanna, and Alleghany
Rivers on the south, and with Lakes
Champlain and Ontario on the north.
Besides these, there are, in the interior,.

a great number of smaller streams and)

lakes, navigable by boats. I believe
there is not a spot of the same extent on
the earth more favored by water com-
munication than the State of New
York.

3. The produce of almost every portion
of the state may be easily carried to the
city of New York, which is the largest
city in North America, and one of the
greatest commercial places in the world.
It contains upwards of 500,000 inhabit-
ants. Situated at the mouth of the
Hudson River, it receives not only the
produce of the State of New York, but
of other states bordering on the great
This produce is sent in vessels to
Boston, Charleston, New Orleans, Cali-
fornia, Liverpool, Havre, and other parts
of the world.



ofit? Describe the means of water communi-
cation. 2. Describe the Erie Canal. With what,
other waters are the Erie Canal and Hudson
River connected? 3, To what great city is the
produce of the state mostly carried? What ig
said of New York city? To what places is the

&



58

4, There are many curious things to
be seen in the city of New York. We
must visit Broadway, which is one of the
finest streets in the world. Here we
shall see a great many ladies and gentle-
men, very gayly dressed, and we shall
see some old women sitting down on the
pavements, with oranges, and apples, and
nuts to sell. And we shall see a great
many coaches, omnibuses, and drays, in
the streets, and we must be very careful
that we are not knocked down and run
over by some of them.

5. We must stop and admire the City
Mall, which is an elegant building of



City Hall in New York.

white marble. In the Park we shall see
a beautiful fountain, supplied by the

"Croton Aqueduct. This aqueduct is for-
ty-one “miles Jong, and supplies the city
with an abundance of excellent water.
The Merchants’ Exchange in Wall Street,
Trinity Church in Broadway, and the
Custom House, are splendid and costly
edifices.

6. We must now go down into Pearl
Street, and there we shall see the mer-
chants so busy, and in such a hurry, that
they almost run over each other. There

produce brought to New York sent? 4, 5, 6.
What are some of the curious things to be seen in
the city of New York? 7. What is said of the

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,





we shall hear a great rattling of
and we shall see every body walki
fast, and a great tumbling about of
boxes, bags, and barrels. After
must go to the Battery, which is a
some promenade on the border 6
Bay. Here we shall see a multitude
vessels from all parts of the world,
masts look like a forest stripped of lew
These, and the steamboats constar
crossing the river and bay, and
ally arriving from distant cities or fe
ports, show the extensive trade and
merce of this great city. “ee
7. The State of New York is remarke
able for the natural objects which attract
the attention of the traveller. The sce
nery along the Hudson is unrivalled for











Scenery on the Hudson.

its beauty. It was upon this river that
steamboats were first brought into use
They were invented by the celebrated
Robert Fulton, of New York, in the
year 1803. There was but one beat on
the river for a longtime. But now there
are a great many. Sometimes one of
these boats carries more than a thousand
passengers. They are very rapid, and
will go from Albany to New York, a

Hudson River? Whatis its course? Where does
itempty ? What is said ofits scenery? Of the







Lou. West

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Magura Fal

TOs, eR eB” ae
: f ~S Uatail oak Be ns ie ee
“ Ro oO h e : Oa eee
: v RGR: , veonwood Bunt Rew

———

Top3,090,022 $y {MAG.000

(EW YORK)

; Scale of Miles
20 0 ©=6 40—C—C GOB

Pi.

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ns
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ut seven hours. :

e of these boats. Let us suppose
we make a trip, in this state, from
y of New York to Niagara Falls.
ay we go, dashing through the water
fine style, passing some of the most
utiful scenery in the world; and by
d by, we come to the Palisadoes, which
e very high, perpendicular rocks, on
. west side of the river. In some
aces they rise to the height of 500 feet.
. We soon arrive at West Point,
vyhere there is an excellent academy, in
Which young men receive a military
education. Soon after leaving this place,
we reach Newburg, of which we have a
full view from the river. We next come
to Poughkeepzie, one of the handsomest
towns in the state. After this, we come
to the Catskill Mountains. These are
tall, blue mountains, which seem to reach
to the clouds. A great many travellers
ascend them, and they tell us that the
rospect from them is truly sublime.
There is here a béautiful little cascade,
where the water falls almost three hun-
dred feet over the rocks. ‘These moun-
tains afford many picturesque views.
They used to be inhabited by many wild
animals, such as deer, wolves, and cougars.
10. It is not many years since, that
two huntsmen were searching for game
among these mountains;when, coming to
a hill, they agreed to pass around it, one
going one way, and the other going the
other way. At length, one of them
heard the report of a gun. He ran to
the spot, but could see nothing of his

steamboats? 8,9. In sailing up the Hudson
River, what are some of the objects to attract
our attention? Name some of the places which
we should pass, and notice their situation upon
the map. 10. Relate the story of the two hunts-
men

ce of one iundred and fifty miles, |

‘It is delightful to go up the Hudson |



COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY. 59

companion He found his dog, at length,
torn in pigces; and by and by saw a
cougar or panther, with the body of his
friend, in the top of atree. He fired his
gun, and the animal dropped with his
prey to the ground. The dog of the
huntsman now attacked the wounded
animal, but was instantly killed by a
stroke of his paw. ‘The man soon pro-
cured help at a neighboring village.
The party found the cougar dead, and

by it the body of the unfortunate sports-

man, who was also dead.
——e—

CHAPTER XXVIIL
NEW YORK—ConrTINvVED.

1. On passing Catskill we proceed to
Hudson, a flourishing city on the east
bank of the river. It is built principally
on the summit of a hill, and commands a
fine prospect. The people are largely
engaged in trade and the whale fishery.
We next arrive at Albany, the capital
of the state, where we shall see many
elegant public buildings, and find the
people busily engaged in receiving and
forwarding merchandise by several ca-
nals and railroads. We will here take
the‘cars for Buffalo, stopping at some of
the intermediate stations, and occasion-
ally leaving the road to visit objects of
interest and curiosity.

2. On arriving at Schenectady, one
of the oldest towns in the state, and the
seat of Union College, we will leave the
cars and proceed to Saratoga Springs.
This is the most popular watering-place
in the United States, and one of the most
celebrated in the world. It is a great
resort for invalids, who come to drink

1. What is said of Hudson? Of Albany, the

capital? In which part of the state is BuTalo?
2. Schenectady? What is said of it? Of Sara.



_the rocks, and presents several exceed-

°
60 THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

the mineral waters, and for persons of |
pleasure from all parts of the country. |

8. Returning to Schenectady, we will |
resume our journey. On arriving at
Utica, we shall be surprised to find so
large and beautiful a city. The build-
ings are principally built of brick, and |
many of them are very elegant. We |
must now go in a carriage, about twelve
miles north of Utica, and see Trenton
Falls. A small river here tumbles over |



ingly beautifu. cascades. A very sad
accident happenzd here a few years ago.
A young lady, from New York, came
with some of her friends to see the cata-
ract. She was standing on the edge of
one of the highest rocks, and her friends
were at a little distance. Suddenly she
disappeared from their view. They ran
to the spot, and looked over the preci-
pice. She had fallen to a great depth
below, and had been instantly*killed.

4. We must be ticular to go and
see the Indians at Vérnon, about seven-
teen miles west of Utica. There are
near one thousand of them, and they are
the remnants of two famous tribes, that
once inhabited this part of the state.
These Indians are called Oneidas and
Tuscaroras; they are partly civilized,
for they till the land, go to meeting, and
live peaceably. They are, however, a
degraded people, and will rather excite
your pity than your respect. We shall,

rhaps, on our way, meet with other

dians, the poor remains of the cele-
brated tribes which T shall have occasion
to mention by and by, under the name
of the Five Nations.

5. Resuming our journey, wé shall
seen arrive at the flourishing town of

toga Springs? 3. Of Utica? Of Trenton Falls ?
Relate the accident described. 4. What is said
of the Indians at Vernon? 65. Of ?
Where is Auburn? Canandaigua § What is

















Syracuse.’ This place and the
ing villages are noted for extensive
works. ‘The salt is manufactured
water taken from salt springs, which
found here in great abundance.
leaving Syracuse, we shall pass
Auburn and Canandaigua to
This city owes its rapid growth
present greatness to the vast water
created by the falls in the Genesee Ri
We may here visit the largest flour
in the world. :
6. We next proceed to Buffalo,
great commercial city of the Lakes,
Here we shall see steamboats, schooners,
and sloops, constantly arriving and de
parting, laden with produce and merchan-
dise from various ports. We may take
the cars for Niagara Falls, where we shalt
witness the sublimest cataract in the —
world. These falls are formed by an
immense mass of water, which comes
from the great lakes, and pours over the
rocks to the depth of a hundred and fifty






Falls of Niagara.
feet. The roar of these waters is like
thunder. Sometimes it is heard at the |
distance of many miles. The earth
trembles around, and a thick cloud of
vapor rises high into the air, stretching
itself far away over the hills and valleys.

a

said of Rochester? 6, Of Buffalo? Of Niagara
















A few years ago, some people
ured a large vessel, and placed in it
ld bear and otlfer animals. They

fhe swift current. Many thousands
people were there to see the sight.
e vessel was instantly drawn along by
ie current towards the falls ; it came to
@ edge of the rocks, and down, down it
ent, and was broken into a thousand
eces. The poor bear went over with it.
r a long time he was buried in the
water, but at length he rose upon the
wurface, and then sprang ashore.
~ 8. I will tell you another story of these
falls. There was an Indian sleeping in
his canoe, on the lake. He was not far
‘from the falls, but the canoe was tied,
and he felt safe. But by and by, the
‘string was loosed by some accident, and
‘the canoe floated out upon the water. It
‘went silently along, and the Indian still
continued to sleep. Soon the current
began to take the boat towards the falls.
‘It went more and more rapidly, and soon
‘was near the cataract. At this moment
the Indian awoke ; he saw his situation,
‘end knew that it was vain to struggle
against his fate. He therefore seated
himself erect, wrapped his blanket closer
‘round his body, and, folding his arms,
went down with the thundering tide.
9. After crossing the Suspension
Bridge, which is eight hundred feet
long, forty feet wide, and two hundred
and thirty feet above the water, and vis-
iting other objects of curiosity, we may
return to Buffalo. Thence we go to
Dunkirk by steamboat on Lake Erie,
where we can take the cars for New
York city on the New York and Erie



Falls? 7,8. What is said of the vessel and ca-
noe that went over the falls? 9. Where is
Dunkirk ? What railroad from Dunkirk to the
eity of New York? By what other routes can
we return? Look on the map and describe

n brought it near the falls, and left it,



COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY. 6]

Railréad. We may, if we prefer, return
by way of Lake Ontario to Ogdensburg,
thence to Montreal by steamboat on the
St. Lawrence; or by railroad to Bur-
lington, Vermont. From this place we
can cross Lake Champlain in a steam-
boat to Whitehall ; thence by canal boat
and railroad to Troy, a beautiful city on
the Hudson, six miles above Albany,
from which place we can return by the
Hudson River Railroad to New York.

10. By the time we return, we shall
be satisfied that the State of New York
abounds in interesting objects. The
western part of the state will fill us with
surprise. It now presents many large
towns, and a multitude of thriving vil-
lages ; yet it has been almost wholly set-
tled within the last fifty years. A more
thriving, intelligent, and happy people, it,
would be difficult to find. Fifty years
ago, there was not a house in Rochester,
and it haimow more than thirty thousand
inhabitants. Utica had then scarcely
fifty houses ; but as now more than
seventeen thousand people. , Buffalo has
more than forty thousand inhabitants,
and is constantly increasing in its trade
and commerce.

11. The increase of population in this
part of the state seems, indeed, quite
magical. I recollect a story of something
that happened near Rochester, within
the last thirty-five years. Two persons
were travelling on. horseback ‘through
the woods in winter, guided only by a
horse path. The snow had recen
fallen to a great depth, and they
length lost their way. They undertook
to retrace their steps; but night cama
on, while they were still in the midst of
the forest.

12. They knew they were at a con«

them. 10. t is said of the western part of
the state? 11 13, 14, 15. Relate the story
of the persons lost near Rochester.

“a

ite



62

siderable distance from any settlement,
and had no hope of reaching a house
during the night. It therefore became
apparent that they must spend it in the
woods. But as the sun went down, the
cold increased, and in a short time it
was exceedingly severe. The horses
were worn out with fatigue, and the
travellers began to fear that they should
be frozen. They looked about for the
shelter of a rock, or some other place,
but nothing of the kind presented itself.
Their situation was now alarming; they
could not proceed, and to remain idle
was certain death.

13. At length one of them recollected
that he had a small tinder-box in his
pocket. ‘This he took out, and the trayv-
ellers set about making preparations to

* build a fire, with great alacrity. They
got together the bark of some trees, and
some dry branches; they them, began to
prepare the tinder, -box, but on @xamining
it, the tinder was entirely gone.

14. There was, however, in the box,
a small piece of linen rag, the edges of
which were burnt. These edges were
carefully rolled together, and with a
trembling hand the sparks of fire were
struck upon them. Again and again the
effort was made, but without success.
With feelings of the deepest anxiety, the
travellers bent over the box. Life and
death were on the issue. If the spark
caught, they were safe; if not, they must
perish. To such a narrow point is hu-
man fortune often reduced.

15. The flint is now struck with great-
er force. The fire descends i in a shower,
but without avail. again, and
again they make the trial, and they are
on the point of giving themselves up |
des r blow is struck ;
esl

o
THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,











utes the* travellers are
selves by a bright blaze!
remained during the night.
morning, they mounted their
reached the place of their
safety.

——

CHAPTER XXIX.
NEW YORK—

1. I rary you cannot fail to
the great Erie Canal, in the State
New York. It is three hundred
sixty-two miles in length; it is
feet wide, and has eighty-three
It is one of the longest canals in
world, and it is certainly one of the most
useful. It is frozen up in winter, but
during the spring, summer, and aw
many hundreds of boats, loaded with
produce and goods of all kinds, are
passing to and fro upon it.

2. This canal was begun in 1817, and
finished in 1825. It was made by the
people of New York. Many men were
occupied, for eight years, in digging the
earth, in cutting through the rocks, and —
in building walls and dams for the locks.
The whole cost of the canal was eight
million dollars. They have since been
obliged to enlarge it, to accommodate the |
increasing business.

3. I will now tell you the early his
tory of this great state. In the year
1609, Henry Hudson, an English navi-
gator, was employed by some Dutch
people to go on a voyage of discovery.
He came to America, and discovered the
river which now bears his name. He
sailed up as far as Albany, and went in
his boat a little farther.

4. He saw, then, along the banks of

t is said of the extent of the Erie Canall

2. was it built? 3. When and by whom
wos | New York discovered? 4, What change

ConTINUED.





















river nothing but trees and Indians,
J wild animals. What a change has
en place! ‘The island at the mouth
the river, which was then covered
ly with trees and shrubs, is now the
at of a mighty city; and the banks of
e Hudson, then so solitary, are now
prinkled over with towns, cities, villages,
nd country seats.

5, Five years after Hudson’s discov-
ry, some Dutch people came to Albany,
gnd commenced a settlement. This was
n the year 1614, six years before the
Pilgrims arrived at Plymouth. It was
‘the first settlement made in New York.
_ About the same time, they built a few
houses on an island called by the Indians
“Manhattan, where the city of New York
now stands.

6. You will observe that New York
‘was settled by Dutch, not English peo-
‘ple. They came from Holland, or the

etherlands, and the colony, which in-
creased rapidly, was claimed by that
country.

7. n 1643, a war ‘:roke out with the
Indians. The Dutch governor employed
a brave captain, by the name of Under-
hill, to go against them. He had been
a soldier in Europe, and knew well how
to conduct the business of war. He took
with him one hundred and fifty men, and
they had a great many battles with the
Indians. The latter were defeated, and
four hundred of them were killed during
the war. ;

8. In 1646, a severe battle was fought
with the Indians, near MHorseneck.
Great numbers were killed on both
sides, but the Dutch were victorious.
The dead bodies were buried at a place
called Strickland’s Plain, and one hun-



has since taken place? 5. When was Albany
settled? 7. What event occurred with the In-
dians in 1643? 8 In 1646? 9. What disputes



COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.



63

dred years afterwards the graves were
still to be seen.

9. There were some disputes between
the people of New England and those
of New York about the boundary of
their territories. At length the Dutch
governor went to Hartford, where he
met some people sent by the New Eng
land colonies, and they came to an agree-
ment about the land. ‘But King Charles
of England said that the Dutch had no
right to any of the land, and granted what
the Dutch had settled to his brother,
the Duke of York and Albany.

10. In 1664, the duke sent Colonel
Nicholls with three ships to New York.
On his arrival, he commanded the people
to surrender the town. They refused at
first, but in a little while they gave it up,
and he took possession of it. The name
of this place, which was before called
Manhattan, was then changed to New ©
York, and the place on the Hudson
where the first settlement was made,
which had been called Fort Orange, was
called Albarry. These names have since
been retained.



The Dutch Commander surrendering New York.

11. In 1673, the city of New York
was retaken by the Dutch. The fort

Ac a ah
did they have with the people of New England? i
10. What event occurred in 1664? 11 In 1678? —



a

64
and city were surrendered by the treach-
ery of John Manning, the commanding
officer, without firing a gun. The next
year, peace was concluded between Eng-
land and Holland, and the colony was
restored to the English.

12. The Duke of York and Albany,
the former proprietor, now came again
into possession of the colony, and sent
Sir Edmund Andros, afterwards the ty-
rant of New England, to govern it. He
was succeeded by other governors ; and
in 1682, the people were permitted to
meet and choose representatives.

13. These representatives assembled
and made laws, which could not go into
force till they were ratified by the duke.
This arrangement was satisfactory to the
people, and the colony now felt the bless-
ings of good government.

oanaome

CHAPTER XXX.
NEW YORK—ConrTinvep.

1. I witt now tell you about the In-
dians in the northern part of New York.
The interior of the country was origi-
mally inhabited by five nations, called
‘the Senecas, Cayugas, Onondagas, Onei-
das, and Mohawks. These nations were
friendly to the English colonies, and
being very powerful, they protected the
inhabitants from the French settlements
in Canada.

2. At length the French governor, De
la Barre, being afraid of these Indian
tribes, raised an army of seventeen hun-
dred men, and went against them. But

12, Whom did the Duke of York send to govern
the colony after it was restored to the English ?
‘When were the people permitted to choose rep-
resentatives ?

1, What is said of the Indians in the northern
part of New York? 2, 3. What is said of De la

4
THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

his troops suffered very much from haré
ship and sickness, and many of them
died.

8. Being surrounded by his enemies,
he was now obliged to ask peace of the
savages whom he had come to des
He sent to the chiefs of the Five Ne
tions, requesting them to-come and see
him, and three of them came. A circle
was formed, consisting of the French
officers and chiefs, and then De la Barre
addressed the chief of the Onondagas as
follows : —

4, “ Chief, listen to what I have to say.
I am sent to this country by a great king,
who commands many armies. He is
good to his friends, but he is terrible to
his enemies. What are ye, his friends
or his enemies? I tell you that ye are
his enemies.

“You protect the English, and you
fight for them. You have made a league
with them for peace and war. You have
led them into the country, and shown
them the trading grounds of the French,
and now they carry away the furs which
the French ought to get.

5. “Such is your conduct, and that of
the Five Nations; and what shall the
king, my master, do to you for these
things? He can send an army into this
land, that shall scatter your tribes, as the
dry leaves of autumn are scattered py
the whirlwind; and this he will do, ua-
less you change your conduct, and instead
of enemies become his friends.” ’

6. Garrangula, the Onondaga chief,
knew perfectly well the distress of the
French army. He therefore heard this
haughty speech with contempt. After
walking six times around the circle, he
made the following reply, in which you
will perceive he calls De la Barre Yow
Barre and the Indians? 4, 5, 6. Relate the
speech of De la Barre. 6. How did the Onon







COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

mdio, and the English governor Cor-

__ 7. “Yonnondio, I honor you, and the
ere that are with me honor you.
Your interpreter has finished your speech ;
‘I now begin mine. My words make
to reach your ears; hearken to
=e Yonnondio, you must have be-
lieved, when you left Quebec, that the
sun had consumed all the forests which
render our’ country inaccessible to the
French ; or that the great lakes had over-
flowed their banks and surrounded our
castles, so that it was impossible for us
to get out of them.

8. “Yes, Yonnondio, you must have
dreamed so; and the curiosity of so great
a wonder has brought you so far. Now
you are undeceived; for I, and the war-
riors here present, are come to assure

u that the Senecas, Cayugas, Onon-

Oneidas, and Mohawks are yet
alive.

9. “T thank you, in their name, for
bringing back into their country the pipe
of peace, which your predecessor received
from their hands. It was happy for you
that you left under ground that murder-
ing hatchet, which has been so often dyed
in the blood of the French. Hear, Yon-
nondio; I do not sleep; I have my eyes
open; and the sun which enlightens me

discovers to me a great captain, at the.

head of a company of soldiers, who

as if he was dreaming. He says

he only came to smoke the great

of peace with the Onondagas. But

angula says, that he sees the con-

; that it was to knock them on the

ba if sickness had not weakened the
arms of the French.

10. “We carried the English to our

aa aaa aaa aoe on a aed
ilaga chief receive the speech? 7, 8,9, 10, 11.
ae : 65







lakes, to trade with the Utawawas, ard
Quatoghies, as the Adisomdoes brought
the French to our castles, to carry on a
trade which the English say is theirs.
We are born free; we neither depend
on Yonnondio nor Corlear. We may
go where we please, and buy and sell
what we please. If your allies are your
slaves, use them as such ; command them
to receive no other but your people.

11. “Hear, Yonnondio; what I say is
the voice of all the Five Nations. When
they buried the hatchet at Cadaracai, in
the middle of the fort, they planted the
tree of peace in the same place, to be
there carefully preserved, that instead of
a retreat for soldiers, the fort might be
a rendezvous for merchants. Take care
that the many soldiers who appear there
do not choke the tree of peace, and pre-
vent it from covering your country and
ours with its branches. I assure you
that our warriors shall dance under its
leaves, and will never dig up the hatchet
to cut it down, till their brother Yonnon-
dio, or Corlear, shall invade the country
which the Great Spirit has given to our
ancestors.”

12. De la Barre heard this scornful
speech with shame and rage. But know-
ing his weakness, he was obliged to make
peace. Not long after, another French
governor went against these Indians,
with a still larger army than ,that of De
la Barre. But the cunning Indians con-
cealed themselves till the French were
near, and then suddenly fell upon their
army, and obliged them to retreat out.of
their country. These wars made the
Five Nations hate the French, and at-
tached them to the English colonies.



What was his reply? 12. What was the result
of this interview?





Cama ei Se Ts
NEW YORK—ContTinvep.

1. In the year 1685, the Duke of York
succeeded his brother, Charles IT., and
became King of England, under the title
of James II. I have told you before
that this king was hated by the English
people, and he was equally disliked in
the colonies.

2. He claimed absolute authority over
the American people. This caused him
to be much disliked by them. They were
therefore very much rejoiced when the
news came, in 1689, that he had been
driven from the throne, and that Wil-
liam, Prince of Orange, had succeeded
him. \

8. Elated by this news, and stimulated
by the example of the people at Boston,
who had seized and imprisoned Andros,
they began to make preparations to de-
pose the governor, whose name was
Nicholson.

4, Alarmed at this, he fled by night,

and the chief magistracy was assumed
by a militia captain, whose name was
Leisler. He was a weak man, and
managed the affairs of the colony very
badly.
5. While the settlement was suffering
from the troubles occasioned by Leisler’s
administration, war was declared be-
tween England and France. This was
King William’s war, of which I have
told you something in the history of New
England. Count Frontenac was now
governor of Canada.

6. In the winter of 1690, he sent a



1. When did James II. become King of Eng-
land? .2, Why was he disliked by people in
America? How was the news of his leaving the
throne received? 3,4. What events took place
on hearing that William III. had succeeded him?
6. Who was governor of Canada at this time?
6, 7, 8, 9, 10. Relate the destruction of Schenec-



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

small party of Frenct soldiers and In
dians to attack Albany. These concluded
to destroy Schenectady first. The peo
ple of Schenectady had been warned of
their danger, but they would not believe
that men would come from Canada, a
distance of two or three hundred miles,
through the deep snows of winter, to
molest them.

7. But they were fatally dezeived,
On a Saturday night, the enemy came
near the town. They divided themselves
into small parties, so that every house
might be attacked at the same instant.
Thus prepared, they entered the place
at about eleven o’clock.

8. The inhabitants were all asleep,
and stillness rested upon the place. With
a noiseless step, the enemy distributed
themselves through the village, and at a
given signal, the savage war whoop was
sounded. What a dreadful ery was this
to the startled fathers and mothers of
this unhappy town!

9. It is scarcely possible to describe
the scene that followed. The people,
conscious of their danger, sprang from
their beds, but were met at the door,
and slaughtered by the savages. Every
house was set on fire; and the Indians,
rendered frantic by the wild scene, ran
through the place, slaying those they
chanced to meet.

10. Sixty of the people were killed,
and twenty-five were made prisoners.
Some attempted to escape, but, as they
were naked, and the weather was ex
tremely severe, and as thty had a cons
siderable distance to go befoe they could
reach a place of security, a part only
arrived in safety, while twenty-five lost
their limbs by the cold.

11. To avenge these cruelties, and
others of a similar nature committed in

tady. 11. What did the people of New York and
New England determine to do to avenge these





J



struction.
_ inyited Governor Sloughter to go and



lan

was determined upon.

New England, an attack upon Canada

‘in New York and Connecticut, proceed-
edas far as Lake Champlain, but finding
‘no boats to take them across, they were
obliged to return. Thus the whole ex-
pedition failed, and this was attributed to
the imbecility of Leisler.

12. It was about this time, that King
William sent Colonel Henry Sloughter to
begovernor of New York. But he was
totally unfit for the office. Wher he
arrived, Leisler refused to give up his
authority. He sent two messengers,
however, to confer with Sloughtér, who
were immediately seized by the governor,
and put in prison as rebels.

_ 13. This alarmed Leisler and his as-

sociates, and they attempted to escape.

But he, with his son-in-law Milborne,
was taken, tried, and condemned to death,
for high treason. The governor, how-
ever, refused to sign the warrant for their
execution, as he did not wish to sacrifice
two men who had been rather weak than
wicked.

14, But the enemies of Leisler and

Milborne contrived a plot for their de-
They made a great feast, and

partake of it. He went; and when he
was intoxicated with wine, they asked
him to sign the death warrant of the two
eo’ This he did, and before he

recovered his senses, Leisler and
Milborne were executed. Thus, through
his folly and wickedness, two men suf-

fered an ignominious death.

15. In 1691, Governor Sloughter died.
‘The same year, a man by the name of
Peter Schuyler, at the head of three

- hundred Mohawk Indians, went to make



I ? What was the success of the expedi-

: 12, 13, 14. What occurred between Colonel

ter and Leisler? 16. Describe Peter
Kehuyler’s expedition,

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

An army, raised |







67

|an attack upon the French ¢ettlements
at the north end of Lake Champlain.
A body of about eight hundred men were
sent from Montreal against him. With
these, Schuyler and his Mohawks had
several battles, in all of which they were
successful. They killed more cf the
enemy than the whole number of their
party.
—

CHAPTER XXXII.
NEW: YORK—ConrinveEp.

1. In 1692, Colonel Fletcher was made -
governor of New York, and in 1698, he
was succeeded by the Earl of Bellamont.
About this time, the American seas were
very much infested with pirates. These
bold men attacked stich ships as they met
with on the ocean, plundered them of
whatever they wanted, and either mur-~
dered the crew and took the ships, or
sunk them both together.

2. Governor Bellamont was particu-
larly charged, by the English govern-
ment, to clear the American seas, if pos-
sible, of these desperate men. But the
necessary ships not being furnished, he
and some other individuals determined
to fit out a vessel on their own account,
and send it against the pirates.

3. They accordingly procured a ship
of war, and gave the command of it to
a sea captain, whose name was Robert
Kidd. But when he got out upon the
water, Kidd determined to become a pi-
rate himself. He proposed the plan to
his men, and they consented to it.

4. So he became one of the most in-
famous pirates that was ever known.
He attacked many vessels upon the At-
lantic and Indian Oceans, and after three
years returned. After burning his ship,

1. What is said of the pirates? 2. What
measures were adopted to take them? 3, 4, O



~ Wi

Kidd went to Boston, where he was seen
in the streets. He was soon seized and
carried to England, where he was tried,
condemned, and executed.

5. I suppose you have heard a great
many stories of Captain Kidd. It is said
that he buried a great deal of gold in
pots, somewhere along the coast. A
great many attempts have been made to
find this gold, but without success. I
suspect that Kidd and his sailors spent
all the money so wickedly got, and never
buried any of it.

6. I must now pass over a considera-
ble space of time, during which nothing
of very great importance occurred in
this colony. Though several governors
had been sent from England, most of
them were utterly unworthy of the trust.

7. About the year 1736, circumstances
occurred in the city of New York, which
it is painful to dwell upon. Some per-

ssons of very bad character circulated a
report that the negroes, of whom there
were a good many in the city, had formed
a plot to burn the town, and make one
of their number governor. |

8. A great many fires had taken place,
and these led the people to believe that
the rumor was true. Many of the ne-

were therefore arrested and put in
p . Other ‘accusers now came for-

, and so strong was the prejudice
againat the negroes, that, when the trial

came on, all the lawyers offered their
services to plead against them.

9. Thus left without defence, these
wnhappy people were all condemned.
Fourteen were burnt to death, eighteen
were hung, and seventy-one were trans-
ported out of the country! It is grati-
fying to feel sure that, in our day, the
weakest and most defenceless are not

‘Relate the story of Robert Kidd. 7, 8,9. What

‘anfort=nate event occurred in New York about

the year 1736310. What governor was appoint-
Pee

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

























exposed to such ecrwlty and inju®
tice.
10. In 1743, George Clinton was sent
over as governor of the colony. He was
warmly received by the people, and his
administration was, on the whole, accept.
able to them. In 1745, during George
II.’s war, New York was much distressed
by the incursiuns of the Indians.
11. Saratoga was destroyed, and other
parts of the colony suffered very much.
Some of the Indians came to Albany,
and concealing themselves in the neigh.
borhood, lay in wait to take prisoners.
One savage, bolder than the rest, called
Tolmonwilemon, came within the city it
self, and carried off people by night.
12. In 1746, New York united with
the eastern colonies in an expedition
against Canada, but the project totally
failed. The next year, the welcome
news of peace between England and
France arrived, and the colony was re-
lieved from the distresses brought upon
them by the war.
13. I have thus told you of some of
the principal events in the history of New
York, up to the time of the French war,
which commenced in 1755. From that
time the colonies acted in concert; and
I shall therefore leave the separate his-
tory of New York here, and give youa
view of what remains to be said of it, in
the general account of the French war
and the American revolution.

———

CHAPTER XXXIII.
NEW JERSEY.

1. I wit now tell you about New Jer-
sey. It is not a large state, but in tray-

ed in 1743? 11,12, 13. What troubles occurred
with the French and Indians during the war of
George II.?

1. How is New Jersey bounded? Where is



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COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY. 69

tlling through it we shall see many things
that are interesting. We must start from
New York in a steamboat, and cross the
Hudson River to Jersey City. This is
done in a few minutes. Then we get
into the cars, and ride nine miles, over a
railroad, to Newark.

2. This is a beautiful city, with several
handsome churches, and many handsome
houses. We shall see many of the peo-
ple busy in making shoes, gigs, coaches,
omnibuses, stages, and wagons. Newark
is the largest city in the state; it has
nearly forty thousand inhabitants. The
whole of Northern New Jersey is as busy,
with its various manufactures, as a hive
of bees.

8. We must not omit to make an ex-
cursion from Newark to Paterson, to see
the Passaic Falls. These are formed by
the Passaic River, which rolls over the
rocks to the depth of seventy-two feet.
The spectacle is very brilliant and beau-
tiful. Paterson is a brisk manufacturing
town, situated near the cataract. ;

4, We may then leave Newark by a
railroad, and soon arrive at Elizabeth-
town. In passing along, we shall observe
many fine orchards; and if it is autumn,
we shall see abundance of very excellent
apples. The cider made here is very
celebrated.

5. On arriving at Elizabethtown, we
shall be struck with the beauty of the
place. But we shall not be allowed to
stop long, as the conductor of the cars is
in a great hurry ; when he rings the bell,
the passengers jump into the cars, and
away we go.

6. We shall pass through New Bruns-
wick, upon the railroad, and travelling
on a few miles, we zhall at length reach

Jersey City ? Newark ?@2. What is said of New-
ark? 3. Where is Paterson? What is said of
the Passaic Falls? 4. Where is Blizabethtown ?
6. New Brunswick? Princetor? 7. Trenton?

i ‘ “





Princeton. Here we shall ooserve a
large building, with a green lawn in front,
covered with shady trees. Thisis Prince-
ton College, which is quite cclebrated,
and a great many young men are edu-
cated here.

7. After leaving Princeton, we shall
soon arrive at Trenton, which is beauti-
fully situated on the Delaware. W2 shall
here notice a fine bridge across this
river. I think we had better take the
steamboat now, and go down the Dela-
ware to Philadelphia; though we can,
if we choose, go on in the cars, as there *
are two railroads from Trenton to Phil-
adelphia.

8. We shall be delighted with this
part of our journey. On both sides of
the river we shall see many very hand-
some towns. ‘Those on the west side
belong to Pennsylvania, those on the
east to New Jersey. Among other in-
teresting things, we shall see, at Bor-
dentown, the house formerly occupied .
by Joseph Bonaparte.

9. Joseph Bonaparte, who died in
1846, was a brother of the famous Na-
poleon Bonaparte, and was once King
of Naples and afterwards of Spain. The
house, which is large, and quite different
from other houses in the state, is now a
place of public resort. There is a very
lofty tower on the grounds, called an
observatory, from the top of which there
is a very extensive and beautiful prose
pect.

10. A very common way of iravelling
across this part of New Jersey, now, is,
to leave New York in a steamboat, which
carries us up the River Raritan to Am-
boy: at this place we may get into the
railroad cars, and go to Camden, where



Describe the Delaware River. 8,9. What shall
we see at Bordentown? 10. Describe the route
from New York to Philadelphia, by way of Am-
boy. Where does the Raritan empty? Where



<3

70

there is a ferry boat ready to take us
to Philadelphia.

11. By this route we pass through
Burlington, where, by taking a steam-
boat, we can reach Philadelphia in a
short time. If we go into the market
at Philadelphia, we shall observe large
quantities of fine apples, pears, peaches,
and other fruits. Many of these things
are brought from that part of New Jer-
sey which lies on the Delaware, opposite
to Philadelphia.

12. If we stay some time in the State
of New Jersey, we shall observe that the
people differ considerably from those of
New England. This difference is owing
to the difference of origin. The people
of New England are descended entirely
from the English, while those of New
Jersey are the mixed descendants of
English, Dutch, Danes, Germans, and
Swedes.



Settlement of Elizabethtown.

13. The first settlement in this state
was made by the Danes, in 1624, Some
Dutch and Swedes soon after made set-
tlements in the territory. The popula-
tion was, however, very small. In 1664,
New Jersey came, with New York, into



4s Camden? Burlington? 11. What are some
of the products of New Jersey? 12. From what

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

the hands of the English, and the next
year a settlement was made at Eliza
bethtown, by three men, who purchased
the land of the Indians.

14. The same year, Sir George Car.
teret was appointed governor, and ths
colony received the name of Jersey, in
compliment to him, who was a native of
the Island of Jersey, on the northern
coast of France.

15. In 1676, the province was divided
into East and West Jersey, and so con-
tinued until 1702. The government
was then surrendered to Queen Anne,
of England, and East and West Jersey
were united, under the title of New Jer-
sey. From this date to the revolution-
ary war, very little happened in this
colony, the story of which would be ia-
teresting to you.

—



CHAPTER XXXIV.
PENNSYLVANIA.

‘1. Tuts is a large, wealthy, and flour-
ishing state, and our travels through it
will afford us much gratification. We
must examine Philadelphia, in the first
place. It is situated between the Dela-
ware and Schuylkill Rivers, about six
miles above their confluence, and, in my
opinion, is the handsomest city in the
Ynited States. The streets are straight,
and cross each other at right angles
The public squares are ornamented with
fountains and beautiful shade trees.

2. There are many beautiful huildings

made? When did New Jersey become an Eng:
lish colony? 14. From what did New Jersey de
rive its name? 15. What event occurred it
1676? In 1702?

1. What is said of Pennsylvania ?
| the boundaries. What@is the capital?



Name
Name

nations dic the people in New Jersey originate? || the principal rivers. ‘Where is Philadelphia ?
13. When sad by whom was the first settlement || 2. Describe the objects uf interest in this city.

“ ~ SL





;
,
;




_ se

the city, among which we may men-
tion the Custom House, (formerly the
United States Bank,) the Mint, and the
Exchange. The Old State House, in
Chestnut Street, is distinguished for
being the place in which the Declaration
of Independence was adopted by Con-
gress, on the 4th of July, 1776. The
Hall of Independence presents the same
appearance in its furniture that it did
on that eventful day. It contains, also,
astatue of Washington, and several fine
paintings.

3. We must go and see the Fairmount
Waterworks, about two or three miles
out of the city. These are situated on
the Schuylkill River. Here are several
large wheels, which are so contrived as
to force the water from the river up into
a reservoir, on the top of a high hill.
From thence the water flows to the city,
and supplies the whole place.

4. A little way from Fairmount we
shall see Girard College. The build-
ings are of white marble, and are very
beautiful. The college, which is in a
highly flourishing condition, was founded
by the late Stephen Girard for the edu-
cation of orphan boys, and was organ-
ized in 1847.

5. We will now leave Philadelphia,
and set out for Pittsburg. If we go in
acarriage, we shall travel over excellent
roads, with fine stone bridges, and we

shall see a great many large farms, with |

abundance of excellent cattle. As we
pass along, we shall notice a great many
et and I think you will be much
pleased withthem. They are very friend-
ly, and dress ina singular manner. We
‘shall also meet with a good many people
who can talk nothing but German. Some
entire villages are composed of Ger-
mans and. their descendants, who have

_ 8. What is said of the Fairmount Waterworks ?

’ t, Of Girard College? 5,6. Where is Pittsburg ?

3

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.





71

almanacs, newspapers, and some books,
printed.in their language.

6. At length, we shall reach the Alle-
ghany Mountains. These ccnsist of a
great many separate ranges. We shall
first go over one, and then another, and
another, and another. Some of them
are very high, and their sides aie. ex
ceedingly steep. After travellirg a
whole day, we shall find that we have
passed over these lofty mountains. They
were once inhabited by many wild ani-
mals; and deer and elk are still found
there, as well as wolves and foxes. The
wildcat and cougar are also occasionally
met with. After crossing the mountains,
we shall soon arrive at Pittsburg.

7. But the easiest and quickest route
to Pittsburg is by the Columbia and
Pennsylvania Railroads. Taking the
cars at Philadelphia for Harrisburg, we
shall pass through Lancaster, an ancient
manufacturing place, but now one of
the most beautiful cities in the country.
Harrisburg, the capital of the state, is
situated on the Susquehanna River.
Formerly the route from this place was
by the Pennsylvania Canal and the Por-
tage Railroad ; but we shall now take the
cars upon the Pennsylvania Central Road,
and, after passing through several pleas-
ant towns and villages, and crossing the
Alleghanies, we shall arrive at the end
of our journey.

8. Pittsburg, situated at the confluence
of the Alleghany and Monongahela Riv-
ers, which here unite to form the Ohio,
is one of the largest manufacturing cities
in America. It has a direct trade, by
means of the Ohio and Mississippi Riv-
ers, with New Orleans, St. Louis, and
the intermediate places. Alleghany City,

Name some of the things to be seen in going
there from Philadelphia. 7. Describe the route
by the Columbia and Pennsylvania Railroads.
Describe Lancaster, Harrisburg. 8. What is



.



72

Birmingham, Beaver, Lawrenceville,
Temperanceville, and other towns and
villages in the vicinity, all situated in
the midst of inexhaustible mines of coal
and iron, are largely engaged in manu-
factures, and are very flourishing places.
Great attention is paid here to the edu-
eation of youth.

9. We shall hardly have time to de-
scribe all the interesting things to be
seen in Pennsylvania. There are the
Lehigh and Schuylkill coal mines, from
which the people get a great deal of



Mining Coal.

coal, which is carried down in little cars,
on railroads, to the canals, and put into
boats, or into cars on the Reading Rail-
road, and then carried to Philadelphia
and other places.

10. Reading, Pottsville, Honesdale,
all situated in the coal region, are flour-
ishing towns. There are several fine
canals in the state, many railroads, and
some of the most beautiful rivers in the
world. The banks of the Schuylkill, the
Juniata, and the Susquehanna, are truly
enchanting during the summer. On the



said of Pittsburg? Birmingham? Beaver ?
Lawrenceville? Temperanceville? 9. Describe
the picture. 10. Where is Reading? Pottsville?
Honesdale? What is said of the face of the
sountry? Ofthe climate? The soil?

.



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

whole, we shall find Pennsylvania g
most interesting state. It is not so cold
there in winter as in New England,
Many parts of it are fertile and highly
cultivated, and the comforts and luxuries
of life are very cheap and abundant.

——

CHLPTHER "xX *7
PENNSYLVANIA—ContdinNvzp,

1. I wtct now tell you the history of _

Pennsylvania; but I must begin with
William Penn, for he was the chief in-
strument of its settlement. He was the
son of a British admiral, and lived in
London. He was educated as a lawyer,
but he joined the Quakers, then an ob-
secure and persecuted sect.

2. In 1681, King Charles granted to
him a large tract of land between New
Jersey and Maryland. This included
Pennsylvania and Delaware. In the fall
of the same year, a good many persons,
chiefly Quakers, to whom he had sold
some of the land, set out in three ships,
ard came to America. These people
settled on the Delaware River, near
where Philadelphia now stands.

3. They brought with them a letter
from Penn to the Indians.
said to them, “that the great God had
been pleased to make him concerned in
their part of the world, and that the king
of the country where he lived had given
him a great province therein ; but that
he did not desire to enjoy it without
their consent; that he was a man of
peace, and that the people whom he
sent were men of the samé dispositicn;
and, if any difference should happen be+
tween them, it might be adjusted by an

1, 2. What is said of William Penn? When
and by whom was the first settlement made?
Where did they settle?

8. Recite William —

In this he |







COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

equal number of men, chosen on both
Rides.”

4, In the fall of 1682, Penn himself
eame to the colony with two thousand
emigrants. While he was in the coun-

, he met some of the Indian chiefs,
and made a treaty with them. His mild



Penn making a Treaty with the Indians.

and gentle manners made a great im-
pression on the savages.

5. He walked with them, sat with
them on the ground, and ate with them
of their roasted acorns and hominy. At
this they expressed great delight, and
soon began to show how they could hop
and jump. Penn, it is said, then got up
and began to hop, too, and soon showed
‘that he could beat them all. Whether
this is true or not, I cannot say; but it
is certain the Indians long remembered

_ him with feelings of love and veneration.

6. Penn also marked out the plan of
a great city, to which he gave the name
of Philadelphia, by which is meant “ the
city of brotherly love.” Before the end
of the year, this place contained eighty
buildings. In 1684, Penn returned to
England, leaving the province in a hap-
py and prosperous condition.

Penn’s letter to the Indians. 4, 5. What is said
- pf Penn’s visit to the colony? 6. What city did
he found? When did he return to England?





73

7. No part of America was settled
whore rapidly than Pennsylvania. The
soil was fertile, the climate mild and
agreeable, and the deer and other wild
animals were abundant. ‘The govern-
ment, too, arranged by Penn, was just
and liberal, giving pesfect freedom to
every man to worship God in his cwn
way.

8. Thus at péace among themselves,
the Indians being made their friends by
justice and gentleness, the people of this
colony afforded a striking contrast to the
less fortunate settlements in the north
and east. Attracted by the favorable
circumstances I have mentioned, numer-
ous emigrants flocked to Pennsylvania ;
and In four years after Penn received
the grant, the province contained twenty
settlements, and the city of Philadelphia
two thousand inhabitants.

9. In 1699, Penn returned to the prov-
ince. He found some uneasiness among
the people, to remove which he gave
them a new charter in 1701. This was
submitted to the assembly chosen by the
people, and accepted. But the inhabit-
ants in that part of the province which
now forms the State of Delaware did
not like the charter, and refused to ac-
cept it.

10. They were therefore separated
from Pennsylvania, in 1703, and hada
distinct assembly, chosen by the people,
who made their laws. ‘The same gov
ernor, however, presided over Pennsyl-
vania and Delaware.

11. Penn soon returned to England,
and never visited America again. He
died in 1718, leaving behind him the
character of a truly pious and good man.
He was twice imprisoned in England,



7, 8. What was the condition of the colony?
9. When did Penn give them a new charter ?
10, What place was separated from Perfhsylva
nia? 11. When did Penn die? What is said



74
by the government, for his religious
opinions ; and his enemies accused him
of very wicked conduct. But he lived
to see every suspicion wiped away from
his reputation ; and his life teaches us
that the world fails not to honor a man
of active kindness, piety, and truth.

12. His colony continued to flourish,
and its increase in population was un-
exampled. ‘The Indians, conciliated by
kindness, remained for seventy years at
peace with the inhabitants; and thus,
until the French war, nothing occurred
in Pennsylvania to interrupt her pros-
perity.

—_——

CHAPTER XXXVI.°
DELAWARE,

1. Tus is the smallest state in the
Union, except Rhode Island; but it is
beautifully situated along the western
shore of Delaware Bay, and, like every
other part of our country, affords inter-
esting topics of geography and history.
In our travels through it, we shall ob-
serve some of the finest wheat fields in
the world.

2. At Wilmington, on the Brandy-
wine, we shall see extensive manufac-
tories of paper, and some of the best flour
mills in the country. Newcastle, Dela-
ware City, and Dover, which is the seat
of government, are very pleasant towns ;
and if we proceed to Lewistown, at the
southern part of the state, we shall see
the people engaged in making salt from
sea water. The Delaware and Chesa-
peake Canal crosses the northern part
of the state, from Delaware Bay to Ches-
apeake Bay. One portion of this canal

of his character?
Indians? .
L “is said of Delaware? How is it
bo ee What is said of Wilmington?
hah

12. Of the conduct of the

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

is called the Deep Cut, where it passes,
for a distance of four miles, through a



The Deep Cut on the Canal.

hill ninety feet high. A bridge of a
single arch crosses it.

8. At the mouth of Delaware Bay,
and near Cape Henlopen, we shall ob-
serve an immense wall of stone in the
sea, called a breakwater. This was built
by the government of the United States,
to protect vessels, which may be at
anchor in the bay, from the waves that
roll in from the ocean during storms,
and from the ice that comes floating
down from the rivers in the spring,
This breakwater is near three quarters
of a mile in length, and is a truly grand
and useful work. The stone for it was
brought from a great distance — some
of it from Massachusetts, and some from
other places.

4. In the revolutionary war, the peo-
ple of this little state put forth their
whole strength for the cause of liberty.
The Delaware regiment was reckoned
the finest in the whole army. In the
famous battle of Camden, in South Car
olina, 1780, the Delaware troops, with
some belonging to Maryland, were com-

Where is it situated? Where is Newcastle?
Delaware City? Dover? 3. What capes at the
mouth of the Delaware Bay? What is said
of the breakwater? 4. What is said of the





COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

manded by a French officer, named De
Kalb. This brave man was wounded
in eleven places, and died on the field.
He was so impressed with the ‘gallant
conduct of his Delaware and Maryland
soldiers, that with his dying breath he
expressed his regard for them.

d. But it is not my intention to tell
you of the revolutionary war now. I
must take you back to a much earlier
date. More than two hundred years
ago, there lived in Sweden a famous
king, named Gustavus Adolphus. Un-
fer his patronage, some Swedes and
Finns, or Finlanders, came to America,
and landed at Cape Henlopen, in 1627.
It was a beautiful spot, covered with
green trees, beneath which sported the
wild deer, with their young fawns. The
people were so charmed with the place,
that they called it Paradise Point.

6. They now proceeded farther up
the bay, and had some intercourse with
the Indians. The latter treated them
kindly, and sold them land on both sides
of the water. The settlers now estab-
lished themselves near Wilmington, and
called the country New Sweden. :

7. But the colony was not permitted
to enjoy its fine lands and delightful cli-
mate in peace. The Dutch claimed the
territory, and after annoying them in
various ways, finally built a fort at New
Castle. A man by the name of Risingh
was then governor of the Swedish colony.

8. One day, he proposed to the com-
mander of the Dutch fort to pay him a
friendly visit. This was accepted, and
Rising wen accompanied by thirty

men. They were received with kind-
ness, and treated with great hospitality.

conduct of the people of Delaware during the
revolutionary war? 5. When and by whom was
Delaware settled? 6. Where did they settle, and
what did they call the country? 7. What trou-
ples did they have with the Dutch? 8,9, 10. Give

’







7
But, disregarding this, they treacherously
took possession of the fort, and made
prisoners of the garrison.

9. The governor of New York at this
time was Peter Stuyvesant, whom lise
tory describes as possessing a pretty hot
temper. Such a man was not likely ta
permit the treachery of Risingh to go
unavenged. So he fitted out an arma-
ment, which went against the Swedes
in several vessels, in the year 1655.

10. There was considerable fighting ;
but the Dutch were victorious, and hav-
ing taken the Swedish forts, they allowed
a few of the inhabitants to remain, and
sent the rest prisoners to Holland. The
settlement continued in the hands of the
Dutch till 1664, when it came into the
possession of the English, with the sur-
render of New York.

11. In 1682, the territory was pur-
chased by William Penn, and until
1703, formed a part of Pennsylvania.
At that time, it was partially separated
from that colony, having a distinct as-
sembly chosen by the people, though
the same governor that ruled over Penn-
sylvania ruled also over Delaware. The
colony remained in this situation till
1775, when it became an independent
state.

—e—

CHAPTER XXXVII.
MARYLAND.

1. Maryzanp is divided, by Chesa-
peake Bay, into two parts, called the
Eastern and Western Shores. In trave
elling through this state, we shall find



an account of them. When did the English take
possession of it?* 11. When did William Penn
purchase the territory? When did it become a
part of Pennsylv@nia? An independent state?

1. How is Maryland bounded? What bay in-
tersects it? What is the face of the country ia



ww

. 5s.
‘
. >

76 THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

that the land on both sides of the bay is
generally level, or moderately uneven.
If we proceed into the more western
parts, between the Potomac River and
Pennsylvania, we shall find hills, moun-
tains, and valleys.

2. There was, for many years, a dis-
pute about the boundary of this state,
between the heirs of William Penn,
proprietor of what is now the State of
Pennsylvania, and the heirs of Lord
Baltimore, proprietor of what is now
the State of Maryland. In 1762, Mr.
Charles Mason, of the English Royal
Observatory, London, and Mr. Jeremiah
Dixon, were appointed to run a line be-
tween the lands of the two parties. This
line was called Mason and Dixon’s
line.
3. In the states north of Maryland,
slavery is not authorized by law. The
people there consider it a great evil,
and have taken care to abolish it. But
in Maryland, and the states south of it,
the laws permit people to hold slaves.
Many persons, even there, believe it
wrong; but it has been long practised.
There are many thousands of slaves in
the country, and it is, therefore,’ not
easy to devise any plan by which they
can safely be set free.

4. We shall observe many fine wheat
fields in Maryland, and many planta-
tions of tobacco. This plant is culti-
vated in rows, like Indian corn, and it
has broad leaves, like the mullein. We
shall notice that almost all the labor in
the ficlds is performed by the negroes.

5. You will be delighted with Balti-
more. It is a large and beautiful city,



the western part? Where is the Potomac Riv-
er? 2. What dispute arose between the heirs of
William Penn and the heirs of®Lord Baltimore ?
What was the result of it? 3. Whatis said of
siavery: 4. What products shall we see in Ma-

yang: 5. What is said of Baltimore? 6. What
LÂ¥

and contains many fing buildings. The
Roman Catholic Catledral is one of
the most beautiful churches in America,
From the number of monuments in Bal+
timore, it is sometimes called the Monu-
mental City. There is a tall one, with
a statue of Washington on the top, that
you cannot fail to admire.

6. After seeing the rest of the city,
you should go to Howard Street, where
you will notice a great many wagons,
loaded with flour. Baltimore is one of
the greatest flour markets in the world.
Thousands and thousands of barrels are
brought here every year from various
parts of Maryland, and from Delaware,
Pennsylvania, Virginia, and the Western
States. It is then sent in ships to New
York, Boston, Charleston, and various
foreign countries.

7. I must tell you that there is a
great trade between Baltimore and the
states west of the Alleghany Mountains.
The western people buy a great many
goods at Baltimore, and send in return
a great deal of western produce. There
is, therefore, a vast deal of travelling



Railroad Cars,

back and forth, and hundreds of cars
are constantly occupied in transporting



is said of the flour market? 7 What is said



COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

goods and rroduce to and from this
market. When the Baltimore and Ohio
Railroad is completed, it will form the
nearest route from the waters of the
Atlantic to the Western States.

_ 8. The scenery upon this route is
truly magnificent. On leaving Balti-
more, we pass over the “ Carrollton
Viaduct,” .a granite bridge elevated
sixty-five feet above the water, and soon
arrive at Ellicott’s Mills, where immense
quantities of flour are manufactured.
Passing through Fredericktown, a beau-
tiful city with wide streets crossing each
other at right angles, we proceed to
Harper’s Ferry, in Virginia. The sce-
nery here will be sure to delight you.
The passage of the Potomac through
the Blue Ridge, at this place, is regarded
as one of the most stupendous scenes
in nature. Proceeding through several
thriving towns and villages, we shall ar-
vive at Cumberland, which is beautifully
situated on the north bank of the Poto-
mac. From this place the road will
s00n be completed to the Ohio River.

9. There are many pleasant towns in
Maryland. Annapolis, the seat of gov-
ernment, has a handsome State House.
There is a Naval School here, where
young men are educated to be officers
in the navy.

10. The climate of Maryland is very
agreeable. The winter is never severe,
and often, when the rivers and lakes
of New England are frozen over, the
creeks and inlets along Chesapeake Bay
are covered with flocks of wild water-



—

of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad? 8. Describe
the route to the Ohio River. Where are Elli-
eott’s Mills? Whereis Fredericktown? Har-
per’s Ferry? In what state is Cumberland,
through wich the road passes? 9. What is the
capital of Maryland? Where is it situated?
10, What is said of the climate ?

a





77

CHAR DBER, XX XVII.
MARYLAND—ConrTinvueEbD.

1. Baxtiors is situated on the River
Patapsco, which enters Chesapeake Bay,
about fourteen miles from the city. On
the northern side of this river is a piece
of land running into the bay, ealled
North Point. You should visit this spot,
for a famous battle was fought there on
the 12th of September, 1814. At that
time, our country was at war with Eng-
land. A great many English soldiers
and ships were sent over to fight with
our people.

2. On the 23d of August, they made
an attack on the city of Washington,
and as there were few American troops
there, they burnt the Capitol, and sev-
eral other public buildings, and the presi-
dent’s house. The president himself was
obliged to ride very fast, to keep out of
their way.

3. After they had done this, the Brit-
ish went to attack Baltimore. They
entered the mouth of the Patapsco with
a fleet of sixty ships, and on the day
above mentioned, six thousand troops
were landed at North Point.

4. Now, the people of Baltimore were
not in the humor for having their city
taken by, the British soldiers; so there
was a great bustle in the streets. Men
were seen running to and fro, with mus-
kets in their hands, and countenances
full of resolution. The merchants Isft
their counting rooms; the lawyers, their
offices ; the mechanics, their various em-
ployments; the drums beat; the fifes
screamed; and, assembled under the
command of their leaders, the bravest
and best men in the city went down te
meet the enemy.



1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Where is Baltimore situated?
Describe the battle which took place at North



78 THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

5. They met, and there was hard
fighting. The cannon roared, and the
musketry rent the air for a long time.
Many brave men fell on both sides.
But the Americans, being few in num-
ber, were obliged to retreat. General
Ross, the British leader, was killed;
and finding, by the experiment they had
made, that the people of Baltimore were
inclined to treat them too roughly, the
British went away, ships, sailors, sol-
diers, and all.

6. In one of the public squares of
Baltimore, they have erected a beauti-
ful marble monument, to commemorate
this event, with the names of those who
were killed in this battle.. Such are
some of the brave deeds that took place
in Maryland during the last war with
England. Let us now contemplate the
period when the white people first set-
tled upon these shores.

7. More than two hundred years ago,
the Catholics in England were _perse-
cuted as the Puritans had been before.
One of them, Lord Baltimore, deter-
mined, therefore, to come to America.
Accordingly he went to Virginia, which
had now been settled for some time.
But he found the people there as little
disposed to treat the Catholics kindly as
in England. So he went back*to Eng-
land, and begged the king to give him a
charter of the land lying on ie ceseake
Bay, then occupied only by the In-
dians.

8. This request was granted; but be-
fore the business was completed, he died.
Histon, Cecil, also called Lord Balti-
more, determined to carry into effect the

-» plans of his father. So he obtained the

grant for himself, and in 1634 sent his
brother, Leonard Calvert, with two hun-



Point. 6. What has been done to commemorate
the event? 7, 8. Give an account of the early
yettlement of Maryland. When was it settled?



dred Catholic emigrants, to settle upoy
the land on the Chesapeake.

9. When they arrived at the mouth of
the Potomac River, they found an Indian
village there, called Yoamaco. This
village they purchased of the sav.
and thus obtained good shelter, till they
could build better houses. They also
acquired some good land, which had been
cultivated. Their situaticn was therefore
very comfortable.

10. The colonists found plenty of wild
deer in the woods, and abundance of fish
along the shores of the bay. ‘The sea-
fowl were also numerous. There were
countless flocks of ducks skimming aleng
the water, and settling down around the
islands; and there were numbers of
wild geese at the mouths of the creeks
and rivers.

11. The colony flourished, as well in
consequence of its pleasant situation as
the liberal policy of its governments
These Catholics did not persecute those
who differed from them in religious
opinion. Lord Baltimore, and Roger
Williams, of Rhode Island, seem to
have discovered, about the same time,
that every man has a right to worship
God as he pleases. Thus Rhode Island
and Maryland, at this early date, en-
joyed the blessings of entire religious
freedom.

12. Yet the colony, whose story I am
now telling you, had its share of trou-
bles. A maneby the name of Clayborne
stirred up the Indians to hostility, and
they made war on the settlers. This
continued for several years, and the
ple suffered great distress. In 1645,
same Clayborne induced some of the sete
tlers to rebel against their rulers, and




9. What did they do on arriving at the mouth of
the Potomac? 10.What did they find for food? —
11. What is said of the liberal pclicy of the gov-
ernment? 12. What troubles did they have

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Calvert, the governor, was obliged to fly
to Virginia. But the next year, the re-
volt was suppressed. Governor Calvert
returned, and the colony once more en-
joyed a state of peace.

13. In 1666, the colony contained
‘about twelve thousand inhabitants. In
1676, Lord Baltimore, the founder of
the colony, died, leaving behind him the
enviable character of a wise and good
man. He was succeeded by his son
Charles, as proprietor of the colony, who
possessed the amiable qualities of his

father.

14. In 1689, King William assumed
the government of the colony; but in
1716 it was restored to Lord Baltimore,
and continued in the family till 1775.
The people then engaged with the other
-solonies in the revolution, and Lord
Baltimore’s claims ceased.

—

CHAPTER XXXIX.
MIDDLE STATES.

1. I HAVE now given you a brief
‘ketch of the geography and history of
the five Middle States. These are
classed together merely on account of
their situation, and not because of any
similarity either in the history or the
manners of the people. They were set-
tled at different times, by people from
different countries, who came for differ-
ent purposes ;— some for trade, some
to improve their fortunes, and some for
ligious peace.
2. We do not find so much resem-
ce among the people of these five

with the Indians? 13. How many inhabitants
were there in 1666? Who succeeded Lord Bal-
timore? 14. What change took place in the
government in 1689? In 1716?

1, What is said of the Middle States? 3. What







COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY. 73

states as exists among the people of
New England. Their houses, dress,
manner of tilling the land, thoughts,
feelings, and opinions differ in different
parts of this section of the Union.

3. If you will look at the map, you
will observe, that the three largest cities,
and three of the finest rivers in the
Union, are in these states. New York
is the largest city on the American con-

tinent, and the Hudson is one of the

finest rivers in the world for navigation.

4. In point of soil and climate, these
states doubtless surpass all the others sit-
uated upon the Atlantic. They are gen-
erally very fertile, producing grain and
fruit in the greatest perfection and abun-
dance. 'They are equally removed from
the severe winters of the north, and the
burning summers of the south.

5. Thus happily placed in the heart
of the country, they are growing in
population and wealth. Previous to the
French war, which has been before men-
tioned, these states never acted in con-
cert. They were then séparate colonies,
with separate interests. They have,
therefore, no common history until the
year 1756, when they united with the
other colonies, to resist the French and
Indians. The history of that war will
be given hereafter.

——

CHAPTER XL.
VIRGINIA.

1. Wer have now réacked Virginia,
one of the oldest states in the Union.
In travelling through the country, we
shall see that, in most places, the houses

large cities in these states? What rivers?
4, What is said of the soiland climate? 5. When
did these states first act in concert ?

’ 1,2. How is Virginia bounded? Name the

"


























Calvert, the governor, was obliged to fly
to Virginia. But the next year, the re-
volt was suppressed. Governor Calvert
returned, and the colony once more en-
joyed a state of peace.

13. In 1666, the colony contained
‘about twelve thousand inhabitants. In
1676, Lord Baltimore, the founder of
the colony, died, leaving behind him the
enviable character of a wise and good
man. He was succeeded by his son
Charles, as proprietor of the colony, who
possessed the amiable qualities of his

father.

14. In 1689, King William assumed
the government of the colony; but in
1716 it was restored to Lord Baltimore,
and continued in the family till 1775.
The people then engaged with the other
-solonies in the revolution, and Lord
Baltimore’s claims ceased.

—

CHAPTER XXXIX.
MIDDLE STATES.

1. I HAVE now given you a brief
‘ketch of the geography and history of
the five Middle States. These are
classed together merely on account of
their situation, and not because of any
similarity either in the history or the
manners of the people. They were set-
tled at different times, by people from
different countries, who came for differ-
ent purposes ;— some for trade, some
to improve their fortunes, and some for
ligious peace.
2. We do not find so much resem-
ce among the people of these five

with the Indians? 13. How many inhabitants
were there in 1666? Who succeeded Lord Bal-
timore? 14. What change took place in the
government in 1689? In 1716?

1, What is said of the Middle States? 3. What







COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY. 73

states as exists among the people of
New England. Their houses, dress,
manner of tilling the land, thoughts,
feelings, and opinions differ in different
parts of this section of the Union.

3. If you will look at the map, you
will observe, that the three largest cities,
and three of the finest rivers in the
Union, are in these states. New York
is the largest city on the American con-

tinent, and the Hudson is one of the

finest rivers in the world for navigation.

4. In point of soil and climate, these
states doubtless surpass all the others sit-
uated upon the Atlantic. They are gen-
erally very fertile, producing grain and
fruit in the greatest perfection and abun-
dance. 'They are equally removed from
the severe winters of the north, and the
burning summers of the south.

5. Thus happily placed in the heart
of the country, they are growing in
population and wealth. Previous to the
French war, which has been before men-
tioned, these states never acted in con-
cert. They were then séparate colonies,
with separate interests. They have,
therefore, no common history until the
year 1756, when they united with the
other colonies, to resist the French and
Indians. The history of that war will
be given hereafter.

——

CHAPTER XL.
VIRGINIA.

1. Wer have now réacked Virginia,
one of the oldest states in the Union.
In travelling through the country, we
shall see that, in most places, the houses

large cities in these states? What rivers?
4, What is said of the soiland climate? 5. When
did these states first act in concert ?

’ 1,2. How is Virginia bounded? Name the

"





80

are scattered, and that the land, instead
of being divided into small farms, is laid
out in extensive plantations of several
hundred acres each. Instead of mead-
ows, apple orchards, and small patches
of rye, Indian corn, and flax, we shall
see vast plains covered with crops of to-
baceo, wheat, and hemp. We shall see,
that the whole labor of the field is per-
formed, on these plantations, by the ne-
groes. The planters themselves have
large houses, and live in excellent style.

2. We shall not meet with many tav-
erns ; it may, therefore, be convenient to
stop for a night at a planter’s house. We
may be stire of a hearty welcome, and
the liberal host will take nothing in pay-
ment. If it is autumn, he will probably
invite us to go the next day in chase of
deer. There are a great nrany of these
animals still in Virginia, and the plant-
ers hunt them on horseback, with packs |
of hounds. We must take care that our
travels do not take place in the summer,
for then it is very hot in Eastern Vir-
ginia. We had better go in the winter,
and thus, while New England is buried
up in snow drifts, we may travel at our
ease in the Southern States.

8. Virginia may be divided into three

That which lies towards the sea-
coast is level and sandy ; that which lies
east of the Blue Ridge is hilly, and that
which lies west of it is mountainous. In
the western part of the state, there are
fewer negroes, and the white people
labor on the farms.

4. There are several remarkable cu-
riosities in this state. One is a Natural
Bridge, composed of rocks. It is two
hundred and fifteen feet high, and its
average width is eighty-five feet. A



principal_r What mountains? In travel-
i “the country, what shall we observe ?
3. Into what three parts may Virginia be di-
vided? 4,5. Namie some of the natural curiosi-

ay
>
a

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

























little river flows beneath it at the buttom.
Wier’s Cave is an astonishing work of
nature. It consists of several spacious
caverns in the rocks, more than two
thousand feet in length. The sides are
covered with beautiful crystals. If
enter the cave with a light, it is reflected
by these crystals, and you will be aston-
ished at the wonderful brilliancy of the
scene.

5. There are several other caves in
Virginia, one of which is called the
Blowing Cave. From this so powerful
a stream of air issues, as to blow down
the grass and weeds to the distance of
sixty feet from the mouth.

6. The principal springs of fashiona-
ble resort are the White Sulphur Springs
in the county of Greenbrier, and the
Warm and Hot Springs in Bath county.
Thousands of people annually visit them
in search of health or amusement.

7. In the western part of the state,
near the Ohio, is a remarkable mound
of earth, filled with human bones. It
is seventy feet high, and three hundred
feet across at the bottom. This won-
derful hill must have been built long be-
fore the white people came to America.
It is probable, indeed, that it was con-
structed many ages since, even before the
race of savages with which we are ac
quainted occupied the country. It was,
no doubt, the work of a people who lived,
flourished, and passed away, leaving no’
record behind them but these mounds
to tell that they ever existed.

8. Richmond, the seat of government
in Virginia, is the largest city in
state. It is situated at the head of
water on the falls of James River,
has excellent facilities for commerce
manufactures. Large cotton and wool

ties to be seen in the s 6. What is said of
the springs? 7. What of a remarkable mound
in the western part of the state? 8. What is










COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY. ‘oe

len factories, iron works, and flour mills
have recently been erected. Great quan-
tities of flour, hemp, and tobacco, the

staples of Virginia, are sent down James |

River from Lynchburg to this place by
acanal, called James River and Kenawha
Canal.

9. In going south from Baltimore, we
can take passage in a steamboat upon
the Chesapeake Bay, and go to Norfolk
and Portsmouth, situated upon the Eliz-
abeth River. Norfolk has a fine harbor,
and more foreign trade than any other
place in the state. At Portsmouth you
will see a United States Navy Yard and
a Dry Dock. From this place we can
take the cars for Weldon, in North Car-
olina, and unite with the route through
Washington, Petersburg, and Richmond.

—

CHAPTER XLII.
VIRGINIA—ConrTINUVED.

1. Brrore we leave Virginia, we

must visit Monticello, the seat of the late

_ Thomas Jefferson. He was once presi-
dent of the United States, as I shall
have occasion by and by to tell you.
He died on the 4th of July, 1826.

2. There is another place in this state
that we must not fail to visit. This is
a pleasant hill, called Mount Vernon.
-Here General Washington lived, and at
‘a little distance from the house where
he dwelt is a tomb, in which his body

_reposes. I shall have many things to
you of this great and good man.
died in the year 1799. I recollect
the event happened, though I was
a child. Such was the sorrow of

the capital of Virginia? What is said of it?
D. Describe Norfolk; Portsmouth. Where is
Petersburg ?

1, 2. For what mageepheslia and Mount

es.





the people, when the sad news came,
that the bells were tolled, and every
body went into mourning.

3. In the south-eastern part of the
state is a place called Jamestown. It
is on a little island in James River, about
thirty miles from its mouth. The place
is now in ruins ; but, if you visit it, you
will desire to know its history. An an-
cient churchyard, the crumbling chim~-
ney of a church, a few traces of old
houses and rude fortifications, will make
you feel that there is an interesting story
connected with them.

4. The story is indeed interesting,
and I will now tell you a part of it; Lam
sorry that I have not room for the whole.
I must commence ata period when no
English settlement had been made in
America. This vast country, now occu-
pied by more than twenty-three millions
of people, was then a wide hunting
ground for the Indians. They alone
dwelt in its valleys, roamed over its
hills and mountains, and sailed upon its
rivers and bays.

5. The Spaniards had penetrated into
South America, and found countries
abounding in silver and gold. Stories
of their success were circulated through-
out Europe, and the spirit of adventure
entered into many minds. In England
a company was formed for making a
settlement in North America; and, hay-
ing obtained a grant of land, they de-
spatched three ships, with one hundred
and five adventurers, for the new world.

6. After sailing across the Atlantic, a
storm drove them into the mouth of
Chesapeake Bay. On approaching the
land, they discovered a large and beau-

Vernon celebrated? 3. What is said of James-
town? 4. What was the condition of the coun-
try before it was settled by the Europeans?
5. What induced the English to settle in Vir
ginia? 6, 7. Give an account of their voyage



tiful river, which they determined to
ascend. They had several interviews
with the Indians, who received them



Interview with the Indians on James River.

kindly. One day, as some of them were
ashore, an Indian chief came to them,
with a bow and arrow in one hand and
a pipe in the other, and asked them for
what purpose they came.

7. They replied, by signs, that they
wished to settle on the lands in peace,
and so the chief received them well.
Another chief offered them as much
land as they desired, and sent them a
deer, as a mark of good will.

8. On the 13th, of May, 1607, the
emigrants landed, and began their estab-
lishment. It was on an island in the
river. The river they called James
River, and the village they called James-
town. This. was the first permanent
English settlement in North America ;
and the ruins I have described are the
remains of the ancient town which these
people built.

9. The colonists soon began to expe-
‘rience difficulties which they had not
foreseen. The provisions they brought
with them were at length exhausted ;
and, having planted nothing, they were

and settlement. 8. When and where did they
tommence their settlement? 9, What difficul-





THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

in great want of food. Besides this, the
climate being hot and damp, many of
them were taken sick, and in the course
of four months, fifty of them died.

10. They were now in great distress, |
and hardly knew what to do. In this
emergency, they consulted one of their
number, named John Smith. He was
certainly one of the most extraordinary
men that ever lived. At the age of
fifteen, he left England, and travelled %
on foot through Spain, France, and Ger-
many. |

11. Here he entered the army of the
Emperor of Austria, and at length ob-
tained the command of a troop of horse, 4
One day he challenged a Turk to fight ~
with him. This was accepted, and, ‘
mounted on fine horses, the two combat-
ants met in the field. After a desperate
struggle, Smith killed the Turk. Not
satisfied with this, he challenged anoth-
er, and finally a third, and killed these,
as he had done the first.

12. After this, he was in a battle with |
the Turks, and, being wounded, was —

onstantinople. Here he was made a

Slave, and was treated cruelly by his

master; but his mistress took compas-
sion on him, and sent him to her brother,
who lived at a great distance, requesting
that he might be treated kindly. But
her directions were not followed, and —
Smith received the same harsh treat- f

taken by the latter, and sent prisoner to .

ment as before.
13. Irritated by this, he slew his new
master. He then travelled in various
countries, meeting with strange adv
tures wherever he went. He finally
turned to England, and joined the ex
dition to Virginia. While they were ai









ties did the colonists experience? 10. Whatis

said of John Smith? 11, 12. What adventures
did he have while in the Aus army ?
13, What happened to him during the voyage te

oil . j



COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

sea, the emigrants became jealous of
im, and put him in confinement. In
is condition he remained until the dis-
tress of the colony rendered his assist-
ance necessary.
14. They then granted him a trial;

and being acquitted, he immediately |

adopted measures for remedying the

existing evils. He set about building
_ a fort, to protect the people from the In-

dians, and made long journeys into the

wilderness, to procure corn and other
' food of the natives.

15. On one occasion, he obtained an

l, made of skins, and stuffed with |

This the savages reverenced very
much ; and, in order to get it back, they
gave him as much corn as he asked for.

16. Nothing could exceed the bold-
ness and enterprise of this singular man,
yet it must be confessed that his conduct
’ was not always regulated by justice or

truth. In his intercourse with the sav-
"ages, he resorted to stratagem or vio-
lence, if he could not succeed in his

_ plans by other means. It was partly on

this*account that the Indians began to
- hate the white people ; and Smith him-
self nearly fell a victim to the feelings

_ of revenge which he had excited.

17. He went one day to explore the
little River Chickahominy. Having as-
tended as far as he could in a boat, he
‘4 it in charge of his men, and pro-
ed along the bank of the river, with
white men and two Indian guides.
ut not long after he was gone, the sav-
who were lurking in the woods,
ded the men in the boat, and
them prisoners.
8. They then pursued Smith, and,
coming up with him, killed his
white companions with their arrows,
and ided him. But with an un-
America® 14, 15, 16. What is said of him in
his iptercourse with the Indians? 17, 18, 19,

.







83

| daunted spirit, he fired upon his enemies,
and, tying one of the Indian guides to
his side, he continued to retreat towards
the boat. Awed by his bravery, the
savages kept aloof; but at length he
came toa place where he sank in the mire.

19. Being unable to-extricate himself,
his enemies now seized him, and took
him in triumph to Powhatan, their king,
A council was now held, to determine
what should be done with the prisoner,
and it was decided that he should die.
He was accordingly brought forth, and,
being laid on the ground, his head was
placed upon a stone.

20. Powhatan claimed the honor of
killing him. He took a large club, and,
raising it high in the air, was about to
give the pone blow, whew his daughter









Pocahontas saving Smith.
Pocahontas, moved by pity, rushed to the
prisoner, and sheltered his body by her
own. The astonished chief brought his
club slowly to the ground, and a murmur
of surprise burst from the lips of ihe
savages who stood: around.

21. The chief now raised his daugh-
ter, and, seeming to be touched by that
pity which had affected her so much,
gave Smith his liberty, and sent him
back to Jamestown.

20, 21. Relate his edventure with Powhatan and
Pocahontas.

r



CHAPTER XLII.
VIRGINIA—ConNTINUED.

1. On his return to Jamestown, Smith
found the number of colonists reduced
to thirty-eight. They were so disheart-
ened, that most of them had determined

. to abandon the settlement, and go back
to England. Smith remonstrated, but
they would not stop. They entered a
small vessel, and prepared to sail down
the river. He determined that they
should not go; so he pointed the guns
of the fort at the vessel, and threatened
to sink her, if they did not return.
Alarmed at this, they gave up their
project, and came ashore.

2. The colony was now almost in a
starving condition; but Smith, by this
time, had acquired such a reputation for
courage among the Indians, that they
did riot dare to refuse supplies, Poca-
hontas, too, the beautiful Indian girl
who had saved his life, continued to be
his friend, and sent him such articles as
were most needed. Thus the colony
was able to subsist till Captain Newport,
who brought out the first settlers, re-
turned to the colony, bringing with him
a quantity of provisions, and one hun-
dred and twenty persons.

8. Now that the danger was over, the
colonists would no longer submit to the
government of Smith. Disorder and
confusion among the people soon fol-
lowed. About the same time, the pas-
gion for gold, which had induced many
of the settlers to come to the country,

wes again excited. Some particles of
low shining earth were found in the

Sok of little stream, north of James-

town. Captivated with the idea of get-
ting saddenly rich, the colonists left their

——_————
1, What was the condition of the colonists on

his return to Jamestown? 2. How did Smith
sender assistance to the colony ?» 3, 4, 5. Relate

te

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

proper employments, and went to dig
what they supposed to be gold.

4, Smith endeavored to dissuade
them, but they would not listen to him
Nothing was thought of, or talked of,
but gold. So they all went to filling
the ship with the earth, which they sup-
posed to contain particles of that precious
metal. At length she was loaded, and
sailed for England. When she arrived
there, the cargo was examined, and found
to be nothing but common mud, filled
with little pieces of shining stone. 4

5. There is a lesson to be drawn from
this point of history. “All is not gold
that glitters,” says the proverb; and so
the Virginians found it. I hope my
readers, if they are ever tempted by an
shining prospect to depart from the pai
of duty, will recollect that what seems
to be gold often proves to be only vulgar
dust.

6. Smith, finding that he could not —
be useful, left the colonists digging for
gold, and went himself to explore, the
coasts of the Chesapeake Bay. Havi
been absent some time, he returned,
after a while went again to traverse the
wilderness. He. often met the Indians,
and traded with some, fought with some,
and again went back to the settlement,
leaving with the natives an awful im-
pression of his valor. ‘

7. He was now chosen president, and,
the people submitting to his authority,
order was soon restored. Habits of in-—
dustry were resumed, and peace and
plenty soon smiled upon the colony.

8. In 1609, the London Company
out nine ships, with nine hundred
grants to the colony. On board of
of these vessels there were some offi

































the account of digging gold. ‘eer
do while the colonists were thus employed?
7. What was the condition of the colony while
Smith was president? 8, What is related of the












































happily, was driven by a storm upon the
Bermudas, and detained for a long time.
The other vessels arrived safely; but the
persons who came in them were of a
vicious-character, and refused to permit |
Smith to govern them. He determined, |
however, that he would be obeyed, and
accordingly he seized upon several of
them, and put them in prison. This
alarmed the rest, and order was again
restored.

9. It was about this time that the

Indians, fearing that the white people
_ would become too powerful, determined
to make a sudden attack upon them, and
kill them all. Pocahontas heard of this
scheme, and resolved, if possible, to save
the English. Accordingly, one dark and
- stormy night, she left her father’s wig-
wam, and went alone, through the for- |
ests, to Jamestown. Here she found |
Smith, and apprised him of the threat- |
ened danger. She then returned, and
Smith took immediate measures to put.
the colony~in a state of defence.

10. The Indians, finding the people
watchful and prepared, gave up their
project. Thus again did Pocahontas
save the life of Smith, as well as the lives
of all the white people in the colony.

11. About this time, Smith received
_ & dangerous wound, which obliged him
go to England, to consult a surgeon.
Indians, finding the only man they
was gone, attacked the colony, |
cutting off their supplies, reduced
to the greatest extremity.
12. Such, in a short time, was their
le condition, that they devoured
skins of their horses, the bodies of
Indians they had killed, and the
of their dead companions. In six

|

sent out in 1609? 9,10. What service
tas render the colony when the In-
tended to attack them? 11, 12,13, What



COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY. .

85

appointed to rule over them. This, un- | months, their number-was reduced, from
| more than five hundred, to sixty.

13. At this time, the persons whe
had been wrecked at Bermuda arrived ;
but they, with the other settlers, all
agreed that it was best to quit the set-
tlement, and return to England. Ao
cordingly they sailed down the river for
that purpose. Fortunately, they were
met by Lord Delaware, who had come
in a vessel from England, loaded with
provisions. This revived their courage,
and they went back to Jamestown.

——

CHAPTER XLIII.
VIRGINIA—ContinvED.

1. Tue colony now began to enjoy
more favorable prospects. Lord Dela-
ware, who was governor, restored order »
and contentment by his mild and gentle
conduct, and the Indians were once
more taught to respect and fear the

|| English. In 1611, new settlers arrived,

and other towns were founded; and.un-
der a succession of wise governors, Vir-
ginia became a flourishing and extensive
colony.

2. In 1612, Captain Argal went ona °
trading voyage up the Potomac, and
heard that Pocahontas was in the neigh-
borhood. He invited her to come on
board his vessel, and she came. He
then detained her, and carried her to
Jamestown. He knew that Powhatan
loved his daughter, and thought, while
she was in the ion of the
lish, that he would be afraid to do them
mischief. :

was the condition of the colony after Smith had
returned to England? Why did they not return
to England?

1. What was the condition of the colony undet
Lord Delaware? 2, 8. Relate the adventure of

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PARLEY’S FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.






er lRST BOOK,OF HISTO By,

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY;

THE HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY

OF

THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE.

FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS. ~
BY THE AUTHOR OF PETER PARLEY’S TALES

(ILLUSTRATED BY ENGRAVINGS AND COLORED MAPS.

REVISED AND IMPROVED EDITION, —

WITH IMPORTANT ADDITIONS.

, BOSTON: 7,
SWAN, BREWER AND TILESTON.
CLEVELAND: |
INGHAM AND BRAGG.
| 1860.



ako = oi Hie
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1858, =9
JENKS, HICKLING, AND SWAN,

in the Clerk’s Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts.
¢

CITY OF BOSTON.

In Scnoot Commirrer, Marcu 30, 1882.
The “ First Book of History, combined with Geography,” was this day adopted as one of the
text books in the Grammar Schools of this city.
(Signed) EDWARD CAPEN, Secretary.



4 |
CITY OF ROXBURY.

In ScHoot ComMiTTEE, JANUARY 28, 1852
The “ First Book of History combined with Geography ” was this uay adopted as one of
the text books in the Grammar Schools of this city.

(Signed) JOSHUA SEAVER, Seerctary
PREFACE.





Among the multitude of books for instructing the young, there are not a few of an hia
torical nature ; but it is remarkable that History is not a universal, nor even a general study
in our common schools. This cannot arise from any want of adaptation in the subject itself
to the purposes of instruction; on the contrary, it is manifest, that it_is peculiarly adapted
to these purposes. We do not mean to say this of history as it has been generally treated ;
for most school books of this kind are but little more than extended chronological tables,
and offer nothing to the reader but a tedious mass of dates and general observations. Such
works may be useful to people of mature age, but they neither amuse nor instruct the class
of readers for whom they are designed. But of all reading, there is none that so readily
attracts the attention, and lays hold of the sympathy of children and youth, as lively narra-
tives of the enterprises, adventures, dangers, trials, successes, and failures of mankind ;
and these it is the business of history to display. Books which treat of the works of nature
and art, which exhibit geographical details, observations upon natural history, and natural
philosophy — any or all of tnese will be immediately thrown aside by a child left to his
choice, for a book of stories, delineating events in connection with the development. of
human passions.
If, then, history, when properly treated, is one of the most attractive of all studies, why is
It not regularly taught in all our schools? It is not because it is deemed less useful than
other studies ; “the proper study of mankind is man,” and it cannot be entered upon too
_ soon. After possessing a knowledge of religion, and the duties we owe to God and our
q neighbor, history is the most important of all studies. It relates to us what has been done
_ by mankind, and thus teaches us what they may do. It acquaints us with the true character
P of our race, and enables us to know ourselves better. It apprises us of the existence of
’ evil, and the way to shun it; it acquaints us with the existence of good, and shows us how
to attain it.

It cannot be, therefore, that the limited use of history, in our schools, is owing to an idea
that it is useless. The fact must arise from the want of historical books, written in a style
which shall render them both interesting and profitable. Such, at least, is the conviction of
_ the author of this volume ; and, believing that a First Book of History, for general use in
our schools, is much to be desired, he has undertaken, and now offers to the public, the
present volume. :

In preparing it, two things have been had in view. In the first place, it should be usefu. ;
and in the second place, to make it useful, it must be entertaining. To accomplish these
ends, the book is provided with maps, and before the pupil enters upon the history of any
state or country, he is to learn from them its shape, boundaries, rivers, and shores. He 1s
then briefly made acquainted with its present state, its towns and cities, and the occupaticns
of its inhabitants. These geographical details are conveyed to the pupil by narrating
upposed travels through various countries, in which he takes a part.

_ Ihe pupil, being thus acquainted with the present condition of a country, is then told its
history, ‘The author has been careful to introduce precise dates; for without them, it would
be impossible to give any distinct view of amy portion of history. But he has sought more
__ assiduously to select from the great mass of events those topics which would be most caleu-
lated to please and to improve the young reader. He has introduced many tales, anecdotes,
ventures, and curious particulars, for the double purpose of enlivening the book, and

oe











6 PREFACE.

throwing light upon the periods and events with which they are connected. A large num
ber of engravings have been inserted, as well for illustration as for fixing certain ideas
permanently in the memory of the pupil.

A familiar style has been adopted, and the materials throughout are arranged on a new
plan. ‘The common method is to begin at the earliest date, and follow down the train of
events to the present time. The author of this work has partially reversed this method. He
begins with the individual states of our own country, and first exhibits their present condi-
tion. He then notices a few recent events, and having fixed the attention of the reader
upon the subject, proceeds to narrate the history. Avoiding general statements, he has
endeavored to keep the attention and interest of the pupil alive, by descriptions, sketches,
and tales, which may at once gratify the taste and improve the understanding.

It will be observed, that, although the book contains a large quantity of matter, yet it em-
braces the history of the Western Continent only. It is believed that it will be more useful
than if it contained the history of the Eastern Continent, also, in the same number of pages,
In proportion as a work is condensed, it becomes general, and, of course, uninteresting to
children. It was deemed preferable, therefore, to give an ample history of our own Hem-
isphere, and if the plan should be approved, a second volume, embracing the history of the
Eastern Hemisphere, will be published.

Nore. Since the above was written, Paritey’s Seconp Book or History, COMBINED
WITH GrogRaPHy, embracing the geography and history of the Eastern Hemisphere, and
Parvey’s Tuirp Boox or History, containing Ancient History, have been published and
extensively circulated. They are written inthe same attractive style, and contain numerous
maps and engravings.



PREFACE TO THE REVISED EDITION.

Tue first-edition of this work was published in 1832, since which time it has acquired a
very.extended and constantly increasing circulation. It is now presented to the public m
a new and improved form. Within the period of twenty years, many important events
have occurred, and great changes have taken place in the political geography of the West-
ern Continent. In our own country, new states have been formed, and towns and cities
have been built as if by the hand of magic. Arkansas, Michigan, Florida, Iowa, Texas,
Wisconsin, and California, have all been added to the Union since the work was originally
written ; the geographical part of it had, therefore, become exceedingly defective. To
remedy this defect, and to adapt the work to the wants of the present time, has been the
design of the reviser. ‘

The plan of the work has not been materially changed. It has been improved by an
introductory treatise upon the subject of geography, with such definitions of geographical
terms as are necessary to render the work complete in itself, as a text book for schools,
upon the geography and history of the Western Continent. It contains nineteen maps,
newly engraved upon steel, and colored, which contain the names of all the places referred
to in the work, and these maps are inserted in connection with the states and countries
which they represent.

The work has already met with unexampled encouragement, and it is hoped that this
improved edition may be found worthy of even more favor than the preceding ones.

Boston, March, 1852.
s





CHAP. 2.

CHAP. 11.

~
Pace
CHAPTER 2. IntRopvcTION. — History.
Geography. form of the earth. Motions
of the earth. ‘The seasons. Divisions of
the earth..ccece eee@eeeezeoeep eee eoeee eee veeasee2ee2 @ ll
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. — Defi-

nitions @eeeeeeeeoeaeeoee eee ese02 008 £2 E888 828088

CHAP. 3. THE WESTERN CONTINENT. —
ERE Pc, oo kd Dcce be obese soesee canted
CHAP. 4. Tue Discovery oF AMERICA. —
Story of Columbus. Adventures. Thoughts
of Columbus. Government of Genoa. Fer-
dinand and Isabella. He sets sail....cesee

CHAP. 5. Discovery or AMERICA, contin-
ued. — First voyage on the ocean. Discov-
eryofland. Landing. Natives. Country.
Return to Spain. Procession. Other voy-
ages. Americus Vespucius. Divisions of
North and South America ....0.ccecessece

CHAP. 6. Mainr.— Geography. Railroads.
Business. Productions ..cccccccsee sevecs

CHAP. 7 MaIne, continued. — Indian Old
Towu. Penobscot tribe. Settlement in
Maine. Story of the Norridgewock tribe.
History of Maine...seececcccvcescecs

CHAP. 8 New HAampsuHire. — Geography.
Isles of Shoals. Sea serpent. Mountains.
Lakes. The Notch eeeeoee 2Geeeoea ©2828 EAE

GHAP. 9. New HAmpsHIRE, continued. —
Slide of a mountain. History. Attack on
ko ecgeeed @eeeeono2eeeeeeeoneeeeneee

CHAP.10. Vermont. — Geography. Green
Mountains. Towns. Productions........ 29

VERMONT, continued. — Inun-
dation. Battle on Lake Champlain. Of
Bennington. Settlement. ...ccccccceccccce

CHAP. 12. MassacuusEtts. — Geography.
Commerce. Manufactures. Boston. Rail-
roads. Towns. Institutions ...cceccccece

CHAP. 13. MASSACHUSETTS, continued. —
Centennial celebration. Settlement of Bos-
ton. Of Plymouth. Other settlements.
History e@eesneeae eae eve see ee eeeteseoeseeeosecned

CHAP. 14. Ruorx Istanp. — Geography.
Roger Williams and settlement. History.

CHAP. 15. CoNnnecTiIcuT. — Geography.
Norwich Indians. New London. The
dream. Towns. Manufacturers........0.

CHAP. 16. CoNnNeEcTICUT, continued. — Mr.
Chester in the woods. History. Charter

a eeeaeeeegeeeeoeae tee 28 C8 ©SGSHCECHBSBSEH88E88E

CHAP. 17. New ENGLAND. — Geography.
Climate. Connecticut River. Anecdote.
School houses eeversreeaecenaeocroaoaeseseoesenoeeecsé 39

16
16

20
#
20

e@ecee 24

26

27

30

31

33
34

38

35

CONTENTS.



Paes

CHAP. 18. Nrw ENaranp, continged. =
History. The Puritans. Settlement. Plym-
outh Rock. Samoset. Massasoit. Anee-
dote. Other settlers. Salem. Boston. Der.
chester. Lady Arabella Johnson ......006

CHAP. 19. Nrw,ENGULAND, continued. —
Two colonies, Plymcuth and Massachusetts.
Sir Henry Vane. Ann Hutchinson. In-
dians, Capture of Mystic. Union of colo-
nies for defence. ss .csecseccoccesedvevecse

CHAP. 20. New ENGLAND, continued. —
Hatred of the Indians. King Philip excites
them to war © COSHSHTHEFCESEOOCHEEHOHTHAHSEHEEHEOEOKSHHSE.

CHAP. 21. NErw ENGLAND, continued. —
Springfield burnt. Slaughter at Muddy
Brook. War in Maine. New Hampshire.
Attack on Brookfield. The Narragansetts.
Death of Philip..... oeccedpnseepen

CHAP. 22. New ENeGuanp, continued. —
Charters of the colonies taken away. An-
dros imprisoned, and sent to England. Sup-
posed witchcraft at Salem .......sseeeeces

CHAP. 23. Nrw ENGLAND, continued. —
War between England and France. At-
tack on Haverhill. Story of Mr. Dunstan.
Mrs. Dunstan. Queen Anne’s War. At-
tack on Deerfield. Port Royal taken.
Peace. Canada taken by the British ....

CHAP. 24. Nrw ENGLAND, continued. —
Indian war in Maine. King George’s war.
Capture of Louisburg. Peace. French and
Indian war. Treaty of Paris. Trouble be-
tween the American colonies and England,
beginning the revolution ....sssccoscccecs

CHAP. 25. Tue Purirans. — Their char-
acter. Object in coming to America. Per-
secution of the Baptists ..cceccescccccccee Ja

CHAP. 26. THE PurRITANS, continued. —
Pergecution of the Quakers. Reflections.
Sabbath morning in the forests. Other
sketches ened es a

CHAP. 27. New Yorx.— Geography. Ca-
nals and lakes. New York city. Passage
up, the Hudson osescccicetheasecebaned stent

CHAP. 28 NEw York, continued. — Al-
bany. Trenton Falls, and sad accident.
New York Indians. Salt Wells. Niagara
Falls. Stories. Internal Improvements.
HIStory .scccccceccccsccevcccsescesescocs OF

CHAP. 29. New York, continued. — Erie
Canal. History of settlement. Dutch.
Indian wars. Surrender to the English,
under the Duke of York eocccceessvccces Gd

42

48

47

49

54

@eeeneeeeaeceeeeeseoeeeeoeeeoeeeee


8
CHAP. 30. New York, continued. — The

MP TERTIUS «ch ote ody ec 0b ssdesengsegusbins
CHAP. 31. New York, continued.— Leis-

ler. Burning of Schenectady. Governor

Sloughter. Exploits of Peter Schuyler..

CHAP. 32. New York, continued. — Pi-
rates. Robert Kidd. Persecution of the
negroes. Tolmonwilemon. Peace of 1747.

CHAP. 33. Nrew JERsEY. — Geography.
Passaic Falls. Canals. History. Settle-
ment. Division into East and West Jer-
sey. Battle of Monmouth........ccesece

CHAP. 34. PENNSYLVANIA. — Geography.
Philadelphia. Independence. Fairmount
Waterworks. Girard College. Travels.
Roads. Bridges. Quakers. Germans.
Alleghany Mountains. Pittsburg. Alle-
ghany City. Coal Mines. Canals........

CHAP. 35. PENNSYLVANIA, continued. —
History. William Penn. Settlement.
Penn comes to America. Founds Phila-
delphia. Returns to England. Rapid set-
tlement of Pennsylvania. Penn again
visits his colony. Death of Penn. Char-
acter. MERSIN Lak Go vba @ 06 W.oralchsindiece‘e 0

CHAP. 36. DELAWARE. — Geography.
Size and situation. Travels. Breakwater.
Revolutionary war. Delaware regiment.
Settlement. Paradise Point. Indians.
Governor Risingh. Peter Stuyvesant.
Capture of the Dutch. History..........

CHAP. 37 Maryann. — Geography.
Mason and Dixon’s .ine. Baltimore.
Trade with the west. Naval school. Cli-

TACO cee es eeeeee res ese see eee eeeoeveaneseeve

CHAP. 38. MARYLAND, continued. —
—— North Point. War with England. Wash-
ington burnt. Baltimore. Lord Balti-
more. Settlement. Indidn villages. Sit-
uation of the colonists. Death of Lord
Baltimore. His character. History.....

CHAP. 39. MippLEe States. — General
view. Geography. History........sceee

CHAP. 40. Vuirainta. — Geography.
Travels. Manners. Customs. Planta-
tions. Climate. Face of the country.
Natural curiosities. Ancient mounds.

Springs. .ccee. @eeeeoe eee oes SR ete ee

CHAP. 41. VIRGINIA, continued. —Jef-
ferson. Washington. Jamestown. In-
dians. Spaniards. Chesapeake Bay. In-
dian chiefs. Settlement on James River.
John Smith. His adventures. Conduct.
Powhatan. Pocahontas......ccsccsccess

CHAP. 42. Virani, continued. — State
of the colony under Smith’s government.
The colonists dig for gold. Reflections.
Smith chosen president. Pocahontas.
Misery of the colonists. Lord Delaware.

CHAP. 43. Virarnia, continued. — The

CONTENTS.

colony flourishes. Captain Argal. Mar-
riage of Pocahontas. Death. First slaves
in the colonies. Opecancanough. Slaugh-
ter of the colonists. Vengeance of the

64

66 English. History.....s.secee phiehesae we
CHAP. 44. Norry Carona. — Geog-
raphy. ‘Travels. Plantations. Forests.
67 Tar. Gold digging. Towns. Produe-

tions. Settlement by Episcopalians. Sit-
uation of the colony. Other settlers. .Or-
igin of the names North and South Caro-
lina. Indians. The Six Nations. His-

TOLY..ccecce eeeeee See ee lees eeeoeee yee eee

CHAP. 45. Sovurn Carona. — Geogra-
phy. Voyage. Charleston. Planters.
Trade of Charleston. Puritans. French
Preflestamts, * TIStorys ss nes.eeeesn ces dt

CHAP. 46. Gzoraia.—Geography. Face
of the country. Savannah. Improve-
ments. Okefinoke Swamp. Settlement
of Georgia. Situation of the colony. At-
tacks of Spaniards. General Oglethorpe.

CHAP. 47. Fioripa.— Geography. Dis-
covery. Settlement. History. Semi-
Holes.) Key West, ones is civ vediv dcensineed

~CHAP.48. ALABAMA.— Geography. His-
SOET. cae candceke chadnachavb’dde satcaemen
CHAP. 49. Muississrppr. — Geography.
PEISCONG 0k 5b.das 0 sabi op od-vensnn e@eeeneseeee ee
CHAP. 50. Lovistana. —, Geography.
New Orleans. Battle of New Orleans.
FEAGOy nside nc cas vnanrend 44 opens cab ote

CHAP. 51. Trxas.— Geography. His-

COTY... cece eroeeeseeceeneseeses eres

CHAP.52. Tur WEsTERN STATES. .
— Geography. Mississippi Valley. Trav-
els on the Ohio River. Railroads, cities,
and towns. Education. History........

CHAP. 53. Inprana.— Geography. Tray-
els on the Ohio. History......02 ceeccece

CHAP. 54. Ini1no1s.— Geography. Tray-
els on the Ohio. . The Mississippi River.
Illinois River. Canals, Lake Michigan.
Chicago. Prairies. History.....

CHAP. 55. Wisconsin. — Geography.
History..++ee. Seeeeeseee eee eee eeeoeoeseteoeess

CHAP. 56. MicuiGan. — Geography.
Lakes. AURVOURGES « « SEND ERO es Co edn e odk

CHAP. 57. Iowa. — Geography. Indian

LDOG 0s tec tees eseeeee eee eeuceo eee

CHAP. 58. Muissourt.—Geography. St.
Louis. History. Santa Fe Commerce.
Schools. Principal towns......sccseseee

CHAP. 59. ARrxkKANsas.— Geography. Al-

68

72

74

75



79

81

CHAP. 60. TENNESSEE. — Geography.
History..ceccccece eeeeeeeeeeeseeoeoeeeeeeene
CHAP. 61. Kentucky.— Geography. Lou
isville. Mammoth Cave. History. aeeoee

84

a7.

91

93
94
95

95
97

3°
-J3

100

102 |

104
206
108

120

ligatorasssscseeeicconswevecces eeeeeeeeee 119

Lil






ve

_VHAP. 62. Carirornia, — Geography.
my History....... C2OHRCCHOER LOL ETE SEES DEL LEe 1 3
CHAP. 63. Te Trrritorizs. — Geogra-
| phy. Indian ferritorys Missouri Terri-
tory. Minnesota. New Mexico. Utah.
_ Oregon. Indians. Animals. Travels of
Lewis and Clarke. Government.....-++. 113

CHAP.64. Tur Frencu War. —Geog-
taphy. Colonies. French. English.
George Washington. Governor Dinwiddie.
Fort Du Quesne. General Braddock. Ex-

edition against Fort Niagara. Crown

Tc dh stueb'n's oc anab sembeos chiara 117

| CHAP. 65. Frencu War, continued. —
e Rogiand and France declare war. Fort
William Henry. Louisburg. Du Quesne.
Ticonderoga. Death of Lord Howe. Cap-
ture of Fort Frontenac. Quebec. Mont-
calm. Death of Wolfe. Montreal taken.
French possessions ceded to the Brit-

ish. OPS SSEHESHHOSHCHSHSESHESHSSHEFFESSCHH SESS EAEEEES 119

CHAP. 66. Tue Revonurtion. — Parlia-
ment of Great Britain. People of Amer-
ica. General Gage. Quarrels......secoee 123

CHAP. 67. RevoLtuTion.— Tax on tea.
New laws. Cargoes of tea destroyed.
Port Bill passed. Town meetings........ 125

CHAP. 68. ReEvouvrTion, continued. —
State ofthe country. General Gage. Bat-
tle of Lexington. Excitement of the
RIUEG 6 Oboe osc ccdbsben tbs eves codes 127

CHAP. 69. REVOLUTION, continued. —
State of the country. Power of England.
Resolution of the Americans. Ticonde-

'. Yoga. Crown Point. Battle of Bunker

ay ‘Hill. CHSHSOCH OSHS EHS EOHEH EEE HHH EEK EEE COL OSE 129

_ CHAP. 70. Revo.tvurtion, continued. —
- Coatinental Congress. Declaration of In-
dependence. Washington crosses the
Delaware. General Howe. General Bur-
oyne. Battle of Saratoga. Surrender of
MENTO. in 0:6 060 cadebenccnecvccccksgt one

CHAP. Yi. REVOLUTION, continued. —
_\' Government of France. Great Britain.
Battle of Monmouth. Destruction of
Wyoming....... 200000 2e2COe COOOL P0088 134

CHAP. '2. ReEvoLvuTION, concluded. —

_ General Sullivan. Indians. Count Ro-

_chambeau. Benedict Arnold. Story of

Major Andre. North and South Carolina.

Washington. Surrender of Lord Corn-
so 6's oe eeeeoeoe eG C8CR CHSC HBSEHE*OESE 136

| CHAP. 73. Unirep STATES AFTER THE
_ » REVoLUTION. —Washington chosen presi-
dent. Hisdeath. Character. John Adams
‘chosen president. District of Columbia... 138

HAP. 74. Government OF THE UNITED
: STATES, @eeeree ese teeeoeen ov o8 bodece eeeeeed 140

CHAP. 75. Tue Stare Governments... 142



A, CONTENTS. 9

CHAP. 76. GENERAL REMARKS ON Govy-
ERNMENT. s ca sewhis oo cSiwdwsieetes cdcbes Ok

CHAP. 77% Tue Unirep Srarss. — Presi-
dents. War with England. War with

PA GEIGG ccubiddeccde bie d Jee deecren tens ] 5

CHAP. %8& Tue Unirep STateEs. — Re-

foetiods. «Fi seeder dae od doo cddoedwuusia 146

CHAP. 79. British Possessions IN
Nortn America. — Divisions. Geogra-
phy. Travels. Lakes. Canals. Montreal,
St. Lawrence. Quebec. Newfoundland.
Nova Scotia. New Brunswick. Prince
Edward’s Island. Climate. History.
King William’s, Queen Anne’s, King
George’s, and the old French wars.
History. voonercpecipc csiccbemsbhoesesbenede S40

CHAP. 80. THE Esquimaux.—Geogra-
phy. Country of the Esquimaux. Dogs.
Reindeer. OrigiNn..ccccosrcvsevecctscece 152

CHAP. 81. GREENLAND. — Whaling voy-
age. Islands of ice. White bears. De-
scription of the Greenlanders. Navigators.
Animals. Settlement. Captain Ross.... 153

CHAP. 82. IceLAnp.— Country. Proverb.
People. Habits. Mount Hecla. Skaptar
Yokul. An eruption. Aurora Borealis.
Discovery. Settlement. History........ 155

CHAP. 83. RussiANn POSSESSIONS. ecccee 157

CHAP. 84. Mexico.— Voyage to Mexico.
Vera Cruz. Travelling. City of Mexico.
Cathedral. Gold. Ancientruins. Santa
Fe. Travels and trade. Caravans...eses. 157

CHAP. 85. Mexico, continued. — Popu-
lation. Indians. Tenuchtitlan. Spaniards.
Cortez. Capture of Tabasco. Indian attack.
Treaty of peace. Mexican warriors....... 161

CHAP. 86. MeExtco, continued. — Ccrony
at Vera Cruz. Message from Montezuma.
Cortez sets out from Tenuchtitlan. Tlas-
cala. Slaughter at Cholula. Tenuchtitlan.
Montezuma and CorteZ...cccccccccescsseee 16d

CHAP. 87. Mexico, continued. — Religion
of the Mexicans. Temples. Montezuma
taken. Governor ofCuba. Narvaez. Span-
iards attacked by Mexicans. Death of Mon-
tezuma. Retreat of the Spaniards........ 165

CHAP. 88. Mexico, continued. -- Small-
pox. Quetlevaca. Guatimozin. Attack
on Tenuchtitlan. Torture of Guatimozin
and his minister. Government of Mexico.
City of Mexico. Fate of Cortez. History.
U.S. war. Conquests by U. 8. Peace. 168

CHAP. 89. GuvuATIMALA. — Mountains.
Mahogany and logwood. City of Guati-
mala. Other towns. Government. His-
tory. Mosquito Indians. Origin. Ancient
palaces, carvings, temples...ccecsceccvsee L7l

CHAP.90. SouTH AMERICA. VENEZUELA.

— Geography. Climate. History. Earth-
quake. Simon Bolivar..eccece 06d cde siede

EE Se Se ee

>

Bl
TT <== ——<"

10 CONTENTS.

CHAP. 91. New Grenapa. — Geography.
Falls of Tequendama.

CHAP. 92. Ecuapor.— Geography. The
Andes. Chimborazo. Cotopaxi. Mines.
History. POSSSHE CESSES CHESSER EEHEHE SEES

CHAP. 93. eet ee Cetreane. Climate.
Productions. Animals. ivision. Lima.
Quicksilver and other mines. Cuzco. Pi-

ZArrO.cececs eee Seees@ Sees eee eee ees eeon 2200

‘CHAP. 94. Peru, continued.— Second ex-
pedition to Peru. Foundation of the em-
ire. Reception of the Spaniards. The
nea. Procession. Atahualpa taken pris-

ONEL. cocccecece eaeeeee eee eee tee eee ©eee8s

CHAP. 95. Peru, continued. —Treatment
of the Inca. His death. Quito taken. Con-
quest of l’eru. Lima founded. Death of
Pizarro. History. Constitution formed..

CHAP. 96. Botivia.— Geography. Andes.
Mines. Potosi. Discovery of the mines.
Other towns. Constitution. Peru and
BURNS AG IGcs6s ohne cvericones iuetcvevs

CHAP. 97. Cuin1.— Geography. Travels.
Vineyards. Andes. St. Jago. Araucani-
ans. Death of Valdivia. History. Juan
Fernandez. Robinson Crusoe.....ssesees

CHAP. 98. Paraconia. — Geography.
Country. Inhabitants. Giants. Huts. Os-
triches. Terra del Fuego. People. Dis-
covery. Straits of Magellan.......secees

CHAP.99. Burnos Ayres. — Geography.
Travels. Islands near Cape Horn. Tray-
elling. Anecdotes. Wild animals. Con-
dors. Pampas. Buenos Ayres. Face of
the country. Soil. Towns. People. Dis-
covery. Indians. Jesuits. History. Gov-
ernment.

History......0..06 174

175

177

179

181

183

183

185

Death of Francia...ccccscccese 186

| CHAP. 100. Paracuay. -— Geography.
BLIGROS. 0 15 8 esi dsverne evecee cocccsceccee
CHAP. 101. Urnuauay. — Geography.

History. Pee SSSSSseFeS Sete B® Oeeenet ee eee sens

CHAP.102. Brazit.—Geography. Trav-
els. Rio Janeiro. Harbor. People. Ex-
tent. Population. Indians. Vegetation.
Discovery. Landing of Cabral. San Sal-
vador. The Dutch. History. Government.

CHAP. 103. Gurana.—Geography. Di-
visions. Climate. Indians. oison.
Vampires. Snakes. Story of Captain
Waterton. Discovery of Guiana by Vas-
co Nunes. Sir Walter Raleigh. El Do-
rado. Settlers in Dutch Guiana. History.

CHAP. 104. West Inpres. — Geography.
Vessels. Havana. Trade. Fruit. Cli
mate. Cuba. Discovery of Cuba. Don
Jago de Velasquez. Indians. History of
Hayti. Columbus. Anecdote. Disturb-
ances. Christophe. Independence of
Hayti. Division. Massacres. Porto Rico.
Jamaica. Discovery. History. Hurri-
CAULE« o> veers ss citscedd ccctissevcdssiliusees

CHAP. 105. West Innis, continued. —
Inhabitants. Spaniards. Pirates. Baha-
mas. Cat Island. Columbus. Caribbee
Islands. Discovery. History....e.+seee.

CHAP. 106. Tue BuccanerErs. — Origin.
Fame. Pierre le Grand. Organization.
Morgan. Bartholomew. His adventures.

CHAP. 107%. GENERAL VIEW OF AMERI-

189
189

189

192

195

197

199

CAy! von spect cde ch eiutd 60. uéeeien tildsewena tee
CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE seco ceccccesecsces 20
TABLES OF EXTENT AND POPULATION... 208
Pronouncine INDEX se veeeeccccsreccoene 213



LIST OF MAPS.

FHE EASTERN AND WESTERN HEMI-

SNR 955 Sp Le erp, aay
MAINE, PALE II 00% 8, ee
-\NEW HAMPSHIRE, . . . . . %
VER eS ee
MASSACHUSETTS, . .... 2 »« .@
BeOOR ISLAND, .. se.e>.) 1.08 OR
CONMMOTIOUT, O° he eR gg
HEW ENGUAND, . .:-. . . 40
Ns 0 PR, gg
NEW JERSEY, PENNSYLVANIA, DEL-
AWARE, AND MARYLAND, :. . 68
MIDDLESTATES, . .....%

SOUTHERN STATES, orang: oes
MS ick Os igo xd een eit ee
Wawa Rr pagn ds Qh Dae
MNO. ct ae ce 5, at
WIBCONBIN 2) 62 E60 S005) ya t's ee
TGA AD OTe 106
or mes Yaa . 108
WESTERN STATES, . . . . . lb
UNITED STATES, ... - . M6
NORTH AMERICA, . . . . 266
MEXICO, TEXAS, GUATIMALA, AND
WEST INDIMS, .. EG 2.4 (a
SOUTH AMERICA, . (°° % “sae.

16


THE FIRST BOOK |
COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

~

CHAPTER I.
INTRODUCTION.

1, History is a narrative of past

_ events, and this book contains a brief
- account of the principal events which
_ fave occurred on the western continent

~_

ati aa
J




_ Siace its discovery by Christopher Co-

wmbus in 1492. It commences with
nowing the present condition of the
ifferent countries which occupy this
ntinent, and especially that of the
ted States. But, in order that we
may clearly understand the history of
any country, we must first obtain a
knowledge of its geography.

2. Geography is a science, the gen-
eral object of which is, as its name im-
plies, to describe the earth on which

we live; but, as the earth and sea are

generally considered the great compo-
nent parts of the terraqueous globe, a

_ description of both of them is usually
_ included in this science.



3. Our globe forms but a small part
of the universe. This word, universe,

is generally used to signify the collec-
tion of all created things, and we fre-
‘quently speak of the worjd in the same

1 What is history? 2. What is geography?

@ What is the “meaning of the word universe?

i
Seale he. ae
94 aS Aes
‘ay, ‘ 4 ¥ ; Ay, ‘ .
Re ae eee ‘
(ee (Or aks
t

" 7 a ah x
be ae aS to eg
ne ce





OF HISTORY,





sense; but, in geography, the term
world generally refers to the earth
only.

4, In the sacred history of the crea-
tion, it is recorded, that “God made
lights in the firmament of the heaven,
to give light upon the earth, to divide
the day from the night, and to be for
signs and for seasons, and for days and.
years. He made the greater light to :
rule the day, and the lesser light to rule of
the night. He made the stars also.” |

d. These lights, obeying certain laws
of motion, are made subservient to the
great purposes for which they were
created. ‘To explain these laws is the
province of Astronomy; but it is im-
portant that we should know a few facts
concerning the earth, when we view it
as one of the planets belonging to the
solar system.

6. This system is composed of the
sun, which is in the centre; the pri-
mary planets, with their moons, or sec-
ondary planets; and the comets. The
earth and the other*planets derive their
light and heat from the sun, around























4. What does Scripture record of the “lights in
the firmament’? 5. How do these lights ser
the purposes for which they were created? What
is astronomy? 6. Of what is the solar systom



Bet
sf

EE aR
12 THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

which they revolvs in their respective
paths or orbits.
7. Vast and magnificent as the solar

“system seems to the human mind, it

forms hut a small part of the heavenly
bodies, which occupy the infinite regions
of space. Stars surround it on all sides,
which are at so remote a distance from
it as far to exceed finite calculation ;
and each of these stars is supposed to
be a separate sun, the centre of a sys-
tem like our own.

8. The figure of the earth is nearly
that of a globe or sphere, as is proved
by its circular shadow upon the moon
when that planet is eclipsed, and by
the experience of many navigators who
have sailed round it.

ee z %
” eye,






9. If we leave, in our imagination,
our planet, the earth, and view it a
one of the orbs in space, we shall §
it turning round upon its axis every
twenty-four hours, causing the succes
sion of day and night to those who live
upon its surface. We shall also see it
moving in its orbit around the great
centre of the system at the rate of more
than a million and a half miles a day,
or between forty and fifty miles for
every breath we draw, and completing
this revolution in the space of one year.
This motion around the sun is of such
a nature as to cause the regular success
sion of the seasons, Spring, Summer,
Autumn, and Winter.

Spring begins March 21.

ule

Autumn begins’. Sey tember 21.
_*
BJ The Seasons.

10. The axis, which has just been
mentioned, is an imaginary line passing
through the centre of the globe from

(E85 Raramapes emer

eomposed ? 7. What is said of the stars?
§. What is related of the figure of the earth?





RQ vke



Winter begins December 21

orth to south, around which it re
volves, somewhat as a wheel turns upoa
its axle, while at the same time if

9. What is related of the earth’s motion? Wha
do these motions cause? 10, Deseribe what

Oat eae
‘ ‘ +



rouresses in its orbit, as has been al-
ady stated; as a ball discharged from

rife turns over and over in ‘he air,
and at the sanie time goes forward to its



11. Now, if we draw near to the
planet: once more, still supposing our-
| Pelves as viewing it from a distance, we
find the surface to consist of unequal
portions of land and water. But, un-
ii we have given names to these, and
have fixed upon some method of meas-
“uring off the surface of the globe, we
“cannot speak definitely of the different
j Bjects that present themselves to our
_ view.
_ 12. Since there is no ) beginning or end
_ to a circle, nor to a spherical surface,
till we begin to mark it off by lines, so
_ we cannot well describe the various por-
tions of land and water on the earth's
surface until we have divided it by lines
that will indicate the relative position
of its parts. The great dividing lines
which we resort.to for this purpose are
_ some of them arbitrary, that is, selected
§ for the sake of conyenience, while oth-
3 depend upon the relative positions
the sun and earth.
3. If we turn our eyes again to the


















meant by the axis of the earth. 11. Of what
doe: the surface of the earth consist? 13. De-

t
COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY 13

earth, we shall see that one portion of
it always points towards a_ particular
part ¢° the heavens, and, if we could»
stand upon this point upon the earth’s
surface, we should see a particular stax,
which we term the North Star, directly
over our heads. As this would appear
in the same place, that is, directly above
us, in every part of the earth’s orbit,
we may give a name to this portion of
the earth, namely, the north; and the
point directly opposite on the other side
we may call the south. Here, then,
we have two fixed points from which
to reckon. But now we may draw a
line round the earth so as to be just
between, or equidistant from, these two
points ; and as this will divide the sur-
face into two equal parts, we may call
it the equator, or the divider.

14. If we look at the globe once
more, we shall see where this line di-
vides the land as well as the water, and,
as we have named our two points the
north and south poles, we can now
say whether a portion of land or water
is north or south of the equator. But
then this is too vague and indefinite.



We therefore divide the circumference

‘of the earth, at the poles,“ into 360

parts, or degrees. Then, as one quarter
of this circle, or 90 degrees, will be the



scribe what is meant by the equator. 14. What


14

space between the equator and either
pole, no place upon the earth’s surface
ean be more than 90 degrees from the
equator.

15. Thus, if we fix our eyes upon
Philadelphia, we see that it is 40° from
the equator, and we say that it is in 40°
north latitude, because it is in the
northern hemisphere, and so far from
the equator. - Reckoning in the same
way, we shall find Cape Horn in Jati-
tude about 55° south. But as the earth
turns round, we find there are other
places appearing in succession in pre-
cisely the same latitude; that is, a circle
drawn round the earth parallel, to the
equator, will. be, in all its parts, equi-
distant from the equator, or in the same
latitude. Hence, when we have ascer-
tained the latitude of a place, we have
not definitely fixed its position upon the
earth’s surface, and we therefore resort
to a second mode of division. In this
we are guided by the sun, for we see
this body always rising in the same, or
nearly the same, part of the heavens.
This we call the East, and the place
where he sets we call the West.

16. If we return to our position away
from the earth, we see it turning on its
axis, from west to east, and the shadow
line which divides the earth from north
to south, receding as the light of the sun
advances upon its surface, from east to
west. This dividing line is continually
changing ; so it will not answer our pur-
pose, but it may give us the idea of east
‘and west, and suggest the division of the
earth into Eastern and Western hemi-
spheres.

17. This division of the globe, like
the division of an apple into two parts,

we may make where we pleage s or we

is meant by degrees? 15. Describe what is
meant by latitude. 16. What is meant by
eastern and western hemispheres? . 17. What by

#

ia
ee

ee rake eee



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

may take some prominent place on th
earth’s surface, as some mountain, som
volcano, or great city, and imagine’
line passing through the object selected
and drawn round the globe through the
poles, dividing its surface into two equa
parts. Then those parts of the ea
towards the sun’s rising, from the objec
selected, will be in the eastern hemi
sphere; and those in the opposite direg
tion, in the western hemisphere ; that is
supposing we reckon half round the
globe in both directions. Such line
are employed by geographers, whicl
they name meridians of longitude.

18. Of these meridians we may have
an indefinite number, since every place
has its meridian; but it is necessary t
take one as a starting pointsand tha
which passes through Greenwich, near
London, is generally selected, on
count of the great importance of that
city. From this we reckon half round
the earth, or 180° east, and the same
number of degrees west; and in de
scribing the position of places, we say
they are so many degrees east or west
from London. With these two sets of
lines, parallels of latitude and meridians
of longitude, we can define exactly any
locality.

19. Besides the general name of par-
allels, which we give to the circles run-
ning east and west around the globe
parallel to the equator, four of these
circles have particular names. One, at
the distance of 233° north of the equa.
tor, is called the northern tropic, or the
tropic of Cancer; and a second circle, as

far south of the equator, is called the

southern tropic, or the tropic of Capri-
corn. Besides these, there are two cir-
cles, each 234° from the poles of the



meridians of longitude? 18. From what place is
longitude usually reekoned? 19. What nameg
are given to the four great circles on the globe?



Rep . “he ‘3 y } .
: - i ‘ f } AS

» Ta Vn We ee Ne Se Bree Cae Pr eae y” Vat Be oe a Ke * ee ws Peete
” ’ : ; ie MR : * SK = f pe
rn 4 ch et * ae
. eae Fe 4



> : : S
} ‘ ' } ‘
ke : ~
a % fae } y ; 2 hone
aS i: " ‘ +
a tok Z s ‘
eee: Ae
a
as



a
%
: :
. ;
- ‘Y
’
a s
; a
| 5
. i
i
: y
a
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:
a
v4 ;
\ 7
4
. ‘7
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= esas

a





\
\ \.

=. ae SS yu ne
; SE Sl Soutit Poles zB
teh : SSSR ay : glo \o—
Es [=>

Oe ee







“er


EASTERN

en

| Tre REE A —
a a =





i
|

as the antarctic circle.



Zones.

of the five different zones.

and this is called the torrid zone.

-eircle is the northern temperate zone;
and in the corresponding place south of
the equator is the southern temperate
zone. North of the arctic circle is the

northern frigid, and south of the antarc-

tic circle is the southern frigid zone.
These names, torrid, temperate, and
_ frigid, correspond to the temperature,
or diffeient degrees of heat and cold, in
the different regions to which they are
respectively applied.

21. Having supposed the earth to be

y 20. Describe the zones. 21. In drawing a map of
the globe or world, why is it represented by two

eo -
COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

earth, called polar circles; the one near
the north pole being distinguished as the
arctic, and the one near the south pole

20. These four circles are the limits
The broad-
est zone, as we shall see by a little ex-
amination, is between the two tropics,
Be-
{ween the northern tropic and the arctic

15

thus divided into northern and southern,
eastern and western hemispheres, we
may proceed to represent it by an arti-
ficial globe, or by a picture, or map upon
a plane surface. In drawing a map of
the globe, we are obliged to represent the
hemispheres in separate circles, since we
can delineate upon paper no more of an
object than what we can take in at once
with the eye in one position.

22. Let us suppose, then, one of these
maps before us, and the great dividing
lines, the parallels and the meridians, to
be already drawn. [ee Map of the
World.) We shall find it convenient to
number the parallels, on the outer circle
of the hemispheres, which is the merid-
ian that divides the globe; and as we
reckon from the equator towards the
poles, the figures which indicate latitude
will increase upwards on the northern
hemisphere, and downwards on the south-
ern. The meridians of longitude may be
conveniently numbered, at the equator,
on the map of the world, and at the top
and bottom of other maps. When the
degrees of longitude increase towards
the right, they are in east, and wlien
they increase towards the left, they are
in west longitude. |

23. The top of a map is always north,
the bottom south, the right hand east,
and the left hand west. G

ans

CHAPTER Ti.
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.
1. PHYSICAL geography treats of the

earth, as it proceeded from the hands
of the Creator.



circles? 22. Describe the lines upon the map of
the world. 23. Which part of the map is north?
south? east? west?

1. What is physical geography? 2. Of what
a
16 THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

2. The surface of the earth consists || but it is convenient to regard it as de
of unequal portions of land and water. _|| vided into partial oceans, each of which
3. Large continuous masses of land || has its separate name; as, the Atlantic,
are termed Continents. There are two || the Pacific. 4
zontinents; the eastern, which includes 10. A smaller extent of water, es.
Asia, Africa, and Europe; and the || pecially if it penetrate far into the inte-
western, which includes North and || rior of a continent, is termed a Sea; as,
South America. e terms eastern || the Caribbean Sea. The more partial
and western refer to the meridian of || intrusion of an ocean or sea into the
the Ferro Isles, from which longitude || land is termed a Gulf or Bay; as, the
was formerly reckoned. Gulf of Mexico, the Bay of Fundy. —
4, Smaller portions of land, sur- 11. A narrow passage connecting two
rounded by water, are termed Islands. || seas together, or a bay with the main
A considerable number of islands clus- || oceam, is styled a Strait; as, Behring’s
tered together is called an Archipelago; || Strait. It is also sometimes called ¢
as, the West Indies. Channel. |
do. A part of a continent running out 12. A large inland body of water, not)
into the sea, so as to be nearly insulated, || connected with the ocean, or only com!
and connected with the main land by a || municating with it by means of a riven)
narrow neck, is named a Peninsula, || is termed a Lake; as, Lake Superior. |
which signifies almost an island; as, 13. A River is a body of water flow:
South America. ing from elevated ground towards the
6. A narrow neck of land connecting || sea. The place where it rises is termed)
two large masses is denominated an || its source. |

Isthmus. Thus the Isthmus of Panama 14, A Frith is a narrow sea which re
joins North and South America. ceives the waters of some large river. —
7. Inferior projections of land into 15. Hawing made these introductory

the sea are variously named Capes, || remarks to enable you to understand
Promontories, Points, and Headlands ; || the meaning of the geographical terms .
as, Cape May. which will frequently occur in this book)
8. When the land rises above the |/I shall now proceed to speak of the
general level of the country, it is called || geography and history of the sevaral)
a Hill or Mountain; and the low ground || states and countries in America.
between the mountains is termed a Val-

ley. A mountain which throws out fire Pee
as termed a Volcano.
9. The continuous body of water CHAPTER III.

which environs the land constitutes,|| THE WESTERN CONTINENT, |

properly speaking, a vast single Ocean ; 1. Ir you look at the map of the |

Western Hemisphere, you will see thal
it represents one half of the earth’s sur)



does the surface of the earth consist? 38. What
are continents ? How many continents are there ? |
4, What are islands? What is an archipelago? ,
6. What is a peninsula? 6. What is an isth- || isasea? Whatisagulfor bay? 11. What is i
mus? 7. What are capes, promontories, points, || strait? 12. What is a lake? 18. What isa
and headlands? 8. What is a mountain? a val- || river? 14. What isa frith? >»
key? avoleano? 9. What is an ocean? 10. What 1. See Map of the World. Howis the cont —










ee ae
Pe
ite”
et
sy
r
rf

*

we. Between the two great oceans,
the Atlantic and the Pacific, you will
observe the continent of America. It is
d ivided into two parts, called North and
‘South America, which are connected
by the narrow Isthmus of Darien or
Panama.
_ 2. This, continent is remarkable for
‘its numerous and extensive lakes, its
Magnificent rivers, and its lofty moun-
tains. Lake Superior is the largest
lake in the world. The St. Lawrence,
the Mississippi, the Orinoco, the Ama-
zon, and the La Plata, are all of them
_maghty rivers, and several of them sur-
_ pass in size all the rivers of the eastern
continent. The Amazon alone, with
its branches, spreads over a country
equal in extent to all Europe. The
Andes, with the Cordilleras and Rocky
Mountains, constitute the longest chain
of mountains in the world; it being
_hearly eleven thousand miles in length,
including its windings. Many of their
tops are glittering with perpetual snow;
some of them pour forth torrents of fire
and melted lava; and some contain im-
-mense treasures of gold, silver, and
other metals.
__ 8. It is but little more than three
hundred and fifty years since the people
of Europe, Asia, and Africa were to-
tally ignorant of the existence of this
vast continent; yet the lakes, the riv-
ers, the mountains, and the plains had
existed for ages. The sun had shone
upon them by day, and the moon by
“night; summer had visited the land
Sea ters and fruits, and winter had









nent of America bounded ? What ocean separates
‘sme eastern coast of America from Europe and
"Africa ? What ocean separates the western coast
from Asia? What isthmus connects North and
‘South America? 2. For what is America re-
Markable? What is said of its lakes, rivers, and
tains? 3. How long has this country been

= ee

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

17

covered it with frost and snow. The
earthquake had shaken the hills, and
the whirlwind had rent the forests. All
the great works of nature had gone on
from the creation, though civilized man
was not there to-witness them.

4. At what time or from what quar-
ter the Indians came to America, it is
impossible to tell. It is generally supe
posed that, two or three thousand years
ago, some small tribes came from the
north of Asia, across Behring’s Straits,
and thus gradually peopled the whole
continent. But this is mere conjecture,
and their entire history, from their first
arrival in the country to the discovery
of America, is involved in mystery.

). In various parts of the country,
there are mounds, evidently constructed
by men many hundred years ago. It is
certain that they were not constructed
by the wandering tribes who inhabited
the country when our forefathers came
here; but who raised them, how long
they have existed, and what is their
story, we cannot tell. It is probable that
great events have happened — that em-
pires have risen, flourished, and gone to.
decay — during the many ages over
which time has thrown an everlasting
oblivion.

6. It appears that whole races of ani-’
mals have lived in America of which
nothing remains but their bones. The
gigantic mastodon, which was four times
as large as an elephant, once roamed, in
great numbers, through the forests; and
other animals, as well as trees and plants,
now unknown, were common in the
country. We must recollect, that from
the creation of the world to the year
1492, a period of more than five thousand
et
known to the Europeans? 4. What is said
of the Indians? 65. What of the mounds ?
6. What of-the animals that formerly lived ig
America? ‘
18

years, all that took place upon this vast
continent is hidden from the view of
man, and only known to that Being who
knoweth all-things.

seo enepersarst,

CHAPTER IV.
THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA.

1. I HAVE told you that America was
discovered by Christopher Columbus, in
1492. I will now tell you the story of
Columbus, and give you an account of
his discovery. This celebrated man was
born at Genoa, in Italy, in the year 1435.
_ He was brought up a sailor, and was
very expert in managing boats and vessels
upon the water. He made a great many
short voyages in the Mediterranean Sea,
and sailed to the northern seas of Eu-
rope, which was then deemed a remark-
able enterprise.

2. After this, he returned to Italy, and
engaged in the war against the Venetians
and Turks. One day, he was cruising
in a vessel off the coast of Portugal,
where he met with a Venetian ship; an
engagement immediately followed, in
which the sailors on both sides fought
with the greatest spirit. At. length,
Columbus was on the point of boarding
the Venetian vessel, when his own took
fire. In a moment, the fire was commu-
nicated to the Venetian vessel: it spread
from sail to sail, till the whole rigging,
masts, spars, and ropes were involved in
one sheet of flame.

3. The vessels were soon on the point
of sinking. The sailors, therefore, were
compelled to leap into the sea, and being

1, When and by whom was America discoy-
ered? When and where was Columbus born?
What is said of his early history? 2. What
happened to Columbus when off the coast of Por-
tugal? 3. How did he reach the shore? 4. What

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,




near six miles from the coast, they were
all drowned except Columbus. He, with
the greatest presence of mind, seized
upon an oar, and did not despair of say-
ing his life. He was a good swimmer,
and, supported by the oar, he succeeded
in reaching the land. a

4, He was now in Portugal, and after
recovering from his fatigue, he went to
Lisbon, the capital. Here he became
acquainted with several Portuguese saile
ors, who were then the best navigators
in the world. You must know that, at
this time, there were no large ships, and
people were not accustomed to sail out
fearlessly upon the broad ocean, as now;
nobody had ever crossed the great At-
lantic, and the people of Europe, who
had only sailed timidly along the shores
of the eastern continent, did not know
that such a country as America existed.

5. The shape of the earth was at this
time unknown; some persons supposed
it flat, but nobody knew that it was
round. But the art of navigation was
rapidly advancing; seamen were ven-
turing farther on the deep, and an ardent
desire to explore the unknown ocean
was kindled. This curiosity had been
greatly stimulated by the discovery, by
the Portuguese, of Madeira and Porto
Santo, lying to the north-west of Africa.
It was at this period that Columbus
reached Lisbon, where he soon after
married the daughter of a celebrated
navigator, who was one of the discover-
ers of these islands.

6. His imagination was captivated
with the idea of seeing these places, and
accordingly he visited them. For sev-
eral years after this, he was engaged in
carrying on a profitable trade between
Madeira, the coast of Africa, the Azores,
and Canaries; but during all this time,

was known of navigation at this time? 5. What —
discoveries had been made? 6. What places did
his mind was active and increasing in
knowledge. Whatever he learned he
always remembered ; and, never being

gained, he constantly desired to know
- more.
_ 1, At this period, the people of Europe
had considerable trade with India, but
no-vessels ever having passed round the
_ Cape of Good Hope, the people did not
know the shape of Africa, nor did they
know that they could go from Europe to
India by water. They therefore sent
their goods across the Mediterranean, to
the ports of Egypt, whence they were
_ taken by land to the Red Sea. Here
they were transported in vessels, which
sailed through the Straits of Babelman-
del, and across the Indian Ocean to
India. By the same route goods were
returned to Europe.

8. This method of conducting so im-
portant a commerce was expensive and.
tedious. The people therefore were
very anxious to find some way of going
to InJia by sea. This great subject oc-
cupied the attention of all Europe, and
Columbus, in particular, dwelt upon it
with the most intense interest. He
studied books; he consulted maps; and
often, while his little vessel was plough-
ing the sea, he would revolve in his
mind all the facts which he had col-
lected relating to it.

9. At night, when the stars shone
down upon his ship, floating like a speck
on the bosom of the mighty ocean, he
looked up and mused, with curious won-
der, upon the heavenly bodies. From
these contemplations, his mind descend-
ed to the earth, and strove to solve the
mysteries that involved it. Was it a





Columbus visit? 7. How was the merchandise
of Euroxe conveyed to India at this time?
B. What subject occupied the attention of the
people ef Europe at ‘g period? 9. What did

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

satisfied with the information he had |

19

vast plain, stretching out to a boundless
extent? Or was it a globe, swung in
the heavens, and revolving, like a plan-
et, around the sun? After a great deal
of reflection, Columbus adopted this late

ter idea, and, applying it to the question =~

of reaching India by water, he concluded
that, if he sailed across the Atlantic in a
westerly direction, he should at length
come to India.

10. Full of this notion, he went to a
learned physician in Florence, and con-
sulted him upon the subject. This man
perceived the force of his reasoning, and,
believing his views to be correct, exhort-
ed him to make a voyage for the pur-
pose of ascertaining the fact. Strength-
ened by this counsel, Columbus resolved
to enter upon the grand scheme of sail-
ing westward upon the Atlantic, to dis-
cover what might lie beyond it. He
immediately made known his views to
the government of Genoa, with a request
that they would fit out a small fleet, in
which he might make the desired voy-
age. But these men, being ignorant,
rejected the offer with contempt.

11. He next applied to the court
of Lisbon, who listened attentively to
his scheme, and then meanly fitted out -
a vessel, and despatched it privately,
with a view of anticipating Columbus in
his great project. But the commander
of the vessel was incompetent to the
enterprise which he had undertaken,
and soon came back, having made no
discovery.

12. Disgusted with this trick, Colume
bus set out for Madrid, the capital of
Spain. The king who theg reigned was
Ferdinand, and his queen was Isabella.

Columbus think of the form of the earth?
How did he think India might be reached ?
10. To whom did he first offer his services to un
dertake the voyage? 11. To whom did he next
apply? 12. With what success did he meet in
+

20

Here he was favorably received, and
his project was listened to with atten-
tion. But the counsellors of the king
were narrow-minded men, and made
very absurd objections to the project.
One said it would take too long a time ;
another, that Columbus could not be
wiser than every body who had lived
before him; and a third concluded that,
if the world was round, Columbus would
find a constant descent on the other side
of it, and would either slip off the globe,
or, at any rate, never return in safety.
13. Such shallow objections were
made to the forcible arguments of Co-
lumbus; and, as the most ignorant are
usually the most obstinate, he found
it impossible to change their opinion.
Having spent five years in tedious en-
deavors, he at length received a posi-
tive refusal, and was about to leave the
country, and offer his project to Eng-
land, when an unexpected change took
place in his favor. Two of his friends
made a final effort with the king and
queen, and, representing his views with
great force of reasoning, they at length
consented to give him the desired assist-
ance. Accordingly, three small vessels,
with ninety men, were fitted out, and on
the 3d of August, 1492, Columbus, with
his little fleet, set sail from Palos in

pais “$i

——
CHAPTER V.

DISCOVERY OF AMERICA —conrInvEp.

1. Tue adventurers proceeded in the
first place te the Canary Isles. These
they left on the 6th of September, and,
sailing in a westerly direction, launched

‘

‘Spain? 13. How did he finally succeed ? When,
end from what place, did he sail ?
1,2, 3. To what place did the adventurers first



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTURY,

forth upon the bosom of the unknown
deep. They soon lost sight of Jand,
and nothing could be seen but the skieg
above and the water spread out around
them. They were going where no hu
man being had ever been; they knew
not what was before them. A solemn

| mystery hung over the sea, and, as they

advanced on their voyage, they could
not. tell what dangers they might en-
counter.

2. To a bold man, like Columbus,
these things rendered the voyage in the
highest degree interesting. But most
of the sailors were ignorant and super-
stitious, and they soon began to be very
much afraid. But Columbus reasoned
with them, and persuaded them to con-

‘tinue the voyage.

3. Thus they proceeded for several
weeks, constantly sailing in a westerly
direction ; but Columbus had great diffi-
culty with his men. They were exceed-
ingly alarmed at the idea of being at
such a vast distance from home, upon
an unknown sea; and he was obliged to
use various arts to prevent their setting
out to return. At length, their fears
were so much excited, that both the
officers and men, on board the three ves-
sels, positively refused to go any far-
ther. They even thought of throwing
Columbus overboard ; and perhaps they
would have executed this design, if he
had not found means to pacify them.
He proposed that they should go on for
three days more, and if, by that time,
they did not discover land, he promised
to return. This was deemed a reasons
able proposition, and they all agreed
to it. 4

4, Accordingly they proceeded, and
very soon they met with floating sea.



proceed? Where are the Canary Isles? Relate
some of the adventures of the voyage. 4. What did 5































weed, and saw birds in the air. Some
of "these appeared to be weary, and
‘settled upon the masts of: the vessels.
Be ere they remained all night, bat in
the morning they departed, and flew to
the west. “All these things made the
_Bailors belizve that land was near; and
their hopes and expectations were soon
/ raised to the highest pitch.

9. One night, as Columbus was stand-
} * upon the deck of his vessel, looking
- out upon the sea, he thought he discov-
ered alight. He mentioned it to some
_ of the men, and they, too, thought they
could see it. There was now no sleep
on board the vessels. Both sailors and
‘officers were gathered upon the decks,
or distributed among the rigging, strain-
“ing their eyes to discover land. At
' length it was two o’clock in the morning,
when a man, stationed on the top of the
mast in the forward vessel, exclaimed,
: “Zand! land!” This was soon com-
: Municated to the others, and the most
lively joy filled the breasts of all the
seamen.

6. The morning came, and assured
them that their hopes were realized.
_ The shore lay before them in the dis-
tance, and the sun shone down upon it,
seeming in their eyes to give it an as-
pect.of peculiar beauty. Deeply affect-
ed with gratitude to that Being who had
_ borne them safely over the waves, and
| rowned their bold adventure with suc-
cess, they knelt down, and offered to
/ Heaven their warmest expressions of
thanksgiving.

_ 7. Having approached the shore, Co-
tumbus and some of his officers entered

Tees:

Y 4

: mm
i

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

Nene
'



" ’
2
e

21

they saw a multitude of people almost -
naked,sand of a red color, collected upon
the shore. These were attracted by the
strange spectacle before them. ‘They
had never seen vessels or white men
before; and, when the Spaniards ap-
proached the island, with colors flying
and amid bursts of martial music, their
astonishment knew no bounds.

8. At length, the boat reached the
shore. Columbus, richly dressed, and
having a drawn sword in hig hand, first
sprang from the boat, and set his foot
His companions fol-

upon the earth

~ Columbus taking Possession of the Country.
lowed, and, kneeling down, kissed the
ground to express their joy and grati-
tude. The Spaniards now erected a
cross, before which they performed reli-
gious worship, and Columbus then took
possession of the country in the name
of the king and queen of Spain. These
events took place on the 11th of Octo
ber, 1492. The island they discovered
was one of the Bahamas, new called Cat
Island. It was called Guanahani by the
natives, but Columbus gave it the name_
of St. Salvador.

9. The Spaniards now began to ex-

scribe the landing of Columbus. When did these
events take place? What place did thew dis-

cover? 9. What was the appearance of the
92 THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

amine the place they had discovered.
They found it to be quite fertite ; but
the animals, trees, and plants were such
as they had never seen in Europe. The
people attracted their chief attention.
These were of a copper color, nearly
naked, and the men had no beards.
Their hair was decorated with feathers,
and shells and gold plates were sus-
pended from their ears and noses. They
received the Spaniards with the greatest
respect, and seemed to consider them a
superior race of beings. They looked
with amazement upon the ships, and,
when they saw a cannon fired, they
were struck with fear and wonder.

10. At night, some of the Indians
went to the vessels, and, in the morning,
Columbus returned with them to the
island. He now asked the people where
they obtained the gold which they used
for ornaments. In reply, they pointed
to the south, and intimated that there
was a large island there, where there
was a great deal of gold. Columbus
immediately determined to go there, and,
taking seven of the Indians as guides,
he set off with the fleet. After touch-
ing at two or three islands, he at length
reached Cuba. Having remained here
some time, and having had several in-
terviews with the natives, he proceeded
to Hayti. Leaving thirty-eight of his
men on the island, he set out on his
return; and, after many dangers, he
reached Palos, on the 15th of May,
1493, after an absence of nine months
and eleven days. :

11. He was received with the greatest
honor by the people; and, as he tray-
elled across the country to visit the king



country? What of the people? How did

they receive the Spaniards? 10. Where did |

Columbus go to seek for gold? Where is
Cuba? Hayti? When did he arrive in Spain ?
11, How was he received by the people ?

and queen, and tell them of his discoy
ery, the inhabitants flocked with eager
curiosity to see him. When he came to.
the city of Barcelona, where the king
resided, a grand procession was formed
in the following manner : —

12. First came the Indians that Co-
lumbus had brought with him, dressed
in the manner of their country ; after
them was carried all the gold that had
been procured by the expedition ; = ext
followed some persons bearing chests

| of pepper, bales of cotton, paroquets,

stuffed birds, and quadrupeds, Indian
corn, cane poles twenty-five feet long,
and many other curious things, which
had been brought from the new world,
Lastly came Columbus.

13. The whole procession moved
through the city to a public square,
where the king and queen were seated —
on a splendid throne. Here they re-—
ceived Columbus with the greatest mazks
of honor. He then gave an account of
his voyage to the king and queen, and
those around him. They listened with
breathless attention, for Columbus was
an eloquent man, and his story was one
of the deepest interest.

14. The king was so much delighted
that he ordered a new expedition to be
immediately fitted out, and gave the com-
mand of it to Columbus. But to make
sure of the discoveries that might be
made, he sent to the Pope of Rome, re-
questing a grant of all the land west of
the Atlantic Ocean. With this request
the pope complied, and on the 25th of
September, the fleet, consisting of sevens
teen vessels and 1500 men, set sail from
the port of Cadiz.

15. I have not room to tell you the





12. Describe the procession. 13. How did the
king and queen receive him? 14. What grant
did the king obtain of the Pope of Rome?
What is said of the second voyage? 15. How










whole history of Columbus. It is enough
‘to say that he made four voyages to
America, including the first. He dis-
covered many of the West India islands,
and during his last voyage touched upon
the continent.
_ 16. Many adventurers now came to
_ America, and among the rest, there was
an Italian, called Americus Vespucius.
_ Having sailed along the coast, and ascer-
tained the existence of the continent, he
returned to Spain, and gave an account
of his discoveries. In consequence of
this, his name was given to the new
world.
17. This continent, concerning the
discovery of which I have just been
telling you, is divided into two portions,
_ North America and South America.
North America is now occupied by Rus-
sian America, British America, Green-
land, the United States, Mexico and
Guatemala. South America includes,
at the present day, New Grenada, Ven-
ezuela, English Guiana, Dutch Guiana,
French Guiana, Brazil, Paraguay, Ur-
uguay, Buenos Ayres, Patagonia, Bo-
livia, Chili, Peru, and Ecuador. I will
now tell you of the geography and his-
tory of the United States, commencing
with Maine.

eee

CHAPTER VI.
MAINE.

1. Tue State of Maine is about as ex-
tensive as all the rest of New England,
but a great portion of the interior and

many voyages did Columbus make?
was the continent called America? 17. How is
the continent of America divided > What coun-
tries in North America? In South America ?

1. How is Maine bounded on the north? On
the east? On the south? On the west? In
what part of Maine are the principal towns and

16. Why

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

23

northern part is still covered with forests,
It is distinguished ‘or its many excellent
harbors, and the prople are ex‘ensively
engaged in ship building and the lumber
trade. You will observe on the map,
that nearly all the towns and villages lie
in the southern portion, towards tke e¢a-
board. As you go from the sea to the
interior, the soil grows better; some of
the most fertile parts of the state are yet
almost a wilderness.

2. There are a great many lakes in
this state, which abound in fish. ‘There
are a multitude of streams and rivers ;
these afford many excellent mill seats.
There are a great many bays, rivulets,
and islands along the shore. If you were
to go to Maine in the summer, you would
see many things to delight you. The
little green islands scattered along the
coast are very beautiful; some of them
have very hahdsome houses upon them.
You would find the Kennebec and Pe-
nobscot to be large rivers, with many
handsome villages and towns upon their
banks.

3. You would see a great many deep
forests, and several pleasant towns. At
Gardiner you would see one of the pret-
tiest churches in New England; and
Portland you would find to be a flourish-
ing city, extensively engaged in com-
merce. A railroad connects it with
Boston, and one is in progress extending
through Maine and New Hampshire,



villages ? 2. Name the principal lakesin Maine.
What is a lake? Name the principal rivers im
Maine. Whatis ariver? Descr be the PFencb-
scot River; that is, tell where * rises, which
way it flows, and the bay or ocean into which it
empties. Describe the Kennebec in the same
manner; the Androscoggin; and the Saco.
What bays upon the coast of Maine ? What is
a bay? What islands upon the coast of Maine?
What isan island? 3. Describe the following
places ; that is, tell where they are situated and
what is said of them: Gardiner; Portland;


24

which will terminate at Montreal. Oth-
ers have also been constructed to Lewis-
ton, Waterville, Bath, Hallowell, and
other places.

4. In travelling through Maine, you
would not see as many manufactories as
im some of the other New England States;
but you would see at Orono, Machias,
and also at Calais a great many saw mills,
employed in sawing logs into boards and
planks. You would see many of the
men cutting down trees in the woods;
_ and at Bangor, Portland, Belfast, Bath,
~ Wiscasset, and other places, you would
notice a great many vessels; some of
them loaded with lumber, and some with
firewood. At Thomaston and Camden
you would notice that some of them
were loaded with lime, which is manu-
factured at these places.

5. If you were to ask some person
where these vessels were ebding, he would
tell you that some of them were bound
to Boston, some to New York, some to
Charleston, and some to other places.
The firewood is carried chiefly to Bos-
ton ; the lumber is carried to almost all
the seaports of the United States and the
West Indies.

6. You would observe, also, in Maine,
some very good farms; and you would
sce a great many fields planted with
corn, or sown with wheat and rye, where
the ground is almost covered with
stumps. If you were to inquire of the
owner, he would tell you, that, ten or fif-
teen years ago, his whole farm was cov-
ered with thick forests. The trees have
been cut down, and the land, by patient



Lewiston ; Waterville; Bath ; Hallowell. 4. Oro-
no; Machias; Calais; Saco; Bangor; Belfast ;
Wiscasset; Thomaston; Camden. 6. Where are
the products carried from these places? Look
on the map of the United States, and describe
the course of a vessel in sailing from Bangor to
Bost¢n; to New York ; to Charl :ston. 6. What

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,



labor, has been changed from a wilder
ness into meadows and wheat fields. |

7. If you should happen to be in
Maine in the winter, you would find the
snow very deep, and the air exceedingly
cold. It would be well, while you are
travelling, to cover your ears with fur,
and take care to be well wrapped up,
or your face and fingers would freeze,
Perhaps you will see people on the
rivers cutting blocks of ice, which
they are going to send to Charleston,
New Orleans, the West Indies, and other
hot countries, to be used in summer.

8. If you should chance to be in the
northern or middle parts of the state,
you might have an opportunity of seeing
the Indians kill a moose. This animal,
the largest of the deer kind, is found in
no part of the United States except
Maine, and even there they are scarce.
They were once common in all the
northern parts of New England.

erence ae

CHAPTER VII.
MAINE—ConrTinveEp.

1. In the Penobscot River, forty miles
from the mouth, there is a little island,
called Indian Old Town. If you go
there, you will see about three hundred
Indians. They live in small houses, or
huts, built of sticks and boards, and cul-
tivate the land, catch fi8h, and hunt wild
animals. They are the remains of a
great tribe, the Penobscots, that onze
inhabited a large extent of ccuntry in
Maine. |

2. You will observe among the In-
dians one man, whom they call chief,



is said of the farms in Maine? 7. What of the
winter? 8. What of moose?

1. What of the Indians in Maine? Describe
the picture. 2,34, 5,6. Relate the story which



















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ff you ask him to tell you the story of

the Penobscot tribe, he will inform you
that there were once many thousands

of them. They, with other Indians,

many years ago, possessed all the lands
in Maine.



3. There were then no white men
in this country. There were no towns
and no villages, except small collections

of Indian huts, called wigwams. The
Indians did not cut down the trees ; they
had no horses, and they had no tame an-
imals but dogs.

4. The whole country, far and wide,
was covered with forests. In these for-
ests there were a great many bears,
panthers, wildcats, wolves, deer, moose,
foxes, rabbits, beavers, and other ani-
mals. The Indians then did not culti-
vate the land, except, perhaps, that they
raised a little corn and a few pumpkins.
They lived almost entirely upon the
wild animals, which they killed with
their bows and arrows.

5. But, at length, some white men
eame, and they began to.cut down the
trees, and build houses. Pretty soon
they erected saw mills, and then they



the Indian would probably tell. 7,8. Whatis said

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPREY. yi

cleared the land, and raised wheat, and
rye, and corn. At length, more white
people came, and they built more houses,
and cut down more trees, and cultivated
more land.

6. And so the white men increascd,
and they spread their towns and villages
over the land. And the Indians went
away, or they died; for their forests
were cut down, and they could not live
with the white people. Thus the Pe-
nobscot tribe, which once contained many
thousands, is now reduced to a small
number. Other tribes, once numerous
and powerful, are now extinct. Such
would be the story that the Indian
chief would tell you, and it would be all
true.

7. As early as the year 1607, about
one hundred English people came to
Maine, and began a settlement at the
mouth of the River Kennebec. The
greater part were soon discouraged, and
fifty-five returned in the vessel that
brought them over.

8. There were at this time none but
Indians in all New England, except the
white people of whom I am speaking.
These were pretty well treated by the
natives; but they found the winter ex-
cessively severe, and the next year they
all returned to England in a vessel that
came to bring them provisions. .

9. The-Norridgewock tribe of Indians
preserved, for many years, a story about
these settlers, which I will tell you.
The white people were jealous of the
Indians, and wished to get rid of them.
So they one day employed a large num-
ber of them to take hold of a rope, and
draw a cannon into the fort. When a
great many had taken hold, and the rope
was drawn in a straight line, the white

of the settlement in Maine commenced in 1607}
9. What story used to be told by the Norridge-
26

people fired the cannon, and killed all
the Indians. This is the story; if it
is true,the white people behaved very
wickedly.

10. It was in the year 1623, above
two hundred years ago, that the first
white men settled permanently in Maine.
This settlement was made on the Saco,
and several houses were built.

11. More white people went from
Massachusetts, and other places, and
settled in various parts of Maine. In
1652, Maine was united with Massachu-
setts, and continued to be so till the year
1820, when it became an independent
state. It has now a governor and a
legislature of its own; they meet once
a year at Augusta, the capital; and
there they make laws for the state.

—_@¢—

CHAPTER VIII.
NEW HAMPSHIRE.

1. THeRE are many very interesting
things in New Hampshire. About elev-
en miles to the east of Portsmouth are
some islands, called the Isles of Shoals.
One of the largest belongs to New
Hampshire. It is called Star Island,
and on it is a little town called Gosport.
The people are all fishermen, and are

2. These codfish are caught with
hooks and lines. They are then carried
ashore and dried. A sea serpent is said



wock Indians? 10. When and where was the
first permanent settlement in Maine made?
11. When was it united with Massachusetts?
When did it become an,independent state?
What is the capital, and where is it situated ?

1. How is New Hampshire bounded? What

is the capital? What mountains in the state? |
What islands near the coast? |

What rivers?



occupied chiefly in catching codfish.

THE FIRST BOOK oF HISTORY,

to have been seen by several people,
near these shores, many years ago. He



Catching Codfish.

came so near to a boat, that a man in
it could have struck him with an oar.
His color was nearly black. Hé seemed
larger round than the body of a man,
and about as long as the mast of a large
vessel. .

3. This state is sometimes called the
Switzerland of America, because it is
so mountainous. It has also been called
the Granite State, from the immense
quantities of granite which are found
there. The people are chiefly’engaged
in agriculture. The land upon the banks
of the rivers is fertile, and many of the
hillsides afford good pasturage for cattle.

4, Railroads extend from Boston
through several parts of the state.
Nashua and Nashville are large manu-
facturing towns. The city of Manches-
ter, situated on the Merrimac River,
is beautifully laid out, and is fast in-
creasing in wealth and population. The
extensive manufactcries erected on the
bank of the river ave worthy of a visit.



9. Describe the picture. 8. What is said face ot the country? Of the soil? 4 Descr:be
the following places ; that ‘s, tell where they are
situatedy and what is sa‘i of them: Nashuel












i Longitude E.from Washing ee aa IG See ae



Al

Seale of Miles
10

oa
Lt ip en) eine ,.

“eeet

LD) wnbar DIES




Mason Y
oO FU
Nashua

Ce ee ome cmc bm tee

Lon Situile





_ Concord, the capital, contains an elegant
_ granite State House, and is a pleasant
e town.

5. There are many ‘other pleasant
towns in New Hampshire. Exeter, the
seat of Phillips Academy, is a thriving
place. Do is one of the most impor-
tant town e state. It is situated
at the fal the Cocheco River, and
has some of the largest cotton manufac-
tories in the country. Great Falls is also
a large manufacturing place. Ports-
mouth is the only seaport in the state.

- 6. At Franconia, in Grafton county,
there are some very celebrated iron
works. There are mines of iron there,
and the people get great quantities of it.






| _ They make it into stoves, kettles, hollow

ware, and castij for machinery. The
mountains around“this place are very
wild. and beautiful. At Hanover is
Dartmouth College, an old and respec-
table seminary, where a great many
young men are educated.

7. There are several very fine lakes
in New Hampshire. If you should ever
travel in this state, you will find the
country very hilly, and very interesting.
Most of the people are engaged in farm-
ing. They have a great many horses,
eattle, and sheep.

8. As you pass along, you will some-
times find yourself on the top of a high
hill. You will see around you a great
many other hills; and in the distance
you will observe the tops of blue moun-
tains. By and by, you will descend into
a valley. You will see the streams run-
ning rapidly down the sides of the hills,
and at the bottom of the valley you will
frequently find a sheet of bright water,
sparkling like a mirror.



Nashville? Manchester? Concord? 65. Exe-
ter ? Dover? Great Fails ? Portsmouth ?
6. Franconia ? Hahover ? 7. What lakes in
New Hampshire? 8. Describe the scenery.

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY. 27

9. Before you retuzn, you must visit
Lake Winnipiseogee. It is really one
of the most delightful lakes in the world.
I suppose you have heard a great deal
about Loch Lomond in Scotland ; but I
assure you, Lake Winnipiseogee is much
more beautiful. It contains numerous
islands, and is surrounded by a country
abounding in the wildest scenery.

10. After you have seen this lake,
you should visit the White Mountains.
These are the highest in the United
States east of the Mississippi, except
Mount Black, in North Carolina, said
to be a few feet higher. Mount Wash-
ington, the tallest peak, is more than six
thousand feet above the level of the sea.

11. It is a delightful thing to travel
about these mountains in summer. A
great many people visit them every year,
and they all come back much gratified
with their journey. Among the moun-
tains, there is a place called the Notch.
Here the mountain seems to be divided
into two parts, from the top to the bot-
tom. )

12. This chasm affords a passage
through which the River Saco runs.
There is also a road through it, and, as
you pass along, you will be astonished
at the mighty rocks that lie heaped up
on both sides of you.

conan mnaw

CHAPTER IX.
NEW HAMPSHIRE—ConTINvED

1. A FEW years since, an awful event
occurred at the Notch in the White
Mountains. An immense mass of rocks,
earth, and trees, of several acres in ex-
Lees
9. Describe Lake Winnipiseogee. 10. What ig
said of the White Mountains? 11, 12. What of
the Notch ?

1, 2, 3,4. What event once occurred at the °

ee ee a a |

ee
Sone sete

28

tent, slid down from the height into the
valley. It is scarcely possible to de-
scribe the scene. The mountains were
shaken for several miles around. The
air, put in motion by the falling mass,
swept by like a hurricane. The noise
was far louder than thunder. Rushing
down to the bo:tom of the valley, the
rocks overturned and buried every thing
before them.

2. The bed of the River Saco was
filled up; the road was covered over ;

_and acres of ground, before fit for culti-

vation, now exhibited a confused mass

.of rocks split and shivered, and trees

torn up by the roots, their trunks broken
into a thousand pieces.

3. There is a circumstance of pain-
ful interest connected with this event.
There was, on the sidejof the valley, a
small house, belonging’ to a man of the

name of Willey. He, with his wife and
. two or three children, was in this house

when the mountain began to slide down.
They heard the dreadful sound, and ran

out of the house to save themselves.



Blide j in-the White Mountains.

4, But alas! the avalanche of rocks
and earth swep’: over and buried them
in the ruins. The house stood safe and
untouched, and, if they had remained

Notch? 5. When and where was the first set-



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,



in it, they, too, had been saved. The
house, I believe, is still standing.

5. Somewhat more than two hundred
years ago, New Hampshire, like Maine,
was covered with forests, and inhabited
by. Indians 3) but in 1623, some, English
people — ‘and built on Pise
cataqua River, which ae Mason
Hall. The same year s of the peo-
ple went farther up the river, and settled

at Cocheco, now called Dover.
6. In 1641, New Hampshire was




united with Massachusetts, but in thirty-
eight years after, that is, in 1679, the
King of England separated it from Mas-

sachusetts. It then became a royal
province ; the governor being appointed
by the King of England.

7. In 1775, New Hampshire, with the
other colonies, engaged in the revolution.
A constitution, or form of government,
was then adopted by the people, which
remained till 1783. At that time, a new
constitution was formed, which remains
in force to this day. The early history
of New Hampshire is full of incidents
relating to the wars with the Indians.
I shall have occasion to notice some of
these when I come to give an account
of New England.

8. I will, however, tell you one of
these stories now. In 1689, the savages
made a dreadful attack upon Dover.
They had been provoked by the white
people, and they determined on revenge.
But they pretended to be friendly, and
on the fatal night sent their women to
get lodgings in the houses of the white
people. These were admitted, and, when
all was quiet, they softly opened the
doors. The. Indians then rushed in,
killed twenty persons, carried twenty~

tlement in New Hampshire? 6. What event
occurred in 1641? In 1679? 7. In 1755? In 1783?
8. What occurred in Dover in 1689? Describe
the attack.



such rapidity as to escape from the peo-
' ple who came to attack them.



1, Connecticut River separates
_ Vermont, as you see by the map, from
_ New Hampshire on the east. - Thisiriver
_ runs through a valley of several ‘miles
) in width, which is very rich and beauti-
. ful. The meadows here are exceed-
_ ingly fine. . Very large crops of corn,
_ wheat, and oats are cultivated in the
valley. All of the river is in New
Hampshire, which extends to its western
bank ; so that the Connecticut is really
not ariver of Vermont, though it is as
near to it as it possibly can be.
2. Vermont has several very pleas-
_ ant towns along the Connecticut River.
_ Brattleboro’ is one of the pleasantest

towns in the state. It has several
_ manufactories, and is a place of much
business. Bellows Falls is situated
where the river tumbles very pictur-
esquely over some rocks.

3. There are a great many mills at
this place, and there bridge over
the cataract, from which you can look
down upon the whirling water. There
were once a great many salmon in Con-
necticut River, and the Indians, about
one hundred years ago, used to kill a
great many of them with spears, as they

attempted to ascend the falls. They
were very expert at this, and would
often take several of them in the course
of an hour. You can see now sonie



' 1. How is Vermont bounded? What is said
of the Connecticut River ? Name the rivers in this
state. 2. Where is Brattleboro’? What is said

(

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

29

figures, which the Indians cut in the
rocks near the river, below (ne bridge.

4. Windsor is a very pleasant town,
and has considerable busiress. If you
ever go to Windsor, I hope you will go
to the top of Ascutney Mountain. It is
very lofty, and, when you are on the
top, you can see all around you to an
immense distance. You will also find,
quite on the summit of this mountain,
a beautiful little lake of clear water.

do. In going from the eastern to the
western part of Vermont, you will eross
a great many mountains. These are
called the Green Mountains. There is
a range of them running through Ver-
mont, from north to south. They spread
over all the middle parts of this state.
The railroads which cross them pass
through many pleasant and flourishing
towns.

6. At Burlington you will find a
steamboat ready to carry you on Lake
Champlain towards Canada. You will
be very much pleased with Burlington,
for it is one of the handsomest towns in
New England. It is situated on the

shore of the lake, of which you have a —

fine prospect from the town. At this
place is a college, called the University
of Vermont. You will also find a col-
lege at Middlebury. In this town there
are a great many manufactories, and a
quarry, where they obtain very hand-
some, colored marble.

7. Montpelier is a handsome tcwn,

and there the legislature meets, once a
year, to make laws for the state. In
passing through Vermont, you will per-
ceive that most of the people are farm-
ers. ‘hey raise a great many horned
cattle, and sheep, and hogs, and horses.
The horses are very fine ones. Many



of Bellows Falls? 4. Where is Windsor?
5. What mountains in Vermont? 6. Describe Bur
lington ; Lake Champlain; Middlebury. 7. Mont



*
80 THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY, —

of the beautiful horses you see in New
York, Boston, and Hartford, come from
Vermont.

8. During the winter, the weather is
cold, and the snow falls to a great depth.
It is sometimes four or five feet deep.
The people have four or five months’
fine sleighing. Although the airlis very
sharp, yet the winter is a merry season
in this state. The children ride on their



Winter in Vermont.
swiftly over the hills and valleys in their

sleighs. It is in summer one of the most
beautiful of the New England States.



pee ee

CHRAPTER XI.
VERMONT—ConrinveEp.

1. Many years ago, a very singular
event occurred in Vermont. There was
a very large pond, or lake, in the north-
western part of the state; it was three
miles long, and one wide. One day,
some men were at work at a bank of
earth, at the end of this pond.

2. Suddenly the bank gave way, and
the water came rushing out at the place
eee

pelier, the capital. 8. What is said of the winter
fa Vermont?



with great violence. For several mites —
it rolled on in a torrent, sweeping off
mills, houses, barns, and cattle, and
barely. givane the inhabitants time to es-
stop till the whole pond
Vhere the pond used
w.only the bed of a








@ the’ year 1814, there was
a famous battle fought on Lake Chame
plain, between some American and Brit
ish ships, which took place in sight of
Burlington. There were thousands of
people along the shore to witness it,
ere were several American yessels
and several British vessels engaged in
the battle. The American ships were
commanded by Commodore Macdon-
ough. |

4. They fought each other with can-
non for more than two hours. At length
the British ships were beaten, and the
Americans took nearly all of them.
This happened during the late war with
England, of which I shall tell you more
before I get through the book.

d. In August, 1777, there was a cel-
ebrated battle fought at Bennington.
General Stark, with some New Hamp-
shire and Vermont troops, attacked some
British soldiers, commanded by Colonel
Baum, at that place.

6. The British troops were dressed
in fine red coats and white pantaloons.
They had beautiful music, and their
officers were mounted on fine horses.
But the Vermont and New Hampshire
men were not regular soldiers; they
were farmers, and mechanics, and mer-
chants, who went to war merely to drive
these British soldiers from the country.

7. The Americans were dressed in
their common clothes. The British
troops, who were so finely attired, de-

oscil —p an gP a cis A aCe OE IES Ck
3,4. Describe the battle of Lake Champlain in
1814. 5, 6,7, 8. Describe the battle of Benning.


4 Longitude E. from Washington i





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Scale of Miles.
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c 8

spised them. They called them Yan-
_kees, and laughed at their homespun
dress. But when the battle began, the
laughter of the British troops was over.
_ The Americans fell upon them, and killed
_ a great many of them, and by and by the
_ British fied.

_ 8, As they were running away, they
_ met a good many more British soldiers.
_ Thinking themselves now strong enough
to beat the Americans, they went back,
and began to fight again. But the
Americans attacked them with such
vigor, that soon seven hundred of the
British were killed and wounded. Col-
onel Baum was killed, and the rest of the
British ran away. This battle took
place during the revolutionary war, of
which I shall tell you more by and by.

9. Vermont was not settled by the
white people till some time after the
other New England States. There was
_ afort built near Brattleboro’, in 1724,
— called Fort Dummer. The remains of
it are still to be seen. It was built to
protect the people who had settled there
from the Indians.

10. Vermont was settled principally
by people from Connecticut. They first
established themselves along the Con-
necticut River, and afterwards in other
parts of the state. They had a good
many skirmishes with the Indians, and
for a long time there was a great dispute
whether the land belonged to New York
or New Hampshire.

11. It was decided in England, in
1764, that it belonged to New: York, and
consequently, the government of that
colony began to sell the land to any per-
sons who would buy it. The settlers
thought this very unjust, and determined
to resist. New York then sent troops
into Vermont, and there was some fight-



ton, Whereis Bennington? 9,10. What of the
eariy settlements of Vermont? 11. What took

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY. 81

ing. These difficulties were not scttled
till years after.

12. During the revolutionary war,
Vermont was independent, and in 1791
it became one of the United States. It
is now little more than one hundred
years since this state was a mere wilder-
ness, occupied only by scattered tribes
of savages, bears, and wolves. Now, it
has a great many flourishing towns, and
cultivated farms, on the tops of the hills,
in the valleys, and along the rivers and
lakes.

eo ipeemns

CHAPTER XII.
MASSACHUSETTS.

1. MAssacnuseTTs is not a large
state, but there are a great many people
in it. ‘Those who live along the sea-
board, at Boston, Salem, Marblehead,
Gloucester, New Bedford, Nantucket,
and other places, own a great many
ships, brigs, sloops, and_ schooners.
Some of these ships are sent to England,
and other parts of Europe, and they
bring back various kinds of goods.

' 2. Other ships are sent to China, and
they bring back tea. The trade. carried
on by these ships is called commerce.
Some of the vessels go to a great dis-
tance to catch whales, for their vil. Oth-
er vessels go out to catch codfish and
mackerel. A great many sloops, and
schooners, and brigs, go to. New Y:ak,



place in 1764? 12. When did Vermont bereme
one of the United States?

1, 2. How is Massachusetts bounded? What
is the capital? What rivers in Massachusetts?
Describe them. What capes? Where is Boston
situated? Salem? Marblehead? Gloucester?
New Bedford? Nantucket? Where are the
vessels sent from these places? Look on the
Map of the World, and describe the course of a
vessel from Boston to England; to China; ta
New York; to Philadelphia; to Charleston; ts
82

Philadelphia, Charleston, New Orleans,
and other places.

3. They carry a good many articles

away which are not wanted in Massa-
chusetts, and get, in exchange for them,
other articles that are wanted there.
So, you see, there are a great many
people constantly occupied in managing
these ships. You may often see several
hundred vessels of various kinds at
Boston.
- 4, In those parts of the state remote
from the sea, the people of Massachu-
setts are chiefly occupied in agriculture.
There are a great many very fine farms,
and the people manage them extremely
well. There are also very extensive
manufactories in Massachusetts.

5. Lowell is remarkable for its rapid
growth, and the variety and perfection
of its manufactures. Immense quantities
of broadcloths, carpets, and cotton cloth
are here manufactured. There are man-
ufactories at Waltham, Taunton, Canton,
Ware, Springfield, Framingham, Fall
River, Fitchburg, Pawtucket, and other
places. The goods manufactured in
these places are chiefly carried to Bos-
ton, and are thence taken to New York,
Philadelphia, Charleston, New Orleans,
«ad various foreign markets. .

6. Boston is the largest city in New
England. There are many interesting
things in Boston. The Common is a
very beautiful place. It is delightful to
see it covered with people— men, women,
and children,—on a pleasant summer
evening. How pleased the boys are to
get around the Frog Pond, and throw
sticks into it, so that they may see the
dogs jump in, swim about, and get them!
Tt is now filled with water from Lake



New Orleans. 3,4. What is the occupation of
the people? 5, Name the principal manufactur-
ing towns, and tell where each of them is situ-
ated. 6. What is said of Boston? Name some

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,



Cochituate, and a beautiful fountain op
naments its centre.



7. The State House is finely situ-
ated, and it has a good appearance.
When I was young, I used to like to go
to the top of the State House, from which
there is a splendid prospect. I could see
the ocean, with a great many islands in
it, and I could see a great many fine
towns all around Boston, and I could look
down upon the city itself, and see almost
all that was going on in the streets. |

8. There are a great many hand-
some buildings in Boston, among which
is the Quincy Market. I do not think
there is a more: beautiful market in the
world. The Tremont House, King’s
Chapel, St. Paul’s Church and Trinity
Church, the Boston Atheneum, the
Merchants’ Exchange, and the United
States Custom House, are very elegant
edifices.

9. Boston is connected with the prin-
cipal cities and towns in the common-
wealth, and with other states, by several
well-constructed railroads. Salem is a
wealthy city, and many of the people are
engaged in commerce. Newburyport is
distinguished for commerce and manu-
factures; Lynn for the manufacture of

of the principal buildings. 7, 8, 9. Of Salem?





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shoes ; New Bedford and Nantucket for
‘the whale fishery; and Worcester is
noted for being the place where a great
many railroads connect with each other.
~ Massachusetts abounds in beautiful vities,
towns, and villages, and in travelling
through it, you will observe a great num-
ber of churches and school houses.

_ 10. At Cambridge there is a college,
ealled Harvard University. The library

- eontains near one hundred thousand vol-

umes. Another college is located at
Amherst, and one also at Williamstown.
Great attention is paid to education, and
common schools are supported by law in
every city and town in the state.

11. It is not so cold in Massachusetts,
during the winter, as in Vermont and
Maine. The snow is not so deep, and
there is not so much sleighing. If you
ever travel through the state, you will
find it very hilly. There are a great
many railroads; yet, if you wish to see
the country, you had better travel in
some other way. Near Northampton is
a high mountain, called Holyoke. From
the top of it you can look down upon
Connecticut River, winding through
meadows so ric//and beautiful, that they
seem like a gArpet woven with various
bright colo

a

CHAPTER XIIL
MASSACHUSETTS —CoOnNnTINUED.

1. On the 17th day of September,
1830, there was a great parade in Bos-
ton. There were the governor of the
state, and the mayor of the city, and the

Of Newburyport? Of Lynn? Of New Bedford
and Nantucket? Of Worcester, and other
places? 10. What colleges in the state ? What
is said of education? 11. What of the winter in
Massachusetts? Of the scenery from Mount
Holyoke?

1, 2, 3. When was poate settled? 4, 5, 6, 7,

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY. 33

| president of Harvard College, and a

'great many other men; and then there
were a great many children, little boys
and girls, from all the schools in Bos-
.

. It was a very bright day, init they
at” assembled on the Common. There
were a great many thousand people be-
sides, who came to look on. I was there
myself, and I was delighted at the long
rows of good little boys and girls. By
and by, the men all went in a long pro-
cession to the Old South Church, and
there Mr. Quincy delivered an oration.



Celebration of the Settlement of Boston.

3. Now you will be curious to know
what all this parade was about. I will
tell you. It was to celebrate the settle-
ment of Boston, which took place just
two hundred years before; that is, on
the 17th of September, 1630.

4. Ten years before, in 1620, some
persons had come from England, and
settled at Plymouth. At that period,
many of the people in England were per-
secuted, and could not be happy there.
They chose, therefore, to come to Amer-
ica, and live in the woods, with Indians
and wild beasts around them, rather thaa
stay there.

5. Accordingly, fifteen hundred pers

8, 9. Give an account of the settlement of Bow




34

sons came over in 1630, and settled at
Charlestown, Dorchester, Roxbury, and
other places. A man by the name of
Blackstone came to the place where
Boston now stands, and liking it pretty
well, he told some of the people about it,
and they went and settled there.

6. The first settlers here suffered a
great deal. They had poor, miserable
huts to live in, and in winter the weather
was excessively cold. ‘They were almost
starved, too, for want of food.
many of them died from hunger, cold,
and distress.

7. Such is a brief sketch of the first
settlement of Boston. What a wonder-
ful change has taken place in two hun-
dred years! The spot where Boston
stands was then a wilderness. The
hills and the islands were covered with
trees, and the Indians were living all
around, Now, the Indians are all gone,
and there are about one hundred and
forty thousand people living in this
place; and in the towns around it there
are at least as many more.

8. The forests have all been cut

down, the hills have been levelled, the.

valleys have been filled up; houses,
churches, and other public edifices, now
stand on the very places which were
then occupied by Indian wigwams. The
bay, where then you could see only a
few Indian canoes, is now covered with
hundreds of vessels; and in the streets
you hear the noise of a thousand wheels,
where then were heard only the cries of
wild beasts and savage men.
_ 9.°Such are the mighty changes that
have taken place in this country since it
was settled by the white people. It is
very interesting to look around, and se
the present condition of towns, cities, and
countries. But I think it is still more
interesting to go back and study the



ton and the places in its vicinity. 10, Whenand

tile.

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,






history of places, and see what happened
there ig times that have gone by.

10. The first settlement in New Eng.
land was made at Plymouth, in 1620,
The settlers were English peopl, called
Puritans. Within ten years after, Sa.
lem, Dorchester, Charlestown, and Boas
ton were settled. A great many people
came over from England, and thus the ©
colony grew very rapidly. |

11. They had a great many ¢ifficulties —
to encounter. Before they cculd raise
grain to make bread, they were obliged —
to cut down trees and till the land.
They had also to build houses, to make
roads, and defend themselves against the
Indians. Their condition was indeed a
very hard one, and some of the people —
who came over died from want and
fatigue, as I have said before.

12. Many of them were killed by the
savages ; but in spite of all these evils, the
colony continued to increase. ‘The white
people penetrated farther into the inte-
rior, cut.down the trees, built towns and
villages, and soon spread themselves over
the whole country that is now called
Massachusetts.

13. But after a while, the revolntion-
ary war broke out, and then the people
had to defend themselves against Brit-
ish soldiers. I shall tell you all about
this war by and by. I shall tell you of
the battles of Lexington, and of Bunker
Hiil, and many other interesting things.

we Qe

CHAPTER XIV.
RHODE ISLAND.

1. Raove Isianp is the smallest of
the United States; but there are a great



where was the first settlement in New England
made? 11, 12. What difficulties were settlers
obliged to encounter ?

1. Howis Rhode Island bounded? What ts




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many manufactories there, and the peo-
ple carry on a good deal of commerce.
At North Providence there are some
very extensive cotton manufactories.
These are situated on the falls of the
Pawtucket River.

2. Providence, one of the capitals, is
a large city, situated at the head of Nar-
raganset Bay, and is extensively en-
gaged in trade and commerce. Brown



University, one of the best colleges in

the country, is located in this city. The
people are distinguished for their gen-
erous support of common schools. If
you ever visit Providence, you should
go and see the Arcade. This is a very
beautiful building, where you can pur-
chase almost every kind of elegant mer-
chandise.

3. At Providence you can take the
steamboat and go to Newport, where the
iegislature also meets. You will sail
down Narraganset Bay, which, I think,
is one of the most beautiful bays in the
world. As you go along, you will see
Bristol on your left. It is a very pleas-
ant town, and there are a number of
beautiful houses there.

4. Near Bristol, you can see a hill
called Mount Hope. This is very cele-
brated for having been the residence of
a famous Indian chief, named Philip.
His story is very interesting, and I shall
tell it to you by and by.

d. You will find Newport very pleas-
antly situated. It has rather a venera-
ble appearance. It stands upon a large
island, called Rhode Island. This gave
name to the state. Newport is resorted
to by many people in summer, for its
healthy and pleasant sea breezes.

6. The first white man that settled in
Rhode Island was Roger Williams. He

said of it? What of North Providence? What
rre the capitals? 2, 3,4,5. What is said of
Providence? Of Bristol? Of Newport? 6, 7,

sf

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

35

was a clergyman, and lived in Boston;
but he did not think exactly as the other
clergymen of Boston did, and so he was
banished from Massachusetts.



7. He went away with his family into
the woods. After travelling a consider-
able time, he stopped, and began to build
himself a house. Here he made a set-
tlement, and called it Providence. This
took place in 1636, and was the first
settlement in Rhode Island. He was
kindly treated by the Indians, who
seemed pleased at his arrival among
them.

8. The colony, thus begun, increased
rapidly, and in the revolutionary war
it united with the other colonies in the
strugele for freedom. It became one
of the United States in 1790.

$=

CHAPTER XV.
CONNECTICUT.
1. CoNNECTICUT, with the exception

of Rhode Island, is the smallest of the
New England States; but it has more

8. What of the first settlement? When did
Rhode Island become one of the United States
1,2. How is Connecticut bounded? Wha
86

Mhabitants than any of them, except
Massachusetts and Maine. The country
is very hilly, but it abounds in streams
and rivers, and is generally quite fertile.

2. The people are very industrious.
A great many of them are occupied in
cultivating the land, and they cultivate
it very well. They raise a good many
' tattle, horses, hogs, sieep, and some
grain, and kitchen vegetables, A great
many of the people are occupied in
manufactories, and a considerable num-
ber are engaged in commerce. Almost
every person in the state is busy about
something.

3. Let us suppose that we begin at
the eastern part of the state, and travel
through it. We will) commence our
journey at Norwich. This town is situ-
ated on the Thames, and we shall see
quite a number of vessels there, engaged
in carrying on trade with New York,
Philadelphia, and Charleston. There
are several falls in the river at Norwich,
and these afford fine mill seats, where
there are some very extensive cotton
manufactories. A railroad connects this
place with Worcester and Boston, and a
steamboat runs from Norwich to New
York.

4, The country around Norwich was
once occupied by a celebrated tribe of
Indians, called Mohicans. These Mo-
hicans were once at war with some other
Indians. One night several of these
Indians had encamped on the top of
wome high rocks.

5. Iheir enemies discovered their
situation, and secretly encircled them
on all sides but one. On that side was
_ @ steep precipice, at the foot of which
was the river. When the morning



are the capitals? What is said of Connecticut?
3. What rivers *n the state? What is said of
Norwich? Where is the River Thames? 4, 5,
6 What is said of the Mohican Indians?

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,



came, the party of Indians first men.
tioned were about to depart, when they
discovered that they were surrounded
by their foes.

6. They made a short resistance, but, —
perceiving that they were outnumbered
by their enemies, they leaped over the
rocks, and were killed by the fall.

7. Having examined Norwich, we
will take a boat and go down the River
Thames, to New London. At this place
we shall see a good many vessels.
Among them we may see a large ship
fitting out to go to the Pacific Ocean, te
catch whales.

8. We shall, perhaps, see another
vessel, that has just come back from a
whaling voyage, after an absence of
three years. If she is not unloaded, we
shall find, on board of her, about two
thousand barrels of sperm oil and a
good deal of whalebone. The oil is
used for burning in lamps, and the
whalebone is for umbrella frames, and
many other purposes.

9. Near New London we shall see
two forts. One of them is called Fort
Trumbull, and the other Fort Griswold.
The latter is situated in Groton, just
across the River Thames. .

10. I will tell you an odd story of
what happened in Groton about the
year 1812. ‘There was war, then, be-
tween our country and Great Britain.
There were several British ships in
sight, and it was expected they would
soon make an attack upon the forts. A
company of soldiers from Hartford oc-
cupied a house in Groton as their- bar-
racks.

11. One night, as they were asleep,
there was a sudden cry of alarm among
the soldiers. They seized their arms,
and rushed out of the barracks. The

7, 8. Of New London? 9. What forts in the
vicinity? 10, 11, 12. Relate the incident that

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___ 73 Longitude West from Greenwich _
jrums were beat, the sentinel fired his
gun, and all supposed that the British
were now about to make the expected
attack. Some of the men declared they
could see the enemy landing, and others
thought they could hear the roar of
cannon in the distance.

12. The officers assernbled, and in-
quired into the matter. They soon dis-
covered that the British had nothing to
do with the alarm. It seems that one
of the soldiers, whose name was Tom
Stire, while he was sleeping with the
rest, fell into a dream. He dreamed
that the British were coming, and in his
sleep he. exclaimed, “Alarm! alarm!
the enemy are coming!” This occa-
sioned the whole disturbance.

13. After we have examined New
London, we will go to Hartford. This
is a very fine city, situated on Connecti-
éut River. We must visit the Deaf
~ and Dumb Asylum, where we shall see
about one hundred and fifty deaf and
dumb pupils, who are taught to read
and write, and who can converse by
signs almost as well as we can by talk-
ing. We shall also see at Hartford a
place for persons who are insane, called
the Retreat. Here they are taken care
of, and many of them are cured. LBe-
fore we leave the city, we must go to
Trinity, formerly called Washington,
College, which is a fine institution.

14. After leaving Hartford, we will
go to Middletown, wliich is beautifully
situated on Connecticut River. Here is
the Wesleyan University. On our way
from Hartford, we shall pass through
Wethersfield, a pleasant place, where
the people raise many thousand bushels
of onions every year. ‘These onions are
sent to all parts of the country. Some



pecurred in Groton. 13. What is said of Hart-
ford? 14. Of Middletown? Of Wethersfield ?



COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY. 37

of them go as far as Charleston, New
Orleans, and the West Indies.

15. After leaving Middletown, wa
shall pass through Durham, where the
people make an immense quantity of
shoes. At length we shall arrive at
New Haven, which is one of the hand-
somest cities in New England.

16. At New Haven we shall see Yale
College. This consists of several brick
buildings, in which there are three or
four hundred students. We must go
into one of these buildings and see the
cabinet. \'This is a collection of beauti-
ful minerals from all parts of the world.

02 scare
i

———



View in New Haven. _

17. It is very interesting to examine
this cabinet, for we shall see stones in it,
which have been brought from various
parts of Europe, Asia, Africa, and Amer-
ica. There are two stone pillars there,
which came from the famous Giant’s
Causeway, in Ireland.

18. There are also some specimens
of stones which fell from the air in
Connecticut, many years ago. These
stones formed a part of a vast red
meteor that flew along the sky, and
finally exploded with a great noise.
The stones fell in the town of Weston.



Of Durham? 16, 17, 18. Of New Haven?
88 THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

19. If we travel in other parts of the
state, we shall find many of the people
busily engaged in manufacturing cotton
and woollen goods, and various kinds
of tin, iron, brass, and other wares.
Many of them travel to the Southern
and Western States, and even as far as
Mexico, to sell the articles that are made
in this state.

on ncaetprmernsees

CHAPTER: XVI,
CONNECTICUT—Continvx3p.

1. THE first house built in Connecti-
cut by the white men was erected at
Windsor, in 1633, by some people from
Massachusetts. Two years after, about
sixty persons came from Massachusetts,
and settled at Windsor, Hartford, and
Wethersfield. They went across the
wilderness, instead of going round by
water, as the first settlers had done. ©

2. The next year some more persons
removed from Massachusetts. They,
too, went by land through the woods.
There were then, of course, no roads ;
the whole space was an unbroken forest.
They had nothing to guide them but
a pocket compass, which they carried.
They had a number of cows with them,
which they drove through the woods; and
they subsisted principally on their milk
during their long and difficult journey.

3. I will tell you a story of what hap-
pened at Wethersfield a few years after
that place was settled. A very respec-
table man lived there, whose name was
Chester. One day he went into the
woods to see about his cattle.

4. By and by, he set out to return,
but he soon discovered that he. had lost
Se aa
13. Name some of the principal manufactures.

1, 2. What is said of -he early history of Con-
pecticut? 2,4 5, 6, 7 8, 9. Relate the story

his way. He wandered about for a greac
while, hoping every moment to get out
of the woods; but the farther he went,
the thicker were the trees, and the deep-
er was the forest.

0. He now grew very anxious, for the
night was approaching. He _ hallooed
and shouted for help, but no one came.
At length it was night, and the forest all
around was covered with darkness. The
wanderer listened, but he could hear ne
human voice; he could hear only the
howling of wild beasts.

6. He climbed a tree, and there he re-
mained, in great anxiety, till morning.
Worn out with watching and fatigue, and
faint for want of food, Mr. Chester still
made exertions to escape. He ascended
to the top of a hill, and there he obtained
a sight of the country all around.

7. But it was one boundless forest on
all sides. He was now in the greatest
distress. The weather was cloudy; he
could not see the sun, so as to direct hig
course, and he had no hope but to lie
down and perish in the wilderness.

8. But at this moment his ear caught
a distant sound. He listened attentively ;
it was the beat of adrum. He hearda
shout and a call. He answered, and
soon he was in the arms of his friends,
who had come in search of him. The
people of Wethersfield had felt great
anxiety for his absence, and imagining
that he was lost in the woods, the men
had set out in various directions to look
for him.

9. By this means he was discovered
and taken back to his family. His grave-
stone is still to be seen in the burying
ground at Wethersfield. The place where
he was lost is called Mount Lamentation.
You will pass it on the road from Hart.
ford to New Haven.

10. At Hartford there is a celebrated

mtr inn esp Ga RN iS Sk
about Mr. Chester. 10, 11, 12. What is said of


COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

tree, called the Charter Oak. There is
a story of that tree, which I will tell
yon In the year 1686, James II., King
of England, sent Sir Edmund Andros
t» take away the charters of the Amer-
scan colonies. These charters were
papers, signed by the king, granting

the colonies certain privileges ; and the

people of the colonies did not wish to
give them up.

11. Sir Edmund Andros came to Hart-
ford to get the charter of Connecticut.
Some of the people being assembled at
evening, the charter was brought in.
Sir Edmund was present, and was about
to take the charter away, wlien the
lights were all suddenly blown out, and
the people were left in the dark.

12. By and by the candles were lighted
again; but the charter was gone, and it
could not be found. Sir Edmund was

_ therefore obliged to go away without it.

After a long time, the charter was
found in a hollow place in this old oak



tree, standing in the southern part of
the city.. It was hid there by Captain
Wadsworth, who took it, and carried it
off, when the lights were blown out.

the Charter O2k? By whom was the charter

taker away and placed in the tree?

:

33

CHAPTER XVII.
NEW ENGLAND.

1. [HAVE now given you some account
of the six states which bear the general
title of New England. In travelling
through this portion of our country, you
will observe that it is generally hilly,
and is crossed by a range of mountains,
extending from the north-eastern part
of Maine to the south-western part of
Connecticut.

2. The climate is not extremely hot,
nor extremely cold. Snow begins to fall
about the Ist of December. Spring re-
turns in April. ‘There is usually sleigh-
ing in all parts of it, for a few weeks
during the winter. In summer the
weather is delightful. There are plenty
of strawberries, cherries, currants, and
other berries, and in the autumn there
are apples, pears, peaches, walnuts and
chestnuts, and melons in abundance.

3. The largest river is the Connecti-
cut. Itis a beautiful stream, and waters
four of the New England States. There
is not a river on the globe whose banks
afford more charming scenery than this.
I have seen the Thames in England, the
Rhone in France, and the Rhine in
Germany; and they are all less pleasing
to my eye than this.

4, You should see this river in June.
The meadows and mountains along its
borders are then in their glory. If you
are there in May, you will see the fish-
ermen, with their long nets, catching
shad, for which this river is famous. In
former times there were a great many
salmon also in this river; but for some
reason or other they have entirely de-
serted it. I suppose they went away on

1. What is said of the face of the country in
New England? 2. Of the climate? Of fruits?
d, 4. Of the Connecticut River ? What two states
does it separate? What two states dues it inter


40 THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

account of the locks and canals that have
been built upon it.

5. Not many years since, salmon were
often taken as far up as Vermont. They
even used to ascend the little streams
that come down from the mountains, and
were often caught inthem. An old gen-
tleman told me, that, many years-ago, he
was travelling at night, on horseback,
among the mountains in that state. As
his horse was going through a small
stream that ran across the road, he heard
a great pounding and plashing in the
water. He went to the spot, and there he
found a salmon that weighed nine pounds,
which had got into a shallow place, and
could not get out. He easily caught it
with his hands, and then carried it home.

6. In travelling through New Eng-
land, you will observe a great many
school houses, by which you may know
that the children are well educated; and
you will see a great many churches and
meeting houses, by which you will un-
derstand that the people are attentive to
religion.

_%. There are still a good many forests
and much unoccupied land in New Eng-
land. Buta great part of its surface is
under cultivation. ‘There are more than
me thousand towns and villages scat-
tered over its hills, valleys, and plains, and
there are about three million inhabitants
within its borders. The people are gen-
erally industrious, and are engaged in
the various pursuits of agriculture, com-
merce, and manufactures.

8. Such is New England now; but
what was it more than two hundred years
ago? A mere wilderness, inhabited by
bears, wolves, and other wild beasts, and
by scattered tribes of Indians, who lived



sect? 5. Relate the story of catching salmon.
6. What is said of school houses and churches ?
7 Of the population? 8. Of the condition of
New England two hundred years ago?

in wigwams, hunted with bows and ar
rows for subsistence, and were constantly —
slaying each other in battle. |

9. What a great change has taken ©
place in a short space of time! Yet
many interesting things have happened
within these two hundred years. It is
pleasant to go back and trace the history
of former times. There is no part ct —
our country — not a town or village —«
that has not some interesting story ¢ con-
nected with it.

10. I shall endeavor to collect the most ©
amusing and instructive portions of New
England history, and tell what I have to
say in such a manner as to please you.

You are now acquainted with the geog- |

raphy of this section of the country; I
shall therefore take you back at once
to the period when our forefathers first
landed upon these shores.

canon y-ormeee

CHAPTER XVIII.
NEW ENGLAND—ConrTINVvVED.

1. More than two hundred years ago,
there were in England a great many
people called Puritans. They were not
happy in England, for they had peculiar
opinions about religion. They were
cruelly treated, and some of them at
length fled from the country. They went
first to Holland, but finally they conclud-
ed to go to America.

2. ‘They set out in two vessels, but one
of them was leaky, and went back. They
all entered the other ship, and after a—
long and stormy passage, they reatlied a
broad harbor. ‘They then sent some
people ashore, to examine the: country.
These found some Indian corn in baskets,
buried in the sand. They also discov-

1. What were the people called who first sets
tled in New England? 2,3. What is said of

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red Indian burial-places, surrounded by

sticks stuck in the ground.

3. One night, the exploring party built

a fire in the woods, and slept by the side

of it.

In the morning, some arrows,
pointed with eagles’ claws, and sharp

_pieces of deer’s horns, fell among them.

These were sent by some Indians who

came to attack them. ‘The white men
_ fired their guns at them, and the Indians
van off in great alarm. At this time the
_ savages had no guns, and they imagined

;

--entigrants pitched upon a place where

ne

|
,

that the fire of the musket was lightning,
and the report thunder. No wonder
they were afraid of people who, as they
believed, made use of thunder and
lightning.

4, Having examined the shores, the

they concluded to settle. December 22,
1620, they landed on a rock there, and
ealled the place Plymouth. It was win-
ier when they arrived, and the country
had a most dreary aspect. ‘There were
no houses to receive them; there were
no friends to welcome them; there was
nothing before them but a gloomy forest,
inhabiféd by savages and wild beasts.
There was nothing behind them but the
vast ocean, rolling between them and
their native land. This little colony con-
sisted of one hundred persons. They
were divided into nineteen families, and
each family built itself a log house.

). For some time, the settlers were
not visited by any of the Indians. They

_ saw a few soon after their landing, but

these ran away as if they were very much
frightened. One day, however, an In-
dian came among them, saying, in Eng-

lish, * Welcome, Englishmen! Welcome,

Englishmen !”
6. ‘Ehis surprised the white people
very much. ‘The Indian told them that

their voyage and settlement? 4. When and
where did they settle? 5,6. What is related

COMBINED WITH “GEOGRAPHY.

| drum and fife, which he liked very much.

4]

his name was Samoset, «nd that he had
learned to speak English of the fishermen
he had seen upon the coast.

7. After some time, an Indian chief,
called Massasoit, came near to the settle-
ment, with some of his men. He was
a sort of king, and ruled over several
tribes. He was at first afraid to go down
into the village, but by and by he went »
down, and the people saluted him with a









Making a Treaty with Massasoit.
8. Then he went into the governor’s

| house, where he ate a very hearty din-

ner, and drank a prodigious draught of
rum. He then made a treaty with the
white people, and agreed to be at peace
with them. This treaty he and_ his”
descendants kept faithfully for fifty
years. |

9. I will now tell you of two white
men that got lost in the woods. It was
winter, and it was snowing very fast.
The snow had covered up the path, and
they could not find their way back te
the village. At length, night came on;
and as it grew dark, they heard a dread-
ful howling near them.

10. They were very much alarmed,

for they did not know what wild beasts

might be in the woods. All night they

of Samoset? 7, 8 Of Massasoit? 9,10. Re


42

continued in the storm, shivering with
cold, and frightened at the wild sounds
they heard. At length, the morning
eame, and they reached the settlement.
I suppose the noise they heard was the
howling of wolves.

11. The settlers found their situation
extremely uncomfortable. The winter
was very severe, their houses were mis-
erable, and they were destitute of all
those conveniences which they had been
accustomed to enjoy in England. Borne
down with suffering, many of them were
taken sick, and when the spring arrived,
half of their number had died.

12. Notwithstanding these discoura-
ging circumstances, other persons came
out from England and joined the settlers,
so that, in ten years after, the whole
number amounted to thfee hundred. In
the year 1630, more than fifteen hun-
dred persons came from England, and
settled at Boston, Dorchester, Salem, and
other places in the vicinity.

13. These people were nearly all
Puritans, but many of them possessed
wealth, and had been brought up in a
very delicate manner. Their sole object
in coming to America was to enjoy their
religious opinions without restraint. But
they had not foreseen the sufferings that
were before them.

14. The winter set in with unusual
severity. The snow fell to a great depth,
and the cold became intense. Assembled
in log houses, which afforded but a poor
shelter from the driving blasts, the emi-
grants had to endure hunger as well as
cold. Their stock of provisions became
nearly exhausted, and many of them



late the story of men lost in the woods, to illus-
trate the trials of the early settlers. 11. What
hardships did they endure? 12. How did the
&:ttlement of Plymouth increase in ten years ?
Where were settlements made in 1630? 13. What
induced them to come to America? 14. What

rrr eee enn eee aaspe seinnenthnnunnvensenngeemnsingsiduenunds tonne ne Feoe ieee mente



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

were compelled to subsist on clams
muscles, nuts, and acorns.

15. Unable to sustain these privatiens,
many of them died. Among these wag
one woman whose fate has always excit-
ed peculiar sympathy. This was Lady
Arabella Johnson. - Her father was a
rich man in England, and ske had been
brought up in the enjoyment of every
luxury.

16. But in America she was deprived
of the common comforts of life. Her
delicate frame could not endure these
trials. Although her husband came with
her, and great care and kindness were
bestowed upon her, yet in about a month
after her arrival, she died.

17. Such were the sufferings that at-
tended the first settlers in New England.
Yet these were sustained with the utmost
fortitude. Those who died left a state
of sorrow, in the consciousness of having
done their duty, and the strong hope of
entering a state of peace beyond the
grave. Those who lived prayed to
Heaven for strength to support them in
their troubles, and their prayers seemed
to be answered.

18. Thus prepared for life or death,
they continued to struggle with their
misfortunes, with a degree of firmness
which we cannot fail to admire

inner pcomnaes

CHARTER: XIX.
NEW ENGLAND—ConrTinvep.

1. I HAvE now told you something
about the two colonies of Plymouth and
Massachusetts. The settlement at Plym-
outh was the first permanent English
settlement in New England. The colony

hardships did they endure?
story of Arabella Johnson.
1. From what was Massachusetts named ‘

15, 16. Relate the


;



of Masi:iachusetts was so named from a
native Indian tribe.
creased much more rapidly than Plym-
—outh.

This colony in-

2. Such favorable accounts were given
of it in England, that many persons of
distinction came from that country, and
settled in Boston and other parts of the
colony. Among these was Sir Henry
Vane. He was but twenty-five years
old when he arrived, but he was so grave
that he won the hearts of the people, and
they made him governor.

3. You will recollect it was in the
year 1633 that the first settlement was
made in Connecticut. In 1636, Roger
Williams was banished from Massachu-

setts, and he settled in Rhode Island.

New Hampshire was first settled in 1623,
and Maine in the same year. In 1638
a settlement was made at New Haven,
which was afterwards called the colony
of New Haven. Vermont was not set-

“tled till 1724.

4, About the year 1635, a woman,
whose name was “ Hutchinson, began

to preach strange doctrines in Massachu-

setts. She had a pleasing address and
fluent speech; and she persuaded many
persons to believe as she did. Among
these was Sir Henry Vane.

5. By and by, some of the principal
people assembled to consider the subject.
They talked a great deal about it, and
sonve of them became very angry. At
length, Ann Hutchinson’s doctrines were
condemned by a majority, and she was
banished from the colony. Sir Henry
Vane was very much displeased at this ;
so he went back to England, and after
several years he was “executed, by hav-
ing his head cut off, for high treason
against his king and country.

Bae

2 What is said of Sir Henry Vane? 3. When
#er2 the several colonies settled? 4,5. What is

6. For a long time, the Indians did

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY. 43

not molest the inhabitants of the Plym-
outh and Massachusetts colonies. The
treaty made with Massasoit, as before
stated, was faithfully observed by them;
but the Pequods, who lived in Connecti-
cut, troubled the people there very much.
In 1637, they killed three men at Say-—
brook, and at Wethersfield they killed
six men, three women, and twenty cows.

7. These things caused great alarm.
Consequently some of the people met
at Hartford to consider what should be
done. It was determined to send a body
of men against the Indians. About
ninety white men and seventy friendly
Indians were soon assembled. They
were all placed under the command of
Captain Mason.

8. They entered some boats at Hart-
ford, and went down the Connecticut
River to Saybrook. Here they resolved
to make a sudden attack upon Mystic,
an Indian fort, situated where Stonington
now stands. This was one of the prin-
cipal places belonging to the Indians.

J. They reached the spot about day-
break. The Pequods had no suspicion
that an enemy was near. But by and
by, a dog barked, and then one of the
Indians, who saw the white men, gave
the alarm. ‘At this instant the soldiers
fired upon the Indians. Many of the
savages were killed; but very’soon the
rest recovered from their astonishment,
and then they fought bravely. pes
10. They shot their arrows and guns
at the white men, and hurled stones and
sticks at them with the greatest fury.
The Indians were far more numerous
than the white men, and the latter were
at length nearly exhausted. At this
moment, Captain Mason ordered their
fort to be set on fire. The flames caught

said of Ann Hutchinson? 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12.
What is related of their troubles with the Pequod
Where is Saybrook?

Indians ? Wethersfield ?




44

quickly, and, spreading from wigwam to
wigwam, svon set them all in a blaze.

11. It was an awful scene, and the
struggle was soon terminated. Seventy
wigwams were reduced to ashes, and six
or seven hundred Indians were killed
either by the bullets or the fire.

12. This dreadful event alarmed the
Pequods, and they fled, with their chief,
Sassacus, to the west. They were fol-
lowed by the white men, who overtook
them in a swamp near Fairfield. Here
a battle was fought, and the Indians
were entirely defeated. This was fol-
lowed by a treaty with the remaining
Indians, andthe Pequods gave the colo-
nies no more trouble.

13. In 1643, the four colonies of
Plymouth, Massachusetts, Connecticut,
and New Haven entered into an agree-
ment for purposes of mutual defence.
They were led to do this by fear of the
Indians, who were now very unfriendly,
and who watched every opportunity to
do the white people mischief.

—

CHAPTER XX.
NEW ENGLAND—ConrTiINUED.

1. WE now approach a period of great
interest in the history of New England.
The Indians perceived that the English
were rapidly increasing in numbers,
while they themselves were as fast di-
minishing. They foresaw that, in a
short time, the English colonies would
overspread the whole land, while they
should themselves be driven back into
the wilderness.

2. This excited their jealousy, and
led them bitterly to hate the English.





Stonington? Fairfield?
place in 1643 ?
1, 2, 8. Relate what is said of the feelings of

13. What event took







THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

Besides this, quarrels gccasio: ally arosé
between the white inhabitants and the
savages. Whether these originated with
the English or the Indians, the latter
were always sure to be thought in the
wrong, and were punished by the white
people accordingly.

3. In short, the Indians had discoy-
ered that the English, being wiser and
more artful than they, were likely soon
to become their masters ; and the hatred
thus excited was aggravated by acts of
injustice and oppression, committed on
the part of the English towards the say-
ages.

4. There lived, about this time, in
Rhode Island, an Indian, who was called
King Philip by the English. He was
chief of the Wampanoags, and lived at
Mount Hope, near Bristol. The coun-
try was then called Pokanoket.

5. Philip, being a man of great sa-
gacity, saw that, unless the English col-
onies were checked, the Indians would,
in the course of a few years, cease te
exist as independent tribes. After re-
flecting upon these things, he resolved
to make one great effort to drive the
English from the land, and free his
country from such dangerous intruders.

6. Accordingly he visited, in secret,
several of the tribes in New England.
He conversed with the chiefs, and told
them that, if they remained inactive, in
a few years the beautiful rivers, and
hills, and forests, which had descended
from their fathers, would cease to be
their inheritance. ‘He described the
English as crafty, longsighted, and
greedy, who added township to town-
ship, and colony to colony, and who
would never be content until they pos-
se > A eee fe ee
the Indians when they perceived the rapid in-
crease of the white men. 4. Who was King
Philip? 5. What resolution did he adopt in
reference to the white men? 6, 7, What meas

:


sessed every foot of land east of the
udson.

7. He prophesied the gradual de-
crease, and the final extinction, of all
those tribes who once reigned over the
whole Jand. He told them that their

Philip addressing the Indian Chiefs.

forests would be cut down, that their
hunting’ grounds would be soon taken
from them, that their warriors would be
slain, their children wander forth in pov-
erty, their chiefs be beggars, and their
tribes be scattered and lost like the au-
tumn leaves.

8. To remedy these evils, Philip pro-
posed that a mighty effort should be
made, by all the tribes in New England,
to destroy the English. He had little
difficulty in bringing the chiefs into his
schemes. A general effort was agreed
upon, and soon the war began.

9. In June, 1675, as the people of
Swanzey, in Plymouth colony, were
returning home from church, a sudden
attack was made by some Indians upon
them. At this period, the Indians were
supplied with muskets, powder, and ball,
and they had learned to use fire-arms
with considerable skill.

10. In a few moments, therefore, eight



are did he adopt to carry his resolution into
effect? 8. What did he propose? 9, 10, When

’

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY. 43

or nine of the inhabitants of Swanzey
were killed. The country was immedi-
ately alarmed, and the people flew to
the succor of the inhabitants from all
quarters. An attack was made upon
the Indians the next morning, and s¢ve
eral of. them were killed.

11. This resolute conduct awed tas
Indians ; and Philip himself, expecting
an attack, fled from Mount Hope witb
his warriors. It was soon ascertained
that they had gone to a swamp in Pocas-
set, now Tiverton. The white people
followed them thither, and, entering the
swamp, pursued them till night. They
were then obliged to retreat.

12. The English, finding it impossible

| to encounter the enemy in the swamp,

determined to surround it, and starve
them out. But Philip guessed their
design, and privately stole away with
his men.

—

CHAPTER ‘XXI.
NEW ENGLAND—ConrTiNnveED.

1. I can hardly tell you all that hap-
pened during the bloody war that fol-
lowed. In all parts of New England,
the Indians seemed to be moved by a
spirit of deadly revenge. They set the
town of Springfield on fire, and no less
than thirty houses were consumed.

2. About eighty young men were at+
tacked at Muddy Brook, as they were
employed in transporting some grain
from Deerfield to Hadley. They had
no idea that an enemy was at hand.
They had stopped a moment with their
and how did the war commence? Where is
Swanzey? 11, 12. What was the result of the
attack the next morning? Where is Mount
Hope? Tiverton?

1, What event occurred at Springfield ? Where
is Springfield? 2,3. At Muddy Brook? Whers


46

teams, and were gathering some grapes
Ly the roadside.

8. Sudden as the thunderbolt the sav-
age yell broke upon their ears. They
were immediately surrounded by the
{ndians; and, having no arms, they were
incapable of defence. Seventy of them
were shot down, and these were all
buried in one grave.

4, In New Hampshire and Maine,
the Indians fell upon the towns, set the
houses on fire, and killed the inhabitants.
At Saco, Dover, Exeter, and other
places, they committed the most dreadful
outrages.

5. In Massachusetts, they attacked
Quaboag, now Brookfield, and burnt all
the houses except one, in which the in-
habitants had taken refuge. This they
also assailed; and for two days, inces-
santly, they poured their musket shot
upon it. A great multitude of balls
passed through the sides of the house,
but only one person in it was killed.



6. Finding it impossible to destroy
the people in this way, they attempted

is Deerfield? Hadley? 4. What events in New
Hampshire and Maine? Where is Saco? Do-
ver? Exeter? For what are these places now
distinguished? (See New Hampshire and Maine.)
5 6,7. 8 Describe the attack o' the Indians up-

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,




to set fire to the house, With long_
poles, they thrust against it firebrands
and rags dipped in brimstone. They
shot arrows of fire upon it, and finally ~
they loaded a cart with flax and tow,
set it on fire, and pushed it against the
house.

7. The curling flame was soon com-.
municated to the building; and now,
feeling certain of their prey, the savages
took their station so that they might cut
down those who should attempt to es-
cape. But in this moment of peril, the
white men were saved, as if by the hand
of Heaven. A sudden shower fell upon
the flames, and at once extinguished
them.

8. Soon after, Major Willard; with
some soldiers, came to their relief.. He
attacked the Indians, killed a number
of them, and the rest fled.

9. At length it was thought necessary
to humble the Narragansetts. They
were a powerful tribe in Rhode Island,
and occupied a fort of great strength.
Near two thousand white men went
against them. The fort was built on
a hill in the centre of a swamp, and in
it there were four thousand Indian war-
riors.

10. There was but one entrance {fo
the fort. This was accidentally discoy-
ered by the white men, and they gal-
lantly rushed in to attack the enemy.
But the Indians met them, and many
of the English were killed. They were
at length obliged to retreat; but, by and
by, some Connecticut troops entered the
fort on the opposite side, and at the same
moment the attack was vigorously *re-
newed at the entrance.

“11. The Indians were now cut down
with dreadful slaughter. The fort was »
taken, and six hundred wigwams were



on Brookfield. Where is Brookfield? 9,10, 12




“get on fire, and burnt to the ground.
More than one thousand of the Indian
warriors were killed, and three hundred
_ were taken prisoners.

12. Such were some of the events
of this remarkable war. For near two

ears, almost every part of New Eng-

d was a scene of bloodshed. But,

‘although the Indians killed great num-
bers of white people, yet their own loss
was far greater. In truth, they never
recovered from the many reverses which
they experienced.

13. Although there were, perhaps, ten
times as many of them as of the white
people, yet such were the superior skill
and management of the latter, that the
Indians were effectually defeated, and
their power in New England was finally
overthrown.

14. At length the war was closed by

» the death of Philip. He was found in a
swamp near Mount Hope, with several
other Indians. Captain Church, with a
few white men, surrounded the swamp
at night.

15. When the morning came, Philip,
perceiving that he could not escape,
rushed towards the spot where some of
the white men lay. An English soldier
levelled his gun, but it missed fire. An
Indian, who was of the party, took de-
liberate aim, and shot the chief through
the heart. Thus fell the most celebrated
of all the Indian chiefs. From this time,
the Indians, finding further resistance
vain, began to submit to the English.
The struggle was continued a while in
Maine, but that soon ended, and no gen-
eral effort was ever after made, on the
om of the Indians, to subdue the Eng-

ish.

16. This war, the story of which I

12, 13. Describe the attack made upon the Nar-
tagansett Indians. 14,15. What event closed
the war? 16. How long did the war continue ?



COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.





47

have just related, continued from the
year 1675 till 1678. About six hundred
white men were killed in the struggle,
thirteen towns were destroyed, and six
hundred dwelling houses burnt. These
were dreadful losses to the poor colo-
nists, but the unhappy Indians suffered
still more.

17. Their chiefs and their principal
men were nearly all killed. Their wig-
wams were burnt; they were driven
from their homes; and now, defeated
and subdued, their situation was one
which may well excite our pity. Sav-
age life, in its happiest state, is a mis-
erable condition ; but the New England
Indians had now lost their independence,
and all that savages hold most dear.

18. From that period they rapidly di-
minished ; most of the tribes are now
extinct, and a few hundreds are all that
remain of a mighty people, that once
threatened to drive our forefathers from
this land.

—~—

CHAPTER XXII.
NEW ENGLAND—ContTinvep.

1. Soon after Philip’s war, the colo-
nies began to be involved in difficulty
with England. The King of England
claimed these colonies as his own, and
he, with the Parliament, made certain
laws respecting trade and comm:rce
with America.

2. Now, it was pretended that the col-
onies had violated these laws, and there-
fore the king determined to take away
their charters. These charters were of
great importance, for they gave the col-
onies many privileges. The king whe

Describe the losses of the colonists. 17. Of the
Indians. 18. What was their condition from
this time ?

1, 2. In what trouble were the colonists in
4 THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY, .

reigned in England at the time was
James II. He sent Sir Edmund Andros
over to this country, to take away the
charters of all the New England colo-
nies, except Plymouth.

3. He also appointed Sir Edmund
governor over all the colonies whose
charters he thus proposed to take away.
Accordingly he came. I have told you
how the charter of Connecticut was hid
in an oak tree ; but Sir Edmund assumed
the government of the New England
colonies, although he could not find that
charter.

4. At first he governed the people
pretty well; but by and by, he did many
things which displeased them very much.
Many unjust and oppressive laws were
passed, and the people saw that Sir
Edmund had no regard to their happi-
ness and prosperity in his administration.

5. Sir Edmund began to rule in 1686.
Two years after, the news arrived that
James II., King of England, had become
so unpopular as to be obliged to leave
the country, and that a new king, Wil-
liam III., had taken his place on the
throne. This news gave the colonies
great joy, for they hated James II. on
account of his conduct towards them, and
especially on account of the governor,
Sir Edmund Andros, whom he had sent
to rule over them.

6. Under the excitement of this joy,
the people of Boston seized Sir Edmund
and about fifty of his associates, and put
them in prison. There they remained
for some time; they were then sent to



y‘ lved with England during the reign of James
IL.? Whom did he send to take away the char-
ters? What is a charter ? Answer. A writing
bestowing privileges or rights. 3. Whom did the
king appoint governor? 4. How did he admin-
ister the government? 65. What event occurred
in England in 1688? How was the news of this
zevolution received in this country? 6, What
was done with Sir Hdmund and his associates?





i




England, to be tried for their miscon
duct. "{

7. I will now relate what may
to you very strange. In the year 1692,
two children of Mr. Parris, a minister in
Salem, Massachusetts, were taken sick.
They were affected in a very singular
manner, and the physicians were sent for.
They were at a loss to account for the
disorder, and one of them finally said
they must be bewitched.

8. The children, hearing this, and
being in great distress, declared that an
Indian woman, living in the house, had
bewitched them. Mr. Parris believed
what the children said; the Indian wo-
man was accused of the crime, and, ina
state of agitation and alarm, partially
confessed herself guilty. This affair ex-
cited great attention; many people came
to see these little children, and they
were very much pitied.

9. By and by, other children ima-
gined that they were affected in a similar
manner, and they said that they were
secretly tormented by an old woman in
the neighborhood. All these things
were believed, and more children and
several women soon declared themselves
bewitched. They charged several per-
sons with being the authors of their
distress. °

10. They pretended that these per-
sons entered their rooms through key- —
holes, or cracks in the window, pinched
their flesh, pricked them with needles,
and tormented them in the most cruel
manner. Nobody could see these tor-
mentors but the sufferers themselves,
although several persons might be in the
room where one of the bewitched was
wailing and shrieking, from the pinches
of the witch.

11. Strange as it may seem, this mat-

7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12,18, 14,16, 16. Give an account
of the Salem itchonnle


ter, instead of being regarded as a delu-

_ sion, was thought to be founded in reality.
The people in those days believed that

the devil sometimes gave to certain per-
‘sons great power for purposes of evil.
These persons were said to deal with
the devil, and they were considered very
wicked.

12. The business they were supposed
to carry on with him was called witch-
craft, and any person under their influ-
ence was said to be bewitched. In Eng-
land, Parliament had thought it neces-
sary to make severe lawsagainst witch-
craft. Several persons there had been
condemned and executed under those
laws. It was now thought proper to
proceed in a similar manner at Salem.
Accordingly, those persons accused of
practising witchcraft upon their neigh-
hors were put in prison, and a court was
formed to try them. :

13. Many of them were examined
and found guilty, and some, under the
influence of a distempered imagination,
confessed that they were guilty. The
business at length reathed a very alarm-
‘ing height. Nineteen persons had been
executed, one hundred and fifty were in
prison, and many more were accused.

14. In this state of things, the people
began to doubt the correctness of their
proceedings. They examined the sub-

_ ject more carefully, and were very soon

* satisfied that they had acted rashly.
The judges of the court also began to
take different views of the subject.
Those who were brought to trial were
therefore acquitted, and those in prison
were released.

15. Thus ended this extraordinary
delusion. We at the present day, who
know that there is no such thing as
witchcraft, cannot but wonder that our
ancestors should have believed in it, and
that many persons should have been

4

COMBINED WI1H GEOGRAP TY.





49

hung for a crime that was only imagi-
nary. But we should remember that it
was a common error. of that age.

16. It was not an invention of their
own. They received their notions from
England, and it was natural that they
should act agreeably to them. We must
do them the justice to say, however, that
they very soon discovered their error,
and expressed their sorrow for it.

—~—

CHAPTER XXIII.
NEW ENGLAND—ConrTiInvueEpD.

1. Soon after the accession of Wil-
liam III. to the throne of England, a
war broke out between that country and
France. At this time, the French had
several settlements in Canada, extending
along the River St. Lawrence, and in-
cluding Montreal and Quebec. They
had also several forts on Lake Cham-
plain and Lake George.

2. The war between France and Eng-
land, in Europe, of course extended to
their American colonies. The French
from Canada, assisted by large numbers
of Indians, invaded several parts of New
England, burnt the houses of the inhab-
itants, killed many of the people, and
carried large numbers of men, wonien,
and children into captivity.

8. The cruelties practised during this
war almost exceed belief. ‘Towns were

1. What war occurred soon.after the accession
of William III.? Note. When James II. ‘abdi-
cated the throne, he fled to France. The king
of that country lent him an army to assist him
in his attempts to regain the throne. This led
to a war between France and England, which
extended to the colonies in this country. Where
had the French settlements in this country ?
Describe the River St. Lawrence. Where is
Montreal? Quebec? Lake Champlain? Lake
George? 2,3, What was done by the French
50

attacked at midnight, and in midwin- |! ing his little family, defending himself,

ter; the people were often killed in
their beds, and those whose lives were
spared were torn from their homes, and
obliged to exdure sufferings worse than
death. The history of these things is
too painful for my little readers; I will,
therefore, only tell them one story of this
eruel war.

4. In the winter of 1696, a party of
Indians made an attack on the town of
Haverhill, Massachusetts. Among the
people of that town was a Mr. Dunstan.
He was in a field at work, when the news
of the attack reached his ears. He im-
mediately started, and ran to his house
to save his family. He had seven chil-
dren, and these he collected for the pur-
pose of taking them to a place of safety
before the Indians should arrive.

5. His wife was sick, and she had an
infant but a week old. He now hurried
to her, but before she could get ready to
leave the house, Mr. Dunstan perceived
that a party of the savages were already
close to his dwelling. Expecting that all
would be slain, he ran to the door and
mounted his horse, with the intention of
taking one of his children,—the one
that he» loved best,—and flying with
it to a place of safety.

6. But which should he take? Which
of his seven children should he leave to
the savages? He could not decide, and
therefore, telling the children to run for-
ward, he placed himself between them
and the Indians. The savages dis-
charged their guns at him, but they did
not hit him. He had a gun too, and he
fired back at them.

7. 'Then he hurrisd his little children
along, loaded his gin as he went, and
fired at his pursuers. Thus he pro-
ceeded for more than a mile — protect-



and Indians? 4, 6, 6,7, 8,9, 10, 11. Relate the

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY, :

and keeping the enemy at a distance,
At length, he reached a place of safety,
and there, with feelings of joy which



Mr. Dunstan saving his Children.

cannot be described, he placed his chil
dren beyond the reach of the Indians.

8. But Mrs. Dunstan was destined to
undergo the severest trials. Although
she was very ill, the savages compelled
her, with the nurse and her little infant,
to go with them. They soon left the
town of Haverhill, and set out to go to
the homes of the Indians. These were
at the distance of one hundred and fifty
miles. You must recollect that it was
winter, and the journey was to be per-
furmed on foot through the wilderness.

9. Mrs. Dunstan and the nurse were
soon overcome with fatigue. The In-
dians, perceiving that the little in-
fant occupied much of their attention,
snatched it from the mother, ard killed
the little innocent by striking it against
a tree. After a toilsome march and the
greatest suffering, Mrs. Dunstan and her
companion completed the journey.

10. But now the Indians concluded
to remove to a distant place, and these
two women were forced to accompany



story of Mr. Dunstan and his family. 13

f

a |



.






em. When th2y reached the end of
their journey, they discovered they were
to undergo severe torture. They there-
fore determined, if possible, to make their
“escape.
di. One night, Mrs. Dunstan, the
nurse, and another woman, rose secretly
while the Indians were asleep. There
were ten of them in the wigwam where
they were. These the women killed
with their own hands, and then departed.
After wandering a long time in the
woods, they reached Haverhill, and Mrs.
Dunstan was restored to her family.
This is a strange story, but I believe it
is perfectly true.

12. A few years after the war of
which I have just been telling you,
another war occurred between England
and France, which extended to the col-
onies in this country, and occasioned
great distress. It was called Queen
Anne’s war. This war commenced in
1702, and the French and Indians im-
mediately invaded New England. In
_ 1704, a party of French and Indians

made an attack on Deerfield. It was at

night, and in the midst of winter. All
the people were asleep; they had no
fear that an enemy was at hand. The
sudden yell of the savages burst on their
ears, and they then knew the dreadful
scene that was coming.
', 13. The town was set on fire, forty-
seven of the people were killed, and one
hundred men, women, and children were
carried into captivity. Among these
were Mr. Williams, a clergyman, and
his wife and five ehildren. They set out

What war occurred in 1702? Note. England,
_ Holland, and Germany formed an alliance against
_ France in 1701, to prevent the union of France
‘| ond Spain. The war whi?h followed in 1702. is
i ‘known i in English histories by the name of “ the

»



COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY. 51

on foot, and began their journey through
the snow.

14. On the second day, Mrs. Williams,
who was in bad health, was very weary,
and unable to keep up with the rest.
Her husband was not allowed to assist
her, and she seemed to be on the point
of fainting from weakness and fatigue.
At this time, one of the Indians came up
to her and killed her.

15. The other party then went on, but
seventeen other persons were killed by
the savages before they arrived in
Canada. Mr. Williams was kindly
treated by the French people there, and
after two years he returned, with fifty-
seven other captives, to Deerfield. He
was minister of that town for twelve
years after his return, and then died.

16. This story affords a fair example
of the cruelties of this war. It continued
till the year 1713. The people of the
colonies suffered very much; they made
several attempts to take Canada from
the French. Queen Anne sent over a
considerable number of troops to assist
them in doing so. But this project
failed. They, however, took Port Royal,
now called Annapolis, in Nova Scotia.

17. At length, in 1713, the French
and English made peace with each other
in Europe, and the war ceased there,
and in the colonies also. From this
time, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland
belonged to. the English. Canada still
belonged to the French, and continued
so till the year 1763, when it was ceded
to the British ; and it has since remained
subject to that government. ’

war of the Spanish succession.” In this coun-
try it was called ‘‘ Queen Anne’s war.” 12,13, 14,
15. Relate the attack on Deerfield. 16. How long
did the war continue? 16,17, What was the rev
sult of the war?

e
52

CHAPTER XXIV.
NEW ENGLAND—ConrTinveED.

1. I £m sorry that I have but little to
tell you about this period, except tales
of war. It is painful to read the history
of times. gone by, and learn what dread-
ful sufferings have been endured by the
generations that have lived before us.
But painful as it is, we must still read
it. It may teach us the sad conse-
quences of war, and show us how much
better it is to be always at peace.

2. In the past ages of the world, kings,
and generals, and great men have been
fond of making war, and I am afraid
that some people are disposed to applaud
them for it. But the wisest and best
of men look upon all wars as evils, and
they deem those persons very wicked
who promote a war that can safely be
avoided.

8. About the year 1722, the Indian
tribes in Maine, and along the eastern
and northern border, made war upon the
English settlers. These Indians often
attacked the people in Maine, Massa-
chusetts, and New Hampshire, and an-
noyed them very much. But in 1725,
this war ceased.

4, In 1744, England and France were
again involved in strife. George I.
was then King of England, and this war
is called King George’s war, or the war
of the Austrian succession. The most
important event to New England, that
took place during this period, was the
capture of Louisburg. This was a very
strongly-fortified town, belonging to the
French, on the Island of Cape Breton,
in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

1, In reading the history of wars, what lesson
ean we learn? 2. How do wise and good men
regard wars? 3. What troubles occurred with
the Indiangin 1722? 4. When did King George’s
war co! ? What important event oc-

THE FIRST BOOK uF HISTORY,



5. Here they kept many ships, and
in time of war, these drove away the
English and American sailors, who went
to the banks of Newfoundland to catch
codfish. To take Louisburg was, there-
fore, a great object. To accomplish this, ~
the colonies united, and sent about four
thousand three hundred men against it,
under the command of Sir William Pep-
perell. They went in twelve ships and
some smaller vessels.

6. They arrived at Louisburg the
last of April, 1744. They were occu-
pied fourteen days in drawing their can-
non across a swamp, so as to bring them ~
near the town. They then besieged it;
that is, they surrounded it both by land
and water. They also made frequyeut
attacks upon the soldiers in the forts.

7. This continued till the 15th June,
when the French commander requested
them to stop, and on the 19th he sur-
rendered the place into the hands of the
Americans. Thus Louisburg and the
Island of Cape Breton came into the
possession of the English.

8. In 1748, France and England
again made peace, and the colonies once —
more enjoyed tranquillity. But this did
not last long. A still more extensive
and important war was at hand. This
commenced in 1755, and it is called in —
this. country the French and Indian
war. I have seen many of the old
soldiers that were engaged in it, and
they have told me many stories about
it. I shall tell you some of these by
and by.

9. But as several colonies besides those
of New England were engaged in this
war, and as it was carried on chiefly in —
Canada, and along the remote parts of



curred during this war? 5,6, 7. Describe the
capture of Louisburg. 8. When did the war ter:
minate? What war was commenced in 1755?
“10, What places became subject to Great Britain.




the country, it does not seem proper to

ive an account of it while I am only
‘telling you the history of New England.
After I have told you about the other
colonies, I shall give you an account of
the French war.

10. I need only say now, that New
England took an active part in it, and
that her soldiers contributed very much
to the success of the British arms. The
whole of Canada was conquered by the
English, and from that time to the pres-
ent, it, together with Nova Scotia, New-
foundland, and Cape Breton, has been
subject to Great Britain. This war was
closed by a treaty of peace, made at
- Paris, in 1763.

11. It was about the time that this
peace was concluded, that the people of
America began to be agitated by the
coming revolution. The conduct of the
British king and Parliament was marked
with selfishness from the first settle-
ment of the country.

12. I mean by this, that in the laws
they had passed, the regulations they
had made, and the officers they had

- appointed, for America, they had it less
in view to promote the happiness and
prosperity of the colonies, than to make
them profitable to England, the mother
country.

18. Yet, in spite of this unjust policy,
the people here loved and honored the
king, and cherished the strongest attach-
ment to Old England. Many of the
inhabitants had come from that country,
and the rest had,descended from Eng-
lish emigrants. England was, therefore,
always spoken of as Home, the Mother
Country, the Land of their Fathers.
By such tender epithets did the colo-

‘nies express the affection they felt for
England.
at the close of this war? 11,12. What new

troubles agitated the people soon after the treaty
| of peace in 1763? 18. How did the people feel

Â¥
7 :

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.





ad

14. But these feelings were no secu-
rity against injustice. The British Par.
liament passed a series of acts relating
to America, from 1760 to 1770, which
roused the indignation of the people,
and brought on the revolutionary war.
New. England took a leading part in
this noble struggle.

15. I shall have occasion to tell you
many interesting things that happened
in this section of the country during
that war. But as the whole nation was
engaged in it, I shall defer my account
of it till I have told you the history of
the other colonies.

—~—

CHAPTER XXV.
THE PURITANS.,

1. As stated in the preceding chap-
ter, the separate history of the New
England colonies properly closes about
the time of the last French war. They
then began to act in concert with the
other colonies, and from that period their
history is soon lost in that of the nation.
But before that time, the history of New
England is but little connected with the
other parts of the country.

2. The Dutch, having settled New
York, interrupted the intercourse -be-
tween New England and the more south-
ern English colonies ; but they were not
more separated by this circumstance than
by difference of character. New Eng-
land was settled almost wholly by the
Puritans. }

8. These were very peculiar people.



towards England? 14. What caused the revo-
lutionary war ?

1. When did the people of New England be-
gin to act in concert with the other colonies?
2. What tended to interrupt the intercourse be-
tween New England and the ae colonies at
the south? 8, 4, 6,6, 7“ What said of the


sl

They held religion to be of the greatest
importance. They loved the services
of religion, and it was one of their great-
est enjoyments to meet together and
worship in their own way. ‘They spent
much time in praying to God in secret.
They read the Scriptures with a deep

and careful interest, and they held’it to
be the great business of this life to make

preparation for another.

4. Such were the views and feelings
of the Puritans. In England, they were
miserable, for they could not indulge
their religious feelings, and express their
religious opinions in peace. They were
ridiculed, despised, and persecuted. To
them, therefore, the wilderness of Amer-
ica was a better place than England;
for there, in the woods, they could as-
semble together, and worship God in

‘their own way, without reproach and
without opposition.

5. In coming’ to this country, there-
fore, the principal object of these people
was to enjoy their religion. Being all
of one mind, they seemed not to foresee
that future generations would be divided
in opinion; and, taking the example of
the Jews, they proposed to form a com-
munity as nearly as possible according
to the ancient Jewish system.

6. Some time after the colonies were
settled, persons came among them, and

began to preach doctrines different from
their own. The Puritans had never
thought. of allowing people to enter the
colonies, and utter sentiments and opin-
ions different from those held by the
first settlers,

7. They had no idea of free toleration
to all religions; they therefore commit-
ted the same error that had driven them
from England. They withheld charity
from their opponents; they gave them



Puritans? 8,9, 10, 11, 12. Relate some of the



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,













hard names ; they imprisoned s
ished some, and put others to d :

8. I have told you how Roger’
liams was expelied Vall I will now
you some other things of a similar
ture. About the year 1650, several
sons in the Plymouth and Massachuset
colonies adopted the sentiments of th
Baptists, and were, of course, exec
municated from the churches to whi
they belonged.

9. After this, Mr. Clark, a Bapt
clergyman of Rhode Island, came in
Massachusetts, with two other Ree
named Holmes and Cranfield. One Sab-
bath morning, as they had assembled for
worship, they were seized by the publie
officers, and forcibly carried to the Con-
gregational Church, where they were
kept during the service. Mr. Clark
refused to take off his hat; so he sat
with it on, and when the minister began
to pray, he took a book out of his pocket,
and amused himself with reading. When
the service was done, he addressed the
people, and explained his conduct.

10. These three Baptists were tried
by a court, a fortnight after this, and
sentenced as follows: Mr. Clark was
to pay a fine of about one hundred dol-
lars, Mr. Holmes‘about one hundred and
fifty, and Mr. Cranfield about twenty-
five dollars. In case they refused, they
were to be publicly whipped. 'They all
refused; but Mr. Clark’s fine was pri-
vately paid by his friends. Cranfield
was released, and Holmes suffered the
sentence of the court.

11. He received a number of cruel
lashes upon the naked back, which he
endured with great fortitude. T'wo of
his friends were present, and after the
punishment was over, they shook handg
with him, and praised him for his cour-



proceedings ef the Puritans towards the Baptista %







1 constancy. For this act, these
e tried and sentenced to pay

hillings, or to be publicly whipped.
s were, however, paid by. their

uch were some of the proceed-
t the Baptists; but still more
ps were taken in respect to the
ers. Of these I will now give you
account.

" CHAPTER XXVI.
TE E PURITANS—ConrTINvED.

Tue first Quakers that came into
Massachusetts were Mary Leisher and
Anna Austin, who reached Boston, from
England, by way of the West Indies, in
1656. They brought with them some
Quaker books, which the deputy gov-
ernor caused to be burnt by the hang-
man, while the women themselves were
t in prison. Here they were kept
in close confinement for five weeks, no
person being permitted to converse with
them even through the window. They
were finally sent back to the West In-
dies, in a ship, and the jailer kept their
beds and Bible for his trouble.

2. A short time after this, eight other
Quakers came to Boston, who were im-
mediately put in prison, where they
were kept elever’ weeks. Very severe
laws were then passed, banishing all
Quakers from the colony, upon pain of
death. But the greater the cruelty with
which they were treated, the more they
flocked to the colonies.

3. At length, four of them, who had
been banished, having returned, were
apprehended, convicted, and sentenced
to death. They were then led out,

1, 2, 3. How did the Puritans treat the Qua-

a

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.





55

j and executed, agreeably to the sentence.

They died with great courage, and de-
clared to the people, who were assem-
bled, that they rejoiced in their death,
and thanked God that he had given
them this opportunity to attest the truth
and sincerity of their faith. Thus they
died triumphing, at the very gallows,
over their persecutors.

4, These cruelties had an effect di-
rectly opposite to that intended by the
Puritans. It led the people in the first
place to pity them, then to defend, and
finally to agree -with them. Instead,
therefore, of suppressing either the Bap-
tists or the Quakers, the laws and pro-
ceedings against them actually induced
a great many persons to join those
sects.-

5. It is very certain that the New
England fathers made great mistakes in
this matter; but we must consider that
these things happened almost two hun-
dred years ago. The idea, now so com-
mon, and now so clear to us all, that
every person has a right to worship God
in his own way, had not then entered
into the minds of men. Our forefathers
were not alone in their narrow views;
all over the world mankind were in
darkness on this subject.

6. The shadow has indeed passed
away from our own country. Here,
every man may freely choose in what
manner he will hold communion with
his God. But in many parts of the
world, even now, there are persons who
suffer much on account of their faith.
There are, I think, even in our own
land, at this very day, those who are
spoken of unkindly and uncharitably,
because of their religion.

7. Let us not, therefore, think toa

kers? 4. What effect did their cruelties have?
5, 6. What can be said in extenuation of theif
faults? 7, 8,9. Describe the virtues, the wis
harshly of the New England fathers for || of a soldier. The guns are all j
their limited views upon this subject. || together near the meeting-house
Let us look rather at their virtues; their || and one man is stationed there to

patience under misfortune ; their steady
endurance of cold, hunger, want, and
privation ; their deep and fervent piety ;
their strict observance of what they
deemed right; and their stern rejection
of whatever they thought wrong.

8. Let us look also at the wisdom of
these men. “They immediately established
schools for the education of, all classes.
This was a noble thought, and one that
had not yet entered into the heads of
the wisest men in Europe. Observe
their courage, vigor, and enterprise in
war ; how ready they all were to assem-
ble at the moment of danger, whether it
came from their savage or civilized foes !

9. Consider their self-denial. The la-
bors of thé field, the services of religion,

duties, engaged their whole attention.
They had no amusements; they had
parted with them all. They were brave,
stern men, ready to die, if God so or-

dained it; yet resolute in discharging all |

the duties of life so long as it lasted.
10. To give you a more lively idea of

the character of our New England an- |
cestorsyE will sketch a picture of what |

might have been seen, in avy of the New
England villages, in the earlier part of
their history.

11. We will suppose it to be the morn- |

ing of the Sabbath. Surrounded by a
few houses, some of them built of logs,
and some of boards, is a small brown
building, without a steeple; this is the
meeting house. At the appointed hour,
the worshippers are seen gathering to
the church from various quarters.

12, But each man carries a gun, and
over his shoulder he has the trappings

dom, and he self-denial of the Puritans. 10,
41,12 Describe the picture. 13, 14, 15,16. Why

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISiORY,









A New England Church in early Times,

the alarm, if the Indians are seen to be
| approaching the spot. Thus prepared

|| to fly to the defence of their houses and
the calls of war, and their domestic |

their families, they enter the house of
God, and there they worship. How
| powerful must have been the motive
| which drove our fathers from England
into the wilderness, to live a life like this!

13. I will sketch another picture. We
will suppose it to be a week day —a day
of labor. You sée a man going with his
scythe into the field; but he is armed
with a musket. You see a man plough-
ing, and another hoeing his corn; they
have each muskets lashed to their backs.

14. You see a man on horseback,
going from one village to another; he,
too, is armed. You see a man removing
with his family to some distant settle-
ment; he is provided with the méans of
instant defence.

15. Thus lived our New England
fathers for more than one generation.
They were in a state of constant prepa-
ration for attack ; always supposing that
the next instant an Indian arrow, or an





did they go constantly armed? 17. What effect















bullet, might be in the air, speed-

deadly aim to the heart.

was this all. The woods were

d animals. At night, the

uld come about the houses and

ad often carry off a sheep or a

Tf a traveller on foot lingered in

est till sunset, he heard the howl

hungry beasts upon his track ;
aps a bear crossed his path, turn-

; with a wistful look; or a pan-

glared on him from the branches

me aged oak; or the lonely ery of
wildcat filled his ears.

. A people living under circum-

unces like these, surrounded by datigers,

ured to toil, strangers to relaxation and
musement ; living partly on the flesh
deer, which they hunted in the woods,
partly upon the fruits yielded by the

s to their own labor; were likely to

ssess great courage, sternness, and de-

cision of character. And such, indeed,
were leading peculiarities of the New
ingland settlers.

18. There can be no doubt that many
of our blessings, in New England, have
descended to us from the Pilgrim Fa-
thers. The abundance of our schools,

_ the love and reverence felt for religion,
and, as consequences of these, the intel-
ligence and morality of the people gen-
erally, are things for which we have to
thank the piety and wisdom of the Pu-
ritans.

=———

CHAPTER XXVIII.

NEW YORK.

1. New York is the richest and most
populous of the United States. Its ter-
ritory is very extensive, but it is not so



did their trials and sufferings have upon their
eharacter? 18, What are some of the blessings
transmitted t> us by the Puritans ?

1. How is New York boinded? What is said







|| lakes.



COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY. 57

large as some of the other states. The
land is in general fertile, and some of it
is exceedingly so. The means of water
communication in this state are unri-
valled: in the eastern part is the Hud-
son River, which is navigated by sloops
and steamboats for one hundred and sixty
miles. On the east and north are Lakes
George and Champlain, the St. Law-
rence, and Lake Ontario. On the west
is Lake Erie.

2. The Erie Canal extends the whole
length of the state, from east to west,
and connects the waters of the great lakes
with the Hudson. This river and canal
are connected, by branch canals, with the
Delaware, Susquehanna, and Alleghany
Rivers on the south, and with Lakes
Champlain and Ontario on the north.
Besides these, there are, in the interior,.

a great number of smaller streams and)

lakes, navigable by boats. I believe
there is not a spot of the same extent on
the earth more favored by water com-
munication than the State of New
York.

3. The produce of almost every portion
of the state may be easily carried to the
city of New York, which is the largest
city in North America, and one of the
greatest commercial places in the world.
It contains upwards of 500,000 inhabit-
ants. Situated at the mouth of the
Hudson River, it receives not only the
produce of the State of New York, but
of other states bordering on the great
This produce is sent in vessels to
Boston, Charleston, New Orleans, Cali-
fornia, Liverpool, Havre, and other parts
of the world.



ofit? Describe the means of water communi-
cation. 2. Describe the Erie Canal. With what,
other waters are the Erie Canal and Hudson
River connected? 3, To what great city is the
produce of the state mostly carried? What ig
said of New York city? To what places is the

&
58

4, There are many curious things to
be seen in the city of New York. We
must visit Broadway, which is one of the
finest streets in the world. Here we
shall see a great many ladies and gentle-
men, very gayly dressed, and we shall
see some old women sitting down on the
pavements, with oranges, and apples, and
nuts to sell. And we shall see a great
many coaches, omnibuses, and drays, in
the streets, and we must be very careful
that we are not knocked down and run
over by some of them.

5. We must stop and admire the City
Mall, which is an elegant building of



City Hall in New York.

white marble. In the Park we shall see
a beautiful fountain, supplied by the

"Croton Aqueduct. This aqueduct is for-
ty-one “miles Jong, and supplies the city
with an abundance of excellent water.
The Merchants’ Exchange in Wall Street,
Trinity Church in Broadway, and the
Custom House, are splendid and costly
edifices.

6. We must now go down into Pearl
Street, and there we shall see the mer-
chants so busy, and in such a hurry, that
they almost run over each other. There

produce brought to New York sent? 4, 5, 6.
What are some of the curious things to be seen in
the city of New York? 7. What is said of the

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,





we shall hear a great rattling of
and we shall see every body walki
fast, and a great tumbling about of
boxes, bags, and barrels. After
must go to the Battery, which is a
some promenade on the border 6
Bay. Here we shall see a multitude
vessels from all parts of the world,
masts look like a forest stripped of lew
These, and the steamboats constar
crossing the river and bay, and
ally arriving from distant cities or fe
ports, show the extensive trade and
merce of this great city. “ee
7. The State of New York is remarke
able for the natural objects which attract
the attention of the traveller. The sce
nery along the Hudson is unrivalled for











Scenery on the Hudson.

its beauty. It was upon this river that
steamboats were first brought into use
They were invented by the celebrated
Robert Fulton, of New York, in the
year 1803. There was but one beat on
the river for a longtime. But now there
are a great many. Sometimes one of
these boats carries more than a thousand
passengers. They are very rapid, and
will go from Albany to New York, a

Hudson River? Whatis its course? Where does
itempty ? What is said ofits scenery? Of the




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ut seven hours. :

e of these boats. Let us suppose
we make a trip, in this state, from
y of New York to Niagara Falls.
ay we go, dashing through the water
fine style, passing some of the most
utiful scenery in the world; and by
d by, we come to the Palisadoes, which
e very high, perpendicular rocks, on
. west side of the river. In some
aces they rise to the height of 500 feet.
. We soon arrive at West Point,
vyhere there is an excellent academy, in
Which young men receive a military
education. Soon after leaving this place,
we reach Newburg, of which we have a
full view from the river. We next come
to Poughkeepzie, one of the handsomest
towns in the state. After this, we come
to the Catskill Mountains. These are
tall, blue mountains, which seem to reach
to the clouds. A great many travellers
ascend them, and they tell us that the
rospect from them is truly sublime.
There is here a béautiful little cascade,
where the water falls almost three hun-
dred feet over the rocks. ‘These moun-
tains afford many picturesque views.
They used to be inhabited by many wild
animals, such as deer, wolves, and cougars.
10. It is not many years since, that
two huntsmen were searching for game
among these mountains;when, coming to
a hill, they agreed to pass around it, one
going one way, and the other going the
other way. At length, one of them
heard the report of a gun. He ran to
the spot, but could see nothing of his

steamboats? 8,9. In sailing up the Hudson
River, what are some of the objects to attract
our attention? Name some of the places which
we should pass, and notice their situation upon
the map. 10. Relate the story of the two hunts-
men

ce of one iundred and fifty miles, |

‘It is delightful to go up the Hudson |



COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY. 59

companion He found his dog, at length,
torn in pigces; and by and by saw a
cougar or panther, with the body of his
friend, in the top of atree. He fired his
gun, and the animal dropped with his
prey to the ground. The dog of the
huntsman now attacked the wounded
animal, but was instantly killed by a
stroke of his paw. ‘The man soon pro-
cured help at a neighboring village.
The party found the cougar dead, and

by it the body of the unfortunate sports-

man, who was also dead.
——e—

CHAPTER XXVIIL
NEW YORK—ConrTINvVED.

1. On passing Catskill we proceed to
Hudson, a flourishing city on the east
bank of the river. It is built principally
on the summit of a hill, and commands a
fine prospect. The people are largely
engaged in trade and the whale fishery.
We next arrive at Albany, the capital
of the state, where we shall see many
elegant public buildings, and find the
people busily engaged in receiving and
forwarding merchandise by several ca-
nals and railroads. We will here take
the‘cars for Buffalo, stopping at some of
the intermediate stations, and occasion-
ally leaving the road to visit objects of
interest and curiosity.

2. On arriving at Schenectady, one
of the oldest towns in the state, and the
seat of Union College, we will leave the
cars and proceed to Saratoga Springs.
This is the most popular watering-place
in the United States, and one of the most
celebrated in the world. It is a great
resort for invalids, who come to drink

1. What is said of Hudson? Of Albany, the

capital? In which part of the state is BuTalo?
2. Schenectady? What is said of it? Of Sara.
_the rocks, and presents several exceed-

°
60 THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

the mineral waters, and for persons of |
pleasure from all parts of the country. |

8. Returning to Schenectady, we will |
resume our journey. On arriving at
Utica, we shall be surprised to find so
large and beautiful a city. The build-
ings are principally built of brick, and |
many of them are very elegant. We |
must now go in a carriage, about twelve
miles north of Utica, and see Trenton
Falls. A small river here tumbles over |



ingly beautifu. cascades. A very sad
accident happenzd here a few years ago.
A young lady, from New York, came
with some of her friends to see the cata-
ract. She was standing on the edge of
one of the highest rocks, and her friends
were at a little distance. Suddenly she
disappeared from their view. They ran
to the spot, and looked over the preci-
pice. She had fallen to a great depth
below, and had been instantly*killed.

4. We must be ticular to go and
see the Indians at Vérnon, about seven-
teen miles west of Utica. There are
near one thousand of them, and they are
the remnants of two famous tribes, that
once inhabited this part of the state.
These Indians are called Oneidas and
Tuscaroras; they are partly civilized,
for they till the land, go to meeting, and
live peaceably. They are, however, a
degraded people, and will rather excite
your pity than your respect. We shall,

rhaps, on our way, meet with other

dians, the poor remains of the cele-
brated tribes which T shall have occasion
to mention by and by, under the name
of the Five Nations.

5. Resuming our journey, wé shall
seen arrive at the flourishing town of

toga Springs? 3. Of Utica? Of Trenton Falls ?
Relate the accident described. 4. What is said
of the Indians at Vernon? 65. Of ?
Where is Auburn? Canandaigua § What is

















Syracuse.’ This place and the
ing villages are noted for extensive
works. ‘The salt is manufactured
water taken from salt springs, which
found here in great abundance.
leaving Syracuse, we shall pass
Auburn and Canandaigua to
This city owes its rapid growth
present greatness to the vast water
created by the falls in the Genesee Ri
We may here visit the largest flour
in the world. :
6. We next proceed to Buffalo,
great commercial city of the Lakes,
Here we shall see steamboats, schooners,
and sloops, constantly arriving and de
parting, laden with produce and merchan-
dise from various ports. We may take
the cars for Niagara Falls, where we shalt
witness the sublimest cataract in the —
world. These falls are formed by an
immense mass of water, which comes
from the great lakes, and pours over the
rocks to the depth of a hundred and fifty






Falls of Niagara.
feet. The roar of these waters is like
thunder. Sometimes it is heard at the |
distance of many miles. The earth
trembles around, and a thick cloud of
vapor rises high into the air, stretching
itself far away over the hills and valleys.

a

said of Rochester? 6, Of Buffalo? Of Niagara













A few years ago, some people
ured a large vessel, and placed in it
ld bear and otlfer animals. They

fhe swift current. Many thousands
people were there to see the sight.
e vessel was instantly drawn along by
ie current towards the falls ; it came to
@ edge of the rocks, and down, down it
ent, and was broken into a thousand
eces. The poor bear went over with it.
r a long time he was buried in the
water, but at length he rose upon the
wurface, and then sprang ashore.
~ 8. I will tell you another story of these
falls. There was an Indian sleeping in
his canoe, on the lake. He was not far
‘from the falls, but the canoe was tied,
and he felt safe. But by and by, the
‘string was loosed by some accident, and
‘the canoe floated out upon the water. It
‘went silently along, and the Indian still
continued to sleep. Soon the current
began to take the boat towards the falls.
‘It went more and more rapidly, and soon
‘was near the cataract. At this moment
the Indian awoke ; he saw his situation,
‘end knew that it was vain to struggle
against his fate. He therefore seated
himself erect, wrapped his blanket closer
‘round his body, and, folding his arms,
went down with the thundering tide.
9. After crossing the Suspension
Bridge, which is eight hundred feet
long, forty feet wide, and two hundred
and thirty feet above the water, and vis-
iting other objects of curiosity, we may
return to Buffalo. Thence we go to
Dunkirk by steamboat on Lake Erie,
where we can take the cars for New
York city on the New York and Erie



Falls? 7,8. What is said of the vessel and ca-
noe that went over the falls? 9. Where is
Dunkirk ? What railroad from Dunkirk to the
eity of New York? By what other routes can
we return? Look on the map and describe

n brought it near the falls, and left it,



COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY. 6]

Railréad. We may, if we prefer, return
by way of Lake Ontario to Ogdensburg,
thence to Montreal by steamboat on the
St. Lawrence; or by railroad to Bur-
lington, Vermont. From this place we
can cross Lake Champlain in a steam-
boat to Whitehall ; thence by canal boat
and railroad to Troy, a beautiful city on
the Hudson, six miles above Albany,
from which place we can return by the
Hudson River Railroad to New York.

10. By the time we return, we shall
be satisfied that the State of New York
abounds in interesting objects. The
western part of the state will fill us with
surprise. It now presents many large
towns, and a multitude of thriving vil-
lages ; yet it has been almost wholly set-
tled within the last fifty years. A more
thriving, intelligent, and happy people, it,
would be difficult to find. Fifty years
ago, there was not a house in Rochester,
and it haimow more than thirty thousand
inhabitants. Utica had then scarcely
fifty houses ; but as now more than
seventeen thousand people. , Buffalo has
more than forty thousand inhabitants,
and is constantly increasing in its trade
and commerce.

11. The increase of population in this
part of the state seems, indeed, quite
magical. I recollect a story of something
that happened near Rochester, within
the last thirty-five years. Two persons
were travelling on. horseback ‘through
the woods in winter, guided only by a
horse path. The snow had recen
fallen to a great depth, and they
length lost their way. They undertook
to retrace their steps; but night cama
on, while they were still in the midst of
the forest.

12. They knew they were at a con«

them. 10. t is said of the western part of
the state? 11 13, 14, 15. Relate the story
of the persons lost near Rochester.

“a

ite
62

siderable distance from any settlement,
and had no hope of reaching a house
during the night. It therefore became
apparent that they must spend it in the
woods. But as the sun went down, the
cold increased, and in a short time it
was exceedingly severe. The horses
were worn out with fatigue, and the
travellers began to fear that they should
be frozen. They looked about for the
shelter of a rock, or some other place,
but nothing of the kind presented itself.
Their situation was now alarming; they
could not proceed, and to remain idle
was certain death.

13. At length one of them recollected
that he had a small tinder-box in his
pocket. ‘This he took out, and the trayv-
ellers set about making preparations to

* build a fire, with great alacrity. They
got together the bark of some trees, and
some dry branches; they them, began to
prepare the tinder, -box, but on @xamining
it, the tinder was entirely gone.

14. There was, however, in the box,
a small piece of linen rag, the edges of
which were burnt. These edges were
carefully rolled together, and with a
trembling hand the sparks of fire were
struck upon them. Again and again the
effort was made, but without success.
With feelings of the deepest anxiety, the
travellers bent over the box. Life and
death were on the issue. If the spark
caught, they were safe; if not, they must
perish. To such a narrow point is hu-
man fortune often reduced.

15. The flint is now struck with great-
er force. The fire descends i in a shower,
but without avail. again, and
again they make the trial, and they are
on the point of giving themselves up |
des r blow is struck ;
esl

o
THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,











utes the* travellers are
selves by a bright blaze!
remained during the night.
morning, they mounted their
reached the place of their
safety.

——

CHAPTER XXIX.
NEW YORK—

1. I rary you cannot fail to
the great Erie Canal, in the State
New York. It is three hundred
sixty-two miles in length; it is
feet wide, and has eighty-three
It is one of the longest canals in
world, and it is certainly one of the most
useful. It is frozen up in winter, but
during the spring, summer, and aw
many hundreds of boats, loaded with
produce and goods of all kinds, are
passing to and fro upon it.

2. This canal was begun in 1817, and
finished in 1825. It was made by the
people of New York. Many men were
occupied, for eight years, in digging the
earth, in cutting through the rocks, and —
in building walls and dams for the locks.
The whole cost of the canal was eight
million dollars. They have since been
obliged to enlarge it, to accommodate the |
increasing business.

3. I will now tell you the early his
tory of this great state. In the year
1609, Henry Hudson, an English navi-
gator, was employed by some Dutch
people to go on a voyage of discovery.
He came to America, and discovered the
river which now bears his name. He
sailed up as far as Albany, and went in
his boat a little farther.

4. He saw, then, along the banks of

t is said of the extent of the Erie Canall

2. was it built? 3. When and by whom
wos | New York discovered? 4, What change

ConTINUED.


















river nothing but trees and Indians,
J wild animals. What a change has
en place! ‘The island at the mouth
the river, which was then covered
ly with trees and shrubs, is now the
at of a mighty city; and the banks of
e Hudson, then so solitary, are now
prinkled over with towns, cities, villages,
nd country seats.

5, Five years after Hudson’s discov-
ry, some Dutch people came to Albany,
gnd commenced a settlement. This was
n the year 1614, six years before the
Pilgrims arrived at Plymouth. It was
‘the first settlement made in New York.
_ About the same time, they built a few
houses on an island called by the Indians
“Manhattan, where the city of New York
now stands.

6. You will observe that New York
‘was settled by Dutch, not English peo-
‘ple. They came from Holland, or the

etherlands, and the colony, which in-
creased rapidly, was claimed by that
country.

7. n 1643, a war ‘:roke out with the
Indians. The Dutch governor employed
a brave captain, by the name of Under-
hill, to go against them. He had been
a soldier in Europe, and knew well how
to conduct the business of war. He took
with him one hundred and fifty men, and
they had a great many battles with the
Indians. The latter were defeated, and
four hundred of them were killed during
the war. ;

8. In 1646, a severe battle was fought
with the Indians, near MHorseneck.
Great numbers were killed on both
sides, but the Dutch were victorious.
The dead bodies were buried at a place
called Strickland’s Plain, and one hun-



has since taken place? 5. When was Albany
settled? 7. What event occurred with the In-
dians in 1643? 8 In 1646? 9. What disputes



COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.



63

dred years afterwards the graves were
still to be seen.

9. There were some disputes between
the people of New England and those
of New York about the boundary of
their territories. At length the Dutch
governor went to Hartford, where he
met some people sent by the New Eng
land colonies, and they came to an agree-
ment about the land. ‘But King Charles
of England said that the Dutch had no
right to any of the land, and granted what
the Dutch had settled to his brother,
the Duke of York and Albany.

10. In 1664, the duke sent Colonel
Nicholls with three ships to New York.
On his arrival, he commanded the people
to surrender the town. They refused at
first, but in a little while they gave it up,
and he took possession of it. The name
of this place, which was before called
Manhattan, was then changed to New ©
York, and the place on the Hudson
where the first settlement was made,
which had been called Fort Orange, was
called Albarry. These names have since
been retained.



The Dutch Commander surrendering New York.

11. In 1673, the city of New York
was retaken by the Dutch. The fort

Ac a ah
did they have with the people of New England? i
10. What event occurred in 1664? 11 In 1678? —
a

64
and city were surrendered by the treach-
ery of John Manning, the commanding
officer, without firing a gun. The next
year, peace was concluded between Eng-
land and Holland, and the colony was
restored to the English.

12. The Duke of York and Albany,
the former proprietor, now came again
into possession of the colony, and sent
Sir Edmund Andros, afterwards the ty-
rant of New England, to govern it. He
was succeeded by other governors ; and
in 1682, the people were permitted to
meet and choose representatives.

13. These representatives assembled
and made laws, which could not go into
force till they were ratified by the duke.
This arrangement was satisfactory to the
people, and the colony now felt the bless-
ings of good government.

oanaome

CHAPTER XXX.
NEW YORK—ConrTinvep.

1. I witt now tell you about the In-
dians in the northern part of New York.
The interior of the country was origi-
mally inhabited by five nations, called
‘the Senecas, Cayugas, Onondagas, Onei-
das, and Mohawks. These nations were
friendly to the English colonies, and
being very powerful, they protected the
inhabitants from the French settlements
in Canada.

2. At length the French governor, De
la Barre, being afraid of these Indian
tribes, raised an army of seventeen hun-
dred men, and went against them. But

12, Whom did the Duke of York send to govern
the colony after it was restored to the English ?
‘When were the people permitted to choose rep-
resentatives ?

1, What is said of the Indians in the northern
part of New York? 2, 3. What is said of De la

4
THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

his troops suffered very much from haré
ship and sickness, and many of them
died.

8. Being surrounded by his enemies,
he was now obliged to ask peace of the
savages whom he had come to des
He sent to the chiefs of the Five Ne
tions, requesting them to-come and see
him, and three of them came. A circle
was formed, consisting of the French
officers and chiefs, and then De la Barre
addressed the chief of the Onondagas as
follows : —

4, “ Chief, listen to what I have to say.
I am sent to this country by a great king,
who commands many armies. He is
good to his friends, but he is terrible to
his enemies. What are ye, his friends
or his enemies? I tell you that ye are
his enemies.

“You protect the English, and you
fight for them. You have made a league
with them for peace and war. You have
led them into the country, and shown
them the trading grounds of the French,
and now they carry away the furs which
the French ought to get.

5. “Such is your conduct, and that of
the Five Nations; and what shall the
king, my master, do to you for these
things? He can send an army into this
land, that shall scatter your tribes, as the
dry leaves of autumn are scattered py
the whirlwind; and this he will do, ua-
less you change your conduct, and instead
of enemies become his friends.” ’

6. Garrangula, the Onondaga chief,
knew perfectly well the distress of the
French army. He therefore heard this
haughty speech with contempt. After
walking six times around the circle, he
made the following reply, in which you
will perceive he calls De la Barre Yow
Barre and the Indians? 4, 5, 6. Relate the
speech of De la Barre. 6. How did the Onon




COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

mdio, and the English governor Cor-

__ 7. “Yonnondio, I honor you, and the
ere that are with me honor you.
Your interpreter has finished your speech ;
‘I now begin mine. My words make
to reach your ears; hearken to
=e Yonnondio, you must have be-
lieved, when you left Quebec, that the
sun had consumed all the forests which
render our’ country inaccessible to the
French ; or that the great lakes had over-
flowed their banks and surrounded our
castles, so that it was impossible for us
to get out of them.

8. “Yes, Yonnondio, you must have
dreamed so; and the curiosity of so great
a wonder has brought you so far. Now
you are undeceived; for I, and the war-
riors here present, are come to assure

u that the Senecas, Cayugas, Onon-

Oneidas, and Mohawks are yet
alive.

9. “T thank you, in their name, for
bringing back into their country the pipe
of peace, which your predecessor received
from their hands. It was happy for you
that you left under ground that murder-
ing hatchet, which has been so often dyed
in the blood of the French. Hear, Yon-
nondio; I do not sleep; I have my eyes
open; and the sun which enlightens me

discovers to me a great captain, at the.

head of a company of soldiers, who

as if he was dreaming. He says

he only came to smoke the great

of peace with the Onondagas. But

angula says, that he sees the con-

; that it was to knock them on the

ba if sickness had not weakened the
arms of the French.

10. “We carried the English to our

aa aaa aaa aoe on a aed
ilaga chief receive the speech? 7, 8,9, 10, 11.
ae : 65







lakes, to trade with the Utawawas, ard
Quatoghies, as the Adisomdoes brought
the French to our castles, to carry on a
trade which the English say is theirs.
We are born free; we neither depend
on Yonnondio nor Corlear. We may
go where we please, and buy and sell
what we please. If your allies are your
slaves, use them as such ; command them
to receive no other but your people.

11. “Hear, Yonnondio; what I say is
the voice of all the Five Nations. When
they buried the hatchet at Cadaracai, in
the middle of the fort, they planted the
tree of peace in the same place, to be
there carefully preserved, that instead of
a retreat for soldiers, the fort might be
a rendezvous for merchants. Take care
that the many soldiers who appear there
do not choke the tree of peace, and pre-
vent it from covering your country and
ours with its branches. I assure you
that our warriors shall dance under its
leaves, and will never dig up the hatchet
to cut it down, till their brother Yonnon-
dio, or Corlear, shall invade the country
which the Great Spirit has given to our
ancestors.”

12. De la Barre heard this scornful
speech with shame and rage. But know-
ing his weakness, he was obliged to make
peace. Not long after, another French
governor went against these Indians,
with a still larger army than ,that of De
la Barre. But the cunning Indians con-
cealed themselves till the French were
near, and then suddenly fell upon their
army, and obliged them to retreat out.of
their country. These wars made the
Five Nations hate the French, and at-
tached them to the English colonies.



What was his reply? 12. What was the result
of this interview?


Cama ei Se Ts
NEW YORK—ContTinvep.

1. In the year 1685, the Duke of York
succeeded his brother, Charles IT., and
became King of England, under the title
of James II. I have told you before
that this king was hated by the English
people, and he was equally disliked in
the colonies.

2. He claimed absolute authority over
the American people. This caused him
to be much disliked by them. They were
therefore very much rejoiced when the
news came, in 1689, that he had been
driven from the throne, and that Wil-
liam, Prince of Orange, had succeeded
him. \

8. Elated by this news, and stimulated
by the example of the people at Boston,
who had seized and imprisoned Andros,
they began to make preparations to de-
pose the governor, whose name was
Nicholson.

4, Alarmed at this, he fled by night,

and the chief magistracy was assumed
by a militia captain, whose name was
Leisler. He was a weak man, and
managed the affairs of the colony very
badly.
5. While the settlement was suffering
from the troubles occasioned by Leisler’s
administration, war was declared be-
tween England and France. This was
King William’s war, of which I have
told you something in the history of New
England. Count Frontenac was now
governor of Canada.

6. In the winter of 1690, he sent a



1. When did James II. become King of Eng-
land? .2, Why was he disliked by people in
America? How was the news of his leaving the
throne received? 3,4. What events took place
on hearing that William III. had succeeded him?
6. Who was governor of Canada at this time?
6, 7, 8, 9, 10. Relate the destruction of Schenec-



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

small party of Frenct soldiers and In
dians to attack Albany. These concluded
to destroy Schenectady first. The peo
ple of Schenectady had been warned of
their danger, but they would not believe
that men would come from Canada, a
distance of two or three hundred miles,
through the deep snows of winter, to
molest them.

7. But they were fatally dezeived,
On a Saturday night, the enemy came
near the town. They divided themselves
into small parties, so that every house
might be attacked at the same instant.
Thus prepared, they entered the place
at about eleven o’clock.

8. The inhabitants were all asleep,
and stillness rested upon the place. With
a noiseless step, the enemy distributed
themselves through the village, and at a
given signal, the savage war whoop was
sounded. What a dreadful ery was this
to the startled fathers and mothers of
this unhappy town!

9. It is scarcely possible to describe
the scene that followed. The people,
conscious of their danger, sprang from
their beds, but were met at the door,
and slaughtered by the savages. Every
house was set on fire; and the Indians,
rendered frantic by the wild scene, ran
through the place, slaying those they
chanced to meet.

10. Sixty of the people were killed,
and twenty-five were made prisoners.
Some attempted to escape, but, as they
were naked, and the weather was ex
tremely severe, and as thty had a cons
siderable distance to go befoe they could
reach a place of security, a part only
arrived in safety, while twenty-five lost
their limbs by the cold.

11. To avenge these cruelties, and
others of a similar nature committed in

tady. 11. What did the people of New York and
New England determine to do to avenge these





J
struction.
_ inyited Governor Sloughter to go and



lan

was determined upon.

New England, an attack upon Canada

‘in New York and Connecticut, proceed-
edas far as Lake Champlain, but finding
‘no boats to take them across, they were
obliged to return. Thus the whole ex-
pedition failed, and this was attributed to
the imbecility of Leisler.

12. It was about this time, that King
William sent Colonel Henry Sloughter to
begovernor of New York. But he was
totally unfit for the office. Wher he
arrived, Leisler refused to give up his
authority. He sent two messengers,
however, to confer with Sloughtér, who
were immediately seized by the governor,
and put in prison as rebels.

_ 13. This alarmed Leisler and his as-

sociates, and they attempted to escape.

But he, with his son-in-law Milborne,
was taken, tried, and condemned to death,
for high treason. The governor, how-
ever, refused to sign the warrant for their
execution, as he did not wish to sacrifice
two men who had been rather weak than
wicked.

14, But the enemies of Leisler and

Milborne contrived a plot for their de-
They made a great feast, and

partake of it. He went; and when he
was intoxicated with wine, they asked
him to sign the death warrant of the two
eo’ This he did, and before he

recovered his senses, Leisler and
Milborne were executed. Thus, through
his folly and wickedness, two men suf-

fered an ignominious death.

15. In 1691, Governor Sloughter died.
‘The same year, a man by the name of
Peter Schuyler, at the head of three

- hundred Mohawk Indians, went to make



I ? What was the success of the expedi-

: 12, 13, 14. What occurred between Colonel

ter and Leisler? 16. Describe Peter
Kehuyler’s expedition,

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

An army, raised |







67

|an attack upon the French ¢ettlements
at the north end of Lake Champlain.
A body of about eight hundred men were
sent from Montreal against him. With
these, Schuyler and his Mohawks had
several battles, in all of which they were
successful. They killed more cf the
enemy than the whole number of their
party.
—

CHAPTER XXXII.
NEW: YORK—ConrinveEp.

1. In 1692, Colonel Fletcher was made -
governor of New York, and in 1698, he
was succeeded by the Earl of Bellamont.
About this time, the American seas were
very much infested with pirates. These
bold men attacked stich ships as they met
with on the ocean, plundered them of
whatever they wanted, and either mur-~
dered the crew and took the ships, or
sunk them both together.

2. Governor Bellamont was particu-
larly charged, by the English govern-
ment, to clear the American seas, if pos-
sible, of these desperate men. But the
necessary ships not being furnished, he
and some other individuals determined
to fit out a vessel on their own account,
and send it against the pirates.

3. They accordingly procured a ship
of war, and gave the command of it to
a sea captain, whose name was Robert
Kidd. But when he got out upon the
water, Kidd determined to become a pi-
rate himself. He proposed the plan to
his men, and they consented to it.

4. So he became one of the most in-
famous pirates that was ever known.
He attacked many vessels upon the At-
lantic and Indian Oceans, and after three
years returned. After burning his ship,

1. What is said of the pirates? 2. What
measures were adopted to take them? 3, 4, O
~ Wi

Kidd went to Boston, where he was seen
in the streets. He was soon seized and
carried to England, where he was tried,
condemned, and executed.

5. I suppose you have heard a great
many stories of Captain Kidd. It is said
that he buried a great deal of gold in
pots, somewhere along the coast. A
great many attempts have been made to
find this gold, but without success. I
suspect that Kidd and his sailors spent
all the money so wickedly got, and never
buried any of it.

6. I must now pass over a considera-
ble space of time, during which nothing
of very great importance occurred in
this colony. Though several governors
had been sent from England, most of
them were utterly unworthy of the trust.

7. About the year 1736, circumstances
occurred in the city of New York, which
it is painful to dwell upon. Some per-

ssons of very bad character circulated a
report that the negroes, of whom there
were a good many in the city, had formed
a plot to burn the town, and make one
of their number governor. |

8. A great many fires had taken place,
and these led the people to believe that
the rumor was true. Many of the ne-

were therefore arrested and put in
p . Other ‘accusers now came for-

, and so strong was the prejudice
againat the negroes, that, when the trial

came on, all the lawyers offered their
services to plead against them.

9. Thus left without defence, these
wnhappy people were all condemned.
Fourteen were burnt to death, eighteen
were hung, and seventy-one were trans-
ported out of the country! It is grati-
fying to feel sure that, in our day, the
weakest and most defenceless are not

‘Relate the story of Robert Kidd. 7, 8,9. What

‘anfort=nate event occurred in New York about

the year 1736310. What governor was appoint-
Pee

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

























exposed to such ecrwlty and inju®
tice.
10. In 1743, George Clinton was sent
over as governor of the colony. He was
warmly received by the people, and his
administration was, on the whole, accept.
able to them. In 1745, during George
II.’s war, New York was much distressed
by the incursiuns of the Indians.
11. Saratoga was destroyed, and other
parts of the colony suffered very much.
Some of the Indians came to Albany,
and concealing themselves in the neigh.
borhood, lay in wait to take prisoners.
One savage, bolder than the rest, called
Tolmonwilemon, came within the city it
self, and carried off people by night.
12. In 1746, New York united with
the eastern colonies in an expedition
against Canada, but the project totally
failed. The next year, the welcome
news of peace between England and
France arrived, and the colony was re-
lieved from the distresses brought upon
them by the war.
13. I have thus told you of some of
the principal events in the history of New
York, up to the time of the French war,
which commenced in 1755. From that
time the colonies acted in concert; and
I shall therefore leave the separate his-
tory of New York here, and give youa
view of what remains to be said of it, in
the general account of the French war
and the American revolution.

———

CHAPTER XXXIII.
NEW JERSEY.

1. I wit now tell you about New Jer-
sey. It is not a large state, but in tray-

ed in 1743? 11,12, 13. What troubles occurred
with the French and Indians during the war of
George II.?

1. How is New Jersey bounded? Where is
al Sagi We “at i
a ae
here cevtlte®
“onde ‘espet
KE AW KE
ES vor BR:

ok. ed oP on

ere iresneeesserenneterseeeeferweresrerseces

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; \ : : ae
icra wre | KW: , “ .
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“wa ote By) 5 ‘ ne

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cau bit e Li
s Se

S is olirookgitie Pleat
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Me imtaonte CRY

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Gyr. yr ve iain ui
me 7 an ; OSs

Bary Lantevis KG first

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callin

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sY ve See

Fach
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Pirutatiors:
New Jersey
Pennsylvania . .
Ddaware _._.
_ Maryland...

righ es :

88,623.
. 2 a, 6&7.
90.672.
- G46, 5G6 +

NEW JERSEY, PRINNSYLVANIA,
DELAWARE & MARYLAND. |

Scale of Miles

3 4% A> : &
ug tO | PANG i

v Lon, Wn fis from Wastin ry on
- a ae ie =
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sat le tin.






COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY. 69

tlling through it we shall see many things
that are interesting. We must start from
New York in a steamboat, and cross the
Hudson River to Jersey City. This is
done in a few minutes. Then we get
into the cars, and ride nine miles, over a
railroad, to Newark.

2. This is a beautiful city, with several
handsome churches, and many handsome
houses. We shall see many of the peo-
ple busy in making shoes, gigs, coaches,
omnibuses, stages, and wagons. Newark
is the largest city in the state; it has
nearly forty thousand inhabitants. The
whole of Northern New Jersey is as busy,
with its various manufactures, as a hive
of bees.

8. We must not omit to make an ex-
cursion from Newark to Paterson, to see
the Passaic Falls. These are formed by
the Passaic River, which rolls over the
rocks to the depth of seventy-two feet.
The spectacle is very brilliant and beau-
tiful. Paterson is a brisk manufacturing
town, situated near the cataract. ;

4, We may then leave Newark by a
railroad, and soon arrive at Elizabeth-
town. In passing along, we shall observe
many fine orchards; and if it is autumn,
we shall see abundance of very excellent
apples. The cider made here is very
celebrated.

5. On arriving at Elizabethtown, we
shall be struck with the beauty of the
place. But we shall not be allowed to
stop long, as the conductor of the cars is
in a great hurry ; when he rings the bell,
the passengers jump into the cars, and
away we go.

6. We shall pass through New Bruns-
wick, upon the railroad, and travelling
on a few miles, we zhall at length reach

Jersey City ? Newark ?@2. What is said of New-
ark? 3. Where is Paterson? What is said of
the Passaic Falls? 4. Where is Blizabethtown ?
6. New Brunswick? Princetor? 7. Trenton?

i ‘ “





Princeton. Here we shall ooserve a
large building, with a green lawn in front,
covered with shady trees. Thisis Prince-
ton College, which is quite cclebrated,
and a great many young men are edu-
cated here.

7. After leaving Princeton, we shall
soon arrive at Trenton, which is beauti-
fully situated on the Delaware. W2 shall
here notice a fine bridge across this
river. I think we had better take the
steamboat now, and go down the Dela-
ware to Philadelphia; though we can,
if we choose, go on in the cars, as there *
are two railroads from Trenton to Phil-
adelphia.

8. We shall be delighted with this
part of our journey. On both sides of
the river we shall see many very hand-
some towns. ‘Those on the west side
belong to Pennsylvania, those on the
east to New Jersey. Among other in-
teresting things, we shall see, at Bor-
dentown, the house formerly occupied .
by Joseph Bonaparte.

9. Joseph Bonaparte, who died in
1846, was a brother of the famous Na-
poleon Bonaparte, and was once King
of Naples and afterwards of Spain. The
house, which is large, and quite different
from other houses in the state, is now a
place of public resort. There is a very
lofty tower on the grounds, called an
observatory, from the top of which there
is a very extensive and beautiful prose
pect.

10. A very common way of iravelling
across this part of New Jersey, now, is,
to leave New York in a steamboat, which
carries us up the River Raritan to Am-
boy: at this place we may get into the
railroad cars, and go to Camden, where



Describe the Delaware River. 8,9. What shall
we see at Bordentown? 10. Describe the route
from New York to Philadelphia, by way of Am-
boy. Where does the Raritan empty? Where
<3

70

there is a ferry boat ready to take us
to Philadelphia.

11. By this route we pass through
Burlington, where, by taking a steam-
boat, we can reach Philadelphia in a
short time. If we go into the market
at Philadelphia, we shall observe large
quantities of fine apples, pears, peaches,
and other fruits. Many of these things
are brought from that part of New Jer-
sey which lies on the Delaware, opposite
to Philadelphia.

12. If we stay some time in the State
of New Jersey, we shall observe that the
people differ considerably from those of
New England. This difference is owing
to the difference of origin. The people
of New England are descended entirely
from the English, while those of New
Jersey are the mixed descendants of
English, Dutch, Danes, Germans, and
Swedes.



Settlement of Elizabethtown.

13. The first settlement in this state
was made by the Danes, in 1624, Some
Dutch and Swedes soon after made set-
tlements in the territory. The popula-
tion was, however, very small. In 1664,
New Jersey came, with New York, into



4s Camden? Burlington? 11. What are some
of the products of New Jersey? 12. From what

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

the hands of the English, and the next
year a settlement was made at Eliza
bethtown, by three men, who purchased
the land of the Indians.

14. The same year, Sir George Car.
teret was appointed governor, and ths
colony received the name of Jersey, in
compliment to him, who was a native of
the Island of Jersey, on the northern
coast of France.

15. In 1676, the province was divided
into East and West Jersey, and so con-
tinued until 1702. The government
was then surrendered to Queen Anne,
of England, and East and West Jersey
were united, under the title of New Jer-
sey. From this date to the revolution-
ary war, very little happened in this
colony, the story of which would be ia-
teresting to you.

—



CHAPTER XXXIV.
PENNSYLVANIA.

‘1. Tuts is a large, wealthy, and flour-
ishing state, and our travels through it
will afford us much gratification. We
must examine Philadelphia, in the first
place. It is situated between the Dela-
ware and Schuylkill Rivers, about six
miles above their confluence, and, in my
opinion, is the handsomest city in the
Ynited States. The streets are straight,
and cross each other at right angles
The public squares are ornamented with
fountains and beautiful shade trees.

2. There are many beautiful huildings

made? When did New Jersey become an Eng:
lish colony? 14. From what did New Jersey de
rive its name? 15. What event occurred it
1676? In 1702?

1. What is said of Pennsylvania ?
| the boundaries. What@is the capital?



Name
Name

nations dic the people in New Jersey originate? || the principal rivers. ‘Where is Philadelphia ?
13. When sad by whom was the first settlement || 2. Describe the objects uf interest in this city.

“ ~ SL


;
,
;




_ se

the city, among which we may men-
tion the Custom House, (formerly the
United States Bank,) the Mint, and the
Exchange. The Old State House, in
Chestnut Street, is distinguished for
being the place in which the Declaration
of Independence was adopted by Con-
gress, on the 4th of July, 1776. The
Hall of Independence presents the same
appearance in its furniture that it did
on that eventful day. It contains, also,
astatue of Washington, and several fine
paintings.

3. We must go and see the Fairmount
Waterworks, about two or three miles
out of the city. These are situated on
the Schuylkill River. Here are several
large wheels, which are so contrived as
to force the water from the river up into
a reservoir, on the top of a high hill.
From thence the water flows to the city,
and supplies the whole place.

4. A little way from Fairmount we
shall see Girard College. The build-
ings are of white marble, and are very
beautiful. The college, which is in a
highly flourishing condition, was founded
by the late Stephen Girard for the edu-
cation of orphan boys, and was organ-
ized in 1847.

5. We will now leave Philadelphia,
and set out for Pittsburg. If we go in
acarriage, we shall travel over excellent
roads, with fine stone bridges, and we

shall see a great many large farms, with |

abundance of excellent cattle. As we
pass along, we shall notice a great many
et and I think you will be much
pleased withthem. They are very friend-
ly, and dress ina singular manner. We
‘shall also meet with a good many people
who can talk nothing but German. Some
entire villages are composed of Ger-
mans and. their descendants, who have

_ 8. What is said of the Fairmount Waterworks ?

’ t, Of Girard College? 5,6. Where is Pittsburg ?

3

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.





71

almanacs, newspapers, and some books,
printed.in their language.

6. At length, we shall reach the Alle-
ghany Mountains. These ccnsist of a
great many separate ranges. We shall
first go over one, and then another, and
another, and another. Some of them
are very high, and their sides aie. ex
ceedingly steep. After travellirg a
whole day, we shall find that we have
passed over these lofty mountains. They
were once inhabited by many wild ani-
mals; and deer and elk are still found
there, as well as wolves and foxes. The
wildcat and cougar are also occasionally
met with. After crossing the mountains,
we shall soon arrive at Pittsburg.

7. But the easiest and quickest route
to Pittsburg is by the Columbia and
Pennsylvania Railroads. Taking the
cars at Philadelphia for Harrisburg, we
shall pass through Lancaster, an ancient
manufacturing place, but now one of
the most beautiful cities in the country.
Harrisburg, the capital of the state, is
situated on the Susquehanna River.
Formerly the route from this place was
by the Pennsylvania Canal and the Por-
tage Railroad ; but we shall now take the
cars upon the Pennsylvania Central Road,
and, after passing through several pleas-
ant towns and villages, and crossing the
Alleghanies, we shall arrive at the end
of our journey.

8. Pittsburg, situated at the confluence
of the Alleghany and Monongahela Riv-
ers, which here unite to form the Ohio,
is one of the largest manufacturing cities
in America. It has a direct trade, by
means of the Ohio and Mississippi Riv-
ers, with New Orleans, St. Louis, and
the intermediate places. Alleghany City,

Name some of the things to be seen in going
there from Philadelphia. 7. Describe the route
by the Columbia and Pennsylvania Railroads.
Describe Lancaster, Harrisburg. 8. What is



.
72

Birmingham, Beaver, Lawrenceville,
Temperanceville, and other towns and
villages in the vicinity, all situated in
the midst of inexhaustible mines of coal
and iron, are largely engaged in manu-
factures, and are very flourishing places.
Great attention is paid here to the edu-
eation of youth.

9. We shall hardly have time to de-
scribe all the interesting things to be
seen in Pennsylvania. There are the
Lehigh and Schuylkill coal mines, from
which the people get a great deal of



Mining Coal.

coal, which is carried down in little cars,
on railroads, to the canals, and put into
boats, or into cars on the Reading Rail-
road, and then carried to Philadelphia
and other places.

10. Reading, Pottsville, Honesdale,
all situated in the coal region, are flour-
ishing towns. There are several fine
canals in the state, many railroads, and
some of the most beautiful rivers in the
world. The banks of the Schuylkill, the
Juniata, and the Susquehanna, are truly
enchanting during the summer. On the



said of Pittsburg? Birmingham? Beaver ?
Lawrenceville? Temperanceville? 9. Describe
the picture. 10. Where is Reading? Pottsville?
Honesdale? What is said of the face of the
sountry? Ofthe climate? The soil?

.



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

whole, we shall find Pennsylvania g
most interesting state. It is not so cold
there in winter as in New England,
Many parts of it are fertile and highly
cultivated, and the comforts and luxuries
of life are very cheap and abundant.

——

CHLPTHER "xX *7
PENNSYLVANIA—ContdinNvzp,

1. I wtct now tell you the history of _

Pennsylvania; but I must begin with
William Penn, for he was the chief in-
strument of its settlement. He was the
son of a British admiral, and lived in
London. He was educated as a lawyer,
but he joined the Quakers, then an ob-
secure and persecuted sect.

2. In 1681, King Charles granted to
him a large tract of land between New
Jersey and Maryland. This included
Pennsylvania and Delaware. In the fall
of the same year, a good many persons,
chiefly Quakers, to whom he had sold
some of the land, set out in three ships,
ard came to America. These people
settled on the Delaware River, near
where Philadelphia now stands.

3. They brought with them a letter
from Penn to the Indians.
said to them, “that the great God had
been pleased to make him concerned in
their part of the world, and that the king
of the country where he lived had given
him a great province therein ; but that
he did not desire to enjoy it without
their consent; that he was a man of
peace, and that the people whom he
sent were men of the samé dispositicn;
and, if any difference should happen be+
tween them, it might be adjusted by an

1, 2. What is said of William Penn? When
and by whom was the first settlement made?
Where did they settle?

8. Recite William —

In this he |




COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

equal number of men, chosen on both
Rides.”

4, In the fall of 1682, Penn himself
eame to the colony with two thousand
emigrants. While he was in the coun-

, he met some of the Indian chiefs,
and made a treaty with them. His mild



Penn making a Treaty with the Indians.

and gentle manners made a great im-
pression on the savages.

5. He walked with them, sat with
them on the ground, and ate with them
of their roasted acorns and hominy. At
this they expressed great delight, and
soon began to show how they could hop
and jump. Penn, it is said, then got up
and began to hop, too, and soon showed
‘that he could beat them all. Whether
this is true or not, I cannot say; but it
is certain the Indians long remembered

_ him with feelings of love and veneration.

6. Penn also marked out the plan of
a great city, to which he gave the name
of Philadelphia, by which is meant “ the
city of brotherly love.” Before the end
of the year, this place contained eighty
buildings. In 1684, Penn returned to
England, leaving the province in a hap-
py and prosperous condition.

Penn’s letter to the Indians. 4, 5. What is said
- pf Penn’s visit to the colony? 6. What city did
he found? When did he return to England?





73

7. No part of America was settled
whore rapidly than Pennsylvania. The
soil was fertile, the climate mild and
agreeable, and the deer and other wild
animals were abundant. ‘The govern-
ment, too, arranged by Penn, was just
and liberal, giving pesfect freedom to
every man to worship God in his cwn
way.

8. Thus at péace among themselves,
the Indians being made their friends by
justice and gentleness, the people of this
colony afforded a striking contrast to the
less fortunate settlements in the north
and east. Attracted by the favorable
circumstances I have mentioned, numer-
ous emigrants flocked to Pennsylvania ;
and In four years after Penn received
the grant, the province contained twenty
settlements, and the city of Philadelphia
two thousand inhabitants.

9. In 1699, Penn returned to the prov-
ince. He found some uneasiness among
the people, to remove which he gave
them a new charter in 1701. This was
submitted to the assembly chosen by the
people, and accepted. But the inhabit-
ants in that part of the province which
now forms the State of Delaware did
not like the charter, and refused to ac-
cept it.

10. They were therefore separated
from Pennsylvania, in 1703, and hada
distinct assembly, chosen by the people,
who made their laws. ‘The same gov
ernor, however, presided over Pennsyl-
vania and Delaware.

11. Penn soon returned to England,
and never visited America again. He
died in 1718, leaving behind him the
character of a truly pious and good man.
He was twice imprisoned in England,



7, 8. What was the condition of the colony?
9. When did Penn give them a new charter ?
10, What place was separated from Perfhsylva
nia? 11. When did Penn die? What is said
74
by the government, for his religious
opinions ; and his enemies accused him
of very wicked conduct. But he lived
to see every suspicion wiped away from
his reputation ; and his life teaches us
that the world fails not to honor a man
of active kindness, piety, and truth.

12. His colony continued to flourish,
and its increase in population was un-
exampled. ‘The Indians, conciliated by
kindness, remained for seventy years at
peace with the inhabitants; and thus,
until the French war, nothing occurred
in Pennsylvania to interrupt her pros-
perity.

—_——

CHAPTER XXXVI.°
DELAWARE,

1. Tus is the smallest state in the
Union, except Rhode Island; but it is
beautifully situated along the western
shore of Delaware Bay, and, like every
other part of our country, affords inter-
esting topics of geography and history.
In our travels through it, we shall ob-
serve some of the finest wheat fields in
the world.

2. At Wilmington, on the Brandy-
wine, we shall see extensive manufac-
tories of paper, and some of the best flour
mills in the country. Newcastle, Dela-
ware City, and Dover, which is the seat
of government, are very pleasant towns ;
and if we proceed to Lewistown, at the
southern part of the state, we shall see
the people engaged in making salt from
sea water. The Delaware and Chesa-
peake Canal crosses the northern part
of the state, from Delaware Bay to Ches-
apeake Bay. One portion of this canal

of his character?
Indians? .
L “is said of Delaware? How is it
bo ee What is said of Wilmington?
hah

12. Of the conduct of the

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

is called the Deep Cut, where it passes,
for a distance of four miles, through a



The Deep Cut on the Canal.

hill ninety feet high. A bridge of a
single arch crosses it.

8. At the mouth of Delaware Bay,
and near Cape Henlopen, we shall ob-
serve an immense wall of stone in the
sea, called a breakwater. This was built
by the government of the United States,
to protect vessels, which may be at
anchor in the bay, from the waves that
roll in from the ocean during storms,
and from the ice that comes floating
down from the rivers in the spring,
This breakwater is near three quarters
of a mile in length, and is a truly grand
and useful work. The stone for it was
brought from a great distance — some
of it from Massachusetts, and some from
other places.

4. In the revolutionary war, the peo-
ple of this little state put forth their
whole strength for the cause of liberty.
The Delaware regiment was reckoned
the finest in the whole army. In the
famous battle of Camden, in South Car
olina, 1780, the Delaware troops, with
some belonging to Maryland, were com-

Where is it situated? Where is Newcastle?
Delaware City? Dover? 3. What capes at the
mouth of the Delaware Bay? What is said
of the breakwater? 4. What is said of the


COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

manded by a French officer, named De
Kalb. This brave man was wounded
in eleven places, and died on the field.
He was so impressed with the ‘gallant
conduct of his Delaware and Maryland
soldiers, that with his dying breath he
expressed his regard for them.

d. But it is not my intention to tell
you of the revolutionary war now. I
must take you back to a much earlier
date. More than two hundred years
ago, there lived in Sweden a famous
king, named Gustavus Adolphus. Un-
fer his patronage, some Swedes and
Finns, or Finlanders, came to America,
and landed at Cape Henlopen, in 1627.
It was a beautiful spot, covered with
green trees, beneath which sported the
wild deer, with their young fawns. The
people were so charmed with the place,
that they called it Paradise Point.

6. They now proceeded farther up
the bay, and had some intercourse with
the Indians. The latter treated them
kindly, and sold them land on both sides
of the water. The settlers now estab-
lished themselves near Wilmington, and
called the country New Sweden. :

7. But the colony was not permitted
to enjoy its fine lands and delightful cli-
mate in peace. The Dutch claimed the
territory, and after annoying them in
various ways, finally built a fort at New
Castle. A man by the name of Risingh
was then governor of the Swedish colony.

8. One day, he proposed to the com-
mander of the Dutch fort to pay him a
friendly visit. This was accepted, and
Rising wen accompanied by thirty

men. They were received with kind-
ness, and treated with great hospitality.

conduct of the people of Delaware during the
revolutionary war? 5. When and by whom was
Delaware settled? 6. Where did they settle, and
what did they call the country? 7. What trou-
ples did they have with the Dutch? 8,9, 10. Give

’







7
But, disregarding this, they treacherously
took possession of the fort, and made
prisoners of the garrison.

9. The governor of New York at this
time was Peter Stuyvesant, whom lise
tory describes as possessing a pretty hot
temper. Such a man was not likely ta
permit the treachery of Risingh to go
unavenged. So he fitted out an arma-
ment, which went against the Swedes
in several vessels, in the year 1655.

10. There was considerable fighting ;
but the Dutch were victorious, and hav-
ing taken the Swedish forts, they allowed
a few of the inhabitants to remain, and
sent the rest prisoners to Holland. The
settlement continued in the hands of the
Dutch till 1664, when it came into the
possession of the English, with the sur-
render of New York.

11. In 1682, the territory was pur-
chased by William Penn, and until
1703, formed a part of Pennsylvania.
At that time, it was partially separated
from that colony, having a distinct as-
sembly chosen by the people, though
the same governor that ruled over Penn-
sylvania ruled also over Delaware. The
colony remained in this situation till
1775, when it became an independent
state.

—e—

CHAPTER XXXVII.
MARYLAND.

1. Maryzanp is divided, by Chesa-
peake Bay, into two parts, called the
Eastern and Western Shores. In trave
elling through this state, we shall find



an account of them. When did the English take
possession of it?* 11. When did William Penn
purchase the territory? When did it become a
part of Pennsylv@nia? An independent state?

1. How is Maryland bounded? What bay in-
tersects it? What is the face of the country ia
ww

. 5s.
‘
. >

76 THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

that the land on both sides of the bay is
generally level, or moderately uneven.
If we proceed into the more western
parts, between the Potomac River and
Pennsylvania, we shall find hills, moun-
tains, and valleys.

2. There was, for many years, a dis-
pute about the boundary of this state,
between the heirs of William Penn,
proprietor of what is now the State of
Pennsylvania, and the heirs of Lord
Baltimore, proprietor of what is now
the State of Maryland. In 1762, Mr.
Charles Mason, of the English Royal
Observatory, London, and Mr. Jeremiah
Dixon, were appointed to run a line be-
tween the lands of the two parties. This
line was called Mason and Dixon’s
line.
3. In the states north of Maryland,
slavery is not authorized by law. The
people there consider it a great evil,
and have taken care to abolish it. But
in Maryland, and the states south of it,
the laws permit people to hold slaves.
Many persons, even there, believe it
wrong; but it has been long practised.
There are many thousands of slaves in
the country, and it is, therefore,’ not
easy to devise any plan by which they
can safely be set free.

4. We shall observe many fine wheat
fields in Maryland, and many planta-
tions of tobacco. This plant is culti-
vated in rows, like Indian corn, and it
has broad leaves, like the mullein. We
shall notice that almost all the labor in
the ficlds is performed by the negroes.

5. You will be delighted with Balti-
more. It is a large and beautiful city,



the western part? Where is the Potomac Riv-
er? 2. What dispute arose between the heirs of
William Penn and the heirs of®Lord Baltimore ?
What was the result of it? 3. Whatis said of
siavery: 4. What products shall we see in Ma-

yang: 5. What is said of Baltimore? 6. What
LÂ¥

and contains many fing buildings. The
Roman Catholic Catledral is one of
the most beautiful churches in America,
From the number of monuments in Bal+
timore, it is sometimes called the Monu-
mental City. There is a tall one, with
a statue of Washington on the top, that
you cannot fail to admire.

6. After seeing the rest of the city,
you should go to Howard Street, where
you will notice a great many wagons,
loaded with flour. Baltimore is one of
the greatest flour markets in the world.
Thousands and thousands of barrels are
brought here every year from various
parts of Maryland, and from Delaware,
Pennsylvania, Virginia, and the Western
States. It is then sent in ships to New
York, Boston, Charleston, and various
foreign countries.

7. I must tell you that there is a
great trade between Baltimore and the
states west of the Alleghany Mountains.
The western people buy a great many
goods at Baltimore, and send in return
a great deal of western produce. There
is, therefore, a vast deal of travelling



Railroad Cars,

back and forth, and hundreds of cars
are constantly occupied in transporting



is said of the flour market? 7 What is said
COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

goods and rroduce to and from this
market. When the Baltimore and Ohio
Railroad is completed, it will form the
nearest route from the waters of the
Atlantic to the Western States.

_ 8. The scenery upon this route is
truly magnificent. On leaving Balti-
more, we pass over the “ Carrollton
Viaduct,” .a granite bridge elevated
sixty-five feet above the water, and soon
arrive at Ellicott’s Mills, where immense
quantities of flour are manufactured.
Passing through Fredericktown, a beau-
tiful city with wide streets crossing each
other at right angles, we proceed to
Harper’s Ferry, in Virginia. The sce-
nery here will be sure to delight you.
The passage of the Potomac through
the Blue Ridge, at this place, is regarded
as one of the most stupendous scenes
in nature. Proceeding through several
thriving towns and villages, we shall ar-
vive at Cumberland, which is beautifully
situated on the north bank of the Poto-
mac. From this place the road will
s00n be completed to the Ohio River.

9. There are many pleasant towns in
Maryland. Annapolis, the seat of gov-
ernment, has a handsome State House.
There is a Naval School here, where
young men are educated to be officers
in the navy.

10. The climate of Maryland is very
agreeable. The winter is never severe,
and often, when the rivers and lakes
of New England are frozen over, the
creeks and inlets along Chesapeake Bay
are covered with flocks of wild water-



—

of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad? 8. Describe
the route to the Ohio River. Where are Elli-
eott’s Mills? Whereis Fredericktown? Har-
per’s Ferry? In what state is Cumberland,
through wich the road passes? 9. What is the
capital of Maryland? Where is it situated?
10, What is said of the climate ?

a





77

CHAR DBER, XX XVII.
MARYLAND—ConrTinvueEbD.

1. Baxtiors is situated on the River
Patapsco, which enters Chesapeake Bay,
about fourteen miles from the city. On
the northern side of this river is a piece
of land running into the bay, ealled
North Point. You should visit this spot,
for a famous battle was fought there on
the 12th of September, 1814. At that
time, our country was at war with Eng-
land. A great many English soldiers
and ships were sent over to fight with
our people.

2. On the 23d of August, they made
an attack on the city of Washington,
and as there were few American troops
there, they burnt the Capitol, and sev-
eral other public buildings, and the presi-
dent’s house. The president himself was
obliged to ride very fast, to keep out of
their way.

3. After they had done this, the Brit-
ish went to attack Baltimore. They
entered the mouth of the Patapsco with
a fleet of sixty ships, and on the day
above mentioned, six thousand troops
were landed at North Point.

4. Now, the people of Baltimore were
not in the humor for having their city
taken by, the British soldiers; so there
was a great bustle in the streets. Men
were seen running to and fro, with mus-
kets in their hands, and countenances
full of resolution. The merchants Isft
their counting rooms; the lawyers, their
offices ; the mechanics, their various em-
ployments; the drums beat; the fifes
screamed; and, assembled under the
command of their leaders, the bravest
and best men in the city went down te
meet the enemy.



1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Where is Baltimore situated?
Describe the battle which took place at North
78 THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

5. They met, and there was hard
fighting. The cannon roared, and the
musketry rent the air for a long time.
Many brave men fell on both sides.
But the Americans, being few in num-
ber, were obliged to retreat. General
Ross, the British leader, was killed;
and finding, by the experiment they had
made, that the people of Baltimore were
inclined to treat them too roughly, the
British went away, ships, sailors, sol-
diers, and all.

6. In one of the public squares of
Baltimore, they have erected a beauti-
ful marble monument, to commemorate
this event, with the names of those who
were killed in this battle.. Such are
some of the brave deeds that took place
in Maryland during the last war with
England. Let us now contemplate the
period when the white people first set-
tled upon these shores.

7. More than two hundred years ago,
the Catholics in England were _perse-
cuted as the Puritans had been before.
One of them, Lord Baltimore, deter-
mined, therefore, to come to America.
Accordingly he went to Virginia, which
had now been settled for some time.
But he found the people there as little
disposed to treat the Catholics kindly as
in England. So he went back*to Eng-
land, and begged the king to give him a
charter of the land lying on ie ceseake
Bay, then occupied only by the In-
dians.

8. This request was granted; but be-
fore the business was completed, he died.
Histon, Cecil, also called Lord Balti-
more, determined to carry into effect the

-» plans of his father. So he obtained the

grant for himself, and in 1634 sent his
brother, Leonard Calvert, with two hun-



Point. 6. What has been done to commemorate
the event? 7, 8. Give an account of the early
yettlement of Maryland. When was it settled?



dred Catholic emigrants, to settle upoy
the land on the Chesapeake.

9. When they arrived at the mouth of
the Potomac River, they found an Indian
village there, called Yoamaco. This
village they purchased of the sav.
and thus obtained good shelter, till they
could build better houses. They also
acquired some good land, which had been
cultivated. Their situaticn was therefore
very comfortable.

10. The colonists found plenty of wild
deer in the woods, and abundance of fish
along the shores of the bay. ‘The sea-
fowl were also numerous. There were
countless flocks of ducks skimming aleng
the water, and settling down around the
islands; and there were numbers of
wild geese at the mouths of the creeks
and rivers.

11. The colony flourished, as well in
consequence of its pleasant situation as
the liberal policy of its governments
These Catholics did not persecute those
who differed from them in religious
opinion. Lord Baltimore, and Roger
Williams, of Rhode Island, seem to
have discovered, about the same time,
that every man has a right to worship
God as he pleases. Thus Rhode Island
and Maryland, at this early date, en-
joyed the blessings of entire religious
freedom.

12. Yet the colony, whose story I am
now telling you, had its share of trou-
bles. A maneby the name of Clayborne
stirred up the Indians to hostility, and
they made war on the settlers. This
continued for several years, and the
ple suffered great distress. In 1645,
same Clayborne induced some of the sete
tlers to rebel against their rulers, and




9. What did they do on arriving at the mouth of
the Potomac? 10.What did they find for food? —
11. What is said of the liberal pclicy of the gov-
ernment? 12. What troubles did they have

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Calvert, the governor, was obliged to fly
to Virginia. But the next year, the re-
volt was suppressed. Governor Calvert
returned, and the colony once more en-
joyed a state of peace.

13. In 1666, the colony contained
‘about twelve thousand inhabitants. In
1676, Lord Baltimore, the founder of
the colony, died, leaving behind him the
enviable character of a wise and good
man. He was succeeded by his son
Charles, as proprietor of the colony, who
possessed the amiable qualities of his

father.

14. In 1689, King William assumed
the government of the colony; but in
1716 it was restored to Lord Baltimore,
and continued in the family till 1775.
The people then engaged with the other
-solonies in the revolution, and Lord
Baltimore’s claims ceased.

—

CHAPTER XXXIX.
MIDDLE STATES.

1. I HAVE now given you a brief
‘ketch of the geography and history of
the five Middle States. These are
classed together merely on account of
their situation, and not because of any
similarity either in the history or the
manners of the people. They were set-
tled at different times, by people from
different countries, who came for differ-
ent purposes ;— some for trade, some
to improve their fortunes, and some for
ligious peace.
2. We do not find so much resem-
ce among the people of these five

with the Indians? 13. How many inhabitants
were there in 1666? Who succeeded Lord Bal-
timore? 14. What change took place in the
government in 1689? In 1716?

1, What is said of the Middle States? 3. What







COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY. 73

states as exists among the people of
New England. Their houses, dress,
manner of tilling the land, thoughts,
feelings, and opinions differ in different
parts of this section of the Union.

3. If you will look at the map, you
will observe, that the three largest cities,
and three of the finest rivers in the
Union, are in these states. New York
is the largest city on the American con-

tinent, and the Hudson is one of the

finest rivers in the world for navigation.

4. In point of soil and climate, these
states doubtless surpass all the others sit-
uated upon the Atlantic. They are gen-
erally very fertile, producing grain and
fruit in the greatest perfection and abun-
dance. 'They are equally removed from
the severe winters of the north, and the
burning summers of the south.

5. Thus happily placed in the heart
of the country, they are growing in
population and wealth. Previous to the
French war, which has been before men-
tioned, these states never acted in con-
cert. They were then séparate colonies,
with separate interests. They have,
therefore, no common history until the
year 1756, when they united with the
other colonies, to resist the French and
Indians. The history of that war will
be given hereafter.

——

CHAPTER XL.
VIRGINIA.

1. Wer have now réacked Virginia,
one of the oldest states in the Union.
In travelling through the country, we
shall see that, in most places, the houses

large cities in these states? What rivers?
4, What is said of the soiland climate? 5. When
did these states first act in concert ?

’ 1,2. How is Virginia bounded? Name the

"


80

are scattered, and that the land, instead
of being divided into small farms, is laid
out in extensive plantations of several
hundred acres each. Instead of mead-
ows, apple orchards, and small patches
of rye, Indian corn, and flax, we shall
see vast plains covered with crops of to-
baceo, wheat, and hemp. We shall see,
that the whole labor of the field is per-
formed, on these plantations, by the ne-
groes. The planters themselves have
large houses, and live in excellent style.

2. We shall not meet with many tav-
erns ; it may, therefore, be convenient to
stop for a night at a planter’s house. We
may be stire of a hearty welcome, and
the liberal host will take nothing in pay-
ment. If it is autumn, he will probably
invite us to go the next day in chase of
deer. There are a great nrany of these
animals still in Virginia, and the plant-
ers hunt them on horseback, with packs |
of hounds. We must take care that our
travels do not take place in the summer,
for then it is very hot in Eastern Vir-
ginia. We had better go in the winter,
and thus, while New England is buried
up in snow drifts, we may travel at our
ease in the Southern States.

8. Virginia may be divided into three

That which lies towards the sea-
coast is level and sandy ; that which lies
east of the Blue Ridge is hilly, and that
which lies west of it is mountainous. In
the western part of the state, there are
fewer negroes, and the white people
labor on the farms.

4. There are several remarkable cu-
riosities in this state. One is a Natural
Bridge, composed of rocks. It is two
hundred and fifteen feet high, and its
average width is eighty-five feet. A



principal_r What mountains? In travel-
i “the country, what shall we observe ?
3. Into what three parts may Virginia be di-
vided? 4,5. Namie some of the natural curiosi-

ay
>
a

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

























little river flows beneath it at the buttom.
Wier’s Cave is an astonishing work of
nature. It consists of several spacious
caverns in the rocks, more than two
thousand feet in length. The sides are
covered with beautiful crystals. If
enter the cave with a light, it is reflected
by these crystals, and you will be aston-
ished at the wonderful brilliancy of the
scene.

5. There are several other caves in
Virginia, one of which is called the
Blowing Cave. From this so powerful
a stream of air issues, as to blow down
the grass and weeds to the distance of
sixty feet from the mouth.

6. The principal springs of fashiona-
ble resort are the White Sulphur Springs
in the county of Greenbrier, and the
Warm and Hot Springs in Bath county.
Thousands of people annually visit them
in search of health or amusement.

7. In the western part of the state,
near the Ohio, is a remarkable mound
of earth, filled with human bones. It
is seventy feet high, and three hundred
feet across at the bottom. This won-
derful hill must have been built long be-
fore the white people came to America.
It is probable, indeed, that it was con-
structed many ages since, even before the
race of savages with which we are ac
quainted occupied the country. It was,
no doubt, the work of a people who lived,
flourished, and passed away, leaving no’
record behind them but these mounds
to tell that they ever existed.

8. Richmond, the seat of government
in Virginia, is the largest city in
state. It is situated at the head of
water on the falls of James River,
has excellent facilities for commerce
manufactures. Large cotton and wool

ties to be seen in the s 6. What is said of
the springs? 7. What of a remarkable mound
in the western part of the state? 8. What is







COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY. ‘oe

len factories, iron works, and flour mills
have recently been erected. Great quan-
tities of flour, hemp, and tobacco, the

staples of Virginia, are sent down James |

River from Lynchburg to this place by
acanal, called James River and Kenawha
Canal.

9. In going south from Baltimore, we
can take passage in a steamboat upon
the Chesapeake Bay, and go to Norfolk
and Portsmouth, situated upon the Eliz-
abeth River. Norfolk has a fine harbor,
and more foreign trade than any other
place in the state. At Portsmouth you
will see a United States Navy Yard and
a Dry Dock. From this place we can
take the cars for Weldon, in North Car-
olina, and unite with the route through
Washington, Petersburg, and Richmond.

—

CHAPTER XLII.
VIRGINIA—ConrTINUVED.

1. Brrore we leave Virginia, we

must visit Monticello, the seat of the late

_ Thomas Jefferson. He was once presi-
dent of the United States, as I shall
have occasion by and by to tell you.
He died on the 4th of July, 1826.

2. There is another place in this state
that we must not fail to visit. This is
a pleasant hill, called Mount Vernon.
-Here General Washington lived, and at
‘a little distance from the house where
he dwelt is a tomb, in which his body

_reposes. I shall have many things to
you of this great and good man.
died in the year 1799. I recollect
the event happened, though I was
a child. Such was the sorrow of

the capital of Virginia? What is said of it?
D. Describe Norfolk; Portsmouth. Where is
Petersburg ?

1, 2. For what mageepheslia and Mount

es.





the people, when the sad news came,
that the bells were tolled, and every
body went into mourning.

3. In the south-eastern part of the
state is a place called Jamestown. It
is on a little island in James River, about
thirty miles from its mouth. The place
is now in ruins ; but, if you visit it, you
will desire to know its history. An an-
cient churchyard, the crumbling chim~-
ney of a church, a few traces of old
houses and rude fortifications, will make
you feel that there is an interesting story
connected with them.

4. The story is indeed interesting,
and I will now tell you a part of it; Lam
sorry that I have not room for the whole.
I must commence ata period when no
English settlement had been made in
America. This vast country, now occu-
pied by more than twenty-three millions
of people, was then a wide hunting
ground for the Indians. They alone
dwelt in its valleys, roamed over its
hills and mountains, and sailed upon its
rivers and bays.

5. The Spaniards had penetrated into
South America, and found countries
abounding in silver and gold. Stories
of their success were circulated through-
out Europe, and the spirit of adventure
entered into many minds. In England
a company was formed for making a
settlement in North America; and, hay-
ing obtained a grant of land, they de-
spatched three ships, with one hundred
and five adventurers, for the new world.

6. After sailing across the Atlantic, a
storm drove them into the mouth of
Chesapeake Bay. On approaching the
land, they discovered a large and beau-

Vernon celebrated? 3. What is said of James-
town? 4. What was the condition of the coun-
try before it was settled by the Europeans?
5. What induced the English to settle in Vir
ginia? 6, 7. Give an account of their voyage
tiful river, which they determined to
ascend. They had several interviews
with the Indians, who received them



Interview with the Indians on James River.

kindly. One day, as some of them were
ashore, an Indian chief came to them,
with a bow and arrow in one hand and
a pipe in the other, and asked them for
what purpose they came.

7. They replied, by signs, that they
wished to settle on the lands in peace,
and so the chief received them well.
Another chief offered them as much
land as they desired, and sent them a
deer, as a mark of good will.

8. On the 13th, of May, 1607, the
emigrants landed, and began their estab-
lishment. It was on an island in the
river. The river they called James
River, and the village they called James-
town. This. was the first permanent
English settlement in North America ;
and the ruins I have described are the
remains of the ancient town which these
people built.

9. The colonists soon began to expe-
‘rience difficulties which they had not
foreseen. The provisions they brought
with them were at length exhausted ;
and, having planted nothing, they were

and settlement. 8. When and where did they
tommence their settlement? 9, What difficul-





THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

in great want of food. Besides this, the
climate being hot and damp, many of
them were taken sick, and in the course
of four months, fifty of them died.

10. They were now in great distress, |
and hardly knew what to do. In this
emergency, they consulted one of their
number, named John Smith. He was
certainly one of the most extraordinary
men that ever lived. At the age of
fifteen, he left England, and travelled %
on foot through Spain, France, and Ger-
many. |

11. Here he entered the army of the
Emperor of Austria, and at length ob-
tained the command of a troop of horse, 4
One day he challenged a Turk to fight ~
with him. This was accepted, and, ‘
mounted on fine horses, the two combat-
ants met in the field. After a desperate
struggle, Smith killed the Turk. Not
satisfied with this, he challenged anoth-
er, and finally a third, and killed these,
as he had done the first.

12. After this, he was in a battle with |
the Turks, and, being wounded, was —

onstantinople. Here he was made a

Slave, and was treated cruelly by his

master; but his mistress took compas-
sion on him, and sent him to her brother,
who lived at a great distance, requesting
that he might be treated kindly. But
her directions were not followed, and —
Smith received the same harsh treat- f

taken by the latter, and sent prisoner to .

ment as before.
13. Irritated by this, he slew his new
master. He then travelled in various
countries, meeting with strange adv
tures wherever he went. He finally
turned to England, and joined the ex
dition to Virginia. While they were ai









ties did the colonists experience? 10. Whatis

said of John Smith? 11, 12. What adventures
did he have while in the Aus army ?
13, What happened to him during the voyage te

oil . j
COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

sea, the emigrants became jealous of
im, and put him in confinement. In
is condition he remained until the dis-
tress of the colony rendered his assist-
ance necessary.
14. They then granted him a trial;

and being acquitted, he immediately |

adopted measures for remedying the

existing evils. He set about building
_ a fort, to protect the people from the In-

dians, and made long journeys into the

wilderness, to procure corn and other
' food of the natives.

15. On one occasion, he obtained an

l, made of skins, and stuffed with |

This the savages reverenced very
much ; and, in order to get it back, they
gave him as much corn as he asked for.

16. Nothing could exceed the bold-
ness and enterprise of this singular man,
yet it must be confessed that his conduct
’ was not always regulated by justice or

truth. In his intercourse with the sav-
"ages, he resorted to stratagem or vio-
lence, if he could not succeed in his

_ plans by other means. It was partly on

this*account that the Indians began to
- hate the white people ; and Smith him-
self nearly fell a victim to the feelings

_ of revenge which he had excited.

17. He went one day to explore the
little River Chickahominy. Having as-
tended as far as he could in a boat, he
‘4 it in charge of his men, and pro-
ed along the bank of the river, with
white men and two Indian guides.
ut not long after he was gone, the sav-
who were lurking in the woods,
ded the men in the boat, and
them prisoners.
8. They then pursued Smith, and,
coming up with him, killed his
white companions with their arrows,
and ided him. But with an un-
America® 14, 15, 16. What is said of him in
his iptercourse with the Indians? 17, 18, 19,

.







83

| daunted spirit, he fired upon his enemies,
and, tying one of the Indian guides to
his side, he continued to retreat towards
the boat. Awed by his bravery, the
savages kept aloof; but at length he
came toa place where he sank in the mire.

19. Being unable to-extricate himself,
his enemies now seized him, and took
him in triumph to Powhatan, their king,
A council was now held, to determine
what should be done with the prisoner,
and it was decided that he should die.
He was accordingly brought forth, and,
being laid on the ground, his head was
placed upon a stone.

20. Powhatan claimed the honor of
killing him. He took a large club, and,
raising it high in the air, was about to
give the pone blow, whew his daughter









Pocahontas saving Smith.
Pocahontas, moved by pity, rushed to the
prisoner, and sheltered his body by her
own. The astonished chief brought his
club slowly to the ground, and a murmur
of surprise burst from the lips of ihe
savages who stood: around.

21. The chief now raised his daugh-
ter, and, seeming to be touched by that
pity which had affected her so much,
gave Smith his liberty, and sent him
back to Jamestown.

20, 21. Relate his edventure with Powhatan and
Pocahontas.

r
CHAPTER XLII.
VIRGINIA—ConNTINUED.

1. On his return to Jamestown, Smith
found the number of colonists reduced
to thirty-eight. They were so disheart-
ened, that most of them had determined

. to abandon the settlement, and go back
to England. Smith remonstrated, but
they would not stop. They entered a
small vessel, and prepared to sail down
the river. He determined that they
should not go; so he pointed the guns
of the fort at the vessel, and threatened
to sink her, if they did not return.
Alarmed at this, they gave up their
project, and came ashore.

2. The colony was now almost in a
starving condition; but Smith, by this
time, had acquired such a reputation for
courage among the Indians, that they
did riot dare to refuse supplies, Poca-
hontas, too, the beautiful Indian girl
who had saved his life, continued to be
his friend, and sent him such articles as
were most needed. Thus the colony
was able to subsist till Captain Newport,
who brought out the first settlers, re-
turned to the colony, bringing with him
a quantity of provisions, and one hun-
dred and twenty persons.

8. Now that the danger was over, the
colonists would no longer submit to the
government of Smith. Disorder and
confusion among the people soon fol-
lowed. About the same time, the pas-
gion for gold, which had induced many
of the settlers to come to the country,

wes again excited. Some particles of
low shining earth were found in the

Sok of little stream, north of James-

town. Captivated with the idea of get-
ting saddenly rich, the colonists left their

——_————
1, What was the condition of the colonists on

his return to Jamestown? 2. How did Smith
sender assistance to the colony ?» 3, 4, 5. Relate

te

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

proper employments, and went to dig
what they supposed to be gold.

4, Smith endeavored to dissuade
them, but they would not listen to him
Nothing was thought of, or talked of,
but gold. So they all went to filling
the ship with the earth, which they sup-
posed to contain particles of that precious
metal. At length she was loaded, and
sailed for England. When she arrived
there, the cargo was examined, and found
to be nothing but common mud, filled
with little pieces of shining stone. 4

5. There is a lesson to be drawn from
this point of history. “All is not gold
that glitters,” says the proverb; and so
the Virginians found it. I hope my
readers, if they are ever tempted by an
shining prospect to depart from the pai
of duty, will recollect that what seems
to be gold often proves to be only vulgar
dust.

6. Smith, finding that he could not —
be useful, left the colonists digging for
gold, and went himself to explore, the
coasts of the Chesapeake Bay. Havi
been absent some time, he returned,
after a while went again to traverse the
wilderness. He. often met the Indians,
and traded with some, fought with some,
and again went back to the settlement,
leaving with the natives an awful im-
pression of his valor. ‘

7. He was now chosen president, and,
the people submitting to his authority,
order was soon restored. Habits of in-—
dustry were resumed, and peace and
plenty soon smiled upon the colony.

8. In 1609, the London Company
out nine ships, with nine hundred
grants to the colony. On board of
of these vessels there were some offi

































the account of digging gold. ‘eer
do while the colonists were thus employed?
7. What was the condition of the colony while
Smith was president? 8, What is related of the









































happily, was driven by a storm upon the
Bermudas, and detained for a long time.
The other vessels arrived safely; but the
persons who came in them were of a
vicious-character, and refused to permit |
Smith to govern them. He determined, |
however, that he would be obeyed, and
accordingly he seized upon several of
them, and put them in prison. This
alarmed the rest, and order was again
restored.

9. It was about this time that the

Indians, fearing that the white people
_ would become too powerful, determined
to make a sudden attack upon them, and
kill them all. Pocahontas heard of this
scheme, and resolved, if possible, to save
the English. Accordingly, one dark and
- stormy night, she left her father’s wig-
wam, and went alone, through the for- |
ests, to Jamestown. Here she found |
Smith, and apprised him of the threat- |
ened danger. She then returned, and
Smith took immediate measures to put.
the colony~in a state of defence.

10. The Indians, finding the people
watchful and prepared, gave up their
project. Thus again did Pocahontas
save the life of Smith, as well as the lives
of all the white people in the colony.

11. About this time, Smith received
_ & dangerous wound, which obliged him
go to England, to consult a surgeon.
Indians, finding the only man they
was gone, attacked the colony, |
cutting off their supplies, reduced
to the greatest extremity.
12. Such, in a short time, was their
le condition, that they devoured
skins of their horses, the bodies of
Indians they had killed, and the
of their dead companions. In six

|

sent out in 1609? 9,10. What service
tas render the colony when the In-
tended to attack them? 11, 12,13, What



COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY. .

85

appointed to rule over them. This, un- | months, their number-was reduced, from
| more than five hundred, to sixty.

13. At this time, the persons whe
had been wrecked at Bermuda arrived ;
but they, with the other settlers, all
agreed that it was best to quit the set-
tlement, and return to England. Ao
cordingly they sailed down the river for
that purpose. Fortunately, they were
met by Lord Delaware, who had come
in a vessel from England, loaded with
provisions. This revived their courage,
and they went back to Jamestown.

——

CHAPTER XLIII.
VIRGINIA—ContinvED.

1. Tue colony now began to enjoy
more favorable prospects. Lord Dela-
ware, who was governor, restored order »
and contentment by his mild and gentle
conduct, and the Indians were once
more taught to respect and fear the

|| English. In 1611, new settlers arrived,

and other towns were founded; and.un-
der a succession of wise governors, Vir-
ginia became a flourishing and extensive
colony.

2. In 1612, Captain Argal went ona °
trading voyage up the Potomac, and
heard that Pocahontas was in the neigh-
borhood. He invited her to come on
board his vessel, and she came. He
then detained her, and carried her to
Jamestown. He knew that Powhatan
loved his daughter, and thought, while
she was in the ion of the
lish, that he would be afraid to do them
mischief. :

was the condition of the colony after Smith had
returned to England? Why did they not return
to England?

1. What was the condition of the colony undet
Lord Delaware? 2, 8. Relate the adventure of

¢
86

3. But the noble-hearted chief, indig-
nant at the treachery that had been prac-
tised, refused to listen to any terms of
peace till his daughter was restored.

4, While Pocahontas was at James-
town, a respectable young Englishman,
named Rolfe, became ‘very fond of her.
She was, indeed, a very interesting wo-
man—simple, innocent, and beautiful.
Pocahontas soon became attached to
Rolfe, and, with the consent of Pow-
hatan, they were married. This was fol-
lowed by peace between the colony and
all the tribes subject to Powhatan. Soon
after, Rolfe visited England with his
bride. She was received by the king
and queen with the respect due to her
virtues as a woman, and her rank as a
princess. When she was about to re-
turn to America, she died, leaving one
child, from whom some of the most re-
spectable families in Virginia have de-
scended,

5. New settlers now frequently ar-
rived, and the colony rapidly increased.
In 1619, a Dutch vessel came to James-
town, bringing twenty Africans, who were
purchased by the people. These were
the first slaves brought. into our country,
and thus the foundation was laid for the
system of slayery which now pervades
the Southern States.

6. In 1622, in 'the midst of apparent
peace and prosperity, the colony was on
the point of annihilation. . Powhatan, the
friend of the English, was dead. His
successor, Opecancanough, was a chief
of great talent; but he secretly hated the
English, and formed a scheme for their
destruction. By his art and eloquence,
he persuaded all the neighboring tribes
to unite in an effort to kill every white



Pocahontas with Captain Argal. 4. What is

said of her marriage and visit to England?

6. What is said of the first slaves brought into

the country? 6, 7. Relate the account of the
sel: cs oY



‘THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

man,.woman, and child throughout the
colony. 4 . :

7. To conceal their purpose, the In-
dians now professed the’ greatest friend.
ship for the English, and, the evening
before the attack, brought them presents
of game. The next day, precisely at
twelve o’clock, the slaughter began, and
three hundred and forty-seven men, wos
men, and children were killed ina few —
hours. More would have becn destroyed,
had not the plot been revealed by afriend-
ly Indian, in time to put several of the
towns on their guard.

8. This dreadful scene roused tha
English to vengeance. They pursued
their enemies into the woods, burnt their
wigwams, hunted them from forest to
forest, killed hundreds of them, and drove
the rest back into remote retreats. But
although victorious, their numbers were
very much reduced. Out of eighty set-
tlements, only eight remained; and in |
1624, of the nine thousand that had come
to the colony, eighteen hundred only were
living.

9. It is impossible, in this little book,
to tell you every thing in the history of
Virginia that is interesting. In 1676,
the colony experienced all the miseries
of civil war. Nathaniel Bacon, a law-
yer, put himself at the head of a rebel-
lion, during which Jamestown was burnt,
and the adjacent districts laid waste. At -
length he died, and Governor Berkley
resumed his authority. Notwithstand-
ing these troubles, Virginia continued to
flourish, and in 1688 contained sixty
thousand inhabitants. From that period
till about the year 1756, nothing oce
which I think would interest -you.

—————

—

.
|









Indian massacre. 8, What course did the colo-
nists pursue? What was their ccndition is
1624? 9. What is said of the civil war which
occurred in 1676? How many inhabsants did it
contain in 1688? ‘


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44


COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

CHAPTER XLIV.
NORTH CAROLINA.

1. Arrer leaving Virginia, we shall |
enter North Carolina. , In travelling |
over the state, w> shall observe that, like

_ Virginia, it is d.:ded into three parts ;

_ the level, sandy region towards the sea,
and occupying nearly one half of the
state; the hilly country in the middle;
and the mountainous districts in the
western portion.

2. We shall remark that all the labor
of the field is performed by negroes.
We shall see a great many plantations
of tobacco, cotton, amd rice. We shall
meet with great forests of pine in the
eastern part of the state. Many of
these trees, which are cut down by the
people, are made into boards, and sent
to foreign markets. Great quantities of
pitch and tar are also extracted from the
pine trees, put into casks, and sent away.

8. If we proceed to the hilly country,

along the banks of the Yadkin River, we





People seeking for Gold in North



Carolina.



meet with people in various places
unting for'gold. This is found in small



/ 1. How is North Carolina bounded? Into
. what three parts is it divided? 2. What prod-
acts shall we see in passing through the state?
8. What is Said of the gold mines? 4. What

87

grains, mixed with sand, and sometimes
in lumps of considerable size. Some

|| persons have gone: from New England

to dig for gold in this state. I suppose
they hope to become suddenly rich; but
they had better stay at home; for where
one man becomes wealthy by digging
for gold, a thousand get rich by staying
at home, and quietly cultivating their
farms.

4. If you look on the map, you will
see, in North Carolina, three capes
stretching out into the Atlantic Ocean.
These are dangerous places for ships.
Often, when they are sailing by, they
are driven by the wind upon these
capes, and dashed to pieces by the roll-
ing waves.

5. While in this state we should visit
Raleigh. We shall find a handsome
State House here, where. the legislature
meets to enact laws. A beautiful statue
of white marble, representing Washing-
ton sitting, with a paper in his hand,
used to be shown here. It was exe-
cuted in Italy, by a famous man called
Canova, and cost several thousands of
dollars; but a few years ago it was de-
stroyed by fire.

6. We shall not find any very large
towns in North,Carolina. Fayetteville,
Newbern, and Wilmington are the most
important places. A railroad crosses the
state from Welden to Wilmington, from
which place travellers going south take
a steamboat to Charleston. A great part
of the tobacco, rice, and cotton, raised in
this state, is sent to Charleston, in South
Carolina, and is thence distributed to all
parts of the world. A great deal of the
cotton is taken in large bags to New
England, where it is worked up into
cloth. The tobacco is taken to various

three capes in North Carolina? 5, What is the
capital? What is said of it? 6, 7. Where is
Fayetteville? Newbern? Wilmington? Whas
88 THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

countries. Some of it is made into
snuff, some into cigars, and some of it is
chewed. If you should ever go to Eu-
rope,,you will see a great many of the
people constantly snuffing and puffing;
and you may be pretty sure that they
are partly indebted to North or South
Carolina for the pleasure they take in
these things. _

7. North Carolina was first settled by
the English about the year 1650. The
settlers of Virginia were not Puritans,
but Churchmen, or Episcopalians. They
were, however, almost as zealous as the
New England fathers, and persecuted
those who did not believe with them in
matters of religion.

8. Several persons, distressed by these
persecutions, left the colony, and pro-
ceeding to the north side of Albemarle
Sound, settled along the shore, about the
time above mentioned. Here, in the
wilderness, they found peace and plenty.
The soil was fertile, and the climate soft
and gentle. Free from the bitixg win-
ters of the north, undisturbed Sy the per-
secutions of theix fellow-men, they lived
for a time without government, yet with-
out anarchy.

9. Attracted by these favorable cir-
cumstances, other settlers came to them,
until their number was considerable. In
1663, the territory of North and South
Carolina was granted, by the King of
England, to Lord Clarendon and others.
' 10. To induce people to settle here,
they gave public notice that the inhab-
itants should enjoy perfect religious free-
dom, and have an assembly of their own
choosing, to make laws for them. cordingly, a good many persons came,
is done with the products of the state? 7. When
and by whom was North Carolina settled? 8.
What is said of the settlement of Albermarle
Bound? 9. What grant was made by the king
in 1663? 10. What inducement was offered for
people to s2ttle here? Who was made goy-



and Mr. Drummond was made governot
of the colony.

11. In 1670, William Sayle made a
settlement at a place thy called Port
Royal. The next year, he removed te
a neck of land between two rivers,
called Cooper and Ashley Rivers. The
settlement he called Charleston, in honor
of the King of England, Charles IL,
then .on the throne. This place grew
very rapidly, and being at a great —
distance from Albemarle Sound, it had a
distinct government to superintend its
affairs. Hence arose the two names of
North and South Carolina.

12. In 1707, some French peopk,
forced from their homes by persecution,
settled on the River Trent, near Pamlico
Sound. In 1710, some Germans, driven
by the same cause from their native land,
took refuge near the same spot. Here,
for a time, these settlers lived happily;
but, by and by, a sudden and awful ca-
lamity fell upon them.

13. Not far from the white people two
powerful tribes of Indians, named Tus-
caroras and Corees, inhabited the forests.
Irritated by some injuries they had re-
ceived, and fearing that the white peo-
ple would soon spread themselves over
the whole land, they secretly plotted the
entire destruction of the French and
German settlers.

14. The Indians were always very
artful in war. In the present instance,
they privately sent their families to a
distant fort, and then twelve hundred —
warriors, armed with bows and spears,
prepared for the attack.

15. They waited until it was night
then, dividing into several parties, they”
secretly approached the différent settle-

ernor of the colony? 11. When and by whom
was the settlement of Charleston commenced ?
12. What other settlements were made in 1707
and 1710? 13, 14, 15, 16. Describe the ‘roubles





































‘ments. The inhabitants, who had gone
fo rest in peace, and without fear, were
suddenly waked by the dreadful war
whoop.

16. Men, women, and children were
killed. The Indians, furious as tigers,
ran from house to house, slaying all they
met. Shrieks, prayers, and cries for
mercy availed not. The innocent, the
helpless, and the unresisting, all perished
alike.

17. A few only of the inhabitants
escaped. These, with the cries of their
murdered countrymen in their ears, fled
swiftly through the woods, to the settle-
ment in South Carolina, for assistance.
About a thousand men were immediate-
_ ly despatched, under Colonel Barnwell,
against the Indians.

18. They had a long and tedious
march; but at length they met the ene-
my. ‘The latter fought bravely, but were
defeated, and fled to the fortified town,
where they had sent their women and
children. Here the white men pursued

them, and were on the point of storming
the place, when the Indians begged for

e. This was granted by Colonel
arnwell, and the white men returned
to their homes.

19. But this peace did not last long;

the Indians soon made war again, and

Colonel Moore, with forty white men,
and eight hundred friendly Indians, were
sent against the enemy. The latter
again fled to one of their fortified towns ;
but after a siege of several days, this was
ken, with eight hundred prisoners.
20. The Corees and Tuscaroras were
w quite disheartened; they gave up
ir hopes of driving the white people
m the country, and the former con-

with the Indians. 17. To whom did the survi-
yors apply, for assistance? 18. What is said of
Rolonel Barnwell’s attack upon the Indians ?
4%. Of Oolovel Moore’s expeditim? 20. What

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.



&9

tinued to be peaceable ever after. The
latter, in 1713, bade adieu to the forests,
and hills, and rivers, which they had
once called their own, and, moving to the
north, joined the Five Nations. From
this time, these celebrated tribes were
called the Six Nations. A remnant of
the Tuscarora tribe may still be scen at
Vernon, in the State of New York.

21. In 1729, the two Carolinas, which
till this time had been one colony, were
separated, and ever since they have re-
mained distinct. The interior of North
Carolina was soon explored, and finding
it very fertile, many settlers established
themselves there. The colony increased
rapidly, and under a succession of good
governors, it flourished, till the approach
of the revolutionary war, in 1775

—

CHAPTER XLY.
SOUTH CAROLINA.

1. Pernaps my reader is tired of
land travelling. I therefore propose that
we go to South Carolina by water. We
will enter a ship at New York, and
in a few hours we shall be upon the
broad ocean. The hills will sink behind
the blue waves, and we shall see noth-
ing but the sky above, and the ocean
around us.

2. It is a delightful thing to sail upon .
the water with a fresh breeze; but by
and by, the clouds grow dark, the wind
howls through the rigging of the ship,
and the waves are thrown into the most
violent agitation. ‘The vessel now leans
down on one side towards the water, the



effect did these wars have upon the Corees and
Tuscaroras? 21. When were the Carolinas
separated ? :

1. How is South Carolina bounded ? What is
the capital? What are the princizsl rivers?
2, 8, 4. Describe a voyage to sea, 5,6. What is


90

‘ timbers creak, the ropes rattle, the cap-
tain shouts aloud to the men, the waves
strike the ship, and she staggers like a
drunken man.

8. At such a time, one who has never
been at sea before is likely to be fright-
ened; but the skilful captain and the
fearless sailors watch every sail, and
rope, and spar, every wave, and every
breath of the gale, and the gallant ship,
like a bird on the water, rides safely
amidst the storm.

4, At length, the clouds break away,
the'sun shines down upon the sea, and
the troubled waters sink to repose; a
deep calm settles upon the ocean, and
its bosom is as smooth as a mirror. By
and by, a breeze springs up, the sails are
filled, and the ship, speeding on her way,
soon reaches the port to which she is
bound. In six days after leaving New
York, we shall probably reach Charles-
ton. °

5. This we shall find to be a large
and handsome city, with more negroes
than white people init. It is situated,
as I have mentioned before, on a tongue
of land between two little rivers, one
called Ashley, and the other Cooper
River. These unite below the city, and
form a large harbor, covered with ves-
sels of various kinds.

6. If we stay a few weeks at Charles-
ton, we shall find that it is a very gay
city. In winter, a great many people
from the Northern States are here ; and
in summer, multitudes from the West
Indies, and from the interior of the state,
take up their abode there.

7. There are no large cities in this
state, except Charleston. This place has
great facilities for trade and commerce.
A railroad extends from this place
through South Carolina and Georgia |
to cha Tennessee River, which will be |

eaid of Charleston? 7, 8. Of its trade and com-



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

extended to Nashville, Tennessee. ‘Lhis
will form a communication, by means of
the Tennessee, Ohio, and Mississippi
Rivers, with the Western States.

8. It has already a very extensive —
commerce.
daily between Charleston and Wilming-
ton, forming a connection between the
railroad terminations of the great northe
ern and southern route of travel at these
places.. Steamboats also ran regularly |
between this place and Savannah, St*
Augustine, New York, and Philadel
phia. Immense quantities of cotton, rice,
and tobacco are sent here from the in-
terior of South Carolina, Georgia, and
even Tennessee, and their products are —
shipped to New York, Boston, Havre,
Liverpool, and other ports, in fine sail
ing vessels, which bring back various
articles of merchandise in return.

9. If we travel over South Carolina,
we shall find the eastern part sandy, and
the western part mountainous. Many ©
of the planters are very rich, and great
quantities of tobacco, rice, and cotton
are produced from the land. The ne



Cultivation of Cotton.
’

groes, who are more numerous thar
the white people, perform all the la
bor.

merce? 9. What is said of the interior of the


:
the northern parts mountainous. The
_ State of Georgia is one of the best gov-

P

-

the early history of this state.

10. have toll you something about
The first
settlement; you will remember, was made
near Charleston, in 1670. Many cir-
cumstances contributed to make the
settlement in South Carolina flourish.
Puritans came from England, because
they were disgusted with the wickedness
which prevailed there during the reign
of Charles II. Many persons, who had
lost their fortunes, settled here, in

the hope of once more becoming rich.

Large numbers of French Protestants,
driven into exile by the cruelty of their
vernment, here sought an asylum.
tom all these sources, the population
af South Carolina increased with great
rapidity.

11. You will recollect that, until 1729,
North and South Carolina were consid-
ered one colony. They had different
governors, indeed, but until the date
above mentioned, they were essentially
one. They were then separated, and
never afterwards united. From this
period, the history of South Carolina
offers nothing that would interest my
young readers, until the war of the rev-
olution; then its story, of which I shall
tell you something by and by, becomes
exceedingly interesting.

—— Gas
CHAPTER XLVI.

GEORGIA.

1. Tuts is a very large state, but not
thickly settled as South Carolina.
The southern parts are barren and sandy,

erned and most prosperous of the South-



eountry? 10, 11. Of the early history of the
State? By whom was it settled ?
_ 1, What is said of Gsorgia? How is it bound-

a

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

91

ern States. It has many excellen works
of internal improvement, which yield
large dividends to the stockholders.

2. Savannah, the largest and most
important city, is situated on the Savan-
nah River, about seventeen mil2s from
the sea. The streets are regularly and
beautifully laid out. It has numerous
public squares, ornamented with beauti-
ful shade trees, which give the city a
cool and rural appearance. Savannah
has one of the best harbors on the south-
ern coast. The trade and commerce
are constantly increasing. A line of
railroads has been constructed to the
banks of the Tennessee River, thereby
connecting the trade of the Western
States with this city.

8. When we are there, we shall ob-
serve several steamboats going up and
down the river; some of them from
Augusta, loaded with bags of cotton, and
others carrying up passengers, and vari-
ous articles of merchandise wanted by
the people. If we get into a steam-
boat, and go to Augusta, we shall find it
a very flourishing place. It receives
from the neighboring districts large
quantities of cotton and tobacco, which
are sent down the river to Savannah;
or on the railroad to Charleston.

4, We shall find Milledgeville to be a
very pleasant place. Macon is’ also a
flourishing town; and if we travel into
the western part of the state, we shall
find numerous flourishing towns in the
region lately occupied. by two famous,
tribes of Indians, called Creeks and
Cherokees. These Indians have been
removed to the west of the Mississippi
River.

5. While in Georgia, we shall observe
some delicious fruits, that do not flourish

ed? Whatare the principal rivers? 2. What is
said of Savannah? 3. Of Augusta? 4. Milk
ledgeville? Macon? 6, What is said of the
92

-in the Northern States. Oranges, lem-
ons, limes, and figs grow here in plenty.
These last, when taken fresh from the
tree, are far more delicious than when
dried, as we get them at the north. The
people often eat them for breakfast, and
they make an excellent meal.

6. In the southern part of Georgia,
and lying partly in Florida, is a famous
swamp, called Okefinokee. It is three

hundred miles around it, and it is full.

of reptiles. If you should happen to go
along the edge of this swamp, in sum-
mer, you would see some strange sights,
and: hear some strange sounds.

7. There are crocodiles large enough
to swallow a man, lizards creeping along
the trunks of the trees, and huge ser-
pents coiled in the thickets. If you stay
till evening, you will have a serenade
from ten thousand frogs; and when it
gets to be dark, a bird, like-a whippoor-
will, will repeat the sound of “chuck
will’s widow,” so fast.as to. astonish you.



View in Okefinokee Swamp.

8. If you visit this place in the morn-
ing, you will notice cranes, herons, spoon-
bills, and bitterns, all of them birds of
the long-legged family, and some as tall
as aman. These you will see stand-
ing motionless, for hours, along the edge

fruits? 6, 7, 8. Describe Okefinokee Swamp.



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

\

*

| of the water, looking very sad, as if the



had no friends upon earth; but if a fish,
or a frog, or a snake, ora young croco-
dile comes in their way, it is snapped
up in an instant.

9. As my reader knows something
about Georgia, as it is now, I will pro-
ceed to say something of its history. In
1732, one hundred and thirteen persons,
under James Oglethorpe, came from
England, and made the first settlement
in this colony. They established them-
selves at Yamacraw Bluff, and there
laid the foundation of the present city —
of Savannah. i

10. The object of those. persons in
England who planned the, settlement of
Georgia was, to provide a place where *
the poor people of Great Britain might
go and live comfortably. They also
desired to furnish an asylum, where the
persecuted and oppresséd of all nations
might go and live in peace.

11. In 1788, five hundred poor peo-
ple emigrated from England to Georgia, —
and in 1735, four hundred settlers came
from Germany, Switzerland, and Scot
land. Thus the number of inhabitants ~
increased rapidly; but still the colony
did not flourish. The greater part of
the people remained poor, although half
a million of dollars had been spent in
sending them across the Atlantic, and
in providing them with the necessaries
and comforts of life.

12. In the year 1740, there was war
between England and Spain. Now, the
latter government possessed Florida, and
had several settlements there. Accorde)
ingly, Mr. Oglethorpe, the excellent gov=”
ernor of Georgia, determined to make
war upon these Spanish settlements.














9. When and by whom was Georgia settled?
10. What object had the persons in England whe
planned the settlement? 11. What accessions
were made in 17:3 and 1785? 12, 13. Relate the




















18. So he took with him two thou-
men, a part of them from Vir-
a and South Carolina, and proceeded
inst St. Augustine. Thig place he
besieged; but the Spaniards defended
emselves bravely, and he was obliged
march back again with his two thou-
men.
Two years after this, the Span-
came, with thirty vessels and three
ousand soldiers, to punish the English
ers for their attack on St. Augustine.
ir intention was to take possession




erwards.

15. General Oglethorpe had but seven
hundred men, and a small body of In-
» dians, under his command. Accordingly
he sent to South Carolina for assistance;
‘the people would not send him any.
So he and his little band were left to
end themselves, as well as they could,
“against four times their number.

16. Oglethorpe knew his danger, and
ined to scare the Spaniards*away
if possible. He thereforeecontrived to
'make them believe that he had more
‘men than he actually had, and that a
eat body of English soldiers were
ig to help him.

17. One day, the Spaniards saw three
vessels of war off the coast; supposing
that these had brought the reénforce-
‘ments, they became very much alarmed,
ran aboard their ships as fast as possi-
ble, and sailed away. Thus Oglethorpe
got rid of his troublesome visitors. —
18. In 1754, the proprietors gave up
colony to the king, and after that
ne it prospered very much. The peo-
ple began to cultivate rice and indigo,
j which they found very profitable. Some-

‘Recount of the attack upon St. Augustine. 14,
‘16, 16, 17. What did the Spaniards do in return?
18. What event o€curral in 1754?



COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.



93

times the Florida Indians were trouble«
some, but no war of much interest oc:
curred.

——

CHAPTER XLVII
FLORIDA.

1. "Kr the south-eastern corner of the
United States is Florida, a broad strip
of land extending into the’ sea, between
the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mex-
ico. It was formerly divided into East
and West Florida. It was discovered in
1512, by the Spaniards, and received its
name from the abundance of wild flowers
that flourished upon its-soil. In 1562,a
little band of French Protestants fled
from persecution, and settled near where
the present town of St. Augustine stands.
Here, it would seem, they might have
lived in peace; but the cruelty which had
driven them from home pursued them
to their lonely retreat.

2. A Spanish officer, named Melen-
dez, discovered the settlement, and find-
ing that the people were Protestants,
he and his soldiers put them to death
in the most cruel manner. But this
wicked act did not go unpunished.
A few years afterwards, a Frenchman,
named De Gourgues, visited the coun-
try with some soldiers, attacked the
Spaniards who had settled there, and
killed many of them. Some of them he
hanged upon the same trees from which
were still suspended the skeletons cf his
countrymen, who had been murdered -by
Melendez.

3. St. Augustine -was founded by the
Spaniards about the year 1564, and it is

1, What is said of the situation of Florida?
How is it bounded? .When and by whom was
it discovered? When and by whom settled ?
2. What is said of Melendez and De Gourgues ?

8. What is said of St. Augustine? When waa

a

~_
94 THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

the oldest town in the United States. It
has a good harbor for small vessels, and
is a place of resort for invalids from the
Northern States, on account of its mild
climate. In the vicinity of the town,
oranges, lemons, olives, and dates grow
in great perfection. Other settlements
were made in Florida by the Spasitards,
but the population increased slowly. In
1819, the Spanish government relin-
quished their claim to the territory ; and
since that time it has belonged to the
United States. By an act of Congress
it was made one of the United States in
1845.

4, Tallahassee, the capital, is regularly
laid out, and contains a number of public
squares, a State House, and other public
buildings. Pensacola has a fine harbor,
and is the principal naval station of the
United States in the Gulf of Mexico.
Key West; on an island off the coast,
has an excellent harbor for the largest
vessels. It is an important place as a
naval station, and is the port to which
vessels and goods which have been saved
by the wreckers in the vicinity are car-
ried for adjudiéation and sale.

—~—

CHAPTER XLVIII.
ALABAMA.

1. AtaBama is well furnished with
navigable rivers, and the soil is remark-
ably fertile. The inhabitants are chiefly
engaged in raising cotton and tobacco.

2. The territory of Alabama was a
mere hunting ground for the Indians,
long after the settlement of other parts



Florida ceded to the United States? 4. Whatis
said of Tallahassee? Pensacola? Key West?
1. How is Alabama bounded? What rivers in
Alabama? What are the principal products?
8. What is said of it as a territory, and when did

of our country. After the revolution
ary war, it was claimed by Georgia, and



Negroes at Work in the Field.

the ‘United States purchased it for one
million two hundred and fifty thousand.
dollars. By arid by it began to be set
tled, and soon there were several thou-
sand people there. In 1819, it became
one of ‘the United States.

8. Montgomery, the capital, is situated
at the head of steam navigation on the
Alabama River. A large quantity of
cotton is annually sent to Mobile from
this place. ‘

4, Mobile is the largest city in the
state. It is pleasantly situated at the
mouth of the Mobile River, and immense
quantities of cotton and other produce
are brought here for exportation. As a
place of export, it ranks next in impor=
tance to New Orleans and Charleston. —

5. Mobile was originally settled by
the French, but it was ceded to England
in 1763. England afterwards surren=
dered it to Spain; but in 1813 it
ceded to the United States by the

it become one of the United States? 3. What
the capital? What is said of it? 4. What is
said of Mobile? 5. By whom was it originally
settled? When was it ceded to Eng ‘and?
changes afterwards took place, and when was
ceded to the United States? Where is
loosa? Huntsville? Florence? Tuscumbia?






























Spanish government. Tuscaloosa, Hunts-
ile, Florence, and Tuscumbia are all
iving places.

—— Qe

CHAPTER XLIX.
MISSISSIPPI.

I witr now tell you about the State
ssissippi. The land here is gener-
evel, with some ranges of hills. A
‘ge portion of the country is still cov-
ed with thick pine forests, in which

ep are a great many wild deer.
ards the southern part, there are
‘swamps and marshes filled with alliga-

Jackson, the capital, is. situated on
ie west bank of the Pearl, River, in a
; hy and pleasant location. Natchez
is the largest town in the state. It is
situated on a high bluff, on the eastern
nk of the Mississippi. Vicksburg is
pleasantly situated on the Mississip-
i, and has several fine churches and ex-
cellent schools. The planters send a
at deal of cotton to these places, which
jtaken down the river to New Orleans.
lumbus, Grand Gulf, Woodville, Port
son, Brandon, and Washington, are
shing places.
As early as the year 1539, a Span-
named Ferdinand de Soto, came to
country with nine hundred persons.
ey spent three years in searching for
1; but at length De Soto died, and
companions went away. In 1683, a
an, named La Salle, came down
river, and named the country, from

. How is Mississippi bounded? What is said
the face of the country? 2. What is the cap-
|? What rivers? Describe Natchez; Vicks-
Where is Columbus? Grand Gulf ?
dville? Port Gibson? Brandon? Wash-
_ 8 What is said of De Soto’s visit to

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

95

the gulf to the lakes, Louisiana, in honor
of his king, Louis XIV.

4, From this the French claimed the
territory, and, in 1716, made a settle-
ment, where Natchez now stands, called
Fort Rosalie. Other settlements were
made by French people in the territory,
but in 1763 it was ceded to Great Brit
ain, At the close of the revolutionary
war, it belonged to the United States ;
and in 1817 it was admitted into the
Union as a state.

——.

CHAPTER L.
LOUISIANA.

1. Lovrsrana is the most level of the .
United States. There are: very exten-
sive marshes lying along the Gulf of
Mexico, and there is much low land bor-
dering on the Mississippi. In the spring
of the year, when the mighty river is
swollen by rains, it sometimes rises above
its banks, and spreads a vast flood of
waters over the country in Louisiana.

2. The people of this state are chiefly
employed in raising cotton. There are
also many plantations of sugar cane.
This plant resembles our Indian corn
(maize) in appearance. The stalks con-
tain a sweet juice, from which sugar and
molasses are made. A part of the sugar
and molasses which we use is produced
in Louisiana.

8. New Orleans, the prineipal city of
Louisiana, has nearly one hun ard
twenty thousand inhabitants. It is situe

this country? Why was the country called
Louisiana? 4, When and where was the first
settlement made ? When was the territory ~
ceded to Great Britain? When was it admitted
to the Union?

a bounded? What is said
of the face of the country? 2. Of the products?
8, 4. What is said of New Orleans? 6, 6,7,8. 9.
96 THE. FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

ated one hundred miles from the mouth
of the Mississippi, and receives vast





Cultivating the Sugar Cane.

quantities of produce, which come down
that great river. If you ever visit this
place, you will see many things to sur-
prise you. There are people here from
all countries. A great many are French ;
some are Spanish, some Scotch, some
Trish, and some Dutch. Besides these,
there are thousands of negroes.
* 4, At this place you will see many
vessels’ which have come from various
parts of Europe and America, to get cot-
ton, tobacco, sugar, flour, pork, furs, and
other articles ; all of which are brought
down the Mississippi. You will also see
many steamboats, going and‘ coming,
loaded with passengers and freight of
all kinds. Some of these boats are al-
most as large as ships of war. They
are constantly going up and down
the Mississippi; some of them ascend
that river more than two thousand
miles. 3

5. I have told you of a famous battle
which took place near Baltimore in 1814.
During the same war, a still more famous
engagement occurred at New Orleans.
On the 8th of January, 1815, twelve
thousand British troops came against

Describe the battle of New Orleans. 10, What

that city. General Jackson was there.
with three thousand American soldiers.

6. He knew that the enemy were
coming; so he prepared to receive them.
He had a long breastwork made of baga
of cotton, heaped one upon another.
Then he placed twelve cannon along the
line, and the Americans got behind the
breastwork. All things were now ready,
and the British troops, Jed by General
Packenham, began to advance over the
level ground towards the American
breastwork. :

7. For a long time, the Americans
were still, and let the British come close
upon them. Then suddenly the men
put their lighted matches to the cannon;
the balls were hurled amid the British —
ranks, and the soldiers fell by hundreds.
Then, too, the Americans pointed their
guns over the breastwork, and sent their
bullets in the faces of the enemy. A
living sheet of fire continued to blaze
along the American line, and the ground,
far and near, was shaken with the thun-
der of the battle.

8. The British were brave men, and
they were led by a brave general; but
they could not withstand the deadly fire’
of the Americans. They were driven
back, leaving the ground strewed with
hundreds of the dead and dying. Twice,
indeed, they rallied, and a few of them,
as if seeking death, rushed close up te
the breastwork. One daring officer, at
the head of his men, ascended to the top
of it, and shouted to his followers to come -
on. But ere the words had parted from”
his lips, he fell into the ditch below,
pierced through and through by a dozen
bullets.

9. In one hour after the battle began,
it was all over. The British were to’
defeated, and marched sullenly away.
General Packenham was killed, sev

is said of Louisiana? Of its early settlement

































dred of iis brave soldiers lay dead |!
the field, one thousand four hundred
e wounded, and five hundred were
iken prisoners. Thus the British lost
enty-six hundred men, while the
ericans had only seven killed and
wounded.
(10. Let us now go back to a much
er date, and see what happened in
guisiana. This name was originally
fied to that vast tract of country
ing between the Mississippi and the
acific Ocean. It was considered as
‘longing to the French ; and in 1699,
“first settlentent was made at Iber-
e. Owing to the unhealthiness of
climate, many of the settlers died,
d the colony did not flourish. In
112, out of twenty-five hundred who
settled there, only four hundred
e living.
11. In 1717, the present city of New
rleans was founded, and from this time
French settlements along the Mis-
sippi continued to increase. This ter-
was afterwards owned by several
the European powers, but in 1802 it
in became the property of France.
the year 1803, Mr. Jefferson, the
dent of the United States, bought
}whole country west of the Missis-
pi of the French government, and
e them fifteen millions of dollars for
Since that time, it has belonged to
United States.
In the year 1811, that portion now
ed Louisiana was set apart, and be-
me one of the United States. The
bitants were chiefly French, but a
many people have emigrated,
in the last twenty years, from other
of the United States, and settled

’ was New Orleans first settled? When
United States purchase Louisiana? 12.
did it become on of the United States?





COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

CHAPTER Li.
TEXAS.

1. Texas was one of the Mexican
states previous to the year 1835, when
it declared itself independent. Ths
Texans maintained their declaration in
several severe battles, especially in the
battle of San Jacinto, on the 21st of
April, 1886, when General Santa Anna,
the President of Mexico, was taken pris-
oner, and his army was defeated. It
was annexed to the United States in
1845.

2. Austin, the capital, is on the Colo-
rado River, about two hundred miles
from the sea. Galveston is the principal
port, and is a place of much business.
Houston, formerly the —— is sae
antly situated near Galveston Bay. Go-
liad, Velasco, Matagorda, and Sabine are
flourishing places.

3. The climate is mild and generally
healthful. The soil is very fertile. Cot-
ton, tobacco, and sugar are the chief
productions. Wild cattle and horses are
still found upon the plains in great num-
bers.

——

CHAPTER LII.
THE WESTERN STATES.—OHIO.

1. I HAVE given you, in the preceding
chapters, a brief sketch of the

phy and early history of the New Hg
land, Middle, and Southern States.
will now describe the Western States,

and then proceed to give you.an account
of the French war and the war of the



1. What is said of Texas? Howis it bounded?
2. What is the capital? Where is Galveston?
Houston? Goliad? Velasco? Matagorda?
Sabine? 3. What is said of the climate? Of
the soil? The produce?

1. How is Ohio bounded? 2, What is mean¢
98

revolution, and of the history of the
country since that period.

2. You have doubtless heard of the
great valley of the Mississippi, and our
travels at present will be in this region.
It comprises that part of the country
be:ween the Appalachian Mountains on
the east and the Rocky Mountains on
the west, and is watered by the Missis-
sippi and its branches. By toking at
the map of the United States, you will
see that it extends from the cold climate
of British America to the sunny regions
of the tropics, and from the sources of
the Ohio on the east to those of the
Missouri on the west, a distance of
nearly two thousand miles.

3. In visiting this valley, we shall be
struck with the gigantic scale on which
the works of nature appear to have been
planned. Here is one of the longest
rivers in the world, and hundreds of
tributary streams,'many of them large
rivers, unite to swell its tide. On the

-banks of these rivers we shall see the
most luxuriant growth of trees, shrubs,
and flowers, and we shall meet with
numerous islands, some of which are of
exquisite beauty. The works of man,
too, seem to correspond with those of
nature. You will see villages, towns,
and very large cities, though they are
of recent origin. They are increasing
in wealth and population, and it is prob-
able that some of them, now in their in-
fancy, will be classed among the largest
cities on the globe, in the course of an-
other century.

4, Steamboats navigate the Ohio and
Mississippi Rivers from Pittsburg to
New Orleans, a distance of more than
two thousand miles. We will step on
board one of these “river palaces,” and

by the valley of the Mississippi? What is its
extent? 3. In visiting this valley, what objects
will attract our attention? 4 Describe the fol-





THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY, ,

commence our journey. As we wish f%
give the history of the State of Ohio,
we shall notice only the most important
places in that state, as we proceed down
the river. Our first stopping-place is
Steubenville, one of the most flourishing
towns on the banks of the Ohio thence
we proceed to Marietta, one of tke first
settled towns in the state; and thenes
to Portsmouth, at the terminus of the
Ohio Canal, where we shall see

iron manufactories, and the people bey
engaged in receiving and forwarding
produce and merchandise. Our next
stopping-place will be at Cincinnati,
where we will leave the boat, and com-
mence our travels through the state.

5. Cincinnati is the most populous
city in the Western States, containing
about one hundred and twenty thousall
inhabitants. It is beautifully built, the
streets being laid out with great regular-
ity, and extensively shaded with trees;
and it contains many splendid public and
private edifices. The Cincinnati Obser-
vatory, situated on an eminence in the
eastern part of the city, and command:
ing an extensive view of the surround
ing country, was erected in 1843, by
voluntary contribution of the citizens,
and stands as a monument of the in
gence and refinement of its founders.

6. In the immediate vicinity of
cinnati, great attention is paid to
cultivation of the grape, and large q'
tities of wine are annually made the
There is no city in the west that
greater facilities for trade and
than Cincinnati. Steamboats are
stantly leaving for Pittsburg, Louis
St. Louis, New Orleans, and interm
diate places, freighted with produ









lowing places; that is, tell in what part of
state they are situated, and what is said of them
Steubenville ; Marietta; Portsmouth. 6. a
is said of Cincinnati? 6. What is said of






























































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COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

brongh from the interior of the state,
and even from the neighboring states,
on the railroads and canals which con-
nect it with Lake Erie and other parts
of the couniry. It is the greatest pork
market in the world.

7. We will now take the cars at Cin-
cinnati for Sandusky City. On our
route we shall pass through a beautiful
country, abounding in well-cultivated
farms, with extensive fields of wheat
and corn, which are the principal prod-
ucts of the state. We shall also pass
through many populous and _ thriving
towns, which afford abundant evidence
of the intelligence and industry of the
people. At Xenia we shall find a rail-
road, which passes through Columbus, the
capital, to Cleveland. As we shall re-
turn by this route, we will proceed to
thence through Urbana,
Bellefontaine, Kenton, Tiffin, Republic,
and other towns to Sandusky City. This
is a very flourishing place, pleasantly
situated on Sandusky Bay, and is one
of.the principal ports on Lake Erie.

8. From Sandusky we can take a
steamboat on the lake to Cleveland.
This city is regarded by many as the
handsomest city in the United States.
It is beautifully laid out, and the streets

_ are so well shaded by forest trees as to

give it the appellation of “The Forest
City.” It has excellent facilities for
trade and commerce, having one of the
best harbors on the lake, which connects
it with a vast extent of country. It is
also a great thoroughfare for travellers,
as regular lines of steamboats run to
Dunkirk and Buffalo, in connection with
the great railroads from the east, which
terminate at these places. It is also

trade and commerce? 7. Where is Xenia?
Springfield? Urbana? Bellefontaine? Ken-
ton? Tiffin? Republic? What is said of
Sandusky ity? % Of Cleveland? 9. Of Co-



99

connected by railroads with Pittsburg,
Cincinnati, and other prominent places.

9. On returning to Cincinnati, we shall
pass through Columbus, which is pleas-
antly situated on the east bank of the
Scioto River. This city has rapidly in-
creased in wealth and population. It
contains numerous public buildings,
among which is the Capitol, which, wlen
completed, will be one of the most splen-
did edifices in the United States.

10. There are many other important
places in Ohio which we shall be glad to
visit. Zanesville on the Muskingum
River, Dayton on the Miami, and Chil-
licothe on the Scioto, are all large and
flourishing manufacturing towns. Nor-
walk, Massillon, Defiance, Ashtabula
City, Warren, Bucyrus, Hamilton, Mans-
field, and many other places, are fast in-
creasing in wealth and population.

11. Great attention is paid to the sub-
ject of common school education in all
the principal towns. In Cincinnati,
Cleveland, Dayton, Sandusky City,
Zanesville, Massillon, and other cities
and towns, the schools are in a high
state of perfection. There are nearly
five hundred thousand children in the
common schools throughout the state.

12. I will now tell you of the history
of Ohio. As late as the year 1787, al-
most all this country was in the posses-
sion of the Indians.
inhabitants had established themselves
within the territory. In 1788, General
Rufus Putnam, with a party from New
England, planted a little colony at the
mouth of the Muskingum, where Mari-
etta now stands; thus forming the first
regular settlement in Ohio.



lumbus, the capital? 10. Zanesville? Dayton?
Chillicothe? Where is Norwalk? Massillon ?

Defiance ? Ashtabula City? Warren? Bucy- .

rus? Plymouth? Mansfield? 11. What is
said of education? 12,13. What is said of the
100 THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

13. From this time the population
increased, though it was considerably
checked by an unhappy war with the
Indians, which lasted till 1795. In Au-
gust of that year, General Wayne made
a treaty of peace with the savages, and
thus hostilities ceased.

14, Emigrants now began to flock to
Ohio, from various parts of the country ;
a great many went from New England,
and, liking the country, they invited
their friends to come and join them. At
length, so numerous were the emigra-
tions, that, every day, one might see, in
the Eastern States, wagon loads of men,
women, and children, moving to this
western country.

15. The summer of 1816 was very
cold ; and in New England the crops of
corn were cut off, other kinds of grain



_ were nearly destroyed, and there was not

grass enough produced to support the
cattle. The winter that followed was
severe, and many of them died from hun-
ger. There was a good deal of suffering,
too, among the people.

16. These circumstances gave a fresh
impulse to the tide of emigration which
was flowing to the west. Farmers, me-
chanics, day laborers, grandfathers and
grandmothers, husbands and wives, sons
and daughters, sold houses and lands,
and bidding adieu to their native New
England, took up their long and tedious
way to Ohio. Thousands and thousands
thus went away from a land of meadows,
and meeting houses, and pleasant vil-
lages, to bury themselves in the deep
forests of a new country.

17. But they have been well re-
warded. Ohio was admitted into the
Union in 1802, and it is now one of the
most prosperous of the United States. |

history of Ohio? 14. Of emigration? 15, 16.
What gave a new impulse to emigration in 1816?
17. When was Ohio admitted to the Union?

The woodman’s axe has been pusy in
the forests, and the wilderness has given
place to towns and cities, which have
been built up as if by the hand of magie.
The soil is fertile, and yields bountifully
to the hand of industry. Corn and wheat
are the staple productions. Grain, beef,
and pork are articles of export, and
more wool is produced annually than in
any other state in the Union. Though
it has been settled only about fifty years,
it has nearly two million inhabitants.
Its growth has been unexampled, and we
can see nothing in the future which is
likely to check its progress.

——

CHAPTER LIII.
INDIANA.

1. Tue Ohio River forms the southera —
boundary of Indiana, through a distance
of nearly 350 miles. Resuming our
journey upon the river, we will proceed
to describe the principal places at which —
we shall stop in this state. We shall
not fail to be interested in the scenery,
and in every thing which pertains to our
passage. No other river of the same
length has such a uniform, smooth, and
placid current. From Pittsburg to its
confluence with the Mississippi, a dis-
tance of nearly a thousand miles, there
is nothing to impede navigation excepta
rocky rapid of 224 feet descent at Louis-
ville, around which a canal has been con-
structed, with locks of sufficient size to
admit the passage of steamboats. Dur-
ing a part of the year, however, the
river is of sufficient depth over the rapids
to allow steamboats to navigate it with-
out the aid of the canal.



1, 2. How is Indiana bounded ? What is said of
the Ohio River? 3,4. Name the principal places
in Indiana on the Ohio River, and tell what is said




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101

2. This river is subject to great chang- || Great numbers of steamboats are here

es in the depth of its water. In its dif-
ferent stages it varies nearly fifty feet.
Its lowest stage is in August and Sep-
tember, and its highest in March and
April. If we make our journey in the
spring, when its banks are full, we shall
be delighted with the beauty and variety
of the scenery. We shall pass numerous
islands, some of them covered with a
“growth of majestic forest trees, and others
bearing the marks of cultivation; while
the beautiful red-bud and Cornus Florida
deck the declivities of the bluffs on its
banks, which sometimes rise three hun-
dred feet in height, casting their shadows
into the transparent waters below. In
other places we shall glide along for
miles by the river bottoms, as they are
termed, where the husbandman is busy
in sowing his seed and rearing his crops
for autumn.

3. At Lawrenceburg, situated near the
mouth of the Great Miami River, and at
the termination of the Whitewater Canal,
we shall find a busy, active place, receiv-
ing the products of the rich valleys of
the Miami and Whitewater Rivers. Ve-
vay, originally settled by the Swiss, is
distinguished for the cultivation of the
vine. The gardens, orchards, and vine-
yards that surround the houses, and the
spacious lawns that extend along the
river, give to the place a very pleasing
appearance. Madison, pleasantly sit-
uated on a high bank, above the reach
of the highest floods, is one of the most
flourishing places on the river. It is
connected with Indianapolis, the capital,
by a railroad, which has greatly increased
its facilities for trade and commerce.

4, Passing by Jeffersonville, which
contains the State Penitentiary, we shall
soon arrive at New Albany, one of the
most important places in the state.

pithem. &, What is said of the Wabash? What







built and repaired every year. Fredo-
nia, Cannelton, celebrated for its excel-
lent coal, and Rockport, have good land-
ings, and occupy sites above the reach
of the highest floods. Evansville, in the
south-west part of the state, is a large
manufacturing and commercial city. It
is situated at the termination of the Wa-
bash and Erie Canal, which affords an in-
terior navigation across the whole length
of the state from the Ohio to Lakes
Erie and Michigan, and through a very
fertile section of country, of more than
four hundred and fifty miles in extent.

5. The Wabash River forms a part
of the western boundary of Indiana. If
we ascend this river to Logansport,
which we can do in a small steamer at
a high stage of water, we shall see much
to interest us.” It rises in the western
part of Ohio, and flows south-west through
Indiana. It then flows to the south, and
enters the Ohio between Indiana and
Illinois. There is, perhaps, no river of
its size in the world that flows through a
greater extent of so highly fertile lands ;
and immense quantities of wheat, corn,
hemp, and other products, are annually
exported from this valley. Harmony,
Vincennes, the oldest settlement in the
state, Terre Haute, Lafayette, and Lo-
gansport, on its banks, are all flourishing
places, and are rapidly increasing in
wealth and population.

6. Indianapolis, the capital, is pleasant-
ly situated on the White River, near the
centie of the state, and is distinguished
for its rapid growth and prosperity. No
less than seven railroads meet here, ex- ,
tending, in all directions, to important
places within and beyond the limits of
the state. Churches, schools, and other
public buildings adorn its streets. The



places on its banks? 6. What is said of Indian
apolis? Fort Wayne? Michigan City? 7. What

a D ital


+

202

State House is one of the handsomest
buildings in the western country. Fort
Wayne, on the Maumee, and Michigan
City, on Lake Michigan, are among the
other important places.

7. Indiana is remarkable for its rapid
increase in wealth and population. The
soil is very fertile, and yields abundant
crops of wheat, Indian corn, hemp, and
tobacco. Large quantities of grain, beef,
pork, horses, and cattle are annually ex-
ported. The state is bountifully supplied
with noble rivers, and numerous minor
streams, which water every part of it,
and furnish great facilities for commerce.
Railroads and canals have been com-
menced, and many of them have been
completed, which will enable the farmers
in every part of the state to find a mar-
ket for their produce.

8. Indiana was first disgovered by the
French, and a few scattered settlements
were made there, by people of that na-
tion, over a hundred years ago. But in
1763, at the close of the war, of which I
am going to tell you soon, the territory
was ceded to Great Britain. At the
close of the revolutionary war, it was
given up to the United States. In 1800
it was organized under the name of In-
diana Territory. It then included Illi-
nois, but in 1809 it was divided, and Illi-
nois became # separate territory. In-
diana was admitted into the Union in

1816.
—+—

CHAPTER LIV.
ILLINOIS,

1. We shall find but few stopping-
places on the Ohio River in Mlinois.

is said of the soil, products, rivers, and railroads ?
To whom did Indiana formerly belong? 8. When
was it ceded to Great Britain? When was it
organized as a territory? When was it separated
from Illincis? When was it admitted to the
Onion?





THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTCRY,

Shawneetown and Cairo are the prinet
pal; but these towns are liable to ocam
sional inundations by the rising of tha
river. We shall, therefore, ascend the
Mississippi, and briefly describe the chief
places on its banks, in this state. The
arrival, “ wooding up,” and departure of
a steamboat, on the western rivers, is one
of the most lively and animating scenes
we can witness.



Mississippi Steamboat.

2. Before commencing our travels
upon the Mississippi, you had _ better
look upon the map, and see the vast ex-
tent of country through which it flows,
It is navigable for steamboats to the
Falls of St. Anthony, a distance of more
than two thousand miles from the Gulf
of Mexico. The Upper Mississippi is
a beautiful river. Its waters are very
clear, and its current gentle ; but after it
receives the waters of the Missouri, its
current becomes rapid, and its watera
are turbid, like those of the Misscuri.

3. When we reflect that this great
river flows on, receiving in its course tha
waters of the mighty Missouri, the Illi-
nois, the broad Ohio, the Arkansas, tha
Red, and other rivers, all of them of
great length and depth, and absorbing —

1. How is Illinois bounded? What is said of
the towns on the Ohio? 2,3. Describe the 7


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“d ari ce ee ei
COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY. 103

‘them all without apparently changing || winter, dark brown in spring, and green
its volume or widti, we shall form some || in summer.
conception of the immense body of water 7. It was the practice of the Indians
that must roll on in its deep channel to || to burn these prairies over every year.
thesea. The waters of the Gulf of Mex-
ico are colored by those of the Missis-
sippi for many miles beyond the places
where it discharges itself.

4, Soon after passing Alton, we shall
reach the mouth of the Illinois River.
An immense business is done upon this
river, which is connected with Lake
Michigan, at Chicago, by the Illinois and
Michigan Canal. If we visit Chicago,
we shall see a large and splendid city,
which has increased more rapidly in
trade and population than any other place
in the western country. It will probably
be one of the largest inland cities in Prairie on Fire.

America. The fire would spread rapidly among the

N 2. Quiney, . Plaga of Seat trae tall grass, and often the deer, wild horses,
eee ee oh Oh Re Celera’ or land other animals were overtaken and

mon city, and Galena, are all important || }uent to death

= ay o Pen the Lee, River. 8. The soil is exceedingly fertile, and
oo Beers aoe tn inois, are yields immense crops of grain, partic-
eeng towns. Springfield, the cap- ularly of Indian corn, or maize. Hemp,
ieee Situated near, the centre. of the flax, tobacco, are also successfully culti-
Hiate, and POnaInA. & fine State House, vated. The river bottoms, as they are
ee er pubhe, Meena ; termed, are considered the best places
. Illinois is distinguished for its vast || in the United States for raising horses,
fertile prairies. About two thirds of the cattle, and swine, of which large Wums
3 q 4 * ay
pe aero of, them. : hese are |! hers are annually exported. Coal, which
ei ; Ar cil er aaa a ae. Cov- |! is very abundant, salt, lead, lime, iron,
ia i eB th z oe ate whee 48 !| and copper are the mineral productions.
Po es ees d Saeees & 16 are |! Lead is found in the north-western part
of vast extent, and you may travel lor a || oF theitate in inexhaustible c uart ties.
a day without crossing, one of them: 9. Ilinois is favorably sitaated for
— y by are in the midst of one of commerce. It has a direct water com-
coe eee 4 y P ee ae toes munication with the ocean by way of the
around, and see nothing on either side |\@inois and Michigan Canal, and the Tlli-
martne level land, spread out like: the Taig .and Mississippi, Rivers, or by way
ocean to the horizon, of a drab color in of the great lakes, Erie Canal, and

sissippi River. 4. Where is Alton? Describe Hudson River. The state is almost

the Illinois River. How is it connected with || —-—-— — — ——_—_——_—_———_—-
Lake Michigan? What is said of Chicago ? || the prairies of Illinois? 7. Describe the picture.
6. Whete is Quincy? Nauvoo? Galena? Peo- || 8. What is said of the soil and products? Min
fia? Peru? Springfield? 6. What is said of || erals? 9. What facilities has Llinois for com:

ey








104

surrounded by water. The Mississippi
River forms its western boundary through

_adistance of about 550 miles. It has
70 miles of coast on Lake Michigan.
The Wabash flows on the eastern boun-
dary a distance of 150 miles, and the
Ohio forms its southern boundary a
distance of 140 miles. In addition to
these facilities, numerous railroads have
been projected, and many of them com-
pleted, which will furnish avenues to all
the important places in the state.

10. Illinois was originally discovered
and settled by the French, who were
early competitors of the English in mak-
ing discoveries and settlements in North
America. While the English were es-
tablishing their colonies on the eastern
coast, the French were ascending the
St. Lawrence River, and forming settle-
ments in Canada and along the shores
of the great lakes. Here they learned
from the Indian tribes that visited them,
that far beyond the western plains there
flowed a mighty river to the south, larger
than any of the American rivers yet dis-
covered.

11. In 1673, M. Joliet, of Quebec, a
bold adventurer, and Father Marquette,
a Jesuit missionary, who had been a long
time in Canada, and who was much be-

loved by the Indian tribes that he had
enlightened in the gospel, undertook to
explore this great region. They pro-
ceeded through Lake Erie and Michigan
to Green Bay, and thence to tipead
of Fox River. Here they took their
canoes upon their backs, and walked
across ‘the narrow portage that divides
the Fox River from the Wisconsin
Embarking on the broad Wisconsin, they
floated down the quiet stream, between



merce? 10. By whom was Illinois originally dis-
covered and settled? When did the French
make discoveries and settlements? 11. Describe
the voyaze of M. Joliet and Father Marquette.







THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

alternate prairies and_ hillsides, until
“they entered happily the Great River
with a joy that could not be expressed.”

12. They proceeded down the Missis-
sippi, conversing with the various tribes
along its banks, until they reached a
place a little below the confluence of tha
Arkansas. On their return, they entered
the Illinois River, and discovered the
beautiful country along its banks. Nothe
ing could exceed the fertility of this re-
gion. Its extensive prairies were covered
with buffaloes and stags, while the river ~
and its banks were covered with wild
ducks, geese, and swans. The tribe of
Illinois, which signifies men, received —
them very kindly, and urged Marquette —
to come and dwell with them. They sent —
one of their chiefs and some young men —
to show them the way to Lake Michi-
gan, the place from which they started.

13. Joliet returned to Quebec to an- —
nounce the discovery, and Marquette
remained to preach the gospel to the
Miamis, who dwelt in the north of Illinois,
round Chicago. Other expeditions of
discovery were undertaken by La Salle —
and others, and settlements were formed
at Kaskaskia and other places; but in
1763, the territory was ceded to Great
Britain. It formed ‘a part of Indiana
until 1809, when it received a territorial
government. In 1818, it was admitted
into the Union,

—e
CHAPTER LV.
WISCONSIN.
1. Wisconsin forms a part of the great

| central table land of North America,

having a general elevation from 800



12 What is said of the discovery of the Illinois
River? 13. When was Illinois ceded to Great
Britain? When was a territorial government
established ? When was it admitted to the
Union ? 7












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Scale of Miles

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COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

to 1200 feet above the surface of the sea.
In the northern part of the state the sur-
face is diversified by hills and valleys.
The region of country between the Red
River and Lake Superior may appropri-
ately be called the great source of waters,
since it gives rise to rivers which flow
into the Gulf of Mexico, Hudson’s Bay,
and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. In the
southern and central parts of the state,
the surface consists of prairies, meadows,
and timber lands, and the soil is not sur-
es in fertility by any portion of the
nited States.

2. The state is. very favorably situ-
ated for commerce. In addition to its
navigable rivers, it has a greater extent
of lake coast, if we except Michigan,
than any state in the Union. Kenosha,
Racine, Milwaukie, Ozaukee, and She-
boygan, on Lake Michigan, are all im-
portant places, and are rapidly increas-
ing in wealth and population. Steam-
boats are constantly leaving these ports
for Detroit, Buffalo, Dunkirk, Cleve-
land, and other places, bearing away the
rich products of the interior, which are
brought to them for transportation.

8. Madison, the capital, is pleasantly
situated between two beautiful lakes,
about half way between Lake Michigan
and the Mississippi. Prairie du Chien,
upon the Mississippi, is situated on a
beautiful prairie, upon which may be
seen several artificial mounds of various
forms, which have withstood the action
of rains and frosts for centuries. It is
favorably located for commerce, and con-
tains copper mines of great value. Janes-



1. How is Wisconsin bounded? Describe its
principal rivers. What is said of the western
part? Of the southern part? 2. What is said
of its commercial advantages? Describe the
places on Lake Michigan. With what ports are
they connected by steamboats? 38. Where is

Madison, the capital? P-sirie du Chien? Janes-









105

ville and Beloit, on Rock River, Green
Bay, at the mouth of Fox River, Fond
du Lae, at the head of Winnebago Lake,
are all flourishing places.

4. If we travel in this state we shall
find much to interest and delight us. We
shall go over extensive prairies, which in
the spring of the year are decked with
flowers of every hue. We shall see a
great many Indian mounds of great an-
tiquity. Some of them are spread over
an extent of acres. Human bones and
domestic utensils have been found be-
neath their surface. In the soufh-west-
ern part of the state we shall see miners
engaged in digging various kinds of ore.
The lead mines of this state are very
productive, and millions of pounds are
annually exported. Copper and iron are
also produced to a considerable extent.

5. This state was formerly inhabited
by the Chippewa, Winnebago, and other
tribes of Indians; but the lands were
purchased of them by the United States,
and most of them have long since gone
to the Indian Territory, west of the Mis-
sissippi. It was visited by the French,
and settlements were made as early as
1670. Marquette and Joliet passed
through this territory on their route to
discover the Mississippi. At the peace
of Paris, in 1763, it was ceded to Great
Britain. After the revolutionary war
the territory was successively connected
with the respective States of Ohio, In-
diana, Illinois, and Michigan; but it was
organized into an independent territory
in 1836. It was admitted into the
Union in 1848.

ville? Beloit? Green Bay? Fond du Lac?
4, What is said of the Indian mounds? Of the
mineral productions? 6. By what Indians was this
state formerly inhabited ? When and by whom
was it settled? When was it ceded to Great
Britain? When did it become an independent
territory ? When was it admitted to the Union ?
106 THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

a forest. It now contain! a State House,
and many handsome buildings. Mack.
inaw, on an island of the same name, is a
thriving town, and a military post, where
the Indians annually receive their money,
blankets, and other articles from the
United States government.

5. Michigan consists of two irregue
larly-shaped peninsulas, separated from
each other by Lakes Huron and Miche
igan. The lower peninsula is not sur-
passed in the fertility of its soil by any
tract of equal extent in the world. In
the southern part particularly, there are
river bottoms of great extent, with rich
vegetable mould of from three to six feet
in depth. Some of the land is covered
with very heavy timber.

6. In the interior of the state we
shall see little hills resembling artificial
mounds, covered with white oak trees,
generally from ten to sixty feet apart,
and extending for miles, like cultivated
parks. These are called oak openings.
Numerous lakes of the purest water, fed
by fountains and bordered by clear,
sandy shores, are seen throughout the
state.

7. The soil in the northern peninsula
is less fertile ; but it abounds in mineral —
wealth. The copper mines, bordering
on Lake Superior, are said to be the rich-
est in the world. Iron ore of a very
superior quality is found in great abun-
dance.

8. Lake Huron was visited by Cham-
plain in 1615, and the French had estab-
lished missions and posts on the Straits
of Michilimackinac, and at the Sault Ste

CHAPTER LVI.
MICHIGAN.

1. Mrcure@an is distinguished for the
fertility of its soil, and for its commer-
cial advantages. The waters of Lakes
Superior, Huron, Michigan, St. Clair,
and Erie border upon it. During the
season for navigation, steamboats leave
Detroit for Buffalo, Dunkirk, and Cleve-
land, thereby forming a direct commu-
nication, by means of railroads and ca-
nals, with the cities upon the Atlantic
coast. »

2. Detroit is favorably situated for
trade and commerce, and has already
become a large and flourishing city. It,
is a great thoroughfare for travellers on
their way to the far west. Passengers
arriving here from the east can proceed
to Chicago by way of the Michigan Cen-
tral Railroad, or by steamboat through
Lakes Huron and Michigan.

8. Ypsilanti, containing the State Nor-
mal School, Ann Arbor, containing the
Michigan State University, Jackson, in
which is the State Penitentiary, Mar-
shall, Kalamazoo, Paw Paw, and Niles,
are all large and flourishing towns,
through which the Central Railroad
passes. Munroe, Adrian, and Tecum-
seh, near Lake Erie, Pontiac, Grand
Rapids, Grand Haven, Saginaw, and

» St. Clair are among the other important
places in the state.

4, Lansing, the capital, is situated
near the centre of the state, and is rapid-
ly increasing in population. In 1847,
the place upon which the town is built was








inaw? 5. What separates the two peninsulas
into which Michigan is divided? What is said
of the soil and face of the country in the southern
part? 7. What is said of the soil and minerals
in the northern part? 8. When and where did
the French establish missions and posts in Mich-
igan? When and where was the first permaneps

1. How is Michigan bounded? What lakes
border upon it? 2. What is said of Detroit?
8. Where is Ypsilanti? Ann Arbor? Jackson?
Marshall? Kalamazoo? Paw Paw? Niles?
Munroe? Adrian? Tecumseh? Pontiac?
Grand Rapids? Grand Haven? Saginaw? St.
Clair? 4. What is said of Lansing? Of Mack-












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Marie, as early as 1668; but the first

rmanent European settlement in Mich-

yan was made at Detroit in1701. The
country was described by the early mis-
sionaries and settlers in terms of wonder
and admiration. A vast chain of inland
_ seas, which appeared to them like oceans,
bordered the country. Almost every
species of watérfowl were abundant, and
the waters swarmed with fish of the
choicest quality. Herds of buffaloes
wandered over the prairies, and moose
and elk bounded through the thickets.
Deer were found upon the margin of the
streams and numerous sheets of water,
and flocks of wild turkeys, grouse, and
other game filled the woods. The cli-
mate was genial and healthful, the soil
fertile, and fruits of different kinds grew
wild in abundance.

9. On the reduction of Canada in
1760, Michigan passed into the hands
of the English; but the English garrison
‘at Fort Mackinaw was massacred by the
Indians in 1763, and Fort Detroit was
closely besieged by Pontiac, a celebrated
“Indian chief, for nearly a year, when it
_ was relieved by the approach of a large
reénforcement from Quebec.

10. Pontiac was the chief of the
Ottawas, a tribe which inhabited the
neighborhood of Detroit, during his
lifetime. He was greatly honored and
revered by his subjects, and exercised
great influence over the northern tribes
in his vicinity. During the war between
the French and English colonists in this
' country, Pontiac was a constant ally of the

French ; and such was his hatred to the
>



European settlement made in Michigan? De-
scribe the country as it appeared to the early
settlers. 9. When did the English take posses-
sion of Michigan? What became of the English
garrison at Fort Mackinaw in 1763? 10. What
is said of Pontiac, the Indian chief? What
@esign did he form after the peace between the

.

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

107

English, that, at the conclusion of peace,
he still continued his depredations, and
formed a scheme for combining all the
tribes under his influence into a league
for extirpating the English.

11. The Hurons, Miamis, Chippeways,
and other tribes having organized them-
selves for united action in 1763, Pontiac
formed the plan of securing by strata-
gem all the forts and outposts which the
English had acquired by treaty with
France. He directed his first efforts
against Fort Mackinaw, and the manner
in which ‘it was captured shows the
great sagacity and cunning of the
Indians. °

12. Onthe 4th of June, the Indians as-
sembled near the fort, in a friendly man-
ner, to play a game of ball. The Eng-
lish officers, not suspecting any treachery,
watched the game with great interest.
After playing a while, one of the Indians,
as if by accident, struck the ball so hard
that it went over the stockade. A few
of them ran in to recover it. This was
repeated several times, to lull suspicions,
until at length, the sentry being off his
guard, they all made a sudden rush, and
took possession of the post before the
garrison could do any thing for its de-
fence. Seventy of the soldiers were put
to death, and many others were taken
prisoners.

13. Pontiac, who was not present at
the taking of the fort, immediately come
menced hostilities on a large scale. In
a few weeks he took possession of all
the forts in the west but three. ‘The
only strong place in the west remaining
in the hands of the English, was Detroit,



French and English? 11. Against what fort
did he direct his first efforts? 12. Give an account
of the attack upon Mackinaw. 13. With what
success were his efforts attended after the siege
of Mackinaw? How did he attempt to capture
the garrison at Detroit? What prevented theit
108

which was defended by about three hun-
dred men, under Major Gladwyn. Pon-
tiac determined to carry this place also
by stratagem, and for this purpose ap-
peared before it with his warriors, ac-
companied by théir women and children,
bringing with them various articles for
traflic. The garrison of the fort had
not heard of the capture of the other
forts, and would have been surprised and
captured had it not been for the timely
information of Pontiac’s designs, com-
municated by an Indian squaw, who
had been employed by the commander
to make some Indian moccasons.

14. Pontiac, despairing of taking the
fort by stratagem, openly attacked it;
but failing to carry it by assault, he
finally determined to blockade it. The
siege continued nearly a year, and the
garrison were reduced to great distress
for want of provision. A reénforcement,
under Captain Dalyell, having arrived,
this officer, with about two hundred and
fifty men, attempted to take the camp
of Pontiac by surprise; but the wily
chieftain, having been informed of their
design, laid an ambush for. them, and
defeated them, with a loss of their com-
mander and about fifty men.

15. The attention of the British govern-
ment was finally called to the subject, and

army of three thousand. men, under
Bencrai Bradstreet, took the field, and
marched for Detroit. Pontiac, hearing
of their approach, made proposals to
Major Gladwyn for a treaty of peace,
which was concluded, without waiting
for the araival of Bradstreet, on favor-
able terms to the English. The war
was thus brought to a close, and the



being taken by surprise? 14. Give an account
ef the siege of Detroit. What reénforcement
arrivel? What was the success of Captain Dal-
yell’s attempt to take the camp of Pontiac by sur-
prise? 15. Give an account of th» termination of

THE FIRST BOOK) OF HISTORY,
Indians returned to their hunting grounds,

Pontiac was afterwards assassinated by
an Indian.

16. Fort Detroit was not delivered
up to the United. States until 1796, at
which time Michigan formed a part of
the territory north-west of the Ohio. In

1805, the territory of Michigan was —

established, with a distinct government,
It was admitted to the Union in 1836,

—~—

CHAPTER LVII.
IOWA.

1. Iowa is distinguished for its recent
settlement and rapid growth. It has

great commercial advantages, having the —

Mississippi River for its eastern boun-
dary, and the Missouri for its western.
2. The soil is fertile, and the climate
is excellent. The section of the country
watered by the Desmoines and Iowa
Rivers, consisting mostly of prairie, is

considered the most desirable land for —

cultivation in the state, and is not sur-.

passed in fertility by any portion of the
United States. Vast numbers of sheep,
cattle, and swine are raised upon these
prairies. These, with corn and wheat,
form the staple productions, and large
quantities are annually exported.

3. The mineral products are very rich.
Lead is found in great quantities, and
is one of the principal articles of export.
Coal, limestone, and iron ore ot excellent
quality, are also found in abundance.

4. Iowa City, the capital, is finely

hostilities. What became of Pontiac? 16, When
was Fort Detroit delivered up to the United
States? When did it become an independent
territory? When was it admitted to the Union?

1, What is said of Iowa? 2. Of the soil and
climate? What are the staple productions ?
3. What is said of minerals? 4. Of Iowa city?


























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situated on the Iowa River, and com-
mands a view of the surrounding country.
This place was selected for the seat of
government in 1839, previous to which
_ it was occupied by the Indians as a hunt-
ing ground. It now contains a beautiful
State House, constructed of marble, a
Court House, churches, and other public
_ buildings, and is rapidly increasing in
wealth and population.

5. Dubuque is situated in the region
of the lead mines, the ore being found
in Jarge quantities within its corporate
limits. It is the great commercial em-
porium of the Upper Mississippi. The
town is built on a prairie, having several
picturesque bluffs in the rear, some of
which are adorned with elegant man-
sions. The Illinois Central Railroad,
from Cairo, at the mouth of the Ohio
River, will have its northern terminus
on the river opposite to Dubuque, which
will furnish a communication with New
Orleans at all seasons of the year. It
will also soon be connected with Chicago,
and thence to New York and Boston, by
a continuous railroad.

6. Burlington, on the Mississippi River,
is the oldest and largest town in the
state. It was formerly the capital, and
has great commercial advantages. Keo-
kuk, Davenport, Mount Pleasant, Fort
Madison, Muscatine, Fairfield, and other
towns are rapidly increasing in popu-
lation.

7. Iowa was first visited by the Euro-
peans in 1673. Marquette and Joliet,
in their expedition down the Mississippi,
landed on its shores, and Marquette
proclaimed the gospel of Christ to the
wondering natives who surrounded them.



6. Of Dubuque? 6. Of Burlington? Where is
Keokuk? Davenport? Mount Pleasant? Fort
» Madison? Muscatine? Fairfield? 7. When
was Iowa first visited by the Europeans? Who
were the first men that trod its shores? How did



Â¥
COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY. 109

| On their departure, the Indians took for-
mal leave of them, and presented them
with the calumet of peace for their safety
among the tribes which they shoi 1d visit.

8.. Previous to 1832, Iowa was prin<
cipally occupied by the Sioux (soz) In-
dians, one of the most numerous and
powerful tribes in the United States.
They called themselves Dacotahs, or
confederates, and were a terror to all
the neighboring tribes. They subsisted
chiefly by the chase, and the buffalo, o1
bison, afforded them at once a supply of
food and covering for their lodges. Like
other prairie Indians, they learned the
use of the horse, and were skilful riders.

9. In 1832, the United States purchased
the lands of them. Most of them have
since removed to the Indian territory;
but a few still remain in the western
part of the state, together with the
Sacs, Foxes, and others, roaming over
the prairies and forests, and subsisting
principally by hunting and fishing. ‘The
forests abound in game, and if we cross







Deer and Wild Turkey.

them we shall see plenty of deer and
flocks of wild turkeys. We may some-



the natives receive them? By whom was Jowa
formerly occupied? What is said of the Indians ?
9. When did the Unitei States purchase the terri-
tory? What is said ¢f the Indians who remain?


110

times see a bear crossing our path, or a
panther couched in the top of a tree.

10. Jowa was organized as a distinct
territory in 1838, and it was admitted
into the Union in 1846; since which
time it has rapidly advanced in wealth
and population. Wise and liberal pro-
vision has been made for the education
of youth.

——

CHAPTER LVIII.
MISSOURI.

1. We now come to Missouri, one of
the largest and most fertile states in the
Union. It has vast mineral resources.
Lead, iron, coal, salt, and other articles,
are found in inexhaustible quantities.
The principal agricultural productions
are corn, hemp, and tobacco. It was
admitted into the Union in 1819.

2. If we visit St. Louis, we shall find
one of the most important commercial
cities in the western country. It com-
mands the trade of the Upper Mississippi,
the Missouri and Illinois Rivers, and
immense numbers of steamboats are con-
stantly employed in carrying the produce
of these places to New Orleans, whence
they are shipped to all parts of the world.
It was settled by the French in 1764.

3. This city is the centre of the fur
trade and of the Santa Fe commerce.
If you are fond of enterprise, you can
here join a hunting expedition, about to
proceed two thousand miles up the Mis-
souri River, for the purpose of killing
buffaloes, bears, beavers, and other wild
animals. These hunting parties fre-
quently set out from St. Louis, and are
‘0. When was Iowa organized as a distinct terri.
tory? When was it admitted to the Union?

1. How is Missouri tounded? What is said
ef it? When was it almitted to the Union?

& What is said of St. Louis? 3, Of the fur

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

sometimes gone two or three years
They bring back many boat loads of
skins, taken from the animals they have
killed. Sometimes these hunters meet
with unfriendly Indians, who attack them, —
Several hunting parties have been en
tirely destroyed in this way.

4, We shall find that the attention of
the people in St. Louis is not exclusively
confined to trade. There is no city in
the Union in which more attention is
paid to education than in this. They
have not only established excellent come
mon schools for the education of youth,
but a liberal support is given to schools
of a higher grade, which are not sur-
passed by any institutions of the kind in
the United States.

5. Jefferson City, the capital, is near
the centre of the state on the Missouri
River. St. Charles, the seat of St
Charles College, Herculaneum, and St,
Genevieve are the principal mineral
depots. Independence, the starting-point
of the caravans to Santa Fe, Oregon,
and ‘California, are some of the other
important places in the state.

—e—-



CHAPTER LIX.
ARKANSAS.

1. Tur State of Arkansas, situated
south of Missouri, on the Mississippi, was ~
admitted into the Union in 1836. It has
great commercial advantages, and the
population is rapidly increasing. The
Arkansas River, which flows through the
state, is navigable for steamboats, and
large quantities of cotton, the staple

f

ae

trade? 4. Of education? 5. What is said of
Jefferson City, the capital? St. Charles? Her
culaneum? St. Genevieve? Independence? :
1, How is Arkansas bounded? When was ©
it admitted to the Union? What river flows
through the state? What is the staple produg

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COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

production of this state, are annually sent
to New Orleans for a market.

2. Little Rock, the capital, is situated
rear the centre of the state, and is the
largest town. Van Buren, Batesville,
Fayetteville, Helena, and Fulton are
important places. As you sail along the
banks of the rivers in this state, you may
often see an alligator basking in the sun,
or lying in wait for his prey. This lazy
ereature is very formidable, from his
strength and immense jaws, but he sel-
dom attacks man. He resembles the
crocodile of the eastern continent, but is
smaller and less ferocious.

—e-

CHAPTER LX.
TENNESSEE.

1. Tuts state derives its name from
its principal river. The Indians ima-
gined this river to bend like a spoon;
s0 they called it Tennessee, which, in
_ their language, is the name of a spoon.
The soil is very fertile, and produces
corn, tobacco, and cotton. The eastern
part of the state produces immense num-
bers of cattle, which are often sent to
the Atlantic States for a market.

2. Nashville, the capital, is pleasantly
situated on the Cumberland River, at
the head of steamboat navigation. It
has steamboat communication with Cin-
cinnati and other places; and railroads
are in progress to connect it with
Charleston and Savannah.

3. Memphis, in the south-west corner
_ of the state,on the Mississippi, is favora-

tion? 2. Where is Little Rock? Van Buren?
Batesville? Fayetteville? Helena?, Fulton?
What would you be likely to see in sailing along
the banks of the rivers ?

1. How is Tenzessee bounded? From what
did it derive its name ? What is said of its soil
_ and productions? 2. Of Nashville?

111

bly situated for trade, and is rapidly in-
creasing in population. It occupies the
site of Fort Pickering, and has a fine
naval depot belonging to the United
States. Knoxville, which contains the
University of Eastern Tennessee; Leb»
anon, which contains Cumberland Uni-
versity; Greenville and Athers, in East
Tennessee ; Winchester, in Middle Ten-
nessee; and Bolivar and Lagrange, in
West Tennessee, are among the most
important places.

4, This country was included, with
the two Carolinas, in the grant made by
Charles IT. to the Earl of Clarendon, in
1664. When North and South Caro-
lina were separated, in 1729, Tennessee
continued to be a part of the former, and
so remained till the year.1789, when it
was ceded to the UnitedStates. In
1796, it became a member of the Union.

5. The first settlement in Tennessee
was made about the: year 1764, by fifty _
families, who established themselves
where Nashville now stands. These
were attacked by the Indians, and were
soon obliged to return to North Carolina.
In 1765, some people camé@ to the east-
ern part of the territory, and formed the
first permanent white settlement in Ten-
nessee. In 1780, Nashville was found-
ed, and from this period the population
rapidly increased.

——

CHAPTER LXI,
‘ KENTUCKY.

1. Kentucky is distinguished for the
fertility of its soil, and for its delight?!



phis? What other important places are men-
tioned? 4 What is said of its history? When
was it admitted to the Union? 5. When were
the first settlements made ?
1. How is Kentucky bounded? What is said
s o
-*-
112

climate. Corn, hemp, tobacco, and
wheat are the staple productions.
2. Louisville, situated on the Ohio
»), River, is the first city in the state in
iF “population, trade, and commerce. It has
tensive manufactures, and its inhabit-
ts are distinguished for their liberality
and intelligence. Covington and New-
port, on the Ohio, opposite Cincinnati,
are flourishing manufacturing towns.
Frankfort, the capital, is situated on the
Kentucky River. It contains a State
House and other public buildings. Lex-
ington, on a branch of the Licking, is
one of the most beautiful’ towns in the
state, and is the seat of Transylvania
University. It is distinguished for the
hospitality and refinement of its inhabit-
ants. There are many other important
places in this state.
3. We must not leave Kentucky with-
out visiting Mammoth Cave, situated in
the south-western part of the state. It



Mammoth Cave.

is one of the most remarkable curiosi-
ties in the country. It has already been
explored several miles from its mouth,
and it has been found to contain a”great
many avenues and — Oné of
of its soil, climate, and productions? 2, What
is said of Louisville? Of Covington?» Of New-
port? Of Frankfort? Of a 3. Of
a

as. “

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,



these is said to cover many acres of
ground, with an arch of rock over it
which is more tkan two hundred feet
high.

4, Kentucky belonged to Virginia till
the year 1790, when it became a separate
district. It was received into the Union
in 1792. Long after Virginia was set
tled, Kentucky remained in the possession
of the Indians. Some white people went
there occasionally to trade with the na-
tives, and they brought back very favor.
able accounts of the soil arfd climate.

5. In 1769, Colonel Daniel Boone and
some others went to see the country,
This party was attacked and plundered
by the Indians, and all of them, except
Boone, were killed. He remained in the
wilderness for near two years, and then
returned to his family, who lived on the
Yadkin River, in North Carolina.

6. He was an eccentric man, and pre-
ferred the wild woods to meadows and _
wheat fields. Accordingly, he deter-
mined to return to Kentucky, and in 1776,
went there, with fifty families besides his
own, and forty men. These penetrated
the forests, and made the first settlement
in Kentucky.

7. Other settlers continued to arrive,
and the population thus gradually in-
creased. During the revolutionary”
war, the inhabitants were much dis-
tressed by the Indians, who took part
with the British, and committed every
species of cruelty upon the defenceless
settlers. ‘They were severely punished,
however, in 1779, by General Clarke, who —
marched against them with a body of ©
soldiers, and laid their country a |



Rrom this time they became less ho
and the white people lived in gr
security.






Mammoth Cave? 4. What is said of the histor
entucky? 5, Of Colonel Boone? 6. When
entucky settled? 7. What trouble: |



















& After this, the settlements flour-
ished; the fruitful soil, the mild climate,
and beautiful rivers of this region drew

ple to it from all parts of the country.
Bolonel Boone himself, retaining his love
for the wilderness, retired as civilization
advanced. He spent much of his time
alone in the woods, subsisting upon wild



Boone shooting a Deer.

deer, which he killed with his sure rifle.
He lived to a great age, and when a
gray-haired old man, was still attached
to the mode of life which he had pre-
ferred in earlier days.

—

CHAPTER LXII.
CALIFORNIA.

1. Catirornta was taken from Mex
ico in 1848, by conquest. It was admit-
ted to the Union in 1850. This state is
distinguished for the richness of its gold
mines, which were discovered in 1848.

2. San Francisco, situated near the en-
trance of the bay of the same name, is
the largest city. It has’a very exten-





they have with the Indians? 8. What is fur-
4 ae of Colonel Boone ?
1. How is California bounded? What is said

ere is San Francisco? 3,.San Jose?

COMBINED W1TH GEOGRAPHY





113

sive commerce, and is rapidly increasing
in wealth and population.

38. San Jose, the capital, Vallejo, Monte«
rey, Los Angelos, and San Diego are
flourishing cities. Sacramento and Stock-
ton are the principal towns in the gla
regions.

—

CHAPTER LXIII.
THE TERRITORIES.

1. I HAVE now described the present
condition of the several states in the
Union, and told you of their early history.
But if you will look on the map of the
United States, you will see embraced with-
in its limits six vast tracts of country,
called Territories, viz., the Indian Territo-
ry, Missouri Territory, Minnesota, New
Mexico, Utah, and Oregon. These oc-
cupy nearly as great.an extent of sur-
face as the states themselves.

2. The Indian’ Territory has been giv-
en to the Indians by the government of





















American Indians.

the United States for a permanent abode.
It is inhabited by the Cherokees, Choe-



Vallejo? Monterey? Los Angelos? San Di«
ego? Sacramento? Stockton?

1. Name the territories belonging to the Units
ed States. 2 Whatis said of the Indian Terri






â„¢'

114 THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

taws, Creeks, Chickasaws, and other
tribes that have been removed hither
from states east of the Mississippi. Many
of them ha've become civilized, and have
embraced the Christian religion.

3. Missouri Territory is almost exclu-
fively inhabited ,by Indians living in a
savage state. It abounds in wild ani-
mals, which are hunted by parties of
white men as well as by the tribes of sav-
ages who inhabit the country.

4, Travellers who have been. in this
region give wonderful accounts of the
wild animals. The “buffalo,” or bison,
as it is e properly called, is a large
beast, resembling an ox. These crea-
tures go in droves, and feed upon the
grass of the prairies. Sometimes a drove
of ten thousand may be seen stretching
over the land as far as the eye can reach.



"A Herd of Bisons.

The Indians shoot great numbers gf these
anfmals; they feed on their flesh, and
sell the skins to the traders: These:skins
are called buffalo robes, and we use them
in winter to keep our feet warm when
we are riding.

5. There are bears of various kinds,
beavers, badgers, opossums, raccoons, and

tory? Howis t bounded? 3. What is said of
Missouri Territcry ? How is it bounded? 4, 5,



black, gray, red, and striped squirrels,
There are cougars, generally called pan






Bear, Badger, Cougar, Beaver, Opossum,
Raccoon, and Squirrel.

thers, so strong as to be able to killa
man and carry his body up a tree. The
grisly bears, with terrible claws, are 80
tough that they can hardly be killed with
musket. balls.

6. There are elks in great abundance,
with large, branching horns. There are



Elk, Antelopes, Rocky Mountain Sheep, and
Goat.

also beautiful little antelopes, that seem

to fly rather than run over the hills and

valleys; and towards the Rocky Moun-

tains are sheep with horns as big asa

man’s arm. Swift-footed goats roam ony



6, 7,8. What is said of the wild “—_— :

|








the Rocky Mountains, and leap from cliff
torcliff. Besides all these, there is wild



Ruffed Grouse, Ducks, and Quails.

game in great abundance in every quar-
ter.

7. The prairie dogs live in communi-
ties, and burrow in the ground. Some-
times they undermine the ground, so that
itis dangerqus to ride over it, it being
liable to sink under the weight of the
horse. The gopher, too, is found turning
tp his hills in the southern part.

8. There are a great many wild horses

Jains. ‘The Indians catch these
als, and tame them. An Indian
warrior, Pounted on a fleet horse, riding

region? 9 How






What is said of Minnesota?

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.





115

with his spear in his hand, against his
enemy, has a formidable appearance.

9. Minnesota, on the head waters of the,
Mississippi, is rapidly increasing in pop=
ulation. St. Paul, on the Mississippi, ”
is the capital. :

10. New Mexico and Utah were added
to the territory of the United States by
conquest from Mexico in 1848. ;
Mexico has a mixed population of Span=
iards and Indians settled in the valley of
the Rio Grande. Santa Fe is the capi-
tal. Utah is chiefly a desert, and is
principally inhabited by the Mormons,
anew religious sect, who have formed
settlements, and founded a city by the
name of Salt Lake, which is the capital
of the territory.

11. I have now to tell you of Oregon
Territory, which lies between the Rocky
Mountains and the Pacifie Ocean. It is
an immense region, being. six times as
extensive as all the New England States,
and is chiefly inhabited by the wild In-
dians. The principal settlements of the
whites are in the fertile yalley of the
Willamette. Oregon City is the capital.

12. In the early part of the present cen-
tury, Mr. Jefferson sent a party of men,
under Captain Lewis and Captain Clarke,
to explore this country. Theyascended
the River Missouri to its source, crossed
the Rocky Mountains, and went down the
Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean.
There they remained through the winter,
and theft returned.

13. They were absent two years, and
met with many strange adventures.
They found a great many grisly bears
on the west side of the Rocky Moun-



is it bounded? 10. Of New Mexico and Utah?
How is New Mexico bounded? Utah? What is
the capital of New Mexico? Of Utah? 11, What
is said of Oregon Territory? Howis it bounded?
What is the capital? 12, What is said of Lewis
and Clarke’s expedition? 13, 14, 15. Relate

New >






116 THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

tains, and had several encounters with
them. One day, a man named McNeal,
belonging to the party, was riding by
some bushes, when a huge bear jumped
out and pursued him.

14. His horse, being greatly fright-
ened, sprang aside, and threw him on
the ground. By the time he could get
up, the bear was close to him, with his

movth open, and growling terribly.

McNeal struck him over the head with
the breech of his gun; though the blow
broke the latter to pieces, it only stunned
the bear fora moment. McNeal ran as
fast as he could to a tree, and began to
climb up; but the bear followed so
close, as almost to reach him when he
was ascending. He got out of the crea-
ture’s way, however, and as the bear
could not climb the tree, McNeal was
safe. ;

15. The hungry beast waited a long
time, expecting that the man would come
down, and let him eat him up. But,
finding that he would not do so, the
creature walked away, and the poor fel-
low came down, glad enough to escape
from his new acquaintance.



Captain Lewis chased by a Bear.

16.. One day, Captain Lewis was
walking along upon a prairie, when he

i i a |
McNeal’s adventure with a bear. 16. Relate the







was suddenly attackel by a grisly bear.
As he had no gun, he leaped into the
river, which was close by, and was going
to swim to one of the boats. But, when
he had got a little way into the water,
he found that the creature was close to
him. So he turned round, and faced
him with a spear, which he had in his
hand. The bear did not like the looks
of the spear; so he turned about, and
scampered away as fast as he could.

17. The travellers found every where
on their route tribes of Indians scattered
over the country. Those who lived
along the banks of the Columbia River
were generally poor and miserable,
Most of them were great thieves, and
troubled the party very much by pilfer-
ing. ,

18. As the travellers were returning,
they saw immense herds of bisons om
the plains east of the Rocky Mountains,
One day, as they were coming down the
Missouri in some boats, they found the
river quite choked up by a multitude
of these animals, who were swimming
across it.

19. Finally, the travellers returned,
to the great joy of their friends. They
had been gone so long, that every body
thought them dead. They pabithe A
book, written by Dr. James, who was
one of the party. This gives an account
of their expedition, and is full of in
est, besides affording a great deal of v
uable information. F

20. The government of the territor
is different from that,of the states. 4
state has a governor and a is




that meet and make laws for the pec

by whom they are chosen, The tert
tories have legislatures, to make, their
adventure of Captain Lewis. 17. Whe

of the Indians? 18. Of the herds of biso
20. What is said of the government of t
tories? When car a territory become a st

2
7
























laws, but are ruled by governors ap-
pointed by the President and Senate of
United States. When a territory
as seventy-two thousand five hundred

ple, they may petition Congress to
admitted into the Union; and, when
eir petition is granted, they become a

————

CHAPTER LXIV.
THE FRENCH WAR.

1. We have now completed our sur-
vey of the states and territories; but I
have more to tell you of the history of
country. Before the revolution, a

famous war broke out, called “the old
— war.” I shall now give you

ceed to tell you of the revolution. This
war began about the year 1755. At
that period, the country now occupied
by Blow England, the five Middle States,

all belonging to Great Britain, and all
Us knowledging the government of that
‘country. My reader will recollect that
oe of the country lying west of the
states above mentioned was then occu-
pied by English settlers.

2. The French had settlements in
Canada, extending from the mouth of
St. Lawrence to Lake Ontario.
e the shores of that lake they had
stablished several forts and trading
ouses, to promote their trade with the
dians, whi as now esteemed a
atter of great consequence. They had
so planted New Orleans, near the

mouth of the Mississippi, and, having
asce ided that river, had laid ‘daim to

1. ‘When did the “Old French war” com-
mee? What colonies belonged to Great Brit-
t that time? 2. Where half the French

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

i le sal

117

the beautiful and fertile valley through
which it flows.

3. They had also built trading houses
on the River Ohio, and had finally de-
termined to connect their northern and
soutkern settlements by a chain of forts,
extending from Lake Ontario to their
establishments on the Ohio, and thence
down the River Mississippi to New Ore
leans.

4. While the French were busy in,
carrying this project into effect, some
English people, from Virginia, estab-
lished themselves on the Ohio River, not
far from the French settlements. As
the French now claimed the country,
they seized some of these settlers, and
carried them prisoners to Canada.

5. Now, the land in question was con-
sidered as a part of the colony of Vir-
ginia by the English, and it was supposed
to belong to certain English people to
whom it had been granted. These per-
sons, regarding the conduct of the French
as very wrong, applied to Governor Din-
widdie, of Virginia, for redress.

6. The governor thought it best, in the
first place, to send a messenger to the
commander of the French forces on the
Ohio, and require him to march his
troops away, and thus quit the country.
The person chosen for this purpose was
George Washington, then but twenty-one
years old. At this early age, he began
that public career which has endeared
his name to every American, and ren-
dered it illustrious. throughaut the world.

7. Washington went to the French
commander, and delivered to him a letter
established settlements? 3. Where had they
built trading houses, and how did they determine
.o connect their northern and southern settle-
ments? 4. How did they treat some English
people from Virginia who settled near them ?

5. m did the people of Virginia apply for
> 6. Whom did the governor send to
equest tl the French to quit the country? 7. Witt ,

*
¢


118

from Governor Dinwiddie, explaining the |
nature of his business. The French offi-
cer replied that he would forward the
letter to his general, who was then in
Canada, and that he should strictly abide
by his instructions.

8. This answer did not satisfy Gov-
ernor Dinwiddie; so he raised four hun-
dred troops, and sent them, under the
command of Washington, against the
French, in the spring of 1754, They
proceeded through the woods, and over
the mountains, till they came near Fort
Du Quesne, where Pittsburg, in Penn-
sylvania, now stands.

9. When Washington had nearly
reached this fort, about nine hundred
French soldiers came out to attack him.
He had scarcely time to throw up some
hasty works for defence, before the
French came upon him. The number
of the French was more than double that
of the English, but Washington did not
mind that; he cheered his men, and they
fought very bravely. By and by, the
French were tired of the battle, and so
they made an agreement with Washing-
ton, that he and his men should return
to Virginia, which they did accordingly.

10. Being informed of all these things,
the British government perceived that
they must either drive the French away
by force, or relinquish the whole Valley
of the Mississippi. They determined to
do the former, and sent out a great many
troops to America to accomplish this
object. In the spring of 1755, General
Braddock, an English officer, began to
make preparations, in Virginia, to pro-
ceed with a large army against Fort Du
Quesne.

11. Now I must tell you that it is

reply did the French commander make? 8, What
course did the governor then adopt? 9. What

was the result of the expedition? 10, t did
the British government do on being in
these events? 11,12. What course’ id Gene





THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,







necessary for an army that is going ong
march to have a great number of horsea
and wagons to carry their baggage.
was found very difficult to procure enough
of these; and General Braddock,. be-
coming impatient, determined to set out
with a part of the army only. Accord-
ingly he proceeded with twelve hundred
men, leaving Colonel Dunbar to come on
with the rest of the troops, as soon aa
the preparations were ready. General
Braddock was a brave man, and knew
very well how to manage a battle with
regular soldiers; but he knew nothing
of the Indian method of skulking behind
trees, and rocks, and thickets, and shoot
ing down men like so many squirrels.

12. So he proceeded through the
woods, trusting in his own skill, and
fearing nothing. He was advised to be
on his guard, lest the cunning savages
should surprise him. But he treated
this counsel with scorn. On the 9th of —
July, the English troops had approached
within a few miles of Fort Du Quesne,
At length, they came to a narrow valley,
with high rocks on each side. It was
midsummer, and the trees were covered —
with a thick mantle of leaves. All was
peaceful and quiet around, and the troops
marched on, never dreaming that behind
every bush, and rock, and tree around
lay a lurking savage, taking a sure aim,
and ready to send a fatal bullet after
them.

13. At once, a wild and hideous yell
burst from the rocky sides of the valley,
and at the same instant, hundreds of mus-
kets flashed from the mamy hiding-places —
of the foe. Astounded at this, the fors —
ward ranks of the English were thrown
into confusion. But in a few minutes,
General Braddock came up, with the
main body of the army, and order was —
restored; but it was to no purpose. The ;

|
13. Describe the attach

an

Braddock adopt ?
x

y did not come out in regular pla-
s to be fired at, as General Braddock
peredied ; they remained in their coverts,
and shot down the British soldiers like a
herd of deer.
_ 14, Braddock was too proud to retreat.
and his officers remained on the
ground, bravely exerting themselves to
overcome the enemy; but in this they
only sacrificed their lives. One by one
ey were shot down, and Braddock at
le fell. The British soldiers then
in dismay. Washington, with his
Virginia troops, sheltered the retreating
amy from the French and Indians who
‘pursued them. But for him, nearly all
men under Braddock’s command
would have fallen a sacrifice to their
tommander’s rashness. As it was, one
of the number perished in the bat-
le. This disastrous enterprise was closed
a return of the troops to Philadelphia,
wing the frontier of Pennsylvania and
Virginia exposed to the enemy.
15. Two other expeditions were un-
-dertaken against the French, during the
summer of 1755. One was against Fort
Niagara, situated near the great cataract,
and the other against Crown Point, an
important post on the western shore of
ake Champlain. Both of these expe-
ditions were unsuccessful.













————

CHAPTER LXV.
FRENCH WAR —ConrTinvueEp.

1. In the sp of 1756, great prep-
arations were made for war in America,
both by the French and English ; yet it
is remarkable that the fwo nations in
Europe yet continued to be on terms of

M4. What was the result? 15. What other expe-
were undertaken against the French?

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

) 1 When did England and France declare war?

Oe

119

the greatest apparent friendships but
this did not last long England de-
clared war in May, and France in June
following. ¢

2. A great many troops were assem-
bled in America; but instead cf being
placed under the command of American
officers, who were well acquainted with
the country, and who would of course be
anxious to carry on the war with success,
they were commanded by British offi-
cers, who spent a great deal of time in
show and parade, but did very little else.
The whole season was wasted in indo-
lence on the part of the English, while
the French prosecuted the war with ac-
tivity and vigor.

3. The next year, 1757, was like that
which preceded it. , The King and Par-
liament of Great Britain were jealous of
the colonies at this early date. They
were not willing to intrust native Amer-
icans with the direction of affairs, and
therefore continued to employ the officers
who had exhibited nothing but indolence
and weakness before.

4. The principal event of this cam-
paign was the capture of Fort William
Henry. This was situated on Lake
George, and had a garrison of three
thousand men, under the command of
Colonel Munroe. Fifteen miles to the
south of this post was Fort Edward, on
the east side of the Hudson River, occu-
pied by General Webb, with four thou-
sand troops.

5. The French commander, Montcalm,
collected near ten thousand men, many
of them Indians, and suddenly appeared

2. What course did the English pursue in pros-
ecuting the war? 3. Why did they continue to
employ English officers for the American forces ?
4, What was the principal event of this cam:
pai here was Fort Henry ?

Ed-
o commanded the forces at”
forts? 5, 6. Describe the a‘tack of Mont ‘

war
|

120

before Fort William Henry. They came
tailing down the lake, covering its bright
surface with a multitude of boats and

canoes. The whole army landed, and ||

immediately began the attack.

6. Colonel Munroe was surprised, but
not disheartened. Though his little gar-
rison was surrounded by ten thousand
men, he made a bold and successful de-
fence. The soldiers kept off the enemy
with muskets and with cannon, which
shook the hills around with their thun-
der, and often sent death among the ranks
of the besiegers.

7. Thus for six days was the fort de-
fended; but Colonel Munroe knew he
could not hold out long, unless assistance
came from General Webb. He sent to
that officer repeatedly, entreating him for
help, but none came. ‘Thus, deserted in
the most cowardly and cruel manner, he
was obliged to surrender the fort to Mont-
calm. The English marched out of the
fort, and the French took possession of
it. But the saddest part of this story I
have yet to tell. Montcalm promised to
protect the English prisoners from the
savages; but this he failed to do. The
Indians first fell upon the sick, and
plundered and killed them; thus they
Became excited, and surrounding the
disarmed English soldiers, who had no
means of defence, began to slay them
also.

8. There were several thousands of
the savages, and they now filled the air
with their horrid yells. They struck down
the English with their tomahawks, and
tore the reeking scalps from their heads.
As the slaughter proceeded, they grew
more frantic. Their yells became still
more wild, and these were now mingled
with the shrieks of the wounded and the

7. How long did Colonel Munroe defend ior ?
How did the savages treat the Englis en

ahey mar:hed ut of the fort? 8, What is said





THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY, j

dying. At this awful moment, Munroe
besought Montcalm to protect his poor
soldiers, as he had promised; but that
officer would not interfere. His blood
allies were permitted to do their work
of death without restraint. The carn
went on, and hundreds of the British
soldiers were slaughtered, or carried cay
tives into the wilderness. hs

9. The day after. this fearful tragedy,
Major Putnam was sent by Gener
Webb to watch the motions of the en
emy. ‘They had already left the pies
and set out for Ticonderoga. They hi
destroyed the fort, leaving the buildings
still on fire. The ground, far and near,
was covered with dead bodies, cut and
mangled in the most shocking manner
Some were still broiling in the flames,
and others were torn limb from limb,
Thus ended this melancholy affair. AL
though it occurred near a hundred yeara
ago, who, without shuddering, can read
the detail of such barbarities ?

10. The next year, 1758, the war as
sumed a different aspect. William Pitt,
aman of great talents, was placed at the
head of affairs in England. He caused
new officers to be appointed to the com-
mand of the armies, and the result showed
that he selected them wisely. Louisburg,
a strong town on the Island of Cape Bre-
ton, which had been before captured from
the French in 1744, and afterwards re-
stored to them, was taken by Lord Am
herst, and Fort Du Quesne was taken
by General Forbes.

11. Lord Abercrombigsvas sent, with
an army of seventee ousand men,
against Ticonderoga. This was a strong.
French fort, on the western shore of Lake



of the conduct of Montcalm? 9. What was
the appearance of the field when Major Putnam
arrived ? 10. What did William Pitt do on being

placed at the head of affairs in England? What

places were taken from the French? 11, (2, 18




‘ COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

Champlain. The Eng‘ish army crossed
the lake in boats. It was truly a mag-



Abercrombie’s Army crossing Lake Champlain.
nificent display, as they covered the blue
ee seemingly as countless as the wild

wi that sometimes hover over its sur-
face.

12. But amid this proud array, there
was many a heart, bounding with youth
and hope, destined soon to beat no more.
When the English had landed, they
marched towards the fort. They were
met by a small party of the French, and
in a skirmish that followed, Lord Howe
was killed. He was a brave young offi-
eer, and all the soldiers loved him. When
they saw him fall dead upon the field,
they rushed forward, determined to
avenge his death. ‘They surrounded the
fort, and attacked it with the greatest
fury. ‘They had muskets and cannon,
and kept up a continual fire against the
walls of the fort. If a Frenchman
showed his head over the ramparts, he
was immediately shot by the British
soldiers.

13. They tried every means in their

wer to get possession of the place.

ey procured ladders, and attempted
to climb over the walls. Forour hours
they stormed the fort with the utmost

4, Describe the expedition to Ticonderoga.



121

boldness and bravery; but it was de-
fended with equal courage. The French
poured down from thé*walls a dreadful
fire of cannon and musketry. The noise
of the battle was heard to the distance
of fifty miles. It seemed like ccntinued
thunder ; a thick cloud of smoke rose up
from the place, and stretching itself far
across the sky, appeared to tell of the
awful scene it had witnessed.

14. Finding it impossible to take the
fort, Lord Abercrombie was forced to
abandon the enterprise. Two thousand
of his men had been killed or wounded ;
and with this heavy loss he retreated.
He, however, despatched three thousand
men, under Colonel Bradstreet, against
Fort Frontenac, situated on Lake On-
tario. This place was taken, and the
French were thus deprived of a station
of great importance.

15. In the next year, 1759, several
important places were taken by the Eng-
lish, Among these were the forts of
Niagara, Ticonderoga, and Crown Point;
but the most important event was the
capture of Quebec.

16. This place, situated on the north-
west side of the St. Lawrence, was
deemed one of the strongest in the
world. It was defended by a great
many cannon, placed in several forts,
built upon high rocks. It was thought
impossible for soldiers in any way to
climb up these rocks, or to get posses-
sion of the fortifications.

17. But William Pitt believed that
the place might be taken; so he sent a
large and powerful army against it, com-
manded by General Wolfe. This officer
was a young man, full of bold and dar-
ing thoughts. Three officers, Moncton,



Wh Abercrombie’s loss? What place
vas lk by Colonel Bradstreet? 15.) What
pl ere taken in 1759? 16. What is saidof

Quebec? 17. Who commanded the army sent



Soa
122

Townshend, and Murray, all young and
brave like himself, were associated with
him. *

18 It was towards the last of June,
that the English army landed on the
Island of Orleans, a few miles below
Quebec. Here Wolfe had an opportu-
nity to examine the difficulties he had to
overcome. He perceived that they were
very great, but declared to his friends,
that he would either take the city or
die in the attempt. He devised various
schemes, and made several efforts, but
without success. . Montcalm, the French
commander, was exceedingly vigilant,
and even the confident spirit of Wolfe
began to be dejected.

19. But at length, a narrow path was
discovered, by which the soldiers might
climb the Heights of Abraham, and thus
overlook the forts and the town. Wolfe
knew that if he could get possession of
these heights, he should obtain a great
advantage. Accordingly, he resolved to
make the attempt. But it was neces-
sary that the enterprise should be con-
ducted with the greatest secrecy.

20. In the stillness of night, a part
of the army landed at the foot of the
cliff which overhung the river. They
were ready to climb the rocks by day-
break. Wolfe was himself among them,
and they began their difficult task.
Clambering up the steep, they caught
hold of roots, bushes, and angles of the
rocks, and at length stood safe upon
the plain above. Before sunrise, the
whole army had gained the heights, and
were all arranged under their several
leaders.

21. When Montcalm heard of all this,
he thought it impossible, and would not

believe the story; but he soon found it

against it? 18, 19, 20, 21. Give — of
the expedition. What was the result of én-

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,



to be true. Knowing that he must,
come to battle, he drew out his me
upon the plain in front of the Ergli
army. When all was ready, the Fy
advanced briskly. The English stood
still, and received them with a dre

fire. A fierce engagement followed,
after a long struggle, the French wi
defeated. Montcalm and Wolfe wa
both mortally wounded.

22. General Wolfe died on the field
of battle. He had received a bullet in
his wrist, and another in his leg; but
he concealed these wounds, and pressed
into the thickest of the fight ; but by and
by, he was shot in the “body, and car-
ried off the field. When he was dying,
he heard some one say, “They fly!
they fly!” “Who fly?” said he. “Th
French,” was the answer. “Then ]
die contented, ” said the hero, and X=
pired.

23. Five days after this battle, Quebes
surrendered to the English, and it has
ever since remained in their possession,
It was once the capital of the British
possessions in America, but the governor,
appointed by the king, now lives at
Montreal.

24, The next year, the French mada
some feeble attempts to recover Que-
bec, but without success. In September,
Montreal was taken by the English, and
in 1763, the war was closed by a peace, —
made at "Paris. By this treaty, France
ceded to England all her northern colo
nies, and these still remain sudject to
Great Britain.

25. Thus I have toldifou of the “old
French war.” All the thirteen colonies
were engaged in it, and they furnished
a great many troops, who went to Canada, —

gagement ? 22. What is said of the death of
General Wolfe? 23. Of the surrender of Que
bec? 24. What was ceded to Great Beliale by the;
treaty of peace in 1763?

le





















id assisted in the battles which I have
escribed. I have frequently met with
men, as I have told you before, who
re soldiers in that famous war. But
is now a great many years since these
ings happened, and all those who acted
in the scenes of that day sre num-
bered with the dead.



. mn Qenie

CHAPTER LXVI.
THE REVOLUTION.

ti. WE are now coming to events of
t interest and great importance.
m after the French war, the King
d Parliament of Great Britain began
treat the colonies very unjustly.
e had never conducted generously
wards them; on the contrary, their
eedings had generally shown a de-
to make them profitable to England,
rather than prosperous and happy, among
emselves. Yet the people in this
country loved England so well that they
easily forgot these things; and it is
mete that all might have gone on in
ony for many years, if the British
government had not attempted to oppress
and enslave the people.
_ 2. It is hardly necessary to tell you
of all the difficulties which preceded the
war; but I will endeavor to make you
understand the principal one. The Brit-
ish government, being very much in debt,
wanted to raise large sums of money,
and so deternfied to get a part of it by
taxing the Americans. Now, the latter
Maintained that England had no right to
tax them. They thought it very hard,
‘and very unjust, that Parliament, consist-
ing of men who lived in England, at a

__1. How did the King and Parliament treat the
‘polonists after the French war? 2, 3. What



COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.



123

distance of three thousand miles, sLould
take away the money of the people here,
just because they happened to want it.
Yet this was what Parliament claimed
the right to do, and they acted accords
ingly.

3. In opposing this, the Americans
were perfectly right; but still Parliament
passed laws imposing duties upon vari-
ous articles of merchandise brought into
the country. These acts produced a
great ferment throughout the colonies.
The people of Boston were particularly
excited ; and fearing rebellion, General
Gage, the British commander, assembled
two regiments of soldiers, to keep them
in awe. |

4, These troops took possession of the
State House without leave, and there
they lived. They paraded about the
streets, and filled the ears of the inhab-
itants with the constant din of their
music. Now, my reader will recollect
that these were foreign soldiers, sent
with cannon, muskets, and bayonets, to
restrain a people who considered them-
selves free. It is easy to perceive that
all this was not calculated to soothe
their jealous feelings; on the contrary,

it exasperated the people, and ered

them to take up arms against.
oppressors. s

5. Such was the state of irri
Boston in the spring of 1770, tha
rels occurred almost every day I






the soldiers and the populace.
second of March, as one of the British —
soldiers was going by the shop of one

Gray, a ropemaker, he was beaten se-
verely. Ie ran off, but returned with
some of his comrades, and the soldiers
and ropemakers fell together by the ears
in good earnest. The latter, got the

worst, of it. “——
wer e of the tro bles that preceded the rev-
olw 4,5. What effect did the appearance
124 THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

6. The people were now more argry
than ever.
between seven and eight o’clock, on the
evening of the 5th of March. The mob,
armed with clubs, ran towards King
Street, now State Street, crying, “ Let
us drive out these rascals! They have
nce business here! Drive them out!
Drive out the rascals!” About this
time, some one cried out that the town
had. been set on fire. Then the bells
rang, and the crowd became greater and
more noisy; they rushed furiously to
the custom house, and, seeing an Eng-
lish soldier stationed there, shouted,
“Kill him! kill him!” The people
attacked him with snowballs, pieces of
ice, and whatever they could find. :

7. The sentinel called for the guard,
and Captain Preston sent a corporal with
a few soldiers to defend him. They
marched with their guns loaded, and
the captain followed them. They met a
crowd of the people, led on by a giant



; People attacking the Soldiers.

of a negro, named Attucks ; they bran-
dished their clubs, and pelted the sol-
diers with snowballs, abused them with

all mannersof harsh words, shouted in’

their faces, surrounded ‘hem, hal-
denged them to fire.

vf foreign soldiers have upon te people? 6,7, 8,

8. They even rushed upon the points
of the bayonets. The soldiers stood lik
statues, the bells ringing, and the m
pressing upon them. At last, Attu
with twelve of his men, began to stri
upon their muskets with clubs, and ce
out to the multitude, “ Don’t be afraid

They dare not fire Be rccne cows
ards! Kill the ragealsJe Crush them
under foot!” Attucks lifted his arm
against Captain Preston, and seized
upon a bayonet. “They dare not fire!”
shouted the mob again. At this instant
the firing began. The negro dropped
dead upon the ground. The soldiers
fired twice more. Three men werg
killed, and others were wounded.

mob dispersed, but soon returned to
carry off the bodies.

9. The whole town’ was now in
uproar. Thousands of men, women, 3
children rushed through the streets
The sound of drums, and cries of “
arms! to arms!” were heard from
quarters. The soldiers who had fired
the people were arrested, and the gov
ernor at last persuaded the multitude to
go home quietly. The troops were ors
dered off to Castle William, now
Independence. The three slain citizer
were buried with great ceremony on the
8th; the shops were all closed; while
the bells in Boston, and the towns around,
were all tolling.

10. The bodies were followed to the
churchyard from King Street, through
the city, by a long fileof coaches, oe
an immense crowd of people on fod
The soldiers were soon after tried. Two
were condemned and imprisoned; six
of them were acquitted, much to the
honor of the jury, and of John Adams

Relate the events of the 5th of March. 9, 10. What

effect did they have upon the people? What
was done with the troops? Describe the fu
of the citizens and the trial of the soldiers.


















and Josiah Quincy, who pleaded for
The irritated and unreasonable
would have torn the soldiers in

s, if they could have had their way.

——
) CHAPTER LXVII.
REVOLUTION—COonrTINvED.

* 1. Iv March, 1771, the English Par-
Hiament concluded to repeal the duties
‘upon glass, paint, and other articles, but
continued a tax of threepence a pound
Upon tea. This was a sad mistake. If

‘arliament had repealed all, and said no
ore about taxes, the Americans might
we been satisfied. As it was, they
gan to buy goods of the English
hants again; tea alone excepted ;
lis they would have nothing to do

r So matters went on, during the
; 1771. The officers of the revenue
every where despised. In Boston,
Z of them undertook to seize upon a
sel, for some violation of the law.
He was seized upon himself by the peo-
ple, for what they thought a violation of
the law, stripped, carted through the town,
ee with tar, and covered with a
of feathers, so that he looked more
like an ostrich than a man.
_ 8. In 1772, the English government,
intending to put down the rebellious
_ Spirit of the Americans, made several
a laws, which only served to increase
the difficulty. ‘The Americans now be-
gan to think of doing something for them-
Ives, in earnest. Committees were
chosen, in every part of the country, to
attend to public affairs, and to write to
tech other.

ee
1, What duties did the English Parliament
? 2. How were the officers of the revenue

repeal? 2.
, tated? 3. What course did. the Americans

\ wee

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.



125

4. In 1773, large ships, los Jed with
immense cargoes of tea, were sent out
to America by some merchants in Eng-
land. But the colonists had made up
their minds what to do. In Philadel-
phia and New York, not a man could
be found to receive the English tea, or
have any thing to do with it. A few
chests, which one Captain Chambers
had brought to Philadelphia, were let
down very quietly to the bottom of the
river, by some people, who went slyly
on board the ship. In Charleston, it was
landed and lodged in cellars so damp
that it was soon spoiled.

5. The people of Boston took a keen
interest in this business. -The English
agents there, when the tea was first

known to be on the way, were requited.

by the people to give up all concern with
it. They made no answer, but withdrew,
as fast as convenient, into the fortress:
Captain Hall soon arrived in port, with
one hundred chests of tea. The people
collected in great fury, ordered him to
keep it on board, as he valued his life,
and placed a guard close by the vessel,
upon Griffin’s Wharf, east of Fort Hill.

6. Two other vessels, having arrived,
were obliged to anchor by the side of
Hall’s ship. A town meeting, mean-
while, was summoned; and the people
agreed to call upon the governor, and
request him to have the ships sent off.
But the governor would do no such
thing. A great uproar now began. A

-

person in the gallery of the hall, dressed _.

like an Indian, shouted the cry of war. .
7. The meeting was dissolved in the

twinkling of an eye, and the multitude ©

rushed to’ Griffin’s Wharf. Here were
seventeen sea captains, carpenters, aud



adopt to defend their rights? 4. What was done
with which was sent to New York, Phil-
adel, and Charleston? 5, 6, 7..Give Ace



count ef the destruction of the tea in

/


a

—s9 5

-

126

others, disguised as Indians. It was
night, and these persons went on board
the three vessels, ‘and, in less than two
hours, three hundred and forty chests of
tea were staved and emptied into the sea.
This done, they went quietly home, and
the crowd dispersed, very well satisfied.

8. Early in 1774, an account of these
disturbances having reached England,
the government then determined, by way
of punishing the people of Boston, to
destroy the trade of that town, by for-
bidding all kinds of goods to be landed
there. Accordingly, the Boston Port
Bill was passed in Parliament, March
14th, and the news of it was received in
Boston, May 10th. . Like other unjust
laws, this also did more hurt than good.

9.Jn a few days after the Port Bill
was passed, other laws were made, still
more severe. They were opposed, in
England, by some persons ; but a layge
part, both of the Parliament and the
people, supposed, if the Americans were
punished and pretty well frightened, they
would, by and by, be more submissive
to the mother country. This was an-
other sad mistake.

10. Not only the people of Boston, but
the whole people of America, — north,
south, east, and west, were more in-
dignant than ever. Town meetings
were held, days of fasting appointed,
and news, of the Port Bill spread over
the whole country. An agreement to
stop all trade with England, called the
“league and covenant,” was signed by
immense numbers.

11. Those who refused to sign it were
hooted at as enemies of the, country.
General Gage, at Boston, issued a proc-
lamation against the league, and de-
8,9. What did the government of E) do
on hearing of these events? 10. What did
these arbitrary measures have upon the eri-
exns? 11. How.were those who refused to s



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

clared it treasonable. But these
mere words; and the Bostonians
























lamation was treason.

12. On the 1st of June, the Port Bill
was put in force. At midday, all busi
ness ceased in the custom house;
vessel was suffered to enter the ha
Very little was now done, for the
had no money to spare, and the poor
had no employment. The soldiers pa
raded the streets in triumph. 4

13. But the Bostonians were not for
gotten. The country was awake on @
sides. The lst of June was kept as
fast day, in many places. In Philadel
phia, the shops were shut, and the bellf
tolled. The people of Marblehead ant

harbors, wharves, and warehouses, f
of all cost; and large sums of mone
and other things, collected in all parts
of the country, were sent into Boston, —
’ 14. Serious preparations began tot
made for war. People provided thet
selves with arms, formed companies, a
learned, as fast as possible, the business
of soldiers. Being most of them use
to hunting, they were good marksmen
Every where nothing was heard but the
noise of drums and fifes. Fathers

casting balls and making cartridges.

15. Meanwhile, the jealousy of th
people towards the soldiers continued to
increase.
general feeling, as a story will show y
During the winter, before the Port I
passed, the boys were in the habit of

the “league and covenant” treated? 12. Whe
was the Boston Port Bill put in force? 13. How
was this act regarded in other parts of the cot
try? 14. What preparations did the people be-
in to make? 15. What troubles did the Bostâ„¢m
experience with the British soldi
COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

aiding hills of snow on the common,
ind sliding down upon them to the pond.
The English troops beat down these
hills, merely to provoke the children.
the boys complained of the injury, and
set about repairing it. However, when
they returned from schoo!, they found
‘the snow hills beat down again.
16. Several of the boys now waited
pon the British captain, and informed
im of the conduct of his soldiers ; but
e would have nothing to say to them ;
the soldiers were more impudent
than ever. At last, they called a meet-
ing of the largest boys, and sent them
to General Gage, commander-in-chief.
_ 17. Hefisked why so many children
ad called upon him. “ We came, sir,”
aid the tallest boy, “to demand. satis-
faction.” “What!” said the general ;
have your fathers been teaching you
Tebellion, and sent you to show it here?”
“Nobody sent us, sir,” answered the boy,
hile his cheek reddened and his eye
ashed ; “we have never injured nor in-
sulted your troops; but they have trod-
den down our snow hills, and broken
the ice on our skating ground. We
omplained, and they called us young
ebels ‘told us to help ourselves if
We told the captain of this,
nd he lughed at us. Yesterday our
orks were destroyed for a third time;
and, sir, we will bear it no longer.”
~ 18. The general looked at them with
‘admiration, and said to an officer at his
side, “ The very children draw in a love
of liberty with the air they breathe. —
“You may go, my brave boys; and be
“assured,if my troops trouble you again,
_ they shall be punished.”

tae What was their treatment when they
mmplained to the captain of the soldiers? De-

























sevibe their interview with General Gage. 18,
hat did he say to an officer standing near

127

CHAPTER*EXVIII.
REVOLUTIO

1. I nave now told"you of the princi-
pal events which preceded the revolution-
ary war. You see, by what I have told
you, that the people in all parts of the
country were resolved to resist the ope
pression of the British government. Slows
ly and reluctantly had they come to the
decision ; but now that the spirit of the
nation was roused, they were ready to go
into the field, and shed their blood in the
sacred cause of liberty.

2. In this state of things, nothing was
wanting but some occasion which might
call the » pings of the people into ac-
tion ; is: was not long delayed.
There were some military stores at Con-
cord, about eighteen miles from Boston,
belonging to the Americans. These
General ‘Gage wished to destroy ; and for
this purpose, he sent about eight hundred
grenadiers and light infantry from Bos-
ton, at eleven o’clock in the evening of
the 18th of April, 1775.

3. Notice of this was immediately car-
ried into the county. By two o’clock
in the morning, one hundred and thirty
of the Lexington militia had assembled
on the green, at the meeting house, to

ONTINUED,

Foppose them. They were dismiss ngs, but

collected again between four and five, at
the beat of the drum. By and by, the
body of British troops came marching up
the road, Major Pitcairn at their head.
re Disperse, you rebels!” cried the ma-
jor, addressing the militia; “ throw down

your arms, and disperse!” They did
not disperse, however. He now rode
forward, discharged his pistol, brandished
his sword, and ordered his soldiers to.

ert i A Sale a ee

1. What resolutions had the people formed in
all p of the country? 2. What event soon
oce which called them to action? 3,4
Relate the events at Concord and Lexington.
128

fire. They did so, and three or four of
the Americans were killed. The soldiers
shouted, fired again, and then proceeded
towards Concord.

4, At Concord, they disabled two can-
non. threw five hundred pounds of ball
into the wells, and staved about sixty
barrels of flour. They fired upon the
Concord militia, under Major Buttrick’s
command. Two men were killed; a
skirmish followed ; and the English re-
treated as fast as possible to Lexing-
ton. By this time, the people were
coming upon them from all parts of
the country. The British were fired
upon on all sides, from sheds, houses,
and fences.

5. At Lexington, where they halted
to rest, they were joined by nine hun-
dred more troops, sent out from Boston,
under Lord Percy. These brought two
cannon with them; and the country peo-
ple were kept back. They still fired
upon the troops, however, and being
generally good marksmen, made terrible
havoc. The regulars, as the English
troops were called, reached Charlestown
at sunset, and returned the next day into
Boston. Sixty-five of their number had
been killed, one hundred and §
wounded, and twenty-eight made
oners.

6. Of the provincials, fifty were k
and thirty-eight wounded and missing:
There were never more than three or
four hundred of the latter fighting at one
time, and these fought as they pleased,
vithout order. The regulars were obliged
to keep in the main road; but the militia,
knowing every inch of the country,
flanked them, and fired upon them at all
the corners.

7, The news of this first battle pro-
duced a tremendous excitement through-



6, 6. What took place on the return of Brit-
ish troops to Boston? 7. How was the news of

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,


























out the country. The dead were buried
with great ceremony. Large bodies d
militia marched towards Boston, ai
agreements were entered into, by the
sands of people, to defend the Bostonian:
to the last gasp.
8. Every body was armed and ready
to fight. When the news of the Le
ington battle reached Barnstable, a com-
pany of militia started off for Cambridg
at once. In the front was a young mai
the only child of an old farmer. As
they came to the old gentleman’s house,
they halted a moment. The drum and
fife ceased. The farmer came out, with
his gray head bare. “God be with you
all!” said he; “and you, John, if you
must fight, fight like a man, or never lée
me seeyyou again.” The old man gaye
him his ‘blessing. The brave fellow
brushed._@ tear from his eye, and the con
pany marched on.
9. I will tell you one or two more sto-
ries, which will make you understand f
excitement produced by the battle of
Lexington. The news reached a small
town in Connecticut on the morning of
the Sabbath. It was nearly time to go
to meeting, when the beating of a drum
and the ringing of the bell attracted he.
attention of the people. > 2 rr
10. In expectation that some t
event was about to, happen, every un
usual signal had a startling — effect
When the drum and the’ bell were
heard, therefore, the men came running
to the meeting-house green in breath-
less haste. Soon the clergyman was
among them, and they were all told that
some of their countrymen had been shot
by the British soldiers at Lexington
The faces of the men, as they heard it,
were pale, but not from fear. It was im-
mediately resolved that thirty personi
fer













this battle received throughout the country]
8. What ook place at Barnstatle? 9, 10, 11, 12


























hould be equipped, and should set out
r Boston. Those who could best go
were selected, and went home to make
eeaiions
11. At noon, they had all returned to
‘the little lawn in front of the meeting
‘house. There was a crowd of people
round. There were friends and aet-
waintances, and wives and children.
Such as were not well supplied with
Clothes and equipments were immedi-
ately furnished by their neighbors.
markable individual. This was a rich
with his money but with extreme reluc-
tance. On the present occasion, his na-
ture seeméd-changed. He took several
‘of the soldiers apart, whom he supposed
likely to be destitute, and put into their
Tiands about thirty dollars in hard cash,
a ‘the same time saying, in a low voice,
‘Beat the rascals! beat them! If you
‘tome back, perhaps you will pay me;
if not, God bless you!”
12. After all the arrangements were
Made, the Soldiers entered the broad
‘aisle of the church. An affecting and
fervent prayer was then offered by the
lergyman, in hehalf of the country,
and i in behalf of these brave men, that
7. about to enter upon the dangerous
ces of war. After the prayer, he

made a short but animated address, en-
eo ouraging the men to do their duty. He
Mronounced a blessing, and then they
departed.

18. I will now tell you about General
Putnam. He was a brave man, and

ved at Brooklyn, in Connecticut. He
a farmer, and was ploughing in the
field when the tidings from Lexington
were brought tohim. He ne not stay
pyen to unyoke his cattle; byt leaving
he plough in the unfinished i ow, he

hea chitan oo) c,h ae ae
it @ small town in Connecticut? 413. What is
i 9 :

,

COMBINED WIIH GEOGRAPHY.

mong the crowd, there was one re-:





—s

4

129

went to his house, gave some hasty di-
rections respecting his affairs, mounted
his horse, and with a rapid pace pro-
ceeded to Boston.

14. In the course of a few weeks,
about thirty thousand men had arrived
from various parts of the country. ‘They
were, indeed, poorly armed, but they
were full of resolution. Most of them
were farmers and mechanics, who had
spent their lives in peace, and knew
nothing of war. But the blood of their
countrymen had been spilled, and they
had come to avenge their death,» They
had no cannon, no leaders, bi little
ammunition, and many of them had no
guns. But in spite of these eficien-
cies, they were full of courage, and
ready, as soon as an opportunity offered,
to meet the British troops in open battle.




—e—

CHAPTER LXIX.
REV OLUTION—ConrTiInveEpD.

1. I must beg my readers to pause
here a moment, and consider the state
of the country at this point of our story.
It was not then, as now, full of wealth,
and covered with large towns and cities.
Boston, which has now one hundred and
forty thousand inhabitants, had then but
ten thousand. New York, Philadelphia,
and other large places were then com-
paratively small. The country was poor,
and the whole number of inhabitants,
throughout the thirteen colonies, was
scarcely three millions; yet they were
about to engage in a strife with Great
Britain, the most powerful nation on the
earth.

safd of General Putnam? 14, What did-the peo-
ple do injvarious parts of the country, when they
received the news from Lexington ?

1. What was the condition of the country at
i. wf
130

2. She had nearly one thousand ships
of war, and the Americans had none.
She had powerful armies, skilful gen-
erals, and an abundance of all the mate-
rials for carrying on a war. “Such were,
indeed, the poverty and apparent weak-
ness of America, such the mighty power
of England, that in Europe it was gen-
erally believed that the Americans must
be crushed in the struggle.

3./But our brave fathers theught dif-
ferently. They knew the-po upt Eng-
land, but they knew also thatthe race
is not always to the swift, nor the battle
to the strong. Placing their confidence
in Heaven and the justice of their cause,
they entered boldly into the contest; and,
as we shall see in the end, triumphed

‘over their oppressors.

4. The war having been opened by
the battle of Lexington, the Americans
determined to prosecute it, on their part,
with vigor. They sent some soldiers
against two British forts, Ticonderoga
and Crown Point, both of which were
easily capturéd. The militia invested
Boston, and pretty soon the British
troops, of which there were several
thousand in that town, began to feel
a little uncomfortable. The Americans
had two or three old, rusty cannon, with
which they blazed away upon the en-
emy, making a good deal -of noise, and
doing some execution.

5. General Gage did not like to be
cooped up in Boston with his men; so
he determined to’cut through the militia
with his troops,'and take tip.some sta-
tion in the countrys) To ‘prevent this,
the Americans “phe ‘thousand men by
night to occupy er Hill. By mis-
take they went to Breed’s Hill, situated

this time? 2. The condition of England?

3. With what feelings did our brave fathers enter
the contest? 4. After the battle of Lexington,
what measures did they adopt? 4. Why ‘were

a

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,




















in Charlestown, and very near to Boe
ton. At midnight they began to eroél
intrenchments, and working with
their might, they had thrown up a small
redoubt, eight rods square, by the dawn
of day. The British were utterly age
tonished when they saw what was going
on. Knowing that the Americans could”
fire their cannon balls down upon then
from the hill, they saw the necessity of
immediately driving them away, if p
sible. 7
6. It Was now the 17th of June, a
the B troops were soon put it
motion.” ‘Fhe whole town of Boston re
sounded with the noise of drums a
fifes. Heavy columns of soldiers marche
along the streets, and entered the boat
to cross over to Breed’s Hill. A gre

ing through the air, ploughing up fi
ground, but doing little damage. ,

7. The Americans knew what wa
coming, and, like men not to be turne
from their purpose, labored steadily
their works. There ‘were Prescott, Puts
nam, Warren, and other brave leader
amongthem. There were no idle hands,
there were no coward hearts there; every
man entered with his whole soul into
the business at this awful crisis. a

8. Atlength, the British landed ; some
of them entered Charlestown, and set it.
on fire. The flames ran from house
house, until the whole town was im
volved in one vast blaze. Pretty soon,
the troops began to advance up the hill
towards the Americans, The latter
were now ready, and having placed
themselves behind their breastworks,

lay waiting for the enemy. There were

gray-haired old ‘men, with their sons
the Americans sent'to fortify Bunker Hill? 6%)
8, 9, 10. When did the battle occur? Describe











‘wid grandsons near them; neighbors,
*riends, and brothers stood side by side.
9. The British advanced bravely.
Thuy were led by General Howe and
other gallant officers. With steady con-
fidence they marched towards the Amer-
lines. It was an awful moment.
ousands and thousands of people cov-
ered the hills, and houses, and steeples
of Boston, that they might see the fight.
The cannon, for a few minutes, ceased
their roar; every thing around seemed
to pause and look with breathless inter-
ést upon the scene.

Bunker Hill Momunent,

10. The British came on. The still-
_* death rested upon the American
ines. At length, the enemy had ap-
proached within a few rods, when, at a
‘given signal, a thousand bullets were
suddenly sent among their ranks. For
afew seconds, the Americans kept up a
deadly fire, and the British were obliged
to retreat. But they soon rallied, and
came again upon the Americans. They
“were again driven back. Still a third
time they rallied, and the Americans,
having used up all their powder and
ball, fought for some time with the but-
ends of their muskets, and then reluc-
tantly retreated.

8 I a
DR Il. What was tue loss on each“side? 12.
















COMBINED WIIH GEOGRAPHY.



we?

131

11. In this battle, ten hundred and
fifty-four of the British were killed and
wounded ; of the Americans, four hun-
dred and fifty-three. The British offi-
cers were astonished at the result; they
had before despised the Americans, and
never imagined that a collection of peo»
ple, who had not learned the art of war,
commanded by no experienced officers,
and but poorly provided with arms and
ammunition, could make such havoc
among disciplined troops. »

12. This battle, though it was fought
on Breed’s Hill, is called the battle of
Bunker Hill. The Americans were
driven back; but this happened only
because their ammunition was expended.
It gave the people great courage, for it
showed that they could beat the British
regulars in a fair fight.

18. Yet the Americans, though they
rejoiced at their partial success, had
much occasion for sorrow. Many of
their friends and neighbors had been
killed, and among these,was General





i a



Death of General Warren.

Warren, who was greatly beloved by all
the people. He was fighting in the midst
of the battle, when a British officer, who
knew him, took a gun from a soldier,
and shot him through the head.

What*effect did this battle have upon the peo
ple? 13. What distinguished man was killed ?


132

ys

CHAPTER LXX.
REVOLUTION ~Conrinvep.

1. Tux people of the colonies, finding
it necessary to have some general gov-
ernment, had sent some of their wisest
men to Philadelphia, to manage public
affairs. These were called the Con-
tinental Congress. They appointed
George Washington of Virginia com-
mander-in-chief of the American ar-
mies, and, in about a fortnight after the
battle of Bunker Hill, he reached Cam-
bridge, which is three miles from Bos-
ton. e found about fourteen thousand
militia in the neighborhood, and imme-
diately exerted himself to teach them
the art of war.

2. To tell of all the interesting events
of the revolution would fill a large book.
I shall only give you a few details, and
leave you to read the whole history in
some larger work. The war soon
spread over the country, and many skir-
mishes took place between the provin-
cials and the British soldiers.

3. During the latter part of the year
1775, two expeditions were sent against
Canada; one, consisting of three thou-
sand men, was put under the command
of General Schuyler, and went by the
way of Lake Champlain; the other,
consisting of eleven hundred men, and
commanded by General Arnold, went
up the Kennebec River, and crossed the
wilderness to Quebec.

4. The soldiers under the command
of Arnold suffered incredible hardships.
For several days, they were almost en-
tirely destitute of food, and many of

1. Give an account of the Continental Con-
gress. Whom did they appoint commander-in-
chief of the American forces? 8. What expedi-
tions were sent against Canada in 1775? Which
way did the expedition under General Schuyler
proceed? Wheré is Lake Champlain? Where
is the Kennebec River? Whereis Quebec?” 4, 5.

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,





‘British army came, in ships, against























them were nearly starved to death
Yet these privations were borne with
fortitude, and the men at length reached
Quebec. of

5. An attack was finally made upon
that place; but, General Arnold being
wounded, and General Montgotill
killed, it failed of success. After many
vicissitudes, the American troops were
obliged to return, without having accom:
plished the objects of the two expedi-
tions in which they had been engaged.

6. The spring of 1776 opened with
favorable prospects for the Americans
General Washington managed so well,
that, in March, General Howe, with all
the British troops, was forced to quit
Boston. On the 17th, the fleet set sail
for Halifax, and the American troops
entered the town. a

7. On the 4th of July, of this year,
Congress made a solemn declaratio
that the people of America would sub

more, but that they would be a free ai
independent nation. This is called t
Declaration of Independence. It was
hailed by the inhabitants with the great
est joy, and the day is still celebrated
every 4th of July. From this time
each of the colonies became a a
and, joined together under the general
government of Congress, they became
a free nation, under the name of
United States. ‘i

8. At this time, the hopes and the
courage of the country were very high;
but these were soon depressed by great
misfortunes. In August, a powerfi

w York. Washington was there with
ny troops; but, after a great deal of
fighting, he was forced to quit the plac

Describe the events. 6. When did the Britis
army leave Boston? 7. What declaration did
Congress make on the 4th of July, 1776? 8, Whi













‘and give it up to the British. Several
American forts were also taken, and
the provincial army, now very much
reduced, retreated to New Jersey.

9. The British officers thought the
war nearly finished, and large numbers
of the American people feared that the
‘power of England was about to triumph
over the liberties of the country. One
event, however, revived a little their
re courage. In December, General
Washington, being on the Pennsylvania
tide of the Delaware, with the Amer-
= troops, suddenly crossed that river












_ American Troops crossing the Delaware.

9 Trenton. At this place there were
bout one thousand soldiers, who came
from Hesse in Germany, and were called
‘Hessians. They had been hired by the
British, and came to this country to

tht for them against the Americans.

Washington came suddenly upon them,
‘and took nine hundred prisoners.

10. In January, 1777, Washington
attacked some British troops at Prince-
killed one hundred men, and took
‘three hundred prisoners.. In this battle,
ames Monroe, who was afterwards

esident of the United States, was
wounded. Washington himself, whose








10. Of Princeton. 11

*



battle of Trenton.

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.





133

bravery led him into the midst of the
fight, was placed in great danger, but
escaped unhurt. The British were so
much astonished at these bold and sud-
den enterprises, that they retreated to
New Brunswick, and left the American
army to take up their winter quarters
quietly at Morristown.

11. In the spring of 1777, Lafayette,
a young French nobleman, left his coun-
try, and came to assist the Americans.
He became the bosom friend of Wash-
ington, and was appointed a general in
the army. He fought bravely and suc-
cessfully for our country; and after-
wards returned to France, where he con-
tinued till his death, striving to secure,
for his native land, the blessings of that
liberty which he assisted our fathers to
establish here.

12. In September of this year, Gen-
eral Howe left New York with a strong
British force, in a great many ships.
These entered Chesapeake Bay, and the
troops proceeded towards Philadelphia.
Washington met them at every point,
and fought several battles. But the
Americans were obliged to retreat, and
the British entered Philadelphia on the
26th.

13. About the time that the events oc-
curred which I have just related, others,
of great importance, were taking place
in the north. General Burgoyne, a fa-
mous British officer, set out from Cane,
ada with one of the finest armies that
was ever known, intending to proceed to
New York, across the country, by way
of Lake Champlain. General . Gates
assembled a considerable force to oppose
him. The brave inhabitants left their
farms, and came in hundreds to assist
him. Several skirmishes took place,
and, on the 16th of August, a detach-



What is said of Lafayette? 12. When did the
British enter Philadelphia? 18. Give an account








134 ' THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

ment, sent by Burgoyne to destroy some
stores at Bennington, was defeated, as
I have told you in the history of Ver-
mont.

14. On the 18th of September, a fierce
battle was fought at Stillwater, near Sar-
atoga. On the 7th of October, another
battle was fought. The greatest bravery
was displayed on both sides, and night
only terminated the conflict. Burgoyne
retreated to the heights of Saratoga, and
the Americans pursued him. The situ-
ation of the British troops was now dis-
tressing. Many of their officers had
been killed; they were surrounded by
active enemies, and they had only food
enough left for three days. Having no
hope of escape, they were obliged to
surrender; and on the 17th of October,
the whole army, consisting of six thou-
sand men, laid down their arms. This
was a great event, and, amid many losses
and reverses, sustained the hopes of the
American people.

ae

CHAPTER LXXI.
REVOLUTION—ConrTinvepD.

1. THe year 1778 opened with an
event which occasioned great joy in
America. In February, the govern-
ment of France acknowledged the inde-
pendence of the colonies, and promised
tu send ships, troops, cannon, guns, and
ammunition, to assist them. The goy-
ernment of Great Britain, hearing of
this, and being alarmed by the defeat
and capture of their favorite general,
Burgoyne, and his army, determined, if
possible, to make up the quarrel with
America. Accordingly, they sent some



ef General Burgoyne’s expedition. 14. Of the
battle of Saratoga.
4. When did France acknowledge the inde-









men to Philadelphia, to arrange tha
business with Congress.

2. They offered to grant all that the
Americans had claimed, to lay no more
taxes, and to repeal all their unjust and
offensive laws: But now that the peo
ple had suffered so much, Congress
would not listen to these terms. The
English agents, finding that they’ could
not succeed in this way, attempted to
bribe Joseph Reed, one of the members,
They offered him a great deal of money,
and a rich office, if he would bring about
a reconciliation between the two coun
tries.

3. But Mr. Reed was an honest man;
he loved his country, and would not sell
his conscience for gold or power. He
replied to the unworthy. offer, “I am
not worth purchasing; but, poor as I
am, your king has not money enough to
buy me.” Such noble conduct as this
was not uncommon among the true-
hearted patriots of our glorious revolt.
tion. The brave fighting, the darin
courage, the bold enterprise of our
diers, did not contribute more to the sal-
vation of our country, in that day of trial,
than the steadfast truth and fidelity of
our public men. :

4. I must add one word more on this
subject. My young readers should um
derstand that, when they grow up, il
will be the duty of many of them to as
sist in choosing officers to rule over the
country. Now, let them remember that
the country is safe only in the hands of
honest men. Let them, therefore, never
assist, directly or indirectly, in bringing
any other than honest men into office
If they do so, they sell their country,



pendence of the United States? 2. What offer did
the government of Great Britain make after the
defeat of Burgoyne? 3, What reply did Mn
Reed make to the Minglish agents who attempted
to tribe him? 4, What kind of men should w4

te
=~







are not worthy of those blessings
which our forefathers fought and bled to
ure.

5. In June, that part of the British
army which was in Philadelphia left that
tity, and marched across the country
to New York: Washington, with his
troops, forsook his log huts in the woods,
and pursued them. At Monmouth, a
fierce battle was fought, of which I have
told you in the history of New Jersey.
The British had the worst of the battle,
five hundred of their men being killed
a wounded. Sir Henry Clinton, the
British commander, stole away with his
troops by night, and escaped to New

6. In July, Count d’Estaing came
with a large French fleet to assist the
Americans ; but he effected nothing, and
at the close of the season sailed for the
West Indies.
__t. I will now tell you about Wyoming.
was a beautiful little district in
sylvania, situated in what is the
present county of Luzerne. Here were
afew small villages, the people of which
ee almost-wholly occupied in agricul-
ture. They were surrounded with charm-
ing forests, and bright meadows, and
green hills, and sparkling rivulets ; all
around was happiness, peace, and plenty.
But this lovely spot was destined to be-
come the scene of cruelties scarcely
equalled in the history of human warfare.
8. The British officers and soldiers
had become very bitter in their feelings
towards the Americans. The capture
of Burgoyne had wounded their pride,
and their general bad success irritated
and exasperated them. Above all, the
French, whom they hated most. cordially,





Ne ae eee ee er eae ae Tal
tlect to office? 5. What is said of the battle of
Monmouth? 6. What is said of Count d’Es-
‘faing? 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. Describe the battle of
Wyoming. Where is it situated ?

+

COMBINED. WITH "GEOGRAPHY.



135

| had now taken part with the Americans,
Acting under the influence of their im-
bittered feelings, they conducted the war,
in many instances, rather as if they were
fighting with savages than with civilized
men.

9. The people of Wyoming had sent
some of their men to fight against the
British, and for this they were to he
scourged. A band of four hundred In-
dians, and about as many tories, were
sent against them. ‘The inhabitants
heard of their danger, but too late for
effectual defence. They, however, threw
up some hasty breastworks, and gathered
their families into them. The enemy at
length appeared before one of the forts,
and pretended that they wished to make
peace. They invited the commander to
come out for this purpose; so he and
the soldiers went to meet them, at a
place appointed in the woods; but when
they reached the spot, not an Indian nor
a tory was there ; they pressed on through
the dark paths of the forests, but found
no one.

10. At last, they saw themselves sur-
rounded by the enemy. The. savages
were in every bush. They sprang out
upon them, uttering terrible yells. All
but sixty, of four hundred men, were
murdered with the most horrible cruelty.

11. The enemy then went back to the
fort, and, to frighten the people within,
hurled over the gates the scalps of their
husbands, brothers, and fathers. They
now inquired of the leader of the tories
what terms he would give them. He
answered only, “The hatchet!” They
fought as long as possible, but the enemy
soon enclosed the fort with dry wood,
and then set it on fire. The unhappy
people within were involved in the flames,
and they all perished —men, women, and
children — in the awful blaze.

12. The whole Wyoming country’

ait

ea
AS

a:
136

now ravaged. The people were scalped ;
the harvests, houses, and orchards were
burnt; even the tongues of the horses
and cattle were cut out, and the poor
creatures left to perish.

—~—

CHAPTER LXXII.
REVOLUTION—ConctLiupep.

1. Tue year 1779 was distinguished
by no remarkable occurrences. The
English took Savannah, and repulsed,
with severe loss, the French and Ameri-
cans, who attempted to recapture the
city. General Tryon went to Connecti-
cut with several hundred men, plundered
New Haven, and burnt the towns. of
Fairfield and Norwalk. In August,
General Sullivan marched against the
Indians in the western part of the State
of New York. These had taken part
with the British, and had committed
many acts of cruelty and violence upon
the inhabitants of the country. , The
American troops went to chastise them
for this conduct.

2. At this time, the whole country,
from Utica westward, was inhabited only
by savages. Yet General Sullivan found
that these had very comfortable houses,
a great many peach and apple trees, and
very fine fields of corn. But it was his
duty to destroy them. He set the vil-
lages on fire, and laid the whole country
waste. He then returned with his men
to his quarters in Pennsylvania.

3. On the 12th of May, 1780, Charles-
ton, in South Carolina, surrendered to
the British, after a gallant defence by
General Lincoln. Several battles took
nlace, during the season, in North and

1. Name some of the events which took place
1779. 2. How did General Sullivan punish the
Sndians? 3. What events took place in 1780?

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,















South Carolina, in most of which
Americans were defeated.

4, In July, Count Rochambeau,
six thousand French troops, arrived im
Rhode Island, and marched across the

the inhabitants with great joy. When
they encamped at night, though most of
them were weary, there were many of
them still ready to spend an hour in
amusement. Some green spot was SC
lected, a violin was brought, and the vil-
lage maidens joined gayly in the dana
with the polite Frenchmen.

The French ae at ne

5. Washington had hoped, with the
assistance of the French troops, to retake
New York; but the British assembled
so great a force there, that it was thought
imprudent to undertake it. Thus the
season passed, the Americans havi
gained nothing, and lost much. The
hopes of the country were indeed very
much depressed ; nor did it revive them
to learn that one of their generals hat
become a traitor to his country.





6. This was Benedict Arnold, the came
man who led an army into Canada, i

—
4, What assistance arrived in 1780? Descsiba)
the picture. 6, 6, 7. Give an account of

treason of Benedict Arnold. What was the fata
‘

=





















‘1775. +e was a very bold and intrepid
man; but he was selfish and unprinci-
pled. He held the command of a very
important fort at West Point. He sig-
hified to the British his willingness to
sive up the fort, and Major Andre, a fine
young officer, was sent privately to make
abargain with him. It was agreed that
‘Arnold should put the British in posses-
sion of the fort, and that they should
five him fifty thousand dollars, and a
general’s command in the British army.
_ 7. When all things were arranged,
‘Andre secretly set out to return; but he
was detécted, and the whole plot was
discevered. Arnold escaped to the Brit-
ish at New York, and his name has

Many battles and skirmishes were fought
m North and South Carolina. The
British were commanded by Lord Corn-
Wallis, and the Americans by General
Greene. The latter were frequently de-
feated, yet they were never discouraged ;
‘tnd the result of the whole campaign
was highly advantageous to the Ameri-
ean cause.
9. About this time, Arnold, the trai-
tor, was sent with some British troops
at New London. They took Fort
riswold by assault, and after the gar-
rison had surrendered, murdered nearly
a whole of them in cold blood. They
en burnt New London to the ground,
and returned to New York. But the
period of British triumph was fast draw-
to a close.
10. In the summer of 1781, Lord
Cornwallis was stationed at Yorktown,

as
of Andre? 8. What events took place in North
and South Carolina in the spring of 1781?
4 Tescribe the attack upon New London. 10,

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.





j
187

in Virginia, with ten thousand British
troops. Washington was near New
York, making preparations to attack that
city, where Sir Henry Clinton held the
command. But his army being too
small, he determined to march to the
south, against Cornwallis. Accordingly,
he set out with the army; and before
Sir Henry Clinton suspected his design,
he had already: crossed the Delaware.
Washington marched on, and was joined
by a large number of French troops,
who had just arrived in the Chesapeake,
under Count de Grasse.

11. The combined army amounted to
sixteen thousand men. Cornwallis was
sheltered by strong fortifications; but
the Americans.and French drew near,
planted their cannon, and, on the 9th of
October, began to pour in their shot upon
him. A tremendous cannonade was now
kept up night and day. The walls of
the British fort were battered down,
their cannon were silenced, and their
men slaughtered by hundreds. Corn-
wallis attempted to eScape, but did not
succeed. At length, finding all resist-
ance vain, he offered to capitulate, and
on the 19th, the whole army surren-
dered.

12. This splendid victory, in . effect,
closed the war. The British govern-
ment saw that America could not be con-
quered. Accordingly they abandoned
the attempt, acknowledged the inde-
pendence of the United States, and, in
1783, a treaty of peace between the two
nations was signed. The British troops
now took their departure ; and our coun-
try, thenceforward, assunied her station
among the independent nations of the
earth.

11. What is said of the defeat of Cornwallis ?
12. When did Great Britain acknowledge the
independence of the United States ? Me


138

CHAPTER LXXIII.

CNITED STATES AFTER THE
REVOLUTION.

1. I HAVE now told you of the revo-
Iutionary war. It is scarcely possible
for us to conceive of the sufferings of
the people during this struggle of eight
years. Thousands of them were killed;
towns were burnt down; the lands lay
uncultivated; many of the churches had
ceased to be places of worship, and had
become barracks for soldiers. Hundreds
of families had been broken up; thou-
sands had been reduced from wealth to
poverty; widows were mourning for their
husbands who were slain; children were
thrown upon the world without protec-
tion ; and society, having lost its charac-
ter for pure morality, was stained with
profligacy and vice.

2. Besides all this, though our coun-
try had gained peace and independence,
it was still without a regular govern-
ment.

3. I suppose you know that no family
can live comfortably together without
some one to govern them; no school
could be kept together for a day without
some one to govern it. In families and
schools, certain rules are established for
their government; and when these are
complied with, every thing goes on pleas-
antly. So it is with states and nations.
if there were no laws, or nobody to put
them in force, the strong would rob the
weak of their possession, the cunning
would deceive the simple, and thus a
large part of the community would be-
come the victims of injustice, cruelty,
and crime. _ Happily, we had wise and



1. What is said of the trials and sufferings of
the people during their struggle for liberty ?
2. What was their condition at the close of the
war? 3. What is said of the importance of gov-
ernment? Of the formation and adoption of the

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,





7




good men at this time, as we.l as orav¢
ones during the war. These men, see
ing the necessities.of the country, called
a convention, consisting of delegates from
the thirteen colonies. These men ag
sembled at Philadelphia, in May, 1787,
and drew up a plan of government whi
is called the Constitution of the United
States. This was presented to Congrest.
in September of the same year, and ber
ing ratified by the people, went into ope
eration in 1789; and since that time
has continued to be the foundation
our national government.

4. Under this Constitution, Washing
ton was chosen, by the people, President
of the United States, and Congress ax
sembled at Philadelphia to make laws
for the country. All things now began
to go on well. The people returned to
their habits of industry, and the mead
ows and wheat fields began to bloom
once more. Poverty and mourning
ceased, the ministers of the gospel re
turned to their churches, and peace and
plenty were spread over the land. After
Washington had been president four
years, the people chose him again, and
he held the office four years longer. He
then declined a reélection; and retiring
to his country seat, at Mount Vernon,
spent the remainder of his days in ate
tending to his farm. He died in 1799,

5. George Washington was one of the
greatest and best men that ever lived;
his memory is cherished, by the Ameri+
can people, as that of a father, and
is held in veneration throughout tha
world. He not only saved his country
by his bravery, skill, and prudence, but
he has done, and will do, mere good ta

Constitution of the United States? 4. Who wag
first chosen president under the Constitution 2
What effect did the new government have upon
this country? When did Washington die?
5. What is said of the character of Washington)































nm that ever existed. Other. gener-
and other statesmen, by looking to
m, will feel their selfishness rebuked,
ir ambition chastened, their patriot-

bod will to mankind expanded and
engthened. The holy influence which
Vashington’s name and character will
upon the world is incalculable ;
ile human society lasts, they will
er cease to shed their blessings upon
nkind.
6. I will endeavor to illustrate the
luence of Washington’s example. I
ave told you of Lafayette, who left
sand luxury at home, and came to
ip the Americans in their struggle for
He became the intimate friend
Washington, and his noble heart was
ply imbued with the lofty and pure
entiments of that great man.
. After our war was over, he re-
farned to his own country. The spirit
liberty was soon after kindled in
ance. ‘True to his principles, La-
ette stood forth as the friend of free-
om, justice, and humanity. But ambi-
tious men arose, and a horrible scene
‘of strife, bloodshed, and anarchy spread
‘over the land. Then Bonaparte came.
In his attempts to conquer the world,
millions of human beings were slain.

8. During all this time, Lafayette
was banished, or in prison. But, at
Aengtli, Bonaparte died. The selfish and
the bloodthirsty had perished, and their
schemes had perished with them. Again
the spirit of liberty visited France, and

in Lafayette appeared as the friend
his country and mankind.
~ 9. Amidst the tumult of angry pas-
gions, he remained calm and steadfast.
The example of Washington was ever

47, §, 3. What is said of Lafayette? (0. Of his
ww

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

2 warmed and elevated, and their,

139

nkind by his example than any other || before him. His countrymen discovered

his sincerity, and they placed their des-
tiny in his hands. At the age of nearly

eighty years, he was the admiration of

the world. Thus Lafayette, by studying
the character of Washington, became
what he was ; and other patriots, hereaf-
ter, will glory in following the exarp’e
of Lafayette.

10. I must not forget to tell you of
Lafayette’s visit to this country, in 1824.
He was weleomed by all the people, for
they remembered how he came in his
youth and fought for the country. He
went back in a short time to France, and
died a few years ago.

11. There is another point of view
in which it is delightful to think of Wash-
ington. He had many enemies, and
during his lifetime, by intrigue and
falsehood, they made many people be-
lieve that he was a bad man. But their
voices are now hushed, and their names
have passed into contempt; while his
name, like the ascending sun, gathers
additional brightness with the advance
of time. This may teach us that virtue
and vice have, ultimately, their reward.
One brings disgrace, the other honorable
fame. Mankind will, sooner or later,
pass a just sentence upon the actions of
their fellow-beings. Though an intri-
guer may flourish for a time, yet the
stamp of ignominy will inevitably be im-
pressed upon him. The falsehood, the
selfishness, and the meanness which hey
thinks to hide in his own breast forever,
will, some time or other, be brought to
light. He cannot escape.

12. In 1797, John Adams, of Massa-
chusetts, was chosen president. He was
a member of the old Congress that sat



visit to this country in 1824? 11. What is sala
of Washington’s enemies? What lesson may
we derive from this? 12. Who was chosen pres+
ident to succeed General Washington? What is




140 THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

at Philadelphia during the war, and
brought the country safely through that
trying period. He was a man of great
eloquence.
otic feelings, and he had the art of utter-
ing them with such force as to awaken
similar feelings in the breasts of others.
Ife lifted his voice against the tyranny
of Britain, and pleaded earnestly for the
eause of liberty. In this way he pro-
duced great effect; and in gratitude for
these things, the people chose him presi-
dent.

13. During his administration, the
city of Washington became the seat of
government. In 1800, Congress, which
before had sat at Philadelphia, removed
to this place ; and it has ever since held
its sessions there. It has now grown up to
be quite a large city. Itis situated in the
District of Columbia, which is a tract of
land on the Potomac River. The peo-
ple are under the government of Con-
gress. It was ceded to the United States
in 1790, and has now over forty thou-
sand inhabitants.

—— pa

CHAPTER LXXIV.

GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED
STATES.

1. I witt now tell you about the
government of the United States. You
will recollect that thirteen of the colo-
nies existed, and acted together, in the
time of the revolution. They were
afterwards united together as states,
under the present Constitution. The
other states have since been added.

2. The Constitution of the United
States provides that the government
shall consist of three branches, namely,



said of him? 13. To what place was the seat of
government removed in 1800?
2. Into how many branchs is the government

His heart was full of patri-










the legislative, or law-making powen
the executive, and the judiciary.
3. The legislative branch is vested in
a Congress, consisting of a Senate and
House of Representatives. These ¢
houses meet in the Capitol at Washing.
ton, to make laws for the United States








Members of Congress going to the Capitol. ~

The Senate consists of two members
from each of the states, chosen by the
several state legislatures. They hold
the office for six years. The member
of the House of Representatives are
chosen in districts by the“people of the
several states. These districts are formed
according to the population, every seve
ty thousand six hundred and eighty ip
habitants being entitled to one memben
They are chosen for two years.

4, The process of making a law is
this: Sometimes the people send a
petition to Congress, asking them to
make a law. Some member brings in
what is called a dill, either’ before the |
House of Representatives or Senate,



of the United States divided? 3. In what is the —
legislative branch vested? Where does Congress
meet? Of what does the Senate consist ? How
are they chosen? For what time are they
chosen ? How are the members of the Housg
of Representatives chosen? How are these die
tricts formed? 4, What is the process of making






































Tt is there discussed. If a majority agree
to it, the bill is then sent to the other
house. If a majority of both houses
wree to it, and the President signs the
Dill, it becomes a law.

5. Now let me remind you that there
re over twenty-three millions of people
\the United States. It is for the gov-
mment of this vast family that these
ws are made. If they are good laws,
people will be prosperous and happy;
Pthey are bad laws, the people will be
ade miserable. How important it is,
ef, that these law-makers should be
od and, wise men!

6. At the head of the executive de-
rtment is the President of the United
fates, whose duty it is to see that the busi-
ess of government is executed througb-
ut the whole country according to the
vs made by Congress. He is assisted,
n the discharge of his duty, by five
secretaries. One of these is called the
secretary of state, another the secre-
ary of the treasury, another the sec-
‘etary of war, another the secretary
of the navy, and a fifth, called the sec-
retary of the interior. These secreta-
fies, with the postmaster general and
‘the attorney general, form the “ Presi-
dent’s cabinet.”

7%. If we call upon the secretary
of state at his office, we shall be likely
find him. busily engaged in looking
er papers, many of which consist of
etters sent by our ambassadors and
other agents from all the principal coun-
ti in the world, telling him how affairs
e going on in those places.

8. If we call upon the secretary of the
treasury, we shall also witness a busy



slew? 5. What kind of men should we be care-
ful to send to Congress? 6. Who is at the head
the executive department? By whom is he
ein 7. What are some of the duties of the
‘secretary of state? 8. Of the secretary of the

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.














141

scene. A great amount of money is
required to carry on the expenses of
the government. The salaries of the
president and his secretaries, of the
members of Congress, and of thousands
of persons in the employ of the goverm
ment, are all to be paid, and immerses
sums are annually expended for the
support of the army and navy, and for
the erection of forts, breakwaters, ligk t
houses, and other things.

9. It will be interesting to you to

know how all this money is raised. I
will tell you.
the government lands in the territories,
and, second, by a tax laid upon articles
of merchandise brought from foreign

First, from the sale of

countries.

10. I have told you that a great many
vessels are employed in New York, Phil-
adelphia, Boston, Baltimore, Charleston,
and New Orleans, in’ carrying cotton,
grain, and other products to various parts
of the world. These vessels bring back
sugar, molasses, and coffee from the West
Indies; hardware, cotton and woollen
goods, cloths, and many other things from
England; silks, watches, and jewelry
from France; wines and fruit from
Sicily; figs from Smyrna; teas from
China; and a great variety of other ar-
ticles from different parts of the world.

11. When a vessel arrives with any
of these things from a foreign country,
they are examined by officers of the cus-
tom house, and the tax or duty that has
been fixed upon them by Congress is
paid. The money that is thus collected
passes into the treasury of the United
States. The secretary of the treasury
superintends the collecting of this vast
sum of money, and the paying of it to



treasury? 9. How is the money raised for these
purposes? 10. Describe the commerce in which
several of the cities are engaged. 11. How is
the duty on these goods collected? What is

ack
142

the various persons employed by the
government.

12. The secretary of war takes care
of the affairs of the army, which, in
time of peace, consists of a few thousand
men, who are distributed throughout the
various fortifications, navy yards, and
military posts in the United States.

13. The secretary of the navy su-
perintends the various affairs connected
with the naval department of the gov-
ernment, such as the construction, re-
pairs, and outfits of the public vessels,
the charge of all the navy yards, and the
furnishing of supplies to the navy; and
the postmaster general is charged with
the superintendence of the post offices
throughout the United States.

14. The judiciary consists of several
judges, whose duty it is to explain and
apply the laws of Congress.

15. Such are the departments at Wash-
ington. You will now understand that
the business of governing this great na-
tion is a vast concern; and as it is the
duty of the president to watch over all
these matters, you will readily perceive
that he must be a man of great knowl-
edge and industry, to be able to discharge
well his important duties.

16. I will now tell you how the pres-
ident is chosen. The people in each of
the states choose a number of electors,
and these electors choose the president.
He is elected for four years. The pres-
ident appoints his secretaries, the post-
master general, ambassadors to foreign
courts, judges of the United States
Court, and many other public officers ;
but it is necessary that the Senate con-
firm these appointments.

done with the money? 12. What is the duty of
the secretary of war? 13. Of the secretary of
the navy? Of the postmaster general? 14, Of
what does the judiciary consist? 16. Howis the
president chosen?

\

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

















CHAPTER LXXYV.
THE STATE GOVERNMENTS.

1. I HAVE just been telling you of the
national government, the seat of which
is at Washington. But you know thi
our country consists of thirty-one differs
ent states, and each of these has a goye
ernment of its own. ‘This may seem @
sort of puzzle, at first, but it is easily
understood by a little study. You hav
only to bear in mind that the nation
government has charge of certain gre
matters, in which all are interested.
chief of these are the army, navy, com
merce, and the post office. The oth
concerns are managed by the state gov
ernments. The people of each sta
choose a governor, and certain persons
to make laws for them; and judges are
appointed to expound the law. }
the government of each state is divided
into the executive, the legislative, and
the judicial departments. a

2. The governor is at the head of the
executive department, and it is his dub
to superintend public affairs in the state
and see that every thing goes on accord
ing to the laws. The legislature is the
law-making power, and consists of a
ate and House of Representatives, chosen
by the people. The judicial department
consists of various judges, who hold their
courts at different places, to try men who
have been guilty of crimes, and to settle
disputes which arise between different
individuals. In order te enable you J
understand the operation of the state
government, I will tell you a story.

3. One night, a man was riding alone |
through a forest. It was rather dark,
but still he was able to perceive two men —
standing by the roadside. As he came 7

1. Into what is the government of each stata
divided? 2. Describe each department. 3, 4
Relate the story to explain the operation of gov

‘ Za


COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY. 1438

Up, they seized the horse’s bridle, pulled
the man to the ground, and robbed him
of his watch and all his money. They

‘then ran away as fast as they could.

e man was a good deal bruised, but
he went to the next town and told what

‘had happened. Several of the people
‘immediately set out in pursuit of the
‘obbers. Early in the morning, two men
were found in the forest, near where the
‘obbery had been committed. They
“were seized, and, after a slight examina-
tion, they were put in prison to await
their trial.

_ 4, After a few weeks, the judges met
in the court house, and twelve men, called
_ were selected from the people.

two prisoners were then brought
Vefore the court, and carefully examined.
te man who had been robbed told his

ry, and said that these two men ap-

ared to be the robbers, but he could
Not certainly tell, for the night was pretty
dark. The persons who seized the pris-

_oners were then examined, and they tes-
tified that they found the man’s watch,
‘and his pocket book, full of money, in
‘the possession of the prisoners. These

convinced the jury that they were
e robbers, and accordingly they brought
in a verdict of guilty. The judge then
pronounced their sentence, which was,
‘that they should be shut up in the state
Prison for ten, years, and there be obliged
to work hard all the time.
5. I have told you this story to make

a urderstand several things. The

s of the land forbid such crimes as
Tobbery, theft, and murder. If any per-
60n commit any of these crimes, the law

“Tequires that he shall be seized, tried,
tondemned, and punished. Thus you
gee that the law makes it very danger-
ous for one person to do injury to anoth-

er, and thus acts of injustice and cruelty



are seldom practised. It is in this way
that the law becomes a protection to the
people. It is in this way that a man is
enabled to feel secure in the possession
of his house, his lands, his money, his
goods, and his property generally. If
there were no law, every thing would be
in a state of confusion ; no person’s prup+
erty would be safe. The strong man
would rob the weak man, and violence
would take the place of justice.

6. There are some other things which
I wish you toremark. In the first place,
remember that no man is condemned un-
til he has a fair trial before a court. In
the second place, remember that a court
for the trial of most cases consists of the
judges and a jury of twelve men. The
duty of the jury is to hear the evidence,
and determine the fact whether the per-
son is guilty or not. When the verdict
is rendered, it is the duty of the judge
to decide what punishment the law pre-
scribes for the crime.

7. But it is not the only business of
government to provide for the punish-
ment of felons. The roads upon which
we travel from one place to another, the
court houses, school houses, and many
other things, are constructed by order
of the government. In order to manage
the affairs of the states with more ease,
they are divided into counties. Each
county has a court house, a court,.and a
prison. There are also county officers,
to attend to the roads and other matters.
In some of the states, the couuties are
subdivided into cities and towns, the offi-
cers of which take charge of the schools,
the paupers, and other local interests.

8. It is, therefore, the duty of every



from good laws. 6. How is punishment for
offences administered? 7. For what other busi-
ness does government provide? What divisions
of the state are made? 8. How'should all. laws

Sa Lee
wmment. 5. Name-some-of the benefits arising || be respected? Why?
144

person in the community to obey the
laws under which we live. I assure you
that young people are as much inter-
ested in government as others, If it
were not for the government and the
laws, you would not be sure of a home ;
your father’s house might be taken from
him by violence ; you could not at even-
ing sit down by the pleasant fireside,
and feel secure and happy under the
protection of your parents. If it were
not for the laws, there would be no
schools where you might learn to read
and write, there would be no pleasant
roads for people to travel upon, and you
would not be permitted, as you now are,
to go to church on Sunday, and worship
God according to the faith of your
fathers.
——

CHAPTER LXXVI.

GENERAL REMARKS ON GOY-
ERNMENT.

1. In order to understand the govern-
ment of our own country, it is well to
compare it with others. You will ob-
serve that, in this country, the govern-
ment and laws are formed by the peo-
ple, or by persons of their choice; the
officers who administer the government
are also elected by the people. Ours
is, therefore, a republican government,
which is supposed to be better than any
other, because it is adapted to promote
the happiness of all.

2. In most other countries, the gov-
ernment is not formed by the people
generally, but by a few persons. A
king is placed at the head, the people
having nothing to do with his election.
When a king dies, his eldest son usually
succeeds him, and he reigns as long as

1. What is said of the government of this
eountry? 2. Of other countries? 3, How are

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

























he lives. This species of goverrmen
called a monarchy.

8. The nations of Europe are g
erally governed by kings, who live
splendid palaces, and are surround
with great wealth and splendor. Bei
independent of the people, they ha
little intercourse with them, but live in
state of haughty separation from all ¢
cept a few great people, called courtier
In order to create a society fit for th
presence of a king, certain families
endowed with great wealth and titles
distinction. One man is called a d
another an earl, and another a baron
These are spoken of under the gene
title of lords, and, with their famili
are considered a great deal better th
the common people. Now, in a coun
where such a system as this prevails, f
government and laws are not equ
These confer certain benefits on som
which are denied to others, and ther
sult is, that, while there are a few W
are very rich and proud, there are mai
who are poor and degraded.

4. In this country, you will obser
that we have no king to rule over th
people whether they like him or nd
there are no proud dukes, earls, a
barons, who look down with contemp
upon the common people. The la
here are equal, giving the same prote
tion and the same privileges to the mic
and the poor, and conferring no title
except such as are bestowed by the voice
of the people, for services rendered
the public. The great difference be
tween our country, then, and most ¢
ers, is, that ours is a land of liberty,
while despotism reigns elsewhere i
greater or less degree. Here the people
are free to seek happiness in their ow
the nations of Europe mostly governed ?

effect does such a system have upon the people!
4. How does the government of our coun


























y, provided they obey the laws.
Jere the people have no masters; the
vernment is their own; it is one they
have made to suit themselves; and the

e their agents and servants. These
ome in by their choice, and go out at
heir bidding.
5. In some despotic governments,
however, there is much more freedom
than in others. A good king may some-
‘times govern kindly and wisely; and,
in some countries, the power of the king
s checked by legislative assemblies, sim-
ilar to our Congress, in the choice of
which the people are permitted to have
‘some influence. This is the case in
England, where the people enjoy a good
leal of freedom. But in France, Spain,
Austria, and Russia, the people have
little power, and the haughty monarchs
rule them with a rod of iron.
6. We have great reason, therefore, to
love our country, not merely because it is
‘our own, but because of that glorious sys-
tem of government which affords the same
kind shelter to the rich and the poor, the
strong and the weak; because it makes
‘no invidious distinctions, but is like the
sun in the sky, which sheds its warmth
and light equally upon all. But, while
we cherish this love of our country, let
“us avoid all vainglory and idle boasting.
if we ever meet with foreigners, let us
‘not insult them by insisting upon the
superiority of our institutions over theirs.
Let us remember that, in many respects,
the older countries of Europe possess
advantages over ours; and, if it were
otherwise, it would be wrong to wound
the feelings of others for what is rather
their misfortune than their fault.



compare with that of most others? 5. How do
_ the governments of foreign countries differ from
each other? 6. Why should we love our own

_ eountry ?
a 10

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

145

CHAPTER LXXVII.
THE UNITED STATES.

1. In 1801, Thomas Jefferson, of
Virginia, was elected president of the
United States. He, too, was an ardent
friend of liberty, and exerted himself,
during the revolution, to save the coun-
try. In 1803, he purchased of the
French, for the United States, an im-
mense tract of land, called Louisiana,
lying between the Mississippi and the
Pacific Ocean. Of this I have told you
in the history of the State of Louisiana.
In 1805, Mr. Jefferson was elected pres-
ident a second time.

2. In 1809, James Madison, of Vir-
ginia, was elected president. During
his administration, there was a war be-
tween this country and Great Britain.
It was declared by this country in 1812.
The principal cause of the war was,
that the ships of that nation frequently
met our vessels upon the sea, and their
officers behaved in a very improper
manner. They took the liberty to search
our vessels, and, if they found any Eng-
lish sailors on board, they took them
forcibly away. Sometimes they mistook
American for English sailors, and thus
many of our countrymen were forced
into the British navy, and were there
obliged to fight the battles of the Eng-
lish.

8. After the war was declared, the
government of England sent a great
many vessels with soldiers to fight
against our country. In the history of
Maryland, I have told you how they
burnt the public buildings at Washing-
ton, and how the British were roughly







J. When was Mr. Jefferson elected president
of the United States? 2. When was Mr. Mad-
json elected? When was war declared against
Great Britain? What was the principal cause
of the war? 3, 4,5. What is said of the war?
146

handled at North Point. In the history
of Louisiana, I have told you how they
were slaughtered by the Americans un-
der General Jackson. Many other bat-
tles and skirmishes took place, particu-
larly along the boundary between Can-
ada and the United States.

4. But the most interesting occur-
rences happened upon the sea. We
had only a few ships of war; but these
were commanded by Decatur, Hull, and
other gallant officers. Occasionally they
fell in with the British ships, and dread-
ful battles followed. The English sea-
men, like their soldiers, were brave and
’ skilful. They had great renown; and,

being accustomed to beat all other ships,
expected to beat ours also. But in this
they were mistaken. In the very first
encounter, the Americans beat the Brit-
ish, and brought one of their large ships
in triumph to America. Several other
ships, and two whole fleets on the lakes,
were taken by the Americans.

5. I cannot tell you of all the gallant
achievements that took place during the
war, but you will easily find some person
who knows all about them, and who will
take pleasure in telling you the whole
story. You must ask particularly about
Commodore Macdonough, who captured
a great number of vessels on Lake Chani-
plain, and about Commodore Perry, who
took as many more on Lake Erie. You
must ask about the brave Captain Law-
rence, who was killed, and whose ship,
the Chesapeake, was taken by the British.

. You can find interesting accounts of
these things in various histories which
have been written.

6. In 1813, Madison was elected a
second time, and, in 1817, James Mon-
roe, of Virginia, became president. He
was elected a second time in 1821; and



6. Name the presidents of the United States

‘ee

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY

in 1825, John Quincy Adams, of Mas
chusetts, was chosen to succeed h
Mr. Adams was president for four yeai
In 1829, General Jackson became pres
ident; then Mr. Van Buren, in 1887
then General Harrison, in 1841; up
his death, which happened soom aft
his inauguration, Mr. Tyler becami
president. He was succeeded by Ma
Polk, in 1845. , ‘

7. During the administration of M
Polk, a war occurred between Mexie
and the United States. Mexico wa
invaded by the armies of the Unite
States, and several severe ‘battles wer
fought. The Mexicans were conquere
in every engagement; and a treaty of
peace was effected in 1848, by which
large portion of the territory of Mexi
was ceded to the United States.

8. Mr. Polk was succeeded by Genera
Taylor, in 1849. General Taylor li
to hold the office but about sixt
months, and, upon his decease, MreFi
more, the vice president, succeeded hi








——

CHAPTER LXXVIIIL
THE UNITED STATES.

of the United States; but I have som
more things to tell you about our co
*



What are the boundaries of the United Sta
What great lakes lie along the northern
daries of the United States? What river i
outlet? What range of mountains runs no
east and south-west in the eastern part of th
United States ?— Note. The several ranges

who have been elected since Mr. Madiso
7. What took place during the administrat
of Mr. Polk? ‘ aan

1, What is said of the rivers of the Ux








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COMB.NED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

‘dry. if you look upon the map of the
United States you will observe that the
ivers east of the Appalachian chain flow
nto the Atlantic. ‘Those west of the
Rocky Mountains flow into the Pacific.
he rivers between these two chains
empty into the Mississippi.

2. Our country may be divided into
three pares: that which lies east of the
Alleghanies; that which lies west of the

Rocky Mountains ; and that which lies
etween the two. The first part is that

which was first settled, and which is
‘most thickly inhabited. It abounds in
Tivers and seaports, and embraces those

tending from New England to Georgia, including
the Green Mountains in New England, the Cats-
‘kill in New York, the Blue Ridge, Alleghanies,
‘and Cumberland Mountains in the Middle and
hern States, may be considered as one great
n, and usually pass under the title of the
ppalachian chain. — What great range of
mountains in the western part of the United
tates? In which direction does this range
fun ?— Note. The Rocky Mountains are a part
Mf the great chain that extends from the south-
n part of South America to the northern part
North America. This is the longest chain of
untains in the world, being near eleven thou-
gand miles tong. The tops of some of the Rocky
‘Mountains are very lofty, and are always covered
h snow. — What is the largest river in the
United States ?— Note. The River Mississippi,
including the Missouri, which flows into it, is
the longest in the world, being about four thou-
tand five hundred miles long.— Describe the
Mississippi River; Missouri, Ohio, Susquehan-
“nah, Delaware, Hudson, Connecticut, Potomac,
Kennebec, Penobscot. Tell the names of those
states that touch upon the Atlantic. Those that
touch upon the Gulf of Mexico. Tell the names
of those states that have no seaboard. Tell the
4 of each capital of each state, with its direc-
R from Washington, from Philadelphia, from
New York, and from where you are. Tell the
1 t ofeach state, beginning at the largest,
: proceeding in the order of their extent.
‘Btat 2. How may the United States be di-
‘vided? Whatis said of the first part? The

an

147

portions of the country which were set
tled before the American revolution.

8. The second division of our coun-.
try, lying west of the Rocky Mountains, ~
is inhabited by Indians, with the excep-
tion of Oregon and California, on the
Pacific, and New Mexico and Utah,
among the Cordilleras. The third di-
vision, which usually passes under the
title of the Valley of the Mississippi,
is the most extensive and the most
fertile section of the United States.
Almost all the settlements here are of
recent date; yet every thing is flour-
ishing. Emigrants are flocking to it
from all parts of the world, and cities,
towns, and villages are springing up in
every quarter,

4. It is not easy to form an adequate
idea of this great valley. The State of
Ohio does not embrace more than one
thirtieth part of it. Yet this state has
nearly two millions of inhabitants. What
a vast population, then, will, in the
course of afew years, be spread over
the great Valley of the Mississippi! In
1847, it had a population of eight and a
half millions, and when as densely peo-
pled as France, its surface will sustain
more than one hundred millions.

5. In surveying the present condition
of our country, we can scarcely refrain
from asking, in the language of an elo-
quent writer,* Who of our ancestors
anticipated results from their toils so
stupendous as those which we behold?
Who of them predicted, while they were
laying up the pines of the forest for a
shelter, that they were commencing an
empire, which, within little more than
two centuries, would extend thousands of

* Charles A. Goodrich.

second? Thethird? 4. Of the population of
this valley? 6, 6, 7, 8, 9,10. What is said im
conclusion ?


148 THE
miles, and embrace within its bosom more
than twenty millions of the human race ?
Who then thought of cities, with their
busy population, a thousand miles from
the waters of the Atlantic? or of fleets,
en inland seas, proceeding to and return-
ing from distant voyages? Such results
must have been beyond even the dreams
of fancy. Yet a little more than two
centuries has brought them to pass.

6. In the progress of our history, we
have seen the American people, while
sustaining only the character of colonists,
and struggling with the discouragements
and difficulties of new settlements, main-
taining at their own expense, and bringing
to prosperous conclusion, wars which a
selfish and jealous mother country, by her
pride and imprudence, had occasioned.
We have seen these colonies, amidst all
the oppressions which they experienced,
through exactions, and calumnies, loss
of charters, and one abridgment of lib-
erty after another, still maintaining their
loyalty — still indulging the feelings, and
adopting the language, of affection, until
justice, and patriotism, and religion, bid
them rise to assert their rights which the
God of nature designed for all his ra-
tional offspring.

7. Through a long and trying war,
in which inexperience had to contend
with discipline, and poverty with wealth,
we see them pledging their fortunes, lib-
erties, and lives to one another, and, to
the astonishment of the world, accom-
plishing their emancipation. And, when
emancipated and transformed into an in-
dependent nation, we see them calmly
betaking themselves to the organization
of a government, under a Constitution as
wise as it was singular, and whose ex-
cellency and competency the experience
of more than sixty years has confirmed.
Simultaneously with these events, what
extensive conquests have been made on

FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,































the wilderness! Deserte nave put on
beauty and fruitfulness, ard a way be
constantly extending towards the wate

of the Pacific, for the advance of civil
ization and religion.

8. Had we the spirit of prophecy,
in respect to the future condition of
America, this would not be the place to
indulge it. No nation, however, ever
possessed, in a higher degree, the meang
of national prosperity. - - Oar territory is
ample —our soil fertile—our climate
propitious — our citizens enterprising,
brave,eand persevering. A sea-coast
of more than three thousand miles, in-
land seas, numerous canals and rail
roads, facilitate foreign and domesti¢
trade. Being free and independent of
other nations, we can frame our laws,
and fashion our institutions, as expe-
rience and an enlightened policy shall
dictate. Our universities and colleges
are yearly qualifying numbers for the
higher professions of life, while our
academies and schools are diffusing intel-
ligence, to an unparalleled extent, among
our virtuous yeomanry.

9. The Bible and the-institutions of
Christianity are with us, and are present:
ing to.us all the blessings which religion
can impart. Thus circumstanced, what
should prevent our country from advan-
cing to that eminence of national happi-
ness, beyond which national happiness can-
not extend ? — “ Manufactures may here
rise— busy commerce, inland and for-
eign, distribute our surplus produce, aug-
ment our capital, give energy to industry,
improvement to roads, patronage to arts
and sciences, vigor to schools, ard uni-
an to the institutions of religion;
reconciling civil liberty with efficient
government, extended population with —
concentrated action, and unparalleled
wealth with sobriety and morality.”

10. Let but the spirit, the practical




























dom, the religious integrity of the
irst planters of our soil prevail among
tulers and subjects,—let God be ac-
knowledged, by giving that place to his
word and institutions which they claim,
-—and all these blessings are ours. We
shall enjoy peace with nations abroad,
and tranquillity at home. As years re-
yolve, the tide of our national prosperity
ill flow broader and deeper. In the
beautiful language of inspiration, “Our
sons will be as plants grown up in their
youth, and our daughters as corner
es, polished after the similitude of a
palace. Our garners will be full, includ-

g all manner of stores; our sheep will
bring forth by thousands and ten thou-
ands ; our oxen will be strong to labor ;
: there will: be no breaking in, or go-
ing out, or complaining in our streets.
Bs is that people that is in such a
ease ; yea, happy is that people whose
God is the Lord.”

—

4

CHAPTER LXXIX.

BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH
AMERICA.

_1. Tue British Possessions comprise
all that part of North America lying
north of the United States, with the ex-
ception of the Russian possessions on
the north-west, and Greenland on the
north-east. It is a vast extent of coun-
try, but all the northern portion is cold,
barren, and uninhabited, except by scat-
tered tribes of Indians. The settled por-
tions of the country are divided into
the provinces of Canada, Newfound-
land, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and
Prince Edward’s Island. Each of these

1. What is said of the British Possessions in
America? How are they bounded? Into
Wat provinces is it divided? Howis it gov-



COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

149

provinées has its own legislature and
governor; but the supreme authority is
vested in the King and Parliament of
Great Britain.

2. Canada West, or Upper Canada,
and Canada East, or Lower Canada,
were once separate provinces; but they
were united in 1841. This is the most
important British settlement on the cone
tinent. Its average breadth from south
to north is about three hundred miles,
and its length from Lake Superior to
the Island of Anticosta is near one
thousand miles. Most of this surface is
situated within the basin of the St. Law-
rence River. The winters are very cold,
and the greatest part of the country is
covered with snow several months in the
year; but the heat in summer is very
great. Wheat, barley, rye, Indian corn,
and oats are successfully cultivated.

3. We must take a trip to Canada,
for there are many remarkable things
to be seen there. We shall find steam-
boats on Lake Ontario and Lake Erie,
which will carry us across those great
waters. We may also visit the upper
lakes, Huron and Superior. Along the
shores of these great inland seas, we
shall find but few white inhabitants, un-
less we meet with parties who are going
to hunt wild animals, or trade with the
Indians. When we are upon Lake Su-
perior, we shall be astonished at its mag-
nitude. It contains the greatest body
of fresh water in the world, being about
four hundred and twenty miles long,
more than one hundred miles wide, and
in some places nine hundred feet deep.
erned? 2. When were the Canadas united ? What
is said of the extentof Canada? Describe the St.
Lawrence River. What is said of the climate ?
Of its products? 3. What great lakes between
Canada and the United States? What is said
of Lake Superior? Where are the following
lakes: Winnipeg, Athapescow, Slave, Wollas-
ton, Great Bear, Deer? "Where is Hudson’s
150

Extensive mines of copper are to be seen
in many places on the American shore.

4. In passing from these lakes to the
St. Lawrence River and the Atlantic
Ocean, we shall see expensive and beau-
tiful canals, which have recently been
cons:ructed. The Welland Canal opens
a way for sloops and boats from Lake
Erie to Lake Ontario. From Lake On-
tario to Montreal, the St. Lawrence is
broken by a succession of rocks and
rapids; and these obstructions are over-
come by the Rideau Canal, which ex-
tends from Kingston on the lake to By-
town, on the Ottawa River, which is
navigable to Montreal.

5. In Montreal, we shall find much to
interest us. The city is built on an
island, and extends along the river two
miles, and in some places the streets ex-
tend two miles inland from the river.
It has an excellent harbor, and vessels
drawing fifteen feet of water may enter
it with safety. The quay is about a
mile in length, and is said to rival in
beauty and strength the most celebrated
works of the same kind in England.
Montreal is the great commercial city of
British America, and from its situation
must continue to increase rapidly in
wealth and population. It is at the head
of ship navigation on the St. Lawrence
River, and is, therefore, the principal
depot for the produce of the country,
which is brought here from the lakes, by
way of the Welland and Rideau Canals,
to be shipped to the various ports in
England. It is also the centre of com-
merce between Canada and the United
States, by way of Lake Champlain and
Hudson River.

6. Montreal has many large and beauti-



Bay?) Baffin’s Bay? 4. What is said of canals?
Where is Kingston? Bytown? Ottawa River?
». What is said of Montreal? Of its harbor and
sommercial advantages? 6. What is said of the



>

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

ful public edifices. The Roman Jatho
Cathedral is a magnificent structure, ant
is capable of accommodating about twel
thousand persons. It has six towers, three
of which are two hundred and twent;
feet high. The view from these of
city and its suburbs, and the river and t
surrounding country, is exceedingly bea
tiful. The Church of England also pres
sents a fine appearance. The other
principal buildings are the Government
House, the Hospital, and the Bark.

7. We will now step on board a fine
large steamboat, and proceed down the
St. Lawrence to Quebec. We. shall
greatly admire this majestic river. It
is spotted with thousands of beautiful
green islands, and along the banks there
are multitudes of pleasant-little villages,
As we approach the city of Quebec, we
shall see the citadel, built upon a vast rock,
three hundred and fifty feet above the
river. This work includes an area of
about forty acres, and is sometimes called
the Gibraltar of America. If we ascend
one of the steeples of the city, we shall
have one of the most splendid prospects
in the world.. We shall sce the country
around, covered with towns and villages;
we shall see many little streams pouring ©
their waters into the St. Lawrence ; and
we shall see that king of rivers rolling
its broad waves to the sea.

8. If we visit the Island of Newfound-
land, we shall see the people engaged in
the cod fisheries. The fish are caught
off the southern and eastern coasts of the
island, in shallow places called tanks,
Tt is estimated that more than forty
thousand men are employed in this busi-
ness, from England, France, and Amer-
ica. St. John’s, the capital, is the prin-
cipal town.



public buildings? 7. Of the voyage down the
St. Lawrence? Of the citadel at Quebec? &
What is said of Newfoundland? What is the


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9. At Halifax, the capital of Nova
Beotia, we shall see a great many Eng-
‘lish ships of war. It has one of the
finest harbors in the world, and is the
thief naval station of Great Britain in
North America. Nova Scotia abounds
in coals and plaster, which are sent in
large quantities to various parts of the
world. Pictou, in the northern part,
and Sydney, on the Island of Cape Bre-
ton, are celebrated for their coal mines.
Louisburg, on the south shore of Cape
‘Breton, was a strong military post when
the French owned the island.

10. In New Brunswick we shall find
some of the inhabitants occupied in build-
ing ships, some in cutting down lumber,
and others in carrying it away; we shall
also see others engaged in catching
herring, salmon, and other fish, at the
mouths of the rivers. Frederickton, the
eapital, is at the head of sloop navigation
on the St. John’s River, eighty-five miles
from its mouth. St. John’s City, the
largest town, has a fine harbor at the
mouth of the river.

11. Prince Edward’s Island contains
‘about sixty thousand inhabitants, who
are principally engaged in the fisheries
and navigation. Charlottetown, the cap-
ital, is the principal town.

12. We must take care that our jour-
ney through these countries is performed
in the summer; for in the winter it is
extremely cold there, and the snow is
sometimes so deep as almost to bury up
the houses of the inhabitants. When
the people go out in winter, they are
abliged to wrap up their noses and fin-
gers in fur, to prevent their being frozen.





capital? 9. What is said of Halifax, the capital
of Nova Scotia? Of Pictou? Of Sydney? Louis-
burg? 10. Of New Brunswick? What is the |
capital? Where is St. John’s City? 11. What |
ts the capital of Prince Edward’s Island? 12. |
Why should we make our journey in summer? |



COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.



151

13. We shall find, in the Caz.adas, that
a great many of the inhabitants are
French, and talk no other than the
French language. We shall also see
many Scotch and English people, and in
all the large towns we shall find a great
many soldiers. These soldiers are sent
by the government of England to keep
the people in a state of obedience. In
our country, the government belongs to
the people, and they therefore do not
need any soldiers, except to drive away
foreign enemies. But in these British
possessions, the government belongs
chiefly to the king; and kings some-
times govern by means of soldiers.

14. I will now tell you something of
the history of these British Possessions.
The coast of North America was discov-
ered by Sebastian Cabot, a celebrated
navigator, in 1497. After this, Sir
Francis Cartier discovered the Gulf of
St. Lawrence, and sailed up the St.
Lawrence River. The French claimed
this part of the country for this reason,
and used to visit the Island of Newfound-
land, for the purpose of fishing along the
shores. About the year 1600, they be-
gan to make settlements there, and, soon
after, at various places along the banks
of the St. Lawrence.

15. The principal objects of the set-
tlers were the fisheries, and the fur trade
with the Indians. In 1608, Quebec was
founded, and Montreal not long after.
The settlements increased, and gradualiy
extended along the St. Lawrence and the
lakes to Detroit.

16. Nova Scotia was originally settled
by the French, by whom it was called
Acadia; but it was afterwards occupied
by the English. New Brunswick was a

13. What is said of the people in Canada? Why
should we see soldiers:in these places? 14, 15,
16. What is said of the early settlements in the
British Possessions? By eo were they made!
152 THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

part of Nova Scotia till 1784, when it
was separated from it, and became a
distinct province.

17. In the history of the United States
I have told you of the most interesting
events in the history of the Canadas.
England and France have been engaged
in war with each other many times dur-
ing the last two centuries. Whenever
a war broke out between them, it ex-
tended, of course, to their colonies. In
America, the French and English colo-
nies lay side by side, and therefore be-
came the scene of bloodshed and violence.
I have told you of King William’s war,
which began in 1690; Queen Anne’s
war, which began in 1702; King
George’s war, which began in 1744,
and the old French war, which began in
1755.

18. During these various struggles,
the inhabitants on both sides were ex-
posed to the most bitter sufferings. The
Indians were often called in to assist in
the wars between England and France;
and thus to the ordinary evils of war
were added the brutality and violence of
the savages. It is not necessary to re-
peat these painful stories. My readers
will remember those which have been
related, and will also recollect that, in
1763, all the Canadian possessions of’ the
French came into the hands of the Eng-
17. When did King William’s war begin? Give
an account of some events that happened during
this war. When did Queen Anne’s war begin ?
Relate some event that happened during the
war. When did King George’s war begin? Give
an account of some event that took place during
this war. When did the old French war begin ?
Give an account of some of the principal events
of this war. 18, Why did the wars between the
French and English colonies occasion the inhab-
itants great suffering? Give an account of some
of the attempts of the Americans to take Can-
ada. What American general was killed at Que-
bec ? What other American officer was wounded
there ?







lish. During the revolutionary war,
the Americans made several attempts te
take the Canadas, but without success,
Since that time, they have continued to
flourish. Many persons have emigrated
to the country from Scotland and Ire
land, and some from the United States,
The people are generally happy, con
tented, and very much’ attached to their
sovereign. '
—_——- :

CHAPTER LXXX.
THE ESQUIMAUX.

1. Ir you will look on the map of North
America, you will see a vast tract of
country lying between Labrador and
Baffin’s Bay on the east, and the Rus-
sian Possessions on the west. Nothing
can be more dreary than the aspect of
these remoté regions. The climate is so
severe that few plants can flourish there.
The trees are ‘small and stinted, and
nothing is presented to the eye but be
ren plains and desolate hills.

2. These regions are inhabited by a
singular race of people, called Esqui-
maux. They are very short, have black
eyes, a tawny skin, and black hair hang-
ing down upon their shoulders.

3. In summer, they live in huts, made
of sticks set upright in the ground, and
covered with skins. In winter, they
build huts of snow, using pieces of ice



1. What is said of the northern part of North
America? Where is the coast of Labrador?
Where is Hudson’s Bay? Where are Davis's
Straits? Where are the following islands: Mel.
ville, Sabine, Bathurst, Cornwallis, North Devon
James, Raleigh, Barren, North Hampton, South
Hampton?) Where are the following .akes:
Great Bear, Slave, Athapescow, Deer, Winnipeg,
Wollaston? Describe the following rivers: Ath
apescow, Mackenzie's, Churchill, Nelson, Severn,
Saskatchewan. Where are the following bays:
Repulse, James’s, Baffin’s? 2, 3. What is said
























for their windows, instead of glass.
They live chiefly along the sea-shore,



Esquimaux.

‘

md subsist by fishing. They catch
seals, walruses, and whales. They are
very filthy in their habits, and seem to
relish their food best when it is nearly
putrid.

4, They have a breed of very active
dogs, which they train to the harness.
Five or six of these, when attached to a
sledge, will draw as many men sixty
miles in a day, over the snow. These
dogs are exceedingly ravenous, and when
abird is given to one of them, he will
swallow it, feathers and all. The young
ones have such good appetites, that they
would kill themselves with eating, if
they could get food enough. Some peo-
ple suppose these dogs to be tame
wolves. During the summer, they are
employed in hunting bears, seals, and
reindeer.

5. This latter animal is very common
in all these northern regions of America.
The people do not use them, as in Lap-
land, for drawing. sledges and carrying
burdens. They live in a wild state, and
subsist in the winter by browsing upon
the shrubs and moss, which they dig

of the Esquimaux? 4. Of their dogs? 5. Of



COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY. 153

from beneath the snow. They are hunt.
ed by the people, and furnish them
with a considerable portion of their
food.

6. The Esquimaux have no king, and
no regular government. They live in
small, detached villages, and frequently
remove from one place to another. They
are evidently a distinct race from the
other savages of America, but closely
resemble the inhabitants of Lapland, in
Europe. When these people first came
to America, or whence they came, it
is impossible to tell. They have no
books, possess no history of their race,
and remain in the same condition as
when the country was first discovered.

—

CHAPTER LXXXI.
GREENLAND.

1. Let us now suppose that we enter
a ship at New London, or Nantucket,
and go on a whaling voyage to the
northern seas. We sail in May, and
in four or five weeks shall reach Baffin’s
Bay. But although it is now summer,
we shall find ourselves surrounded by
vast islands of ice, floating in the water.
We must keep a careful lookout for
these icebergs, for if the ship should
strike upon one of them, she would go
to pieces, and we should all be drowned.

2. We shall soon meet with whales,
and see them spouting up columns of
water into the air. Some of the men
will go in a boat, and carefully approach
one of these monsters. A sailor will
then take a harpoon in his hand, with a
long rope fastened to it, and plunge it
swiftly into the body of the whale.

the reindeer? 6. How do the Esquimaux live?
1, 2. Give an account o1 a whaling voyage.




154

When he feels the wound, he will
plunge deep into the water, drawing
the rope after him. By and by, he will
come up to breathe, and the water that
he spouts forth will be tinged with blood.
Again he descends into the sea; but at
length he is dead, and floats on the sur-
face. Then he is taken alongside the
ship, and the sailors cut off the blubber,
or fat. This is made into oil, which is
used for lamps.

3. After we have taken a great many
whales, and filled our ships with oil and
whalebone, we will return to our homes.
But we must not come back without
visiting Greenland. This is even more
dreary than the country of the Esqui-
maux. As we approach the shores, we
shall probably see some white bears,
feeding upon the carcasses of whales
that have drifted to the land. Some of
these bears are very large, and weigh
nearly as much as an ox.

4, We shall find the Greenlanders,
like the Esquimaux, very short, with
dark skins, black eyes, and long, black
hair. Their dress is made of seal skins,
and they subsist alnost entirely upon
seals, which they catch in *the water.
The men go into the rough waves, and
take these creatures amid masses of ice.
They show amazing courage and skill in
this dangerous pursuit.

5. In summer, the Greenlanders live
near the sea, and dwell in tents made of
skins. In winter, they remove to a
little distance, and spend their time in
repairing their canoes and fishing tackle.
Their houses, at this season, are made
of wood, and covered with skins. The
people are far from being neat, and
every thing is imbued with a strong
smell of rangi fish : the sailors who go



8. Where is Greenland? 4. What is said of
the Greenlanders? 5. How 2o they live? 6.

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,






















there are made sick with ine disagree
able odor of their tents and houses.

6. Although Greenland is destitute of
trees, and incapable of cultivation, ye
the people are very much attached to
their country. They have nothing bu
bleak and barren hills and valleys,
distant mountains covered with everlask
ing ice; yet they cannot imagine that
any part of the world is so delightful as
that which they inhabit.

7. Greenland was formerly supposed
to be a part of the American continent,
but it is now believed to be a great isk
and. Some English navi