Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Bible stories of eminent women
 Fancy work
 Readings in prose and poetry
 Birds and bird-keeping
 In-door exercises & out-door...
 Back Cover

Group Title: The illustrated girl's own treasury specially designed for the entertainment of girls and the development of the best faculties of the female mind : embracing Bible biography of eminent women; rudiments of ornamental needlework with designs for presents; tales of purpose and poems of refinement; chamber birds and bird-keeping; music, history of fans, veils, and purses; phenomena of the months, and wild flowers; in-door exercises and out-door recreations
Title: The illustrated girl's own treasury specially designed for the entertainment of girls and the development of the best faculties of the female mind
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003130/00001
 Material Information
Title: The illustrated girl's own treasury specially designed for the entertainment of girls and the development of the best faculties of the female mind embracing Bible biography of eminent women; rudiments of ornamental needlework with designs for presents; tales of purpose and poems of refinement; chamber birds and bird-keeping; music, history of fans, veils, and purses; phenomena of the months, and wild flowers; in-door exercises and out-door recreations
Physical Description: xvi, 480 p., <2> leaves of plates : ill. (some col.), ports.,charts ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Tuck, H ( Printer )
Leighton, John, 1822-1912 ( Binding designer )
Evans, Edmund, 1826-1905 ( Engraver )
Ward & Lock ( Publisher )
Publisher: Ward and Lock
Place of Publication: London
Manufacturer: H. Tuck
Publication Date: 1861
Subject: Religious poetry, English   ( lcsh )
Women in the Bible -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Handicraft -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Nature -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Amusements -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Flowers -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Months -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Birds -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Children's poetry -- 1861   ( lcsh )
Musical works -- 1861   ( rbgenr )
Hand-colored illustrations -- 1861   ( local )
Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1861   ( rbbin )
Signed bindings (Binding) -- 1861   ( rbbin )
Bldn -- 1861
Genre: Children's poetry   ( lcsh )
Musical works   ( rbgenr )
Hand-colored illustrations   ( local )
Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding)   ( rbbin )
Signed bindings (Binding)   ( rbbin )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Statement of Responsibility: by the editor of the "Illustrated boy's own treasury."
General Note: Includes index.
General Note: Added t.p., engraved and hand-colored.
General Note: Ill. engraved and signed: E. Evans.
General Note: Binding design signed: "JL" <i.e. John Leighton.>
Funding: Brittle Books Program
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00003130
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002231999
oclc - 48011125
notis - ALH2387
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
        Frontispiece 1
        Page i
    Title Page
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Bible stories of eminent women
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Fancy work
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Fancy needlework
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
            Page 105
            Page 106
            Page 107
            Page 108
            Page 109
            Page 110
            Page 111
            Page 112
            Page 113
            Page 114
            Page 115
            Page 116
            Page 117
            Page 118
            Page 119
            Page 120
            Page 121
            Page 122
            Page 123
            Page 124
            Page 125
            Page 126
            Page 127
            Page 128
            Page 129
            Page 130
            Page 131
            Page 132
            Page 133
            Page 134
            Page 135
            Page 136
            Page 137
            Page 138
            Page 139
            Page 140
            Page 141
            Page 142
            Page 143
            Page 144
        Papier-plastique, or paper modelling
            Page 145
            Page 146
            Page 147
            Page 148
            Page 149
            Page 150
            Page 151
            Page 152
            Page 153
            Page 154
            Page 155
            Page 156
            Page 157
            Page 158
            Page 159
            Page 160
            Page 161
            Page 162
            Page 163
            Page 164
            Page 165
            Page 166
            Page 167
        Flowers of wood-shavings
            Page 168
            Page 169
            Page 170
            Page 171
            Page 172
            Page 173
            Page 174
            Page 175
            Page 176
            Page 177
            Page 178
            Page 179
            Page 180
    Readings in prose and poetry
        Page 181
        Page 182
        The road to paradise
            Page 183
            Page 184
            Page 185
            Page 186
            Page 187
            Page 188
        The bird talisman
            Page 189
            Page 190
            Page 191
            Page 192
            Page 193
            Page 194
            Page 195
            Page 196
            Page 197
            Page 198
            Page 199
            Page 200
            Page 201
            Page 202
            Page 203
            Page 204
            Page 205
            Page 206
            Page 207
            Page 208
            Page 209
            Page 210
            Page 211
            Page 212
            Page 213
            Page 214
            Page 215
            Page 216
            Page 217
            Page 218
            Page 219
            Page 220
            Page 221
            Page 222
            Page 223
            Page 224
            Page 225
            Page 226
            Page 227
            Page 228
            Page 229
            Page 230
        The blue-bottle fly
            Page 231
        Bessy and her dog
            Page 232
            Page 233
            Page 234
            Page 235
        The two rose trees
            Page 236
            Page 237
            Page 238
            Page 239
            Page 240
            Page 241
            Page 242
            Page 243
            Page 244
            Page 245
            Page 246
            Page 247
        My mother's watch
            Page 248
        The hedge feast
            Page 249
            Page 250
        The silver pencil
            Page 251
            Page 252
            Page 253
            Page 254
        The little mother
            Page 255
            Page 256
        Miss Tabby
            Page 257
            Page 258
            Page 259
        Swedish mother's hymn
            Page 260
            Page 261
        Oh! Smile on thy brother!
            Page 262
        A visit to Queen Victoria
            Page 263
            Page 264
            Page 265
            Page 266
            Page 267
            Page 268
            Page 269
            Page 270
            Page 271
        The dew drop
            Page 272
        The birth of the snow-drop
            Page 273
            Page 274
            Page 275
            Page 276
        A flight upon fans
            Page 277
            Page 278
            Page 279
        A burial
            Page 280
            Page 281
        Moss mantle
            Page 282
            Page 283
            Page 284
        The fate of the violet
            Page 285
            Page 286
        Stockings and their antiquity
            Page 287
            Page 288
            Page 289
            Page 290
            Page 291
            Page 292
            Page 293
            Page 294
        Little Kate
            Page 295
        The little girl's lament
            Page 296
            Page 297
            Page 298
        Marian's choice
            Page 299
            Page 300
    Birds and bird-keeping
        Page 301
        Page 302
        British birds
            Page 303
            Page 304
            Page 305
            Page 306
            Page 307
            Page 308
            Page 309
            Page 310
            Page 311
            Page 312
            Page 313
            Page 314
            Page 315
            Page 316
            Page 317
            Page 318
            Page 319
            Page 320
            Page 321
            Page 322
            Page 323
            Page 324
            Page 325
            Page 326
            Page 327
            Page 328
            Page 329
            Page 330
            Page 331
            Page 332
            Page 333
            Page 334
            Page 335
            Page 336
            Page 337
            Page 338
            Page 339
            Page 340
            Page 341
            Page 342
            Page 343
            Page 344
            Page 345
            Page 346
            Page 347
            Page 348
            Page 349
            Page 350
            Page 351
            Page 352
            Page 353
            Page 354
            Page 355
            Page 356
            Page 357
            Page 358
            Page 359
            Page 360
            Page 361
            Page 362
            Page 363
            Page 364
            Page 365
            Page 366
        Flora's choice
            Page 367
            Page 368
    In-door exercises & out-door recreations
        Page 369
        Page 370
        In-door exercises
            Page 371
            Page 372
            Page 373
            Page 374
            Page 375
            Page 376
            Page 377
            Page 378
            Page 379
            Page 380
            Page 381
            Page 382
            Page 383
            Page 384
            Page 385
            Page 386
            Page 387
            Page 388
            Page 389
            Page 390
            Page 391
            Page 392
            Page 393
            Page 394
            Page 395
            Page 396
            Page 397
            Page 398
            Page 399
            Page 400
            Page 401
            Page 402
            Page 403
            Page 404
            Page 405
            Page 406
            Page 407
            Page 408
            Page 409
            Page 410
            Page 411
        Out-door recreations
            Page 412
            Page 413
            Page 414
            Page 415
            Page 416
            Page 417
            Page 418
            Page 419
            Page 420
            Page 421
            Page 422
            Page 423
            Page 424
            Page 425
            Page 426
            Page 427
            Page 428
            Page 429
            Page 430
            Page 431
            Page 432
            Page 433
            Page 434
            Page 435
            Page 436
            Page 437
            Page 438
            Page 439
            Page 440
            Page 441
            Page 442
            Page 443
            Page 444
            Page 445
            Page 446
            Page 447
            Page 448
            Page 449
            Page 450
            Page 451
            Page 452
            Page 453
            Page 454
            Page 455
            Page 456
            Page 457
            Page 458
            Page 459
            Page 460
            Page 461
            Page 462
            Page 463
            Page 464
            Page 465
            Page 466
            Page 467
            Page 468
            Page 469
            Page 470
            Page 471
            Page 472
            Page 473
            Page 474
            Page 475
            Page 476
            Page 477
            Page 478
            Page 479
            Page 480
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text


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61 e artrtailntnt of 6irls








RECREATIVE Education for Girls has scarcely received the attention
in Literature that it demands. Much in this departmcut has been
done for Boys, for whom Science has been popularised, and active
Games multiplied ; but their young sisters have been allowed to waste
too many of their home hours in frivolity and indolence, until the\
indeed come to regard the great world as a Nursery, or a Vanity Fair.
Intellectual pursuits awaken neither the envies nor the jealousies so
apt to spring up in girlish bosoms. The more varied the range of ideas
in girls, the less room for conceit, presumption, and folly. Recreative
Education corrects bad temper, produces ge nt!cness, feeds the small
sweet charities," and effectually counteracts the IilIi,. apathy of
modern fashionable manners.
In Recreative Education we place foremost the culture of the hear.
It is of no mean consequence to prompt the susceptibilities of girls to
expand generously, and to elevate them above the narrow range of
common life. Nothing is more likely to do this than the study of
female character in its higher manifestations, especially in the Bible,
where every form of feminine virtue is to be found. Hence the Bible
Stories of Eminent Women in this volume. Following the Sacred
narrative with strict fidelity, the Writers interweave with the wonderful
Scriptural outlines selch matter as, without any violation of truth, may
interest the feelings and the fancy of the young, and convince those
who have not yet taken delight in the Inspired Work, that it contain-
the most marvellous and delightful, as well as the most amusing and
instructive, feminine episodes in the world.
The second department of this volume proceeds upon the assumption
that every little girl will be glad to have placed in her hands complete
rudimental instructions in all the branches of Ornamental Needlework.
No other teacher than this book will be necessary for any intelligent
girl to learn Crochet, Netting, Knitting, Embroidery, all tl~i varieties o(,
Lace and Wool-work, Tapestry, Braiding, Tambour, &e. 'lhe 1)irections
given are full and clear; and the few choice Designs that accompany
them are easily worked out.
Paper Modelling can be learned from our Instructions and Diagramn


and by this means the drawing-room can be made gay throughout the
winter. Paper imitations of flowers, tasteful\ arranged in a vase, ma\
be made to exhibit a bouquet tit for an Emupre.ss. Here, also will be found
constructed the Feather-srceen fir their winter fire, Ornamental Paper for
the grate in summer, and splendid imitations of Porcelain in Setvres.
Etruscan, Japanese, and Assyrian--all which may be produced with
positive certainty and facility .
Our third department consists of Rieadings selected n ith great care
from German and other poetry-from fairy lore and domestic life.
In describing Chamber Birds, and how to manage them, tile Editor
has been guided by the conviction that girls will a'ai\ s love to have
birds in their homes; and, as it is just possible to make the little captives
happy there, the instructions show how this may be accomplished. But
at the same time, we have carcfull urged on our fair young friends the
better part of studying birds in their own natural state of wild
freedom, where-
"Greater power have they the heart to reach,
To please, to soothe, to animate, and cheer;
Sweet lessons of content and hope to preach,
And waken holy thoughts and memories dear."
With an aim to aid physical development, we give a set of
Calisthenic Exercises, with postural diagrams, that, when moderately]
adopted as a pleasure, and not vs a toil, will be found highly beneficial
to health and deportmenlt.
'The Aquaria is minutely (descrilbed, as a means of studying curious
;,iquatic plants, insects, and reptilCs.
In Summer in the Woods" tile young reader is taken to Nature's
grandest solitudes, where the iirl is brought face to face with the Creator
in His noblest works. She is also here taught the Phenomena of the
Months, and is led to the flowers of each in the succession in which
they spring forth in their lovely haunts.
Thus the G IRL'S OWN T ItE.AsURY will be found varied and interesting.
a book of refined occupation and elevated thought, and a companion that
the most sensitive and cautious parent may place in the hands of a
(irl, with perfect confidence in its capacity to amuse, instruct, refine,
anmd encourage in nearly every useful pursuit and elegant recreation,
lboh! in and out of doors, throughout the year.


Fe ,itlusratch ill'ss tOlba
c-asurn oE .Siblr Stori'-s of >'',iii 1n1 Ioi;ncii.

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Bi RL1 WoNK, U.NilAL. INTIll I0?,
Berlin WVoik, laicd .
to iron
Cross Stitch
German Stitch
Irish Stitch
Tapestry Stitch
Tenth Stitch
Bit:lI.IN WOmiK, .\1i ;:i: l. I)!
French-clGeiian C.i'i,:
Imitation Silk C;LviaU.
.JavI Canvas
Patcnt, or French { .ilvai.
'cenclope Canvas
;railway Canvas
Silk Canvas
Wools to use w ith C:anvat,





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Beads, proper Canva:
,, Bugles
,, Cut .
,, Fancy
,, Seed
"0. 1'."
,, Pound


BuAIs (Silk) .
Eugcnie Braid
Sardinian ,,
Soutache ,,
Star ,,

Application, or Appl
Patent Imperial App

Embroidery Clenille

Chain, to work under
Cord, to work over
Chain, to work in be
Colours, to work wit
Double Chain-stitch
Double Crochet
Edge, to Contract an
,, to Enlarge an
lHands, Position of t
Long Square Croche
Long Treble Crochet
Ribbed Crochet
Short Double Croch(
Short Treble Crocche

1. I;\.
Sfor 122



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INDEX. vii
CiocOll It., continued
Single Crochet t.
Slip Stitch .
Square Crochet 84
Thread, to join a Si
Treble Crochet .
Cotton and Beads, to choose which will work \ell together 87
D'Oyleys, and similar articles, to mark the commencement of a round in S7
Foundation Chain, which is aftrwnards to be worked in set Patterns,
the simplest way of counting 7
e.Iweilled D'Oyle)s, to increase in S7
Square Crochet Pattern. to produce work of any dimension from' a 7

COTrONs 117
Coloured Cotton's l
Crochet ,, 11
Knitting ,, 117
Alecklenburghl Thread .. 11
.Moravian .. 118
Patent Glae ,, 118
Royal Embroidery ('ottoi 1S
'Tatting .. .

Eugenie Tape 12
French White Cotton l .B 11
Italian 120
Mohair ,. 19
Maltese .. 12
Russia Cotton ., .. 11!
Waved ,, .120
Worsted ., 12

l)EsSm's 130
Bible Markers 133
liridal Glove Box 7
Crochet Flowers for m Aunt 142
Embroidered Shoe for 1al 16
Greek Purse 1
Gold-fish Globe Mat 140
liand-Screen, in raised crlilin \Vork 30
.Jewel Box for Mamma :;7
I'en Wiper, for Papa's Writing-Table 1
Silk Net for the Hair 111
Vine-leaf Travelling ('ap for mi. Brother I3.

viii I DEX.

Blroderic Anglaise .
Fancy Stitches .
Guipure 10
ITem Stitch .. .
Mourning Hnm il'h Ill
Satin ,, 11
Swiss Lace .

I'EA.TIIn OuXA: 170

Beadwork Implment 123
Chenille ,, 121
Crochet iimpllcni'it 12:
Elliptic 121
Gauge 121
Knitting ,, 12:;
Lucette, A 12
Netting ,, -
Rug Needles i. 2
Tatting ., .12;

Brioche Stith .
Cast-Off, to o
Casting On h
Garter Stitch .
Knit rapidly and .nd -iiy, .
Moss Stitch O
Plain Knitting ..s
Purling .
Ribbed Knittin. .
Round, to join ai ,
Stitches, to inL:l, .
Slip, to .
Stitch, to raise ; a.
Sock, e to join l! tll o..r .i .
Take in, to s
Twisted Kluitting' .

I.AC', W o\Yux, 1(r'N I.Al \>1;I1 I ln I -1-f
Antwerp Lace 102
Barcelona Lace
Brussel 1.ai, e .
Cadiz Lie 12


LAcrE WORK, cotilniald :-
Close Diamond
English Roseotso
Esealier Stitcil
Fan Lace
Florentinel I,:i'
Foundatimi Stitchll
llenriqu'z Lace;
Alechlin Wheels
Materials, Tne
Open Diamiond
Open Antwerp
Open I:Englilh L:ie
lRoman ,
Spotted ,,
Sorrento .,
Spanish hios; PI'int
Valenrcienneiis Lace
Venetian Spotted I.:iW:
Venetian .1
31.ATERI KLs, to Pl'rserVe f'roin [iiju
Gold and Siiv r licadsa
Gold and Silver T'liread ai: 1;
Steel ceads


White Articles
.Banner Screens, to m:ake uip
Carriage Bags, to nlke up
Crochet, C'ontractions in
Drawing 'Paper
Engraved Pattern, It incrlTa-,' i/c of
Iiand-Screeuts, to niiilit
Knitting, CoUnra tinm, in
Nettin ,,
Printer's Marks
Ribbon for Trimming, to Quill
Sofa Cushions, to make up
Tatting, Contractiona in


1 2t:;




2; :



.' Il


Mfr uT MATERIALS, eonliner :-
Brussels Net
Guipure Net
Gold Braid.
Gold Cord or Thread.
Silver Braid
Toile Cire .

Beads, to work with .
Double Stitch
Diamond Netting
Embroidering on Netting.
Fancy Stitches-Round Netting
Flanders Lace Work, (cneral Instructions in
Grecian Netting
Ground Net
Honeycomb Netting.
Long Stitch
Leaf Netting
Large Diamond Netting
Long Twisted Stitch.
Netting, Preparation for
Netting of six, eight, or t, n sid.-s wordkin f'rrmn tih
piece of .
Oblong Nettingl
Plain Netting
Spotted Diamond Nettinr
Spotted Netting
Square ,,


Brussels Edge
Dotted Venetian Bar-
Edged ,, ,
English ,.
Little Venetian Edging
Point Edge
Raleigh Bars


S 91
S 93

S 93
S 92



.) 1
S 94
S 91



"t I trc. ; ma:!kc


POINT LACE WORK, conti)l'C :-
Point D'Alencon IBar-
Sorrento Edge
,, Bars
Venetian Bars
,, Edging
Chine Silk .
Floss Silk
Soic D'Aviguon
Tamnbour Work, General Instructions in
Tapestry Work. General Instructions in
Double Stitch
englishh ,,
Hands, Position of thl
loops, to join
Tatting, to Wash
planner Screenl-
Gertrude, like (recielm, with purse silk
Screen Handles
Sofa Cushions

S 97



CT'I5NS IN 10.5




tlerlin Wool
Carpet Yarn
Chine Wool
Crochet Cord
Crystal Twine
,, Wool,



. 1

xii INDEX.1

W~col.si ,rri~lci
I~lece~y lt;
Onibro Wool, or Shiolul N0ool0 117
Hutton's rPatnt imoe PAlls 17
Patent Knittintg Wo ol 116
Pearl Wool 117
Pyrenees. 11G
Shetland I if
W~orsted aidl Lwii,>' W... 11i6
PAPIR~i 1'i TIQtt. M- 1' s I MODIJJ_]Nt Ii
Chturclh Foont, Dicig "or I
(Cttage, 1k-igln for 1.
Lecturrn, or Lottern, k) 4-,tt i, t I
iMate. jal- and Imho1 nivnt.t 1 11;
Village Chulci lit'. ottll lot
P'APRrl FLOWLI:I, ART (f 66 .it\I
1'OTICIMA'l N11-1, ORl IMIT VtJ 17\ ':i i

Pinik, bIirmc.tions 1w
Lose i6,1

A Bitrxial-
Bessy and( 111r D,-,
Bird TI'Ii rriw, i:I
Iirth of the 2t n 7 -

Fans ai. Figtto po

N Ittilol Cil Eo ii .r
Lrittl o t

MIiss Tabihv
Moss Ma;1111e .2
AIN 'slo'her's Wol,-1i 2 1: .
ueen Vit'torit, it \
6itlar Penc il, the
'lie Birokeni FioIlr
Stolvkiltol, ailnd tl, "r \1t 2.-
The licdo, Fi-:t
The 1 to ill Vit
Two Rose Trees, tOO
Viulct, the Fate of ther


"11,:-11 BIRcDS
I f ti Tit
Blackbird, or Black rIIuI.,iL
Stor, of
Canary Finchi
('ole Tit
('rosbilli and Puntiln.'s
(C ihntoos
(1cat Tit
(jr cobeakcs
the Carldinal


M iosel, o0 Storm IVtrh11h
[ouont'lin Finch

Paipit or k toodlar
RLbin Iledbr' .1
Redwing Thrush
Scrlin, or Citril Fiuchc!ll
Siskin, or Aberdeuvine
Sorng T.rutli.
Tilror l'ipit




3 310






* 842


g~r Zlll;... :,a 6irl's 8~an
~ :~::i! a' ~1 ~; ;rnl .~II.;: I:nrina.

tbc illtsfratfb Oirl's baT
retasurg of in-boor eTrcitiscs.

Club Praetice
Dumb Bells
Dumb Bell Practice
Elastic Cord Exercises
Long Backboard Exercises
Balance Step
Short Backboard Exercises
Triangle, Exercises with the
Walking .
Wand, or Pole Exercises

S 37:

375, 388, 389
S 381
3s I

38 1
S 381
S i11

Bas., or F. Clef-Names of the Notes
Biace, Bar, and 3Measure, and of Triple and Common Time
Ledger Lines in the Treble Clef
,, ,, Bass Clef
Notes and their Names in Bass and Treble Clefs .
Sof the six different sorts of
,, of the Value of
,, of the Dotted, and of the Rests
Treble, or G. Clef-Names of the Notes .

Elce illustratMe 0irl's fonr
ti.:'i0 of @utf-lor creations.

September .
November .
I) a ) .a




* -171;




FEBRtARY-Catkin, Drooping
Dwarf, Elder
Daisy .

MARnc-Butter Burs
Common Coltsfoot
Dandelion .
Spurge Olive
Spurge Laurel

Gowlan, or Gowan
Hawthorn .
Marsh Marigold
Prii rose
Vernal Speedwell
Wallflower .
Wood Anemones
Wood Sorrel
MAY-Auricula Primrose
Common Bugles
Cuckoo Flowers
IIart bell Squill
Stit liwort
Pale Il'tfodil
Purile Columbine
'Periwnkles .
P inmrose
Sci i Ih Primrose
WaL .r Crowfoot
W d Crowfoot


S 422





. 439

. r-: ro-- om -444
Bee Flower 447
Fly Ophyrs 447
Gorse I. l
Long Yellow liroom 415
Jut LY-Alpine Fox-Tail .. 451
Bird-knot Grass 451
Meadow Fox-Tail 5. 1 4
Silky Bent Grass 451
.'ii cr'sr-Forget-me-not 457
Melancholy Thistle 4
Purple Foxglove 454
Rosy Bay Willow HIerbl 45. .
Wild Teasel 455
S:iPTEMi;.iiEr-Cyanu 461
Campion C(Ickoo Flower 460
Common Agrimnon 464
Common Shepherd's Needle 459
Field Scabious 461
Rled Corn Cockle 460
Spatling Poppy 46
Small Lindweed 45
Strong-.scented Letuce 463
Yellow Goat's-bard 461
TOcromni:-Alpine lartsia 46
Dutch Clover 468
Evening Primrose 469
Field Marygohld 47
Honeysuckle, Trefoil 4. 48
Meadow Saffron 470
Spouse of the Sun 467
Yellow-vi.scid Bartsi; 469
NovE.'BERmiit-Autumnal Saffron 473
Naked Flowering Crocus 473
Vernal Crocus 473
Water Horehound 471
Dlr, C.MME-lack Briony 477
Red-cup Lichen 478
Scarlet Conferva 478
Scarlet Cartilaginous Ililvella 47,8
Scarlet Peziza 479
Wake Roin 49
Yew 478
Wild Bfier Tree 480


CHEERFUL but wintry-looking sunshine streamed fitfully in
through the conservatory windows of the apartment, in which were
assembled Mrs. Selby and her young daughters, now at home for
the holidays.
"I have a surprise for you, girls!" said Mrs. Selby. "Guess
if you can, what your Aunt Jane has sent you."
Each guessed, but unsuccessfully. "We give it up, Mamma,"
they cried eagerly.
Very well; follow me."
In the centre of an adjoining library stood a most exquisite piece
of furniture in English oak, inlaid and carved, and in itself an
elaborate specimen of workmanship.
Applying a key to a centre lock, Mrs. Selby threw open a pair of
folding doors, and revealed a Book-case and Cabinet; the former
furnished with richly-bound and illustrated volumes, and the latter
with a great variety of objects suitable for feminine employment
and recreation, all arranged in the daintiest order imaginable, on
shelves or in drawers, glass cases, and little odd nests and nooks.
Over the whole ran an ornamental scroll, in old English letters,

Now, girls," said Mrs. Selby, as this gift is intended by your
Aunt to be one of permanent interest and value, I expect you will
make it so by careful study."


Indeed we will, Mamma."
Well, then, let us begin this evening; and Bertha, as the eldest of
you, shall make choice of a subject."
But the young ladies begged Mamma to take this privilege for
herself. She did so, and selected the following Bible Stories of
Eminent Women."
"Every young lady," she said, ought to be familiar with the lives
of Scripture female characters: they contain wonderful examples of
the highest and the gentlest feminine qualities-filial duty, sisterly
affection, patriotic self-devotion, domestic virtues, humility, patience,
resolution, piety, friendship, and truth. No other biographies in the
world can compare with them ; and your Aunt's object in preparing for
you the stories you are about to read, is solely to induce you to search
for yourselves the Sacred Treasury."

This Book, this Holy Book, on every line
Mark'd with the seal of high divinity,
On every leaf bedew'd with drops of love
Divine, and with the eternal heraldry
And signature of God Almighty stamp'd
From first to last; this ray of sacred light,
This lamp, from off the everlasting throne,
Mercy took down, and in the night of Time
Stood; casting on the dark her gracious bow,
And evermore beseeching us, with tears
And earnest sighs, to read, believe, and live."-POLLOK.




~ibhc ~otiLa



" O, what makes woman lovely Virtue, faith,
And gentleness in suffering; an endurance
Through scorn or trial: these call beauty fcrth,
Give it the stamp celestial, and admit it
To sisterhood with angels."

THEE was a voice of mourning in Moab. A young man revelling
in the pride of youth and health was suddenly cut down in his prime.
-" ''I


Yesterday he trod the earth a bright and glorious creature-now he lies
hopeless and motionless upon his flower-strewn bier. Around him are
weeping friends; and the wail of hired mourners is the only sound which
disturbs the silence of the death-chamber.
At the head of the bier sat a melancholy group-his aged mother
Naomi, and her daughters-in-law. The years of Naomi had been many,
but the days of her pilgrimage had not been cloudless. Still, grief had
not bowed her down. Many a lightning shock had struck her, and
strewed the leaves of her beauty, and torn away her branches; but firm,
and trusting in her God, she bent to the blast only to arise more erect
than before.
Many years since a grievous famine drove her forth from her pleasant
home in Bethlehem to seek subsistence beyond the Jordan. Although
leaving her home for a strange land, the hope and courage of Naomi
failed not, for her husband, Elimelech, and two sons, Mahlon and Chilion,
were with her. Elimelech, being a man of rank, was well received by
Eglon, king of Moab, then ruler of Israel, which he had lately conquered
by his arms, and who bestowed his young daughter Ruth upon Mahlon,
the eldest son of Naomi. Their happiness was short-Ehud dethroned
Eglon-poverty and death overtook the family of Naomi. Her heart
was filled with sharp anguish, but she knew her King, Jehovah, had
called her husband and sons, and her loyal heart submitted without a
murmur. Mahlon, her last son, now lies a corpse before her, but yet
she sits erect beside it.
Cast upon the floor in anguish of soul, her head buried in her mother's
lap, Ruth, the widow of Mahlon, seems some tender flower, torn from
its resting-place by cruel tempests, and clinging for support to the
nearest thing. Orpha, widow of Chilion, sat on the ether side of Naomi,
wetting with her tears the long glossy tresses of the fair Ruth as she bent
over to comfort her, or looking up in wonder at the noble fortitude of
the high-souled Naomi.
Although Naomi bowed not at the storms of fate, there was a blight
at the core. She felt not her griefs the less that she gave them not
utterance. The heart knoweth its own bitterness." Apparently calm
she sat beside the bier of her last cherished one, her eyes fixed upon the
funereal linen which enveloped his body; but her thoughts were sad, as
they recurred to her early home, her beloved husband, and darling boys.
Happier days arose before her; loved forms came to view, and voices of


cherished lost ones were sounding in her ear. Mournful and lonely felt
she, then, when the death-trump summoning them forth aroused her, and
the last link which bound her to earth was torn away. Her heart
yearned for her home and friends of other days, and she inwardly
resolved to leave the land where she had suffered so much misery, and
return to her loved Judea again.

A few days after the burial a train of camels was seen winding up the
side of a steep hill, which arose on the confines of Moab,-it was Naomi,
withhcr daughters-in-law, wending their toilsome waytotheland of Judea.
The females alighted upon the summit; and, while supper was preparing
under the oak trees, advanced to the brow of the hill, to gaze around
them. They looked upon a gloomy scene. Before them lay the Dead
Sea, dark, stern, and motionless,- none could look upon its cold,
still surface, without a shudder. Bare, jagged cliffs, and hills of ever-
lasting granite arose from its shores, shooting up their sterile peaks in
every direction. Orpah and the Princess Ruth gazed with sadness upon
this desolate scene, but a mournful smile broke over the face of Naomi.
" My daughters," she said, behold the famed salt sea! and, beyond,
the hills of Judea, my loved home, I see thee at last! Now, Lord, let
thy servant depart in peace."
This distant glimpse of the land they had chosen for a home was any-
thing but cheering to the forlorn young strangers; and turning from it
with a sigh, they gazed out over the verdant plains of Moab, adorned
with the glittering waves of the silver Arnon; over rich valleys, noble
temples, and cities nov lighted up by the sun's last rays.
"Oh, Moab, my country !" cried Orpah, stretching her arms towards
it, while tears rushed over her face,-" beautiful Moab; I shall never
see thee more; for the last time I gaze upon thy hills and palaces!"
Ruth gave not way to the passionate grief of her sister-in-law, but
stood, with her arms crossed, in resignation over her perfect form; her
lovely cheek pale with suppressed emotion, and her dark eyes fixed
mournfully upon the home she had left, thus brightly contrasted with
the one she was seeking.
"Naomi gazed upon her daughters-in-law, and her heart reproached
her for accepting their dutiful offer of accompanying her to Bethlehem.
They were young, and had many years of life and happiness before them;
why should she tear them from their home and friends to follow her


footsteps to a strange land? "My daughters," she said, advancing
toward them, "pardon the selfishness of age and sorrow. I have suffered
my griefs so far to usurp all feeling-all thought-that not until now
have I seen the extent of the sacrifice you are making in leaving your
homes to accompany me. Return, beloved ones, ere it be too late, each
to her mother's house; there you will find wealth and repose, while with
me will be toil and care ;-and the Lord deal kindly with you, as ye have
dealt with the dead and with me!"
Ruth, without speaking, threw herself into Naomi's arms and wept.
For one moment a flush of joy passed over the face of Orpah, but, check-
ing it, she turned to her mother-in-law. Nay, mother," she said, "ask
us not to leave thee, for thou art old and lonely, and we will return with
thee to thy land."
"Not so, my daughters. I have not many years to live, but ye are
young, and should marry again. In a strange land, alone, what would
ye do if I should die and leave ye ? I have no more sons to give you to
protect you when I am gone."
Mother of my Mahlon! said Ruth, raising her head from Naomi's
bosom, where she had wept in silence-" Oh, bid me not leave thee
With thee is every recollection of past happiness; past, never to return!
I have gazed with thee on his form in its pride, and with thee have I
wept in despair over his bier; can I then lose the light of that face
and that voice which ever brings his remembrance to my heart ? The
mother and widowed daughters lifted up their voices and wept. Soon,
however, Naomi resumed her solicitations, and Orpah, after many
passionate adieus, turned from her lonely mother and sister, and de-
parted-but Ruth clave to her. "Ruth, my daughter," said Naomi
mournfully, "behold thy sister-in-law hath returned to her people and
her God ; follow her then, ere it be too late."
Entreat me not to leave thee exclaimed Ruth, pressing her
mother's hand to her lips-" whither thou goest I will go; and where
thou lodgest I will lodge Tell me not of my people and my God, for
thy people shall be my people, and thy God my God. Mother where
thou diest I will die, and there I will be buried-and the Lord judge me
if aught but death part thee and me "

Hour after hour passed away, and all were buried in sleep, except
Naomi and her faithful daughter-in-law. Upon the brow of the hill


they still remained in deep converse on high and holy matters; for Ruth
had asked her mother to instruct her in the faith of Israel.
Her memory stored with the traditions of her people, Naomi poured
into the wondering ear of the young Moabitess, the extraordinary history
of her race.

With mingled emotions of joy and sorrow Naomi stood on the shores of
Jordan. That stream, so celebrated in the history of her nation, told of
home and country. She remembered the day when she had passed it
with her husband and children-but now she had returned old, poor,
and lonely. Repressing these feelings, she strove to cheer up Ruth-
plucking for her the oleanders and myrtles with which its borders were
adorned, and pointing out to her notice the broken walls and ruined fans
of Jericho; never to be rebuilt, under pain of God's curse. A dark spot
were these gloomy ruins upon the fair plains stretching around it, now
rich with ripened harvest, and gay with the bright anemone and far-
famed rose of Jericho. A toilsome journey among hills and ravines
brought them in sight of Bethlehem. Yon green hill clothed with rich
groves of olive-trees, and crowned with graceful clusters of stately white
buildings, is indeed her home; but where are those whose noble forms
were at her side when, ten years before, she had left those walls? The
gate of Bethlehem was a noble structure, whose cool deep arch was the
favourite resort of the citizens for the purpose of talking over the news of
the day, or of gazing upon the travellers who passed through there.
Some of the friends of the bereaved widow were then seated there, who
gazed at her with earnest eyes as she rode along. Time and sorrow had
done much to change her, but she was recognized at last. Naomi! Can
it be ?" they cried. Welcome, long lost Naomi-thy name speaks
truly now, for pleasant art thou to our sight once more."
Call me not N'aomi, my friends," said the widow, call me IMara,
for bitterly hath the Lord dealt with me. I went out full, and the Lord
brought me home empty. Why then call my name Naomi, seeing the
Lord hath testified against me, and the Almighty hath afflicted me ?"

Once more settled in her native home, the iidow's humble calmness
returned. Her friends were rejoiced to see her, and locked around her,
endeavouring to alleviate her sorrowful fate. The years of famine and


trouble which they had seen left them little to give-but her own, and
Ruth's industry, placed them above want.
Without the city gate arose a lordly mansion, surrounded by fields
and groves. This belonged to Boaz, a rich man, and relative of Elime-
leeh, the husband of Naomi. To him she purposed to apply should she
need succour, but for the present her humble wants were fully supplied.
During the time of barley-harvest Ruth observed her neighbours return-
ing each evening laden with grain gleaned from the fields around-why
should she not do the same, and thus add to the comforts of her mother-
in-law ? It was true her rank had prevented her from becoming familiar
with these menial offices, but she had devoted her life to her mother, and
determined to leave no efttrts untried to soften her lot. Filled with
these thoughts she sought Naomi. Mother," she said, "I see my
neighbours returning each evening laden with corn; let me, then, go
into the fields, and glean after any one in whose eyes I shall find
grace ?"
Go, my daughter," said Naomi, and the Lord bless thy kind
endeavours to lighten thy mother's cares."
The next day Ruth passed out of the gate, her heart joyous with the
idea of rendering her mother a service. It was a glorious morning, and
one moment she stopped to gaze out upon the fair and extensive view
spread beneath her. Over plain, hill, and vineyard the morning sun was
glancing, but she turned from the beautiful picture, and sighed, as her
eye fell upon the gloomy waters of the Dead Sea, which lay darkly gleam-
ing in tie distance, for beyond its rocky shores arose the hills of her own
loved AMoab. She turned hastily away, and sought the nearest farm.
It chanced to be the estate of Boaz, her husband's princely relative.
Already were the reapers, each laden with a leathern bottle or gourd of
water, hastening to their work; and as they passed her, each turned to
gaze upon her stately loveliness. Ruth inquired for the overseer, and
proffered her humble request that she might glean in the fields that day.
Pleased with her sweet gentleness, he gave her the permission.
Soon after, the gates were thrown open, and Ruth, looking up from her
work, beheld a stately man approaching. His tunic of the softest wool,
his crimson silk girdle richly embroidered with gold and with silver, and
his mantle of tire finest linen, proclaimed him a man of rank and wealth.
It was Boaz, the owner of the farm. The Lord be with you," he said
to the reapers as he passed.


The Lord bless thee," they answered him. What lovely damsel is
this who followeth the reapers ?" he asked. The overseer of the reapers
told him she was Ruth the Moabitess, and repeated what lie knew of her
sad story. See to this young woman well," said Boaz ; let her glean
among the reapers, for such piety deserves reward. Let her not follow
the men, for she is too lovely, but place her among my maidens." Ruth
now approached, and Boaz called her to him.
Hearest thou, my daughter?" he said; wander not about thi
fields, but glean here in mine, and keep fast to my maidens. WhIn thou
art athirst, ask the young men to draw for thee. I will speak to.them
that they treat thee well." Ruth, grateful and surprised for this notice
from the master of the field, knelt at his feet and bowed her head before
him, saying, How have I found grace in thine eyes, that thou shouldest
thus kindly notice a stranger ?"
All thou hast done to thy mother-in-law since the death of thv hus-
band hath been filly shown me," said Boaz ; and how thou hast left
thy father and mother, and the land of thy nativity, and art come into a
people thou knewest not heretofore. The Lord recompense thy work, and
a full reward be given thee of the Lord God of Israel, under whose wing
thou hast come to trust." The heart of the grateful liuth swelled within
her. Let me always find favour in thy sight, my lord," she said, for
thou hast comforted me, and hast spoken friendly unto thy handmaid,
although I be not one of thy maidens."
At mid-day the reapers all assembled to dinner, accompanied by Boaz.
Ruth was called, and was served by the master of the farm, who gave
her parched corn, bread, and vinegar with water, sufficient. When Boaz
departed, he gave Ruth into the care of the overseer, with a charge to
the reapers to leave a littic for her to glean as she followed. In the even-
ing all departed, and Ruth with them. She had beaten out her glean-
ings, which amounted to a bushel of barley. Smilingly she showed the
treasure to her mother-in-law, who in surprise exclaimed, Truly, thou
hast been successful, my daughter! where wroughtest thou to-day ?
Blessed be he who thus favoured thee." The name of the kind man in
whose field I gleaned was Boaz," Ruth replied. Blessed be the Lord,
who hath not ceased his kindness to the living and the' dead," said
Naomi. The man is a near kinsman to us. Keep, then, with his
maidens, Ruth, and wander not in other fields. The Lord will reward
thee, my child, for thy industry and thy piety."


The words of Ruth awakened a new hope in the aged widow's heart.
She remembered the law of Israel, which, when a man dies, obliges the
next of kin to marry his widow, and raise up an heir for his brother's
name and estate.
Our kinsman Boaz winnoweth barley to-night on the threshing
floor," said Naomi to Ruth. Wash thyself, therefore ; anoint thee, and
put thy raiment upon thee, and get thee down to the threshing-floor
make not thyself known to him until he hath done eating and drinking;
when he lieth down, mark the place ; and when he is asleep, lift up the
mantle which covers him, and lie down at his feet under cover. In our
nation, it is a token thou claimest the fulfilment of the law and his
"All that thou biddest me I will do," said the obedient, trusting
That evening Ruth took her way to the farm of Boaz. The threshing-
floor was a large level space in the field, surrounded by low walls anl
barns. It was now piled with grain, among which the reapers were
busy, some driving oxen, others beating it out with a flail, or tossing it
on high that the wind might blow away the chaff, while the grain fell in
a heap on the ground. Boaz was there directing, and occasionally assist-
ing his men. At nightfall they all partook of a feast together, master
and men. When all were satisfied, they departed, some to their houses
in the city, some to rest among the straw under the wide-spreading
trees. Boaz had eaten and drank, for his heart was merry while thus
feasting with his men, and being weary, lie threw himself upon a heap
of straw, and, spreading his large mantle over him, was soon asleep.
Ruth, who had been concealed, now approached. She feared not to follow
her mother's directions, for she knew the wise Naomi understood the
customs of Israel well. Softly she came, and lifting his linen mantle,
laid herself down beneath its folds. At midnight, Boaz, in turning him-
self, awoke and discovered a woman at his feet-a woman who evidently
had a claim upon him, for she had sought the protection of his mantle.
" Woman! who art thou?" he exclaimed, in surprise and dread.
I am Ruth, thy handmaid," she answered. Spread therefore thy
skirt over me, for thou art the nearest of kin to my husband."
Blessed be thou, my daughter," said Boaz, for thou hast shown
more judgment and kindness in thy latter end than at the beginning, as
thou followest not young men, whether poor or rich. Now, my daughter,


fear not, I will do all thou requires me, for I am thy near kinsman,
and all the city does know thou art a virtuous woman. Still, Ruth, there
is a nearer kinsman than I, whom thou knowest not: tarry this night,
and in the morning I will speak with him, and if he will perform unto
thee a kinsman's part, and take thee to wife, it is well; let him do a
kinsman's part according to law: but if he will not perform his duty to
thee, then will I, as the Lord liveth! Lie down until morning."
Ruth laid quietly at her kinsman's feet until daybreak, when she
gently arose to withdraw. Boaz, who was awake, called to her, Hold
out thy veil, and take a measure of barley," he said. Go not empty to
thy mother-in-law."
Ruth was enveloped in a large linen wrapper, used as a veil, one end
of which she held out, while her generous relative poured into it six
measures of barley. Then, receiving his blessing, she hastily returned
That day Boaz appointed ten of the elders of Bethlehem to meet him
at the city gate. It was the hour when he knew the other kinsman of
Elimelech would be there. He had saluted the elders, and they had
taken their seats, when the kinsman appeared. Ho, Peloni! turn aside
and sit down hero," cried Boaz. Ile obeyed the call, and Boaz addressed
him thus:
Naomi, who has lately returned from the land of Moab, intends
selling a lot of ground which belonged to her husband, our kinsman
Elimelech. Thou art nearest of kin, and I thought thou wouldest like
to purchase it, that it go not into a stranger's hand. If thou wilt redeem
it, it is well; if not, I, who am next of kin to thee, will redeem it."
The kinsman, after thanking Boaz, declared himself willing to take it.
Boaz had hoped he would refuse, and thus let the matter be settled. He
said, With this land thou must take Ruth the Moabitess, as this land
was inherited by her husband, Mahlon, since dead; thou must take her
to raise up an heir to inherit Mahlon's land, according to our Jewish
law." Nay, that I cannot do," said the kinsman, "lest I mar my own
inheritance by bringing in a wife and more children to maintain. I give
thee my right as kin, for I cannot redeem'it."
Boaz willingly agreed to take the land and Ruth. In fulilment of the
law used on all such occasions, he plucked off his kinsman's shoe, in token
he took from him the inheritance. Then, turning towards the elders and
people who were gathered around, he said, with a loud voice-" All ye


assembled here are witnesses, this day, that I have bought all that was
Elimelech's, and all Chilion's and all Mahlon's, of the hand of Naomi;
moreover, Ruth, the Moabitess, the widow of Mahlon, have I taken to be
my wife, to raise up the name of the dead upon his inheritance, that his
name be not cut off from among his brethren, and from the gate of his
city. Ye are witnesses this day!"
The elders and assembled people answered, "Yea, we are witnesses !"
When all were silent, one of the elders spake in a solemn voice-" The
Lord make this woman, that is come into thy house, like Rachel, and like
Leah, which two did build the house of Israel."
Ruth was married to Boaz, and lived a long and happy life with her
husband and mother. All that wealth and affection could bestow was
lavished upon the aged Naomi. Her ardent wish to behold a child of
Ruth, and heir of Mahlon, was gratified, for a son was born to Ruth.
The neighbours of Naomi gathered about her to offer their congratulations.
" Blessed be the Lord," they said, "who hath not left thee this day
without a kinsman, and that his name may be famous in Israel. lHe shall
be unto thee a restorer of thy life, and nourisher of thy old age ; for thy
daughter-in-law, who lovcth thee, and who is better to thee than seven
sons, hath borne him."
Naomi took the child, and laid it in her bosom, and became its nurse.
Thus did the virtuous Ruth reap the reward of her heroic sacrifice of
home and country, to solace the declining years of her aged, poor, and
afflicted mother-in-law. She partook of the promise made to Abraham,
and in her seed were all the nations of the earth blessed. From her were
descended David the King, a man after God's heart; Daniel, beloved of
the Lord; and, above all, our blessed Saviour, according to the flesh,
Jesus Christ the Redeemer.

The beauty of filial piety is brightly portrayed in the character of Ruth.
It was no light thing to leave home, and friends, to accompany an old
woman to a strange land; and to devote her time and her young sorrow-
ing days to the task of soothing the declining years of desolate old age.
Born to princely rank, according to the Jewish Rabbies, she refused no
menial service, nor to glean with the poor in the fields, in order to add to
the comforts of her sorrowing mother-in-law. With what gentle obe-
dience she obeyed her every command! She undertakes at her bidding


the difficult and delicate task of reminding Boaz of his duties towards her
as her kinsman. This conduct appears in our age very singular and ques-
tionable; but, we must remember, the customs and laws of the Israelites
were very different from our own, and that which seems improper in this
day was then most commendable. May we all look upon our female aged
relatives with the kindness of the pious and humble Ruth.


MANY and vast were the temples and palaces which arose in the ancient
city of Zoan, in Egypt; and among the most stately and gracefully pro-
portioned was the palace of Pharaoh, the king.
In a room of lofty dimensions, plated and carved with gold, richly hung
with embroidered stuffs, and filled with furniture of costly material, was
the king of this renowned and fertile land. But not at case was he
among the regal trappings around him, nor cast he even one admiring
glance at all this splendour. Walking restlessly about the apartment, lie
bent his brow, as if musing upon some subject which deeply annoyed
him ; for cares and vexations will intrude even in a royal palace. In this
apartment, besides the king, were three persons. Near the door stood two
aged women, who cowered beneath their large dark mantles as if anxious
to screen themselves from observation; while at the window, which
opened upon a marble colonnade, was a man apparently absorbed in gazing
upon the vast area of brick and marble which lay beneath him, filled with
thousands of human beings, or the glittering waters of the Nile, which
flowed beyond.
Sesostris," said the king, stopping abruptly before him, "why dost
thou not counsel me in this matter ? These Hebrew nurses whom thou
seest at the door have refused my command to put the male children to
death. Must I stoop to embrue my hands with the blood of these pitiful
crones ? What am I to do if they will not obey me ? If I suftfr this
Hebrew people to increase as they have of late, we shall be overrun with
them, and they will take possession of my county !"
"Nay, my brother and my king," replied Sesostris, it were not best
to permit them thus to multiply, as in case of war they will join the


enemy, and we shall be conquered. Can they not be forced to intermarry
with our people, so that in time we shall be one nation ?"
No, brother. They have other gods, other laws, and keep themselves
quite distinct. They also rely upon promises made by their God, as they
say, to their fathers, that they shall one day be a great people-con-
querors of Egypt mayhap! "
They live too easy, 0 king. Give them all the heavy labour of the
land; let them be worn and wearied, and their haughty spirit will be
quelled, and by degrees they will die off."
It shall be done," said the king. Then, turning to the women, he
said, "And now, ye false and deceitful old women, leave my presence ere
I relent of my mercy towards you!" Silently and rapidly the ancient
females withdrew.
Task-masters were set over the children of Israel, and they were com-
pelled to work hard from morning to night, in mortar, and in brick, and
in all service of the field." Their lives were rendered bitter by this cruel
bondage; but it answered not the purpose of their master, for the
more they were afflicted, the more they multiplied and grew." Deter-
mined to rid himself of this noxious race, Pharaoh now issued a decree
which brought anguish to every Hebrew bosom.
Thus ran the decree: "Every son that is born ye shall cast into the
river; but every daughter ye may save alive."
In a mud hut, on the banks of the Nile, dwelt a Hebrew and his wife;
Amram and Jochebed, both of the house of Levi. Here, in secresy and
bitter sorrow, was the unhappy wife delivered of a son. There was no
joy in the house that a man child was born into the world, but groans
of anguish burst from his parents' hearts that he was doomed to a
miserable death. No smiles heralded his coming ; tears fell upon his little
face, and sighs broke forth from the bosoms around him. Forthree months
Jochebed continued to conceal the boy. His merry laugh, which to other
mothers would be rich music, brought a pang to her. She dreaded lest
this sounds should bring the murderers to the door, and hushed him into
silence. Miriam, the daughter of Amram, although quite young, was of
great service to her mother, for she took charge of her other brother
Aaron, and assisted to keep the infant quiet. With a thoughtfulness
beyond her years, she parried all intrusion, even from their own kin,
lest his existence through their means should become known. IIe could
not, however, be always concealed, and his parents became aware they



were suspected. He had been heard to weep one night by a passer-by,
and Jochebed was continually questioned regarding him. She was advised
to obey the decree, lest the whole family should be punished, but reso-


lutely refused, until one day informed the officers who put the decree in
execution were asking about her. Then it becai.e e ident they nmust
give up the child, or suffer with him. After many a solemn conference.
together, this unhappy family came to the resolution of casting their
child out upon the river.
At her father's bidding, Miriam brought from the river's side an
armfufl of the reed papyrus, which she tore of' in strips, and wove into
a stout basket. This her father eo ied with p1it]h, which rendered it
water-tight. While they were thus engaged with their work, the
unhappy Jochlbed sat in a remote corner, 1re;;;ing her boy to her heart,
tears of bitterness streaming in torrents from her eyes. Unconscious of
evil, the child smiled in its mother's face, presenting by its joyousness
a strange contrast to his sorrowing family.
Alas, how may he escape?" said the mother, sorrowfully. If t:o
waves do not engulf him, he will starve, or be devoured by a croco-
Nay, dearest mother, I s1!all w.tch hiim too well. As the little ark
floats down the stream, I shall follow it, and guard it, even if it float
for days or months. Perhaps it may be wafted beyond the dominions of
this wicked king, and then I will take it up and nourish it. Trust the
boy to me, mother, I will risk my life to save him."
The ark was finished. 'Miriam placed within a soft bed, and approached
Jochebed to take the child. Sad was the parting then between the
mother and her darling boy. Unable to see him go, she fled into an inner
room to vent her anguish in bitter sobs and groans. After a long l:st
kiss, Miriam and her father launched the frail lA; upon the Nile.
Farewell, father," said )Miriam, fondly ; heer up my mother, and
tell her to trust in God, who, I feel assured, will yet rescue the boy fri.;n
the hands of his eneiices. 1)epend upon me. All Lhat a tender, devoted
sister can do, shall be done."
Farewell, 1iriam:," said her father, whl.l C:oe tears fe11 down upon
his beard; "I trust in the Lord cnd in thee 31nay the God of Abraham
protect thee and btrs;i eL thee "

Hour after i:our ,i..1 e.i ated ot a ; th e i1 c cuplant sn.iling
and playing vci. m 'i V;.; .r i,...;" i: .1, v,;i iod whichl o !V
near him. Ila i' Ll't.r :;:: : 'id I!:;,ii h, ,.i: ,
uaidr thw bazlhi; 'a] c L. it -e: -

TLIBLE STOUI0 5 OF 1251117>'A ii

structed in its course, or was lodged in the 'bushes i-h'ch lined t' rive
side. Heat and fatigue unheeded, her eyes and thoughts were f1 .d on
her charge alone, or lifted in prayer to God fur its safety. At md-dty
the little barge was whirled among some rushes, in the outskirts of the
city, where it became stationary. Miriam concealed herself behind a
pile of bricks, and sat down to watch it. Frequently she drew it to ihe
shore, and fed the child. At length she drew it beneath the r,1'!e of
some palm trees which grew upon the bank, and sat down near it. IT w
did her heart beat at every approaching step! dreading lest her charge
should be observed before the shades of night should enable her e.o'
more to float it awayfrom the city. But the hours passed on, and in) eye
fell upon it. The Nile flowed slowly at her feet, its banks arornucd by a
fringe of papyrus, whose tall and slender stalks bent to the sero;uncr
breeze, or raised aloft the plume-like blossoms n-which crowned their heads.
No sound disturbed the silence, except when the brilliant flamhigo
stalked by her, flashing his scarlet and orange phanage to the :-on, or
the stately ibis pursued its chase of the wnter-scrpents aicorllg ihe
A strong wind arose, and the waves were cast upon the ihor'.
Miriam started with horror as she beheld a drowned infant thrown upon
the sand; one of her own nation sacrificed to Pharaoh's cruc'l An
instant passed, and, rushing through the blue lotus flowers whith lfoated
on the stream, an enormous crocodile poun-ed iupo the child, openig its
dreadful jaws, the innocent was soon engulfed in the horrid chasm, vnd
the creature disappeared. Aroused by footsteps, Miriam turned her
head: a party of miserable ITebrews passed, half naked, and surround, d
by overseers, and bending beneath a load of brick ar:d straw.
The sound of music next attracted her attention: a religious procession
was passing, and she gazed with disgust, as she observed thue prit;:
were leading in golden chains the sacred crocodile The back of iiis
hideous monster was richly painted and gilded, whilo bracelets o' .('.
and of jewels adorned its shapeless lgs. She watched him, as i: '. \i,
train he entered the temple. This superb ediiceo was iarrounded L, f,,l
noble porticoes, and was raised upon an elevated platfuor oF moarbi F:.
A long avenue of sphinxes led to it, and before the edl i icevltod I.sto
obelisks of rose-coloured granite, whose slend..r '-fi:; -:.cid :
the heavens, and whose sides were carvred in ri;. h1icr.;:ihic:1, ':I
ceiling of this temple was painted blue, and stI.id-.d wi'.h !'.:: .;::.:


its sides richly carved, gilded, and painted. In the centre stood a tank
for the service of the sacred crocodile, while on one side was a room,
where, lying upon a costly carpet, lie was waited on, and adorned by
people of the first rank in the city.
The sun was now sinking behind the hills of lRamases, when the sound
of female voices met the car of Miriam. She arose with alacrity, and
looked forth. Now is my sweet brother safe," she said, for surely
no female bosom could devise aught evil against so lovely a babe."
The females approached, and by the richness of their apparel, and by
their numerous attendants, were ladies of high rank. Above the rest
was one distinguished for her graceful and majestic form. She was
beautiful also, and the rich blood called forth by exercise cast a bril-
liant shade over her slightly bronzed skin. As she came nearer, Miriam
discovered it was the princess Themestris. Then the heart of this loving
sister died within her. It was the daughter of Pharaoh, their relent-
less oppressor, who approached, who, if the child were discovered, would
not probably dare resist her father's dccriei to save a Hebrow infant.
Miriam looked around in despair ; but the princess was near, and con-
ccalment for her charge was vain.
Her heart upo'n the rack, Miriam saw the princess stand upon tle
river's bank, quite near the rushes among which wvas the basket contain-
ing her precious treasure. He was not observed, and she breathed free;
but, weary and ]Ihngry, the babe just then awoke from slumber, and
uttered a feeble cry.
What noise'is that ?" asked one of the ladies; and Miriam threw
herself upon the ground in: anguish.
It was the cry of a crocodile," said another ; "let us fly ere we be
Silence !" cried the princess.
The wail of an infant was distinctly heard.
It is a child," said Themestris; and now I discover a basket among
yonder rushes. Bring it hither, some of ye."
The attendants hastened to obey her, and the basket was soon laid at
her feet. When opened, a babe of wondrous beauty lay within. it w-as
weeping bitterly, and raised ils little hand, imploringly, at the curious
faces which surrounded its cradle. The princess gazed at the child, and
tears streamed from her eyes over hr beautiful tace.
Oh my father, this is thy cruel policy" she cried. Then turning


to her women, she said, This is doubtless one of the If.ielrow children,
whose parents, forced to throw it into the Nile, have thus euntLliht to pre-
serve it."
Shall we throw it back again ?" asked one of the attendants.
"Throw it back again! H ave you the heart for iiich a thing?"
exclaimed the princess in indignation.
It is no doubt preserved by the gods for somee especial purpose, and I
accept the charge. Osiris! god of the Nil if thou hast sent this babe
to me, behold, I receive it, and will rear it as my owl!."
Who shall describe the emotions which passed through tihh e heart of
Miriam during this scene Tears of gratitude and joy bunt Iron her
eyes, and she knelt to thank that nercil'i (iod whlo had saved her
brother from destruction, and his parents from misery.
With a fortitude beyond her years, she left her hiding-placc, and
approached the group. Sauntering carelessly along, she pausd, as if
gazing at them ; when one of the ladies, pitying her childish curiosity,
called her gaily to them.
Come hither, child, and see the young crceodile we have caught."
Miriam came forward, uttering many exprusions of adliiration and
"And is my royal lady going to adopt the child ?" she asked, dropping
her eyes to conceal the emotion which she fc aied would betray her."
"She is: for she is as benevolent :as she is beautiful."
"Then, if she will listen to her handmaid, I know a IHebrew nurse
who dwelleth near, and who is very skilful. I will fetch her, if tlle noble
princess please."
It is well thought of, girl," said Thcmestris. If it be a Hebrew
infant, a nurse of that nation were more :; i,. B- e quick, child, and
see thou hast her here by the time I have finished bathing in yonder
marble bath." Miriam needed no spur, but springing forward was soon
on her way homeward. Tihe basket had been many hours upon the
river, on account of its frequent stoppages; but Miriam was at her home
in a much shorter time. 0 mother, mother !" she cried, diid I not
prophesy truly? God hath saved our babe : he is, as I predicted, destined
to greatness, for the princess hath taken him." Her >tddnc appear-
ance, and her unexpected good news, so overpowered hlr m.' ,th, that she
almost fainted. Reviving soon, she was on her way to the spot; joy
enabling her to keep up with the bounding stLes of '';! i2in. With a

Ti=1 !L-2l iLST ThL'S OW ,ilE -=URY.

tolerable degree of lrtitude Joch~bed saluted the daughter of Pharaoh.
" Take this chihl," sa id the charitable princess ; nurse it for me, and
let it want for nothing, for it is the adopted child of a princess. Thou
shalL be bountifully paid. Call him Moses, because he was drawn out of
the water." As Joehebed received her child again, her emotion over-
came her, and she dropped her head upon that of the infant, while a
sudden pallor overspread her face. Miriam ran to her; and the princess
whispered, "Poor creature! doubtless she has been forced to give her
own child up to death, I hope this will awaken her affection, and heal
her wounded heart." The princess and train returned to the palace;
while Jochobed, supported by her heroic daughter, set out for her own
now happy home.
By what simple means did God bring His purpose to pass! A tender
girl and a charitable female were ippI. i..ill the preservers of this child;
but God had selected them as fitting agents. And this infant-who that
looked upon him then, could imagine the mighty deeds he was destined
to perform ? A great multitude was to be taken from a powerful and
unwilling nation; a countless army overthrown; king, and nation,
swept from the land, to give place to his wandering host ?
But I shall not touch upon the story of Moses, except where Miriam
is concerned. Who, after seeing the heroic conduct of the young
Miriam, and her devotion to her brother, in which she certainly risked
her life, would imagine her capable of her after conduct ? Who could
recognize the watcher by the Nile in the rebel of the Desert of Zin ?
The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately wicked: who
can know it ?" When the nurse of Moses was no longer needed, he was
taken to the princess, and soon raised to power. But he always clung to
his nation, and refused to be called an Egyptian, or the son of Pharaoh's

It is unnecessary to say anything more of the succeeding events of the
life of Moses; or of the wondrous miracles wrought by him before
Pharaoh to induce hihn to let his people go; as my readers are, or I hope
they are, sufliciently iacquainted with them. Pharaoh was dead, and a
new ling arose, who fully appreciated the worth of the Hebrews as
towers of wood and dramars of water. It sceCmed for a time as if the
muiracjls only irritlcd ti king, and indue;d him to render the Hebrew's
bonidaeg; more bitter. Tihen w-as M iriam of great service to her country-


men; confident in the promise of God, she inspired courage into their
hearts by her unswerving faith. As a reward for her trust in Him, God
bestowed upon her the gift of prophecy, and placed her beside her
brothers, Moses and Aaron, as leaders, instructors, and judges of the
children of Israel. The Hebrews departed; but were soon followed by
the Egyptian army, which perished in the Red Sea. The oppressed
people were free, but wanderers in the Desert.
Miriam was reverenced by all, as a prophetess; and enjoyed especial
honour as the sister of Moses. Zipporah, the wife of Moses, whom he
had left in the land of Cush, with her father, Jethro, had lately arrived
and joined her husband, and, of course, obtained much of the people's
good-will as wife of their leader; and Miriam stood not alone in their
regard, or in that of Moses. She, however, reigned without a rival
when Moses judged the people; for he needed help, and Aaron was
engaged with his priestly duties. When the father of Zipporah arrived,
he advised Moses to lighten his toil by dividing his people in tens, fifties,
hundreds, and thousands, and by appointing rulers over each band.
Miriam then no longer saw herself a distinguished associate of her
brothers, as her office was divided, and she became merely one of the
many rulers. Forgetful she owed all to God, and that IIe might take
away His gifts, Miriam looked upon Jethro and Zipporah as usurpers
and rivals. Day and night she devised plans to overthrow their
counsels. She endeavoured to interest Aaron in her cause; and, much
attached to his sister, and of a gentle nature, he listened to her, and
pitied her, when, perhaps, he would have done better to have
reproved her.
The Israelites were nov in the wilderness of Zin, a large, level plain,
surrounded by eminences which shot up their granite peaks to the
heavens. The twelve tribes were encamped by threes on each side of
this immense plain, having at each corner the standards erected. Judah
bore upon his banner a lion, while the other three bore the figures of the
ox, eagle, and man. In the centre arose the wondrous Tabernacle,
glowing in purple, and blue, and scarlet and gold embroidery. It stood
within a large space, enclosed by a fence of linen curtains, suspended
upon pillars of brass. Within this enclosure stood the brazen sea, and
great altar of brass, and tables of marble. Miriam was sitting at the
door of her tent, uttering complaints of Moses in the car of Aaron, and
within hearing of many witnesses.


":Moses Ih.'ih i riinsgressed, seeing lie hath married the Midian
woman," said iiriam. Who is she that all honour her thus, as if
there were no olthr v:omcen in the camp ? And who is her father, that he
deviseth mischi e against me ?"
"I am sorry for th(e, my sister, and will speak to Moses regarding
thee; for didst ihou not save his life ?"
Yea, what wre wer'loses, wore it nf t for me ? IHe taketh too much
upon him. tiath the Lord only revealed Ilis will by him ? Itath lie not
also given thee iand me the split of prophecy ?"
Yea, indeed He hath," said Aaron.
Suddenly a cloud came down mad rested at the door of the Tabernacle,
and the people knew the Lord was among them. Then every one stood
still in his place, and listened, as the Lord commanded Moses and Aaron
and Miriam to come into the court of the Tabernacle. Tremblingly they
obeyed the mandate, nd d walked up in silence, undisturbed, except by
the tinkling of the golden bells upon the robe of Aaron. They stood
before the Tabernacle in the face of the whole congregation. The tall
and stately figure of Moses was enveloped in a large mantle of white
linen, fringed with blue ; while Aaron was arrayed in the gorgeous vest-
ments of the High Priest-the breast of his blue upper-dress dazzling
with the emblematic jewels, while the bottom was hung with scarlet
pomegranates and golden bells-his white linen mitre circled by a golden
band, and his girdle and linen under-dress richly embroidered with
scarlet, and blue, and purple. Miriam glorying in her situation, and
S-.ii.... I;i- new honours, stood between them, with her head elevated so
that the golden horn which ornamented her forehead was erected on high.
Hear now my words," said the Lord. If there be a prophet among
you, I, the Lord, will make myself known unto him in visions and
dreams only ; but my servant Moses, who is faithful to me, shall be
spoken to, mouth to mouth-not in dark speeches as to you, but is
honoured above yeou by beholding the similitude of the Lord. Knowing
this, were ye not afraid to speak against my servant, Moses?" Then
trembled Aaron and Miriam, for they saw the anger of the Lord was
kindled against them.
The clond departed from the sanctuary ; they turned to gaze upon
each other, whe, whe, '. they saw that Miriam was a leper The colour
was gone front h!er blooming cheek, and her skin was turned to the livid
hue of the i.. ', '. l '. .i "' 1:-.. 7 ;.:l' :- t tlhe feet of Moses.


Alas, my lord," he said, "I b:hseeh thee, forgiv e us our sin, for
indeed we have spoken foolishly against thee. Take pity upon Miriam,
and do not let her remain thus as one dead ere til tomb hath closed
over her."
Moses interceded for her with God. Hear her now, O God, I be-
seech thee," he cried. The Lord refused to iheal?. liriam, but ordered
her to undergo the usual cleansing of lepers, and to live sjven days with-
out the camp.
In the sight of all Israel was the humiiliated Mi'riam carried without
the limits of the camp, where a tent was erected lor her. I1ere she
remained seven days, undergoing the usual lustIrati'iis and sacrifices of
those tainted with leprosy. Her long and beantifil hair was shaven off
-her clothes were washed as well as her body. Upon th'j seventh day
the priests visited her, and, after examination, shle was pronounced
whole. The usual ceremony then followed, in which olne 1 A:ron's sons,
Miriam's nephew, ofliciated. A vessel of pure water w:Na brought, which
had been taken from a running spring. The priest then took two birds,
one of which was killed over the water; a piece of cedar wood, some
scarlet wool, and a sprig of hyssop were, with the remaining bird, dipped
into the blood, and sprinkled upon Miriam. The bird was then let loose
in the desert. Being pronounced clean, Miriam was again led into the
camp. The nex', day she presented at the altar a lamb to be sacrificed,
and some oil. She was anointed with the oil after it had Leen offered
up, and the priests absolved her from all other duties.
Miriam was thoroughly repentant and humbled. Her character was
much improved by this chastening: and pride and ambition were for
ever at rest within her bosom. Let this one shadow upon her fair life
be forgotten, as she was one of God's chosen agents for the furtherance
of His great and wonderful purposes.

The children of Israel once more broke up their encampment, and
journeyed through the wilderness. At Kadesh they again encamped in
the desert of Paran, and there Miriam died. The hill of Paran is a
remarkable pile of rocks, whose slender, jagged spires give it, at a dis-
tance, the appearance of a cathedral. In the side' of this rock they cut
out a tomb for Miriam. It was richly carved within, while over the door
was her name, and the date of her death, surrounded w ith ornamented
work. Her body was bound with linen bhan:: ;il'd l;id 'uon a ,ier : she


was followed to her tomb by her weeping relatives of the house of Levi,
and a train of hired mourners, whose dcath-wail awoke the desert echoes.
A carved sarcophagus, filled with spices, received her body-the door was
closed-the train dispersed, and the Israelites resumed their march,
leaving Miriam in her lonely resting-place.

Let us learn from the story of Miriam to crush unholy ambition. How
was her glory tarnished by this spirit! Surrounded by friends and
admirers, and exalted by God to a high office among her countrymen,
she strove to advance higher, and fell into the shades of humiliation and
Remember the words of our Saviour's apostle, who tells us, "Godli-
ness with contentment is great gain."


THm majestic oaks, the herds and verdant pastures of Bashan, have
ever furnished, to the inspired prophets of Israel, types and figures of
richness and fertility. Age after age has passed away, nation has suc-
ceeded nation in earth's pageant over these fair plains, cities have risen
on those river banks; but the nations have melted into the shadows of
the past, the cities have crumbled away, and all has changed save those
glorious oaks of Bashan, which still crown the summits of the hills
where their kindred flourished, and gaze down as of old upon the vales
and rivers beneath. Their day however must come, for Isaiah hath said,
" The cedars of Lebanon, and all the oaks of Bashan, shall be brought
Arrayed in all the gorgeous robes of her ancient glory, ere yet her
"time to weep had come, the land of Bashan burst upon the gaze of
two persons as they gained the brow of one of the hills which separated
her from the land of dil ad.
Ha! by Moloch, this is a glorious s country," said one,-a tall man
clad in a dark dress which' fi ll t c is bsLi dalldci feet, and in a corslet of
rusty steel, and bat :-r, hle 'leL. ji.-Lld those frowning mountains,"


he added; see how they spring to the skies, and then sink down inio
soft grassy slopes, losing themselves in these pretty green vales. Mark
how the glittering Jabbok, like a jewelled necklace, rests upon the bosom
of these verdant plains, reflecting upon its shining surface, city, and
tower, and marble palace."
It is," returned his companion, a man of lordly bearing; "but my
heart, untouched by its loveliness, still fondly turns to Gilead."
What charm is there in Gilead, my lord, that you so cherish it?
Your kindred, as you tell me, have thrust you from your father's house."
He is old and powerless, ilaziel. I am not his lawful son. Child of
a favourite handmaid, I shared with her -1l his heart, even after he
married and was again a father. His wife ever looked upon my mother
and myself with envious eyes. Her dislike was infused into the bosoms
of her sons, and they, by every art, sought to wean my father's favour
from me. At last they persuaded him to deny me all share of my patri-
mony, and finally to turn me from his house ?"
Shame on them Had you no friends who might use their influence
for you ?"
I applied to the elders, and they refused my suit. I, who so faith-
fully had served them, who had kept at bay the neighboring nations,
and raised the fame of Gilead to its present height '"
Oh, they were purchased by your brothers' gold!"
"From my intirm father and my brothers I expected nothing, but
from my country I surely had a right to look for justice. So keenly did
I feel my fellow-citizens' ingratitude, that I shook the dust from off my
feet upon the city, and left it, vowing never to return."
A brave resolve, my noble Jephthah! Think no more of such false
friends, and turn to those who, with open arms, are waiting to receive
you. Trust yourself to my direction, and, by Baal! the citizens of Gilead
shall rue the day they ever injured Jephthah !"
Gently, my friend. Ere I join your band, I must exact that I never
be required to attack my countrymen." We are too proud to number
the celebrated Jephthah among us, to.refuse anything he may demand."
The new friends descended the hill, and advanced toward a large ca-.-,
whose yawning mouth opened into the dark bosom of the mountain. As
they entered, deafening shouts of Welcome Ilaziel! welcome noble
Jephthah!" awoke the echoes of the vault.
The Ammonites had long meditated an inroad into Gilead, and now


that Jephthah, the only man they feared, was expelled the city, they
commenced an attack upon its borders. Many divisions of the Gileadites
were sent against them, but they were repelled, and the enemy entered
the land and directed their march towards the city. The brothers of
Jephthah had all been defeated, and had withdrawn themselves into the
city, where they were the scorn of all. The defeated soldiers, now en-
camped without the walls, were disheartened with their repeated unsuc-
cess. 0 that the noble Jephthah were here," said one of the soldiers,
" and Ammon would not shame uts ths '' Yea," said another, had
we but Jephthah for our captain, we should soon repel the invaders !"
The murmurs spread through the camp and reached the city.
" Where is Jephthah ?" became the public cry. Shouts of derision
against his brothers, and disapprobation against the elders who had
turned the warrior from the city, resounded from every quarter. From
rumours they rose to open rebellion, and the elders and Jephthah's family
were obliged to fly from the wrath of the people and shelter themselves
in a fortified tower. In front of this the populace assembled, vowing de-
struction upon the elders unless Jephtlah were placed at the head of the
army. The elders, to appease them, promised to send messengers after
him into the land of Bashan. Messengers were accordingly despatched.
After several days passed in great suspense, they returned with Jeph-
thah's refusal to aid his ungrateful city. "Go yourselves!" cried the
people to the elders-" take with you Jephthah's recreant brothers, and
upon your knees entreat him to return and redeem us from that destruc-
tion you could not avert!"
Forced to obey, these proud old men, who as rulers of the city had
seen all at their feet, now reluctantly prepared to seek out him they
had so deeply injured, and pray him to forgive them and return.
Noble Jephthah!" said their spokesman, as the deputation was pre-
sented to the exile, you see before you the elders of your city, who,
finding their messengers unheeded, have come this weary journey to seek
your aid against the Ammonites, who press us sore."
Truly, for men of age, your minds are very changeful," said
Jephthah, bitterly. "How short a time is it since ye thrust me from
your doors, and now ye come thus far to seek me! Once it was my
pleasure and my highest joy to do your bidding, but ye repelled me;
and now ye come in your distress to pray me to return '"
0 noble Jephthah, pity t111t i:..trcss which brings us here! Reject


us not. Our hosts call upon you to take tleir head, as their chosen
captain. The name of Jephthah once resounding before our walls, the
dreaded sound shall strike our foes with terror, and Gilead shall be free

j.T-T-.- Oe~ 1


~7 ..
17 ~'' ''~

i -..s s~r~f~~


Turn not away. Wilt thou ,;e Gilead low ? wilt thou see thy helme, thy
i' i:ends, doomed to destruction?"-"' What home what f'iend-, said
;i.phthah, gloomily.-" Behold thy repentant brethren here," said the
tlder, pointing to a group of young men who just then entered the gate,
" they yield their gold, their all!"
"No, no!" exclaimed Jephthah, in violent agitation, motioning them
ieck, Do not let them come I cannot see them. Years of humilia-
tion, of reproach, and of injury rise before me and shut nmy heart against
them. I cannot see them!"
There was silence in the court, and the dejected young men turned to
"And yet, as a follower of the just God of Israel, I must forgive.
Young men, return! I do forgive you, for ye are my father's sons; but
stay not here if ye wish Gilead well. tepo;se in yonder roomrs-there
shall my people minister to your wants." Jophthah waved his hand,
and his degenerate brethren crossed the court to the interior apartments.
0 Jlphthah, I deemed your heart were formed of nobler nature than
thus to harbour vengeance," said the clder reproachfully. Ye then
reject us-refuse to aid your native city, and thus devote us all to
slaughter! IRemember your aged father-your daughter!"
"'Ha! my sweet young child! I had forgotten her-I must to her
rescue, indeed. My fathers, accuse me not of ch'erii:: r revcer;e ? It
is my only wish to act according to the laws of God. Forive e me that
I have grieved ye thus, but you know not all the suffi rirg ,' h'tc exile
has cost me."
ifaziel, who had stood with his hands folded in the lecc: sleeves of
h1'i scarlet i:. s, an attentive listener to all that passed, row saw v with
alarm that Jelphthah was relenting. "'My friends, your iine i.i wasted
in vain words," he said, advancing to the elders. :ll ties betweenn tlihe
noble Jephthah and yourself rre broken by your own strong asrn. Yc
s ;nt him poor and sorrow-itri'clcen from yo!e'r !walls : I tno,; h11- in, clothed,
f d, and cheered him. Think ye he can th's light eave 7n e ?"
Jephthah seemed torn with ...'".. t:,. motionss. "':Eders of Gilcad,"
at' last he said, ye must return alone!"
"Nay, nay, Jephthah!" thy erl 1, ,kne: ling bkfo!e h i ; "si 'I to
the cry of your perishing con"ry:! Ce:': with u:i 's t t'e1se o;-'
When Jephthah beheld 'i ul er 1 ""' : -.:- :::: i


him; those august old men to whom since childhood he had looked as if
to very gods-their robes of state in the dust, their venerable beards
dropping with tears, and their aged hands lifted to him for succour-he
thought his heart would have burst within him.
"Rise! rise, my lords !" he cried, mingling his tears with theirs ashe
stooped to raise them; Do yourselves not the great dishonour as to kneel
to me. I go; I am yours !--eceive me again as your son, and I will
follow you to death!"
Jephthah was wrapped in their warm embraces, and blessed and thanked
by the happy elders.
Farewell, Haziel!" he said, turning towards his friend. Farewell,
Jephthah the ingrate! Jephthah the tool said IHaziel, bitterly.
"Speak not thus, thou son of Napthali!" said the elder. "Thou
seest thou art known under thy bandit disguise. What dost thou here
when war threatens Israel? and thou, son of the great house of Issachar !
and ye, noble youths, whom I see around me !" continued the elder, ad-
dressing the assembled band of Haziel; follow the steps of Jephthah, I
entreat ye, ere it be too late. Here is an honourable opening by which
ye may retrace your path. In this coming war, your lost honour and
fallen fortunes may be retrieved, and ye be worthy yet of your lofty race !"
The elders each addressed the young men, urging them to return with
them. Their patronage and protection was promised them, with honour-
able posts in the war. Jephthah's entreaties were joined to theirs, which
were in a measure successful. Haziel and some of his friends agreed to
accompany Jephthab, and they followed the triumphant elders to the
camp at Mizpeh.
Shouts of joy welcomed Jephthah's arrival, from the soldiers. He was
led by the elders towards a magnificent tent of scarlet, bordered with
gold. Enter, great Jephthah, the tent of the captain of our host," said
the elder. May the God of Israel be with thee, and make thee con-
queror over Ammon!" Jephthah paused before the entrance of the tent,
and turning, addressed them thus-" Ye have promised me, 0 elders of
Gilead, the post of captain over your armies; but how know I, when I
return from the wars, ye will not thrust me out as before ? Ere I con-
sent to lead you to battle, ye must agree unto these two things,-that I
be not only captain in war, but ruler in peace. 1 ye now make me j adge
over Gilead, I will take the command of your armies; if not, I will re-
turn to my stronghold."


The elders willingly agreed. An altar was raised in the centre of the
host, in front of the tent of Jephthah, and there, before the assembled'
army, and before the Lord, whose name was called upon to witness the
compact, he was installed as judge and captain over Gilead. The elders
repeated before the people the conditions 1L..? had agreed upon between
themselves and Jephthah, and then turning towards him, said-" The
Lord be witness between us, if we do not so, according to thy words."
The grateful acclamations of the men of Gilead testified to their joy at
his elevation over them.
Determined not to await the coming Ammonites, Jephthah immediately
marched to meot the foe. Wherever lie appeared the people, beconim
more confident now they beheld him at the head of the army, hastened
to join his forces. After winding through a defile in the mountains of
Gilead, Jephthah beheld against the distant horizon the banners, and
spears, and glittering chariots of the Ammonites. Here he halted and
drew up his men in order of battle. Although his faith assured him the
Lord would give him the victory, Jephthah was anxious it should be a
bloodless one, and resolved by negotiation to induce the Ammonites to
retire. Many men, newly elected leader of an army, who knew much
was expected from them, would be eager to signalise themselves by some
warlike exploit; but Jephthah's conduct was ruled by the laws of God
rather than of man, and lie sent to demand of the Ammonite king the
cause of his appearance in arms. Admitted into the tent of the king,
Jephthah's messengers thus addressed him:-
Thus sayeth Jephthah, captain of the Lord's host, to the king of the
children of Ammon-Why is it that thou has come up to fight me in my
land? Have I evil-treated thee? If I have injured thee, speak, and
I will repay if it be in my power."
Go, and tell your leader," replied the king, "I come to recover those
lands which the children of Israel took from me when they came up ouIL
of Egypt."
What land was this, 0 king?" asked the messenger. The richest
part of my inheritance have they -avishcd from me; that fertile traci
whose bounds three rivers lave, the Jabbok, Arnon, and Jordan. Restore
this portion peaceably, and I will return to Amnion. If ye refuse, they
shall be mine by force, my chariots shall crush your ranks, and seize
them from your hand."
The messengers departed, and repeated to JeLkthah all that had becu


spoken by the king of Ammon. Fully instructed by their captain, they
again stood before the king and said-" Thus saith great Jeplhthah, O
king, Israel took not this land from the children of Ammnon, nor of the
Moabite, their ally ; it was in possession of Sihon, king of the Amorites,
and from them they conquered it. Nor would they have thus bereft him
had he granted them that peaceful passage through his land which they
requested." Jephthah then rehearsed the facts relating to their march,
and to their battle with the Amorites. Wilt thou tlhn ask from us the
land given to us by our God ? Take what thy own god (Clhemiosh giveth
thee. Zippor, king of Moab, did never strive to regain these lands, and
now dost thou come to take them, after Israel hath possessed them three
hundred years ? Thou dost me wrong to war against me, and the Lord
the Judge be judge this day between the children of Israel and the chil-
dren of Ammon!"
The king of Ammon would not harken longer to the messengers, but,
breaking up the conference, angrily dismissed them.
Trumpets now resounded from every side, and they rushed to meet
each other in deadly strife. Then was heard the thunder of the
captains, and the shouting." The ground shook under tlhe roar of the
chariots, and tramp of armed men, camels, and elephants. The war-horse
was there in his strength; who swallowed the ground with fierceness
and rage," who mocketh although the quiver rattled against him, and
the glittering spear and shield." In the whirlwind of battle, Jephthah
for one moment forget his trust in God, and tempted Him to light upon his
side; he vowed avow before the Lord, and said, If Thou shalt, without
fail, deliver the children of Ammon into my hands, then it shall be, that
whatsoever cometh forth of the doors of my house to meet me, when I
return in peace from the children of Ammon, shall surely be the Lord's,
and I will offer it up for a burnt offering !" A rash vow which Jephthah
ever after deplored, and which if he had reflected one moment he would
not have made. Jephthah suffered from his first error, eril communnica-
tion; he had stricken hands" with idolaters, and while residing with
them had witnessed their frequent sacrifices to their gods, and forgot he
spoke to a God who delighted not in such vows. Into this grievous
error he had not fallen if he had shunned instead of making friends of
the sons of Baal.
The children of Ammon fled before the host of Jephthah. They were


pursued into the heart of their country, and twenty cities conquered, and
the whole land completely subdued.
The city of Gilead was tilled with rejoicing that their enemy was
repelled, and its streets were crowded with the citizens, eager to behold
the triumphant entry of their victorious leader. Jcphthah approached,
seated in a brazen chariot surrounded by his steel-clad warriors. His
robe of blue, embroidered with gold, was bound by a broad girdle of
golden mail, a sword hung in chains from hi:; side, and shoes of brass
defended his feet; a scarlet mantle fell from his shoulders, and around
his head was a band of steel chain-work, from which projected in front
a horn of gold, giving him a fierce and terrible appearance. When the
procession arrived before the house of Jephthah, the gate was thrown
open, and a group of young girls came dancing forth, mingling their
jocund music with the cheers of the populace. What saw the conqueror
in yon joyous train, that he started as if a shot from the enemy's archers
had stricken him ?-why bowed his lofty head unto his bosom ? At the
head of the youthful train came the hero's daughter, his only child,
holding aloft the sweet-sounding timbrel, and attired, as became a ruler's
daughter, in a robe of divers colours, richly embroidered with gorgeous
feather-work, and gold, and silk of varied dies. A fillet of white roses
bound her dark tresses, and her tiny feet were strapped in scarlet sandals.
Smiles lighted up her fair face, and her soft dove's eyes beamed with iilial
tenderness when raised to her lordly father.
Behind her were the maidens of Gilead, clad in white, with chaplets
of red roses ; their slender ankles circled with silver bells. Like leaves
from a gay parterre swept onward by a summer breeze, these lovely
flowerets bloated in mazy whirls until beside tie chariot of the conqueror.
The daughter of Jephthah approached her father; and when the people
looked to see him fold her in his embrace, with a frantic start he rent the
bosom of his gilded robe, and, covering his head with his mantle, he
groaned with anguish. "My father 1" said a gentle voice beside him.
"Alas, my daughter !" cried the conqueror, with a burst of agony-
from my high estate of joy thou hast brought me low down in the dust !"
There was deep silence while he spoke-" 0 God, forgive me : my child
forgive me When I faced the children of Ammon in battle, I vowed,
if the Lord would deliver them into my hands, I would offer up, as
sacrifice unto him, the first that came forth from my house to meet me:
Thou art the first-my child my only one !"


A deep consternation fell upon the hearts of all, when this rash vow
was heard-on all, save upon that fair and gentle creature who was the
victim. With brow unblanched, and with a glow of generous self-
devotion, she said to Jcphthah-" iMy father, if thou hast opened thy
mouth to the Lord, do unto me as thou hast vowed. Thy God hath made
thee conqueror over thy enemies; the children of Ammon have fallen
before thee ; and if I am to be the prie' of victory, take me, and do unto
me according to thy vow. I die for my country and for my father: in
that death there isno bitterness." At the request of the elders, who now
approached, Jephthah descended from his chariot, and, accompanied by
them and his daughter, he entered his habitation. Here he threw him-
self upon the ground, covered his head with dust, and refused all his
child's endeavours to comfort him.
Many days were passed in sorrow and in deep perplexity by the
people of Gilead. At last, it was determined by a council of elders, that
a deputation of their number should be sent to Sliloh, in order to obtain
the advice of the priests of the tabernacle upon this difficult and unhappy
matter. The time of their absence was passed in great anxiety by the
people, and in deep humiliation and anguish by Jephthah. Their
approach was at length described from the watch-tower; they entered the
city, and, followed by a train of eager citizens, sought the unhappy
Jephthah, who still remained upon the ground as they had left him,
clothed with sackcloth, and covered with ashes.
Hear, 0 Jephthth, the message of the high-priest of Israel!"
said the chief of the elders; Unlike abvorshipper of Israel's God, thou
hast vowed to offer in burnt sacrifice the first that came to meet thee
from thy house. Such i'. ri ti. are an abomination to the Lord, and to
punish thee for thy rashness He hath sent thy daughter forth." Jeph-
thah answered with a groan of anguish.
This sacrifice being forbidden by our laws, the person offered can be
redeemed with money, and for a youthful female the priests demand ten
She may then be saved ?" And the people were preparing to shout
for joy, at her deliverance, when a wave from the elder's hand restrained
Thou hast said, such, coming forth to meet thee, shall surely be the
Lord's, and, bythe laws of our holy Moses, things thus devoted cannot be
redeemed." A sigh burst from many a bosom when they heard this


cruel sentence. Listen, Jephthah, to thy daughter's destiny: thou hast
devoted her to be the Lord's, and as the Lord's her days must be spent
in His service. She is henceforth for ever dead to the world, and dead to
thee She must be taken to Shiloh, where in perpetual virgin seclusion
her days must pass in the service of the tabernacle. She belongs no
more to man, but must be kept as holy to the Lord." With this decree
the people were satisfied, and Jephthah was relieved. Still his daughter
was lost to him for ever, and if not called upon to die, was doomed to a
lonely life. How bitterly was his rash vow now repented! His cherished
child, she whom he looked upon as the light and comfort of his declining
years, must be to him as dead To her this destiny was worse than
death. She had wrought her soul up to the great sacrifice of her life,
but thus to lose home, and all held dear-to see none else but strangers
near her-to surrender that fond hope, so cherished by her countrywomen,
of being the Saviour's mother, brought to her young bosom a chill, as if
from the tomb. Her fair brow was but a moment clouded. No
reproachful word came from her lip, but with a smile of heroic fortitude
she turned to Jephthah-- Cheer thee, my father i I am raised from
death," she said. "My life, devoted to my God, and given for my
country, must be a happy one; for God will not willingly afflict His child."
Jephthah threw his arms around his daughter, wetting her glossy locks
with bitter, tears. "Remember, thou hast many duties, and many
honours, father Thou art a judge of Israel. Thy brow is surrounded
by a halo of glory, and thou hast much to render life dear to thee. Thou
wilt forget this anguish soon, and, in worshipping thy God, and in thy
country's service, wilt find peace at last."
Jephthah strained her to his heart in speechless sorrow. How could
he part with this sweet child so lately restored to him now become far
dearer as her filial tenderness, her heroism, and her religious faith
became thus known to him. The maiden turned towards the elders.
"I bow to the high priest's decree, as a most righteous one," she said;
'and I will yield me to his will. This only I would ask, Give me some
little time for preparation, to take farewell of all the friends and scenes
so dear ? After this, I will accompany ye to Shiloh."
The elders willingly acceded to her request, and then departed.
Some time was passed in preparation, and in endeavours to soothe the
sadness of her father; and then the daughter of Jephthah, accompanied
by her young female companions, her friends and attendants, set out


upon a pilgrimage among the city's environs, to bid farewell to all those
friends and places among whom her childhood's happy days were spent.
She passed from one spot to another among the beautiful mountain
scenery of Gilcad, bidding an adieu to every cherished scene.
With her companions she bewailed her hapless lot, and mourned that
she must lose the hopes of seeing the promised Saviour among her
descendants. She then returned to her father's house, who solemnly
surrendered her into the hands of the elders, and was taken to Shiloh.
The loss of Jcphthah's daughter was annually commemorated by the
daughters of Israel at Gilead. Every year, upon the anniversary of this
sad event, they walked in procession through the same paths she had trod
with them, when bidding her early home adieu. The character which
we have endeavoured to render familiar to the minds of our readers, is
full of fruitful incident for reflection; and it is impossible to feel other-
wise than deeply impressed by tile dutiful obedience of the heroine of our
subject to the stern dictates of Jephthah's rash vow.


'TwAs night in Persia. Elam's burning god had passed to other lands,
leaving his starry train to rule the night." Arcturus and all his sons
were out, Orion and the Pleiades shedding soft brilliancy over many
a perfumed vale, mountain, and desert lone. Gently their rays were
flung over the stately city of Susa, and fairy gardens of the royal palace.
Here flowers, rare and lovely, were giving forth their fragrance to the
night. Myriads of roses, jessamines, myrtles and sweet oleander, glow-
ing pomegranate, almond, graceful chinar and citron, were gathered in
gorgeous groups, or bending over the silvery and gushing fountains.
A royal banquet-hall arose in this sweet Eden. Gorgeous in its mag-
nificence, it was worthy its royal master. The floor was a rare mosaic
of marble and porphyry and alabaster, which gave it the glow of a rich
painting. Pillars of marble encircled the apartment, suspended to which
by silver rings were hangings of rich stuffs, of white and green, and
scarlet, looped up with silver cords. A table in the form of a crescent
occupied the centre of the room, covered with every rare viand and


delicious fruit, with delicately-sculptured vases and cups of gold and silver
set with precious stones, bearing the most exquisite wines of Ilelbon
and Damascus, the sweet water of Choaspes, sacred to the royal table.
Around this luxurious board, reclining upon silver couches covered
with purple cushions, were the chief nobles of the court of Artaxerxes.
In the centre was the monarch, arrayed in robes of scailet and purple,
adorned with gold and jewels, and wearing the royal tiara, of cloth of
silver and purple silk twisted, which bore a short plmle, erect in front.
Next the king sat his seven councillors, the heads of the seven noblest
families in Persia, descendants of the conspirators against the usurper,
Smerdis, the Magian, and privileged, in memory of the confusion of that
hour, to wear the plumes which decorated their white line turbans
A dazzling light was thrown over the richly-laden table by silver
chandeliers, while the hall resounded with music and meiry laughter.
This was the seventh day of the royal feast-a feast given by the king
to all his officers and nobles, in commemoration of the peace which his
unremitted etibrts had procured to the one huilnred and twenty provinces
of his vast kingdom. Silence was commanded at the table, and the king
This is the last day of the feast, my lords," Ie said; let it in joy
and mirth exceed the rest. Stint not the wine, 'tis parent of wit and
Loud applause followed this gracious address from their monarch;
the golden flagons were replenished, and jewelled cups flashed in the
SBravely hath my lord spoken of wine," said his favourite, Memucan,
who sat next to him. lint if I dared hazard an opinion, there exists a
more powerful thing than wine."
What may that be, Memucan said his royal master. Say on !"
It is the kin;l," said the favourite. Maan is lord of the earth, you
say; lie planted the vineyard, and maketh the wine, and doth not the
king command all men ? "
Yes, wine is strong, and the king is strong ; but I know what excel-
leth both in power," said Prince Admath.
Speak on," said the king.
It is wom)l my lord. If mankind rule the world, doth not woman
rule him ? tHe that planteth the vine, and the king who comnmandeth


sea and land, owe their existence to her. A man leaveth his mother and
country for his wife. For her he will hold as dust all gold and gems,
and every precious thin;. of the earth. Will not a man labour more
faithfully for the woman of his love than for his king ? Yea, he will
rob, and spoil, and brave the dangers of the sea, the fury of lions and
the terrors of darkness, to gai: treasure to lay at a woman's feet: Men
have lost their wits, have become slaves, haveN signed and have perished,
for woman's sake. Even the king, commander of the earth, does not he
in turn obey a woman ? Then acknowledge l 0 king! and ye, 0 lords I
that woman hath more power than wine or the king."
Universal applause crowned the orator, ind the sparkling cups were
once more filled high to the honour of wiu man. A momentary silence
succeeded the clamour, during which a ldep sigh was heard in the apart-
ment. All started at this unusual sound in the banquet-hall, and the
king, turning, beheld beside him his cup-bearer, a iHebr1ew captive, who
stood with his aarms folded in his linen mantle, his eyes mixed pensively
on the ground, and his whole figure so exprCesive of mournful musing
as to present a complete contrast to the merry and gaily-dressed
How now, Nehemiah ?" said the king ; Why art thou so sad ? Why
this heart-sorrow when all are so gay '"
Let the king live for ever !" said tlhe captive Hebrew ; and let my
lord not rebuke ne : for iwhy should not imy countenance be sad when the
place of my fathers' sepulchre lieth waste, anti the gates are consumed
with fire '"
"Nay, do not mar ourjoy bythy glomi. Cheer up, Nehemiah! Come,
tell us which thou thinkest strongest in the world-wine, the king, or
woman ?"
"They are all excellent in strength, my lord: but, 0 king, there is
something more powerful than these !" said the I rebrew.
And what may that be ?" asked the king, smiling to the courtiers,
who all looked forward expecting some amusement at the captive's
Truth is stronger," replied the Hebrew. Earth and Heaven bow
to the power of Truth. In wine, and the king, and woman, is error and
death; but Truth endureth always, and conque.eth for evermore. True
is the earth to her seasons, and swift and true the stars in their course.
In the judgment of Truth there is no unrighteousness; but the children


of men are wicked. Truth is the strength, and kingdom, and power,
and majesty of all ages. Blessed be the God of Truth !"
The Hebrew was silent; a sudden awe fell upon the assembly, and
they exclaimed, as if with one voice, Great is Truth, and mighty above
all things !"
"Well hast thou spoken, Hebrew," said the king. "I here pro-
nounce thee conqueror in this our argument, and will give thee any boon
thou shalt ask!"
The Hebrew, with a silent ejaculation to his God, knelt before
Artaxerxes. "If it please thee, 0 king," he said, let me be sent to
Judea with power to rebuild our holy temple, and the God of Truth shall
bless thee evermore ?"
Thy request is granted. Remind me of this to-morrow, and I will
write the fitting orders."
With many thanks, and a heart filled with gratitude to God, the
Hebrew fell back behind his beneficent master.
The Hebrew is wise," said the king; but he has thrown a shade
over our mirth. Come, fill up, my lords; let us drink to woman. I
give you the fairest in Persia, Queen Vashti !"
When they had drank, Prince Memucan observed: We drink to her
beauty, my lord, upon our faith in your taste; for the lovely queen hath
never blest our eyes."
"'Tis true," said the king; but you shall judge for yourselves. I
will force you to acknowledge her pre-eminence. Bid the lord chamber-
lain appear."
"Repair to the Women's Court," said the king to the lord chamber-
lain, who stood before him. "Bid Queen Vashti appear in her royal
robes, with the crown upon her head, that all may behold her beauty and
confess my taste unquestioned."
The chamberlain bowed, and departed. Passing through the starlit
garden, whose fresh air and sweet odours were grateful after breathing
the heat and fumes of the banquet-hall, he was admitted through a
large gate into a marble court, with its usual adornment of a whispering
fountain and vases of rare flowers. Around this were built the rooms
appropriated to the women of the palace. A large saloon fronted the
gate, from which echoed the silvery laugh and melodious tones of female
Here Queen Vashti held a feast to the ladies of the court, and the


I! I' I i



wives of those princes who sat at the king's table. The walls of this
apartment were richly painted, or adorned with delicate flower-work,
carved in cedar, and .. !.'l gilded. Gorgeous Babylonian carpets


were spread upon the marble floor, and the softened light of alabaster
lamps, reflected from silver mirrors, threw a gentle moonlight radiance
over the room and its fair young group.
A circle of ladies surrounded a table upon which was placed all that
could tempt a fastidious palate. Grapes, and wine, and pomegranates,
Arabian dates, and all that was rare and delicious was before them.
Upon a raised seat sat Queen Vashti. Tall and commanding, she looked
the sovereign. Her dress was of golden tissue, while from the royal
tiara, glittering with jewels, fell a rose-coloured veil spotted with gold.
When the chamberlain entered, she started in angry surprise. What
means this intrusion upon our privacy.?" she said, hanghtily.
The lord chamberlain, with a lowly obeisance, delivered the king's
command for her to appear before the princes in the banquet-hall. The
queen gazed upon him a moment :ii silence, while her brilliant eyes
flashed fire, the colour grew deep upon her check, and her bosom was
stirred with deep emotion.
Do I hear you aright, my lord ?"
You do, most royal lady. The king expects you."
Is the king mad ?" she cried, with a burst of wrath; for her spirit
was out in all its power. '"What! does he bid me, the queen! descend
from her state, to appear in tlhe midst of a drunken revel ? Doth he bid
a delicate lady come forth from her privacy to submit to the wanton
gaze of his idle, half-inebriated courtiers ? Return, my lord ; there is
some mistake in this." And the self-willed lady drew her veil around
her and resumed her seat, panting with all the anger of outraged dignity
and womanly delicacy.
"Nay, royal Vashti, hear me," said Harbona. "It is the king's
command, and I dare not return without the queen."
How do ye stand arguing with me thus, as if ye deemed I would
obey this insolent command and the diamonds in her tiara flashed not
more i: ; I- than the eyes of the ireful queen, while gazing upon the
trembling eunuchs.
"Yon will not thus rebel against-" began Abagtha, but he was cut
short by the enraged qlueen rising from her seat, lier glittering robes
falling around her.
Begone, slave she cried, stretching her hand :-... ..;. .1i towards
him ; begone I and tell your king I acill aot come.'"
With trembling lips the chamberlain bore to the king his queen's


refusal to appear before him. The wrath of the king was loud and deep.
" She refuses to come he exclaimed. "Is my royal will disputed?
and I bearded by a subject in my own palace "
Soon a decree went forth into all the hundred and twenty provinces
over which Artaxerxes reigned, that Yashti, the queen of Persia, was
repudiated, for refusing to comply with the king's commands. The fate
of Vashti was thus soon decided; and she was sent from the palace in
How gentle a touch will sometimes set in motion the machinery of
the world! These events, apparently unimportant except to the actors,
were big with the fate of the Jews who were spread over P'ersia and
In the suburbs of the city of Susa, by the river's side, and concealed
from view by a grove of stunted cypresses, stood a lone hut, formed of
mud which was hardened in the sun, and thatched with date leaves.
Here resided Mordecai, once a man of wealth in Judea, but subse(quecntly
carried captive to Babylon with his king, Jeconia, when the country was
conquered by Nebuchodonosor. Mordecai now gained a scanty sub-
sistence by labouring in the city, and lived in this retired spot in order
to escape notice. When the news of the king's decree reached him, his
heart bounded with joy. He now saw a way open for the advancement
of his people, andl with many a silent prayer and ejaculation of praise
lie sought his home. The hut of 31ordocai, wretched as it was in appear-
ance, contained a jewel of inestimable value. Here dwelt a Jewish
maiden of rare beauty, who, upon the death of her father, was left to the
care of her uncle Mordecai. Determined to place his peerless niece upon
the list of virgin candidates, lie lost no time in seeking her.
The next day Mordeca: sought llegai, tie lord chamberlain, in whose
core the candidates were placed. Concealing his relationship, he told
him of a jewel worth all lier tribe," of whose abode he was acquainted,
and offered to lead her to him, when lie might judge if she were fit to
enter the ranks of the candidate maidens. Hegai appointed a time and
a place for the meeting, and the sanguine Hebrew spent his last beral
in purchasing rich robes to deck his favourite.
The eunuch gazed with delight upon his beauteous charge, and took
her small white hand in his, and led her into the presence of Artaxerxes.
Like the evening star she beamed upon the king, all brilliancy and soft-
ness. The monaich raised her as she knelt before him.


"Bring hither no more maidens, Hegai," he said, gazing with ccstacy
upon the lovely Esther; this is my queen; earth can give no fairer."
The important news soon flew over the palace and city. Esther was
chosen queen, and the royal crown was placed upon her head.
Haman, the brother of Vashti, now aroused all his energy to compass
his plans. Revenge for his sister's degradation, and an ambitious wish
to advance himself to power, were the mainsprings of his actions. His
first step was to obtain the king's confidence. This, with extreme cun-
ning, he contrived to do. He was placed above all the nobles of the
court; and the king even sent forth a decree, commanding all, at the
approach of H1aman, to bow down and worship him as a god. Exulting
in his success, Haman now, with renewed hope, endeavoured to accom-
plish the destruction of Esther, hoping by his influence to induce the
king to place Vashti again upon the throne.
Soon after the decree in his favour, Haman, clad in costly robes of
purple and scarlet, on an Arab courser, whose velvet housings were
embroidered with gold, rode through the city, with a long train of
followers, to satisfy his insatiable pride by the adoration of all whom he
passed. He rode loftily out of the gate, around which was collected a
crowd of slaves and idlers, who bowed themselves to the dust at his
approach, crying, "Hail, Haman! son of Mythra!" One alone stood
erect, gazing with a calm brow at the pageant as it passed. IHaman was
astonished at his daring, but supposing him some stranger, ignorant of
the king's command, satisfied his malignity by frowning darkly at tlhe
offender. The next day the same thing occurred. All were prostrate
except the stranger, who stood proudly with folded arms as Hamian
passed. The slaves who stood around and marked the anger of Haman,
expostulated with Mordecai-for he it was-upon his singular conduct.
They urged the king's decree and the power of Haman, and warmed him
of the danger of offending the haughty favourite. To all this Mordecai
vouchsafed no reply, and, when Haman again rode forth, stood among the
kneeling group, like some tall tree erect amid the wreck of forests.
Haman was galled beyond endurance.
What, slave!" he cried, riding fiercely up to him, "know you not
the king's command ? Down t'ere, and kneel before me '"
I bow not to mortal, my lord," said the Hebrew, calmly; to my
God alone my knee is bent in adoration.' And, folding his linen robe
around him, he slowly strode away.


Haman's wrath was great, but his nature was wily; and detecting a
smile among his followers, he smothered his ire and rode on, devising
some sure and cruel punishment to the man who dared to resist his will.
Calling to his side one of his trusty servants, lie asked him the name of
the offender.
It is Mordecai, my lord, a Jew, and we do suspect a relation of the
queen; for messages have gone between them, and IHegai said lie brought
Esther to the palace."
"A Jew, and a relative of the queen!" thought IIaman. "Esther is
in my power, and the throne is mine! for Haian is not so weak as to
work for another; no, my fair sister, thou art but my agent, and when
the king is dead, my faithful Macedonians, whom I have secreted in the
city, will place me upon the throne of Persia I"
Haman asked no more questions, but, bending over his horse, whis-
pered to his slave-
Bring me the surety of all you say, and a golden darick shall reward
A few days after this, Haman rushed eagerly into his sister's presence.
Joy, joy, Vashti he cried; thy rival is in my power, and thou
shalt see her blood flow at thy feet!"
Ha! what sayest thou?" exclaimed the queen.
''I have discovered her well-kept secret at last. Vashti, Esther is a
Jewccss! a despised, captive Hebrew!"
Then shall I be avenged, nIaman I breathe free once more!" and
shaking back her neglected locks, the face of Vashti beamed with
Yes, she is of that hated, obnoxious race. As yet the king knows it
not, nor shall lie, until my plans be arranged."
"Quick, tell me all!" exclaimed the eager princess.
Listen. I will work upon the king against the Jews. I will repre-
sent them as a dangerous race, which it is the king's duty to extermi-
nate. I can guide Artaxerxes as a child, by his own good qualities; for
the benefit of his country he would sacrifice his dearest friend. A decree
goes forth for the massacre of the Jews,-Mordecai and Esther share the
fate of their people, and Vashti mounts the throne of Persia!"
"Oh, soul-ravishing news i Now I shall know that peace which fled
my bosom while my rival lived and was beloved !"
Vashti," said Haman, with a withering frown, remember r thy oath!
If we require the king at thy hands, strike sure!"


With a wild shriek, the unhappy woman fled into an inner room.
B]y the wiles of Hlaman, his revenge was gratified, and the voice of
mourning was heard throughout Persia, when the king's cruel decree,
consigning to death all Jews, both young and old, was known. The
despair of Mordccai was great. lie rent his clothes, and putting on a
garment of sackcloth, covered his head with ashes, and placed himself
before the king's gate, uttering loud moans and lamentations.
The queen, meanwhile, was ignorant of all that was to befall her
people, nor knew she of her uncle's distress, until informed of it by her
maids and chamberlains, who beheld him as he mourned at the gate.
He implored his nice, if she would save her people, to sue to the king
for mercy. The lovely Esther was much distressed "at this news, and
saw not how to obey her uncle's request; for she knew it was death for
any one to enter the king's presence uncalled; and thirty days had
passed since she :h'd been sent for. How, then, could she see him to
implore mercy ?
Esther, however, at once resolved to offer her life as a sacrifice to her
country. She would brave the king's laws, and perhaps fall a victim to
his anger; but, should she have made an effort to save Judah from
destruction, and, her duty done, she could die in peace.
Three days did the sons of Israel in Susa fast and pray to God to avert
the calamity, and to soften the heart of Artaxerxes, that the queen might
find favour in his eyes. On the fourth day Mordecai directed his steps
to the palace. It was yet early, and the palace gates were not open.
Weary and faint with three days of fasting and of woe, he threw himself
upon the ground, and, concealed by the pillars of the gate, indulged in
mournful meditation and prayer.
lis thoughts were interrupted by the arrival of two persons whom lie
recognized as 1 :. 1- .i and Teresh, two chamberlains of the court. They
seated themselves near to Mordecai, and entered into conversation with-
out perceiving him.
Of all the villanous deeds of which our employer, Haman, has been
guilty," said IBigthana, this murder of the Jews and the innocent
queen are the worst."
"Let them die I" said Teresh, gloomily; "they are Jews, and deserve
"I care not much for the Jews," replied ligthana, but it does seem
a pity this gentle creature should be massacred ; however, I am sure the
king will prevent it."


Iis leave will not be asked," said Tercsh, with a sneer. "In the
confusion of the day it s my province to see that she shares the fate of
her people. llanan hopes to excuse himself to the king afterwards, and
even place Vashti upon the throne."
But if he should not be pardonedd"
Then the king dies, and the Macedonians will be called in."
The guards arrived to open- thue uates, and the dark conspirators passed
through. Their career of g:iilt had now, however, drawn to a close.
Mordecai, who had overheard all, denounced them to the soldiers as
plotters against the king's life, and they were speedily loaded with chains,
and cast into a dungeon to await the king's pleasure. An account of
this event was despatched to Esther by Mordecai, who sent a relation of
it to the king; but he, satisfied the men were in his power, gave no heed
to the particulars of the plot. The day arrived which was to decide the
fate of the captive Jews. Queen Esther, willing to risk her life for the
hope of saving her people, prepared to enter the king's apartment
uncalled. If lie were wroth, her instant death would follow ; but if he
felt inclined to grant the boon she came to ask, lie would stretch forth
his sceptre in token she might approach and present her petition. The
queen's gentle spirit shrunk from her enterprise ; but once more resorting
to her closet in prayer, she came forth strong in the Lord. The queen
and her maidens were arrayed in the costliest robes. Radiant with
beauty, and smiling cheerfully, although her heart was heavy, Queen
Esther, followed by a train of lovely maidens, entered the forbidden
courts of the king.
Artaxerxes was sitting upon his ivory throne, glittering with gold and
jewels. IIe wore the royal robe of Persia, purple, with stripes of silver.
A tiara of the same was surrounded with a diadem of priceless gems,
while his scarlet tunic was one brilliant mass of jewels and gold.
As the king gazed upon Esther, his heart softened, for he loved his
gentle queen.
While each eye was watching him with intense interest, he stretched
out his golden sceptre towards her. In a mild voice he said, "What
wouldest thou, Queen Esther ?"
Tears of joy were in every eye, and smiles upon every face, when the
king pronounced these words. The queen reviving, with an effort
advanced, and touched the sceptre-she was safe !
Moved by her loveliness and her distress, Artaxerxes'desecended from his


throne, and embracing her, bade her to be comforted, and speak freely
her mind, and he would grant her request, were it half his kingdom.
If it seemeth good to the king, let my lord come to my banquet to-
morrow, and bring with him the lord IIaman, where I will demand my
boon, which is of great importance, touching even my l(f:." The king
promised to be there ; and Queen Esther, with a glad and grateful heart,
Great was the pride of Haman then! He was invited to feast with the
king and queen he, a stranger and adventurer, had arrived at the high
honour of being the guest of the queen, at her own request-an honour
she had not conferred on any of the princes and nobles of the court.
Inflated with vanity and triumph, Haman was passing from the palace,
to give orders for new and sumptuous attire for the banquet, when, be-
hold there, in the king's gate, sat Mordeccai, who, when the others
around kissed the dust at his feet, stood erect, unmoved! What a check
to all his greatness!
That night, the king being restless, awoke very early and commanded
the records of the palace to be brought him. There he beheld the ser-
vice rendered him by Mordecai, when he secured the conspirators.
Have the traitors been examined ?" he asked.
No, my lord."
"Let it then be done instantly, for I see by these papers Mordecai
accuses some great lord of the court as their employer. Surely I have
been very negligent! Hath the man been rewarded who discovered
the conspiracy ?"
He hath not yet, 0 king !"
The door was opened, and IIaman entered. His gallows was erected,
and he now came to win from the king permission to hang his enemy
upon it.
"Come hither, Haman," said Artaxerxes. "What shall be done with
the man whom the king delighteth to honour ?"
The proud heart of Haman exulted, for he thought the king intended
to confer some new favour upon him.
For the man whom the king delighteth to honour," said the wily
Haman, let the king's royal robes be brought, and the horse which the
king rideth upon, and the crown royal. Let this apparel and horse be de-
livered into the hands of the king's most noble prince, that he may array
with these the man whom the king delighteth to honour, and bring him


on horseback through the street of the city, and proclaim before
him, Thus shall it be done to the man whom the king delighteth to
honour!' "
Then the king said to Haman,-
Make haste, and take the robes and the horse, as thou hath said,
and do even thus to Mordecai, the Jew, who sitteth at the king's gate."
The heart of Haman stood still when he heard these words. Must he
exalt the enemy whom he came to destroy! Must he show himself to
the world as groom to the despised Jew! He rushed from the king's
presence almost a maniac. Haman could not resist the king's mandate.
The humiliating ceremony was enacted, and then, with his head covered
in anguish, he fled to his own house.
The queen's chamberlain now arrived to escort Haman to the banquet.
Arrayed in his most costly robes, and smoothing his brow, Haman fol-
lowed him into the queen's presence. Unsuspecting the queen's know-
ledge of his arts against her nation, he advanced with a confident smile
to the raised seat occupied by his royal master and Queen Esther. That
smile was the last the face of Haman wore.
"And now that we are assembled at thy request," said Artaxerxes,
" what is thy petition, Queen Esther ? It shall be granted thee, even
were it half my kingdom, for I have sworn it.'
Then Esther, the queen, kneeling before him, said,
If I have found favour in thy sight, 0 king! and if it please my lord,
let my life be given to me at my petition, and that of my people, at my
request. For we are all sold, I and my people, to be destroyed, to be
slain, and to perish !"
And who is he," said the king in his anger, who doth presume in
his heart to devise anything against thy life ? I understand thee not.
Who are thy people ?"
How sank the heart of Haman within him !
"Know, then, 0 king, I am a Jewess! My adversary is this wicked
Haman, who hateth me and my kin, and hath beguiled thee to give us
all to slaughter."
Then was the king's wrath too great for words, for he remembered the
scene in the temple, and saw through the designs of Haman4 He cast a
withering glance upon his ungrateful favourite, which caused him to
shrink and writhe with despair.
Ho! my guards!" cried the king, rushing to the door of the hall.


He was met by soldiers, who brought in chains the two chamberlains,
Bigthana and Teresh, who had conspired against him.
"Here are the men whom thou didst command to be examined,
O king," said the head officer. They have confessed the wicked Haman
did hire them with rich gifts to practise against thy life and the
Seize the villain!" cried the king, in a voice of thunder. Bring
him forth, and let him die like a dog:"
Behold, my lord, said the officer, there stands without a gallows
fifty cubits high ; if it please thee, we will hang him thereon."
The wretched Haman had sunk upon his knees before the queen, to
implore her protection, and finding she was turning from him, he grasped
her hand, and entreated her to hear him.
"Ha, wretch!" cried the king when he entered, "wilt thou insult
the queen before our eyes ? Away with him to death!"
Haman was dragged forth and hanged upon the gallows which had
been prepared for Mordecai. The Jew was called into the king's pre-
*' Here is my signet ring, Mordecai," said the king. It was once
Haman's; it is now thine. Take it, and with it all the wealth, and
power, and rank of Haman. I cannot revoke my decree; but thou shalt
have soldiers and arms to defend thy people against those employed by
the wicked Haman, who, seeing this preparation, will not dare to strike.
Save as many as thou canst. I have promised to Nehemiah the govern-
ment of Judea. See that he hath men and money to rebuild his holy
city, for I would do all I can to recompense my queen and the Jews fur
my unjust decree." Then bounded the hearts of Esther and her uncle
for joy. Kneeling to the good king, they kissed his hands in devout
thankfulness for his generous conduct, and then lifting their eyes above,
poured out their grateful souls to the Giver of so much good, who had
shown Himself so powerful to save !


Esther is another beautiful example of the duty we owe our guar-
dians and aged relatives. She left her quiet home to face the snares and
dangers of a court, not refusing to obey her uncle when he requested her
to become one of the candidates. Her patriotism, and her trust in God,


are worthy of great commendation. When in all the state and dignity
of royalty Esther did not forget Mordecai, whom she cherished and
obeyed, as if she were still the lowly lIaddassah.


1ALx calls himself the Lord of Creation; yet, powerless and fragile as
woman may appear, she hath ever borne equal sway with him over the
destinies of the world.
At the period of our story, Judea was divided into two kingdoms,-
Israel and Judah. Each kingdom saw itself under the despotic sway of
a woman. Jezebel reigned in Israel, and Athaliah, her daughter, in
Judah-both women of lawless passions and haughty spirit, and, withal,
idolatrous worshippers of Baal and Astaroth.
These were only queens dowager-for, Joram, the son of Jezebel, was
sovereign of Samaria ; and Athaliah's son, Ahaziah, governed Jerusalem.
Being much engaged in wars with Edoin and Syria, their country was
left to the tender mercies of these fierce- and cruel women. They were
universally detested; but the people, knowing there was no redress, sub-
mitted in silence. Jezebel's persecution of the holy prophet Elijah, after
his signal defeat of the prophets of iaal, is well known. "o let the
gods do to me, and more also," said Jezebel to Elijah, by a messenger,
" if I make not thy life as the life of one of the prolphlts thou ha.t slain
by to-morrow morning Elijah Iled into the wildeines, and threw
himself down beneath a juniper-tree, where he prayed to die, rather
than to live under the sway of that cruel woman. Her wiicked and uin-
just conduct towards Naboth united all classes against her, and accele-
rated her doom.
Ahab took possession of the land of the murdered Naboth.
God sent Elijah to Ahab and Jezebel, to reproach them for their
wickedness, and uttered prophecies of their downfall, which were after-
wards fulfilled.
But we are not here narrating the story of Jezeb l, but of her elqually
wicked daughter, whose son, Ahaziah, king ofJu('ah, had left the 1army in
command of Jehu, a man of great valour, and a skilful soldier. God's pur-
poses were not yet fulfilled upon the wicked house ofAhab: by hirisumility,
he averted the evil from himself; but the time was come to destroy the


rebellious race from the land. Elijah was commissioned to anoint Jehlu
king of Israel, in place of Joram. lie sent the young prophet, who had
attended hin to Damascus, to fulfil the mission.
According to his instructions, the youthful prophet repaired to liamoth
Gilead. Jehu and the other captains were feasting in the guard-room
when the prophet entered. 1 have an errand to thee, O captain "
he said.
Unto which of us ?" asked Jehu.
Even unto thee, John, son of Johoshaphat "
Jehu arose, and followed the prophet into an inner room. The prophet
opened a horn of perfumed oil, and poured it on his head, saying,-" 'i 'i's
saith the Lord God of Israel, 'I have anointed thee king o\cr Isracl.
Thou shalt be my avenger, to smite the house of Ahab. And thou shalt
avenge me of Jezebel, who hath shed the Mlood of my servants. The
dogs shall eat her in ltho portion of .Iezrecl!'" Ilis mission over, the
prophet opened the door, and disappeared.
Jehu was a favourite with the soldiers, and the1 son of Jeczeel was
hated ; so that they joyfully received the news, and determined to pro-
claim him at once. For want of a throne, they covered the stairs, which
ran up outside the house, with their scarlet milles ; and, placing JCelh
on high, sounded upon their trumpets, and proclaimed Jehu king of
The warder upon the watch-tower of Jezrcel reported to Joram the
apprea:hi of a body of horse and chariots. Joram knew not whom they
were, or if they came in peace or war.
Let some on1e go out to meet them, and ask the leader if lie come in
peace," said the king'.
'The horseman apl'oached Jehu, wlio was standing in his chariot.
"Thus asks king Joram," lie said, Is it peace? "
What hast thou do to with leace replied Johu. Gt thee
behind me."
The messenger did as he waXs ordered, and joined the train of Jehu.
A second messenger was despatched, who also remained with the ap-
proaching party.
The city now became alarmed, and gathered upon the walls to watch
the troop. Joram sent foi the watchman to inqulire more particulars.
I know not whio they be, my lord," lie said; but their driving is like
that of Jehu, the son of Jehosha hat, for h' ever driveth furiously."





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It is Jehu," said the king ; and perhaps bearer of news from the
army. Make ready the chariot, and I will ride out to meet him."


Joram and Ahaziah, the kings of Israel and Judah, each in his chariot,
left the city, and met Jehu just by the vineyard of Naboth the Jezreel-
ite. Then sank the heart of Joram within him when he recollected it,
for many prophets had denounced judgments against him and his
house, for the great iniquity of his father and mother. The chariots
Is it in peace thou comest, Jeh ? asked Joram.
What peace is there for any," said Jehu, when the wickednesses
and witchcraft of thee and thy mother, Jezebel, are so many? "
"Treason! Treachery!-0 Ahaziah," cried Joram, and turned to fly;
but an arrow from Jehu, the avenger, brought him low,-and he sank
down dead in his chariot.
Throw him upon the field of Naboth," said Jehu to his captain,
Bidkar. Now have the words of the Lord come to pass, which thou
and I heard when we rode behind Ahab: 'I have seen the blood of
Naboth,' said the prophet; and I will revenge me here, in this very
field,' saith the Lord."
When Ahaziah, king of Judah, saw the deed, he fled; but was pursued
by the people of Jehu.
Smite him also in his chariot," cried the avenger! And Ahaziah was
soon dead. Bury him," said Jehu, for he is the son of the good
Jehoshaphat, but deserves death for his mother's sake, and because he
joined himself with the ungodly Joram."
Eager for sovereign power, and devoid of natural feeling, Athaliah
resolved, when she heard the death of her son, to seize upon the throne.
The natural heirs, however, stood in her way; and these, although they
were her own grandchildren, she doomed to death.
Jchosheba, the sister of Ahaziah by another mother, was a woman of
great and good qualities, and tenderly attached to her brother. She wept
sorely for his death, and acted a mother's part to his young orphans.
She was wife to Jehoiada, the high priest of the temple, and lived with
him within the precincts of the holy house. Ahaziah hath been some
time dead," she said one day to her husband, "and I have not seen any
preparations towards anointing his son as king in his stead. Canst thou
tell me, Jehoiada, why it is not done ?"
"Had thine illness not prevented thee from visiting the palace,
Jehosheba, thou wouldest have known," replied the high priest, in a sad


"What! is the young Zezron dead ?" she asked, in alarm.
"Not yet," said her husband, gloomily. Now that thou art strong
enough to hear the terrible news, know that Athaliah hath seized upon
the sovereign power, and imprisoned the young princes in the palace."
This was a great shock to the tender heart of the princess. "Alas,
my sweet young nephews !" she said, while tears bedewed her face,
" they are in the hands of a cruel tigress. Can we not do something,
Jehoiada ? Let me go to Athaliah, and surely she will listen to my
prayer, and let them depart to their uncle's or to my care; for I fear
me she will not yet be satisfied with this cruelty."
No, Jehosheba, seek not Athaliah; thy prayers, be well assured,
cannot soften the heart of that accursed woman."
She surely will not imprison all those noble young princes for
"Alas their lives will not be long, I fear !"
Jehoiada turned from his wife's tears, and retreated to the temple.
Here he bent in prayer to God that lie would look in pity upon Judah,
and avert from it the threatened evil; for Jehoiada had not revealed to
Jehosheba the fact of the intended massacre of the innocent princes,
which had been told him in confidence that morning by the captain of
the royal guard.
That night Jehosheba, unable to sleep, arose and walked in the marble
court before her apartment. There she remained some time, reflecting
upon the situation of her nephews, to whom, particularly the young
Joash, then just a yer old, she was very much attached. She could not
rest easy without doing something for them; and was busily resolving
plans for their benefit, when she was aroused by the sound of trampling
horses and the rattle of armour. She ascended the wall, and beheld a
troop of soldiers enter the palace-gates. Soldiers at midnight! H1er
heart sank, and she fell back against the parapet in a cold tremour.
What could it mean Some deadly event was in progress, and her
thoughts turned with aifright towards the royal children. But Athaliah
could not be so cruel-so wicked A sudden shriek as from a death-
stroke awoke the silence of night. Jehosheba started as if her own
heart had been pierced. She turned toward the palace, where a miser-
able scene met her view. From the balconies and terraces of the women's
apartments were children and females rushing apparently in the wildest
!h i ht. Some soldiers ran in pursuit of them, whom the wretched


princess recognized as the queen's own hand, who were notorious for per-
forming every bloody deed which the queen might dictate.
The cries of children and women almost aroused the princess to mad -
ness ; for she doubted not the cruel Athaliah had given over the young
princes to slaughter. Could she stand there and look on without helping
them ? But what availed her feeble arm against those ruthless men ?
Jehoshcba rushed from the wall, and had nearly regained her apart-
ment, when another loud wail arrested her steps, and she determined, at
whatever risk, to seek the palace, and endeavour to save one of her
nephews. There was a private way, built by Solomon, which led to the
palace ; and over this Jehosheba wildly rushed, resolving to die with, or
save her nephews. She sought the women's apartments, and found the
court filled with soldiers.
You cannot pass in, lady," said one.
Away I am the Princess Jehosheba!"
At the majestic wave of her hand the soldiers gave way. A dreadful
sight met her eye on entering the rooms. Dead and dying children, and
nurses who had faithfully defended them, were lying around. Bloody
and brutal soldiers opposed her path, but Jehosheba struggled through;
for she had thought of the infant Joash, and sought to conceal him, at
least. The deadly deed would have been over ere this, but there were a
few devoted servants of the house of David who resisted the soldiers'
bloody purpose. All were killed, except those in the last apartment. At
the door stood two faithful eunuchs, disputing the soldiers' entrance.
Jehosheba endeavoured to force her way through.
Forbear, princess," cried one of the eunuchs, the fiends will kill
you also."
Jehosheba was not to be daunted. She pushed aside their swords, and
entered the apartment. She gazed wildly around; there were several
children and young persons there of the royal blood, all weeping, and
clinging to their attendants in the greatest terror.
Cowering in a corner sat a nurse, pressing in her arms an infant. It
was the young Joash, now the only living child of Ahaziah. Jeshosheba
seized the infant, and, concealing it under the wrapper she wore,
beckoned the nurse to follow, and rapidly left the room. The faithful
eunuchs were dead ; and the soldiers, busy with their prey, cared not to
stop her, for they were not ordered to murder any except the royal chil-
dren. Struggling through blood and ribald soldiers, and severely

tiBt]]: STORIMI:S OF EMINIENT lx osit.

wounded, the heroic Jehosheba at last saw herself in the temple-
Jehoiada was awakened from his slumber ly subs of anguish. lie
arose hastily, and )beheld his beloved Jehosheba covered with blood,
lying senseless upon the floor, while a strange nurse and infant were
weeping over her
Six years was Joash concealed in th t temple lc; the secret of lis escape
from the massace being only knIwn to his aunt, uncle, and inn se. In the
temple there was more security than in any place in Jerusalem, for it xwas
then only frequented by a few faithful J ews, the remainder of the people
repairing to the idol fans which Athalialh had reared in many places.
The glory had departed from the house of God ; its gold was stripped (it'o
-its walls broken down, and the golden utensils decorated lhe altars of
Baal. At the end of these six years, Jchosheba thought the favourite
moment had arrived to restore Jloash to the throne of his fathers. Atia-
liah, by her rapacity, her cruelty and unlicensed pasions, xwas univer-
sally detested, and the people bganll to sigh for release from her tyranny.
The measure of her iniquities was full, and God had conminaindd .her
downfall. Jehoiada, as a preliminary step, called to his council some
of the Levites whom lie could trust, and sole officers whlo he knew we ie
disaffected towards Athaliah. After swearing them to secresy in tle
temple, lie revealed to them tihe fact of the existence of rile of tlie royal
princes. They were all rejoiced at the 0news, :tand vowed to serve him, and
place him upon the throne. These were (onuissioned t go to, the several
towns and cities of Judah, and (collect all the Levites whlo Iad been
dispersed, and send them to the temple. All thei nobles of .udah who
had tled flroml Athaliah's tyranny were also to be informed d of thie con-
spiracy. All was ready. The day arrived, and the people, summoned
by the high priest on presence of an unusual fast, crowded the courts
before the temple. Each one who was in the secret was instructed in his
part. They were divided in three Iands-one was placed at the court
gate, and one at the outer gate, while the third encircled the young
prince. The courts were filled with people, whlo awaited in silence the
commencement of the religious ceremonies of the day. Jehoiada, the high
priest, entered the upper court from a side cloister, leading by the hand
a young boy of seven years, and followed by the princess Jehosheba and
his nurse. The high priest advanced to the head of the steps leading to
the lower court, that all might behold him.


Yemen of Judah!" he said, ye have heard how our God hath sworn
lie will establish the throne of David for ever, and hath said David shall
never want an heir to his throne ; then why suffer ye the daughter of
Jezebel, the seed of Sidon, on the throne of our glorious king ?" A mur-
mur of astonishment interrupted Jehoiada. Men of Jerusalem, I have
called ye here this day to know if ye will serve Baal or Jehovah."
We will worship the Lord our God !" cried several voices.
"And I have called ye here to know," continued Jehoiada, if ye will
serve the daughter of Jezebel or a son of David ?"
"Down with Athaliah!" exclaimed a few who were in the secret.
"Behold, then, this youth. It is Joash, your lawful prince, the son
of Ahaziah; saved from the massacre by the heroism of his aunt, the
princess Jehosheba, who is here to corroborate the tale."
Loud acclamations of joy, which seemed to come from the hearts of all,
resounded from the throng. The high priest then placed the prince
against the marble column, the usual stand of the king when in the
temple ; and after anointing him with the holy perfumed oil, placed the
diadem of David upon his head. Then the silver trumpets sounded, and
the sweet singers of Israel burst into hymns of praise, and the joyous
multitude shouted, God save the king !"
Athaliah, like all tyrants, was of a very suspicious nature. Her spies
had informed her of the unusual concourse in the temple, and she had
been uneasy the whole morning. Aroused by the shouts and clangor of
trumpets, she repaired to the temple through the king's passage; and
when there, a blasting sight met her view. Placed in the centre of that
spacious court was a crowned king, around whom stood a circle of armed
guards; while the people were crowding to do homage to the son of David.
The striking resemblance of tie noble child to her son, Ahaziah, the
presence of Jehosheba and his nurse, whom she recollected, revealed to
her the truth-the boy had been secretly reared, and the people had con-
spired to place him upon her throne. The most demoniac passion took pos-
session of her. She stamped and tore her robes-" IRbelblions wretches!"
she cried; tortures shall follow this Ilo my guards treason!"
Take that accursed woman hence I" said the high priest, and slay
her without the temple."
Athaliah was slain, and Joash reigned in her stead.

May we all imitate the heroism of Jehosheba when called upon to


undertake any difficult or dangerous achievement. She turned from the
gaieties of a court to live in a retired and humble manner within the
temple, where she practised a faith then despised by all. At the cry of
innocence she rushed to the rescue, heedless of the assassin's sword or the
queen's displeasure. This her generous devotedness was of the greatest
benefit to her country, for in her nephew's reign the idols were over-
thrown, and the true worship prevailed. Let us not think of our own
peril when we may succour the poor or the oppressed.


Aemosx the great and glorious cities of the East, Ecbatana stood con-
spicuous for strength and beauty. In her extent and power, and the
multitude of her palaces, she could not compete wilh Nineveh or ablylon ;
but there was a grace in her architecture and beauty in her situation, as
she reclined at the foot of a lofty mountain range, her white buildings
showing brightly against the green back-ground, which won from e\ery
traveller expressions of admiration as lie gazed. She was the pride of
Media; and Arphaxad, the king, had newly fortified it to withstand
a siege which was designed against it by Nebuehiodonosor, king of the
Assyrians, from whom lie had rebelled, and who was advancing with
great force against them.
Vain were the prlccautions of Arphaxad. Iowl, oh gate; cry, oh
city!" T'hy beauty and thy strength could not save thee I One after
another fell her seven walls, and her towers, and Eebatana was laid low
in the dust. Arphaxad fled to the mountains, but was pursued by the
Assyrian-his darts pierced through the unfoirtunate king, and lie died
with his last look fixed in anguish upon his ruined Ecbatana, which lay
smoking before him ; wljile his horsemen, his chariots, and his wealth fell
into the hands of Nebuchodonosor.
The victor returned in triumph to Nineveh, where he feasted his army
for twenty days. The feasting over, lie prepared his war-chariots once
more, r. 'ii.. slaughter against those nations who had refu-sed to assist
him in his siege of Ecbatana. One of the (oomed peoples was the
The approach of this great army, headed by the famous general Holo-


fornes, brought dismay to the hearts of Israel and Judahl; still the idea
of submission was not for an instant harboured by this resolute people.
They were strong in the consciousness of right, when they refused to
assist in the downfall of Media; and resolved, whatever might betide,
never to bow down to the gods of Assyria. Hoping their powerful King,
Jehovah, would appear in their favour, they humbled themselves before
Him, and '' cried to God with great fervency." The inhabitants of
Jerusalem were clothed with sackcloth, and, with ashes on their heads,
remained night and day before the temple, fasting', and -i. j -i. gifts to
the Lord, that lie might show Himself as the shield of triumph."
Still no earthly means were neglected to repel the invading army.
They were expected to come through the hills of Galilee, and upon the
strongholds, situated among them, they depended for protection.
All the passes were fortified and victualled for a year, and it was in
these passes that lolofornes first found himself checked in his glorious
A noble widow dwelt here in Betihulia: her husband, Manasses, was a
man of wealth and rank, but while overseeing his men in the barley-
harvest, was struck by the sun and died. Judith, his widow, never ceased
to mourn for her husband, to whom she was tenderly attached, and still
wore widow's apparel, and fasted and dressed in sackcloth except on the
feasts of new moon, and other festivals of Israel. By the r I. I, ti and
elevation into their hearts some of her own courageous spirit in this dire ex-
Sadly did they gaze upon their cisterns and founts in the city, as day
by day the waters diminished, and provisions failed; and they knew they
must die a dicary death, or be given to the enemy who were raging for
them below. At last the water failed, and the citizens fell fainting in
the streets, and many died each day. Then the people, rendered weak
by suffering, called upon their rulers to surrender to the Assyrians, this
being now the only hope for their lives. They assembled in a tumultuous
manner before the house of Ozias, the governor of lBethulia, crying, "'God
be judge between us and you. You do us a great injury that you do
not require peace of the children of Assur. We have no helper. God
hath sold us into the hands of Holofornes. Send for him, then, and give
him the city as a spoil, and we will be his slaves, for this is better than
to die of thirst, and see our wives and children dieI"



51. " ,4

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Weeping and groaning were heard on all sidecr and they '' cried to God
with a loud voice," saying, "We take to witness against you, heaven
and earth, and God, the Lord of our fathers, if ye do not surrender


Brethren, be of good courage," said Ozias. God will not forsake
us utterly. Iet us endure five days, and in that time God may look in
mercy towards us. If at the end of these days there come no help for
us, I will do as it may seem good to you."
The citizens were pacified with this promise, and departed each to his
own dreary dwelling, there to struggle for life five days ere they be given
up to slavery, or perhaps death. In silence they awaited their doom-
hope for assistance from on high nearly deserted them, and sighs alone
disturbed the mournful silence of the so lately animated city. After the
dispersion of the people, Ozias received a request from the noble widow,
Judith, praying his presence at her house, accompanied by Charmis and
Chabris, when she would show him a way to save the city. They imme -
diately repaired thither.
I[car me now, ye governors of Bethulia !" said Judith, when they
were seated. The words which ye have spoken to the people this day
are not right, saying ye will deliver the city to the enemy, unless God
help us within five days. Who are ye, that thus promise the help of
God, and tempt Him thus ? Ye know ye cannot find the depth of the
heart of man ; how, then, can ye pretend to know the mind of God, who
hath made all things-or how comprehend His purposes ? God is not
a man, that lie may be forced or threatened from IHis purpose, and if lie
do not save us within five days, lie may after that. Let us call upon
Him to help us, and 1He will, if it please Him, for we worship no other
God but llim, and He will not despise us, nor let Judtea be wasted.
Hear me, and I will do a thing which few women would do, but which
is now the only way to save the nation. Accompany me this night
to the city gate, and let me and my waiting-woman pass forth ; and,
within the days which ye have promised to deliver the city to the'
Assyrians, the Lord will save Israel 1by my hand Inquire not ye of mine
act, for I will not declare it tunto vye till the thing. I propose shall 1):
Go in peace," said the governors, and the Lord God before thee, to
take vengeance onl our enemies :"
She then arose, and having anointed herself, she plaited her hair,
adorned it with jewels, and arrayed herself in one of her rich dresses
which she had not worn since the death of her husband, lManass s ;-hIr
feet were decorated with sandals of scarlet and gold, while bracelets,
chains, and rings ornamented the rest of her person. She was a woman


renowned for beauty, and now that her majestic person was attired in
costly and graceful raiment, she well might hope to attract the notice of
the Assyrian general.
Having laden her maid with a bottle of wine, a cruse of oil, a bag of
parched corn, and bread, and lumps of figs, she set out from the city
gate, and cre long was (1, 1. ll. by the enemy's sentinel.
'Who art thou ? Whence comest thou ? and Whither goest thou?"
he said.
L I am a Hebrew woman," replied Judith. I have fled from the
city to the Assyrian camp, to go before Holofornes, the captain of your
army, and show him a way to take the city, and pass through the hill
country without the loss of a man."
The man gazed upon her in astonishment, so beautiful and magni-
ficently dressed, and alone. Thou doest well to save thy life by fleeing
to Holofornes," he said. "Follow me, and I will conduct thee to his
tent; and when thou standest before him, be not afraid, but say all thou
wilt and he will entreat thee well."
It was now quite dark, and IIolofornes came from the tent, his servants
bearing silver lamps before him. The general lifted her from the
chariot, and led her into the tent. In the centre stood a couch, above
which was a rich canopy of cloth woven with purple and gold, and
emeralds and precious stones. Holofornes seated himself, and motioned
Judith to take a place beside him ; but she threw herself upon the ground
before him, imploring his mercy and protection. The Assyrian com-
manded his servants to raise her, saying, Woman, be of good comfort;
fear not in thy heart, for I never hurt anything which is willing to
serve King febuchodonosor, the king of all tie earth. If thy people
that dwelleth in the mountains had not set light by me, I would not
have lifted up my spear against them. But now, tell me, why thou ait
fled from them and come to us ? Ifore thou art safe, for none shall do
thee hurt, but entreat thee well, as they do the servants of our king,
Remember the words of thy servant," said Judith, and suffer thy
handmaid to speak in thy presence. If thou wilt follow the words of
thine handmaid, God, through thee, will bring wonderful things to pass.
We have heard of the wisdom and policy of Holotornes ; and it is every
where reported that thou art the most powerful and excellent man in all
Assyria, and mighty in knowledge, and wonderful in feats of war. Thy


servant is religions, my Lord, and serveth God night and day, and lHe
will reveal to me the moment when the people eat forbidden things, and
consume the first-fruits of the corn, and tenths of wine and oil, which
have been sanctified and reserved for the priests who serve the Lord in
Jerusalem-things not lawful for our people to touch with their hands.
Now, then, my lord, be guided by me. Permit thy handmaid to go out
in the plain each night to pray, and God will tell me when ti- have
done this sin, and I will tell thee; then shalt thou go forth with thine
army, and thou shalt have an easy victory."
Holofornes was astonished at all lie heard. He thanked Judith for her
offered services, and declared himself ready to act as she might dictate,
while the officers and nobles who stood around, declared, There was
not such a woman on the whole face of the earth for beauty or wisdom."
At the evening feast, Holofornes called Judith to a seat near him.
At her request, he gave orders to the guard to permit Judith to go out
and in to her prayers without the camp, that she might unmolested
watch for the propitious moment to attack Bethulia. Judith then retii ld
to a tent prepared for her, where she reposed until midnight; when she
arose, and followed by her maid, went out in the valley to pray, she
revolved the great project for which she had come.
On the fourth day, I[olofornes made a great feast. Calling Biagoas, his
confidential servant, to him, he said, Go, now, and persuade this
Hebrew woman whom I have placed in thy charge to come unto my
feast and drink with me. It is a shame to have this splendid woman
here and not share more of her company; truly, she will laugh ns
to scorn."
Bagoas sought Js.dith. "Fair damsel," he said, "art thou afraid of
my lord that thon comest not into his presence ? Come and drink wine,
and be merry with us, and be made this day as one of the daughters of
Assyria, which serve in the house of Nebuchodonosor."
Radiant in beauty, and in rich attire, Judith entered the banquet
tent, and seated herself on a couch spread with soft furs which her maid
had prepared for her, opposite to llolofornes. The Assyrian gazed in
rapture, and resolved to leave nothing undone to gain this beauteous
Hebrew to himself.
Drink and be merry with uis, Judith," he said. "Be not afraid of
me, for my heart is filled with love for thee. Thou art the fairest of
women, 0 Judith."


"I will drink, now, my lord," said Judith, "'because my life is
magnified in me this day more than all the days since I was born."
J udith so excited the Assyrian by her beauty and wit, that he drank
more than he had ever been accustomed, and Judith foresaw he would be
in i state fitting for her purpose. When the feast was over, and the
guests departed, Bagoas dismissed the servants, while he closed the tent,
and left Judith alone with IIolofornes.
The Assyrian, insensible to the presence of his charming guest, had
thrown himself on his couch, where he now lay in a drunken slumber.
She listened-all was silent, and she approached the couch. The
terrible enemy, her country's destroyer, was before her; one blow of
her hand, and Israel would be free
Shall I slay the sleeping ?" murmured Judith, thou who wast so
kind to me-whose words of love but now have met mine ear ? Yea,
bloodhound thou that wouldst slay my brethren-that wouldst demolish
our holy temple thy hour is come If that form be erect to-morrow-
if that arm be stretched out, Israel is lost 0, Lord God of all power!
look down upon me now, and bless the work of my hand, for the
exaltation of Jerusalemn"
At the head of the couch hung a falchion. Judith, taking the weapon
in one hand, and the hair of her drunken foe in the other, and exclaim-
ing, "O, Lord of Israel, strengthen me this day !" smote off the Assy-
rian's head. At her signal her maid entered, who, tearing down the
jewelled canopy, wrapped the head in it, and placed it in her bag. Fol-
lowing her mistress, they left the camp unmolested, as if for their usual
prayer, and hastened up to the gate of Bethulia.
Open! open now the gate !" cried the successful Judith to the guard.
"God, even our God, is vith us, to show His power yet in Jerusalem,
and for the downfall of Assyria!" The watchman ran down joyfully to
admit her, and brought her to an open space near the gate, where stood
the governors and a large concourse of people around a large watch-fire,
who had thus been waiting and watching for her since the evening of
her departure. Praise praise God !" cried Judith, advancing towards
them. Praise God, for lie hath not taken away His mercy from the
house of Israel, but hath destroyed our enemies by my hand this night!
Ilehold the head of Holofornes! As the Lord liveth, who kept me in
my way as I went, my countenance hath deceived him to his destruction,
and yet the Spirit of God hath preserved me from sin. "


The people were astonished ; they gazed on the heroic woman in silence,
and then, as if by one impulse, bowed themselves and worshipped God.
Hear me now, my brethren," said Judith; "take this head and
hang it upon the highest place of your walls ; and in the morning send
out all the soldiers from the city, as if to make a sally upon the Assyrians
-but go not down. Then shall they assemble themselves and put on
their armour, and go to the tent of HIolofornes to awaken him; and lo,
when they find him so mysteriously dead, fear will fall upon them, and
they shall fly. Then pursue them, ye Israelites, and they shall be a spoil
to your arms."
Judith related minutely all she had done since leaving the city. The
people listened attentively, and when she iinilihed they shouted aloud for
joy, and accompanied her with all honmur and reverence to her home.
When the morning broke, the head of ihlolfornes was hung out upon
the wall, and the Israelites ase-iebled without the gates. As soon as
they were perceived the Assyrian guard ran to awaken their captains.
Awaken our lord, lHloforml s," they said to !;agoas ; for the slaves
have the boldness to threaten battle. Let us go up and destroy thlie."
Bagoas knocked at th, tent, but receiving no answer, ventured to enter,
when the headless body of their general nelt his astounded view. Crying
wiith horror, and rending his garments, he ran to the tent of J aditl, and
her absence confirmed all his suspicions.
Treason, treason '' he cried, rushing out among the soldiers; the
slaves have dealt treacherously, and this Hlebrew woman hath brought
.shaimle upon t!he house of Nieucliodonosur. Iolofornes is slain I"
Iolofornes is slain re-echoed through! the camp, and the soldiers
trembledl at the sound. The people ruh:ed madly about. Confusion
iprvailed ; and, in spit (if all the efforts iof their o!iicers, the panic spread
from rank to rank, and the army fled, half of them knowing not all that
had happened, but only hearing' that the avenging God of the Hebrews
was pursuing them.
The inhabitants of I( thiilia rushed out after the fugitives, and sending
in-sscngers to the towns around, the people ran oul, and soon tile mise-
rable Assyrians were avbailed on all sides by the ipople of the hill-country
of Galilee, and of the sea-coasts. Thousands were slaughtered, and
Israel was free !
Great was the joy of the inhabitants of Jeru,,ale:n at their deliverance,


and the name of Judith of Bcthulia was in every one's mouth, with terms
of wonder and praise.
Accompanied by a long train of the priesthood, and the great and good
of Jerusalem, Joacim, the high priest, arrived before the gate of
Bethulia, to do honour to Judith, who came forth to meet him, and
knelt before him.
Arise, my daughter," said the high priest. Thou art the exalta-
tion of Jerusalem! thou art the great glory of Israel! thou art the joy
and rejoicing of our nation! Thou hast done much good in Israel with
thy hand; and God is pleased therewith. lless d be thou of the Al-
mighty Lord for evermore!" And all the people cried, Amen!"
The people in grand procession ascended to the city, and up the marble
steps of the temple, and through its .... 1 ;!.. ..i courts into the glorious
space which surrounds the temple itself. Here were offered their sacri-
fices and burnt-offerings, and free-oflbrings. Judith felt a glow of grati-
tude to God as she gazed around her upon the sculptured marble, the
altar of brass, and the brazen laver, and marble tables, and other rich
furniture of the court, and as she beheld the graeful temple, whose
richly-embioidered curtain was raised, giving her a view of golden fur-
niture, and scarlet and purple within; for she remninmbered that her feeble
arm, made strong by God, had saved all these sacred 1;ii. from the
hand of the enemy. The high priest was there in his splendid robes of
blue and purple, and scarlet embroidery, adorned with jewels, and bor-
dered with golden bells and scarlet pomegranates; while around him
stood the sons of Levi, in their blue-fringed robes of white linen-alto-
gether a glorious and most wonderful array.
In judging the conduct of Judith, we must keep in mind the different
manners which prevailed in those days. We cannot but wonder and
admire when we reflect upon all she hazarded for her country. She
endangered more than life, for if discovered, she ran the risk of death,'or
of living in degradation and sorrow. She perilled her fair fame; which,
to a woman, was worth more than existence. The task which she under-
took was odious, yet she shrank not from it, for she knew if the conqueror
lived, her country was lost.
We may not be called to such a trial, but in whatever strait, when
self is the sacrifice, let us pray for strength to look to the good of others
before our own.



NIGaT with her lustrous stars, her silence and repose, had passed away,
and soft-eyed dawn, heralded by gentle zephyrs, and breathing out per-
fume, arose from Asia's mists like tie poet's Venus from the sea, all
smiles and gladness. Each flower threw out its fairy petals, and wafted
forth its fragrant incense to the day. Almond and citron blossoms,
brilliant pomegranate and oleander, tossed the dew from their delicate
heads, and shook their fragile branches in the morning breeze. The
birds were on every bough singing their rejoicings to the coming day :
for as yet the sun had not appeared, but clouds of rose and purple told of
his near approach, and threw a softened radiance ovei plain, and hill, and
valley. A clear and gentle river-Kishon, that ancient river, the
river Kishon," wound through the verdant plain. By its side arose a
sloping hill, whose summit was crowned by a grove of oaks and elns,
among whose shadows a lordly temple was just made visible as the sun's
first rays fell on the hill-top, while all below still lay in shade. The
rising light revealed its snowy porticoes and lofty arches, and graceful
columns of rare proportion; then passing down the hill shone on a pro-
cession of solemn worshippers who were winding along the river's bank,
and ascending to the temple above. Conspicuous among the throng were
the sacred oxen, who, gaily decorated with ribbons, and wreathed with
roses, were led by young boys clad in white robes and crowned with
garlands. Behind them came a train of women dancing and singing to
instruments of music; while preceding and around the victims were
several hundred priests, whose black robes threw the only shadow over a
landscape now brightly illumined by the broadly risen sun. The pro-
cession ascended the hill; the temple doors were thrown open ; the priests
entered, and advanced to the altar. There, upon two pedestals, stood the
gods they came to worship. The one, a man cast in brass, having
an ox's head-the other of marble, and in human shape, clothed in a coat
of golden mail, wearing a crown and wielding a sword; the former was
Moloch, and the latter laal. To these gods of metal and stone the priests
and people had come to ask for protection from a powerful enemy, who
in predatory bands made inroads upon them, and carried away flocks,
and people, and goods.
header, cast thou say in what land arose this temple, these images of
marble, and these idol worshippers ? Caust thou believe it was in Israel ?


N, i

5~ [

In the promised land ? Alas, it was the dear-bought land of Canaan,
and these deluded idolaters were the sons of Judah, once God's own
peculiar people '


The last of the priests had but just entered the temple when, bursting
through their ranks and uttering shrieks of terror, a woman, one of the
dancers, threw herself before the statues ; it was Jael, the wife of Heber
the Kenite-the roses which had wreathed her lank locks had fallen on
her shoulder, and the white fillets were waving in disorder over her
sallow shrivelled cheeks in bright contrast to their tawny line. O,
Baal, save us!" she cried in distraction. Now save us, for the enemy
is upon us!"2 A chorus of shrieks arose from the women without, who
came pressing confusedly into the temple. The Canaanites are upon
us!" they cried-" 0, Moloch, shield us!"
Eager to save themselves from the invaders, the priests hastily closed
the iron-studded doors of the temple, heedless of the many shrieking
women whom they thus cruelly shut out. Their hopes of admission
vain, the worshippers lied to the groves or down the hill, followed by the
affrighted oxen and their youthful leaders.
Jacl arose from the ground, and endeavoured to pass out of the door.
" 0 my child '" she cried: my Zillah is without: 0 let me go forth
and shield her, or die with her'"
The priests however were bent upon saving themselves from harm, and
the wailings and passionate entreaties of the miserable mother were un-
heeded by hearts as hard as the marble gods they worshipped.
At last the shouts of the enemy and cries of their victims were hushed,
and the noise of trampling steeds receded. The temple doors were slowly
opened, and, their safety being ascertained, the priests of Baal came forth.
There was nothing to be seen near them, but afar off they described a
band of horsemen riding rapidly away, each bearing a captive upon his
horse, while behind them the sacred oxen were goaded onward by a
powerful escort. As the last of the horsemen turned the wood which hid
them from sight, it was perceived he bore away upon his horse a young
girl, who, with arms uplifted, was loudly calling for aid. In her strug-
gles a scarlet girdle fell to the ground ; Jacl swiftly ran down the hill,
and hurriedly examined it.
They have taken my daughter !" she cried, with a burst of wee.
" O, Zillah, that I could have died to save thee !"
Prostrate on the ground, the miserable woman threw dust upon her
head, invoking curses ul on the Canaanites, and vowing deep vengeance
for this cruel wrong.



During these troubles the judge of Israel died, and Deborah became a
" mother in Israel.' Deborah, the wiidow of Lapidoth, was a woman of
a strong and masculine mind ; more capable of ruling the affairs of the
nation than many of her countrymen. Of this they were well aware ;
and came to her for counsel in any emergency. The piety of D)borah
was great, and her God had bestowed upon her the gift of prcyhecy;
thus using her as a means of keeping the faith in Israel, and drawing
her country-people from the dreadful crime of idolatry, into which they
had fallen. The grief of Deborah at their delinquency was great, as
she foresaw the certain punishment their guilt would bring upon them.
The present distress with which the country was afflicted had been
threatened them by their prophetc-s ; but she was unheeded except by a
few, who still worshipped at the tabernacle which was stationed at

Jabin, king of the Canaanites, was harassing Israel sorely, by maraud-
ing parties led by his general Siscra. During the confusion which pre-
vailed, every one came for counsel to Deborah; and in course of time
she was elected judge of Israel. H1er dwelling, which was near to
Shiloh, was a long, low, stone building, arranged in a square, around a
court paved w ith marble. A piazza ran around this court, in front of
the rooms, the pillars of which supported a balcony through which access
was obtained to the upper chambers. From the centre of this court
arose a lofty palm-tree ; its smooth stalk bore no branches-but from the
summit, circles of enormous leaves, some eight feet long, spread out like
a vast canopy, throwing a cooling shade over court and balconies. IBe-
neath this tree was the favourite seat of )Dborah, the Prophetess and
Judge of Israel. Here sl'e commanded a view of all her premises, and here
her people obtained ready access to her 11 .. i, a wide gateway opposite.
One morning, Deborah resorted to lher favourite palm-trec, and placed
herself upon her usual seat, which was a long divan of costly structure,
having cushions covered with embroidered silk. IHer dress was a dark
coloured stuff of Damascus, having a deep border of gold embroidery,
condinec with a girdle wrought with scarlet and jewels ; a bandeau was
around her head, from which projected a short horn of gold, supporting a
veil of thin nmslin of India, which fell to her f et. She was surrounded
by many of her people, who had come to her for judgment. A voice of
wailing was heard outside the gate, when, followed by a large concourse


of people, Jael, the wife of Heber the Kenite, entered the court. She
wore a sackcloth dress woven of black goats-hair, confined by a rope
girdle, while her dark locks were thickly strewn with ashes.
0 help me, noble lady;" she cried; help me, great Deborah! for I
am stricken unto death !" With a deep groan she sank on the ground
before the feet of the prophetess.
What moves thee thus, Jael?" asked Deborah, raising her. Why
art thou thus mourning in sackcloth ?"
My daughter, my sweet child Zillah, hath been carried away by the
enemy she exclaimed weeping. Others, joining their cries to hers, be-
wailed the loss of relatives, or cattle, and entreated D)eorah for help
against the invaders. Deborah listened while the outrage at the temple,
just related, was described.
'"And is it to me, a worshipper of Jehovah, that the children of Baal
come for succour '" she said, with indignation. Away! Go to your
gods for aid. 1 will not raise a hand to save you!
"Do you not know, have ye not heard, that God has sworn lie will
punish you if ye forsake Him Have ye forgotten the words of holy
Joshua, who said,-' If ye forsake the Lord and serve strange gods, then
will lie turn and do you hurt, and consume you ? '"
While )eborah addressed her people, the mists of error departed from
before their eyes..
We are guilty before the Lord !" they cried in terror. We will
indeed serve the Lord our God, and His voice alone we will obey ."
Away then ." cried Deborah. Prove your sincerity Cut down
your groves,-throw down your images,-that the auger of the Lord be
no more hurled against you. If ye truly obey Him, I will pray Him to
raise up an army, and destroy your enemies from oft the land."
The words of Deborah, whom they all reverenced as a prophetess, so
excited the people, that they ran hither and thither, stopping not, until
all their temples were demolished, groves hewn down, and idols de-
stroyed ; the gods they worshipped in the morning were broken to frag-
ments and reviled in the evening. Deborah, like a wise governor, was
determined to take advantage of the newly-awakened zeal of her people.
She sent for IBarak, the son of Abinoam, a valiant and faithful soldier,
who had always distinguished himself in fight. lc:lcame at her bidding,
and found her on her usual seat at the foot of the palm-tree.
The people have turned from the error of their way, have left their


gods, and will worship Jehovah," said the prophetess. The Lord hath
revealed to me He will accept them, and will chastise those that have
afflicted His chosen people. I e commands thee to assemble an army, and
attack Jabin the Canaanite."
Ilarak looked irresolute, and said-" The enemy hath not left a shield
or spear among' us: and lie hath nine hundred chariots of iron !"
What, Iarak knowest thou not we have the Lord on our side ?
What are spears and chariots to Jehovah ? Thoul art as the spies who
feared the Amalekites. We are not able to go up against this people;
for they are stronger than we I' they said ; and what replied Joshua-
' Fear ye not the people of this land ; their defence hath departed from
them, and tile Lord is with us; fear them not!' Thus also saith
Deborah-fear them not. Assemble ten thousand men of the children of
Zebulon and .Naphtali, and the Lord will deliver Jabin's host into tlh
hand. Ascend to the fort upon Mount Tabor, and 1, Deborah, to whom
the Lord liath giv el dominion over the mighty, will draw to the riN er
Kislon, Sisera, the Captain of Jabin's army, with his chariots and mul-
titude ; and there will I deliver him into thy hands."
Barak still doubted. The people have been so terrified and sub-
dued by the Canaanites, that they will not assemliel at imy call. If tihol
wilt go witl me, ti.cn i will go, for the people will believe the Loid lrlat
sent thee ; but if thou wilt nt go, then N i!l not ."
I will go with thee, O faint of heart said the heroic Debora ;
but know, for this thy want of trust iln God li e will take the victor;'
from thee, ani give it to another. The Lord hath revealed to mie lie will
sell Sisera into the hand of a woman."
Deborah arose immediately, to prepare for her journey. Sandals of
leather embroidered with scarlet and jewels were laced upon her feet; a
turban guarded her head from the sun ; and a large nmaitle was folded
around her. At the gate hter favourite animal awaited her; a white as.,,
one of those which, on account of his hue, was reserved for plinces and
nobles alone. This gentle creature was gracefully proportioned, its legs
were long and slender, and its body covered with a coat of glossy silvery
hair. Accompanied by Barak, and a train of followers, D)eborah made
a tour of the country ; exhorting the people to arise and go to battle
against the king of Canaan. Her words and appearance enabled her soon
to assemble ten thousand men ; which was all she required. These she
placed upon Mount Tabor to lie in wait for the enemy.


According to her promise, Deborah drew Sisera and his troops to the
foot of Mount Tabor. She caused the fact of the assembling of Israel
to be told to Jabin, who sent Sisera with a large body of men towards
the river Kishon. Deborah and Barak had, in the meanwhile, ascended
Mount Tabor, where their men were concealed in the fort or among the
groves, from the observation of the enemy.
Mount Tabor arose in an abrupt, cone-shaped bill, many hundred feet
above the plain of Esdraclon ; its sides were clothed with oaks and syca-
mores, and its summit crowned by a fortress. On the walls of this fort
Deborah stationed herself to look out for the enemy. Ifere the whole
land of Israel seemed spread out before her. Below, she looked upon the
verdant plains of Galilee, watered by the Kishon and the Jordan, and sur-
rounded by a band of mountains; while on one side glittered the sea of
Galilee, and on the other stretched the bright waters of the great Medi-
terranean. The sun of that day, on which the prophetess had predicted
the approach of the Canaanites, was declining, when she described their
advance guard emerging from a defile between two of the hills bordering
the Galilean sea. The plain was soon covered with their numerous host.
Onward they came, band after band; their iron chariots rumbling as the
roaring of the great deep in a storm. At their head came Sisera. His
chariot was overlaid with carved gold, and adorned witl gay painting,
while from each side projected a glittering scythe. Three white horses
bore him swiftly on; their backs covered with steel armour, and their
heads decorated with a high ornament of feathers and painted leather.
Siscra, a tall and powerful man, was standing in his chariot supported
by his spear. His body was completely covered with a closely-fitting suit
of mail, formed of golden scales-a bow and quiver hung at his back; a
dagger in its brazen sheath was suspended by chains from his crimson
girdle; while his head was protected by a helmet of 1. ,i, ...i. I i o,, .
gold. An armour-bearer saat t his feet, by the side of his charioteer,
who bore his sword and shield of leather, bound and studded with brass.
Sisera encamped his band for the night yg the banks of the Kishon, in-
tending to attack the Israelites in the morning.
That night Deborah spent alone in the battlements, buried in medita-
tion and prayer. Pious as she was, Debora'h was mortal, and, as she
reflected upon all she had done for tlhe Israelites, and looked around upon
the army she had collected, and on the ruined idol-fanes dimly visible
in the moonbeams, which at her command fell to the ground, and


thought upon the victory promised her, a feeling of triumph swelled her
heart, and she forgot she was but an instrument in the hands of the Lord.
" 0 my soul, thou hast trodden down strength !" she said; Sisera, thy
hours are numbered thou art mighty in men of war, and in chariots and
horsemen, but our God hath spoken; and the horse and the rider will be
overthrown this night. Thou shalt fall by the hand of a woman, and
Deborah's name shall resound in the land !" Deborah now sought out
Barak. Awake arise, Barak!" said she. "Up! for this is the hour
when God shall deliver Sisera into my hands."
The Israelites were soon assembled in front of the fort. The priests
then stood before them to address them according to the commands of
Moses, "When thou goest into battle before thy enemies, 0 Israel!"
they said, "and seest horses, and chariots, and a people more than thou,
be not afraid of them for the Lord thy God is with thee, which brought
thee out of the land of Egypt."
Is there a man here," cried Deborah, looking upon the assembled
band, that is fearful and faint-hearted! Let him return to his house,
lest he infect his brethren, and their heart be as faint as his." With
one voice the people vowed to face the foe manfully; and were imme-
diately led down the hill. In the dead midnight hour, the Canaanites
were awakened from a sleep they had indulged in from contempt of their
foe, by tremendous shouts. A terrible clangour of trumpets was in th(ir
cars; they arose in a fright, and in looking up beheld the lights the
Israelites carried, which to their alarmed imaginations seemed stars
descending from heaven upon them. A panic prevailed. The stars
are fighting against us !" they cried; hear the shouting of their angry
God! Let us fly !" Sisera and some of his officers rallied their men,
and led them against the Israelites. The little band was sorely op-
pressed: but God, who was fighting for them, now brought a new and
terrible enemy against the Canaanites.
While engaged in combat they suddenly became aware they were
standing in water. They looked around-it had risen to their knees-
the chariots were filled, and their ranks could hardly keep their feet.
At once there rose a terrible cry. The river, the river is rising! Fly
ere ye perish!" The children of Israel had been early warnedby their
prophetess, and had retreated up the mountain; but the unhappy
Canaanites, after struggling awhile with the waves, were, with all their
mighty host, swept away and drowned.


Sisera lied in his chariot, but finding the waters rising fast, he aban-
doned it, and raln up to a neighboring eminence. For many hours he
wandered about, and, when the day dawned, found himself at some
distance front the scene of action. lHe was in the plain of Zaanim.
Before him lie beheld an encampment of tents, which, from their pecu-
liar construction, he knew belonged to the Kenites, and he felt assured
of safety. At the door of one stood a woman, towards whom he ran for
protection. Pursued by l n avenging God, Sisera had been sent to the
tent of his foe. It was the encampment of Heber the Kenite, whose
family had joined the Israelites, and she to whom the marauder flew for
safety was his bitter enemy, Jael. She recognized him at once as the
ravisher of her daughter, and the oppressor of Israel, and rejoiced to see
him approaching.
Turn in, my lord turn in to me," she said. lie gladly entered, and
threw himself exhausted upon a pile of mats, whilc she had spread for
Give me, I pray thee, a little water to drink," lie said, for I am
very thirsty ?"
Jael opened a skin bottle, and poured him out some milk, and gave hli
with it biead with butter in a dish of carved gold, which her husband
had taken in war. After lie had eaten, she, at his request, threw over
him a pile of clothes to conceal him from view.
Stand in the door of the tent, good woman," said Sisera, "'and i'
any man doth come and inquire of thee, Is any man here ?' thou shalt
say, No.' If I am saved this day it will go well with thee, for Jabin
shall rew:ird thee, and give thee a place in his palace. Then tlhoi
mayecst rule the Israelite women, for there are many in our houses whom
we have carried away captive !"
lael, repressing the various emotions with which her bosom was burst-
ing, as she saw her enemy in her power, now, in a voice of aifeted
indifireince, asked, '" Saw ye anything, my lord, of Zillah, a young girl
who was taken from the temple of laal when the sacred oxen wer,
carried away '"
Aye, indeed; she is in my house, and is as goodly to look upon as
the goddess Ashtaroth. When I left home I made a vow to Moloch to
sacrifice her and several others at his altar, if lie brought me safe to
Hazor again."


Jael rushed from the tent. "Now, God, I thank thee she cried,
" that my enemy and Israel's oppressor is in my power. Zillah, thou
art saved for Sisera shall not return. In thy place he shall be sacri-
ficed to the gods! Moloch! I devote him to thee! Baal! give ii.i.. l.
to my arm! 0 Jehovah pardon me Why call I upon false gods ? Thou
alone art the only true God, and now that Thou hast given me my enemy
in my hand, I will worship Thee alone."
Jael returned to the tent, and lifted up the curtain of the doorway.
iHer enemy was plunged in a deep slumber. Fearful sonie of his followers
might wander there and rescue him from her hand, and knowing her
daughter's life was the price of his safety, she resolved to put him to
death, and thus render Israel free from one who had cruelly used them.
She tore out one of the large nails with which the tent-ropes are
fastened to the ground, and with a hammer smote the robber on the
head. In triumph, Jael rushed from the tent. Barak was riding rapidly
Ito! Barak'" she cried, come, and I will show thee the man
thou seekest." larak followed her into the tent, and beheld dead before
him, Sisera, the redoubtable oppressor of Israel. Praises be to God '"
he cried, whlo hath this day subdued Jabin, king of Canaan, before
the children of Israel! Truly did Deborah declare lie should die by the
hand of a woman. I thought the prophecy alluded to her, but to Jael
is this honour due. (omue with me, that I may show Deborah and the
princes this thy noble act."
The next morning saw Deborah at the height of her glory and popu-
larity. She was again s-ated under her palm-tree, surrounded by the
princes and nobles of Isra(l, who gave to her the honour of freeing Israel
from their oppressors. l)Dborah's heart bounded ; but checking all
pride, she said, Not to me,-mnot to Deborah be the glory, my lords;
let us ascribe it all to our merciful Jehovah, of whom I am the humble
instrument. But where is our good General Barak ? Is he still in
pursuit of Sisera ?"
Deborah looked up, and beheld Barak approaching, leading Jael; both
were crowned with garlands, followed by men bearing a corpse upon a
bier, and women dancing, and singing triumphant songs.
Behold the deliverer of Israel!" cried Barak. Sing praises to
Jael, for she hath slain Sisera, the enemy of Israel. Blessed above women
be Jael, the wife of IIeber !"


Jael was hailed as Israel's avenger by all the people when the death of
Sisera by her hand became known. For one moment a pang smote the
heart of Deborah, when she thus saw the glory given to another ; but she
was a woman of too lofty a spirit and devoted piety to envy another. I
am punished," she said, for my proud thoughts of yester-night."
Throwing off all feeling save joy for the death of Sisera, she approached
and greeted Jael as a saviour in Israel. Then taking her timbrel, burst
out into a triumphant song.

One of the most striking features in the character of Deborah is her
fearless avowal of the truth. While all the country was given up to
idolatry, she upheld the religion of Jehovah. In the presence of the
worshippers of Baal she was not ashamed to avow her own faith publicly,
however unfashionable it had become, but declared herself decidedly
upon the Lord's side. Nor did she swerve from the duty of showing
them the error of their way, but severely rebuked them for their
wickedness. Let us endeavour to imitate her example, and when in the
company of unbelievers, testify to the truth as it is in Jesus, unabashed
by sneers, and unawed by persecution.

/ / ^ / v)


TIIE Bible Stories" finished, Bertha, the eldest of the yolng
ladies, chose from the Cabinet a book of Fancy Work, of which they
all knew very little, their school-time having been filled up with other
and more substantial studies. It happened that they were desirous to
celebrate their present holiday season by making a few presents to dear
relatives and friends, therefore Bertha's choice was received with delight,
and very glad they all were to find that the Cabinet contained all the
material for the work which was described. The snow was filling fast
from the leaden clouds lhat overspread all the sky without, but snow
and cold were quite forgotten when Mrs. Selby's daughters gathered
about the work-table, before a brilliant fire. Mamma had been busy
spreading before them a variety of rich and beautiful fancy materials,
taken from the Cabinet. She now resumed her easy chair, and read
aloud a few sentences on the history and value of domestic and orna-
mental needlework, showing that it brings daily blessings to every home,
though unnoticed, perhaps, because of its hourly silent application. In a
household each stitch is one for comfort to some person or other; and
without its ever watchful care home would be a scene of discomfort
indeed. In its ornamental adaptation, it delights the eye, amuses the
mind, nay, sometimes cheats grief of its sorrow; but, more than all,
gives bread to thousands. The women of every nation, from time
immemorial to the present, have beguiled their hours with the needle,
from "the embroidered hangings of the temple, and the garments of
fine needlework for kings' daughters," worked with gold, and silk, and
precious stones, to the mocassins and festive ornaments of the savage
embroidered with beads. Upon all classes and in all climes this simple
instrument has bestowed a varied charm.
In past times, Queen Elizabeth and her bevy of maidens might


possibly have amused themselves with this art; for John Taylor, in
1G10, writes of needlework, thus-
"All in dimension, ovals, squares, and rounds,
So that art seemeth nearly natural,
In forming shapes so geometrical."
By no other art than that of the needle can "shapes" so entirely
geometrical be formed. Among the "treasures of needlework" in
ancient times may be mentioned the corslet sent by Amasis, king of
Egypt, to the Lacedeemonians, and described by Herodotus as made of
linen with many figures of animals, inwrought and adorned with gold
and cotton-wool; each thread of this corslet was composed of three
hundred and sixty threads.
Another treasure" was the veil of Minerva, embroidered by virgins
selected from the best families in Athens, which, after being carried in
procession with great pomp and ceremony round the city, was hung up
in the Parthenon, and consecrated to Minerva.
Coming to another age, a "treasure" still remains to us in the
tapestry worked by Matilda, wife of William the Conqueror, highly
valuable as an historical picture, and a truthful representation of the
events which preceded and accompanied the Conquest. It is still pre-
served at Bayeux, in Normandy, and consists of a web of cloth upwards
of two hundred feet in length, and about twenty inches in breadth, with
borders top and bottom. The horses are worked in colours of blue,
yellow, green, and red; but the whole is interesting and spirited.
In the Fishmongers' Hall, in London, is a tolerably well-preserved
specimen of needlework, on a linen ground. The work itself is splendid,
and must have been magnificent when used as a pall at the funeral of
Sir William Walworth, in 1381. It is now much faded in colour, and
the gold dimmed by age, but altogether it is an exquisite specimen of
needlework of that or any other period.
An old poet advises ladies to employ themselves with the needle.
It will increase their peace, enlarge their store,
To use their tongues less, and their needles more;
The needle's sharpnesse profit yields and pleasure,
But sharpnesse of the tongue bites out of measure."

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