Title: Scenes in foreign lands, or, A view of some of the most remarkable wonders of travel
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003201/00001
 Material Information
Title: Scenes in foreign lands, or, A view of some of the most remarkable wonders of travel an interesting and instructive book for young people
Alternate Title: View of some of the most remarkable wonders of travel
Physical Description: 156 p., <1> leaf of plates : ill. ; 15 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Cozans, Philip J ( Publisher )
Publisher: Philip J. Cozans
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1853
Copyright Date: 1853
Subject: Historical geography -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Voyages around the world -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Missionaries -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Printed boards (Binding) -- 1853   ( rbbin )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1853   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1853
Genre: Printed boards (Binding)   ( rbbin )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
General Note: "Illustrated with numerous elegant engravings."
General Note: Publisher's advertisement: back cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00003201
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA4350
notis - ALH7615
oclc - 45964518
alephbibnum - 002237133

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THi Macedonian king, when he had reached the banks of
the Indus, wept like a spoiled child at the belief that he
should soon have no more worlds to conquer. He knew
not that far beyond the Ganges, whose sacred stream he
never visited, was a vast region, more populous, more
ivilized, and more wealthy than any of those which his
armies, in their rapid march from the Hellespont, eastward,
to the swift Hydaspes, had overrun. Two hundred years
before the era of Alexander the Great flourished Coon-foe-
tse, or, as he is known to Europeans, Confucius, the sage
and lawgiver of China, and the contemporary of Herodotu,
the father of Grecian history. And for eenturiae bWl e
the time of Confucius had the Chinese empw ei d
counting far back her rulers and her d yn W
troth of history was lost in a mist of myM nW-
: 1^r '


aggeratioi, which absurdly claims for the "Celestial Em.
pire"-as the Chinese fondly term their country-a date
some centuries previous to the time fixed by Moses for
the creation of man. This, however, the more enlightened
among themselves are content to consider fabulous.
The simple truth is sufficiently wonderful without re-
sorting to fable; for strange indeed it is that a mighty
empire should have flourished, whose very name was for
centuries a mystery to the nations of the West, and whose
existence was sometimes treated as a chimera.
For more than twenty centuries China appears to have
attained nearly the same degree of civilization and ad-
vancement in arts, sciences, and government which now
so favorably distinguish it from other Asiatic nations;
and there it appears to have been nearly stationary.
While the "outside barbarians" of the West have been
struggling, century after century, out of the darkness and
ignorance and brutality of their forefathers, the Chinese,
content with the wisdom, the discoveries, and the pre-
cepts that so justly distinguished the remote antiquity of
their empire, have hitherto shared but little in the mighty
change, whether for good or evil, which have passed over
the face of the earth.
The ft mub of Christianity made but little pjeplp


amid the millions of the Celestial empire; the Jesuits be-
ing for a long period the only possessors of the Christian
religion that obtained an entrance, and they were admitted,
not as teachers of another faith, but as astronomers, astro-
logers, and mathematicians. Mahomet appeared upon the
scene, and shook the thrones of half the known world.
The faith he preached spread from Arabia, and overflowed
all lands, from the Straits of Gibraltar in the West to
Central Asia in the East; triumphing alike over the dead
and corrupted forms of superstition, that in the sixth cen-
tury usurped the name of Christianity-over the tenets of
Zoroaster, which still lingered amid the fire-worshippers
of Persia--overBramah and the subject idols of Hindostan.
But while thrones and religions thus fell before the sword
of Islam, the doctrines of Confucius retained their sway
undisturbed throughout the extent of China.
The Tartars of Central Asia, they whose kidred at
different periods and under different names have ravaged
the most fertile and populous regions of Europe and Asia,
have twice invaded China, and seated a Tartar dynatJ
upon the throne of Pekin; and the present Emperor of
China is the sixth descendant of the Manohou TWua qr
who conquered China in 1643. But tbhgh a Taetar ag
my role, China and the Chinese remain. m--iW rt-


changed; the religion, the manners, the very name even of
the conquerors is absorbed and all but lost in those of the
conquered: the Tartar becomes Chinese; and while the
unwarlike nature and peaceable and industrious habits of
this remarkable people appear to render them an easy
prey to the brute force of a handful of invaders, their
immense numbers, the general diffusion of education
among them, the profound reverence and attachment to
the laws, language, and customs of their ancestors-fos.
tered from earliest infancy-these and other causes ensure
their essential independence as a nation, and enable them
to retain, by a species of passive resistance and conserva-
tive inertia, all their national characteristics unchanged
through the lapse of ages.
Lord Brougham, in his striking way, has, summed up
the most remarkable features in the character and history
of the Chinese. A territory of enormous extent, stretch-
ing 1400 miles from east to west, and as many ftom north
to south-peopled by above three hundred millions of
persons, all living under one sovereign-preserving their
customs for a period far beyond the beginning of athentie
history elsewhere-civilized when Europe was sink in
bswbsri -poseIed, many centuries before ourselvew, d
the au wVilh we deem the principal triumphs of oivilMf>


tion, and even yet not equalled by the industry and enter-
prise of the West in the prodigious extent of their public
works-with a huge wall 1500 miles in length, built 2000
years ago, and a canal of 700, four centuries before any
canal had ever been known in Europe,-the sight of such
a country and such a nation is mightily calculated to fix
the attention of the most careless observer, and to warm
the fancy of the most indifferent. But there are yet more
things unfolded in the same quarter to the eye of the politi-
cal philosopher.
"All this vast empire under a single head; its countless
myriads of people yielding an obedience so regular and so
mechanical, that the government is exercised as if the
control were over animals or masses of inert matter; the
military force at the ruler's disposal so insignificant, that
the mere physical pressure of the crowd must Athyi
destroy it were the least resistance attempted:-the people
all this while, not only not plunged bi rode Ignoranoe, bit
more generally possessed of knowledge, to a oettain ex-
tent, and more highly prizing it than any other if in
the world :-the institutions of the country itWa~fb d
much above five-ad-twenty centuries, and never
or varying (in prxciple at least) during that
of time:-the inhabitants, with all their rene


the early progress in knowledge and in the arts, never
passing a certain low point, so that they exhibit the only
instance in the history of our species of improvement
being permanently arrested in its progress:-the resources
of this civilized state incalculable, yet not able to prevent
two complete conquests by a horde of barbarians, and to
chastise the piracies of a neighboring island, (Japan,) or
to subdue a petty tribe, (Meaoutse,) existing, troublesome
and independent, in the centre of a monarchy, which
seems as if it could crush them by a single movement of
its body:-the police of the state, all-powerful in certain
directions, and in others so weak as to habitually give way
for fear of being defeated: the policy of the state an un-
exampled mixture of wisdom and folly, profound views
and superficial errors:-patronage of arts and sciences,
combined with prohibition of foreign improvements:-en-
couragement of domestic industry, with exclusion of in-
ternal commerce :-promotion of inland manufacture and
trade, without employing the precious metals as a medium
of ex.ige:-suffering perpetually from the population
encroadpg upon the means of subsistence,.and yet sys-
temna.y stimulating the increase of its numbers; re-
moving every check which might mitigate the evil and
el sing every outlet for the redundancy."


There seems good reason to believe, that the gpeat jeal
ousy of intercourse with foreigners, which the rlern of
China have for so many years exhibited in so remarkable
a manner, arose mainly from the fears of the Tartar
rulers, lest their people, by acquaintance with other na-
tions, should acquire inclination or power to throw off
their foreign yoke; and that the vexations and insulting
obstructions to commerce, so long persisted in, were
scarcely more obnoxious to us than to the wishes aad
habits of the Chinese people, although their love of order
and reverence for the authority of their rulers oheee d
any exhibition of this feeling on their part.
If this be the case, we may indulge a not unreasonable
hope that the war, so recently waged by England against
China, contemptible, not to say disgraceful, as it was in
its origin, may, in its consequences, be beneficial to the
Chinese, as well as to other nations.
Sir Henry Pottinger, (who negotiated on the part of
England the treaty of Nanking which was concluded ia
1848,) with wise and liberal policy, stipulated for so ea-
clusive privilege to England, but included othlerr.nmordN
its provisions for free commercial interoonmr SW I
speaks most highly of the ability and upright ,ofI
of the Chinese Mandarins, who conferred wifuej W


the provisions of the treaty; and the esteem appears to
have been mutual, and to have ripened into friendship.
The Chinese, astonished that an island of- inconsidera-
ble size could exhibit, at such an immense distance from
home, power and resources sufficient to baffle all the
efforts of their own great empire, in the very centre of its
lominions, have lost much of that overweening self.
oenoeit which made them affect to treat all visitors as
tributaries and subjects, and therefore as objects of con-
tempt and insult. The English, as their acquaintance
with the language and customs of this singular people in-
creases, appear to find more and more to respect and to
admire, and less to ridicule; and let us hope that, by the
mutual exercise of forbearance and confidence, the newly
cemented friendship between England and China may
continue undisturbed by oppression on one part, and by ill
faith on the other.
I have thus endeavored to afford a few general Glimp-
ses of the Wonderful" in this great portion of the human
family; for seeing that so many works, of easy access for
all readers, have recently appeared, containing descrip-
tios of China in every aspect, it seemed needless to
psMat the process here. Every reader, young and ol
is by this time familiar with the quaint, unwieldy


of Chinese junks, with their high, overhanging sterns,
their bamboo sails, and ornaments of paint and gilding;-
the nine-storied pagodas, with their porcelain roofs,
peaked, and ornamented with bells and flags, are known
to us all from the days of childhood, when we admired the
blue pictures on our plates, beneath the meat and pudding;
and there too, and in many a pictured pag of greater
pretensions, we have become familiar with Chinme
bridges, fish-ponds, and pleasurehoaues, and the never-
bsent willow--the dell-like lady, with her piaohed mad
united feet, and the fat Mandarin, with his long tail.
he Chinese Exhibition, too, has shown to thousands of
lighted visitors the manners and productions of the
empire in yet more vivid reality. And as to the Great
northern Wall, one of the wonders of the world," be they
limited to seven, or extended to a hundred, it is familiar
o every young student of geography; and so we need not
enlarge upon it here, but will take our flight to other
Scenes in search of other wonders.


Foa the last three hundred years, attempts have been
made by navigators of different European nations to find
a northern passage to India and China, and the other rich
countries and islands of eastern Asia, and thus to avoid
the long voyages round the southern extremities of Africa
or South America. There is hardly a doubt that such
a passage exists, both in a western and in an eastern di-
rection; the one along the northern shore of Asia, the
other through Baffin's Bay, and between the islands that
are clustered along the Arctic shore of North America.
But it is almost equally certain that, even should some
fortunate voyager be able, in some very mild season, to
force his way by either channel, the discovery will be of
little practical utility for merchant-vessels, until the cli-
mate of that part of the globe materially alters. It is only
during unusually mild years that the snow ever disappears
I=om the land, or the ice from the sea, even in the height
Stsiummer; and this is only for a very few weeks, or even

~- -




days, and then again all is buried in adamantine chains
for nine or ten weary months.
The last attempt to discover the long-sought northwest
passage was made in 1829, by Captain Roes. Aided by Sir
Felix Booth, a wealthy London merchant, he fitted out a
steam vessel, called the Victory, with every requisite for a
polar voyage. After some delays and disappointments,
chiefly fl"m the defective state of the boiler and other parts
of the steam-engine, the captain reached Baffin's Bay, vis-
ited the Danish settlement of Helsteinberg, on the coast of
Greenland, and entered Lancaster's Sound. He sailed down
Prince Regent's Inlet, to the spot where Captain Parry's
ship, the Fury, had been wrecked four years before. Her
crew had returned to England in the Hecla, and as this
vessel could not contain all her stores, they were neces-
sarily abandoned, after having been piled on the beach in
regular order. Captain Ross had obtained permission
from government to make use of them, and.he was not
disappointed in his calculation of finding that they had
sustained no material injury. When he landed on the
beach, with three of his officers, he fAnd oply one tent
left entire. This had been the mess-tent ot the Fury's
officers, and it was evident that the bears and foxes had
paid it frequent visits. However, the preserved met &Wd.


vegetables were effectually protected from the sharp noses
and strong jaws of these hungry visitors by the strongly-
soldered tin canisters; and though the two heaps had
been exposed to all weathers, they had not suffered in the
slightest degree:-one hot summer's day in a milder
region would have done more mischief than all the storms
of the polar sky. Besides preserved meat and vegetables,
there were wine, spirits, bread, flour, sugar, cocoa, lime-
juice, and pickles. They then took on board the Victory
stores and provisions sufficient for their use during the
space of two years and a quarter, by which time they
hoped to have made their way through the long-desired
passage, and returned to England. Vain hopes, only to end
in long suffering and disappointment I However, the
whole party were in excellent spirits at finding, in an
abandoned region of solitude, and ice, and rocks, a ready
market for all their wants collected in one spot, ready for
shipment and free of cost; and having thus provided them
selves, they proceeded on their voyage down Prince Re-
gent's Inlet, at the bottom of which they hoped to find a
passage to the wgtward.
The winter of 1829 was unusually mild in that part
of the world, and the sea being therefore comparatively
free from ice, the Victory reached the bottom of the


inlet before the winter set in, without any great difl-
culty. By the 8th of October, however, the ice had
gathered round them, and they were fast frozen in.
" There was not," writes the captain, "an atom of elea
water to be seen anywhere, and, excepting the occasional
dark points of a protruding rock, nothing but one dealing
and monotonous, dull and wearisome extent of snow was
visible all round the horizon in the direction of the land.
It was indeed a dull prospect amid all its brilliacy; this
land-this land of ice and snow-has ever been, and ever
will be, a dull, dreary, heart-sinking, monotonous waste
under the influence of which every mind is paralyzed,
ceasing to care or think, as it ceases to feel what might
did it occur but once, or last but one day, stimulate us by
its novelty; for it is but a view of uniformity, and silepe,
and death."
However, though the captain wrote thus dismally, Ie
took every precaution to preserve the health.and spiritrf
his men, and with good success. The rigging of the
was taken down, a roof, with canvass sides hanging %L
low the ship's bulwarks, was built aver the deck, mlaf
under this the men might take exercise when the weather
was too severe and boisterous to permit their leaving tl
ship with safety. Pipes were placed, both to warm anto


ventilate the interior of the ship. The men's hammocks
were taken down at six in the morning, and hung up at
ten every night. The lower. deck, being the dwelling-
floor, was covered with hot sand every morning, and
scrubbed till eight o'clock, when they breakfasted. The
upper deck having been covered with snow two and a half
feet thick, was trodden down, till it became a solid mass
of ice, and was then sprinkled with sand. At six o'clock
every evening the sailors attended school, in which the
officers officiated as teachers; and the captain states, that
the men seemed to feel that they all belonged to one
family, evincing mutual kindness, with a regularity and
tranquillity of behavior not very general on board of a
Several expeditions were now made from the ship,
during which it was ascertained that they were on a large
peninsula, in the Polar Sea, which bounds the northern
dhre of America. To this peninsula Captain Ross gave
the name of Boothia Felix, in honor of his patron, Sir
Felix Booth; but in no other respect does the name Felix
appear appropriate for, by the captain's account, this is
one of the most miserable and inhospitable regions that
man has ever visited, being at the very centre of arctic
oold-a land which is never, even during the height of its


brief summer, free from ice and snow-where such a thing
as a tree or a flower is never seen; mosses and lichens,
and in sheltered situations a few grasses, being almost the
only signs of vegetation. It is true, the poor captain and
his men were frozen in, and compelled to pass, not one but
four dreary winters there, sorely against their hopes and
wishes, when they had expected to acquire great renown
by forcing their way through the Polar Sea, and emerging
through Behring's Straits into the Pacific Ocean.
Early in January, 1830, their solitude was interrupted
by the visits of some Esquimaux, the wandering inhabit-
ants of this frozen land; for, strange as it may aprb to
us, there are actually people who love this county as
their father-land-who are born, and pass their lives it
frozen solitudes, doubtless enjoying as much happiness -
if this region were the brightest, sunniest spot on eait*
The Esquimaux are a simple-hearted, harmless e
with broad, good-humored, healthy faces. There
thirty-one in this party, of whom the eldest, Illicta,
sixty-five years old; six others between forty and fifty;
twenty between forty and twenty; the number being made
up by four boys. Two were lame, and, with the old man,
were drawn by the others in sledges. They were all
wel dressed, chiefly in excellent deer-skin, the 'upp*


garments double, and encircling the body, reaching in front
from the chin to the middle of the thigh, and having a
cape behind to draw over the head. The sleeves covered
the fingers, and of the two skins that composed this gar-
ment, one had the hair next the body, and the other in the
reverse direction. They had on two pairs of boots, with
the hairy side turned inward, and above them deer-skin
trousers, reaching very low on the leg; besides which,
some of them had shoes outside their boots, and trousers
of seal instead of deer-skin. And very comfortable
clothing this must have been for such a frozen climate.
Under such a heap of clothing they appeared a much
larger people than they really were. All of them bore
spears, looking not much unlike a walking-stick, with a
ball of wood or ivory at one end, and a point of horn at
the other. On examining the shafts they were found to
be formed, not of one long stick, (for where no trees
grew no sticks can be cut,) but of small pieces of wood,
or of the bones of animals very neatly joined together.
But where can they obtain small pieces of wood any more
than long sticks ? During the summer, great quantities of
drift-wood float along the shores of the Polar seas, and
this is eagerly collected by the Esquimaux for fuel sad
other uses. This wood probably grew, for the most prlt


on the banks of some of the American rivers, which flow
into the Polar seas-some of it may even be brought down
the rivers of the northeast of Asia. However, from what-
ever quarter it comes, it is borne to and fro by the winds
and currents, until, being caught in some of the numerous
bays that indent these coasts, it falls into the hands of the
Not having expected them at this moment, Captain
Ross had no presents for them; but they consented to
accompany him to the ship, and were delighted by the
gift of thirty-one pieces of hoop iron. In return they
offered their spears and knives, but were very well pleased
to find their offer was not accepted. "We could now
easily see," writes Captain Ross, "that their appearance
was very superior to our own; being at.least as well
clothed and far better fed, with plump chbis, of as rosy
a color as they could be under so dark a skin. Like
other Esquimaux, their good-natured faces were a regular
oval; the eyes dark and approaching each other, the nome
small, and the hair black." They seemed cleaner, too, than
some the captain had seen in former voyages. Their
dresses were made with peculiar neatness, and some were
ornamented with fringes, made of sinews or with strings
of small bones. They did not relish the preserved meat


that was given them, but on being offered some oil, drank
it off with great delight. Blubber, fat, tallow, in short,
grease of any kind, however disgusting to us, is eagerly
sought and devoured by the Esquimaux. And Captain
Ross remarks, very oddly, but not less truly, that it would
be very desirable if Europeans who visit the arctic re-
gions could acquire a taste for the same food; since all
experience shows, that the large use of oil and fat meats
is the true secret of life and health in these frozen
countries, and that the natives cannot subsist without it,
becoming diseased and soon dying under a less oleaginous
Nor is this impossible, since patients in English hos.
pitals, who have been dosed with fish-oil for the cure of
rheumatism, soon learn to like it, and prefer that which
has the strmst flavor. Many who have perished in
the winters of those climates might doubtless have been
saved, if they had conformed to the usages and expe-
rience of the natives. How admirably has the Great
Father of men adapted the constitution of man to accom-
modate itself to the climate and productions of the coun.
try which he inhabits I
The bears, seals, and whales, upon which the Esqui.
maex and Greenlanders live almost entirely, have an


enormous quantity of fat in their huge bodies. This
fat is found by physiologists to be highly essential to
produce, in the process of respiration, a certain amount of
animal heat, so as to keep up the temperature of the body
in those climates. On the contrary, in temperate and
warm regions, such food as the Esquimaux enjoy would,
besides being disgusting, be useless and nurtful; while
these people consume enormous quantities of it, and
are enabled thus to support the bitterness of an arotio
winter, without appearing to suffer more from the ex-
treme cold than do the residents of more genial climes
during their winter. In other respects, too, it is curious
to observe how these poor people, simple and ignorant as
we may think them, manage to live in. health, comfort,
and plenty, where Europeans, however and pro.
vided beforehand with a home, (their ship, Sd up with
every comfort, with abundant stores of-.p. i and ex-
pensive clothing, can hardly manage to~r r two or
three years-become diseased and emaciate think it
a great achievement to return home alive.
The Esquimaux seems to make even the cold, that rem
ders every thing not living as hard as iron, subservient .W
his purpose. In two hours he can build a perfect sh
from the biting blast, with square blocks of 0t0 %-


house is a dome of solid masonry, of which every part is
nicely fitted, and provided witk a long winding gallery,
open in a direction opposite to that from which the coldest
winds blow. From the frozen bodies of fish he can form
a sledge, which, being bound together with the sinews of
bears and deer, glides securely over the frozen plain.
During the winter, sea and land are alike to him; he har-
nesses his dogs and gallops away over either, and finds his
food beneath the ice that covers the deep.
Captain Ross and his men soon returned the visits of
the Esquimaux, whose village consisted of twelve snow-
huts, which had the appearance of inverted basins. Each
hut had the long appendage mentioned before; and oppo-
site the entrance of the principal apartment, which was a
circular done, was a flooring of snow, raised about two
feet and a b high, and covered with various skins: this
formed the leeping-place of the family. At one end of
this platform sat the mistress of the house, opposite the
lamp, which being of moss and oil, gave sufficient flame to
supply both light and heat. Over the lamp was the cook-
ing-dish of stone, containing the flesh of deer and of seals,
with oil, and there seemed abundance of this provision.
All these snow-huts were lighted by a large oval piece of
clear ice, fixed about half-way up, on the eastern side of


the roof. Captain Ross found that all these huts were
scarcely a day old. What cares the Esquinaux for wood
and bricks, and slate, and glass --he has his ice and snow,
with which he forms a perfect shelter in less time than our
builders would require to mark out the ground. This party
of Esquimaux, and some others besides, frequently visited
the ship, and made themselves very useful to our country-
men, by guiding them on their exploring trips, and catch-
ing fish. In payment for these services they were well
pleased to receive files, needles, and chisels-in short, iron
in any shape, of which they fully appreciated the use and
One poor native, named Tulluiahu, had lost a leg, and
was obliged to be drawn on sledges whenever his company
moved from place to place. The ship's carpenter set to
work to make him a wooden leg, with which he stumped
about with great delight at being once more set upright,
and able to walk. In token of gratitude for this service
his wife, Tiriksiu, made Captain Ross a complete female
dress, which was a first-rate specimen of Esquimaux tailor-
ing; the skins being most carefully fitted, so that the col-
ors of the fur should match; while there was a fringe
below, and a border of white round the hood and arm-
holes. In return, the captain gave her a silk handktodfle


which attracted great admiration. Tiriksiu also gave
them some useful geographical information: she, in com-
mon with many of the natives, perfectly understood the
nature and object of a chart. In fact, Ikmalik, one of the
most intelligent among them, had drawn, for the captain's
use, a chart of the neighboring coasts; and Tirikain, on
being shown it, marked, in addition, several islands, the
places where food could be obtained, and where they had
better sleep on their journey: and in this, as in other in-
stances, it was found that their information was remarka-
bly accurate.
The sun at length began to appear above the horizon;
the winter gradually passed away-at least so it would
be considered in those regions; and the Esquimaux de-
parted to their summer haunts.
The ice gradually melted around the ship, and the
voyagers made every preparation for sailing away. They
watched anxiously, day after day, for an opportunity of
getting into open sea; but not until September did the
Victory once more float in free water. They got under
sail; they advanced about three miles through the loose
ice; which soon united again, blocked up the channel by
which they had hoped to escape, closed round the Vio-
tory, nd once more were they bound in for another winter,


to be passed in the same manner as the last, but with
diminished hopes of success.
In August, 1831, the Victory floated once more, was
towed out of harbor by the boats, and this year they sailed
four miles, when they were again blocked up by the ice,
and a third dreary winter was before them.
As the summer of 1882 drew near, they determined to
abandon the ship, and endeavor to reach, in the open
boats, some part of the sea where they might fall in with
some of the whaling-ships; for by this time the stores
they had taken from Fury Beach were becoming exhaust-
ed, and it seemed needful to reduce the daily portion of
They prepared their sledges, boats, and provisions;
they nailed the English flag to the mast of the poor
Victory, and abandoned her to her fate. Captain Ross
writes-" It was the first vessel I had ever been obliged
to abandon, after having served in thirty-six, during a
period of forty-two years. It was like parting with an old
friend, and I did not pass the point where she ceased to be
visible, without stopping to take a sketch of this melan-
choly desert, rendered more melancholy by the solitary
abandoned home of our past years, fixed in immoveable
ice, till time should perform on her his usual work."


After many difficulties and hardships they again reached
Fury Beach on the 1st of July, and found the remainder
of the provisions in the same condition as they had left
them three years before. Here the poor travellers were
once more put on a full allowance of food. They built a
house, and rested for a month, in order to recruit after
their fatigues in dragging the boats and sledges over the
rough ice, or, worse still, the soft, melting snow. By the .
ist of August some clear, navigable water appeared; the
boats were launched, and they beat about for the next two
months, in hopes of gaining the open sea, where they
might probably find some whaling-ships. It was, how-
ever, in vain; the ice again closed round them, and leaving
their boats drawn up in a secure position on the beach,
they had once more to return to their house on Fury
Beach, and make preparations to pass there their fojlrth
winter, which they spent as before, but without any visits
from the Esquimaux, who do not appear to have frequent-
ed this spot.
In July, 1833, they once more set forward on their
way. They found the boats where they had left them
the preceding autumn, and during August they sailed
along the lane of water, which now appeared through
the ice and by the 17th the sea was once more free.


On the 26th they were aroused by Wood, the look-out
man, who thought he saw "a sail in the offing;" and
the telescope soon showed that it really was a ship, though
there were still some despairers, who maintained that it
was only an iceberg, which frequently has the appearance,
at a distance, of a vessel under sail. No time was to be
lost; they burned wet powder to attract attention from the
still distant vessel; launched the boats from the shore, and
set off, with sail and oar, in pursuit of her, and hoped
soon to have been alongside. Just then a breeze sprung
up, the ship bore up before it and sailed away, and left
the poor boats' crews unnoticed, far behind. About ten
o'clock they saw another vessel to the northward, which
appeared to be lying-to for the boats. This, however, was
not the case, as she too soon bore up under all sail, and it
was too evident that she was fast leaving them. This
was a most anxious moment for our poor discoverers, who
found themselves so near two ships, either of which would
have put an end to all their fears and toils, and yet that
they might possibly reach neither. Providentially, the
wind ceased, and the boats once more gained on the ship,
whose crew soon discovered them, and a boat was lowered
and rowed directly towards the three in which were
Captain Ros and his men. She was oe4rtIi n hail.


and the mate in command of her asked if they had lost
their ship. This being answered in the affirmative, the
captain requested to know the name of his vessel, and
was answered, "The Isabella, of Hull, formerly com-
manded by Captain Ross." "On this I stated," says the
captain, "that I was the identical man, and my people
the crew of the Victory. That the mate was as much
astonished at this information as he appeared to be, I
do not doubt; but with the usual blunderheadedness
of men on such occasions, he assured me that I had been
dead two years." The captain soon convinced him that
he was mistaken, and a hearty congratulation, in true
seaman's style, followed of course, and he returned to
his ship to tell the news. As they slowly followed him,
he jumped on board, and in a minute the rigging of the
Isabella was manned, and Captain Ross and his men were
saluted with three cheers, and a hearty seaman's welcome.
The captain adds-" Though we had not been supported
by our names and characters, we should not the less
have received from charity the attentions we received,
for never was seen a more miserable set of wretches: no
beggar that wanders in Ireland could have outdone us.
Unshaven since I know not when, dirty, dressed in the
rags of wild beasts, and starved to the very bomne out


gaunt and grim looks, when contrasted with those of the
well-dressed and well-fed men around us, made us all f1l,
I believe for the first time, what we really were, as well
as what we seemed to others. But a ludicrous sene soon
took place of all other feelings. In such a crowd and in
such confusion all serious thought was impossible, while
the new buoyancy of our spirits made us abundantly
willing to be used by the scene which now opened.
Every man WA hungry, and was to be fed; all were
ragged, and were to be clothed; there was not one to
whom washibhrwas not indispensable, nor one whom hie
beard did not deprive of all English resemblance. All,
every thing, too, was to be done at once-it was washing,
dressing, shaving, eating, all intermingled-it was all the
materials of each jumbled together, while in the midst of
all these there were interminable questions to be as40
and answered on all sides-the adventures of the Victory,
our own escapes, the politics of England, and the news
which was now four years old. But all subsided mto
peace at last. The sick were accommodated, the seamen
disposed of, and all was done for us which care and kid-
ness could perform. Night at length brought quiet aad
serious thoughts; and I trust there' was net one jam
*among us who did not then express where i was dw


his gratitude for that interposition which had raised us all
from despair, which none could now forget, and had
brought us from the brink of a not distant grave to life,
and friends, and civilization. Long accustomed, however,
to a cold bed, on the hard snow or the bare rook, few
oould sleep amid the comfort of our new accommodations.
I was myself compelled to leave the bed which had been
so kindly assigned me, and to take my abode in a chair for
the night; nor did it fare much better with the rest. It
was for time to reconcile us to this sudden and violent
change-to break through what had become habit, and to
inure us once more to the usages of our former days."
In October, 1888, the briella reached England in safe-
ty, and Captain Ross and his companions, afer all their
dangers and hardships, were warmly welcomed home by
their countrymen, who had long given them up for lost.


4 A,
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MoDos Italy abounds in relics of antaquity-memorials,
more or less entire, of a time when she was mistress of the
world. Now, oppressed by foreign intruders, and degraded
by native superstition, her children seek for consolation by
turning to the glories of their ancestors, and thirst for the
time when their beautiful country may again take her
proper station amidst the nations of Europe. Thde tian
as he treads the ruins of the Forum, listens in lfhb l the
eloquence of Cicero; he paces the gigantic ro-d of the
Coliseum, and its now ruined and deserted wafs appear,
to his fervid imagination, crowded with the myriads eager
to witness the contests of wild beasts, or the dying strug-
gles of the gladiator. '
The lvely Neapolitan descends to the buried remalsi'
of Herculaneum and Pompeii, where are brought vism
before him the domestic manners of his ancestors: hl
the preparations for the meal that was ewa t e'i
vMit the dungeon of the prisoner whose
tibd by no moalJudge; and his though


for a while sobered by the thought that the tires of Vesu-
vius are yet unquenched, and that his own bright city
may one day share the fate of those before him, and like
them, after centuries of burial, be restored to the wonder
and curiosity of some later age.
The glory of Verona is its amphitheatre, which is one
of the most striking relics of the grandeur of the ancient
Romans. The time of its erection cannot be accurately
ascertained, as there is no inscription remaining on its
walls to guide the decision of the antiquary; nor has it
been referred to by any classical writer whose works have
descended to us. Except the Coliseum at Rome, it is the
largest existing edifice of the kind, being nearly 1500 feet,
or more tipn a quarter of a mile in circumference. The
arena, (the level space seen in the cut,) within the benches,
is 249 feet across its longer, and 146 feet across its shorter
diameter; for, like other buildings of its class, it is not
circular, but elliptic, or oval. From the outer edge of the
arena to the outside walls, is about 200 feet, and it is cal-
culated that the seats which occupy this space would ac-
commoeate 22,000 spo taore.
The outer wp a osfined four stories of arches, and
there wpr, sventy-two arches ia each story; of those,
one &t91W t, containing three staloof four arche


each, and rising to the height of 100 feet, is all that
remains-to the top of the fourth story would, no doubt,
have exceeded 120 feet. The modern Veronese have, at
different periods, repaired the interior of the amphitheatre,
and the seats are in tolerable preservation. When the
French, under Napoleon, had possession of Verona, they
erected in the arena a wooden theatre, for the amusement
of the soldiers and citizens; and this characteristic monu-
ment of Frenek taste still remains. It will be seen that
this amphitheatre is open to the sky. This was the case
in ancient Greece and Italy, with afl the buildings intend-
ed for public concourse, and the beautiful climate of those
countries allowed such a practice without material incon
venience. The games and spectacles of aneii t Greece
and Rome were generally more or less of a religious
character, and were accompanied with sacrifices to their
gods. Among these two nations, in the brighter periods
of their history, there was a considerable diffusion of in-
telligence ; and yet, (the art of printing being unknown to
them,) books were a luxury forbidden to all but the febw-
the rich, the noble, and the w Pil e, with a greater
smat, the Greeks and Romans W1MlW *ith mliids
smnest, active, and excitable, crowded io irok*S, to
w in moder m4tl have few parallels, to all places f


public resort. The public games were frequented by
every clam and every age:-the philosopher went to
lecture and to argue; the demagogue to declaim; the
athlete to exhibit his own prowess; the equestrian that
of his steeds; the magistrate to preside and to appor-
tion the prizes; and all the world to see, to hear, or to
To accommodate crowds so immense, buildings must be
proportionate; and hence, among other causes, were the
skill, the taste, the power, and the riches of ancient
Greece and Rome concentrated to erect and to adorn
edifices, many of which, like the amphitheatre of Verona,
sLill exist to delight and to astonish succeeding ages.
At the Roman exhibitions was often squandered, in
a few days, the annual revenue of a province, wrung by
some victorious general from the groans and tears of the
conquered, and expended to win the favor of the popu-
lace, and the power which depended on their suffrage.
The draman-races, both on foot, on. horseback, and in
chariots-the fights of wild and savage beasts from dis-
tant countries, were among the shows that drew the
immense crowds together; but of all the exhibitions of
the ara, that which most delighted the ancient Italisa
was the combat of gladiators. These.mhappy mewnr


meetly prisoners of war, and were selected for their
strength and courage from all countries overran by the
Roman armies-from Thrace, from the banks of the
Danube and the Rhine, from the forests of Germany and
Gaul, from the foot of the Pyrenees, and from the burning
soil of Africa. Before the combat, they walked round the
arena, frequently to the number of five hundred at a time,
to allow the spectators to judge of their comparative
strength, stature, and agility; and the perfumed exquisite
and the delicate matron of ancient Italy, equally with the
rough plebeian and the veteran inured to blood in many
a battle, discussed the merits of each exhibitor-his
chance of victory, and betted on the result with all the
gusto of a modern jockey. Each wretched victim was
bound by solemn oaths, and by the threat of fearful tor-
ments if he violated them, to strive for victory to the ut-
most-either to slay, or to be slain.
A gladiator worsted in the deadly fight, might, before
the death-blow descended, appeal for pity to the spec-
tators; but often, alas, the appeal was vain I If his skill
and prowess had not satisfied his judg j their tbubs,
belt bckward, signified that he ma* die I Ad kh
hqUMr gladiator durst not, for his own life, opae &fa-
.qb-that foe, perhaps, his countryman and4rklbis.


I ee bef e the gladior lie:
He leas upon his hand; his maly brow
Conseat to death, but conquer agony,
And his droop'd head inks gradually low:
And through hi sides the last drops ebbing row
From the red gsh fall heavy, one by one,
Lie the bit of a thuader-hower; and now
The arena swims around him-he is gone,
En ceased the inhuman shout which hail'd the wretch who wos

He heard it, but he heeded not; his eyes
Were with his heart, and that was far away.
He rek'd not of the life he lost, nor prise;
But where hi rode hut by the Danube lay,
Three were his young barbarians all at play I-
There was the Daoian mother-he their ire
Butcher'd, to make a Roman holiday!
All this rush'd with his blood. Shall he expired
*And uaveaged? Arise, ye Goth, and glut your ie.

To the honor of the ancient Greeks, they steadily re-
fused, from motives of humanity, to imitate their Roman
masters by introducing this barbarous pastime.
Gladiatorialq hibitions were abolished by Constantine
the Great, n i six hundred years after their flltiffL t
tutio They were, however, revived under the EB "
Opatantius and his two succesors, but Hoaiew S


tempted, by edict, to put an end to these cruel barbarities.
In spite of this, however, efforts were made in Italy to
restore them to their ancient splendor, when, upon one
occasion, a noble monk, named Telemahus, entered the
arena to separate the combatants. The spectators, en-
raged at the interruption of their favorite pastIl, aver
whelmed the intrepid monk with a shower of
Hardly was the murder committed, when how -
remorse seized the perpetrators; the feeling at saimN O4
repentance spread, and the martyrdom of TemM
sealed the condemnation of gladiatorial .ti s ad .
ensured the submission of the people to the imperial
edict, which forever abolished the human sacrfee of the


Tm vast island, or rather continent of Australia, differs
*ft the other portions of the known world in many
ihdMlp"t artilclars-in its peculiarities of soil, climate,
i l eal feature*, and in its animal and vegetable

Lh its largest rivers, instead of wideningand
Mining as they flow inward fiom their souW, and
.uidng a broader stream into the ocean, gradually di-
minish after leaving the hill country, and finally disappear,
bore they reach the coast, in chains of pools and vast
tracts of mor, or else diffuse their waters into a broad
bat silow lake, which partly evaporates, and partly
soaks into the sea by some narrow and insignia.
c ed up with sand. Besides this, many
Rf A rivers, as well as thf inland lw ake re
i gh as t itself.
countries we flad, tha
f drte 'rsltaond iia t
sa staly af withah^ L i
44 .- H -

ytI, Ile,






ol Tl


and rocki In Australia the reverse of all this holds good.
The mountain districts, and the terraces at their >ee, by
which the traveller sinks into the dead level country, are
fertile, well watered, and picturesque, abounding with
vegetable productions of a peeuiar character, quite dis-
tinct from those of our hemisphere, and enlivened by bird.
of brilliant plumage.
On the other hand, the plains, which are of immense .A
extent, and with an horizon as unvaried as that of th
wide ocean, are, for the most part, alternately arid desee
or impassable swamps, and in either case are dreary had,
desolate. During the long droughts, which periodiaely
prevail in Australia, they are a dry waste, where "the
dust growth into hardness, and the clods cleave fast to-
gether ;" hardly a bird is seen, and the vegetable kingdom
is almost annihilated; the beds of the oustedd river
are crusted with salt, and on the dusty banks Wither in
heaps the parched stems of the dead marsh-plants.
After the wet season, which follows the yeamrofs dught,
the same district generally becomes an almost mpasMble
bog, full of water-holes, or else an immense inla sea, I in
which stamd rotting the bare trunks of fott-grown th
A few oaths afterwards, and this inland sea will pu
h** beqme a grassy pBAt.


Austrlia, in fact, appears to be really new l nd--ot
merely new to us, but of much more recent formation
than our northern continents, and to be undergoing at
this very time a state of transition, in which, by means
at first-sight inadequate to work such mighty changes,
this country is becoming gradually but surely fitted, more
and more, for the abode of man; and we may anticipate
Sthe time when its now barren plains will produce food and
sustenance for nations as numerous as those which crowd
the meet populous districts of Europe or Asia.
Known unto God are all His works, from the founds-
tim of the world;" and may not we, his rational creatures,
take glimpses of the wonderful working of His creative
power, still in active exercise upon the earth May we
not, without presumption, speculate on the benevolent pro-
visions of tho all-seeing wisdom, by the operation of
which, through ages from the earliest dawn of time until
now, this beautiful and glorious earth has been prepared,
and yet preparing, for the reception of His creatures-
ftted more and more to minister to their production, their
sustenance, and their delight?
It would appear, then, that at a period comparatitlj
welt, (recent, that is, contrasted with the time whether
.ikr continents took their present general aspeqaotA
1 0 .0


vast level plains in the interior of Australia have been
raised above the surface of the ocean :-that its mimatnbs
and elevated terraces were then islands, similar in charae-
ter to those fair gems of earth which are so profusely seat-
tered over the Pacific; and that its rivers were at that
time island mountain torrents, each of which once found a
short and rapid passage to the ocean, but which now,
when once they have left the falling country, wind their
sluggish and uncertain course amidst the dead levels of
the newly-raised land, and, as before observed, lose ther-
selves in pools and marshes. But year by year, and eea-
tury after century, these streams are wearing for them-
selves a deeper and more continuous channel to the oest,
(whose barrier of coral rooks is the wondrous work of.
myriads of minute sub-marine animals.) And the time
may, with great probability, be anticipated,rhea mighty
rivers-the Lachlan and the Macquarie, the Darling, the
Morrumbidgee, and the Murray, with their numerous trib-
utaries, all now detached and broken, will form a mag
nifient assemblage of connected rivers, opening up to thi
ocean upwards of 4000 miles of inland navigation, Il
seathern and eastern Australia, and watering an exta.
of country of not less than 40,00 square miles. Aik
th B mau time, just consider how, by the flooded e t Ihe
4 'I


years, the land, hitherto a waste, barren as the sea-shore,
is becoming covered by the rich alluvial deposits, brought
by the floods from the. mountain ranges. And again-
how the very destruction of vegetable life, consequent on
the long-continued droughts, provides layers of nutriment
for future generations of plants of a superior class, and
suitable for the countless flocks and herds which accom-
pany man and minister to his wants.
With one exception, all the trees of Australia are ever-
greens, and from the smoked color of their leaves, they
give a somewhat gloomy appearance to the scenery of its
forests, which, however, are seldom dense assemblages of
countless trees, like the primeval woods of our continent
and America, but are scattered over the country in distinct
clumps and patches, giving a park-like appearance to the
Not less peculiar, in formation and character, is the
zoology of Australia. With some of its more remarkable
animals-as the emu among the birds and the kangaroo
among the quadrupeds-most of my readers will be toler-
ably familiar. The emu is the Australian ostrich-does
not Sy, but runs swiftly, and kicks out at its pursuers like
a bara and with almost equal force.
SThe kangaroo is the largest native quadruped, ad ha


been for some years domesticated in English parks and
zoological collections. There are three or four varieties
of this animal, the largest of which (represented in the
cut) is frequently six feet in height, and equal in weight
to a calf. Its character is gentle and timid, and, in many
respects, resembles that of the deer, but with less intelli-
gence. It feeds on all-fours, but at other times stands
erect upon its hind legs, and is supported also by its leag
and powerful tail. When disturbed or purmsed, it darts
off in a succession of flying leaps, which give a herd of
them a most ludicrous appearance. Its short fore paws
are strong, and adapted for digging, and when hard
pressed by dog or man, the animal has been known to
turn, and with them seize its enemy, and rip him up with
one stroke of its powerful hind leg, which is armed with
two sharp claws of great size and strength. But the great
peculiarity of this, and some other animals of Australia, is
the abdominal pouch, to which its young, for some time
after they can walk, constantly return on the approach of
danger; and though thus burdened, the female kangaroo
will leap away with amazing swiftness.
Another most singular creature is the ornithorynous, or
duck-billed platypus, an animal which, to the thiekly-
furred body and burrowing habits of the mole, unites the


feet and bill of a duck, and the internal structure of a
reptile. It is extremely shy, so that its habits are yet but
little known, and naturalists have hardly yet determined
whether or not its young are produced from eggs. Had a
stuffed specimen of this singular animal been first pro-
duced only at the exhibition of some travelling showman
of doubtful character, it would probably have been con-
sidered as fictitious as the mermaid, so often exhibited, and
which was formed of the fore part of a monkey, sewn upon
the tail of a shark.

croming aTonmt.


THu engineers of this country ae supposed to have
derived their ideas of supnsion-bridges from the rope bridges
of India, where in the mountainous districts they were in
use long before we became masters a the country. Turner,
in his account of the Alpine region to the north-est of
Hindustan, thus describes their structure over chasms:
" Two ropes, commonly of rattan, or seme stout and fleible
osier, are stretched from one mountain to another, aad
encircled by a hoop of the same material The
places himself between them, sitting in the boop,
seizing a rope in each hand, slide himself abng
facility and speed over the tremendous abyss below."
Our plate represents a bridge of this primitive order,
crossing of which is sometimes attended with danger, from
the unwise traveller overloading himself with goods so that
*aWt m ulated weight the rope sometosin brsem
1te the individual headlong into the rsL


Wherever our engineers acquired the idea of a suspend
sion-bridge, either the magnificent fabric that crosses the
Menai Strait, or the light and elegant structure of the
Hungerford Bridge, furnishes sufficient proof that they have
much advanced on the pattern, both as regards elegance
of appearance and safety in use. Indeed from the accounts
which travellers give, it must require no little nerve to trust
ones-self to the rickety things of rope that cross some of the
rivers in India. In the tour which Mr. Fraser took through
part of the snowy range of the Himalayan mountains, we
find him compelled to pass over one of these bridges, of
which he gives the following account:-
"At some convenient spot, where the river is rather
narrow, and the rocks on either side overhang the stream, a
stout beam of wood is fixed horizontally upon or behind two
strong stakes, that are driven into the banks on each side
of the water, and round these beams ropes are strained,
extending from the one to the other across the river, and
they are hauled tight and kept in their place by a sort of
windlass. The rope used in forming the bridge is generally
from two to three inches in circumference, and at least nine
or ten times crossed, to make it secure. This collection of
ropes is traversed by a block of wood, hollowed into a
semicircular groove, large enough to slide easily along it;
and around this block, ropes are suspended, forming a lp


in which passengers seat themselves, clasping its uppet
parts with their hands, to keep themselves steady; a line
fixed to the wooden block at each end, and extending to
each bank, serves to haul it and the passenger attached to
it from one side of the river to the other. The j'hoola (as
the bridge is called) at Rhampore was somewhat formidable,
for the river tumbles beneath in a very awful way; and the
ropes, though they decline in the centre to the water, are
still elevated from thirty to forty feet above it: the span is
from ninety to a hundred yards. It was amusing enough
to see several of our low country attendants arming then-
selves with courage to venture on this novel mode of transit;
and I must confess that, although it was evident that the
actual danger was small, it was not without uncomfortable
feelings that I first launched out on the machine to crom
the Sutlej. We found, however, that accidents sometimes
occur; and it was scarcely twelve months since a Brahmi,
who had come from Cooloo, having loaded the ropes with
too great a weight of his goods, and accompanied them
himself, fell into the stream, was hurried away and dashed
to pieces."
Occasionally a series of ropes are laid down, and crPs
pieces of wood interwoven with them, constituting a plat-
form five or six feet wide; on either side of this platform a
small parapet of planks is erected, and also fastian by


means of ropes. Even this kind of bridge is not safe, the
vibration being so great as to startle and terrify the most
quiet horse. When it is considered that the motion of the
bridge over the Menai Strait is very perceptible, even to a
single foot-passenger, though the weight of the structure is
somewhat more than six hundred and forty-three tons, it
will not excite surprise that the vibration of these frail rope
bridges approaches almost to violent agitation. A gentle-
man famous for his pursuit of field-sports in India, describes
his passage over one of them as most perilous. It hung
across the river like a cobweb in the air, and at a distance
had a pretty and picturesque effect. When he came to
venture upon it, he found it very rickety; and wisely
determined to dismount before crossing it. Still it rocked
and vibrated in a manner that was far from agreeable;
and his pony, though a mountaineer, crouched and shud-
dered as if be would lie down upon the bridge. An instance
is on record of an officer and a lady crossing one of these
bridges, and as a drove of cattle had passed just before,
they ventured upon it without any hesitation. They just
reached the centre when it suddenly gave way, and they
both were precipitated into the gulf below. The officer used
every effort to save his companion, but in vain; with the
greatest difficulty he managed to save himself. She was
for a moment seen on a rock in the channel, when a swell


of the current swept her away for ever. Such instances
are not of common occurrence, and the natives pas and
repass daily on these seemingly unsafe fabrics. without any
apparent fear.


How can we give an idea of London to one who has
never visited it, when some even of those who have spent
their lives in wandering amid its wilderness of houses have
never seen one half of its extent, and have still less knowl-
edge of its wealth, its commerce, and its population ? An
intelligent Frenchman said very truly, It is not a town;
it is a province covered with houses."
Before the era of railways, it used to grow by degrees
upon the country visitor as he approached its more con-
centrated masses of streets and houses, and his notions of
the great city had time to accommodate themselves grad-
ually to the real state of things. As he rolled along the
turnpike-road outside some well-appointed "four-horse
coach," he saw before him for half a day before he had
reached his destination, a long, low, dingy cloud in the
distant horizon, which the coachman's whip would point out
as "bq pn smoke." There it hung; visible, while yet he
wMua bg breezy commons of heath and furze, or under

Ancient mode of Lighting London. 61


waving boughs that shadowed the dusty road. As he
rolled along,-instead of detached villages or well-defined
towns, separated by long intervals of field, and common, and
copse, enlivened here and there with the detached farm-
houses, barns, and road-side inns, the country gentle-
man's mansion, and the gipsy's tent-the road became
aU village, one joining on to another in quick succemion,
sadly taxing the memory of the bewildered traveller, who
had hitherto asked most perseveringly the name of each
town he had passed through. He seemed, for the first
time, to be in two places at once-in one locality before
he was out of another.
On he rolled, and the continuous village became a
town; the road gradually concentrated into a street, and
his "long coach," with its fleet four-in-hand, (the pro-
prietor's "crack team," to drive through London with,)
threaded its mazy way amidst shoals of strange and ra-
rious vehicles, and looked superior to them all. There
were the lumbering omnibus, the busy scrambling cab, the
elegant carriage, with splendid hammer-cloth and be-
wigged and liveried coachmen and flunkies-gigs, phae-
tons, and market-carts, drays, vaps, and wagons of all
shapes and dimensions, and still the confusion grew more
diszy and confounding, till a jarring crash upon the


paved street aroused the bewildered traveller, and told him
that he had at length reached the stony heart of London.
But, alas I with few and rare exceptions, "we have
changed all that" for the railway and the steam-engine.
Onward, onward still we press, faster and faster yet.
But now, and the varied sights of rural life were flitting
by us in quick succession, each no sooner glanced at than
it is gone; a moment more, and in its place, as by some
magic process, there is the glare of shops, the rattle of
wheels, the busy hum of myriads of human beings-the
ceaseless roar of the mightiest city of the earth I
Hill and dale, hedge-row and heath, the cottage with
roses, the meadow and its quiet herd, "forty feeding like
one," the shepherd and his flock, the mansion in stately
solitude, with all its tall and ancestral trees, all these, and
more, were before the traveller a moment since, and seem
before him still, mingling in strange confusion with the
Great Babel into which he is so suddenly plunged, while.
confused by the abrupt contrast of sights and sounds
which greet him, he gazes with blank amaze on all
around, scarce knowing what he sees or what he hears.
London was an important city-the capital of England
-a thousand years ago; and it has been growing, and
spreading. and condensing, almost without a check, from


that day to this. Growing for a thousand years, and
growing still, faster than ever I Still creeping along the
banks of that noble river, to the depth and security of
whose waters the city owes its rise, its increase, and its
The marsh through which Casar and his legions waded
has long given place to the busy wharf, with its piles of
merchandise from every clime, its huge masses of ware-
houses, dark and lofty, beneath whose shadow crowd the
barge and the steamboat. The streams to which Saxon
maidens were wont to resort "to gather simples," now
grope their subterranean way beneath halls devoted to
trade and commerce, and the administration of justice;
the resort of the merchant-princes of England; the sanc-
tuary for the vast treasures of the Bank of England, and
its numerous satellites of Lombard-street; and the palace
of the chief magistrate of England's and the world's chief
city. The forest, where once ranged the wild boar, the
wolf, and the antlered stag, has given place to the picture-
gallery and the triumphal column; to the square, the ter-
race, and the crescent, with their luxurious mansions,
tenanted by nobles and senators; to long vistas of streets
in endless succession, dazzling with wealth and splendor
knownn to Rome or Babylon of old.


Nearly a thousand years ago (in A. D. 885) London,
which had been sacked and burned by the Danes, was
being rebuilt by King Alfred, whose galleys rode, un-
checked by a single bridge, along the Thames, when now
his waters reflect many an arch of granite or iron, above
whose crown ebbs and flows a tide as ceaseless as that
which glides beneath its shadow.
For nearly two hundred years after the time of Alfred,
Saxon and Dane struggled for the realm of England, with
various success. But amid the fierce conflicts London
still grew on, and when King Harold (in 1066) passed
through the city on his hurried march to the fatal field of
Hastings, he dispatched from London seven hundred
vessels to intercept the Norman invaders in the flight so
fondly and so vainly anticipated by the too confiding
Saxons. And when Duke William, after his great vic-
tory, appeared before the city, the warlike population,
numerous even then, defended the walls; and the con-
queror, compelled to abandon his idea of obtaining instant
possession of the capital, ravaged the surrounding country,
intercepted the communication with the Saxons of the
north, and cut off the supplies, until the citizens,
threatened with the horrors of famine, and diseoour
aged by the supineness and incapacity of the Sassm


earls and thanes, made terms with William, at Berkhamp.
Passing by another two hundred years-through the
horrible oppressions of the early Norman kings, the de-
vastating wars of Stephen and Matilda, and the Crusades
-we come to the era of Magna Charta; and find a par-
liament at Westminster struggling with the weak and un-
popular Henry III., the king promising redress of griev-
ances in hopes of obtaining supplies, and the parliament
withholding, until they have some better security than the
word of a king, which had been so often violated. Once,
in his need, he was counselled to sell all his plate and
jewels. Who will buy them ?" said he. "The citizens
of London, of course," was the reply. "By my troth,"
said Henry, bitterly, if the treasures of Augustus were
put up to sale, the citizens would be the purchaser
These clowns, who assume the style of barons, abound in
all things, while we are wanting common necessaries."
From this time the king was more than ever inimical to
the city, and to injure its commerce, (then amid wars, and
plunder, and oppression-as now in peace and security-
the source of all its wealth,) Henry established a fair at
Westminster, which was to last fifteen days, during which
all trading was prohibited in London. What is um


Charing Cross was then a village in the fields, midway
between the rival cities, which have long since mingled
into one.
In 1218 the forest of Middlesex was cleared, and the
citizens of London were allowed to build there. The
Tower and old London Bridge in the east, and West-
minster Abbey in the west, were the principal buildings of
this era which have existed till our day.
Through the next two hundred years the wealth nd
trade of London continued steadily to increase. The
citizens obtained from the mighty Plantagenets privileges
and rights, in exchange for the loans by which only those
warlike sovereigns were enabled to carry on their con-
quests in France; and amidst the brilliant but useless
glories of Cregy, and Poitiers, and Agincourt, London
carried on a profitable and increasing trade with Flanders
-with the extensive and fertile provinces in southern and
western France, which owned allegiance to the English
crown-with Spain and the Mediterranean southward-
and as far northward as the Baltic. The civil wars of the
Roses, like the foreign ones with France, gave but little
interruption to the progress of London, which generally
supported the House of York; the princes of which
family relied less on the power of the barons than on that


of the commons, whose favor they courted, and whoe
privileges they increased and confirmed on many occasions.
Lanterns were first hung out of citizens' houses in the
principal streets in 1416; before, and even after that time,
watchmen with fire-baskets, such as are represented in
the cut, kept watch through the night before the houses
of the nobility and at other important stations.
Year after year rolled on; wooden houses were replaced
by those of brick; old streets were paved and widened,
and new streets stretched into the fields in every direc-
tion; wharves and warehouses wese built by the river
side; churches and palaces arose in every quarter; the
population rapidly increased; and two or three hundred
years ago, when London was not half its present size, suc-
cessive sovereigns issued proclamations and edicts, for-
bidding any further increase to a city, which was even
then thought to have extended beyond all bounds of rea-
son and safety.
In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the improve-
ments and increase continued. The Royal Exchange wa
built; the new river supplied individual houses in the
metropolis with water; sewers were dug; and hamkny-
coaches plied the streets for hire. The great plqpb
speedily followed by the great fire of London in 184


checked the progress of the city, but only to enable it to
advance more rapidly and more safely. The latter event,
which destroyed all the most densely-built portions of the
metropolis, enabled Sir Christopher Wren, although he
was not allowed to carry out his plan of improvement to
the desired extent, to change its appearance and charac-
ter-by wider streets, better built houses, and more com-
plete draining. In consequence of these improvements,
the health of the inhabitants was greatly promoted. The
plague, which until then had constantly lurked about the
back streets and narrow lanes by the water's side, and
which on particular occasions burst out with depopulating
violence, was no longer a recognized visitor; and the
virulence of other diseases was much abated.
Nevertheless, great as was this advance, the contrast
between the London of a hundred years ago and the
London of the present day is as great. The fathers of
many now living, could remember seeing the heads of the
Scotch lords, who had risen in arms for the Stuarts, rotting
on Temple-bar, telling a disgraceful tale of barbarous
and pitiful revenge, unworthy of a Christian government
and people. The dim oil lamps, which just rendered
visible the darkness of night, winked at many a deed of
violence and outrage, which the broad glare of the gas


lights (first used in Pall Mall, in 1816) has scared away.
Within the lastfifly years have been formed the docks and
their surrounding warehouses, which-now line the river
for six miles below London Bridge, and afford accommo-
dation for vessels of the largest size; the huge Indiaman
from either hemisphere, with sugar, cotton, tea, silk,
spices, .c.; the splendidly fitted American packets;
the wool-ships of Australia; the whalers from Green-
land and the Antarctic; timber ships from Canada and
the Baltic; mixed fleets of smaller vessels from every
Fifty years ago, and the power of steam to propel
vessels in spite of wind and tide, was treated as a chimera
too absurd for experiment; and now hundreds of steamers,
of every size, with their black chimneys and long streams
of smoke, wend their swift way along old Father Thames,
churning his waters, and raising on his bosom a mimic
sea, whose heaving wave bids dance the light wherry as
it skims along, meets the cumbrous barge with alternate
heave and plunge, and dashes in foam against the tiers of
merchantmen fast anchored in the stream. Still more
recently the railroad, with all its wonders, stretches from
the city in every direction, and encloses a wider and yet
wider circuit of provinces in its embrace, until it bids the


remotest corner of the isle give quick response to every
pulsation of the mighty heart" of London.
The population of the metropolis, (including by that
term the cities of London and Westminster, the five par-
liamentary boroughs, and the parish of Chelsea,) is now
nearly two millions, equal to the united population of the
four largest cities on the continent of Europe; namely,
Paris, Petersburg, Naples, and Vienna; and of these five
Paris has nearly double the number of inhabitants of the
largest of the remainder, containing 910,000, while Peters-
burg has 470,000, Vienna and Naples each about 350,000
The immense population of the capital of the British
empire consumes every year at least 1,200,000 quarters of
wheat, about 1l million of sheep, nearly 200,000 bullocks,
25,000 calves, 25,000 pigs; besides poultry, game, fish,
vegetables, and fruit in incalculable quantities. About
12,000 cows supply the citizens daily with milk; 72 mil-
lions of gallons of porter and ale are annually drunk in
London; half the newspapers in the United Kingdom are
printed there. The eight great water-companies supply
about 200,000 houses with nearly 250 millions of gallons
of water yearly. About 90,000 gas lights are nightly lit,
and consume on the average 10 millions of cubic feet of


gas every twenty-four hours. But we might fill a volume
with mere glimpses of this wonderful city-such volumes
exist-and yet before a visitor can form an adequate idea
of its size and its population, its abounding wealth and
its squalid poverty, its contrasts of magnificence and
wretchedness, he must have persevered day after day in
exploring its various quarters, mixed with all classes of
society, inspected its hospitals and its mansions, its picture-
galleries and its temples, its docks and its bridges, its dark
corners of crime and misery, its splendid exhibitions of
wealth and taste; and if he have a heart to feel and a
head to think, he will go to his rural home with food for
meditation for many days, a wiser, and, if he improve his
opportunities, a better man.


In the northwest of South America, between the great
rivers Oronoco and Amazon, is the Warrow country-a
land, in some respects, similar to that of Ashantee, de-
scribed in another chapter. The vegetation is equally
luxuriant, but the climate is less deadly; the inhabitants
have not the wild and savage energy of the Ashantees,
but having all the necessaries of life at hand, without the
need of cultivating the soil, they indulge in a luxurious
indolence, which is equally unfavorable to their advance-
ment in civilization.
A considerable portion of the country is under water
for three-fourths of the year, and from this circumstance
the Warrows are almost amphibious. They build their
habitations about four feet from the ground, upon the
stems of eta-trees, which grow in very thick clusters.
Many of these huts are very large, being capable of ac-
commodating one hundred and fifty people, who are all
slung in hammocks, which serve them both for bed and


chair, and are, in fact, almost the only furniture they use
or require. At night, a fire made close to the hammock,
envelops it in smoke, which keeps off the swarms of
moschetoes and sand-flies that infest this land of mud,
and slime, and water, and overhanging boughs; and in
this cloud the Warrow, from long use, luxuriates where
we should be more than half blinded and suffocated.
The waters flowing beneath and around the floor of
their abodes abound with fish, which forms the chief food
of the people, almost all of whose industry and ingenuity
are displayed in the construction of their canoes, and the
singular abodes we have described.


WrATZVn authority this king may have over his people
certainly does not appear to be derived from the splendor
of his apparel. Crown he has none, save the one tuft of
hair left upon his else bare scalp -the spear on which he
leans is his only sceptre, and one cannot imagine a sover-
eign with bare legs and naked feet bestowing upon any
of his subjects the insignia of the order of the garter.
Nevertheless he may be every inch a king, and as such he
may be introduced to the reader. This is Moselekatse,
King of the Amazooleo, and first mada known to English-
men by Captain Harris, in a most interesting book of
Travels in Southern Africa.
Moselekatse possessed a fine, tall, well-proportioned
figure, with rather a pleasing countenance, although
marked with wily cunning and suspicion; with a small
piercing eye, surmounted by an ample forehead. He
certainly looks like one whose courage and energy mark
him out as a king among the mvn of a wild and savage




race; prompt, stern. and unyielding, his orders are such
as ensure swift obedience; cautious and slow in speech,
but rapid and fiery in action; reserved in manner nd
dignified in aspect. Such are the men who, in the early
and ruder stages of society, place themselves at the head
of their people, and by their rugged virtues, and even by
the peculiar character of their vices, help forward that
onward movement of the human race, which, in spite of
many checks and hinderanoes, of many temporary and
partial backslidings, is yet real all the world over. To
use Mucaulay's nfle image,-" the tide of civilization is
advancing, though each single wave may retreat as it
breaks upon the shore." But to return to Moselekatae.
His costume is a simple girdle, made of leopards' tails,
dangling before and behind; a few beads round his neek
complete his toilet. Captain Harris presented the king
with a duffel greatcoat, a coil of brass wire, a mirror
two pounds of "Irish blackguard" snuff, and fifty poamds
weight of blood-red beads. Hitherto the king had coa.
sidered it beneath his dignity to evince the slightest symp.
tom of astonishment. His manner had been particularly
guarded and sedate, nor had it been possible to read in
his countenance aught that was passing in his bosom;
but the sight of so many fine things at once threw his


decorum off the balance, and caused him for a moment
to forget what he owed to himself in the presence of so
large an assembly. Putting his thumb between his teeth,
and opening his eyes to their utmost limits, he grinned
like a school-boy at the sight of gingerbread, and ex-
claimed repeatedly, Monante, monante, monante: tanta,
tanta, tanta I' (Good, good, good; bravo, bravo, bra

He now rose abruptly, big with some great conception,
and made signs to the parsee to approach and assist him
on with the coat, habited in which strutted several
times up and down, viewing his grotesque figure in the
glass with evident self-applause. He then desired Mo-
hanycour to put'it on and turn about, that he might see
if it fitted behind: and this knotty point settled to his un-
qualified satisfaction, he suddenly cast off his leopards'
tails, and commanded all hands to assist in the difficult
task of shaking him into tartan trousers. It was indeed
no easy work to perform: but once accomplished, his ma-
jesty cut a noble figure. The parsee wore a pair of red
silk braces which he presently demanded, observing that
they would supply the place of those which Mrs. Moffatt
had forgotten to send. Shortly after this he directed an
attendant, who was crouching at his feet, to take every


thing to his kraal, and resuming his solemnity and his
seat, tea was brought in."
Thus far Captain Harris; and yet this man, at whose
simplicity and ignorance our very children might laugh,
has authority greater than that of any European despot.
He alone in his kingdom is rich; his subjects are all equal-
ly poor; the whole wealth of the state centres in him;
he has the power of life and death; and all that his peo-
ple have to do is to submit to his decree.
It is well for the sovereign, and well also for the sub
jets, when by a nation's advancement in civilisation its
rulers need no longer be exposed to the temptations and
responsibilities of unlimited power-when the wellbeing
of society depends less upon the character and energy o
an individual ruler, than upon the general advanemsaW
of his people in virtue and knowledge.



Where England, rtretch'd towards the setting ua,
Narrow and long, o'erlook the western wave."

COwwALL is the most western county of England, and
at the extreme point of Cornwall, stretched," as the poet
ays, "towards the setting sun," is the long, rocky promon-
tory, known as the Land's End. Here the billows of tie
Atlantic, rolling over an abyss, unchecked by rock or shoal,
for three thousand miles, first meet a barrier, against which
S, they dash tumultuously; whilst their spray, borne on the
..whiu of the swift western gale, flies far lao covering
*'l things with its salt rime. The clld at4e Land's
?,l like those at Staffa and the Giant's Causeway,
*i though not to the same extent or perfection, with
a columns, which are about sixty feet in height.
an the Long Ships' Rocks, about a mile from the main-
land, is erected a lighthouse, with a fixed light, which is
elevated about ninety feet above high-water mark, and
gives friendly warning to vessels sailing along these dan-
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gerous coasts. The people of Cornwall had once a l
unenviable reputation for their barbarous inhospitab l
towards those who were so unfortunate as to be wrecked
on their shores. Strange as it may seem, the cry of A
wreck a wreck I" was hailed with joy by all, from the
highest to the lowest, who flocked to the beach at the
welcome news, and plundered, without the least regard to
the rights of the shipwrecked, all that was thrown on
shore by the waves. This inhospitable robbery was too
often accompanied by murder, provoked, perhaps, in some
instances, by the expostulations or struggles of the sur-
vivors of the ship, to retain what they most reasonably
looked upon as their own property. Meanwhile, the
Cornish men, calling the wreck "a God-send," looked
upon all goods stranded upon their coast as there especial
property, bestowed upon them by the direct interposition
of Providence, aid were ready to resent as an insult any
opposition to their claim. Many are the tales told-fre-
quently mingling the horrible and the ludicrous-of scenes
at a shipwreck on the coast of Cornwall. Of these, some
may have been exaggerated, but they'had doubtless some
foundation in the general state of public opinion in the
country upon this subject. Witness Peter Pindar's sory
of the minister, who was preaching on the sabbath, when


the cry of A wreck! a wreck I" was heard without the
church. The congregation, as by an uncontrollable im-
pulse, rose hastily, and rushed towards the door, to share
in the expected spoil. The minister in vain endeavored
to restrain them, till, finding all efforts vain, he too yielded
to the all-besetting sin, and, in the words of the witty, but
irreverent poet,
Stop, stop!" cried he, at least one praer-
Let me get down, and all start fair!"

And yet, on other occasions, the Cornish people were
by no means wanting in hospitality to strangers, and the
exercise of all the kindly, social virtues. The same men
who would appropriate, without regard to the rights or
expostulatfons of the owners, all property strewn upon the
beach, would welcome the bewildered traveller to his
home at night, bring out his best glass of "yell," give up
his own bed to the stranger, and guide him on his way
over the moor, with kindly warning of the numerous shafts
and pitfalls that beset this land of mines.
It is to be hoped, however, that the "wreckers of Corn-
wall" are a by-gone race-that the opprobrium no longer
clin' their name. The exertions of the Wesleyan
ministers, and the diffusion of education and habits of


reading, have done much to humanize the Cornish charge
ter; the peculiar feature of which might, perhaps, he ex.
plained, and in part excused, by reference to history.
In the dark night of ignorance, cruelty, and wrong.
which settled over Europe upon the downfall of the Roman
empire, trade and commerce were almost annihilated.
No longer did the peacelhl mariner from Spain or the
Mediterranean visit the bays of Cornwall, to exchange the
food and clothing of the south for the treasures of the earth
-tin, and copper, and silver ore. The dreaded sea-king!
rode triumphant on every sea, and scourged, with rapine
and plunder, all the coasts of Europe. At this period
Cornwall was crowded with descendants of thp ancient
Britons, who, after long and obstinate contests, were
driven, by the successive hordes of the conquering Saxons,
from the eastern and central portions of the island, and
found refuge in the fastnesses of Wales, Cumberland, and
Cornwall The Saxons, and their kindred successors, the
Danes, were accustomed, In their slight galleys, to sail up
the creeks and rivers; att when the force opposed to
their inroad, or the uninviting aspect of the a;iiiy,
forbade a permandet settlement, they ravaged th' district
with fire and sword, and regained their ships, laden with
all the spoil they could carry away. The Celts of Corn-


wall, cooped up in their narrow boundaries, which, at the
same time, concentrated their forces, and enabled them,
like their Welch brethren, to retain their distinct national
existence as Britons throughout the times of Saxon rule,
soon had too good cause to look upon every sea-borne
vessel as a cruel enemy, whose approach was to be
opposed, and whose destruction was to be sought by all
good patriots; and if, by any chance, one of the Saxon
or Danish galleys was wrecked on their coast, it was
naturally looked upon as but a righteous retribution for
the oppressions they and their brethren had endured, and
its plunder as but a slight return for treasures they them-
selves had been despoiled of. And for ages after circum.
stances had changed, and when a happier era began
to dawn, a blind and cruel selfishness, choking all the
kinder, gentler feelings, kept alive in this remote corner
of our isle a practice which originated in national hostili-
ty; and that which began in the resistance of a people. to
oppression and a reprisal for outrage, degenerated into
private and indiscriminate plunder, too often aggravated
by cold-blooded treachery and murder; making our west-
ern shores a by-word and an opprobium to all the world.
And, as if it were not enough to rob the poor mariner,
whom the winds and waves have thrown upon their shore,


there were to be found in Cornwall wretches base enough
to mislead, by false signal-lights, vessels that approached
the coast by night, and lure them, and all their crew, upon
the rocks.
Long ago I heard a Cornish tale, which, once heard,
is not easily forgotten. After a sultry autumn day, the
blood-red sun sunk beneath a sea of crimson, which gradu-
ally deepened into molten lead; and, as the daylight
faded, a dark bank of clouds rose in the west, and blotted
out star after star, almost ere it had twinkled through the
twilight. An old man, whose dwelling was on the sa.
shore, beneath the cliffs, looked out upon the darkening
face of the sea, with an eager, anxious glance, that swept
the horizon. There had not been a breath of air stirskg
all day; but now, low meanings foretold a rising gale,
and the lightning, distant as yet, and voiceless, glim-
mered through the dark caverns of thick cloud, which
overspread the sky, and deepened, by momentary own-
trast, the solemn blackness of the night. Far seaward,
a faint strip of dull red sky in the horizon revealed the
tall masts of a gallant ship, which had been all day slowly
working her tedious way up the Channel on her homeward
course, The old man had watched her for many heOs
belbre sunset, and he chuckled as he saw, ere the last dl


li of western light had faded, that she was gradually
nearing the coast; and he noticed, with horrid glee, the
threatening of the coming storm. He called to his old
wife for his lantern, went to a crazy and ruinous shed, and
led out a half-starved horse, which he led by the halter
along the beach. At a ravine in the cliffs he turned with
his horse, and began to ascend a winding and dangerous
path to the top of the precipice. There he lighted his lan-
tern and fastened it to the horse's head, and then, for
three or four hours of the night, he led the unconscious
animal backward and forward along the edge of the
cliffs. By this time the lightning flashed frequent and
fierce; the thunder rolled and rattled directly overhead;
the rain poured down like a flood; and the sea, which all
day had heaved sluggishly, and heavily broke upon the
rocks, was now roused into fury by the rising gale which
swept along its bosom. Still the old man pursued his
walk along the cliffs, and ever and anon looked keenly
and anxiously through the darkness upon the now raging
sea beneath. Hark --surely that thunder came not from
the clouds-that flash was no lightning's stroke. It is-
yes-it is the cannon of the fated ship, the well-known
agnal of distress; and the old man's fiendish nature re-
laced at the thought that his decoy-light had answered


its object. Again and again that sound boomed along
the waters; for all too late the mariners discover that
they are embayed; that rocks and breakers are round
them, and the gale is driving them quickly to the shore;
that the false light, which had appeared to them as
that of a tall ship tossing on the sea, was displayed
to lure them to destruction. Again and again the gun is
fired, and still the old man rejoices in the success of his
horrid stratagem, and calculates, with horrid accuracy,
the spot and the moment for the fated vessel striking
on the rocks. As the time approaches, he descends the
cliffs, and takes his'station on the beach to watch for
whatever the raging waves may cast on shore. And soon
there is heard a crash, louder than the strife of elements
-a shriek, far above the roar of waters-but still the
wrecker shrinks not from the horrors of his own dark
deed, yet shrouded by the tempest and the night. Day
dawns at length, and shows to his greedy eyes the beach
strewn with fragments of the wreck, which the yet heaving
billows are still bearing shoreward and dashing on the
rocks. Presently, the old man is bending over the body
of a drowned man; for his avaricious glance has detected
on the finger of the dead a gold ring, with a bright gem
glittering in the early dawn. Hastily and eagerly the


hardened plunderer drags away the ring from the un-
resisting hand, and, by the act, the face of the dead man
is turned upward and meets the eye of his murderer.
In that moment's glance, horror and despair have taken
the place of greedy joy-the color forsakes his quivering
lip-the dearly-purchased gem drops from his unconscious
grasp, and, as he sinks to the earth beside the corpse, he
gasps out-" My son I my son I"
It was too true. The old man's only son had left his
home in early youth, disgusted with the vices that dis-
graced his home; and with hardly-earned riches and
honors, which he fondly anticipated might be the means
of rescuing his parent from the course of guilt and
depravity in which he had grown gray. he was returning
to his native land-to perish thus I Ill-fated son of a yet
more wretched sire-the murderer and the plunderer of his
only child!
Seek not to lift the veil that covers the horrors of his
late remorse, but rejoice in the belief that the Cornish
wrecker is the creature of a by-gone age.

Ashntee Chief.

'' C



To compare the manners and customs of different na-
tions, the countries which they inhabit, their climates and
productions, is always interesting; and we have here as
great a'contrast as could well be imagined, to the fur-clad
dwellers amoag the snow.plains and icebergs of Boothia
Felix, in the fiery Ashantee, from the burning soast of
The land of Ashantee forms the northern shore of the
Gulf of Guiea, into which its numerous rivers "roll
down the golden sand." The deep shade of huge ftets
overhangs their banks, beneath which lurks maas a
monster of the deep --the huge hippopotamus, the cruel
and crafty alligator, and, deadlier still than any living foe,
the fatal African fever.
There, as the night, chilly with heavy dews, gives way
to morning, a stifling and sulphureous mist rises from the
river's slime, and from the immense accumulation of the
quickly-decaying vegetation; it creeps along the valleys
and the courses of the streams, until drawn upward br

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