Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Uncle Thomas resumes his tales,...
 Uncle Thomas relates the adventures...
 Uncle Thomas continues the relation...
 Uncle Thomas tells about Burckhardt's...
 Uncle Thomas tells about the travels...
 Uncle Thomas continues his account...
 Uncle Thomas tells about Clapperton's...
 Back Cover

Title: Tales about travellers
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003113/00001
 Material Information
Title: Tales about travellers their perils, adventures, and discoveries
Physical Description: vi, 194 p., 6 leaves of plates : ill. ; 15 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bingley, Thomas
J. & W. Rider. ( Printer )
Publisher: W. Kent & Co.
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: 1861
Subject: Voyages and travels -- Juvenile fiction.
Travelers -- Juvenile fiction.
Explorers -- Juvenile fiction.
Juvenile fiction. -- Description and travel -- Africa
Bldn -- 1861.
Literature for Children
Spatial Coverage: England -- London.
Abstract: Factual information about the explorations of John Ledyard, Mungo Park, John Burckhardt, Major Dixon Denham, Captain Hugh Clapperton, and John Davidson within a fictional framework.
Funding: Brittle Books Program
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00003113
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in Special Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002222238
notis - AAA4047
notis - ALG2475
oclc - 23127592
oclc - 47922114

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    Uncle Thomas resumes his tales, and relates the adventures of John Ledyard; his voyage round the world with Captain Cook; his travels in Lapland, Russia, and Siberia, and his subsequent mission to Africa
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
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    Uncle Thomas relates the adventures of Mungo Park, during his travels in Africe; his captivity among the moors; his escape and sufferings in his wanderings in the desert, until his arrival on the banks of the Niger
        Page 33
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    Uncle Thomas continues the relation of Park's adventures and sufferings; tells also about his return to England, his second journey into Africa, and the melancholy fate of this expedition
        Page 69
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    Uncle Thomas tells about Burckhardt's travels in Syria and Arabia, and his adventures among the Arabs of the desert
        Page 97
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        Page 100a
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        Pages 110-116
        Page 116a
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        Page 119
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    Uncle Thomas tells about the travels of Denham and Clapperton; their journey across the desert; their arrival at Lake Tchad; and their presentation at the court of the Sultan of Bornou
        Page 126
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    Uncle Thomas continues his account of the travels of Denham and Clapperton; their various adventures in Africa, and their return to England
        Page 145
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    Uncle Thomas tells about Clapperton's second journey into Africa, and his death at Sackatoo; also about the travels of John Davidson; his attempt to reach Timbuctoo; and his melancholy fate
        Page 167
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    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

'- --Y-,--~rr~g I -PL~II~- -i~C~ [L ~"' 1

Ch m -F. ~~~L
P'r D r'1 I\ tJ~ I L\ O
r ;\
~JJ ;5-~5~ju:



perilo, abbtnturts, anRb Ditobtizu.




.ia 6otion.


* ~-- ~------~-- ---- 6 --~---` i --~ "I'-----r -r---r- -- -.._

"Bingley's Tales and Stories, a set of Books, which, professing only
to amuse-instruct and edify in no common degree."
Quarterly Review, March, 1844.

J. & W. RIDBB, Printers, 14, Bartholomew Close, London, E.C.


TALES of the perils and adventures of the intrepid
men who have penetrated into new and unknown
regions were the delight of my own boyhood. I
loved to sit and listen to the accounts of their
achievements and discoveries, and grieved over their
distresses and disasters. Even now I well remember
how deeply I was affected, when I first heard of
Park's cruel treatment by the Moors (then a thing
of yesterday), and of his sufferings in the desert after
his escape from the hands of those barbarians. The
scene in which, descending from the tree into which
he had climbed for the purpose of attempting to
trace the vast extent of sandy desert which stretched
out before him, he takes the bridle from his horse,

__ _


and, overcome by faintness, falls on the ground, with
the persuasion that the hour of death is fast approach-
ing, is imprinted on my mind as distinctly as if I had
been his companion in the trying scene.
My own feelings and recollections, therefore,
prompt me to think that a volume of Tales on so
popular and interesting a subject cannot fail to
recommend itself to the estimation of my young
T. B.








- I~-._












VARIOUs circumstances occurred to prevent
Uncle Thomas from entering on a new series
of tales so early as he had anticipated, or as
had been expected by his little auditors; it was,
therefore, with unfeigned pleasure that they
at length heard him announce thatonthefollow-
ing evening he intended to relate to them the
first of a series of TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS,
whose adventures and discoveries in various
parts of the world had gained them the admira-
tion of their fellow-men. He delighted," he

__ i


said, "to tell them of the fortitude and enter-
prise of those who had distinguished themselves
in the cause of discovery, and to hold up to the
admiration of his young friends their intrepidity
and perseverance, as he hoped thus to incite
them to habits of industry and application, and
to show them how much may be accomplished
by the proper exercise of the 'talents' with
which each individual is furnished. Every
one," continued Uncle Thomas, "is not en-
dowed with the genius of a Bacon or a New-
ton, or that of a Shakespeare or a Scott, but
there are very few who have not some peculiar
qualification, or who really know the extent of
their powers, because they neglect to bring
them into exercise. Had Mungo Park, for*
instance, of whose adventures I will tell you
presently, remained at home in ease and inac-
tivity, he might never have suspected his own
powers of endurance; and how comparatively
little should we now know of the interior of
Africa. He died, it is true, leaving, unsolved.


the great problem in African geography-the
source and termination of the Niger; but his
example incited others to make the attempt,
and our knowledge of those countries and their
inhabitants has been gradually increasing."
I am glad that you are going to tell us
about Park," said Frank, whose interest in this
traveller had been excited by an anecdote which
he had read a day or two before, regarding the
consolation which Park derived from contem-
plating the extraordinary beauty of a little
moss plant when he was naked and alone in
the midst of an African wilderness, hundreds
of miles distant from the nearest European
settlement, and when everything around him
was full of danger and difficulty; "I am very
anxious to know about Park," and he began to
relate the anecdote to which we have alluded.
"Stop, my dear !" said Uncle Thomas. "I
will tell you about him by and bye, and when
you hear the story of his sufferings previous to
this touching incident, you will be better able

*& .A

r A


On the following evening, when the boys
had as usu4l seated themselves round Uncle
Thomas's chair, he began:-
"John LeGyard was born in Connecticut, in
North America, in the year 1751. Almost from
S his childhood his character exhibited symp-
toms of that restlessness which marked his
future career; and before he was twenty-one
years of age, he had with characteristic impa-,
tience alternately adopted and rejected the pro-
fessions of law and divinity. Nothing worth re-
lating has been recorded of him during his stay

A. -,s..

to appreciate and to understand it, and to enter
into his feelings on the occasion. Before we
begin with Park, however, I must tell you of
John Ledyard, one of his predecessors, and,
perhaps, one of the most singular men that ever
lived, But I must bid you good-bye at present.
To-morrow evening I will be ready for you."


in the lawyer's office, but his college life affords
some stories too characteristic to be passed over.
SSoon after he relinquished the study of the
law, it happened that an old friend of his
grandfather's, who had recently established a
school, or college, at which young men were
educated as missionaries to the Indians, offered
to receive Ledyard into his establishment for
this purpose. The offer was eagerly embraced;
but Ledyard seems to have adopted the pro-
fession more on account of the novelty of the
scenes to which it would introduce him, and the
adventures which it promised to afford, than
fromiany proper feeling of the importance of
the cause in which he was about to engage.
"After remaining about four months at
college, he one day suddenly disappeared, with-
out communicating his intentions to any one,
and, as was afterwards discovered, penetrated
far into the country, at .that time almost a
wilderness, and wandered about from tribe to
tribe among the Indians. After an absence of

three months and a half he again returned,
and resumed his studies; but it was now
evident that his heart was no longer set upon a
missionary career. Instead of devoting himself
to such studies as were necessary to fit him for
this arduous duty, he spent much of his time
in acting plays. Calm study had no charms
for him. He delighted to engage in perilous
undertakings, in which difficulties were to be
encountered and overcome. One of his college
frolics is thus related:-
"In the depth of winter, when the ground
was covered with snow, he persuaded a party
of his fellow-students to accompany him to the
top of a neighboring mountain to pass the
night. The president of the college made no
objection to the project, as he thought it would
help to 'inure the young men to hardships, to
which a residence among the Indians would con-
stantly expose them. The party accordingly
set out, headed by Ledyard. He led them by a
pathless route through the thickets of a swamp,


and an all but impenetrable forest, till they
reached the top of the mountain, just in time
to arrange their encampment and light a fire
before nightfall. Exhausted with their exer-
tions, and benumbed with cold, to most of the
party the night was a sleepless one, and few
were there among them who did not greet the
dawn with gladness. Ledyard, however, was
delighted, and on the following day they re-
turned home, few of them feeling at all desirous
to repeat the experiment.
The restless spirit of Ledyard could not
remain long unoccupied. Tired of the mono-
tony of a college life, and apparently abandon-
ing all idea of engaging in the missionary enter-
prise, he resolved to return to Hartford, where
his grandfather resided. On the margin of the
river, near whictl the college stood, there grew
many majestic foreign trees. One of the largest
of these he contrived to cut down, and then set
himself to work to fashion it into a canoe. In
this labour he was assisted by some of his


fellow-students, who were, however, ignorant of
the purpose for which it was intended. As the
canoe was about fifty feet long and three wide,
it required considerable labour to finish it. At
length, however, it was completed. He stole
out in the silence of night, and wrapping him-
self in a bear-skin, he launched his frail bark
upon the waters and pushed off, undaunted by
the dangers which surrounded him, on a voyage
of nearly one hundred and fifty miles on a river
of the navigation of which he knew nothing,
and on which in several places there were
dangerous falls and rapids.
"In one of these falls he nearly lost his life.
He was seated in the canoe, deeply intent on
one of the books which he had brought with
him, when he was suddenly roused by the noise
of the waters rushing among the rocks through
a narrow passage. In another instant the boat
would have been over the fall and dashed in
pieces. By great exertions, however, he
managed to gain the shore, and thus escaped.

Some peasants assisted him to drag his canoe
ashore, and to launch it again below the falls,
and he reached his destination in safety.
"Having thus finally abandoned all idea of
becoming a missionary, Ledyardnext attempted
to get himself ordained, with a view to obtain
an appointment as a parish minister; but his
studies had been carried on in too unconnected
a manner to fit him for undergoing the neces-
sary examinations, and, after spending a short
time in this pursuit, he abandoned it also in
"His active spirit did not sink into de-
spondency. An old friend of his father's, who
commanded a vessel which traded to the Medi-
terranean, received him on board as a sailor.
After a prosperous voyage across the Atlantic
they reached Gibraltar. During their stay
here, the captain was alarmed one day at dis-
covering that Ledyard was missing, and after
some time it was ascertained that he was in the
garrison among the soldiers, having enlisted


into the British service. The captain of the
vessel sought him out and remonstrated with
him; but all the apology which Ledyard
offered was, that he was partial to the service,
that he thought the profession of a soldier well
suited to a man of honour and enterprise, but
that he would not be obstinate, and, if the
captain insisted on it, he would return to the
ship, provided they could obtain his release.
This was without much difficulty procured,
and Ledyard accompanied the ship on her
return voyage to America.
"A new project soon took possession of his
fancy. He had often heard his grandfather,
who had been brought up in a mercantile house
in London, speak of his wealthy connections
in England. Thither accordingly Ledyard re-
solved to proceed to claim their acquaintance,
and golden visions flitted before his eyes. He
set out for New York, and finding a vessel
about to sail for Plymouth, he engaged himself
as a sailor. When he arrived at Plymonth he

__ ~I_~ ________~ _ ___ I _______ __ _ _~_ __ ____


was penniless, having, probably, for the sake of
obtaining a passage, served without wages.
He begged his way to London, and on his
arrival began to search for those whom he had
come so far to see.
"It is said that by accident he saw the
family name on a carriage, and inquiring of
the driver to whom it belonged, he was told
that its owner was a rich merchant, and his resi-
Sdence pointed out. Eager to grasp at the good
fortune which now seemed within his reach,
*Ledyard proceeded instantly to the house.
The merchant himself was from home, but his
son listened to our traveller's story, and gave
him to understand that he disbelieved his state-
ments, and that he had never heard of any such
relations in America as those he mentioned.
The haughty spirit of Ledyard could not brook
the idea of being supposed an impostor: he
abruptly left the house, and never went back.
At this time Captain Cook, the celebrated
navigator, was preparing to set out on his third


and last voyage round the world. Ledyard was
fired with the idea of joining the expedition.
To accomplish this object he enlisted into the
marine service, and managed to introduce him-
self to Captain Cook's notice. Ledyard's manly
form, and bold but unobtrusive bearing, found
favous in the eyes of the veteran navigator.
He took him into his service, and promoted
him to be a corporal of marines. .
"Ledyard accordingly sailed with Cook on
his last voyage round the world, and several
times distinguished himself during the expedi-
tion on occasions in which he was intrusted with
important duties by his commander. He accom-
panied the party who landed with Cook when
he was cruelly murdered by the savages at
Hawaii, and was one of the three marines who
escaped unhurt on that melancholy occasion.
"During his voyage with Cook, Ledyard
had an opportunity of seeing how profitably
the furs which they had bought at Nootka
Sound and other places, for the merest trifle,

with a view of using as articles .of dress, could
be disposed of in China. This suggested to
his active and enterprising mind the idea of
a regular trading voyage for this purpose, and
several of the succeeding years of his life were
occupied in endeavouring to prevail on some
person of capital to engage in the undertaking.
All his efforts, however, though several times
on the point of being crowned with success,
ended in disappointment.
"After spending some years in various parts
of Europe in the vain pursuit of this object, he
began to turn his attention to the project of
traversing the northern regions of Europe and
Asia-to cross over Behring's Strait to the
American continent, and to pursue his route
Sthence down the coast, or into the interior, as
chance might direct. He intended to start
from St. Petersburg, and made application,
through the Russian minister, to the Empress
Catherine for leave to travel through her
dominions. He waited for five months with



the utmost impatience for an answer to this
application, and was just on the point of start-
ing without it, when he was called to London
by a letter from Sir James Hall, who had pre-
vailed on the owners of a ship which was about
to sail to the Pacific Ocean to give Ledyard a
free passage, with the promise that he should
be set on shore on any part of the north-west
coast which he might choose.
"Ledyard was elated beyond measure. He
furnished himself with 'two great dogs, an
Indian pipe, and a hatchet,' and embarked.
The dogs he intended to use in catching wild
animals for his subsistence, after he had set
out on his journey, and the pipe was to serve
as an emblem of peace to the Indians; the
hatchet would serve many purposes of con-
venience and utility. At length the vessel set
sail. It was the happiest moment of his lif%
but he seemed doomed to disappointment. The
ship was hardly out of sight of land when,
in consequence of some infringement of the

revenue laws, she was pursued and carried
back to London, and the voyage stopped.
"Thus disappointed, Ledyard once more
turned his attention to the Siberian expedition,
.and a small subscription having been raised by
some influential gentlemen,who took an interest
in geographical discoveries, with whom he had
become acquainted, he set out and arrived at.
Hamburgh with just ten guineas in his pocket.
Ill fitted as this sum was to enable him to travel
through the frosts and snows which he had to
encounter before he reached even St. Peters-
burg, such was his inconsiderateness, that he
parted with nearly the whole of it to relieve
the necessities of a poor and eccentric traveller,
named Langhorn. But Ledyard was nbt of a
disposition to foresee difficulties. He freely
bestowed his money on Langhorn, and spent
some days in his society, and when it was time
to resume his journey, he found he could not
do so without a supply of money. Fortunately
he discovered a person who advanced him

. .. .. . . . I I -,,

some, on the promise of its being repaid in
"To visit Langhorn and to relieve his dis-
tress, Ledyard crossed from Hamburgh to
Copenhagen, thus leaving the direct course
to St. Petersburg, and, as you shall hear,
increasing the distance many hundred miles.
.From, Copenhagen he went to Stockholm, in-
tending to cross over to Abo in Finland, and
thus proceeding to the place of his destination.
The manner in which the passage between
Stockholm and the place I have just men-
tioned is made in the winter season is so
singular, that I must describe it to you. The
S traveller, muffled up in furs, is seated on a
sledge, which is drawn by two or three horses.
The ice is sometimes so smooth that the pas-
sage is comparatively easy; but if the weather
is stormy, the ice assumes all the appearance
of waves, and immense masses, heaped one upon
another, offer the most fearful impediments.
The sledge is frequently upset, and the horses


c:1Eit~~ 6h -D

sometimes become unmanageable and runaway.
When, however, there happens to be an open
winter-one inwhich the frost isnot sufficiently
intense to freeze the passage entirely over-
the water yet contains so much floating ice that
no vessel can sail through it. This happened
to be the case in the season in which Ledyard
arrived, so that he found it necessary either to
stay at Stockholm till the spring, or to proceed
round the' gul, a distance of twelve hundred
miles, over trackless snows, and in regions.
thinly peopled, whbre the nights are long and
the cold intense, and all this to advance on his
Journey only -about fifty miles.
Appalling as the prospect of such a journey
was, the idea of remaining several months in a
state of inactivity was more so to the impatient
mind of Ledyard. He accordingly set out in
the middle of winter; alone, on foot, without
money or friends, on a road almost unfre-
quented at that frightful season, and with the
gloomy certainty that he must travel north-

ward six hundred miles before he could turn
his steps towards a milder climate.
"That you may judge of the intensity of the
cold to which Ledyard was exposed, I will
read to you the account given of it by a scien-
tific traveller, who thus speaks of the winter
appearance of Tornea, a town which stands at
the head of the gulf:-
"' The town of Tornea, on our arrival on the
30th of December, had a most frightful aspect.
Its little' houses were buried to the tops in snow,
which, if there had been any daylight, must
have effectually shut it out. But the snow
continually falling, or ready to fall, for the
most part hid the sun, the few moments that
"he might have showed himself at mid-day. If
we opened the door of a warm room, the cold
wind instantly converted the air in it into
snow, whirling it round in vortices. If we
went abroad, we felt as if the air was tearing
our breasts in pieces, and the cracking of the
wood of which the houses are built, as the

violence of the cold split it, continually alarmed
's. The solitude of the streets was no less
than if the inhabitants had been all dead, and
Sin this country you may often see people that
have been maimed, and had an arm or a leg
frozen off. The cold, which is always very
great, increases sometimes by such violent and
sudden fits as are almost certainly fatal to those
that happen to be exposed to it. The winds
seem to blow from all quarters at once, and
drive about the snow with such fury that'in a
moment all traces of the roads are lost. Un-
happy he who is caught by such a storm in
the fields. His acquaintance with the country,
or the marks he may have taken by the trees,
avail him nothing. He is blinded by the snow,
and lost if he but stirs a step.'
." Such were the difficulties and the dangers
with which Ledyard was -threatened in this
expedition. How many of them he encoun-
tered he has not recorded, but in seven weeks
from his departure from Stockholm he reached

16_ i1W I IAM& 'OF I - Ai-

St. Petersburg, thus travelling, on an average,
two hundred miles a week, or nearly thirty
miles a day-an amazing progress for a pedes-
trian in any country, but almost incredible
under such circumstances as those in which
Ledyard travelled.
"After remaining nearly three months in
St. Petersburg, most of the time waiting for a
passport from the empress, to obtain which he
made many fruitless attempts, he at length
procured it, and set out in company with a gen-
tleman who was about to proceed to a place
nearly three thousand miles in the direction in,
which Ledyard wished to travel. As his com-
panion, Dr. Brown, held an appointment in the
service of the empress, not only did he travel
with all the conveniences which were attain-
able in that country, but Ledyard's expenses,
in part at least, were thus defrayed by govern-
ment, a point of no small moment to one
whose resources were so limited.
"Nothing in the shape of adventure hap-

Ok. .^A.


opened to Ledyard on this journey. He parted
with his fellow-traveller at Barnaoul, and con-
tinued his route in a less ambitious style. The
chief dangers which he encountered were oc-
casioned by the rude, unbroken Tartar horses,
which several times ran away with the kabitka,
or carriage in which he rode, and he was forced
to seek safety by jumping out and leaving the
half savage driver to reduce the brutes once
more to subjection in his own way.
At length he embarked on the river Lena,
and floated down the stream to Yakutsk, where
he arrived about the middle of September.
The distance from the place of his embarka-
tion is about fourteen hundred miles. The
voyage occupied twenty-two days, during which
period he passed from a summer climate to one
of rigorous cold. When he left Irkutsk, the
reapers were busy cutting down the corn; but
on his arrival at Yakutsk the snow was six
inches deep, and the boys were whipping their
tops on the ice.

r"--~-----------~-----~-C---C--C- I

.. . . i II I II I I I I I I

21 j


The governor of Yakutsk, to whom he was
introduced, received him with open arms, and
professed the greatest interest for his comfort
and safety. He assured him that the season
was too far advanced to render a journey to
Okotsk practicable, and begged thatjhe would
delay it till the spring. Ledyard was dis-
mayed. His funds were nearly exhausted, and
the prospect of remaining at Yakutsk during
eight dreary winter months was insupportable.
He insisted on setting out, till at length the
governor introduced to him a trader, who, he
said, was constantly in the habit of passing
between Yakutsk and Okotsk, who joined in
the assurance of the impracticability of the
journey at so advanced a period of the season.
Ledyard suffered himself to be convinced by
this evidence, and reluctantly gave up his pro-
ject of immediately proceeding on his journey.
"The dullness of Ledyard's forced resi-
dence at Yakutsk was relieved by the arrival
of Captain Billings, who was at that time in


command of a party which had been sent out
bythe Russian Government to explore the coast
of the Frozen Ocean. Billings, with whom
Ledyard was acquainted, from having been one
of his fellow-voyagers under Cook, was then
on his way to Irkutsk, to procure some equip-
ments which were necessary to enable him to
resume his researches in the ensuing spring..
He invited Ledyard to accompany him to
Irkutsk, and as our traveller knew that he
could not reach Okotsk before the period men-
tioned by Billings for his return, he consented.
Soon after their arrival at Irkutsk, Ledyard
was arrested by order of the empress, on pre-
tence that he was a French spy. He was
hurried into a kabitka, placed between two
guards, and driven off with all the speed with
which horses could convey them towards Mos-
cow, exposed to the extreme rigours of a
Siberian winter. From Moscow he was con-
ducted in the same hurried and unprotected
manner to the frontiers of Poland, where he
. __________ .______________.___

was dismissed, with the assurance that, if he
presumed again to enter'the dominions of the
empress, he would certainly be hanged.
"The reason for this strange and inhospitable
conduct on the part of the empress has been
explained in various ways. The most probable
seems to be that which assigns it to the influ-
ence of the Russian-American Fur Company,
which became alarmed lest the knowledge of
their proceedings, which Ledyard could not
fail to discover as he advanced, should be
thus published to the world, and incite op-
position to the very profitable trade which
they then carried on. That the governor of
Yakutsk was aware of the conspiracy, and lent
it all the assistance in his power, is highly
probable, from his conduct in the affair. It
has been ascertained that the journey which
he protested so strongly was impracticable, and
called in the evidence of the trader to corro-
borate, is frequently made during the winter,
and various other circumstances of his conduct

_~~__ _.___ _~___


to Ledyard seem to render the suspicion well
"From Poland, Ledyard directed -his steps
to England. In a letter which he wrote to a
friend, after his arrival in London, he gives some
particulars of this journey:-' I know not how
I passed through the kingdoms of Poland and
Prussia, or from thence to London, where I
arrived in the beginning of May, disappointed,
ragged, penniless; and yet so accustomed was
I to such things, that I declare my heart was
whole. My health had for the first time
suffered from my confinement, and the amazing
rapidity with which I had been carried through
the illimitable wilds of Tartary and, Russia.
But, my liberty regained, and a few days' rest
among the beautiful daughters of Israel, in
Poland, re-established it.' His reference to
the kindness of the Polish Jewesses affords a
good opportunity to introduce a passage from
one of his journals, which has been often
quoted in praise of the kindness and humanity


of woman. It was written during his resi-
dence at Irkutsk. 'I have observed among
all nations,' says he, 'that the women orna-
ment themselves more than the men; that,
wherever found, they are the same kind, civil,
obliging, humane, tender beings; that they are,
ever inclined to be gay and cheerful, timorous/
and modest. They do not hesitate, like man,
to perform a hospitable or generous action; not
haughty nor arrogant, nor supercilious, but full
of courtesy, and fond of society; industrious,
economical, ingenious; more liable in general
to err than man, but in general also more
virtuous, and performing more good actions,
than he. I never addressed myself in the lan-
guage of decency and friendship to a woman,
whether civilized or savage, without receiving a
decent and friendly answer. With man it has
often been otherwise. In wandering over the
barren plains of inhospitable Denmark, through
honest Sweden, frozen Lapland, rude and churl-
ish Finland, unprincipled Russia, and the wide,


spread regions of the wandering Tartar, if
hungry, thirsty, cold, wet, or sick, woman has
ever been friendly to me, and uniformly so;
and, to add -to this virtue, so worthy of the
appellation of benevolence, these actions have
been performed in so free and so kind a manner
that, if I was thirsty, I drank the sweet draught,
and, if hungry, ate the coarse morsel, with a
double relish.'
"That he was, during his wanderings,
frequently in situations to appreciate these
kindnesses, is evident from his confession to
Mr. Beaufoy, when he was afterwards on the
point of setting out for Africa. 'I am accus-
tomed, he remarked, 'to hardships. I have
known both hunger and nakedness to the
utmost extremity of human suffering. I have
known what it is to have food given me as
charity to a madman; and I have at times been
obliged to shelter myself under the miseries of
that character to avoid heavier calamity. My
distresses have -been greater than I have ever


owned, or ever will own, to any man. Such
evils are terrible to bear, but they never yet
had power to turn me from my purpose.' Soon
after Ledyard's arrival in London, he was,
through the influence of Sir Joseph Banks, ap-
pointed by the African Association to attempt
to trace the source of the Niger. In the first
interview which he had with the secretary of
that institution, he surprised him bythe prompt
decision of his character, and the readiness
with which he was prepared to face the most
extreme dangers. The secretary, after tracing
upon a map the course which the committee
was anxious to have explored, asked him how
soon he would be prepared to set out. To-
morrow morning!' was Ledyard's reply,-'a
reply,' says one of his biographers, 'affording
one of the most extraordinary instances of
decision of character on record. When we
consider his recent bitter experience of the past,
his labours and sufferings, which. had been so
intense and so long-continued that a painful


reality had more than checked the excesses of
romantic enthusiasm that might be kindled
in a less disciplined imagination; and when
we witness the promptitude with which he is
ready to encounter new perils in the heart of
Africa, where hardships of the severest kind
must inevitably be endured, and where death
would stare him in the face at every stage, we
cannot but admire the superiority of mind over
the accidents of human life, the rapidity of
combination, quickness of decision, and fear-
lessness of consequences, which Ledyard's reply
indicates. It was the spontaneous triumph of
an elevated spirit over the whole catalogue of
selfish considerations, wavering motives, and
half-subdued doubts, which would have con-
tended for days in the breasts of most men
before they would have adopted a firm reso-
lution to jeopardy their lives in an undertaking
so manifestly beset with dangers, and which,
in its best aspect, threatened to be a scene of
toils, privations, and endurance.'


At length, the preparations for his journey
being completed, he set out on the 30th of
June. After remaining a few days in Paris,
he proceeded to Marseilles, whence he sailed
for Alexandria. After a short stay, he pro-
ceeded up the Nile to Cairo, where the difficul-
ties of his undertaking began to show them-
selves. At Cairo he was detained nearly
three months, waiting the arrival of a caravan
with which he intended to travel to Sennaar.
The day was at length fixed on which -it was
to set out, when the mental anxiety which
he. had recently undergone, and the exposure
to the deleterious influence of the climate,
brought on a bilious attack, which proved
fatal, in spite of the best medical skill which
Cairo could afford. The precise day of his death
is not known. It is supposed to have happened
towards the end of November, 1788.
"Thus died John Ledyard, a man who, though
he accomplished few of the great designs which
he projected, has, for perseverance, decision of

character, courage, and fortitude, had few
equals. Few men have passed over so many
regions'of the globe; and few ever met with so
nany crosses and sufferings. 'He accomplished,
indeed,' says one of his biographers, 'few of
the great enterprises which he planned; but it
was not his fault, but his misfortune. Why he
was defeated in respect to enterprises which
would have been useful to the world is hidden
from us, nor would we vainly inquire. Per-
haps he is equally entitled to the respect of
mankind as if he had accomplished all.' His
genius,' says another, 'though uncultivated
and irregular, was original and comprehensive.
Ardent in his wishes, yet calm in his delibera-
tions; daring in his purposes, but guarded in
his measures; impatient of control, yet capable
of strong endurance; adventurous beyond the
conceptions of ordinary men, yet wary and
considerate, and attentive to all precautions;
he appeared to be formed by nature for
achievements of hardihood and peril.'

"I must now bid you good night, boys;
the story of Ledyard's life and adventures has
taken up more time than I anticipated. To-
morrow evening I will tell you about Mungo
Park, of whom Frank is so anxious to hear.
I hope you have found the account of Ledyard's
life not uninteresting."
"Very interesting, indeed," said Frank;
"though his adventures are not sufficiently
perilous for my taste. I like those best where
the traveller has to defend himself from the
attacks of savages and wild beasts."
"Very well, Frank, you shall be gratified.
Park's adventures, unfortunately, afford too
many scenes of the kind you mention. So
come early: his story is a long one, and I am
not quite sure that we shall be able to get
through it all in one night."
Very well, uncle Thomas. Good-night."
Good-night, boys."



THE early arrival of the boys on the following
evening showed how much interested they
were in Uncle Thomas's Tales. When the
usual greetings had been exchanged, Uncle
.Thomas began:-
"Mungo Park was a native of Scotland.
He was born at Fowlshiels, in the neighbour-
;hood of Selkirk, September 10th, 1771. After
acquiring the usual branches of education
which are taught in the parish schools of
Scotland, he was articled to a surgeon, in
Selkirk, aaid on the expiration of his apprentice-
ship he removed to Edinburgh, for the purpose


of completing his medical studies. Having
received his diploma, he proceeded to London,
and being recommended to the notice of Sir
Joseph Banks, was, through his influence,
appointed assistant-surgeon on board an East
Indiaman, in which he made a voyage to
On his return to England, hearing that the
African Association was desirous of engaging
a person to replace Major Houghton, who, it
was feared, had fallen a sacrifice to the cause
of discovery in Africa, Park offered his services,
and was accepted. He left England on the
22nd of May, 1795, and after a pleasant
voyage reached Jillifree, on the river Gambia.
After a short stay at this place the vessel con-
tinued her course up the river as far as Jonka-
konda, where she was to take in a part of her
cargo. Park therefore disembarked, and hav-
ing a letter of introduction to an European,
named Laidley, who lived at Pisania, sixteen
miles higher up the river, he proceeded thither.


From this gentleman he received the greatest
attention, and was invited to remain in his
house till an opportunity offered of continuing
his journey into the interior.
"While waiting the occurrence of this
opportunity, Park set about acquiring all the
information he could procure regarding the
countries which he was about to visit. He
studied also the Mandingo language, which is
in general use in this part of Africa. In the
midst of these labours, however, he was seized
with fever, having incautiously exposed himself
to the night dew while observing an eclipse of
the moon. Having ventured abroad too soon,
he had*a relapse, which again confined him to
his bed. Fortunate indeed was it that he was
all this while under the hospitable roof of Dr.
Laidley. 'The care and attention of this
gentleman,' says Park, in his journal, 'contri-
buted greatly to alleviate my sufferings; his
company and conversation beguiled the tedious
hours during that gloomy season when the rain
L. ... . .... ... . ...... ... .


falls in torrents, when suffocating heats oppress
by day, and the night is spent by the terrified
traveller in listening to the croaking of frogs,
of which the numbers are beyond imagination,
the shrill cry of the jackal, and the deep
howling of the hyena-a dismal concert, in-
terrupted only by the roar of such tremendous
thunder as no person can form a conception of
but those who have heard it.'
"Availing himself of his restoration to health,
and the return of the dry season, Park now
resolved to set out on his journey. He was
attended by a negro, to act as interpreter, who
spoke both English and Mandingo, having
acquired .the former during a residence in
England, and a boy slave of Dr.. Laidley's, who,
in order to stimulate him to behave well, was
promised his freedom on his return, in case
Park should report favourably of his conduct.
"His European friends, who had insisted on
accompanying him a couple of days on his
journey, parted from.him at Jindey, and here,

for the first time, Park found himself alone in
this great enterprise, and he rode off slowly
into the woods, indulging in the most gloomy
reflections. Before him spread out a boundless
forest, and a country, the inhabitants of which
were strangers to civilized life, and to most' of
whom a white man was an object of curiosity
or plunder. Agitated and cast down by such
desponding thoughts, he rode on for about three
miles, when his reverie was suddenly inter-
rupted by a body of people, who stopped the
asses on which his attendants were mounted,
demanding .in the name of the king of Walli
payment of the customs which 'are usually
levied on traders passing through his territory.
Finding it in vain to resist, and having pre-
sented them with four bars of tobacco for the
king's use, he was allowed to proceed.
"Nothing remarkable occurred till our
traveller arrived at Fatteconda, the capital of
Bondou, where he had scarcely arrived before
he was sent for by the king, who was desirous


to see him. As Park had heard that this
monarch had treated .Major Houghton with
great unkindness, and caused him to be
plundered, it was not without a feeling of
apprehension that he was ushered into his
presence. He found him seated under a tree,
and, after explaining to his majesty the object
of his journey, he presented him with a quantity
of gunpowder, some tobacco, and an umbrella.
With the latter article he was particularly
delighted, repeatedly furling and unfurling it,
to the great admiration of himself and his
attendants, who could not for some time under-
stand the use of such an article.
"By way of preserving from plunder part of
his wardrobe, Park dressed himself in the best
6-t which it afforded. This article, however,
ornamented as it was with yellow gilt buttons,
so captivated the king's fancy that, aftermaking
a lbng-speech on the liberality of the whites,
he asked our traveller to make him a present
of the coat, assuring him at the same time that

og- \-- Ir
Til U 1 11 LIT 1.1r, 1A '-,C -, :I


he would wear it on all public occasions, and
inform every one who saw it of his generous
,conduct. The request of an African prince in
his own dominions, particularly when made to
an unprotected stranger, is little short of a
command. Park knew very well that if the
king did not obtain the object of his wishes by
fair means, he would do so by force, he there-
fore at once pulled off his coat, and laid it at
the monarch's feet.
From this place Park proceeded to Joag, the
frontier town of the kingdom of Kajaaga, and
during the night the house in which he slept
was surrounded by an armed band of horsemen,
who told him that as he had entered the town
without first paying the customs, or giving any
present to the king, according to the laws of
the country, his people, cattle, and baggage
were forfeited ; that they had orders from his
majesty to take him to Maana, where he resided,
:and that, if he refused to accompany them
peaceably, they must bring him by force.

~.-rr?-r :----arn~l~l?m~rrrrr~~


After some little delay, Park replied that, being
a stranger, unacquainted with the customs of
their country, he had infringed their laws from
ignorance, and not from any desire to violate
them, and that he was now ready to pay what-
ever they demanded. He then presented them
with some pieces of gold, but, not content with
this, they insisted on examining his baggage,
from which they helped themselves to whatever
took their fancy. In short, after robbing him
of half his goods, they left him.
"Dispirited and desponding under such treat-
ment, Park and his companions passed the night
by the side of a dim fire, nor did the dawn of
another day bring to them any brighter prospect.
They were afraid to offer to purchase provisions,
lest the knowledge that they still possessed some
money should farther tempt the cupidity of the
natives. They had therefore resolved to refrain
from so doing during the day, and to wait for
some more favourable opportunity of purchasing
or begging such necessaries as they required.

"Towards evening, as Park was sitting chew-
ing straws, to obtain such relief as this miser-
able substitute for food afforded, an old female
slave, who happened to pass with a basket on
her head, asked him if he had dined. Park,
thinking that she put the question merely to
deride his misery, returned no answer; but his
negro boy, who was sitting close by, replied
that the king's people had robbed his master
of all his money. The poor woman, with a look
of unaffected benevolence, immediately took
the basket from her head, and showing him
that it contained ground-nuts, asked him if he
could eat them. On being answered in the
affirmative, she gave him a few handfuls, and
walked away before he had time to express
his gratitude for the seasonable relief.
"On his arrival at Kaarta, our traveller found
that the king of Bambarra had declared war
against the Kartans, and that it would there-
fore be necessary for him to proceed thither .by
a circuitous route through the Moorish king-

dom of Ludamar. Having therefore procured
an escort from the king of Kaarta, he set out
for Jarra.
Their journey was uiLdistinguished by any
particular incident, till they arrived at the
negro town of Funingkedy, which they found
in the greatest confusion from the presence of
some Moors, who had come on a plundering
expedition; and though the inhabitants, to the
amount of about five hundred, stood collected
close to the walls of the town, such was their
fear of their lawless neighbours, that these
robbers were permitted to carry off their booty
almost unmolested.
"At Jarra matters looked so threatening,
from the disturbed state of the country, that
his attendants refused to proceed; they there-
fore all left him but his faithful boy, who
resolved to accompany him, and to face every
"After travelling a few days, exposed to
great suffering from the heat of the weather


and the scarcity of water, they arrived at a
negro village called Samee, where they were
kindly received, and Park was congratulating
himself that he was now out of. reach of all
danger from the Moors, when a party suddenly
entered the hut where he was, telling him they, .
had come by order of Ali,(the Moorish king)
to conduct him to the camp. He was therefore
.forced to accompany them. After a journey
of four or five days, they arrived at Benown,
where Ali's army was then encamped. Here
Park was, during.ten weeks, exposed to all the
insults and indignities which could be contrived
by some of the rudest savages on earth. The
ferocity and fanaticism which distinguish the
Moors from the rest of mankind,' says Park,
'found in me a proper subject whereon to
exercise their propensities. I was a stranger,
I was unprotected, and I was a Christian.
Each of these circumstances is sufficient to
drive every spark of humanity from the heart
of a Moor; but when all of them were com-
L' .. ^ _________


bined in the same person, and a suspicion
prevailed withal that I had come as a spy into
the country, the reader will easily imagine that
I had everything to fear. Anxious, however,
to conciliate favour, and, if possible, to afford
them no pretence for ill-using me, I readily
complied with every command, and patiently
bore every insult, but never did any period of
my life pass away so heavily; from sunrise to
sunset I was obliged to suffer, and with an
~iauruffled countenance, the insults of these
It would take up too much time were I to
attempt to relate half of the sufferings which
he underwent while he remained a prisoner in
the camp of Ali. At all times but sparingly
supplied with food and water, he was occa-
sionally so utterly destitute of both, that he
was forced to beg from the negro slaves, for it
was only exposing himself to fresh insult to
address the Moors.
"As he was anxious to escape from his

^~~ ~ ~~ ~ ----------iii i 111 ml

barbarous persecutors, Park applied to Ali for
permission to return to Jarra, but this was at
once refused. He therefore determined to seek
an opportunity to make his escape, but as there
was little hope of doing so at this season of
the year, on account of the extreme heat, and
the total want of water in the woods, he resolved
to wait patiently until the rains had set in, or
until some more favourable opportunity should
present itself. But 'hope deferred maketh the
heart sick.' This tedious procrastination from
day to day, and the thoughts of travelling
through the negro kingdoms in the rainy season,
which was now fast approaching, made him
very melancholy; and, having passed a restless
night, he found himself attacked in the morning
by a smart fever. He had ;wrapped himself
close up in his cloak with a view to induce
perspiration, and was asleep, when a party of
Moors entered the hut, and, with their usual
rudeness, pulled the cloak from him.. He made
signs to them that he was ill, and wished

much to sleep; but he solicited in vain; his
distress was matter of sport to them, and they
endeavoured to heighten it by every means in
their power. This studied and degrading inso-
lence, to which he was constantly exposed, was
one of the bitterest ingredients in the cup of
captivity, and often made life itself a bur-
den. In those distressing moments, Park fre-
quently envied the situation of the slave, who,
amidst all his calamities, could still possess
the enjoyment of his own thoughts-a happi-
ness to which he had for some time been a
stranger. Wearied out with such continual
insults, and perhaps a little peevish from the
fever, he trembled lest his passion might un-
awares overleap the bounds of prudence, and
spur him to some sudden act of resentment,
when death must be the inevitable consequence.
In this perplexity, he left his hut, and walked
to some shady trees at a little distance from
the camp, where he lay down. But even here
persecution followed him; and solitude was


thought too great an indulgence for a distressed
Christian. Ali's son, with a number of horse-
men, came galloping to the place, and ordered
him to rise and follow them. Park begged
they would allow him to remain where he was,
if it was only for a few hours, but they paid
little attention to what he said; and, after a
few threatening words, one of them pulled out
a pistol from a leather bag that was fastened
to the pommel of his saddle, and, presenting
it towards him, snapped it twice. He did this
with so much indifference, that Park really
doubted whether the pistol was loaded; he
cocked it a third time, and was striking the
flint with a piece of steel, when Park begged
them to desist, and returned with them to the
camp. When they entered Ali's tent, they
found him much out of humour. He called for
the Moor's pistol, and amused himself for some
time with opening and shutting the pan; at
length, taking up his powder-horn, he fresh
primed it, and, turning round to our traveller


with a menacing look, said something in Arabic
which Park did not understand. He therefore
desired his boy, who was sitting before the tent,
to inquire what offence he had committed;
when he was informed that, having gone be-
yond the encampment without Ali's permission,
they suspected that he had an intention of
making his escape; and that, in future, if he
was seen without the skirts of the camp, orders
had been given that he should be shot by the
first person that observed him.
"The heat was now almost insufferable-all
nature seemed sinking under it. The distant
country presented to the eye a dreary expanse
of sand, with a few stunted trees and prickly
'bushes, in the shade of which the hungry cattle
licked up the withered grass, while the camels
and goats picked off the scanty foliage. Day
and night the wells were crowded with cattle,
lowing and fighting with each other to come
at the troughs. Excessive thirst made many
of them furious; others, being too weak to


contend for the water, endeavoured to quench
their thirst by devouring the black mud from
the gutters near the wells, which they did
with great avidity, though it was commonly
fatal to them.
"This great scarcity of water was felt severely
by all the people of the camp, and by none
more than Park; for though Ali allowed him
a skin for containing water, and once or twice
gave him a small supply when he was in dis-
tress, yet such was the barbarous disposition
of the Moors at the wells, that when his boy
attempted to fill the skin, he commonly received
a sound drubbing for his presumption. Every
one was astonished that the slave of a Christian
should attempt to draw water from wells which
had been dug by the followers of the Prophet.
This treatment, at length, so frightened the
boy, that he was afraid to venture near the
wells; he therefore contented himself with
begging water from the negro slaves that
attended the camp, and Park followed his

i-- -- --- i i ii]


example, but with very indifferent success;
for though he let no opportunity slip, and was
very urgent in his solicitations, both to the
Moors and negroes, he was but ill supplied,
and frequently passed the night in the situation
of Tantalus. No sooner had he shut his eyes
than fancy would convey him to the streams
and rivers of his native land: there, as he
wandered along the verdant brink, he surveyed
the clear stream with transport, and hastened
to swallow the delightful draught; but, alas!
disappointment awakened him, and he found
himself a lonely captive, perishing of thirst
Samidst the wilds of Africa!
'"One night, having solicited in vain for
water at the camp, and being quite feverish,
he resolved to try his fortune at the wells,
which were about half a mile distant. He
set out about midnight, and, being guided by
the lowing of the cattle, soon arrived at the
place, where he found the Moors very busy
drawing water. He requested permission to

drink, but was driven away with outrageous
abuse. Passing, however, from one well to
another, he came at last to one where there
was only an old man and two boys. He made
the same request to this man, and he imme-
diately drew up a bucket of water; but as
Park was about to take hold of it, the Moor
recollected that he was a Christian, and fearing
that his bucket might be polluted by his lips,
he dashed the water into the trough, and told
him to drink from thence. Though this trough
was none of the largest, and three cows were
already drinking in it, Park resolved to come
in for his share, and, kneeling down, thrust his
head between two of the cows, and drank with
great pleasure, until the water was nearly ex-
hausted, and the cows began to contend with
each other for the last mouthful.
"At length part of Ali's army prepared to
set out for Jarra, in order to assist in some
warlike operation in that quarter, and Park
was permitted to accompany it. From Jarra


he hoped to find an easy means of escape from
the hands of these barbarians. His delight at
this prospect was, however, blunted by Ali's
detaining his negro boy as a slave. Park
remonstrated against this, but all the answer
deigned by the omnipotent Ali was, that if he
did not mount his horse instantly and be off
he would detain him also.
"On his arrival at Jarra, Park found the
whole town in confusion; many of the inhabit-
ants were forsaking it, carrying with them
their little property, in order to escape from
the threatened invasion. Hoping to escape
amid the confusion, Park mounted his horse,
and, placing a bag of corn before him, mingled
with the crowd, and rode slowly along. This
idea was, however, quickly dispelled. Soon
after his arrival at the halting-place, Ali's chief
slave and four Moors came up, and 'he learnt
from two boys, whom he sent to overhear their
conversation, that they had come to convey
him back to Ali's camp.


Park had been so barbarously treated by
the Moors in the captivity from which he had
thus fled, that he knew that, if again exposed
to it, he had nothing to expect but death. He
therefore determined to set off immediately for
Bambarra, and thus escape from the Moorish
kingdom. He waited therefore till midnight,
when Ali's messengers were asleep.
"About daybreak his interpreter, who had
been listening to the Moors all night, came and
whispered to him that all was now quiet. The
awful crisis was now arrived when he was
again either to taste the blessing of freedom or
languish out his days in captivity. A cold
sweat moistened his forehead as he thought on
the dreadful alternative, and reflected that, one
way or the other, his fate must be decided in
the course of the ensuing day. But to hesitate
was to lose the only chance of escape. So,
taking up his small bundle of necessaries, he
stepped gently over the negroes, who were
sleeping in the open air, and, having mounted


his horse, he bade his interpreter, who had re-
solved to proceed no farther, farewell.
"He proceeded with great caution, survey-
ing each bush, and frequently listening and
looking behind, expecting every minute to hear
the sound of the Moorish horsemen, until he
was about a couple of miles from the town, and
had begun to indulge the pleasing hopes of
escaping, when he was greatly alarmed to hear
somebody holloa behind him, a&d, looking back,
he saw three Moors on horseback, coming after
him at full speed, whooping, and brandishing
their double-barrelled guns. He knew it was
in vain to think of escaping, and therefore
turned back and met them; when two of them
caught hold of his bridle, one on each side, and
the third, presenting his musket, told him that
he must go back to All. When the human mind
has for some time been fluctuating between
hope and despair, tortured with anxiety, and
hurried from one extreme to another, it affords
a sort of gloomy relief to know the worst that


can possiblyhappen: such was Park's situation.
An indifference about life and all its enjoy-
ments had completely benumbed his faculties,
and he rode back with the Moors in apparent
unconcern. But a change took place much
sooner than he had any reason to expect. In
passing through some thick bushes they stop-
ped, and one of the Moors ordered him to untie
his bundle, and show them the contents. Hav-
ing examined the different articles, and finding
nothing worth taking except his cloak, which
they considered as a very valuable acquisition,
one of them pulled it from him, and wrapped it
about himself. This cloak had been of great
use to Park; it served to cover him from tlie
rains in the dkay, and to protect him from the
musquitoes in the night; he therefore earnestly
begged him to return it, and followed him some
little way to obtain it; but, without paying any
attention to this request, he and one of his
companions rode off with their prize. When
Park attempted to follow them, the third, who

had remained behind, struck his horse over the
head, and presenting his musket, ordered him
to proceed no farther. Park now perceived that
these men had not been sent by any authority to
apprehend him, but had pursued him solelywith
the view to rob and plunder him. Turning his
horse's head therefore once more towards the
east, and observing the Moor follow the track
of his confederates, he congratulated himself on
having escaped with his life, though in great
distress, from such a horde of barbarians.
"He was no sooner out of sight of the Moor,
than he struck into the woods to prevent being
pursued, and kept pushing on, with all possible
speed, until he found himself near some high
rocks, which he remembered to,have seen in
his former route from Queira to 'Deena; and
directing his course a little to the northward,
he fortunately fell in with the path.
"Joyful, however, as this deliverance was,
Park had still many dangers to face, and
many difficulties to overcome, before he arrived


among the negroes. His journal is so minute,
and describes so admirably his feelings and
sufferings, that I will not attempt to diminish
its interest by relating the subsequent adven-
tures of this journey in other language than
his own.
"'It is impossible to describe the joy that
arose in my mind, when I looked around and
concluded that I was out of danger. I felt like
one recovered from sickness; I breathed freer;
I found unusual lightness in my limbs; even
the desert looked pleasant; and I dreaded no-
thing so much as falling in with some wan-
dering parties of Moors, who might convey me
back to the land of thieves and murderers
from which I had just escaped.
"'I soon became sensible, however, that my
situation was very-deplorable, for I had no
means of procuring food, nor prospect of find-
ing water. About ten o'clock, perceiving a
herd of goats feeding close to the road, I took
a circuitous route to avoid being seen; and


continued travelling through the wilderness,
directing my course, by compass, nearly east-
south-east, in order to reach, as soon as pos-
sible, some town or village of the kingdom of
"' A little after noon, when the burning heat
of the sun was reflected with double violence
from the hot sand, and the distant ridges of
the hills, seen through the ascending vapour,
seemed to wave and fluctuate like the unsettled
sea, I became faint with thirst, and climbed a
tree in hopes of seeing distant smoke, or some
other appearance of a human habitation; but
in vain: nothing appeared all around but
thick underwood and hillocks of white sand.
"' About four o'clock I came suddenly upon
a large herd of goats, and pulling my horse
into a bush, I watched to observe if the keepers
were Moors or negroes. In a little time I
perceived two Moorish boys, and with some-
difficulty persuaded them to approach me.
They informed me that the herd belonged to


All, and that they were going to Deena, where
the water was more plentiful, and where they
intended to stay until the rain had filled the
pools in the desert. They showed me their
empty water-skins, and told me that they had
seen no water in the woods. This account
afforded me but little consolation; however, it
was in vain to repine, and I pushed on as fast
as possible, in hopes of reaching some water-
ing-place in the course of the night. My thirst
was by this time become insufferable; my
mouth was parched and inflamed; a sudden
dimness would frequently come over my eyes,
with other symptoms of fainting; and, my
horse being very much fatigued, I began
seriously to apprehend that I should perish of
thirst. To relieve the burning pain in my
mouth and throat, I chewed the leaves of dif-
ferent shrubs, but found them all bitter, and
of no service to me.
"' A little before sunset, having reached the
top of a gentle rising, I climbed a high tree,

1 __


from the topmost branches of which I cast a
melancholy look over the barren wilderness,
but without discovering the most distant trace
of a human dwelling. The same dismal uni-
formity of shrubs and sand everywhere pre-
sented itself, and the horizon was as level and
uninterrupted as that of the sea.
"'Descending from the tree, I found my
horse devouring the stubble and brushwood
with great avidity; and as I was now too faint
to attempt walking, and my horse too much
fatigued to carry me, I thought it but an act
of humanity, and perhaps the last I should ever
have it in my power to perform, to take off his
bridle, and let him shift for himself; in doing
which I was suddenly affected with- sickness
and giddiness, and, falling upon the sand, felt
as if the hour of death was fast approaching.
Here then, thought I, after a short but ineffec-
tual struggle, terminate all my hopes of being
useful in my day and generation: here must
the short span of my life come to an end. I


cast (as I believed) a last look on the surround-
ing scene, and whilst I reflected on the awful
change that was about to take place, this world
with its enjoyments seemed to vanish from
my recollection. Nature, however, at length
resumed its functions, and on recovering my
senses, I found myself stretched upon the sand,
with the bridle still in my hand, and the sun
just sinking behind the trees. I now summoned
all my resolution, and determined to make
another effort to prolong my existence; and as
the evening was somewhat cool, I resolved to
travel as far as my limbs would carry me, in
hopes of reaching (my onlyresource) awatering-
place. With this view, I put the bridle on my
horse, and, driving him before me, went slowly
along for about an hour, when I perceived some
lightning from the north-east-a most delight-
ful sight, for it promised rain. The darkness
and lightning increased very rapidly, and in
less than an hour I heard the wind roaring
among the bushes. I had already opened my

mouth to receive the refreshing drops which I
expected, but I was instantly covered with a
cloud of sand, driven with such force by the
wind as to give a very disagreeable sensation to
my face and arms, and I was obliged to mount
my horse, and stop under a bush, to prevent
being suffocated. The sand continued to fly
in amazing quantities for nearly an hour, after
which I again set forward, and travelled with
difficulty until ten o'clock. About this time
I was agreeably surprised by some very vivid
flashes of lightning, followed by a few heavy
drops of rain. In a little time the sand ceased
to fly, and I alighted, and spread out all my
clean clothes to collect the rain, which at length
I saw would certainly fall. For more than an
hour it rained plentifully, and I quenched my
thirst by wringing and sucking my clothes.
"'There being no moon, it was remarkably
dark, so that I was obliged to lead my horse,
and direct my way by the compass, which the
lightning enabled me to observe. In this


manner I travelled with tolerable expedition
until past midnight, when, the lightning be-
coming more distant, I was under the necessity
of groping along, to the no small danger of my
hands and eyes. About two o'clock my horse
started at something, and looking round, I was
not a little surprised to see a light at a short
distance among the trees; and supposing it to
be a town, I groped along the sand in hopes of
finding corn-stalks, cotton, or other appear-
ances of cultivation, but found none. As I ap-
proached, I perceived a number of other lights
in different places, and began to suspect that
I had fallen upon a party of Moors. However,
in my present situation, I was resolved to see
who they were, if I could do it with safety. I
accordingly led my horse cautiously towards
the light, and heard, by the lowing of the cattle
and the clamorous tongues of the herdsmen,
that it was a watering-place, and most likely
belonged to the Moors. Delightful as the sound
of the human voice was to me, I resolved once
I__ ..------ --.


more to strike into the woods, and rather run
the risk of perishing of hunger than trust my-
self again in their hands; but being still
thirsty, and dreading the approach of the
burning day, I thought it prudent to search
for the wells, which I expected to find at no
great distance. In this pursuit I inadvertently
approached so near to one of the tents as to
be perceived by a woman, who immediately
screamed out. Two people came running to
her assistance from some of the neighboring
tents, and passed so very near to me that I
thought I was discovered, and hastened again
into the woods.
"'About a mile from this place I heard a
loud and confused noise somewhere to the right
of my course, and in a short time was happy
to find i~ was the croaking of frogs, which was
heavenlimusic to my ears. I followed the
sound, and at daybreak arrived at some shallow
muddy pools, so full of frogs that it was dif-
ficult to discern the water. The noise they


made frightened my horse, and I was obliged
to keep them quiet by beating the water with
a branch, until he had drunk. Having here
quenched my thirst, I ascended a tree, and the
morning being calm, I soon perceived the
smoke of the watering-place which I had passed
in the night, and observed another pillar of
smoke east-south-east, distant twelve or four-
teen miles. Towards this I directed my route,
and reached the cultivated ground a little be-
fore eleven o'clock, where, seeing a number of
negroes at work planting corn, I inquired the
name of the town, and was informed that it
was a Foulah village belonging to Ali, called
Shrilla. I had now some doubts about enter-
ing it; but my horse being very much fatigued,
and the day growing hot-not to mention the
pangs of hunger which began to assail me-I
resolved to venture, and accordingly rode up to
the dooty's house, where I was unfortunately
denied admittance, and could not obtain even
a handful of corn, either for myself or horse.


Turning from this inhospitable door, I rode
slowly out of the town, and perceiving some
low scattered huts without the walls, I directed
my route towards them, knowing that in
Africa, as well as in Europe, hospitality does not
always prefer the highest dwellings. At the
door of one of these huts an old ,motherly-
looking woman sat, spinning cotton. I made
signs to her that I was hungry, and inquired if
she had any victuals with her in the hut. She
immediately laid down her distaff, and desired
me, in Arabic, to come in. When I had seated
myself upon the floor, she set before me a dish
of kouskous that had been left the preceding
night, of which I made a tolerable meal; and
in return for this kindness I gave her one of
my pocket-handkerchiefs, begging at the same
time a little corn for my horse, which she
readily brought me.
"'Overcome with joy at so unexpected a
deliverance, I lifted up my eyes to heaven, and
whilst my heart swelled with gratitude, I re-


turned thanks to that gracious and bountiful
Being whose power had supported Ae under
so many dangers, and had now spread for me
a table in the wilderness.'
"Continuing his course, Park arrived at
Wawra, a negro town, whence he travelled to
Sego, in company with some fugitives, who,
unable to live under the tyranny of the Moors,
were going to settle in Bambarra. The greater
part of the way he had to drive his horse before
him, as it had become too weak to carry him.
As he approached Sego, his heart beat with
expectation, as here he was informed he would
see the river Niger, one of the great objects of
his mission. At length, as they rode over some
marshy ground, anxiously bending his eyes in
the direction in which he expected to see the
river, one of his companions called ouat, 'Geo
afilli!'-See the water!-and looking for-
wards, Park beheld, with infinite pleasure, the
long-sought-for majestic Niger, glittering in
the morning sun, as broad as the Thames at

Westminster. He hastened to the brink, and
having drank of the water, he lifted up his
fervent thanks in prayer to the great Ruler
of all things for having thus far crowned his
labours with success!
"It is now more than time to stop, boys.
I fear I have kept you too long; but the story
was so engrossing, I did not know where to
leave off. There are still many interesting
adventures to relate before we part with this
intrepid traveller. Till to-morrow evening,
however, we must leave him waiting on the
banks of the Niger for an opportunity to cross
the river, to visit the king of Bambarra, who
holds his court at Sego, the capital of his
kingdom, opposite to which town Park had
now arrived."



"You will recollect, boys," said Uncle Thomas
on the following evening, "that we left Park
full of gratitude to God for having guided him
so far on his perilous journey in safety, waiting
on the banks of the Niger for an opportunity
to cross over to Sego, to present himself before
the king of Bambarra. While he waited for a
canoe for this purpose, one of his majesty's
chief men came to him, and told him that the
king could not possibly see him till he knew
the object of his journey, and that he must not
presume to cross the river without the king's
permission. He therefore advised him to go

to a village at some distance for the night, and
that he would come to him, and direct him how
to proceed in the morning. Discouraging as
this was, there was no help for it. Park there-
fore proceeded to the village, but no one there
would admit him into their house, looking upon
his white skin and strange dress with astonish-
ment and fear. He was therefore obliged to sit
all day without food under the shade of a tree,
and with the prospect of being obliged to climb
into the branches to seek refuge from the wild
beasts during the night, when, about sunset, a
woman returning from her labours in the field
stopped to look at him. Seeing that he was
weary and dejected, she inquired into his situa-
tion. On learning his distress, she took up the
saddle and bridle, which he had taken from his
horse, that it might graze at liberty, and desired
him to followher. 'Having conducted me to her
hut,' says Park, 'she lighted up a lamp, spread
a mat on the floor, and told me I might remain
there for the night. Finding that I was very


hungry, she said she would procure me some-
thing to eat. She accordingly went out, and
returned in a short time with a very fine
fish, which having caused to be half broiled
upon some embers, she gave me for supper.
The rites of hospitality being thus performed
towards a stranger in distress, my worthy
benefactress, pointing to the mat, and telling
me I might sleep there without apprehension,
called to the female part of her family, who
had stood gazing on me all the while in fixed
astonishment, to resume their task of spinning
cotton, in which they continued to employ
themselves great part of the night. They
lightened their labour by songs,-one of which
was composed extempore, for I was myself the
subject of it. It was sung by one of the young
women, the rest joining in a sort of chorus.
The air was sweet and plaintive, and the words,
literally translated, were these:-" The winds
roared, and the rains fell. The poor white
man, faint and weary came and sat under our


tree. He has no mother to bring him milk-
no wife to grind his corn." Chorus.-"Let us
pity the white man, no mother has he," etc. etc.
Trifling as this recital may appear to the reader,
to a person in my situation the circumstance
was affecting in the highest degree. I was
oppressed by such unexpected kindness, and
sleep fled from my eyes. In the morning I
presented my compassionate landlady with
two of the four brass buttons which remained
on my waistcoat-the only recompense I could
make her.'
In the morning a messenger arrived from
the king to inquire whether Park had brought
any present for him; and seemed much disap-
pointed to learn that he had been robbed of
everything by the Moors. Park wished to
accompany him to see his majesty, but this the
messenger refused to agree to, telling him to
wait till the afternoon, when the king would
send for him. In the afternoon, accordingly,
another messenger came to tell him that it was


his majesty's pleasure that he should depart
immediately from the village, and that as he
was unwilling to send away from his kingdom
a white man in distress, he had sent him a
present of five thousand cowries, to purchase
provisions in the course of his journey. These
cowries are little shells, which are there used
as money, about two hundred and fifty being
nearly equal to the value of one shilling.
"Park accordingly set out, and after nar-
rowly escaping being destroyed by a lion, to
which he passed quite close as it lay con-
cealed under a bush, he arrived at Modiboo, a
delightful village pleasantly situated on the
banks of the Niger. Shortly after leaving this
place, his horse, the worn-out associate of his
adventures, fell, and finding all the efforts of
himself and his guide unable to set it again on
its legs, he sat down beside it, and waited for
some time, expecting it to recover. Finding
however that it did not revive, he took off the
saddle and bridle, and placing a quantity of

grass before it, he reluctantly left it, his heart
filled with the sad apprehension that he might
himself in a short time lie down and perish of
fatigue and hunger in the same miserable
He had now arrived at Moorzan, and find-
ing the people still hostile, his poor horse, as
he then thought, dead, and himself reduced to
poverty, his clothes in rags, and the present
of the king of Bambarra nearly exhausted; and
moreover, being informed that the farther he
advanced in the direction in which he was now
travelling, he was going more and more within
the power of the fanatic Moors, from whom he
had already suffered so much, he resolved to
retrace his steps to the Gambia.
"He accordingly set out, and was fortunate
enough once more to regain his horse, which
had in the interval recovered sufficient strength
to resume its journey. The same variety of
adventures awaited his return which he had
encountered on his journey eastward; some-


times in danger of absolute starvation, and
frequently forced to spend the night in the open
air, or in some deserted hut; fording or swim-
ming across the numerous creeks or tributaries
which intersected his way, pushing his horse
before him, or dragging it over by the bridle,
which he carried in his teeth while he swam
over. From such adventures, fortunately, he
suffered no inconvenience. His notes and
memorandums were secured from wet in his
hat; the rain and dew kept his clothes con-
stantly wet, and the roads being very deep and
full of mud, such a washing was sometimes
pleasant, and often necessary.
Such adventures were not, however, the
worst to which he was subjected. Shortly
after leaving a romantic village called Kooma,
where he had been most hospitably treated, he
was overtaken by a party of banditti. Hearing
some one calling to him, he looked back, and
saw six or eight men approaching. He stopped
till they all came up, when they informed him


that the king of the Foulahs had sent them on
purpose to bring him, his horse, and every-
thing that belonged to him to Foodaloo, and
that therefore he must turn back, and go along
with them. Without hesitating a moment,
Park turned round and followed them. They
travelled nearly a quarter of a mile without
exchanging a word; when coming to a dark
place in the wood, one of them said, in the
Mandingo language, 'This place will do,' and
immediately snatched Park's hat from his
head. Though he was by no means free from
apprehension, yet our traveller resolved to show
as few signs of fear as possible, and therefore
told them that unless his hat was returned to
him, he should proceed no farther. But before
he had time to receive an answer, another drew
his knife, and seizing upon a metal button
which -remained upon Park's waistcoat, cut it
ofl and put it into his pocket. Their inten-
tions were now obvious, and he thought that
the easier they were permitted to rob him of


everything, the less he had to fear. He there-
fore allowed them to search his pockets without
resistance, and examine every part of his appa-
rel, which they did with the most scrupulous
exactness: at last, to make sure work, they
stripped him quite naked. Even his half-boots
(though the sole of one of them was tied to his
foot with a broken bridle-rein) were minutely
inspected. Whilst they were examining the
plunder, Park begged.them, with great earnest-
ness, to return his pocket compass; but when
he pointed to it, as it was lying on the ground,
one of the banditti, thinking he was about to
take it up, cocked his musket, and threatened
to lay him dead upon the spot if he pre-
sumed to put his hand upon it. After this
some of them went away with his horse, and
the remainder stood considering whether they
should leave him quite naked, or allow him
something to shelter him from the sun. Hu-
manity at last prevailed: they returned him the
worst of the two shirts, and a pair of trousers;

and as they went away, one of them threw
back his hat, in the crown of which he kept
his memorandums, and this was probably the
reason they did not wish to keep it.
"' After they were gone,' says Park, 'I sat
for some time looking around me with amaze-
ment and terror. Whichever way I turned,
nothing appeared but danger and difficulty. I
saw myself in the midst of a vast wilderness,
in the depth of the rainy season-naked and
alone, surrounded by savage animals, and men
still more savage. I was five hundred miles
from the nearest European settlement. All
these circumstances crowded at once on my
recollection, and I confess that my spirits began
to fail me. I considered my fate as certain,
and that I had no alternative but to lie down
and perish. The influence of religion, however,
aided and supported me. I reflected that no
human prudence or foresight could possibly
have averted my present sufferings. I was in-
deed a stranger in a strange land, yet I was still


under the protecting eye of that Providence who
has condescended to call himself the stranger's
friend. At this moment, painful as my reflec-
tions were, the extraordinary beauty of a small
moss in fructification irresistibly caught my eye.
I mention this to show from what trifling cir-
cumstances the mind will sometimes derive
consolation; for though the whole plant was
not larger than the top of one of my fingers, I
could not contemplate the delicate conforma-
tion of its roots, leaves, and capsula, without
admiration. Can that Being, thought I, who
planted, watered, and brought to perfection, in
this obscure part of the world, a thing which
appears of so small importance, look with un-
concern upon the situation and sufferings of
creatures formed after his own image? Surely
not! Reflections like these would not allow me
to despair. I started up, and disregarding both
hunger and fatigue, travelled forwards, assured
that relief was at hand; and I was not disap-
pointed. In a short time I came to a small


village, at the entrance of which I overtook
two shepherds who had started with me from
Kooma. They were much surprised to see me;
for they said they never doubted that the
Foulahs, when they had robbed, had murdered
me. Departing from this village, we travelled
over several rocky ridges, and at sunset arrived
at Sibidooloo, the frontier town of the kingdom
of Manding.'
"The dooty, or chief man of the town of
Sibidooloo, being a person of great benevolence,
commiserated the sufferings of Park, and no
sooner had the latter finished the recital of his
robbery, than, taking his pipe from his mouth,
and tossing up the sleeve of his cloak with an
indignant air, he said to him, 'Sit down; you
shall have everything restored to you: I have
sworn it!' and then turning to an attendant,
he said, 'Give the white man a draught of
water, and, with the first light of the morning,
go over the hills and inform the dooty of
Bammakoo that a poor white man, the king of


Bambarra's stranger, has been robbed by the
king of Fooladoo's people.' He then invited
Park to remain with him till the return of the
messenger, and conducted him to a hut, and
supplied him with food.
Park now began to suffer from attacks of
fever, and fearful of tasking the benevolence
of his kind host too highly, he proceeded to
Wonda, where he was asked to remain till he
obtained some intelligence of the property of
which he had been plundered. After waiting
there some days, the messengers at length
returned, bringing with them his horse and
clothes, but unfortunately his pocket compass,
his guide in all his wanderings, was broken,
and he could not repair it.
"In the meantime his illness increased, and
fearful of being a burden on his hospitable
entertainer, especially as there was then a very
great scarcity of provisions in the country-
little short, in fact, of a famine-he prepared
to resume his journey. As his horse was now


almost useless to him, the roads being in a great
measure impassable on horseback, he presented
it to his landlord, and requested him to send
the saddle and bridle to the mansa of Sibi-
dooloo, who had so kindly interested himself
in recovering his goods from the robbers.
"When Park reached Kamalia, his illness
had so much increased, that he was subject to
occasional attacks of delirium during the night.
At this place he was fortunately conducted to
the house of a person named Karfa Taura, who,
though a dealer in slaves, was a man of kind
and humane disposition. Park found him
reading an Arabic book to several persons.
Karfa asked Park if he understood Arabic, and
on being answered in the negative, he desired
one of his attendants to show him a curious
little book which he had brought from the
west country, in one of his excursions thither.
It was an English Book of Common Prayer.
He expressed great joy when Park told him
that he could read it. Perceiving from this that


he was an Englishman, Karfa promised him
all the assistance in his power, and told him
that it was impossible to reach the Gambia
during the rainy season; but that he himself
intended, so soon as the rivers were fordable,
to set out for that place with a gang of slaves,
and advised Park to remain and accompany
him, adding, that if it was impossible for a
caravan of natives to travel the country during
the rainy season, it was idle for an European
to think of attempting it.
"Park had now indeed no alternative. His
money was all spent, so that in his farther pro-
gress he must either beg his way from place to
place, or perish from want. He therefore ac-
cepted Karfa's offer, and arranged with him
how he was to be recompensed on their arrival
at the Gambia. 'Thus was I delivered,' says
Park, 'by the friendly care of this benevolent
negro, from a situation truly deplorable. Dis-
tress and famine pressed hard upon me : I had
before me the gloomy wilds of Jallonkadoo,


where the traveller sees no habitation for five
successive days. I had observed at a distance
the rapid course of the river Kokoro, and had
almost marked out the place where I was
doomed, I thought, to perish, when this
friendly negro stretched out his hospitable
hand to help me.'
Karfa gave Park a hut to sleep in, and
furnished it, after the simple manner of the
country, with a mat to serve him for a bed, and
a small calabash to hold a supply of water.
From his own table he sent our traveller two
meals a day, and ordered his slaves to supply
him with firewood and water. But not even
the kindness of Karfa, or the quiet and security
in which he now was, could arrest the progress
of the fever which had been threatening for
some time to put a sudden stop to his career.
For five weeks after he took up his dwelling
with Karfa, lie was so ill that he could scarcely
walk-far away from the kind assistance of
mother or friend, and seldom visited by any


one but his benevolent landlord. Sometimes
hewould crawl out of the hut and sit a few hours
in the open air, at other times he was unable to
rise from his mat, and passed the lingering hours
in a very gloomy and solitary manner. When
the rains became less frequent, and the country
began to grow dry, the fever abated; but it left
him in such a debilitated state that he could
scarcely stand upright, and it was with difficulty
that he could carry even his mat to the shade
of a tamarind-tree, which stood at a short dis-
tance, to enjoy the refreshing smell of the corn-
fields, and delight his eyes with a prospect of
the country. At length he had the pleasure
to find himself in a state of convalescence, to
which the benevolent and simple manners of
the negroes, and the perusal of the invaluable
little volume with which his host had supplied
him, greatly contributed.
"The long wished-for day at last arrived,
and Park set out on his return to the Gambia.
The party with which he travelled consisted of


slave merchants and their gangs of slaves, who
were travelling to Gambia with the poor crea-
tures to sell them to the traders, who sent them
to the West Indies. The miserable sufferings
to which these wretched beings were subjected
on their journey is almost beyond description.
Several of them died from fatigue, or, unable
to proceed, were abandoned to their fate in the
midst of the desert, where they were probably
soon devoured by the wild beasts.
The sufferings of one poor creature, a female
slave, named Nealee, will be sufficient to show
you how much misery is sometimes experienced
during these journeys, now, happily, less fre-
quent than when Park travelled, but still,
alas too common.
Five days after they started, the party was
attacked by an immense swarm of bees, which
they had disturbed in attempting to rob them
of their honey. Every one ran off as fast as
he could, but most of them were stung very
severely. Poor Nealee, who, from her previous


sufferings from pains in her legs, was unable
to escape, crept to a stream which was close
by, hoping to defend herself from the bees by
throwing water over her body. This was not,
however, effectual. She was stung in the
most dreadful manner.
When the stings had been picked out, she
was washed with water, and then rubbed with
bruised leaves; but the wretched woman obsti-
nately refused to proceed any farther, declaring
that she would rather die than walk another
step. As entreaties and threats were alike in
vain, the whip was at length applied; and after
bearing patiently a few strokes, she started up,
and walked with tolerable expedition for four
or five hours, when she attempted to run away,
but was so very weak, that she fell down in
the grass. Though she was unable to rise, the
whip was a second time applied, but without
effect, upon which Karfa desired two of the
attendants to place her upon the ass which
carried the provisions; but she could not sit


erect, and the ass being very refractory, it was
found impossible to carry her forward in that
manner. Unwilling, however, to abandon her,
the day's journey being nearly ended, they
made a sort of litter of bamboo canes, upon
which she was placed, and tied on it with
slips of bark; this litter was carried upon the
heads of two slaves, one walking before the
other, and they were followed by two others,
who relieved them occasionally. In this man-
ner the woman was carried forward until it
was dark.
"At daybreak on the following morning,
poor Nealee was awakened, but her limbs were
now become so stiff and painful that she could
neither walk nor stand; she was therefore lifted,
like a corpse, upon the back of the ass, and
the attendants endeavoured to secure her in
that situation by fastening her hands together
under the ass's neck, and her feet under the
belly, with long slips of bark; but the ass was
so very unruly that no sort of treatment could

induce him to proceed with his load, and as
Nealee made no exertion to prevent herself
from falling, she was quickly thrown offl and
had one of her legs much bruised. Every
attempt to carry her forward being thus found
ineffectual, the general cry was 'Kang-tegi,
kang-tegi ' Cut her throat, cut her throat!'
-' an operation,' says Park, 'which I did not
wish to see performed, and therefore marched
onwards with the foremost of the gang. I had
not walked above a mile, when one of Karfa's
domestic slaves came up to me, with poor
Nealee's garment upon the end of his bow, and
exclaimed, 'Nealee afeeleeta!' 'Nealee is lost!'
I asked him whether the garment had been
given him as a reward for cutting her throat.
He replied that Karfa and the schoolmaster
would not consent to that measure, but had
left her on the road, where undoubtedly she
soon perished!'
"In this manner they proceeded, halting
occasionally for refreshment at the villages on

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