Citation
Stories illustrative of the instinct of animals

Material Information

Title:
Stories illustrative of the instinct of animals their characters and habits
Spine title:
Bingley's stories about instinct
Creator:
Bingley, Thomas
Landseer, Thomas, 1795-1880 ( Illustrator )
Harrild, Thomas ( Printer )
W. Kent and Co ( Publisher )
Place of Publication:
London
Publisher:
W. Kent and Co.
Manufacturer:
Thomas Harrild
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Edition:
5th ed.
Physical Description:
vii, 199 p., <8> leaves of plates : ill. ; 14 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Animals -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Animal welfare -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Human-animal relationships -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1861 ( rbbin )
Bldn -- 1861
Genre:
Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding) ( rbbin )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Date from inscription.
General Note:
Tinted wood engravings.
Funding:
Brittle Books Program
Statement of Responsibility:
by Thomas Bingley ; with engravings from dawings by Thomas Landseer.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in Special Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
026593009 ( ALEPH )
48010945 ( OCLC )
ALG2469 ( NOTIS )

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STORIES

ILLUSTRATIVE OF THE

INSTINCT OF ANIMALS,

Theit Characters and Hadits.

BY

THOMAS BINGLEY,

AUTHOR OF ‘‘STORIRS ABOUT DOGS; “TALES OF SHIPWREOKS ;”
** STORIES ABOUT HORSES,” ETO. ETC.

WITH ENGRAVINGS FROM DRAWINGS BY THOMAS LANDSEER.
FIFTH EDITION.

LONDON :

W. KENT AND CO. (Late D. Bogue),
86, FLEET STREET.



BINGLEY’S TALES AND STORIES.

“A SET OF BOOKS
WHICH, PROFESSING ONLY TO AMUSE
INSTRUCT AND EDIFY
IN

NO COMMON DEGREE.”

Quarterty Revizw Marcu, 1844.



Preface to the Hitth Edition.

Tux sale of nearly Seven Thousand copies of this little work
in the short space of time that has elapsed since it was first
published, is a sufficient test of the estimation in which it is
held by the public.
On its first appearance many flattering notices of it appeared
in the various periodicals of the day. More recently the
highest literary authority in England—The Quarterly Re-
view—in a late number mentions the series of Tales and
Stories, of which it forms a part, with high commendation,
characterising them as “ a set of books which, professing only
to amuse, instruct and edify in no common degree.”
In America the books have been all reprinted, and enjoy a
reputation not inferior to that which has been so generously
’ awarded them in this country. In a paper issued from the
* Secretary’s Office, Department of Common Schools, State
of New York,” the superintendent says—“ I have examined
the little works which you were so obliging as to send me
[Bingley’s Tales, etc.], and have no hesitation in saying that
they are each and all admirably adapted to the purposes they



lv PREFACE.

were designed to subserve in the development of the intel-

lectual and moral faculties of children. A liberal infusion of

these and other kindred works into our school-district libraries
would, in my judgment, greatly conduce to their interest,
especially to the young.”

In the present edition some improvements have been made
so as to render the work still more worthy of public appro-
bation.

The series of works now consists of seven volumes, any of
which can be purchased separately.

Srorims aznout Does, illustrative of their Intelligence, Saga-
city, and Fidelity ; with Engravings by Tuomas Lanp-
srER. Third Edition.

Stories about Horsss, illustrative of their Intelligence, £a-
gacity, and Docility ; with Twelve Engravings on Steel.

Tates aout Suipwrecks, and other Disasters at Sea ; with
Engravings by E. Lanpetts.

Taxes about Birps, illustrative of their Habits and Instincts ;
with Engravings.

Tatrs apout Travetters, their Perils, Adventures, and
Discoveries ; including those of Bruce, Park, Denham,
and Clapperton, etc. etc.; with Engravings.

Brstz QuaprureDs; the Natural History of the Animals
mentioned in Scripture; with Sixteen Engravings by
Samvugt WILtiams.



CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

UNCLE THOMAS RESUMES HIS STORIES ABOUT THE INSTINCTS OF ANIMALS.
—TELLS ABOUT THE HORSE, AND OF THE IMMENSE HERDS WHICH ARE
TO BE FOUND ON THE PLAINS OF SOUTH AMERICA; OF THEIR CAPTURE
BY MEANS OF THE. LASSO; AS WELL AS SEVERAL CURIOUS STORIES
ABOUT THE INTELLIGENCE, AFFECTION, AND DOCILITY OF THE

ons ayeek OCU



HOBSE ........+



CHAPTER II.

UNCLE THOMAS TELLS ABOUT THE HABITS OF THE BEAVER; ALSO ABOUT
THE CURIOUS NESTS OF THE SOCIABLE GROSBEAK ; AND GIVES A LONG
AND ENTERTAINING ACCOUNT OF THE WHITE ANT OF AFRICA, AND THE
IMPORTANT PART WHICH IT ACTS IN THE ECONOMY OF NATURE,,, 2)

CHAPTER ITI.

.
UNCLE THOMAS DESCRIBES THE MANNER IN WHICH WILD ELEPHANTS ARE
CAUGHT, AND RELATES SOME CURIOUS STORIES OF THE CUNNING,
AFFECTION, AND INTELLIGENCE OF THE ELEPHANT... ..¢..cseeeeeses 46





V1 CONTENTS.

CHAPTER IV.

UNCLE THOMAS INTRODUCES TO THE NOTICE OF HIS LITTLE AUDIENCE
THE ETTRICK SHEPHERD'S STORIES ABOUT SHEEP; AND TELLS
THEM SOME INTERESTING STORIES ABOUT THE GOAT, AND ITS
PRO GIAMMEST tet ie. Ulissisarenestpeietesrecestaces +> escss. Eage Gb

CHAPTER V.

UNCLE THOMAS RELATES SOME VERY REMARKABLE STORIES ABOUT THE
CAT; POINTS OUT TO THE BOYS THE CONNECTION SUBSISTING BETWEEN
THE DOMESTIC CAT AND THE LION AND TIGER, AND TELLS THEM SOME
STORIES ABOUT THE GENTLENESS AS WELL AS THE FEROCITY OF THOSE
Eo ry sags sarinevasaeecstevssescsp ee scossnves:, OF

CHAPTER VI.

UNCLE THOMAS TELLS ABOUT THE TIGER, AND OF THE CURIOUS MODES
WHICH ARE ADOPTED FOR ITS CAPTURE AND DESTRUCTION; ALSO
ABOUT THE PUMA, OR AMERICAN LION; AND INTRODUCES SOME
HUNTING SCENES IN NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA, WITH OTHER
INTERESTING AND ENTERTAINING ADVENTURES .,,........s.0s0000e. 116

CHAPTER VII.

UNCLE THOMAS TELLS ABOUT THE MIGRATING INSTINCT OF ANIMALS :—
OF THE HOUSE SWALLOW OF ENGLAND; AND THE ESCULENT SWABLOW,
WHOSE NEST IS EATEN BY THE CHINESE ; ALSO ABOUT THE PASSENGER
PIGEON OF AMERICA; OF THE LAND-CRAB AND ITS MIGRATIONS; AND
OF THOSE OF THE SALMON AND THE HERRING,,,.. .. 188





CONTENTS. Vil

CHAPTER VIII.

UNCLE THOMAS TELLS ABOUT THE BABOONS, AND THEIR PLUNDERING
EXCURSIONS TO THE” GARDENS AT THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE; ALSO
ABOUT LE VAILLANT’S BABOON KEES, AND HIS PECULIARITIES; AND
RELATES AN AMUSING STORY, ABOUT A YOUNG MONKEY, DEPRIVED OF
ITS MOTHER, PUTTING ITSELF UNDER THE FOSTERING CARE OF A
BeBe OOK outs ies trict centtecesn



Shgeees Aealecone elect gadis oem

wy

CHAPTER IX.

UNCLE THOMAS CONCLUDES STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT, WITH SEVERAL
INTERESTING ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE AFFECTIONS OF ANIMALS,
PARTICULARLY OF THE INSTINCT OF MATERNAL AFFECTION; AND
POINTS OUT THE BENEFICENT CARE OF PROVIDENCE IN IMPLANTING
IN THE BREASTS OF EACH OF HIS CREATURES THE INSTINCTS WHICH
ARE NECESSARY FOR ITS PROTECTION AND PRESERVATION ,,,...... 189



STORIES

ILLUSTRATIVE OF THE

"INSTINCTS OF ANIMALS.

CHAPTER I.

UNCLE THOMAS RESUMES HIS STORIES ABOUT THE INSTINCTS OF ANIMALS.
—TELLS ABOUT THE HORSE, AND OF THE IMMENSE HERDS WHICH ARK
TO BE FOUND ON THE PLAINS OF SOUTH AMERICA 5; OF THEIR CAPTURE
BY MEANS OF THE LASSO; AS WELL AS SEVERAL CURIOUS STORIES
ABOUT THE INTELLIGENCE, AFFECTION, AND DOCILITY OF THE HORSE.

“Come along, boys, I am glad to see you
again! I promised, at our next meeting, to tell
you some T'ales about the Instincts of Animals ;
and I propose to begin with the Horse. I like
to interest you with those animals with which
you are familiar, and to draw out your sym-
pathies towards them. After the Srorimus
B



2 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

aBout Does which I told you, some of them
exhibiting those fine creatures in such an ami-
able and affectionate light, I am sure they
must assume a new interest in your minds.
Such instances of fidelity and attachment could
not fail to impress you with a higher opinion
of the animals than you before possessed, and
show that kindness and good treatment, even to
a brute, are never without their reward.

“T wish to excite the same interest towards
the other animal which, I hope, I have effected
towards the Dog. Each, you will find, has
been endowed by its Creator with particular
instincts and dispositions, to fit it for the station
which it was intended to occupy in the great
system of nature. But I know you like stories
better than lectures, so I will not tire you by
lecturing, but at once proceed to relate some
of the stories which I have gathered for you.”

“Oh no, Uncle Thomas, we never feel tired
of listening to you; we know you have always
something curious to tell us.”



INTRODUCTION. 3

“ Well then, boys, I will begin with the
Horse. Ihave so many stories about the in-
telligence, sagacity, and docility of that noble
animal, however, that I must now tell you a
few only, referring you for the others to
Stories aBsour Horsgs, where you will find
many more, quite equal in interest to any of the
Stories which I have told you.”

“Thank you, Uncle Thomas !”

“In some parts of the world there are to be
found large herds of wild Horses. In South
America, in particular, immense plains are in-
habited by them, and, it is said, that so many
as ten thousand are sometimes found in a single
herd. ‘They are always preceded by a leader,
who directs their motions; and such is the
regularity with which they perform their move-
ments, that it seems almost as if they could not
be surpassed by the best-trained cavalry.

“It is extremely dangerous for travellers to
encounter a herd of this description. When
unaccustomed to the sight of such an immense



4 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

multitude of animals, they cannot help feeling
greatly alarmed at their rapid and apparently
irresistible approach. Their trampling sounds
like the loudest thunder; and such is the ra-
pidity and impetuosity of their advance, that it
seems to threaten instant destruction. Suddenly,
however, they stop short, utter a loud and
piercing neigh, and, with a rapid wheel in an
opposite course, sometimes altogether disappear.
On such occasions, it requires all the care of the
traveller to prevent his horses from breaking
loose and escaping with the wild herd.”

“JT have heard that wild Horses are very
watchful, Uncle Thomas.”

‘They are so, Harry. Knowing that they
are ill prepared for fighting, and that their
safety is in flight, when they sleep, they always
appoint one to act as sentinel. If it sees any
suspicious object approach, it walks up to it
for the purpose of ascertaining if there is dan-
ger, and, if necessary, to prevent a nearer
advance. If, however, the assailant is not to be





rr atari eerie al

nies



HABITS OF THE WILD HORSE. 5

deterred, the sentinel sounds the alarm by
uttering a peculiar neigh, which rouses the
whole herd, and all gallop away.”

« Are they ever caught, then, UncleThomas?”’

“Oh yes, Frank. In those countries where
Horses are so plentiful the inhabitants seldom
take the trouble to rear them, but, when they
want one, mount upon an animal which has been
accustomed to the sport, and gallop over the
plain towards the herd, which is generally found
at no great distance. Gradually he approaches
some stragglers from the main body, and,
having selected the animal which he wishes to
possess, he dexterously throws the /asso (which
is a long rope with a running noose, and which
is firmly fixed to his saddle) in such a manner
as to entangle its hind legs ; and, with a sudden
jerk, he pulls it over on its side. In an
instant he jumps off his horse, wraps his
poncho, or cloak, round the captive’s head, fixes
a bit into his mouth, and a saddle upon its
back. He then removes the cloak, leaps into





6 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

the saddle, and the animal starts on its feet.
In spite of its contortions and kickings, the
hunter keeps his seat till the animal, having
wearied itself out with its vain efforts, submits
to the discipline of its captor, who seldom fails
to reduce it to complete obedience.”

“That is very dexterous indeed, Uncle Tho-
mas; but surely all Horses are not originally
found in this wild state P Ihave heard that the
Arabians are famous for rearing them.”

“Arabia has for a long time been noted,
Frank, for the symmetry and speed of its
Horses : so much attention has been paid, how-
ever, to the breeding of them in our own country,
for the race-course as well as the hunting-field,
that the English Horses are now almost un-
equalled both for speed and endurance.

“Tt is little wonder that the Arabian Horse
should be very excellent, considering the
care and attention which it receives, and the
kindness and consideration with which it is
treated. One of the best stories which I ever





THE ARABIAN HORSE. 7

heard of the love of an Arab for his steed is that
related of one from whom one of our envoys
wished to purchase his horse.

“The animal was a bright bay mare, of extra-
ordinary shape and beauty; and the owner,
proud of its appearance and qualities, paraded
it before the envoy’s tent until it attracted his
attention. On being asked if he would sell her,
‘What will you give me?” was the reply. ‘That
depends upon her age; I suppose she is past
five?’ ‘Guess again, said he. ‘Four?’
‘Look at her mouth,’ said the Arab, with a
smile. On examination she was found to be
rising three. This, from her size and symmetry,
greatly enhanced her value. The envoy said, ‘ I
will give you fifty tomans (a coin nearly of
the value of a sovereign). ‘A little more, if
you please,’ said the fellow, somewhat enter-
tained. ‘ Highty—a hundred.’ He shook his
head and smiled. The officer at last came to
two hundred tomans. ‘ Well,’ said the Arab,
‘you need not tempt me farther. You are a



8 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

rich elchee (nobleman) ; you have fine horses,
camels, and mules, and I am told you have
loads of silver and gold. Now,’ added he,
‘you want my mare, but you shall not have
her for all you have got.’ He put spurs to
his horse, and was soon out of the reach of
temptation.

Swift as the Arabian horses, are, however,
they are frequently matched by those of our own
country. I say nothing about Race Horses,
because, though some of them are recorded to
have run at an amazing speed, the effort is
generally continued for but a short time. Here
is an instance of speed in a horse which saved
its unworthy master from the punishment due
to his crimes :—

“ One morning, about four o'clock, a gentle-
man was stopped and robbed by a highwayman
named Nicks, at Gadshill, on the west side of
Chatham. He was mounted on a bay mare of
great speed and endurance, and as soon as he
had accomplished his purpose, he instantly



SPEED OF THE HORSE. 9

started for Gravesend, where he was detained
nearly an hour by the difficulty of getting a boat.
He employed the interval to advantage, however,
by baiting his horse. From thence he crossed
the Thames, and landing in Essex proceeded
to Chelmsford, where he again stopped about
half an hour for refreshment. He then went
to Braintree, Bocking, Withersfield, over the
Downs to Cambridge, and still pursuing the
cross roads, he went by Fenney Stanton to Hunt-
ingdon, where he again rested about half an hour.
Proceeding now on the north road, at a full
gallop most of the way, he arrived at York the
same afternoon, put off his boots and riding
clothes, and went dressed to the bowling-green,
where, among other promenaders, happened to
be the Lord Mayor of the city. He there tried
to do something particular, that his lordship
might remember him, and asking what o’clock
it was, the mayor informed him that it was a
quarter past eight. Notwithstanding all these
precautions, however, he was discovered, and tried





10 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

for the robbery ; he rested his defence on the
fact of his being at York at the time mentioned,
and argued from this, that it was impossible he
could have been at Gadshill at the time of the
robbery. ‘The gentleman swore positively to
the time and place at which the robbery was
committed, but, on the other hand, the proof
was equally clear that the prisoner was at York
the same evening, and the jury acquitted him,
on the supposed impossibility of his having got
so great a distance from Kent in so short
a time.”

“So that he owed his safety to the speed of
his horse, Uncle Thomas ?”’

“ He did so, Harry. The horse can on occa-
sion swim as well as most other animals, yet it
never takes to the water unless urged to do so.
Here is a story about a horse saving the lives
of many persons who had suffered shipwreck
by being driven upon the rocks at the Cape of
Good Hope, which, I am sure, will interest you
as much for the perseverance and docility of the



DOCILITY OF THE HORSE. 11

animal, as for the benevolence and intrepidity of
its owner :—

“A violent gale of wind setting in from
north and north-west, a vessel in the roads
dragged her anchors, was forced on the rocks,
and bulged; and while the greater part of the
crew fell an immediate sacrifice to the waves,
the remainder were seen from the shore strug-
gling for their lives, by clinging to the different
pieces of the wreck. ‘The sea ran dreadfully
high, and broke over the sailors with such amaz-
ing fury, that no boat whatever could venture
off to their assistance. Meanwhile a planter,
considerably advanced in life, had come from
his farm to be a spectator of the shipwreck ;
his heart was melted at the sight of the un-
happy seamen, and knowing the bold and en-
terprising spirit of his horse, and his particular
excellence as a swimmer, he instantly deter-
mined to make a desperate effort for their de-
liverance. He alighted and blew a little brandy
into his horse’s nostrils, and again seating him-



12 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

self in the saddle, he instantly pushed into the
midst of the breakers. At first both disap-
peared, but it was not long before they floated
on the surface, and swam up to the wreck;
when, taking with him two men, each of whom
held by one of his stirrups, he brought them
safe to shore. This perilous expedition he
repeated no less than seven times, and saved
fourteen lives; but on his return the eighth
time, being much fatigued, and meeting a most
formidable wave, he lost his balance, and was
overwhelmed in a moment. The horse swam
safely to land, but his gallant rider sank to
rise no more.”

“That was very unfortunate, Uncle Thomas.
I suppose the planter had been so fatigued by
his previous exertions, that he had not strength
to struggle with the strong waves.’

“ Most likely, Harry. I dare say the poor
animal felt the loss of this kind owner very
much, for the Horse soon becomes attached
to his master, and exhibits traits of intelli-



AFFECTION OF THE HORSE. 13

gence and fidelity, certainly not surpassed by
those of any other animal. For instance :—A
gentleman, who was one dark night riding home
through a wood, had the misfortune to strike his
head against the branch of a tree, and fell from
his horse stunned by the blow. ‘The noble ani-
mal immediately returned to the house which
they had left, which stood about a mile distant.
He found the door closed,—the family had retired
to bed. He pawed at it, however, till one of
them, hearing the noise, arose and opened it, and
to his surprise, saw the horse of his friend. No
sooner was the door opened than the horse turned
round. as if it wished to be followed; and the
man, suspecting there was something wrong,
followed the animal, which led him directly to
the spot where its wounded master lay on the
ground.

There is another story of a somewhat simi-
lar description in which he saved his master from
perishing among the snow ; it happened in the
north of Scotland :—



14 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

. © A gentleman connected with the Excise
was returning home from one of his professional
journeys. His way lay across a range of hilis,
the road over which was so blocked up with
snow as to leave no trace of it discernible.
Uncertain how to proceed, he resolved to trust
to his horse, and throwing loose the reins,
allowed him to choose his course. The ani-
mal proceeded cautiously, and safely for some
time, till, coming toa ravine, both horse and
rider sunk in a snow-wreath several fathoms’
deep.

“Stunned by the suddenness and depth of
the descent, the gentleman lay for some time
insensible. On recovering he found himself
nearly three yards from the dangerous spot,
with his faithful horse standing over him,
licking the snow from his face. He accounted
for his extrication, by supposing that the bridle
must have been attached to his person, but so
completely had he lost all consciousness that,
beyond the bare fact as stated, he had no



FRIENDSHIP OF ANIMALS. 15

knowledge of the means by which he had made
so remarkable an escape.”

“Tt was at any rate very kind in the horse
to clear away the snow, Uncle Thomas.”

‘** No doubt of it, John, and perhaps he owed
his life quite as much to this act of kindness, as
to being pulled out of the ravine. He might
have been as certainly choked by the snow out
of it as in it. Sometimes the Horse becomes
much attached to the animals with which it
associates, and its’ feelings of friendship are as
powerful as those of the dog. A gentleman of
Bristol had a greyhound, which slept in the
same stable and contracted a very great inti-
macy with a fine hunter. When the dog was
taken out, the horse neighed wistfully after it,
and seemed to long for its return; he welcomed
it home with a neigh; the greyhound ran up to
the horse and licked him; the horse, in return,
scratched the greyhound’s back with his teeth.
On one occasion, when the groom had the
pair out for exercise, a large dog attacked the



16 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

greyhound, bore him to the ground, and seemed
likely to worry him, when the horse threw back
his ears, rushed forward, seized the strange dog
by the back, and flung him to a distance, “which
so terrified the aggressor, that he at once desisted
and made off.”

“That was very kind, Uncle Thomas. I
like to hear of such instances of friendship be-
tween animals.”

* Such a docile animal as the Horse, boys,
can readily be trained to particular habits, and
does not readily forget them, however disrepu-
table. There is an odd story to illustrate this :—

“ About the middle of last century, a Scot-
tish lawyer had occasion to visit the metropolis.
At that period such journeys were usually
performed on horseback, and the traveller might
either ride post, or, if willing to travel eco-
nomically, he bought a horse before setting
out, and sold it at the end of his journey.
The lawyer had chosen the latter mode of tra-
velling, and sold the animal on which he rode



DOCILITY OF THE HORSE. 17
from Scotland as soon as he arrived in London.
With a view to his return, he went to Smithfield
to purchase a horse. About dusk a handsome
one was offered at so cheap a rate that he
suspected the soundness of the animal, but
being able to discover no blemish, he became
the purchaser.

“Next morning, he set out on his journey;
the horse had excellent paces, and our traveller
while riding over the first few miles, where the
road was well frequented, did not fail to con-
gratulate himself on his good fortune, which had
led him to make so advantageous a bargain.

‘* ‘They arrived at last at Finchley Common,
and, at a place where the road ran down a slight
eminence and up another, the lawyer met a
clergyman driving a one-horse chaise. ‘There
was nobody within sight, and the horse by his
conduct instantly discovered the profession of his
former owner. Instead of pursuing his journey,
he ran close up to the chaise and stopped it,
having no doubt but his rider would embrace

c



18 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

so favourable an opportunity for exercising his
calling. The clergyman seemed of the same
opinion, produced his purse unasked, and assured
the astonished lawyer that it was quite unne-
cessary to draw his pistol, as he did not intend to
offer any resistance. ‘The traveller rallied his
horse, and with many apologies to the gentleman
he had so innocently and unwillingly affrighted,
pursued his journey.

“ They had not proceeded far till the horse
again made the same suspicious approach to a
coach, from the window of which a blunderbuss
was levelled, with denunciations of death and
destruction to the hapless and perplexed rider.
Tn short, after his life had been several times
endangered by the suspicions to which the con-
duct of his horse gave rise, and his liberty as often
threatened by the peace-officers, who were dis-
posed to apprehend him as a notorious highway-
man who had been the former owner of the horse,
he was obliged to part with the inauspicious
animal at a low price, and to purchase, for a high



INTELLIGENCE OF THE HORSE. 19

sum, one less beautiful, but not accustomed to
such dangerous habits.”

“ Capital, Uncle Thomas! I should have
hiked to have seen the perplexed look of the poor
lawyer, when he saw the blunderbuss make its
appearance at the carriage window !|”

‘There is one other story about the Horse,
boys, illustrative of its kindness and considera-
tion, which I must tell you before we leave
this intelligent and docile animal. A horse
which was remarkable for the peculiarity of its
temper, and for its antipathy to strangers,
among other bad propensities. constantly re-
sented the attempts of the groom to trim its
fetlocks. This circumstance happened to be
mentioned by its owner in conversation, in the
presence of his youngest child, a very few years
old, when he defied any man to perform the ope-
ration unassisted. ‘The father next day, in passing
through the stable yard, beheld, with the utmost
distress, the infant employed with a pair of scissors
attempting to clip the fetlocks of the hind legs



20 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

of this vicious hunter—an operation which had
been always performed with great danger, even
by a number of men. Instead, however, of
exhibiting his usual vicious disposition, the
horse, in the present case, was looking with the
greatest complacency on the little groom, who
soon after, to the very great relief of his father,
walked off unhurt.”

“ That was indeed a singular instance of
docility, Uncle Thomas !”

“Tt was so, Frank, and many more might
be told, but I must stop for the evening. Good
night, boys.”

** Good night, Uncle Thomas.”



21

CHAPTER II.

UNCLE THOMAS TELLS ABOUT THE HABITS OF THE BEAVER; ALSO ABOUT
THE CURIOUS NESTS OF THE SOCIABLE GROSBEAK ; AND GIVES A LONG
AND ENTERTAINING ACCOUNT OF THE WHITE ANT OF AFRICA, AND THE
IMPORTANT PART WHICH IT ACTS IN THE ECONOMY OF NATURE,

“ Goop evening, boys. Iam going to tell you
about a very singular animal to-night—singular
both in its conformation and its habits. I allude
to the Beaver.”’

“ Oh, we shall be so glad to hear atic the
Beaver, Uncle Thomas. I have sometimes won-
dered what sort of an animal it is. It is of its
skin that hats are made—is it not ?”

“Tt is so, Harry—at least it is of the fur
with which its skin is covered. But our business
now is with the Beaver itself. I think we shall



22 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

get on better by confining our attention to the
habits and instincts of the animal at present,
leaving its uses for future consideration.”’

“Very well, Uncle Thomas, we are all at-
tention.”

** The Beaver, which now is only to be found
in the more inaccessible parts of America, and
the northern countries. of Europe, affords a
curious instance of what may be called a com-
pound structure. It has the fore feet of a land
animal, and the hind ones of an aquatic one—the
latter only being webbed. Its tail is covered
with scales like a fish, and serves to direct its
course in the water, in which it spends much of
its time.

“ On the rivers where they abound, they
form societies, sometimes consisting of upwards
of two hundred. They begin to assemble about
the months of July or August, and generally
choose for the place of their future habitation
the side of a lake or river. If a lake in which
the water is always pretty nearly of an uniform



HABITS OF THE BEAVER. 23

level, they dispense with building a dam ; but if
the place they fix upon be the banks of a river,
which is liable to fluctuations in height, they im-
mediately set about constructing a pier or dam
to confine the water, so that they may always
have a good supply. This dam they build more
or less solid, according to the strength of the
current, always taking care to make it of the
form which offers the greatest resistance to the
flowing of the water.”

« That is very singular, Uncle Thomas. I
suppose it is their instinct which teaches them to
act in this manner.”

* You are right, Frank. Well, the mode in
which they set about constructing the dam is
this: having fixed upon the spot, they go into
the neighbouring forest, and cut quantities of
the smaller trees, which they forthwith convey
to the place selected, and having fixed them in
the earth, interweave them strongly and closely,
filling up all the crevices with mud and stones,
so as soon to make a most compact structure.



24 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

Sometimes even the trees take root, and the birds
build their nests in the branches.”

“Tt must be a work of very great labour, to
make a dam of this sort, Uncle Thomas.”

“The labour is very considerable, boys ; but
the power which, for want of a better name, we
call instinct, comes wonderfully to their aid. For
instance, it has been observed that they seek all
the trees which they want, on the banks of the
river, higher up than their building, so that
having once got them into the water, they are
easily floated to it, The same wonderful power
also teaches them to gnaw the trees, and cause
them to fall on the side nearest the water, so
as to convey them to it with the least possible
labour.”

“ Very good, Uncle Thomas.”

“‘When the Beavers have finished the dam,
they then proceed to construct houses for them-
selves. First they dig a foundation of a size
proportioned to the number of the family which
is to inhabit it. They then form the walls of earth



HABITS OF THE BEAVER. 25

and stones, mixed with billets of wood crossing
each other, and thus tying the fabric together
just in the same way as you sometimes see
masons do in building human dwellings. Their
huts, which are made to accommodate about four
old ones and six or eight young, are generally
shaped something like the figure of a haycock,
from four to seven feet high, and eight or nine
wide, and they have usually several entrances—
one or more opening into the river or lake,
below the surface of the water, and one commu-
nicating with any bushes or brushwood which
may be at hand, so as to afford the means of
escape in case of attack either on the land or
water side.”

“They must be pretty safe, then, Uncle
Thomas, since they can so readily escape.”

“ They are secure enough, Frank, so long as
they have only irrational or half-reasoning ani-
mals to contend with; but when man, armed
with the power before which mere instinct
must at all times bow, attacks them, they are



26 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

very easily overcome. Shall I tell you how the
hunters capture them >”

“If you please, Uncle Thomas.”’

“Very well. I must first tell you that the
skin of the Beaver is most valuable during
winter, as the fur is then thicker and finer
than during the summer; they are, therefore,
very little, if at all, molested during this season
by the hunters. When winter sets in, however,
and the lakes and rivers are frozen over, the
hunters set out to seek for the beaver colonies,
and, having found them, they make a number of
holes in the ice. ‘They then break down the
huts, and the animals escape into the water as
a place of safety. As they cannot remain long
under water, however, they soon have occasion
to come to the surface to breathe, and of course
make for the holes which the hunters have
formed in the-ice, when some of the latter, who
are waiting in readiness, knock them on the
head.”

‘* But, Uncle Thomas, is it not very cruel to



HABITS OF THE BEAVER. 27

kill the Beavers so? They feed entirely on ve-
getables, I believe, anddo no harm to any one.”

“You might say the same, John, of the
sheep on the downs; the one is not more cruel
than the other: both are useful to man, and
furnish him with food as well as raiment, and
both were, of course, included in the ‘ dominion’
which God originally gave to man ‘over the
beasts of the field.’ ”

“Ts the Beaver used for food, then, Uncle
Thomas ?”

“Tt is, John, and except during a small part
of the year, when it feeds on the root of the
water-lily, which communicates a peculiar fla-
vour to its flesh, it is said to be very palatable.
It is, however, principally for its fur that it is
hunted ; the skin, even, is of little value, being
coarser and looser in texture, and less applicable
to general uses than that of many other animals.
I dare say you have often seen it made into
gloves.”

“Oh yes, Uncle Thomas !”



28 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

“1 will now, boys, read to you an account of
a tame Beaver, which its owner, Mr. Broderip,
communicated to ‘The Gardens and Menage-
ries of the Zoological Society :’—

«The animal arrived in this country in the
winter of 1825, very young, being small and
woolly, and without the covering of long hair,
which marks the adult Beaver. It was the sole
survivor of five or six which were shipped at
the same time, and was in a very pitiable con-
dition. Good treatment soon made it familiar.
When called by its name, ‘ Binny,’ it generally
answered with a little cry, and came to its
owner. ‘The hearth rug was its favourite
haunt, and thereon it would lie, stretched out,
sometimes on its back, and sometimes flat on its
belly, but always near its master. The build-
ing instinct showed itself immediately after
it was let out of its cage, and materials were
placed in its way,—and this, before it had
been a week in its new quarters. Its strength,
even before it was half grown, was great. It



HABITS OF THE BEAVER. 29

would drag along a large sweeping-brush, or
a warming-pan, grasping the handle with his
teeth, so that the load came over its shoul-
der, and advancing in an oblique direction,
till it arrived at the point where it wished to
place it. The long and large materials were
always taken first, and two of the longest
were generally laid crosswise, with one of the
ends of each touching the wall, and the other
ends projecting out into the room. The area
formed by the crossed brushes and the wall he
would fill up with hand-brushes, rush baskets,
books, boots, sticks, cloths, dried turf, or any-
thing portable. As the work grew high, he
supported himself on his tail, which propped
him up admirably; and he would often, after
laying on one of his building materials, sit up
over against it, apparently to consider his work,
or, as the country people say, ‘judge it.’ This
pause was sometimes followed by changing the
position of the material ‘judged,’ and sometimes
it was left in its place. After he had piled



32 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

‘Bread, and bread and milk, and sugar,
formed the principal part of Binny’s food ; but he
was very fond of succulent fruits and roots. He
was a most entertaining creature; and some
highly comic scenes occurred between the worthy
but slow Beaver and a light and airy macauco,
that was kept in the same apartment.”

» “T think I have read, Uncle Thomas, that

Beavers use their tails. as trowels to plaster
their houses, and as sledges to carry the ma-—
terials to build their huts.”

“T dare say you have, Frank; but such
stories are mere fables, told by the ignorant to
excite wonder in the minds of the credulous.
No such operations have been observed by the
most accurate observers of the animal’s habits.
The wonderful instinct which they display in
building their houses, and in laying up a store
of food as a provision against winter, are quite
sufficient to excite our wonder and admiration,
without having recourse to false and exaggerated
statements.”



THE SOCIABLE GROSBEAK. 33

“The building instinct of the Beaver is very
singular, Uncle Thomas. Is it displayed by any
other animal ?”

‘* All animals exhibit it more or less, Harry,
and birds in particular, in the construction of
their nests, some of which are very curious
indeed ; perhaps one of the most striking in-
stances is that of the Sociable Grosbeak, a bird
which is found in the interior of the Cape of
Good Hope. They construct their nests under
one roof, which they form of the branches of
some tall and wide-spreading tree, thatching it
all over, as it were, with a species of grass.

“When they have got their habitation fairly
covered in, they lay out the inside, accerding to
some travellers, into regular streets, with nests
on both sides, about a couple of inches apart
from each other. In one respect, however, they
differ from the Beaver, they do not appear to
lay up a common store of food, the nature of
the climate not rendering such a precaution
necessary.

‘D



34 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

“‘ Here is the account of one of these nests,
furnished by a gentleman who minutely ex-
amined it :—

““«T observed on the way a tree with an
enormous nest of those birds to which I have
given the appellation of republicans; and as
soon as I arrived at my camp, I despatched a few
men, with a waggon, to bring it to me, that I
might open the hive, and examine the structure
in its minutest parts. When it arrived, I cut
it in pieces with a hatchet, and found that the
chief portion of it consisted of a mass of Bosh-
man’s grass, without any mixture, but so com-
pact and firmly basketed together as to be
impenetrable to the rain. ‘This is the com-
mencement of the structure; and each bird
builds its particular nest under this canopy.
But the nests are formed only beneath the eaves
of the canopy, the upper surface remaining
void, without, however, being useless ; for, as it
has a projecting rim, and is a little inclined, it
serves to let the rain-water run off, and preserves



THE SOCIABLE GROSBEAK. 35

each little dwelling from the wet. Figure to your-
self a huge irregular sloping roof, and all the
eaves of which are completely covered with
nests, crowded one against another, and you
will have a tolerably accurate idea of these sin-
gular edifices.

* « Rach individual nest is three or four inches
in diameter, which is sufficient for the bird. But
as they are all in contact with one another, around
the eaves, they appear to the eye to form but one
building, and are distinguishable from each other
only by a little external aperture, which serves as
an entrance to the nest ; and even this is some-
times common to three different nests, one of
which is situated at the bottom, and the other
two at the sides. |

« of the most considerable which I had seen any-
where on my journey, and contamed three hun-
dred and twenty inhabited cells.’ ”

“ Well, Uncle Thomas, that is very curious ;
I don’t know which most to admire. I rather



36 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

incline to the beaver, however, because of the
winter store of food which it lays up.”

“There is another little animal, boys, which
displays the building instinct so remarkably, that
I must tell you something about it before we
part.”

« Which is it, Uncle Thomas ?”’

“Ttis the White Ant of Africa; a little crea-
ture, scarcely, if at all, exceeding in size the Ants
of our own country, yet they construct large nests
of a conical or sugar-loaf shape, sometimes from
ten to twelve feet high; and one species builds
them so strong and compact, that even when they
are raised to little more than half their height,
the wild bulls of the country use them as sentinel
posts to watch over the safety of the herd which
grazes below.

“Mr. Smeathman, a naturalist who examined
those Ants’ nests with great care, states that on
one occasion he and four men stood on the top
of one of them. So you may guess how strong
they are.”



NEST OF THE WHITE ANT. 37

“What are they made of, Uncle Thomas ?
They must be very curious structures. How
very different from the ant-hills of England!”

“Very different, indeed, John. ‘They are
made of clay and sand, and as in such a luxu-
riant climate they soon become coated over
with grass, they quickly assume the appear-
ance of haycocks. They are indeed very re-
markable structures, whether we consider them
externally or internally, and are said to excel,
in the skilfulness of their construction and in the
niceness of their adaptation to the wants of the
animal, those of the beaver and the bee in the
same proportions as the habitations of the most
polished European nations excel.the huts of the
rude inhabitants of the country where the
Termites or White Ants abound ; while, in regard
to mere size, Mr. Smeathman calculates that,
supposing a man’s ordinary height to be six
feet, the nests of these creatures may be con-
sidered to bear the same relation to their size
as that of a man does to a building raised



38 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

to four times the height of the largest Egyptian
pyramids !”

«That is enormous, Uncle Thomas

“Tt is indeed, Frank; but strange though it
is in this point of view, the interior of the nest
is even more remarkable, many parts of its
construction falling little short of human in-
genuity. I need not attempt to describe all its
arrangements, which, without a plan, would be
nearly unintelligible; but there is one; device
so admirable that I must point it out to you.
The nest is formed of two floors, as it were,
and all round the walls are galleries perforated
in various winding directions, and leading to
the storehouses of the colony, or to the nur-
series where the eggs are deposited. As it is
sometimes convenient, however, to reach the
galleries which open from the upper roof with-
out threading all the intricacies of these winding
passages, they construct a bridge of a single
arch between the floor of the nest and its dome,
if I may so call it, and thus at once reach the

lias



NEST OF THE WHITE ANT. 39

upper roof, from which these passages diverge.
They are thus saved much labour, in trans-
porting provisions, and in bearing ihe eggs to
the places where they are to remain till they are
hatched.”

« That is indeed admirable, Uncle Thomas ;
they must be very curious animals.”

“« They divide themselves, Frank, into differ-
ent classes, in the same way as bees; choosing
a queen, and some of them acting as workers,
etc. But the White Ants have a class to which
there is nothing similar among any other race
of insects. These are what Smeathman calls
soldiers, from the duties which they perform ;
they are much less numerous than the workers,
being somewhat in the proportion of one in
one hundred. The duty of the soldier-insects
is to protect the nest when it is attacked.
They are furnished with long and slender jaws,
and when enraged bite very fiercely, and some-
times drive off the negroes who may have at-

tacked them, and even white people suffer



40 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

severely,—a bite even through the stocking
bleeding profusely. Some one who observed
the colony alarmed, by having part of the nest
broken down, gives the following account of
the subsequent operations. One of the soldiers
first makes his appearance, as if to see if the
enemy be gone, and to learn whence the attack
proceeds. By-and-bye twWb or three others
follow, and soon afterwards a numerous body
rushes out, which increases in number so long
as the attack is continued. They are at this
time in a state of the most violent agitation ;
some employed in beating upon the byilding
with their mandibles, so as to make a noise
which may be distinctly heard at the distance
of three or four feet. Whenever the attack is
discontinued, the soldiers retire, and quickly re-
appear, followed by another class which may be
called labourers, which hasten in various direc-
tions towards the breach, each with a burden
of mortar ready tempered, and thus they soon
repair the damage. Besides the duty of pro-



NEST OF THE WHITE ANT. Al

tecting the colony, the soldiers seem to act
as overseers of the work, one being generally
in attendance on every six or eight hundred
labourers. One, who may be looked on as
commander-in-chief, takes up his station close
to the wall which they are repairing, and fre-
quently repeats the beating which I just men-
tioned, which is instantly answered by a
loud hiss from all the labourers within the
dome,—those at work working with redoubled
energy.”

* But, Uncle Thomas, what can be the use
of such animals as White Ants? I really can-
not see what use they are for.”’

« Well, John, I confess I do not much won-
der at your question, though in putting it
you have forgotten that God makes nothing
in vain. Mr. Smeathman, who tells us so much
about these curious animals, has answered
you by anticipation; and his answer is in
such a spirit that I cannot do better than read it
to you :—



42 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

“ ¢ Tt may appear surprising,’ he says, ‘how
a Being perfectly good should have created ani-
mals which seem to serve no other end but to
spread destruction and desolation wherever they
go. But let us be cautious in suspecting any
imperfection in the FATHER OF THE UNIVERSE.
What at first sight may seem only productive of
mischief will, upon mature deliberation, be found
worthy of that wisdom which planned the most
beautiful parts of the world. Many poisons
are valuable medicines. Storms are bene-
ficial; and diseases often promote life. These
Termites are indeed frequently pernicious to
mankind, but they are also very useful and
even necessary. One valuable purpose which
they serve is to destroy decayed trees and
other substances, which, if left on the sur-
face of the ground in hot climates, would in
a short time pollute the air. In this respect
they resemble very much the common flies,
which are regarded by mankind in general as
noxious and, albeit, as useless beings in crea-



UTILITY OF THE WHITE ANT. 43

tion. But this is certainly for want of consi-
deration. ‘There are not probably in all nature
animals of more importance, and it would not
be difficult to prove that we should feel the
want of one or two large quadrupeds much
less than of one or two species of these des-
picable-looking insects. Mankind in general
are sensible that nothing is more disagreeable
or more pestiferous than putrid substances ;
and it is apparent to all who have made ob-
servation, that those little insects contribute
more to the quick dissolution and dispersion
of putrescent matter than any other. | They
are so necessary in all hot climates, that even
in the open fields a dead animal or small
putrid substance cannot be laid upon the
ground two minutes before it will be covered
with flies and their maggots, which instantly
entering, quickly devour one part, and perfo-
rating the rest in various directions, expose the
whole to be much sooner decomposed by the
elements. Thus it is with the Termites. The



AA, STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

rapid vegetation in hot climates, of which no
idea can be formed by anything to. be seen in
this, is equalled by as great a degree of de-
struction from natural as well as accidental
causes. It seems apparent that when any-
thing whatever has arrived at its last degree of
perfection, the Creator has decreed that it shall
be wholly destroyed as soon as possible, that
the face of nature may be speedily adorned with
fresh productions in the bloom of spring, or the
pride of summer ; so when trees and even woods
are in part destroyed by tornadoes or fire, it is
wonderful to observe how many agents are em-
ployed in hastening the total dissolution of the
rest. But in hot climates there are none so
expert, or who do their business so expeditiously
and effectually, as these insects, which in a few
weeks destroy and carry away the bodies of
large trees, without leaving a particle behind ;
thus clearing the place for other vegetables,
which soon fill up every vacancy: and in- places
where two or three years before there has been



UTILITY OF THE WHITE ANT. 45

a populous town, if the inhabitants, as is fre-
quently the case, have chosen to abandon it,
there shall be a very thick wood, and not a ves-
tige of a post to be seen, unless the wood has
been of a species which from its hardness is called
iron wood.’ ”’

“Thank you, Uncle Thomas. I see, I was
quite wrong in supposing that the Ants are of
no use. I really did not imagine that they could
have been so serviceable.”



46

CHAPTER III.

UNCLE THOMAS DESCRIBES THE MANNER IN WHICH WILD ELEPHANTS ARE
CAUGHT, AND RELATES SOME CURIOUS STORIES OF THE CUNNING,
AFFECTION, AND INTELLIGENCE OF THE ELEPHANT.

‘“ WeLL, boys, you are once more welcome !—
I am going to tell you some stories about the
Elephant to-night, which I hope will interest
you quite as much as those which I told you
about the dog. Next to the dog, the Elephant
is one of the most intelligent animals; some
of his actions, indeed, seem to be rather the
result of reason than mere instinct. But I
must first tell you about the animal in its native
forests.

“ Tn the luxuriant forests with which a large
portion of Asia is covered, this huge animal
reigns supreme. Its size and strength easily



ELEPHANT-HUNTING. AT

enable it to overcome the most formidable oppo-
nents. ‘The intelligence with which it has been
endowed by its Creator would make it a most
formidable enemy to man, but that the same
All-wise Being has graciously created it with
peaceful and gentle feelings. In its native forests
it roams about without seeking to molest any one,
and even when caught it very soon becomes
gentle and obedient.

“In the East Indies the Elephant is in very
general use as a beast of burden. For this pur-
pose it is hunted and caught in great numbers
by the natives, who employ some very ingenious
devices to deceive them, and to drive them into
the ambuscades which they form for them. The
- manner in which whole herds are captured is as
follows :—

“When the herd is discovered by parties
who are sent out in search of it, they first of all
note the direction in which it is ranging, as,
if their food is plentiful, the quiet unsuspecting
animals generally continue to advance in one



48 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

direction for miles together; of this the hunters
take advantage, and immediately proceed to
construct, at a considerable distance in front,
a series of enclosures, into which it is their
object to drive them.

«When everything is prepared, the hunters,
sometimes to the number of several hundreds,
divide themselves into small parties, and form a
large circle, so as to surround the herd. Each
party generally consists of three men, whose
duty it is to light a fire and to clear a
footpath between their station and that of
their neighbours, so that in this way a com-
munication is kept-up by the whole circle, and
assistance can at once be afforded at any
point.

“New circles are constantly formed at short
distances in advance, so as gradually to drive
the animals in the required direction. The
hunters are all the while concealed by the luxu-
riant brushwood or jungle, and do not show
themselves to the Elephants at all, but urge



ELEPHANT-HUNTING. AQ

them forward by the use of drums, rattles, etc.,
etc., from the noise of which the animals seek
to escape, and thus wander on, feeding as they
proceed, toward the toils which are prepared for
them.

«The keddah, or trap as it may be called,
consists of three enclosures, each formed of
strong stockades on the outside of deep ditches ;
the innermost one being the strongest, because
by the time they arrive in it the Elephants are
generally in a state of great excitement, and
would soon break down a frail barrier, and make
their escape.

“As soon as the herd has entered the first
enclosure, strong barricades are erected across
the entrance; and as there is no ditch at this
point, the hunters take advantage of the intense
dread which the animal has of fire, to scare them
from this most vulnerable part of the fortification.
Fires are gradually lit all round the first enclosure,
so that the only way of escape which is left is by
the entrance to the second.

E



50 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

“ At first, as if profiting by their former
experience, they generally shun the entrance to
the second of the series, but at last, seeing no
other chance of escape, the leader of the herd
ventures forward, and the rest follow. The gate
is instantly shut, and they are in the same
manner driven into the third enclosure. Find-
ing no outlet from this they become desperate,
scream with tremendous violence, and seek to
escape by furiously attacking the sides of .the
stockade. At all points, however, they are
repulsed by lighted fires, and the tumultu-
ous and exulting shouts of the triumpliant
hunters.

“In this place of confinement they remain
for several days. When their excitement has
somewhat subsided, they are enticed one by one
to enter a narrow passage leading back to the
second enclosure. As soo as one ventures in,
the entrance is closed, and as the passage is so
narrow that it cannot turn round, it soon
fatigues itself by unavailing exertions to beat



ELEPHANT-HUNTING. 51
down the barriers by which it is confined.
Strong ropes with running nooses are now laid
down, and no sooner does the animal put his
foot within one of them, than the rope is drawn
tight by some of the hunters who are stationed
on a small scaffold, which has in the meantime
been raised over the gateway. In the same
manner his other fect are secured. When this
has been effected, some of the hunters venture
to approach, and tie his hind legs together.
Having thus secured him, they are able with
comparative safety to complete their capture.
He is now placed between two tame Elephants,
led away to the forest and fastened to a tree;
and the same operation is repeated, till the
whole herd has been secured. So long as the
animals between which he is led away prisoner
remain with him, the captive is comparatively
quiet, but when he sees them depart, he is
agitated with all the horrors of despair, and
makes the most extravagant attempts to regain
his liberty. For some time he refuses to



52 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

eat, but gradually becomes resigned, and feeds
freely.

“A keeper is appointed to each animal, as
they are secured. His first object is to gain its
confidence ; supplying it regularly with food,
pouring water over its body to keep it cool, and
gradually accustoming it to caresses. In the
course of five or six weeks he generally obtains
a complete ascendancy over it; its fetters are
removed by degrees; it knows his voice and
obeys him, and is then gradually instructed in
its future labours.”

“ Thank you, Uncle Thomas. I think that
we now understand all about Elephant-hunting.
I could not imagine how the hunters managed
to secure such a huge animal. It seems to be
no such difficult task, after all.”

“It seems easy enough from description,
Frank; but it sometimes happens that they
break loose, and, irritated by their efforts to
escape, they range about in the most furious
manner, and, as they are very cunning animals,



CUNNING OF THE ELEPHANT, 53

it requires all the circumspection of the hunt-
ers to counteract their schemes. I recollect
a story which displays the sagacity and cun-
ning of the Elephant in a very strong
light :—

“ During the siege of Bhurtpore in the year -
1805, when the British army, with its countless
host of followers and attendants, and thousands
of cattle, had been for a long time before the-
city, the approach of the warm season and of the
dry hot winds caused the quantity of water in
the neighbourhood of the camps to begin to
fail; the ponds or tanks had dried up, and no
more water was left than the immense wells of
the country could furnish. ‘The multitude of
men and cattle that were unceasingly at the
wells occasioned no little struggle for priority in
procuring the supply, and the consequent con-
fusion on the spot was frequently very consider-
able. On one occasion, two Hlephant-drivers,
each with his Elephant, the one remarkably
large and strong, and the other comparatively



54 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

small and weak, were at the well together; the
smaller animal had been provided by his master
with a bucket for the occasion, which he carried
at the end of his trunk; but the other one being
unprovided with anything of the kind, either
spontaneously, or by desire of his keeper, seized
the bucket, and easily wrested it from his less
powerful opponent. ‘The latter was too sen-
sible of his inferiority openly to resist the insult,
though it was obvious that: he felt it; but
great squabbling and abuse ensued between the
keepers.

“ At length the weaker animal, watching the
opportunity when the other was standing with
his side to the well, retired backwards a few
paces, in a very quiet and unsuspicious manner,
and then rushing forward with all his might,
drove his head against the side of the other, and
fairly pushed him into the well. It may easily —
be imagined that great inconvenience was imme-
diately experienced, and serious apprehensions
quickly followed that the water in the well, on



CUNNING OF THE ELEPHANT. 55

which the existence of so many seemed in a
great measure to depend, would be spoiled by the
unwieldy brute which was precipitated into it;
and as the surface of the water was nearly twenty
feet below the level of the ground, there did not
appear to be any means that could be adopted
to get the animal out by main force, without
the risk of injuringhim. There were many feet
of water below the Elephant, who floated at ease
on its surface, and experiencing considerable
pleasure from his cool retreat, he evinced but
little inclination to lend any assistance towards
his rescue.

“¢ A vast number of fascines (bundles of wood)
had been employed by the army in conducting
the siege; and at length it occurred to the Hle-
phant-keeper, that a sufficient number of these
might be lowered into the well, on which the
animal might be raised to the top, if it could
be made to lay them in regular succession
under its feet. Permission having accordingly
been obtained from the engineers to use the



56 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

fascines, the keeper, by means of that extra-
ordinary ascendancy which these men attain
over their charge, joimed with the intellectual
resources of the animal itself, soon taught it
how to proceed; and the Elephant began
quickly to place each fascine, as it was lowered,
under him, in succession until, in a_ short
time, he was able to stand upon them. By
this time, however, the cunning brute, enjoy-
ing the coolness of his situation, after the heat
and partial privation of water to which he had
been lately exposed, was unwilling to work
any longer; and all the threats of his keeper
could not induce him to place another fascine.
The man then opposed cunning to cunning,
and began to caress and praise the Elephant;
and what he could not effect by threats he
was enabled to do by the repeated promise
of plenty of arrack, a spirituous beverage com-
posed of rum, of which the Elephant is very
fond. Incited by this, the animal again set to
work, raised himself considerably higher, until,



DOCILITY OF THE ELEPHANT. 57

by a partial removal of the masonry round the
top of the well, he was enabled to step out,
after having been in the water about fourteen
hours.”

“The keepers seem to attain great ascend-
ancy over the animals, Uncle Thomas.”

“The attachment of the Elephant to its
keeper, and the command which some of those
men acquire over the affections of the animal is
very extraordinary. ‘The mere sound of the
keeper’s voice has been known to reciaim an ani-
mal which had escaped from domestication, and
resumed its original freedom :—

“A female Elephant, belonging to a gentle-
man in Calcutta, who was ordered from the
upper country to Chittagong, in the route
thither, broke loose from her keeper, and,
making her way to the woods, was lost. The:
unhappy keeper tried every means to vindicate
himself, but his master, angry at the loss of so
valuable an animal, refused to listen to any
of his excuses, branded him with dishonesty,



58 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

and charged him with having sold the Elephant.
The unfortunate keeper was tried for the theft,
and being convicted, was condemned to work on_-
the roads for life, and his wife and children sold
for slaves.

*“ About twelve years after this event, this
man, who was known to be well acquainted with
taming Elephants, was sent into the country with
a party to assist in catching wild ones. They
at last came upon a herd, amongst which the
man fancied he saw the Elephant, for the loss of
which he had been condemned. He resolved
to approach it, nor could the strongest remon-
strances of the party dissuade him from the
attempt. As he advanced towards the animal,
he called her by name, when she immediately
recognised his voice; she waved her trunk in
the air as a token of salutation, and kneeling
down, allowed him to mount her neck. She
afterwards assisted in taking other Elephants,
and decoyed into the trap three young ones,
to which she had given birth since her escape. ‘



DOCILITY OF THE ELEPHANT. 59

The keeper returned to his master with the
Elephant, and the singular circumstances at-
tending her recovery being told, he regained
his character; and, as a recompense for his
unmerited sufferings, had a pension settled on
him for life.”

“ That was an instance of rare good fortune,
Uncle Thomas. How very curious that he should
fall in with the herd in which his own Elephant
was |”

“It was very fortunate indeed, Frank. It
was not a little curious too that the Elephant
should recognise him after so longa period. But
the attachment which they show to their keepers
is sometimes very great. One which in a mo-
ment of rage killed its keeper, a few years ago,
adopted his son as its caruac or driver, and
would allow no one else to assume his place.
The wife of the unfortunate man, who witnessed
the dreadful scene, in her frenzy took her two
children, and threw them at the feet of the
Elephant, saying, ‘As you have slain my hus-



60 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

band, take my life also, as well as that of my
children !’ The animal, which seemed to under-
stand her distress, immediately became calm,
and, as if stung with remorse, took up the eldest
boy with its trunk, and placed him on its neck,
adopted him for its carnac, and never afterwards
allowed another to occupy that seat.”

“That was at least making all the reparation
in its power, Uncle Thomas.”

“There are one or two other stories about
the Elephant, boys, showing that he knows how
to revenge an insult, which I must tell you before
you go :— ;

“A merchant at Bencoolen kept a tame Ele-
phant, which was so exceedingly gentle in his
habits, that he was permitted to go at large.
This huge animal used to walk about the streets
in the most quiet and orderly manner, and paid
many visits through the city to people who were
kind to him. ‘T'wo cobblers having taken an ill-
will to this imoffensive creature, several times
pricked him on the proboscis with their awls,













Page 61.



SAGACITY OF THE ELEPHANT. 61

when he saluted them in passing. The noble
animal did not punish them in the manner he
might have done, and seemed to think they
were too contemptible for his anger. He took
other means to reward them for their cruelty.
He walked deliberately away, and having filled
his trunk with a quantity of dirty water, advanced
towards them in his ordinary manner, and
spouted the whole of the puddle over them.
The punishment-was highly applauded by those
who witnessed it, and the poor cobblers were
laughed at for their pains.”

“ Ha! ha! ha! He must have been a very
knowing animal, Uncle Thomas. I dare say the
cobblers behaved better in future.”

“ [ dare say they would, boys. Here is
another story of the same description, but the
trickster did not escape so easily :—

** A person in the island of Ceylon, who lived
near a place where Elephants were daily led to
water, and often sat at the door of his house,
used occasionally to give one of these animals



62 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

some fig-leaves, of which Elephants are very
fond. One day he took it into his head to play
the Elephant a trick. He wrapped a stone
round with fig-leaves, and said to the driver,
‘ This time I will give him a stone to eat, and
see how it will agree with him.’ The driver
told him that the Elephant would not be such a
fool as to swallow a stone. The man, how-
ever, handed it the packet, but no sooner had it
touched it with its trunk, than it immediately
let it fall to the ground. ‘You see,’ said the
keeper, ‘that I was right ;’ and without farther
remark he drove away his Elephants. After
they were watered, he was conducting them again
to their stable. The man who had played
the Elephant the trick was still sitting at his door,
when, before he was. aware, the animal ran
at him, threw his trunk around his body, and,
dashing him to the ground, trampled him to
death.”

“ Shocking! Uncle Thomas. I shall be afraid
to go near an Elephant next time I see one.’



DOCILITY OF THE ELEPHANT. 63

“ Tt ought at least to teach you not to try its
temper too much, John. It is always a dan-
gerous experiment, especially with such a large
and powerful animal. But we must stop for the
evening.”

“ Good night, Uncle Thomas.”



64

CHAPTER IV.

UNCLE THOMAS INTRODUCES TO THE NOTICE OF HIS LITTLE AUDIENCE
THE ETTRICK .SHEPHERD’S STORIES ABOUT SHEEP; AND TELLS
THEM SOME INTERESTING STORIES ABOUT THE GOAT, AND ITS

. | PECULIARITIES.

“ T parE say, boys, you have not forgotten the

Ettrick Shepherd’s wonderful ‘stories about his

Dogs. Some of those which he relates about

Sheep are equally remarkable, and as he tells

them in the same pleasing style, I think I can-

not do better than read to you the chapter in

‘ The Shepherd’s Calendar’ which he devotes to

this animal.”

«Thank you, Uncle Thomas. We remember
very well his stories about Sirrah and Hector and
Chieftain, and the old shepherd’s us at parting
with his dog.”

A That’ s eh boys ; I am happy to think



CHARACTER OF THE SHEEP. 65

that you do not forget what I tell you. But listen
to the Ettrick Shepherd :—

««« The Sheep has scarcely any marked cha-
racter save that of natural affection, of which it
possesses a very great share. It is otherwise a
stupid indifferent animal, having few wants, and
fewer expedients. The old black-faced or forest
breed have far more powerful capabilities than
any of the finer breeds that have been intro-
duced into Scotland, and, therefore, the few anec-
dotes that I have to relate shall be confined to
them.

“ * So strong is the attachment of Sheep to
the place where they have been bred, that Ihave —
heard of their returning from Yorkshire to the
Highlands. I was always somewhat inclined to
suspect that they might have been lost by the
way, but it is certain, however, that when once
one or a few Sheep get away from the rest of
their acquaintances, they return homeward with
great eagerness and perseverance. I have lived
beside a drove-road the better part of my life,



66 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

and many stragglers have I seen bending their
steps northward. in the spring of the year. A
shepherd rarely sees these journeyers twice :
if he sees them and stops them in the morning,
they are gone long before night; and if he
sees them at night, they will be gone many
miles before morning. This strong attach-
ment to the place of their nativity is much
more predominant in our old aboriginal breed
than in any of the other kinds with which I arh
acquainted.

«The most singular instance that I know
of, to be quite well authenticated, is that of
a black ewe, that returned with her lamb
from a farm in the head of Glen-Lyon, to the
farm of Harehope, in Tweeddale, and accom-
plished the journey in nine days. She was
soon missed by her owner, and a shepherd was
despatched in pursuit of her, who followed her
all the way to Crieff, where he gave her up
and returned home. He got intelligence of
her all the way, and every one told him that



AFFECTION OF THE SHEEP. 67

she absolutely persisted in travelling on,—she
would not be stopped, regarding neither sheep
nor shepherd by the way. Her lamb was
often far behind, and she had constantly to
urge it on by impatient bleating. She -un-
luckily came to Stirling on the morning of a
great annual fair, about the end of May, and
judging it imprudent to venture through the
crowd with her lamb, she halted on the north
side of the town the whole day, where she was
seen by hundreds, lying close by the roadside.
But next morning, when all was quiet, a little
after the break of day, she was observed stealing
quietly through the town, in apparent terror of
the dogs that were prowling about the street.
The last time she was seen on the road was at a
toll-bar near St. Ninian’s; the man stopped her,
thinking she was a strayed animal, and that
some one would claim her. She tried several
times to break through by force when he opened
the gate, but he always prevented her, and at
length she turned patiently back. She had



68 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

found some means of eluding him, however,
for home she came on a Sabbath morning, early
in June; and she left the farms of Lochs, in
Glen-Lyon, either on the Thursday afternoon or
Friday morning, a week and two days before.
The farmer of Harehope paid the Highland
farmer the price of her, and she remained on
her native farm till she died of old age, in her
seventeenth year.

“With regard to the natural affection of.
this animal, the instances that might be men-
tioned are without number. When one loses its
sight in a flock of Sheep, it is rarely abandoned
to itself in that hapless and helpless state.
Some one always attaches itself to it, and by
bleating calls it back from the precipice, the
lake, the pool, and all dangers whatever.
There is a disease among Sheep, called by
shepherds the Breakshugh, a deadly sort of
dysentery, which is as infectious as fire in a
flock. Whenever a Sheep feels itself seized by
this, it instantly withdraws from all the rest,



AFFECTION OF THE SHEEP. 69

shunning their society with the greatest care ;
it even hides itself, and is often very hard to be
found. Though this propensity can hardly be
attributed to natural instinct, it is, at all events,
a provision of nature of the greatest kindness
and beneficence.

«« Another manifest provision of nature
with regard to these animals is, that the more
inhospitable the land is on which they feed, the
greater their kindness and attention to their
young. I once herded two years on a wild and
bare farm called Willenslee, on the border of
Mid-Lothian, and of all the Sheep I ever saw,
these were the kindest and most affectionate to
the lambs. I was often deeply affected at
scenes which I witnessed. We had one very
severe winter, so that our Sheep grew lean in the
spring, and thwarter-ill, a sort of paralytic
affection, came among them, and carried off a
number. Often have I seen these poor victims,
when fallen down to rise no more, even when
unable to lift their heads from the ground, hold-



70 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

ing up the leg, to invite the starving lamb to the
miserable pittance that the udder could still
supply. I had never seen aught more painfully
affecting.

*« Tt is well known that it is a custom with
shepherds when a lamb dies, if the mother have
a sufficiency of milk, to bring her from the hill,
and put another lamb to her. ‘This is done by
putting the skin of the dead lamb upon the
living one; the ewe immediately acknowledges
the relationship, and after the skin has warmed
on it, so as to give it something of the smell of
her own progeny, and it has sucked her two or
three times, she accepts and nourishes it as her
own ever after. Whether it is from joy at this
apparent reanimation of her young one, or be-
cause a little doubt remains on her mind which
she would fain dispel, I cannot decide, but for
a number of days she shows far more fondness,
by bleating and caressing over this one, than
she did formerly over the one that was really
her own. But this is not what I wanted to



AFFECTION OF THE SHEEP. 71

explain ; it was, that such Sheep as thus lose
their lambs must be driven to a house with
dogs, so that the lamb may be put to them;
for they will not suffer it to approach but in
a dark confined place. But at Willenslee, I
never needed to drive home a Sheep by force
with dogs, or in any other way than the fol-
lowing: I found every ewe, of course, standing
hanging her head over her dead lamb; and
having a piece of twine with me for the purpose,
I tied that to the lamb’s neck or foot, and
trailing it along, the ewe followed me into any
house or fold that I chose to lead her. Any
of them would have followed me in that way
for miles, with her nose close on the lamb,
which she never quitted for a moment, except
to chase my dog, which she would not suffer
to walk near me. I often, out of curiosity,
led them into the side of the kitchen-fire by
this means, into the midst of servants and
dogs; but the more that dangers multiplied
around the ewe, she clung the closer to her dead



He STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

offspring, and thought of nothing whatever
but protecting it. One of the two years while
I remained on this farm, a severe blast of
snow came on by night, about the latter end
of April, which destroyed several scores of our
lambs ; and as we had not enough of tavins and
odd lambs for the mothers that had lost theirs,
of course we selected the best ewes, and put
lambs to them. As we were making the dis-
tribution, I requested of my master to spare me
a lamb for a hawked ewe which he knew,
and which was standing over a dead lamb
in the head of the Hope, about four miles from
the house. He would not do it, but bid me
let her remain for a day or two, and per-
haps a twin would be forthcoming. I did
so, and faithfully she did stand to her charge ;
so faithfully, that I think the like never was
equalled by any of the woolly race. I visited
her every morning and evening, and for
the first eight days never found her above
two or three yards from the lamb; and al-



AFFECTION OF THE SHEEP. 73

ways, as I went my rounds, she eyed me
long ere I came near her, and kept tramp-
ing with her feet, and whistling through her
nose, to frighten away the dog; he got a
regular chase twice a day as I passed by: but,
however excited and fierce a ewe may be, she
never offers any resistance to mankind, being
perfectly and meekly passive to them. The
weather grew fine and warm, and the dead
lamb soon decayed, which the body of a
dead lamb does particularly soon; but still
this affectionate and desolate creature kept
hanging over the poor remains with an attach-
ment that seemed to be nourished by hope-
lessness. It often drew the tears from my
eyes to see her hanging with such fondness
over a few bones, mixed with a small portion
of wool. For the first fortnight she never
quitted the spot, and for another week she
visited it every morning and evening, uttering
a few kindly and heart-piercing bleats each time ;
till at length every remnant of her offspring



74 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

vanished, mixing with the soil, or wafted away
by the winds.’ ””

“ Poor creature! Uncle Thomas, that was
very affecting.”

“So much for the Ettrick Shepherd’s stories.
I will now tell you of a remarkable instance of
sagacity in a Roebuck, which is mentioned in
Monk Lewis’s correspondence. Here it is :—
‘ One of the farm-keeper’s wives going homewards
through the wood, saw a Roebuck running to-
wards her with great speed. Thinking it was
going to attack her with its horns, she was con-
siderably alarmed ; but, at the distance of a few
paces, the animal stopped and disappeared among
the bushes. The woman recovered herself,
and was proceeding on her way when the
Roebuck appeared again, ran towards her as
before, and again retreated without doing her
any harm. On this being done a third time,
the woman was induced to follow it till it led
her to the side of a deep ditch, in which she
discovered a young Roebuck unable to extri-



HABITS OF THE GOAT. 75

cate itself, and on the point of being drowned.
The woman immediately tried to rescue it,
during which the other Roebuck stood by
quietly, and, as soon as her exertions were
successful, the two animals galloped off to-
gether.’

“Though it differs in many respects from
the Sheep, the Goat bears so strong a resemblance
to that animal, that now I am speaking of it,
I may as well tell you a story or two about
the Goat. It will save my returning to it after-
wards.”

“ Very well, Uncle Thomas.”

“The Goat is in every respect more fitted
for a life of savage liberty than the Sheep.
It is of a more lively disposition, and is pos-
sessed of a greater degree of intelligence. It
readily attaches itself to man, and seems sen-
sible of his caresses. It delights in climbing
rocky precipices, and going to the very edge of
danger. Nature has admirably fitted it for
traversing such places with ease; its hoof is



76 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

hollow underneath, with sharp edges, so that it
walks as securely on the ridge of a house as on
the level ground.

“ The celebrated traveller Dr. Clarke gives a
very curious account of a Goat, which was trained
to exhibit various amusing feats of dexterity.

«« We met,’ says he, ‘an Arab with a Goat
which he led about the country to exhibit in
order to gain a livelihood for itself and its owner.
He had taught this animal, while he accompanied
its movements with a song, to mount upon little
cylindrical blocks of wood, placed successively
‘one above another, and in shape resembling the
dice-box belonging to a backgammon table.
In this manner the Goat stood, first on the top
of one cylinder, then on the top of two;
afterwards, of three, four, five, and six, until
it remained balanced upon the summit of them
all, elevated several feet above the ground, and
with its four feet collected upon a single point,
without throwing down the disjointed fabric
on which it stood. The diameter of the upper



COURAGE OF THE GOAT. 717

cylinder, on which its four feet alternately
remained until the Arab had ended his ditty,
was only two inches,,and the length of each six
inches. The most curious part of the per-
formance occurred afterwards; for the Arab,
to convince us of the animal’s attention to the
turn of the air, occasionally interrupted it; and
as often as he did this, the goat tottered,
appeared uneasy, and upon his becoming sud-
denly silent, in the middle of his song, it fell to
the ground.’ ”

“ Like the Sheep, the Goat possesses great
natural affection for its young. In its de-
fence it boldly repels the attacks of the most
formidable opponents. I remember a little
story which finely illustrates this instinctive
courage :—

“A gentleman having missed one of his Goats
when his flock was taken home at night, being
afraid the wanderer would get among and de-
stroy the young trees in the nursery, two boys,
wrapped in their plaids, were appointed to keep



78 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

watch all night. When the morning dawned,
they set out in search of her. They at length
discovered her on a pointed rock at a consider-
able distance, and hastening to the spot, per-
ceived her standing over her kid with the
greatest anxiety, defending it from a fox. Rey-
nard turned round and round to lay hold of his
prey, but the Goat presented her horns in every
direction. The youngest boy was despatched for
assistance to attack the fox, and the eldest, by
hallooing and throwing stones, sought to inti-
midate it as he advanced to the rescue. The
fox seemed well aware that the child could
not. execute his threats; he looked at him one
instant, and then renewed the assault, till, quite
impatient, he made a sudden spring at the kid.
The whole three animals then suddenly dis-
appeared, and were found at the bottom of
the precipice. The Goat’s horns were darted
into the back of the fox, and the kid lay
stretched beside them. It is supposed that
the fox had fixed his teeth in the kid, for its



AFFECTION OF THE GOAT. 79

neck was lacerated ; but the blow by which the
faithful mother had inflicted the death wound
upon her mortal enemy had been struck with so
much determination, that she had lost her balance,
and the whole three were thus precipitated over
the rock.

‘“‘ There is another story of the Goat, which
places its gratitude and affection in such an inte-
resting light, that I am sure it will delight you :—

“ After the final suppression of the Scottish
rebellion of 1715 by the decisive battle of
Preston, a gentleman who had taken a very
active share in it escaped to the West High-
lands, to the residence of a female relative, who
afforded him an asylum. As, in consequence
of the strict search which was made after the
ringleaders, it was soon judged unsafe for him
to remain in the house of his friend, he was
conducted to a cavern ina sequestered situation,
and furnished with a supply of food. The ap-
proach to this lonely abode consisted of a small
aperture, through which he. crept, dragging his



80 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

provisions along with him. A little way from
the mouth of the cave the roof became elevated,
but, on advancing, an obstacle obstructed his
progress. He soon perceived that, whatever it
might be, the object was a living one, but,
suspicious of danger though he was, he felt
unwilling to strike at a venture with his dirk,
but stooped down, and discovered a Goat and
her kid lying on the ground. The animal was
evidently in great pain, and on passing his
hand over her body, he discovered that one of
her legs was fractured. He accordingly bound
it up with his garter, and offered her some of
his bread ; but she refused to eat, and stretched
out her tongue, as if intimating that her mouth
was parched with thirst. He gave her water,
which she drank greedily, and then she ate °
the bread. At midnight he ventured from the
cave, pulled a quantity of grass and the tender
branches of trees, and carried them to the
poor sufferer, who received them with demon-
strations of gratitude.



GRATITUDE OF THE GOAT. 8]

“The only thing which the fugitive had to
occupy his attention in his dreary abode was
administering comfort to the Goat ; and secluded
and solitary as he was he was thankful to
have any living creature beside-him. Under
his care the animal quickly recovered, and be-
came tenderly attached to him. It happened
that the servant who was intrusted with the
secret of his retreat fell sick, when it became
necessary to send another with the daily pro-
vision. ‘The Goat, on this occasion happening
to be lying near the mouth of the cavern,
violently opposed the entrance of the stranger,
butting him furiously with her head. ‘The
fugitive, hearing the noise, advanced, and re-
ceiving the watchword from his new attendant,
interposed, and the faithful Goat permitted him
to pass. So resolute was the animal on this
occasion, that the gentleman was convinced she
would have died in his defence.” —

“ That was noble, Uncle Thomas.”’

G



82

CHAPTER V.

UNCLE THOMAS RELATES SOME VERY REMARKABLE STORIES ABOUT THE
CAT; POINTS OUT TO THE BOYS THE CONNECTION SUBSISTING BETWEEN
THE DOMESTIC CAT AND THE LION AND TIGER, AND TELLS THEM SOME
STORIES ABOUT THE GENTLENESS AS WELL AS THE FEROCITY OF THOSE
ANIMALS.

“ TaoucH far from being so general a favourite
as the dog, the domestic Cat has many qualities
to recommend it to our regard, and some of the.
stories which I am going to tell you exhibit
instances of gentleness and affection mace
cannot be surpassed. :

“JT dare say, Frank, you recollect the cir-
cumstance of the Duke of Norfolk’s Cat-
seeking to share his imprisonment by getting
down the chimney of his room when he was
confined in the Tower, during the reign of
Queen Elizabeth. Here, however, is an in-



®

FELINE AFFECTION. 83

stance of still stronger attachment to its master,
which will match indeed with the best of those
of the dog :—

“A Cat which had been brought up in a
family became extremely attached to the eldest
child, a little’ boy, who was very fond of play-
ing with her. She bore with the most exem-
plary patience any little maltreatment which -
she received from him—which even good-
natured children seldom fail, occasionally, to
give to animals in their sports with them—
without ever making any attempt at resistance.
Whenever she caught a mouse, she brought
it alive to her friend; if he showed any de-
sire to take her prey from her, she would suffer
it to escape, and waited to see whether he was
able to catch it. If he did not, the Cat darted
at, seized it, and laid it again before him;
and in this manner the sport continued as long
as the child showed any inclination for the
amusement.

“It happened that the boy was attacked by



54 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

small-pox, and during the early stages of the
disease the Cat never quitted his bedside ; but,
as the danger increased, it was found necessary
to remove the Cat and lock her up. At length
the child died. On the following day the Cat
having escaped from her confinement, imme-
diately ran to the apartment where she hoped
to find her playmate. Disappointed in_ her
expectation, she sought for him with symptoms
of great uneasiness and loud lamentations, all
over the house, till she came to the door of the
room in which the corpse lay. Here she lay
down in silent melancholy, till she was again.
locked up. As soon as the child was interred, »
the Cat was set at liberty; she soon disappeared,
and it was not till nearly a fortnight had
elapsed that she returned to the well-known
apartment, quite emaciated. She refused, how-
ever, to take any food, and soon again escaped,
with dismal cries. At length, compelled by
hunger, she made her appearance daily at
dinner-time, but always left the house as soon






PELINE AFFECTION. 85

as she had eaten the portion of food assigned to
her. No one knew where she spent the rest of
the time, till she was one day discovered under
the wall of the burying-ground, close to the
grave of her favourite; and so indelible was
her attachment to her deceased friend, that till
his parents removed to another place, five years
afterwards, she never, except in the greatest
severity of winter, passed the night anywhere
else than close to the grave. It was somewhat
curious, that although she suffered herself to
be played with by the other children, she never
exhibited a particular partiality for any of
them.”

“Poor Puss! It certainly was a most affec-
tionate creature, Uncle Thomas.”

‘There is another story of the Cat’s attach-
ment, boys, which I lately saw recorded in a
provincial newspaper. It serves to illustrate
the unexplained—I had almost said unexplain-
able—instinct which carries animals from one
place to another, although they may never



86 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

have been that way before. A short time ago,
a family removed from the metropolis of Scot-
land to another town, at the distance of up-
wards of thirty miles, to reach which it is
necessary to cross an arm of the sea, several
miles in breadth, or to make a circuit of about
twenty miles. They had a favourite Cat, which,
previous to their removal, alarmed perhaps by
the unwonted bustle, hid itself, and no stra-
tagem could induce it to leave its place of con-
cealment. They of course gave her up for lost.
It happened, however, that one morning, after
they had been settled for several weeks in
their new abode, their attention was attracted by
a violent scratching at the docr; on opening it,
greatly to their astonishment, in walked their
favourite Cat, of which, from the time of their
removal, they had heard nothing. How she had
found out the way, whether she had crossed
the sea or avoided it by making the long circuit -
of which I told you, it was of course im-
possible to tell, but it certainly is one of



FELINE AFFECTION. 87

the most remarkable instances of the kind on
record.”

“Tt is a most mysterious affair, Uncle
Thomas.”

“It is so, Harry, but the instance is not a
solitary one. The same thing happened with
the favourite Cat of a nobleman, which on being
removed to his country seat, more than a hun-
dred miles from London, found her way back
to his house in town.”

“T recollect, boys, how highly pleased you
were with the story which I told you about
the dog discovering the murderers of his
master. There is one of a very similar de-
scription of a French Cat, which I am sure
will also interest you :-—

“In the beginning of the present century a
woman was murdered in Paris. The magis-
trate who went to investigate the affair was
accompanied by a physician; they found the
body lying upon the floor. Upon a chest in
a corner of the room sat a Cat, motionless, with



8& STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

its eyes stedfastly fixed upon the body of its
murdered mistress. Many persons, drawn by
curiosity, now entered the apartment, but
neither the appearance of such a crowd of
strangers, nor the confusion that prevailed in
the place, could make the Cat change her
position. In the meantime, several persons
were apprehended on suspicion of being con-
cerned in the murder, and it was resolved to
lead them into the apartment. Before the Cat
saw them, when she only heard their footsteps
approaching, her eyes flashed with increased
fury, her hair stood erect, and as soon as
they entered the apartment, she sprang towards
them with expressions of the most violent rage
but did not venture to attack them, being
probably alarmed by the crowd that followed.
After turning several times towards them with
a peculiar ferocity of aspect, she crept into a
corner,. with an air indicative of the deepest
melancholy. This extraordinary behaviour of
the Cat astonished every one present, nor was



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7
STORIES

ILLUSTRATIVE OF THE

INSTINCT OF ANIMALS,

Theit Characters and Hadits.

BY

THOMAS BINGLEY,

AUTHOR OF ‘‘STORIRS ABOUT DOGS; “TALES OF SHIPWREOKS ;”
** STORIES ABOUT HORSES,” ETO. ETC.

WITH ENGRAVINGS FROM DRAWINGS BY THOMAS LANDSEER.
FIFTH EDITION.

LONDON :

W. KENT AND CO. (Late D. Bogue),
86, FLEET STREET.
BINGLEY’S TALES AND STORIES.

“A SET OF BOOKS
WHICH, PROFESSING ONLY TO AMUSE
INSTRUCT AND EDIFY
IN

NO COMMON DEGREE.”

Quarterty Revizw Marcu, 1844.
Preface to the Hitth Edition.

Tux sale of nearly Seven Thousand copies of this little work
in the short space of time that has elapsed since it was first
published, is a sufficient test of the estimation in which it is
held by the public.
On its first appearance many flattering notices of it appeared
in the various periodicals of the day. More recently the
highest literary authority in England—The Quarterly Re-
view—in a late number mentions the series of Tales and
Stories, of which it forms a part, with high commendation,
characterising them as “ a set of books which, professing only
to amuse, instruct and edify in no common degree.”
In America the books have been all reprinted, and enjoy a
reputation not inferior to that which has been so generously
’ awarded them in this country. In a paper issued from the
* Secretary’s Office, Department of Common Schools, State
of New York,” the superintendent says—“ I have examined
the little works which you were so obliging as to send me
[Bingley’s Tales, etc.], and have no hesitation in saying that
they are each and all admirably adapted to the purposes they
lv PREFACE.

were designed to subserve in the development of the intel-

lectual and moral faculties of children. A liberal infusion of

these and other kindred works into our school-district libraries
would, in my judgment, greatly conduce to their interest,
especially to the young.”

In the present edition some improvements have been made
so as to render the work still more worthy of public appro-
bation.

The series of works now consists of seven volumes, any of
which can be purchased separately.

Srorims aznout Does, illustrative of their Intelligence, Saga-
city, and Fidelity ; with Engravings by Tuomas Lanp-
srER. Third Edition.

Stories about Horsss, illustrative of their Intelligence, £a-
gacity, and Docility ; with Twelve Engravings on Steel.

Tates aout Suipwrecks, and other Disasters at Sea ; with
Engravings by E. Lanpetts.

Taxes about Birps, illustrative of their Habits and Instincts ;
with Engravings.

Tatrs apout Travetters, their Perils, Adventures, and
Discoveries ; including those of Bruce, Park, Denham,
and Clapperton, etc. etc.; with Engravings.

Brstz QuaprureDs; the Natural History of the Animals
mentioned in Scripture; with Sixteen Engravings by
Samvugt WILtiams.
CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

UNCLE THOMAS RESUMES HIS STORIES ABOUT THE INSTINCTS OF ANIMALS.
—TELLS ABOUT THE HORSE, AND OF THE IMMENSE HERDS WHICH ARE
TO BE FOUND ON THE PLAINS OF SOUTH AMERICA; OF THEIR CAPTURE
BY MEANS OF THE. LASSO; AS WELL AS SEVERAL CURIOUS STORIES
ABOUT THE INTELLIGENCE, AFFECTION, AND DOCILITY OF THE

ons ayeek OCU



HOBSE ........+



CHAPTER II.

UNCLE THOMAS TELLS ABOUT THE HABITS OF THE BEAVER; ALSO ABOUT
THE CURIOUS NESTS OF THE SOCIABLE GROSBEAK ; AND GIVES A LONG
AND ENTERTAINING ACCOUNT OF THE WHITE ANT OF AFRICA, AND THE
IMPORTANT PART WHICH IT ACTS IN THE ECONOMY OF NATURE,,, 2)

CHAPTER ITI.

.
UNCLE THOMAS DESCRIBES THE MANNER IN WHICH WILD ELEPHANTS ARE
CAUGHT, AND RELATES SOME CURIOUS STORIES OF THE CUNNING,
AFFECTION, AND INTELLIGENCE OF THE ELEPHANT... ..¢..cseeeeeses 46


V1 CONTENTS.

CHAPTER IV.

UNCLE THOMAS INTRODUCES TO THE NOTICE OF HIS LITTLE AUDIENCE
THE ETTRICK SHEPHERD'S STORIES ABOUT SHEEP; AND TELLS
THEM SOME INTERESTING STORIES ABOUT THE GOAT, AND ITS
PRO GIAMMEST tet ie. Ulissisarenestpeietesrecestaces +> escss. Eage Gb

CHAPTER V.

UNCLE THOMAS RELATES SOME VERY REMARKABLE STORIES ABOUT THE
CAT; POINTS OUT TO THE BOYS THE CONNECTION SUBSISTING BETWEEN
THE DOMESTIC CAT AND THE LION AND TIGER, AND TELLS THEM SOME
STORIES ABOUT THE GENTLENESS AS WELL AS THE FEROCITY OF THOSE
Eo ry sags sarinevasaeecstevssescsp ee scossnves:, OF

CHAPTER VI.

UNCLE THOMAS TELLS ABOUT THE TIGER, AND OF THE CURIOUS MODES
WHICH ARE ADOPTED FOR ITS CAPTURE AND DESTRUCTION; ALSO
ABOUT THE PUMA, OR AMERICAN LION; AND INTRODUCES SOME
HUNTING SCENES IN NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA, WITH OTHER
INTERESTING AND ENTERTAINING ADVENTURES .,,........s.0s0000e. 116

CHAPTER VII.

UNCLE THOMAS TELLS ABOUT THE MIGRATING INSTINCT OF ANIMALS :—
OF THE HOUSE SWALLOW OF ENGLAND; AND THE ESCULENT SWABLOW,
WHOSE NEST IS EATEN BY THE CHINESE ; ALSO ABOUT THE PASSENGER
PIGEON OF AMERICA; OF THE LAND-CRAB AND ITS MIGRATIONS; AND
OF THOSE OF THE SALMON AND THE HERRING,,,.. .. 188


CONTENTS. Vil

CHAPTER VIII.

UNCLE THOMAS TELLS ABOUT THE BABOONS, AND THEIR PLUNDERING
EXCURSIONS TO THE” GARDENS AT THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE; ALSO
ABOUT LE VAILLANT’S BABOON KEES, AND HIS PECULIARITIES; AND
RELATES AN AMUSING STORY, ABOUT A YOUNG MONKEY, DEPRIVED OF
ITS MOTHER, PUTTING ITSELF UNDER THE FOSTERING CARE OF A
BeBe OOK outs ies trict centtecesn



Shgeees Aealecone elect gadis oem

wy

CHAPTER IX.

UNCLE THOMAS CONCLUDES STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT, WITH SEVERAL
INTERESTING ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE AFFECTIONS OF ANIMALS,
PARTICULARLY OF THE INSTINCT OF MATERNAL AFFECTION; AND
POINTS OUT THE BENEFICENT CARE OF PROVIDENCE IN IMPLANTING
IN THE BREASTS OF EACH OF HIS CREATURES THE INSTINCTS WHICH
ARE NECESSARY FOR ITS PROTECTION AND PRESERVATION ,,,...... 189
STORIES

ILLUSTRATIVE OF THE

"INSTINCTS OF ANIMALS.

CHAPTER I.

UNCLE THOMAS RESUMES HIS STORIES ABOUT THE INSTINCTS OF ANIMALS.
—TELLS ABOUT THE HORSE, AND OF THE IMMENSE HERDS WHICH ARK
TO BE FOUND ON THE PLAINS OF SOUTH AMERICA 5; OF THEIR CAPTURE
BY MEANS OF THE LASSO; AS WELL AS SEVERAL CURIOUS STORIES
ABOUT THE INTELLIGENCE, AFFECTION, AND DOCILITY OF THE HORSE.

“Come along, boys, I am glad to see you
again! I promised, at our next meeting, to tell
you some T'ales about the Instincts of Animals ;
and I propose to begin with the Horse. I like
to interest you with those animals with which
you are familiar, and to draw out your sym-
pathies towards them. After the Srorimus
B
2 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

aBout Does which I told you, some of them
exhibiting those fine creatures in such an ami-
able and affectionate light, I am sure they
must assume a new interest in your minds.
Such instances of fidelity and attachment could
not fail to impress you with a higher opinion
of the animals than you before possessed, and
show that kindness and good treatment, even to
a brute, are never without their reward.

“T wish to excite the same interest towards
the other animal which, I hope, I have effected
towards the Dog. Each, you will find, has
been endowed by its Creator with particular
instincts and dispositions, to fit it for the station
which it was intended to occupy in the great
system of nature. But I know you like stories
better than lectures, so I will not tire you by
lecturing, but at once proceed to relate some
of the stories which I have gathered for you.”

“Oh no, Uncle Thomas, we never feel tired
of listening to you; we know you have always
something curious to tell us.”
INTRODUCTION. 3

“ Well then, boys, I will begin with the
Horse. Ihave so many stories about the in-
telligence, sagacity, and docility of that noble
animal, however, that I must now tell you a
few only, referring you for the others to
Stories aBsour Horsgs, where you will find
many more, quite equal in interest to any of the
Stories which I have told you.”

“Thank you, Uncle Thomas !”

“In some parts of the world there are to be
found large herds of wild Horses. In South
America, in particular, immense plains are in-
habited by them, and, it is said, that so many
as ten thousand are sometimes found in a single
herd. ‘They are always preceded by a leader,
who directs their motions; and such is the
regularity with which they perform their move-
ments, that it seems almost as if they could not
be surpassed by the best-trained cavalry.

“It is extremely dangerous for travellers to
encounter a herd of this description. When
unaccustomed to the sight of such an immense
4 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

multitude of animals, they cannot help feeling
greatly alarmed at their rapid and apparently
irresistible approach. Their trampling sounds
like the loudest thunder; and such is the ra-
pidity and impetuosity of their advance, that it
seems to threaten instant destruction. Suddenly,
however, they stop short, utter a loud and
piercing neigh, and, with a rapid wheel in an
opposite course, sometimes altogether disappear.
On such occasions, it requires all the care of the
traveller to prevent his horses from breaking
loose and escaping with the wild herd.”

“JT have heard that wild Horses are very
watchful, Uncle Thomas.”

‘They are so, Harry. Knowing that they
are ill prepared for fighting, and that their
safety is in flight, when they sleep, they always
appoint one to act as sentinel. If it sees any
suspicious object approach, it walks up to it
for the purpose of ascertaining if there is dan-
ger, and, if necessary, to prevent a nearer
advance. If, however, the assailant is not to be


rr atari eerie al

nies
HABITS OF THE WILD HORSE. 5

deterred, the sentinel sounds the alarm by
uttering a peculiar neigh, which rouses the
whole herd, and all gallop away.”

« Are they ever caught, then, UncleThomas?”’

“Oh yes, Frank. In those countries where
Horses are so plentiful the inhabitants seldom
take the trouble to rear them, but, when they
want one, mount upon an animal which has been
accustomed to the sport, and gallop over the
plain towards the herd, which is generally found
at no great distance. Gradually he approaches
some stragglers from the main body, and,
having selected the animal which he wishes to
possess, he dexterously throws the /asso (which
is a long rope with a running noose, and which
is firmly fixed to his saddle) in such a manner
as to entangle its hind legs ; and, with a sudden
jerk, he pulls it over on its side. In an
instant he jumps off his horse, wraps his
poncho, or cloak, round the captive’s head, fixes
a bit into his mouth, and a saddle upon its
back. He then removes the cloak, leaps into


6 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

the saddle, and the animal starts on its feet.
In spite of its contortions and kickings, the
hunter keeps his seat till the animal, having
wearied itself out with its vain efforts, submits
to the discipline of its captor, who seldom fails
to reduce it to complete obedience.”

“That is very dexterous indeed, Uncle Tho-
mas; but surely all Horses are not originally
found in this wild state P Ihave heard that the
Arabians are famous for rearing them.”

“Arabia has for a long time been noted,
Frank, for the symmetry and speed of its
Horses : so much attention has been paid, how-
ever, to the breeding of them in our own country,
for the race-course as well as the hunting-field,
that the English Horses are now almost un-
equalled both for speed and endurance.

“Tt is little wonder that the Arabian Horse
should be very excellent, considering the
care and attention which it receives, and the
kindness and consideration with which it is
treated. One of the best stories which I ever


THE ARABIAN HORSE. 7

heard of the love of an Arab for his steed is that
related of one from whom one of our envoys
wished to purchase his horse.

“The animal was a bright bay mare, of extra-
ordinary shape and beauty; and the owner,
proud of its appearance and qualities, paraded
it before the envoy’s tent until it attracted his
attention. On being asked if he would sell her,
‘What will you give me?” was the reply. ‘That
depends upon her age; I suppose she is past
five?’ ‘Guess again, said he. ‘Four?’
‘Look at her mouth,’ said the Arab, with a
smile. On examination she was found to be
rising three. This, from her size and symmetry,
greatly enhanced her value. The envoy said, ‘ I
will give you fifty tomans (a coin nearly of
the value of a sovereign). ‘A little more, if
you please,’ said the fellow, somewhat enter-
tained. ‘ Highty—a hundred.’ He shook his
head and smiled. The officer at last came to
two hundred tomans. ‘ Well,’ said the Arab,
‘you need not tempt me farther. You are a
8 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

rich elchee (nobleman) ; you have fine horses,
camels, and mules, and I am told you have
loads of silver and gold. Now,’ added he,
‘you want my mare, but you shall not have
her for all you have got.’ He put spurs to
his horse, and was soon out of the reach of
temptation.

Swift as the Arabian horses, are, however,
they are frequently matched by those of our own
country. I say nothing about Race Horses,
because, though some of them are recorded to
have run at an amazing speed, the effort is
generally continued for but a short time. Here
is an instance of speed in a horse which saved
its unworthy master from the punishment due
to his crimes :—

“ One morning, about four o'clock, a gentle-
man was stopped and robbed by a highwayman
named Nicks, at Gadshill, on the west side of
Chatham. He was mounted on a bay mare of
great speed and endurance, and as soon as he
had accomplished his purpose, he instantly
SPEED OF THE HORSE. 9

started for Gravesend, where he was detained
nearly an hour by the difficulty of getting a boat.
He employed the interval to advantage, however,
by baiting his horse. From thence he crossed
the Thames, and landing in Essex proceeded
to Chelmsford, where he again stopped about
half an hour for refreshment. He then went
to Braintree, Bocking, Withersfield, over the
Downs to Cambridge, and still pursuing the
cross roads, he went by Fenney Stanton to Hunt-
ingdon, where he again rested about half an hour.
Proceeding now on the north road, at a full
gallop most of the way, he arrived at York the
same afternoon, put off his boots and riding
clothes, and went dressed to the bowling-green,
where, among other promenaders, happened to
be the Lord Mayor of the city. He there tried
to do something particular, that his lordship
might remember him, and asking what o’clock
it was, the mayor informed him that it was a
quarter past eight. Notwithstanding all these
precautions, however, he was discovered, and tried


10 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

for the robbery ; he rested his defence on the
fact of his being at York at the time mentioned,
and argued from this, that it was impossible he
could have been at Gadshill at the time of the
robbery. ‘The gentleman swore positively to
the time and place at which the robbery was
committed, but, on the other hand, the proof
was equally clear that the prisoner was at York
the same evening, and the jury acquitted him,
on the supposed impossibility of his having got
so great a distance from Kent in so short
a time.”

“So that he owed his safety to the speed of
his horse, Uncle Thomas ?”’

“ He did so, Harry. The horse can on occa-
sion swim as well as most other animals, yet it
never takes to the water unless urged to do so.
Here is a story about a horse saving the lives
of many persons who had suffered shipwreck
by being driven upon the rocks at the Cape of
Good Hope, which, I am sure, will interest you
as much for the perseverance and docility of the
DOCILITY OF THE HORSE. 11

animal, as for the benevolence and intrepidity of
its owner :—

“A violent gale of wind setting in from
north and north-west, a vessel in the roads
dragged her anchors, was forced on the rocks,
and bulged; and while the greater part of the
crew fell an immediate sacrifice to the waves,
the remainder were seen from the shore strug-
gling for their lives, by clinging to the different
pieces of the wreck. ‘The sea ran dreadfully
high, and broke over the sailors with such amaz-
ing fury, that no boat whatever could venture
off to their assistance. Meanwhile a planter,
considerably advanced in life, had come from
his farm to be a spectator of the shipwreck ;
his heart was melted at the sight of the un-
happy seamen, and knowing the bold and en-
terprising spirit of his horse, and his particular
excellence as a swimmer, he instantly deter-
mined to make a desperate effort for their de-
liverance. He alighted and blew a little brandy
into his horse’s nostrils, and again seating him-
12 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

self in the saddle, he instantly pushed into the
midst of the breakers. At first both disap-
peared, but it was not long before they floated
on the surface, and swam up to the wreck;
when, taking with him two men, each of whom
held by one of his stirrups, he brought them
safe to shore. This perilous expedition he
repeated no less than seven times, and saved
fourteen lives; but on his return the eighth
time, being much fatigued, and meeting a most
formidable wave, he lost his balance, and was
overwhelmed in a moment. The horse swam
safely to land, but his gallant rider sank to
rise no more.”

“That was very unfortunate, Uncle Thomas.
I suppose the planter had been so fatigued by
his previous exertions, that he had not strength
to struggle with the strong waves.’

“ Most likely, Harry. I dare say the poor
animal felt the loss of this kind owner very
much, for the Horse soon becomes attached
to his master, and exhibits traits of intelli-
AFFECTION OF THE HORSE. 13

gence and fidelity, certainly not surpassed by
those of any other animal. For instance :—A
gentleman, who was one dark night riding home
through a wood, had the misfortune to strike his
head against the branch of a tree, and fell from
his horse stunned by the blow. ‘The noble ani-
mal immediately returned to the house which
they had left, which stood about a mile distant.
He found the door closed,—the family had retired
to bed. He pawed at it, however, till one of
them, hearing the noise, arose and opened it, and
to his surprise, saw the horse of his friend. No
sooner was the door opened than the horse turned
round. as if it wished to be followed; and the
man, suspecting there was something wrong,
followed the animal, which led him directly to
the spot where its wounded master lay on the
ground.

There is another story of a somewhat simi-
lar description in which he saved his master from
perishing among the snow ; it happened in the
north of Scotland :—
14 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

. © A gentleman connected with the Excise
was returning home from one of his professional
journeys. His way lay across a range of hilis,
the road over which was so blocked up with
snow as to leave no trace of it discernible.
Uncertain how to proceed, he resolved to trust
to his horse, and throwing loose the reins,
allowed him to choose his course. The ani-
mal proceeded cautiously, and safely for some
time, till, coming toa ravine, both horse and
rider sunk in a snow-wreath several fathoms’
deep.

“Stunned by the suddenness and depth of
the descent, the gentleman lay for some time
insensible. On recovering he found himself
nearly three yards from the dangerous spot,
with his faithful horse standing over him,
licking the snow from his face. He accounted
for his extrication, by supposing that the bridle
must have been attached to his person, but so
completely had he lost all consciousness that,
beyond the bare fact as stated, he had no
FRIENDSHIP OF ANIMALS. 15

knowledge of the means by which he had made
so remarkable an escape.”

“Tt was at any rate very kind in the horse
to clear away the snow, Uncle Thomas.”

‘** No doubt of it, John, and perhaps he owed
his life quite as much to this act of kindness, as
to being pulled out of the ravine. He might
have been as certainly choked by the snow out
of it as in it. Sometimes the Horse becomes
much attached to the animals with which it
associates, and its’ feelings of friendship are as
powerful as those of the dog. A gentleman of
Bristol had a greyhound, which slept in the
same stable and contracted a very great inti-
macy with a fine hunter. When the dog was
taken out, the horse neighed wistfully after it,
and seemed to long for its return; he welcomed
it home with a neigh; the greyhound ran up to
the horse and licked him; the horse, in return,
scratched the greyhound’s back with his teeth.
On one occasion, when the groom had the
pair out for exercise, a large dog attacked the
16 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

greyhound, bore him to the ground, and seemed
likely to worry him, when the horse threw back
his ears, rushed forward, seized the strange dog
by the back, and flung him to a distance, “which
so terrified the aggressor, that he at once desisted
and made off.”

“That was very kind, Uncle Thomas. I
like to hear of such instances of friendship be-
tween animals.”

* Such a docile animal as the Horse, boys,
can readily be trained to particular habits, and
does not readily forget them, however disrepu-
table. There is an odd story to illustrate this :—

“ About the middle of last century, a Scot-
tish lawyer had occasion to visit the metropolis.
At that period such journeys were usually
performed on horseback, and the traveller might
either ride post, or, if willing to travel eco-
nomically, he bought a horse before setting
out, and sold it at the end of his journey.
The lawyer had chosen the latter mode of tra-
velling, and sold the animal on which he rode
DOCILITY OF THE HORSE. 17
from Scotland as soon as he arrived in London.
With a view to his return, he went to Smithfield
to purchase a horse. About dusk a handsome
one was offered at so cheap a rate that he
suspected the soundness of the animal, but
being able to discover no blemish, he became
the purchaser.

“Next morning, he set out on his journey;
the horse had excellent paces, and our traveller
while riding over the first few miles, where the
road was well frequented, did not fail to con-
gratulate himself on his good fortune, which had
led him to make so advantageous a bargain.

‘* ‘They arrived at last at Finchley Common,
and, at a place where the road ran down a slight
eminence and up another, the lawyer met a
clergyman driving a one-horse chaise. ‘There
was nobody within sight, and the horse by his
conduct instantly discovered the profession of his
former owner. Instead of pursuing his journey,
he ran close up to the chaise and stopped it,
having no doubt but his rider would embrace

c
18 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

so favourable an opportunity for exercising his
calling. The clergyman seemed of the same
opinion, produced his purse unasked, and assured
the astonished lawyer that it was quite unne-
cessary to draw his pistol, as he did not intend to
offer any resistance. ‘The traveller rallied his
horse, and with many apologies to the gentleman
he had so innocently and unwillingly affrighted,
pursued his journey.

“ They had not proceeded far till the horse
again made the same suspicious approach to a
coach, from the window of which a blunderbuss
was levelled, with denunciations of death and
destruction to the hapless and perplexed rider.
Tn short, after his life had been several times
endangered by the suspicions to which the con-
duct of his horse gave rise, and his liberty as often
threatened by the peace-officers, who were dis-
posed to apprehend him as a notorious highway-
man who had been the former owner of the horse,
he was obliged to part with the inauspicious
animal at a low price, and to purchase, for a high
INTELLIGENCE OF THE HORSE. 19

sum, one less beautiful, but not accustomed to
such dangerous habits.”

“ Capital, Uncle Thomas! I should have
hiked to have seen the perplexed look of the poor
lawyer, when he saw the blunderbuss make its
appearance at the carriage window !|”

‘There is one other story about the Horse,
boys, illustrative of its kindness and considera-
tion, which I must tell you before we leave
this intelligent and docile animal. A horse
which was remarkable for the peculiarity of its
temper, and for its antipathy to strangers,
among other bad propensities. constantly re-
sented the attempts of the groom to trim its
fetlocks. This circumstance happened to be
mentioned by its owner in conversation, in the
presence of his youngest child, a very few years
old, when he defied any man to perform the ope-
ration unassisted. ‘The father next day, in passing
through the stable yard, beheld, with the utmost
distress, the infant employed with a pair of scissors
attempting to clip the fetlocks of the hind legs
20 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

of this vicious hunter—an operation which had
been always performed with great danger, even
by a number of men. Instead, however, of
exhibiting his usual vicious disposition, the
horse, in the present case, was looking with the
greatest complacency on the little groom, who
soon after, to the very great relief of his father,
walked off unhurt.”

“ That was indeed a singular instance of
docility, Uncle Thomas !”

“Tt was so, Frank, and many more might
be told, but I must stop for the evening. Good
night, boys.”

** Good night, Uncle Thomas.”
21

CHAPTER II.

UNCLE THOMAS TELLS ABOUT THE HABITS OF THE BEAVER; ALSO ABOUT
THE CURIOUS NESTS OF THE SOCIABLE GROSBEAK ; AND GIVES A LONG
AND ENTERTAINING ACCOUNT OF THE WHITE ANT OF AFRICA, AND THE
IMPORTANT PART WHICH IT ACTS IN THE ECONOMY OF NATURE,

“ Goop evening, boys. Iam going to tell you
about a very singular animal to-night—singular
both in its conformation and its habits. I allude
to the Beaver.”’

“ Oh, we shall be so glad to hear atic the
Beaver, Uncle Thomas. I have sometimes won-
dered what sort of an animal it is. It is of its
skin that hats are made—is it not ?”

“Tt is so, Harry—at least it is of the fur
with which its skin is covered. But our business
now is with the Beaver itself. I think we shall
22 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

get on better by confining our attention to the
habits and instincts of the animal at present,
leaving its uses for future consideration.”’

“Very well, Uncle Thomas, we are all at-
tention.”

** The Beaver, which now is only to be found
in the more inaccessible parts of America, and
the northern countries. of Europe, affords a
curious instance of what may be called a com-
pound structure. It has the fore feet of a land
animal, and the hind ones of an aquatic one—the
latter only being webbed. Its tail is covered
with scales like a fish, and serves to direct its
course in the water, in which it spends much of
its time.

“ On the rivers where they abound, they
form societies, sometimes consisting of upwards
of two hundred. They begin to assemble about
the months of July or August, and generally
choose for the place of their future habitation
the side of a lake or river. If a lake in which
the water is always pretty nearly of an uniform
HABITS OF THE BEAVER. 23

level, they dispense with building a dam ; but if
the place they fix upon be the banks of a river,
which is liable to fluctuations in height, they im-
mediately set about constructing a pier or dam
to confine the water, so that they may always
have a good supply. This dam they build more
or less solid, according to the strength of the
current, always taking care to make it of the
form which offers the greatest resistance to the
flowing of the water.”

« That is very singular, Uncle Thomas. I
suppose it is their instinct which teaches them to
act in this manner.”

* You are right, Frank. Well, the mode in
which they set about constructing the dam is
this: having fixed upon the spot, they go into
the neighbouring forest, and cut quantities of
the smaller trees, which they forthwith convey
to the place selected, and having fixed them in
the earth, interweave them strongly and closely,
filling up all the crevices with mud and stones,
so as soon to make a most compact structure.
24 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

Sometimes even the trees take root, and the birds
build their nests in the branches.”

“Tt must be a work of very great labour, to
make a dam of this sort, Uncle Thomas.”

“The labour is very considerable, boys ; but
the power which, for want of a better name, we
call instinct, comes wonderfully to their aid. For
instance, it has been observed that they seek all
the trees which they want, on the banks of the
river, higher up than their building, so that
having once got them into the water, they are
easily floated to it, The same wonderful power
also teaches them to gnaw the trees, and cause
them to fall on the side nearest the water, so
as to convey them to it with the least possible
labour.”

“ Very good, Uncle Thomas.”

“‘When the Beavers have finished the dam,
they then proceed to construct houses for them-
selves. First they dig a foundation of a size
proportioned to the number of the family which
is to inhabit it. They then form the walls of earth
HABITS OF THE BEAVER. 25

and stones, mixed with billets of wood crossing
each other, and thus tying the fabric together
just in the same way as you sometimes see
masons do in building human dwellings. Their
huts, which are made to accommodate about four
old ones and six or eight young, are generally
shaped something like the figure of a haycock,
from four to seven feet high, and eight or nine
wide, and they have usually several entrances—
one or more opening into the river or lake,
below the surface of the water, and one commu-
nicating with any bushes or brushwood which
may be at hand, so as to afford the means of
escape in case of attack either on the land or
water side.”

“They must be pretty safe, then, Uncle
Thomas, since they can so readily escape.”

“ They are secure enough, Frank, so long as
they have only irrational or half-reasoning ani-
mals to contend with; but when man, armed
with the power before which mere instinct
must at all times bow, attacks them, they are
26 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

very easily overcome. Shall I tell you how the
hunters capture them >”

“If you please, Uncle Thomas.”’

“Very well. I must first tell you that the
skin of the Beaver is most valuable during
winter, as the fur is then thicker and finer
than during the summer; they are, therefore,
very little, if at all, molested during this season
by the hunters. When winter sets in, however,
and the lakes and rivers are frozen over, the
hunters set out to seek for the beaver colonies,
and, having found them, they make a number of
holes in the ice. ‘They then break down the
huts, and the animals escape into the water as
a place of safety. As they cannot remain long
under water, however, they soon have occasion
to come to the surface to breathe, and of course
make for the holes which the hunters have
formed in the-ice, when some of the latter, who
are waiting in readiness, knock them on the
head.”

‘* But, Uncle Thomas, is it not very cruel to
HABITS OF THE BEAVER. 27

kill the Beavers so? They feed entirely on ve-
getables, I believe, anddo no harm to any one.”

“You might say the same, John, of the
sheep on the downs; the one is not more cruel
than the other: both are useful to man, and
furnish him with food as well as raiment, and
both were, of course, included in the ‘ dominion’
which God originally gave to man ‘over the
beasts of the field.’ ”

“Ts the Beaver used for food, then, Uncle
Thomas ?”

“Tt is, John, and except during a small part
of the year, when it feeds on the root of the
water-lily, which communicates a peculiar fla-
vour to its flesh, it is said to be very palatable.
It is, however, principally for its fur that it is
hunted ; the skin, even, is of little value, being
coarser and looser in texture, and less applicable
to general uses than that of many other animals.
I dare say you have often seen it made into
gloves.”

“Oh yes, Uncle Thomas !”
28 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

“1 will now, boys, read to you an account of
a tame Beaver, which its owner, Mr. Broderip,
communicated to ‘The Gardens and Menage-
ries of the Zoological Society :’—

«The animal arrived in this country in the
winter of 1825, very young, being small and
woolly, and without the covering of long hair,
which marks the adult Beaver. It was the sole
survivor of five or six which were shipped at
the same time, and was in a very pitiable con-
dition. Good treatment soon made it familiar.
When called by its name, ‘ Binny,’ it generally
answered with a little cry, and came to its
owner. ‘The hearth rug was its favourite
haunt, and thereon it would lie, stretched out,
sometimes on its back, and sometimes flat on its
belly, but always near its master. The build-
ing instinct showed itself immediately after
it was let out of its cage, and materials were
placed in its way,—and this, before it had
been a week in its new quarters. Its strength,
even before it was half grown, was great. It
HABITS OF THE BEAVER. 29

would drag along a large sweeping-brush, or
a warming-pan, grasping the handle with his
teeth, so that the load came over its shoul-
der, and advancing in an oblique direction,
till it arrived at the point where it wished to
place it. The long and large materials were
always taken first, and two of the longest
were generally laid crosswise, with one of the
ends of each touching the wall, and the other
ends projecting out into the room. The area
formed by the crossed brushes and the wall he
would fill up with hand-brushes, rush baskets,
books, boots, sticks, cloths, dried turf, or any-
thing portable. As the work grew high, he
supported himself on his tail, which propped
him up admirably; and he would often, after
laying on one of his building materials, sit up
over against it, apparently to consider his work,
or, as the country people say, ‘judge it.’ This
pause was sometimes followed by changing the
position of the material ‘judged,’ and sometimes
it was left in its place. After he had piled
32 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

‘Bread, and bread and milk, and sugar,
formed the principal part of Binny’s food ; but he
was very fond of succulent fruits and roots. He
was a most entertaining creature; and some
highly comic scenes occurred between the worthy
but slow Beaver and a light and airy macauco,
that was kept in the same apartment.”

» “T think I have read, Uncle Thomas, that

Beavers use their tails. as trowels to plaster
their houses, and as sledges to carry the ma-—
terials to build their huts.”

“T dare say you have, Frank; but such
stories are mere fables, told by the ignorant to
excite wonder in the minds of the credulous.
No such operations have been observed by the
most accurate observers of the animal’s habits.
The wonderful instinct which they display in
building their houses, and in laying up a store
of food as a provision against winter, are quite
sufficient to excite our wonder and admiration,
without having recourse to false and exaggerated
statements.”
THE SOCIABLE GROSBEAK. 33

“The building instinct of the Beaver is very
singular, Uncle Thomas. Is it displayed by any
other animal ?”

‘* All animals exhibit it more or less, Harry,
and birds in particular, in the construction of
their nests, some of which are very curious
indeed ; perhaps one of the most striking in-
stances is that of the Sociable Grosbeak, a bird
which is found in the interior of the Cape of
Good Hope. They construct their nests under
one roof, which they form of the branches of
some tall and wide-spreading tree, thatching it
all over, as it were, with a species of grass.

“When they have got their habitation fairly
covered in, they lay out the inside, accerding to
some travellers, into regular streets, with nests
on both sides, about a couple of inches apart
from each other. In one respect, however, they
differ from the Beaver, they do not appear to
lay up a common store of food, the nature of
the climate not rendering such a precaution
necessary.

‘D
34 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

“‘ Here is the account of one of these nests,
furnished by a gentleman who minutely ex-
amined it :—

““«T observed on the way a tree with an
enormous nest of those birds to which I have
given the appellation of republicans; and as
soon as I arrived at my camp, I despatched a few
men, with a waggon, to bring it to me, that I
might open the hive, and examine the structure
in its minutest parts. When it arrived, I cut
it in pieces with a hatchet, and found that the
chief portion of it consisted of a mass of Bosh-
man’s grass, without any mixture, but so com-
pact and firmly basketed together as to be
impenetrable to the rain. ‘This is the com-
mencement of the structure; and each bird
builds its particular nest under this canopy.
But the nests are formed only beneath the eaves
of the canopy, the upper surface remaining
void, without, however, being useless ; for, as it
has a projecting rim, and is a little inclined, it
serves to let the rain-water run off, and preserves
THE SOCIABLE GROSBEAK. 35

each little dwelling from the wet. Figure to your-
self a huge irregular sloping roof, and all the
eaves of which are completely covered with
nests, crowded one against another, and you
will have a tolerably accurate idea of these sin-
gular edifices.

* « Rach individual nest is three or four inches
in diameter, which is sufficient for the bird. But
as they are all in contact with one another, around
the eaves, they appear to the eye to form but one
building, and are distinguishable from each other
only by a little external aperture, which serves as
an entrance to the nest ; and even this is some-
times common to three different nests, one of
which is situated at the bottom, and the other
two at the sides. |

« of the most considerable which I had seen any-
where on my journey, and contamed three hun-
dred and twenty inhabited cells.’ ”

“ Well, Uncle Thomas, that is very curious ;
I don’t know which most to admire. I rather
36 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

incline to the beaver, however, because of the
winter store of food which it lays up.”

“There is another little animal, boys, which
displays the building instinct so remarkably, that
I must tell you something about it before we
part.”

« Which is it, Uncle Thomas ?”’

“Ttis the White Ant of Africa; a little crea-
ture, scarcely, if at all, exceeding in size the Ants
of our own country, yet they construct large nests
of a conical or sugar-loaf shape, sometimes from
ten to twelve feet high; and one species builds
them so strong and compact, that even when they
are raised to little more than half their height,
the wild bulls of the country use them as sentinel
posts to watch over the safety of the herd which
grazes below.

“Mr. Smeathman, a naturalist who examined
those Ants’ nests with great care, states that on
one occasion he and four men stood on the top
of one of them. So you may guess how strong
they are.”
NEST OF THE WHITE ANT. 37

“What are they made of, Uncle Thomas ?
They must be very curious structures. How
very different from the ant-hills of England!”

“Very different, indeed, John. ‘They are
made of clay and sand, and as in such a luxu-
riant climate they soon become coated over
with grass, they quickly assume the appear-
ance of haycocks. They are indeed very re-
markable structures, whether we consider them
externally or internally, and are said to excel,
in the skilfulness of their construction and in the
niceness of their adaptation to the wants of the
animal, those of the beaver and the bee in the
same proportions as the habitations of the most
polished European nations excel.the huts of the
rude inhabitants of the country where the
Termites or White Ants abound ; while, in regard
to mere size, Mr. Smeathman calculates that,
supposing a man’s ordinary height to be six
feet, the nests of these creatures may be con-
sidered to bear the same relation to their size
as that of a man does to a building raised
38 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

to four times the height of the largest Egyptian
pyramids !”

«That is enormous, Uncle Thomas

“Tt is indeed, Frank; but strange though it
is in this point of view, the interior of the nest
is even more remarkable, many parts of its
construction falling little short of human in-
genuity. I need not attempt to describe all its
arrangements, which, without a plan, would be
nearly unintelligible; but there is one; device
so admirable that I must point it out to you.
The nest is formed of two floors, as it were,
and all round the walls are galleries perforated
in various winding directions, and leading to
the storehouses of the colony, or to the nur-
series where the eggs are deposited. As it is
sometimes convenient, however, to reach the
galleries which open from the upper roof with-
out threading all the intricacies of these winding
passages, they construct a bridge of a single
arch between the floor of the nest and its dome,
if I may so call it, and thus at once reach the

lias
NEST OF THE WHITE ANT. 39

upper roof, from which these passages diverge.
They are thus saved much labour, in trans-
porting provisions, and in bearing ihe eggs to
the places where they are to remain till they are
hatched.”

« That is indeed admirable, Uncle Thomas ;
they must be very curious animals.”

“« They divide themselves, Frank, into differ-
ent classes, in the same way as bees; choosing
a queen, and some of them acting as workers,
etc. But the White Ants have a class to which
there is nothing similar among any other race
of insects. These are what Smeathman calls
soldiers, from the duties which they perform ;
they are much less numerous than the workers,
being somewhat in the proportion of one in
one hundred. The duty of the soldier-insects
is to protect the nest when it is attacked.
They are furnished with long and slender jaws,
and when enraged bite very fiercely, and some-
times drive off the negroes who may have at-

tacked them, and even white people suffer
40 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

severely,—a bite even through the stocking
bleeding profusely. Some one who observed
the colony alarmed, by having part of the nest
broken down, gives the following account of
the subsequent operations. One of the soldiers
first makes his appearance, as if to see if the
enemy be gone, and to learn whence the attack
proceeds. By-and-bye twWb or three others
follow, and soon afterwards a numerous body
rushes out, which increases in number so long
as the attack is continued. They are at this
time in a state of the most violent agitation ;
some employed in beating upon the byilding
with their mandibles, so as to make a noise
which may be distinctly heard at the distance
of three or four feet. Whenever the attack is
discontinued, the soldiers retire, and quickly re-
appear, followed by another class which may be
called labourers, which hasten in various direc-
tions towards the breach, each with a burden
of mortar ready tempered, and thus they soon
repair the damage. Besides the duty of pro-
NEST OF THE WHITE ANT. Al

tecting the colony, the soldiers seem to act
as overseers of the work, one being generally
in attendance on every six or eight hundred
labourers. One, who may be looked on as
commander-in-chief, takes up his station close
to the wall which they are repairing, and fre-
quently repeats the beating which I just men-
tioned, which is instantly answered by a
loud hiss from all the labourers within the
dome,—those at work working with redoubled
energy.”

* But, Uncle Thomas, what can be the use
of such animals as White Ants? I really can-
not see what use they are for.”’

« Well, John, I confess I do not much won-
der at your question, though in putting it
you have forgotten that God makes nothing
in vain. Mr. Smeathman, who tells us so much
about these curious animals, has answered
you by anticipation; and his answer is in
such a spirit that I cannot do better than read it
to you :—
42 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

“ ¢ Tt may appear surprising,’ he says, ‘how
a Being perfectly good should have created ani-
mals which seem to serve no other end but to
spread destruction and desolation wherever they
go. But let us be cautious in suspecting any
imperfection in the FATHER OF THE UNIVERSE.
What at first sight may seem only productive of
mischief will, upon mature deliberation, be found
worthy of that wisdom which planned the most
beautiful parts of the world. Many poisons
are valuable medicines. Storms are bene-
ficial; and diseases often promote life. These
Termites are indeed frequently pernicious to
mankind, but they are also very useful and
even necessary. One valuable purpose which
they serve is to destroy decayed trees and
other substances, which, if left on the sur-
face of the ground in hot climates, would in
a short time pollute the air. In this respect
they resemble very much the common flies,
which are regarded by mankind in general as
noxious and, albeit, as useless beings in crea-
UTILITY OF THE WHITE ANT. 43

tion. But this is certainly for want of consi-
deration. ‘There are not probably in all nature
animals of more importance, and it would not
be difficult to prove that we should feel the
want of one or two large quadrupeds much
less than of one or two species of these des-
picable-looking insects. Mankind in general
are sensible that nothing is more disagreeable
or more pestiferous than putrid substances ;
and it is apparent to all who have made ob-
servation, that those little insects contribute
more to the quick dissolution and dispersion
of putrescent matter than any other. | They
are so necessary in all hot climates, that even
in the open fields a dead animal or small
putrid substance cannot be laid upon the
ground two minutes before it will be covered
with flies and their maggots, which instantly
entering, quickly devour one part, and perfo-
rating the rest in various directions, expose the
whole to be much sooner decomposed by the
elements. Thus it is with the Termites. The
AA, STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

rapid vegetation in hot climates, of which no
idea can be formed by anything to. be seen in
this, is equalled by as great a degree of de-
struction from natural as well as accidental
causes. It seems apparent that when any-
thing whatever has arrived at its last degree of
perfection, the Creator has decreed that it shall
be wholly destroyed as soon as possible, that
the face of nature may be speedily adorned with
fresh productions in the bloom of spring, or the
pride of summer ; so when trees and even woods
are in part destroyed by tornadoes or fire, it is
wonderful to observe how many agents are em-
ployed in hastening the total dissolution of the
rest. But in hot climates there are none so
expert, or who do their business so expeditiously
and effectually, as these insects, which in a few
weeks destroy and carry away the bodies of
large trees, without leaving a particle behind ;
thus clearing the place for other vegetables,
which soon fill up every vacancy: and in- places
where two or three years before there has been
UTILITY OF THE WHITE ANT. 45

a populous town, if the inhabitants, as is fre-
quently the case, have chosen to abandon it,
there shall be a very thick wood, and not a ves-
tige of a post to be seen, unless the wood has
been of a species which from its hardness is called
iron wood.’ ”’

“Thank you, Uncle Thomas. I see, I was
quite wrong in supposing that the Ants are of
no use. I really did not imagine that they could
have been so serviceable.”
46

CHAPTER III.

UNCLE THOMAS DESCRIBES THE MANNER IN WHICH WILD ELEPHANTS ARE
CAUGHT, AND RELATES SOME CURIOUS STORIES OF THE CUNNING,
AFFECTION, AND INTELLIGENCE OF THE ELEPHANT.

‘“ WeLL, boys, you are once more welcome !—
I am going to tell you some stories about the
Elephant to-night, which I hope will interest
you quite as much as those which I told you
about the dog. Next to the dog, the Elephant
is one of the most intelligent animals; some
of his actions, indeed, seem to be rather the
result of reason than mere instinct. But I
must first tell you about the animal in its native
forests.

“ Tn the luxuriant forests with which a large
portion of Asia is covered, this huge animal
reigns supreme. Its size and strength easily
ELEPHANT-HUNTING. AT

enable it to overcome the most formidable oppo-
nents. ‘The intelligence with which it has been
endowed by its Creator would make it a most
formidable enemy to man, but that the same
All-wise Being has graciously created it with
peaceful and gentle feelings. In its native forests
it roams about without seeking to molest any one,
and even when caught it very soon becomes
gentle and obedient.

“In the East Indies the Elephant is in very
general use as a beast of burden. For this pur-
pose it is hunted and caught in great numbers
by the natives, who employ some very ingenious
devices to deceive them, and to drive them into
the ambuscades which they form for them. The
- manner in which whole herds are captured is as
follows :—

“When the herd is discovered by parties
who are sent out in search of it, they first of all
note the direction in which it is ranging, as,
if their food is plentiful, the quiet unsuspecting
animals generally continue to advance in one
48 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

direction for miles together; of this the hunters
take advantage, and immediately proceed to
construct, at a considerable distance in front,
a series of enclosures, into which it is their
object to drive them.

«When everything is prepared, the hunters,
sometimes to the number of several hundreds,
divide themselves into small parties, and form a
large circle, so as to surround the herd. Each
party generally consists of three men, whose
duty it is to light a fire and to clear a
footpath between their station and that of
their neighbours, so that in this way a com-
munication is kept-up by the whole circle, and
assistance can at once be afforded at any
point.

“New circles are constantly formed at short
distances in advance, so as gradually to drive
the animals in the required direction. The
hunters are all the while concealed by the luxu-
riant brushwood or jungle, and do not show
themselves to the Elephants at all, but urge
ELEPHANT-HUNTING. AQ

them forward by the use of drums, rattles, etc.,
etc., from the noise of which the animals seek
to escape, and thus wander on, feeding as they
proceed, toward the toils which are prepared for
them.

«The keddah, or trap as it may be called,
consists of three enclosures, each formed of
strong stockades on the outside of deep ditches ;
the innermost one being the strongest, because
by the time they arrive in it the Elephants are
generally in a state of great excitement, and
would soon break down a frail barrier, and make
their escape.

“As soon as the herd has entered the first
enclosure, strong barricades are erected across
the entrance; and as there is no ditch at this
point, the hunters take advantage of the intense
dread which the animal has of fire, to scare them
from this most vulnerable part of the fortification.
Fires are gradually lit all round the first enclosure,
so that the only way of escape which is left is by
the entrance to the second.

E
50 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

“ At first, as if profiting by their former
experience, they generally shun the entrance to
the second of the series, but at last, seeing no
other chance of escape, the leader of the herd
ventures forward, and the rest follow. The gate
is instantly shut, and they are in the same
manner driven into the third enclosure. Find-
ing no outlet from this they become desperate,
scream with tremendous violence, and seek to
escape by furiously attacking the sides of .the
stockade. At all points, however, they are
repulsed by lighted fires, and the tumultu-
ous and exulting shouts of the triumpliant
hunters.

“In this place of confinement they remain
for several days. When their excitement has
somewhat subsided, they are enticed one by one
to enter a narrow passage leading back to the
second enclosure. As soo as one ventures in,
the entrance is closed, and as the passage is so
narrow that it cannot turn round, it soon
fatigues itself by unavailing exertions to beat
ELEPHANT-HUNTING. 51
down the barriers by which it is confined.
Strong ropes with running nooses are now laid
down, and no sooner does the animal put his
foot within one of them, than the rope is drawn
tight by some of the hunters who are stationed
on a small scaffold, which has in the meantime
been raised over the gateway. In the same
manner his other fect are secured. When this
has been effected, some of the hunters venture
to approach, and tie his hind legs together.
Having thus secured him, they are able with
comparative safety to complete their capture.
He is now placed between two tame Elephants,
led away to the forest and fastened to a tree;
and the same operation is repeated, till the
whole herd has been secured. So long as the
animals between which he is led away prisoner
remain with him, the captive is comparatively
quiet, but when he sees them depart, he is
agitated with all the horrors of despair, and
makes the most extravagant attempts to regain
his liberty. For some time he refuses to
52 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

eat, but gradually becomes resigned, and feeds
freely.

“A keeper is appointed to each animal, as
they are secured. His first object is to gain its
confidence ; supplying it regularly with food,
pouring water over its body to keep it cool, and
gradually accustoming it to caresses. In the
course of five or six weeks he generally obtains
a complete ascendancy over it; its fetters are
removed by degrees; it knows his voice and
obeys him, and is then gradually instructed in
its future labours.”

“ Thank you, Uncle Thomas. I think that
we now understand all about Elephant-hunting.
I could not imagine how the hunters managed
to secure such a huge animal. It seems to be
no such difficult task, after all.”

“It seems easy enough from description,
Frank; but it sometimes happens that they
break loose, and, irritated by their efforts to
escape, they range about in the most furious
manner, and, as they are very cunning animals,
CUNNING OF THE ELEPHANT, 53

it requires all the circumspection of the hunt-
ers to counteract their schemes. I recollect
a story which displays the sagacity and cun-
ning of the Elephant in a very strong
light :—

“ During the siege of Bhurtpore in the year -
1805, when the British army, with its countless
host of followers and attendants, and thousands
of cattle, had been for a long time before the-
city, the approach of the warm season and of the
dry hot winds caused the quantity of water in
the neighbourhood of the camps to begin to
fail; the ponds or tanks had dried up, and no
more water was left than the immense wells of
the country could furnish. ‘The multitude of
men and cattle that were unceasingly at the
wells occasioned no little struggle for priority in
procuring the supply, and the consequent con-
fusion on the spot was frequently very consider-
able. On one occasion, two Hlephant-drivers,
each with his Elephant, the one remarkably
large and strong, and the other comparatively
54 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

small and weak, were at the well together; the
smaller animal had been provided by his master
with a bucket for the occasion, which he carried
at the end of his trunk; but the other one being
unprovided with anything of the kind, either
spontaneously, or by desire of his keeper, seized
the bucket, and easily wrested it from his less
powerful opponent. ‘The latter was too sen-
sible of his inferiority openly to resist the insult,
though it was obvious that: he felt it; but
great squabbling and abuse ensued between the
keepers.

“ At length the weaker animal, watching the
opportunity when the other was standing with
his side to the well, retired backwards a few
paces, in a very quiet and unsuspicious manner,
and then rushing forward with all his might,
drove his head against the side of the other, and
fairly pushed him into the well. It may easily —
be imagined that great inconvenience was imme-
diately experienced, and serious apprehensions
quickly followed that the water in the well, on
CUNNING OF THE ELEPHANT. 55

which the existence of so many seemed in a
great measure to depend, would be spoiled by the
unwieldy brute which was precipitated into it;
and as the surface of the water was nearly twenty
feet below the level of the ground, there did not
appear to be any means that could be adopted
to get the animal out by main force, without
the risk of injuringhim. There were many feet
of water below the Elephant, who floated at ease
on its surface, and experiencing considerable
pleasure from his cool retreat, he evinced but
little inclination to lend any assistance towards
his rescue.

“¢ A vast number of fascines (bundles of wood)
had been employed by the army in conducting
the siege; and at length it occurred to the Hle-
phant-keeper, that a sufficient number of these
might be lowered into the well, on which the
animal might be raised to the top, if it could
be made to lay them in regular succession
under its feet. Permission having accordingly
been obtained from the engineers to use the
56 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

fascines, the keeper, by means of that extra-
ordinary ascendancy which these men attain
over their charge, joimed with the intellectual
resources of the animal itself, soon taught it
how to proceed; and the Elephant began
quickly to place each fascine, as it was lowered,
under him, in succession until, in a_ short
time, he was able to stand upon them. By
this time, however, the cunning brute, enjoy-
ing the coolness of his situation, after the heat
and partial privation of water to which he had
been lately exposed, was unwilling to work
any longer; and all the threats of his keeper
could not induce him to place another fascine.
The man then opposed cunning to cunning,
and began to caress and praise the Elephant;
and what he could not effect by threats he
was enabled to do by the repeated promise
of plenty of arrack, a spirituous beverage com-
posed of rum, of which the Elephant is very
fond. Incited by this, the animal again set to
work, raised himself considerably higher, until,
DOCILITY OF THE ELEPHANT. 57

by a partial removal of the masonry round the
top of the well, he was enabled to step out,
after having been in the water about fourteen
hours.”

“The keepers seem to attain great ascend-
ancy over the animals, Uncle Thomas.”

“The attachment of the Elephant to its
keeper, and the command which some of those
men acquire over the affections of the animal is
very extraordinary. ‘The mere sound of the
keeper’s voice has been known to reciaim an ani-
mal which had escaped from domestication, and
resumed its original freedom :—

“A female Elephant, belonging to a gentle-
man in Calcutta, who was ordered from the
upper country to Chittagong, in the route
thither, broke loose from her keeper, and,
making her way to the woods, was lost. The:
unhappy keeper tried every means to vindicate
himself, but his master, angry at the loss of so
valuable an animal, refused to listen to any
of his excuses, branded him with dishonesty,
58 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

and charged him with having sold the Elephant.
The unfortunate keeper was tried for the theft,
and being convicted, was condemned to work on_-
the roads for life, and his wife and children sold
for slaves.

*“ About twelve years after this event, this
man, who was known to be well acquainted with
taming Elephants, was sent into the country with
a party to assist in catching wild ones. They
at last came upon a herd, amongst which the
man fancied he saw the Elephant, for the loss of
which he had been condemned. He resolved
to approach it, nor could the strongest remon-
strances of the party dissuade him from the
attempt. As he advanced towards the animal,
he called her by name, when she immediately
recognised his voice; she waved her trunk in
the air as a token of salutation, and kneeling
down, allowed him to mount her neck. She
afterwards assisted in taking other Elephants,
and decoyed into the trap three young ones,
to which she had given birth since her escape. ‘
DOCILITY OF THE ELEPHANT. 59

The keeper returned to his master with the
Elephant, and the singular circumstances at-
tending her recovery being told, he regained
his character; and, as a recompense for his
unmerited sufferings, had a pension settled on
him for life.”

“ That was an instance of rare good fortune,
Uncle Thomas. How very curious that he should
fall in with the herd in which his own Elephant
was |”

“It was very fortunate indeed, Frank. It
was not a little curious too that the Elephant
should recognise him after so longa period. But
the attachment which they show to their keepers
is sometimes very great. One which in a mo-
ment of rage killed its keeper, a few years ago,
adopted his son as its caruac or driver, and
would allow no one else to assume his place.
The wife of the unfortunate man, who witnessed
the dreadful scene, in her frenzy took her two
children, and threw them at the feet of the
Elephant, saying, ‘As you have slain my hus-
60 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

band, take my life also, as well as that of my
children !’ The animal, which seemed to under-
stand her distress, immediately became calm,
and, as if stung with remorse, took up the eldest
boy with its trunk, and placed him on its neck,
adopted him for its carnac, and never afterwards
allowed another to occupy that seat.”

“That was at least making all the reparation
in its power, Uncle Thomas.”

“There are one or two other stories about
the Elephant, boys, showing that he knows how
to revenge an insult, which I must tell you before
you go :— ;

“A merchant at Bencoolen kept a tame Ele-
phant, which was so exceedingly gentle in his
habits, that he was permitted to go at large.
This huge animal used to walk about the streets
in the most quiet and orderly manner, and paid
many visits through the city to people who were
kind to him. ‘T'wo cobblers having taken an ill-
will to this imoffensive creature, several times
pricked him on the proboscis with their awls,










Page 61.
SAGACITY OF THE ELEPHANT. 61

when he saluted them in passing. The noble
animal did not punish them in the manner he
might have done, and seemed to think they
were too contemptible for his anger. He took
other means to reward them for their cruelty.
He walked deliberately away, and having filled
his trunk with a quantity of dirty water, advanced
towards them in his ordinary manner, and
spouted the whole of the puddle over them.
The punishment-was highly applauded by those
who witnessed it, and the poor cobblers were
laughed at for their pains.”

“ Ha! ha! ha! He must have been a very
knowing animal, Uncle Thomas. I dare say the
cobblers behaved better in future.”

“ [ dare say they would, boys. Here is
another story of the same description, but the
trickster did not escape so easily :—

** A person in the island of Ceylon, who lived
near a place where Elephants were daily led to
water, and often sat at the door of his house,
used occasionally to give one of these animals
62 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

some fig-leaves, of which Elephants are very
fond. One day he took it into his head to play
the Elephant a trick. He wrapped a stone
round with fig-leaves, and said to the driver,
‘ This time I will give him a stone to eat, and
see how it will agree with him.’ The driver
told him that the Elephant would not be such a
fool as to swallow a stone. The man, how-
ever, handed it the packet, but no sooner had it
touched it with its trunk, than it immediately
let it fall to the ground. ‘You see,’ said the
keeper, ‘that I was right ;’ and without farther
remark he drove away his Elephants. After
they were watered, he was conducting them again
to their stable. The man who had played
the Elephant the trick was still sitting at his door,
when, before he was. aware, the animal ran
at him, threw his trunk around his body, and,
dashing him to the ground, trampled him to
death.”

“ Shocking! Uncle Thomas. I shall be afraid
to go near an Elephant next time I see one.’
DOCILITY OF THE ELEPHANT. 63

“ Tt ought at least to teach you not to try its
temper too much, John. It is always a dan-
gerous experiment, especially with such a large
and powerful animal. But we must stop for the
evening.”

“ Good night, Uncle Thomas.”
64

CHAPTER IV.

UNCLE THOMAS INTRODUCES TO THE NOTICE OF HIS LITTLE AUDIENCE
THE ETTRICK .SHEPHERD’S STORIES ABOUT SHEEP; AND TELLS
THEM SOME INTERESTING STORIES ABOUT THE GOAT, AND ITS

. | PECULIARITIES.

“ T parE say, boys, you have not forgotten the

Ettrick Shepherd’s wonderful ‘stories about his

Dogs. Some of those which he relates about

Sheep are equally remarkable, and as he tells

them in the same pleasing style, I think I can-

not do better than read to you the chapter in

‘ The Shepherd’s Calendar’ which he devotes to

this animal.”

«Thank you, Uncle Thomas. We remember
very well his stories about Sirrah and Hector and
Chieftain, and the old shepherd’s us at parting
with his dog.”

A That’ s eh boys ; I am happy to think
CHARACTER OF THE SHEEP. 65

that you do not forget what I tell you. But listen
to the Ettrick Shepherd :—

««« The Sheep has scarcely any marked cha-
racter save that of natural affection, of which it
possesses a very great share. It is otherwise a
stupid indifferent animal, having few wants, and
fewer expedients. The old black-faced or forest
breed have far more powerful capabilities than
any of the finer breeds that have been intro-
duced into Scotland, and, therefore, the few anec-
dotes that I have to relate shall be confined to
them.

“ * So strong is the attachment of Sheep to
the place where they have been bred, that Ihave —
heard of their returning from Yorkshire to the
Highlands. I was always somewhat inclined to
suspect that they might have been lost by the
way, but it is certain, however, that when once
one or a few Sheep get away from the rest of
their acquaintances, they return homeward with
great eagerness and perseverance. I have lived
beside a drove-road the better part of my life,
66 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

and many stragglers have I seen bending their
steps northward. in the spring of the year. A
shepherd rarely sees these journeyers twice :
if he sees them and stops them in the morning,
they are gone long before night; and if he
sees them at night, they will be gone many
miles before morning. This strong attach-
ment to the place of their nativity is much
more predominant in our old aboriginal breed
than in any of the other kinds with which I arh
acquainted.

«The most singular instance that I know
of, to be quite well authenticated, is that of
a black ewe, that returned with her lamb
from a farm in the head of Glen-Lyon, to the
farm of Harehope, in Tweeddale, and accom-
plished the journey in nine days. She was
soon missed by her owner, and a shepherd was
despatched in pursuit of her, who followed her
all the way to Crieff, where he gave her up
and returned home. He got intelligence of
her all the way, and every one told him that
AFFECTION OF THE SHEEP. 67

she absolutely persisted in travelling on,—she
would not be stopped, regarding neither sheep
nor shepherd by the way. Her lamb was
often far behind, and she had constantly to
urge it on by impatient bleating. She -un-
luckily came to Stirling on the morning of a
great annual fair, about the end of May, and
judging it imprudent to venture through the
crowd with her lamb, she halted on the north
side of the town the whole day, where she was
seen by hundreds, lying close by the roadside.
But next morning, when all was quiet, a little
after the break of day, she was observed stealing
quietly through the town, in apparent terror of
the dogs that were prowling about the street.
The last time she was seen on the road was at a
toll-bar near St. Ninian’s; the man stopped her,
thinking she was a strayed animal, and that
some one would claim her. She tried several
times to break through by force when he opened
the gate, but he always prevented her, and at
length she turned patiently back. She had
68 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

found some means of eluding him, however,
for home she came on a Sabbath morning, early
in June; and she left the farms of Lochs, in
Glen-Lyon, either on the Thursday afternoon or
Friday morning, a week and two days before.
The farmer of Harehope paid the Highland
farmer the price of her, and she remained on
her native farm till she died of old age, in her
seventeenth year.

“With regard to the natural affection of.
this animal, the instances that might be men-
tioned are without number. When one loses its
sight in a flock of Sheep, it is rarely abandoned
to itself in that hapless and helpless state.
Some one always attaches itself to it, and by
bleating calls it back from the precipice, the
lake, the pool, and all dangers whatever.
There is a disease among Sheep, called by
shepherds the Breakshugh, a deadly sort of
dysentery, which is as infectious as fire in a
flock. Whenever a Sheep feels itself seized by
this, it instantly withdraws from all the rest,
AFFECTION OF THE SHEEP. 69

shunning their society with the greatest care ;
it even hides itself, and is often very hard to be
found. Though this propensity can hardly be
attributed to natural instinct, it is, at all events,
a provision of nature of the greatest kindness
and beneficence.

«« Another manifest provision of nature
with regard to these animals is, that the more
inhospitable the land is on which they feed, the
greater their kindness and attention to their
young. I once herded two years on a wild and
bare farm called Willenslee, on the border of
Mid-Lothian, and of all the Sheep I ever saw,
these were the kindest and most affectionate to
the lambs. I was often deeply affected at
scenes which I witnessed. We had one very
severe winter, so that our Sheep grew lean in the
spring, and thwarter-ill, a sort of paralytic
affection, came among them, and carried off a
number. Often have I seen these poor victims,
when fallen down to rise no more, even when
unable to lift their heads from the ground, hold-
70 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

ing up the leg, to invite the starving lamb to the
miserable pittance that the udder could still
supply. I had never seen aught more painfully
affecting.

*« Tt is well known that it is a custom with
shepherds when a lamb dies, if the mother have
a sufficiency of milk, to bring her from the hill,
and put another lamb to her. ‘This is done by
putting the skin of the dead lamb upon the
living one; the ewe immediately acknowledges
the relationship, and after the skin has warmed
on it, so as to give it something of the smell of
her own progeny, and it has sucked her two or
three times, she accepts and nourishes it as her
own ever after. Whether it is from joy at this
apparent reanimation of her young one, or be-
cause a little doubt remains on her mind which
she would fain dispel, I cannot decide, but for
a number of days she shows far more fondness,
by bleating and caressing over this one, than
she did formerly over the one that was really
her own. But this is not what I wanted to
AFFECTION OF THE SHEEP. 71

explain ; it was, that such Sheep as thus lose
their lambs must be driven to a house with
dogs, so that the lamb may be put to them;
for they will not suffer it to approach but in
a dark confined place. But at Willenslee, I
never needed to drive home a Sheep by force
with dogs, or in any other way than the fol-
lowing: I found every ewe, of course, standing
hanging her head over her dead lamb; and
having a piece of twine with me for the purpose,
I tied that to the lamb’s neck or foot, and
trailing it along, the ewe followed me into any
house or fold that I chose to lead her. Any
of them would have followed me in that way
for miles, with her nose close on the lamb,
which she never quitted for a moment, except
to chase my dog, which she would not suffer
to walk near me. I often, out of curiosity,
led them into the side of the kitchen-fire by
this means, into the midst of servants and
dogs; but the more that dangers multiplied
around the ewe, she clung the closer to her dead
He STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

offspring, and thought of nothing whatever
but protecting it. One of the two years while
I remained on this farm, a severe blast of
snow came on by night, about the latter end
of April, which destroyed several scores of our
lambs ; and as we had not enough of tavins and
odd lambs for the mothers that had lost theirs,
of course we selected the best ewes, and put
lambs to them. As we were making the dis-
tribution, I requested of my master to spare me
a lamb for a hawked ewe which he knew,
and which was standing over a dead lamb
in the head of the Hope, about four miles from
the house. He would not do it, but bid me
let her remain for a day or two, and per-
haps a twin would be forthcoming. I did
so, and faithfully she did stand to her charge ;
so faithfully, that I think the like never was
equalled by any of the woolly race. I visited
her every morning and evening, and for
the first eight days never found her above
two or three yards from the lamb; and al-
AFFECTION OF THE SHEEP. 73

ways, as I went my rounds, she eyed me
long ere I came near her, and kept tramp-
ing with her feet, and whistling through her
nose, to frighten away the dog; he got a
regular chase twice a day as I passed by: but,
however excited and fierce a ewe may be, she
never offers any resistance to mankind, being
perfectly and meekly passive to them. The
weather grew fine and warm, and the dead
lamb soon decayed, which the body of a
dead lamb does particularly soon; but still
this affectionate and desolate creature kept
hanging over the poor remains with an attach-
ment that seemed to be nourished by hope-
lessness. It often drew the tears from my
eyes to see her hanging with such fondness
over a few bones, mixed with a small portion
of wool. For the first fortnight she never
quitted the spot, and for another week she
visited it every morning and evening, uttering
a few kindly and heart-piercing bleats each time ;
till at length every remnant of her offspring
74 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

vanished, mixing with the soil, or wafted away
by the winds.’ ””

“ Poor creature! Uncle Thomas, that was
very affecting.”

“So much for the Ettrick Shepherd’s stories.
I will now tell you of a remarkable instance of
sagacity in a Roebuck, which is mentioned in
Monk Lewis’s correspondence. Here it is :—
‘ One of the farm-keeper’s wives going homewards
through the wood, saw a Roebuck running to-
wards her with great speed. Thinking it was
going to attack her with its horns, she was con-
siderably alarmed ; but, at the distance of a few
paces, the animal stopped and disappeared among
the bushes. The woman recovered herself,
and was proceeding on her way when the
Roebuck appeared again, ran towards her as
before, and again retreated without doing her
any harm. On this being done a third time,
the woman was induced to follow it till it led
her to the side of a deep ditch, in which she
discovered a young Roebuck unable to extri-
HABITS OF THE GOAT. 75

cate itself, and on the point of being drowned.
The woman immediately tried to rescue it,
during which the other Roebuck stood by
quietly, and, as soon as her exertions were
successful, the two animals galloped off to-
gether.’

“Though it differs in many respects from
the Sheep, the Goat bears so strong a resemblance
to that animal, that now I am speaking of it,
I may as well tell you a story or two about
the Goat. It will save my returning to it after-
wards.”

“ Very well, Uncle Thomas.”

“The Goat is in every respect more fitted
for a life of savage liberty than the Sheep.
It is of a more lively disposition, and is pos-
sessed of a greater degree of intelligence. It
readily attaches itself to man, and seems sen-
sible of his caresses. It delights in climbing
rocky precipices, and going to the very edge of
danger. Nature has admirably fitted it for
traversing such places with ease; its hoof is
76 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

hollow underneath, with sharp edges, so that it
walks as securely on the ridge of a house as on
the level ground.

“ The celebrated traveller Dr. Clarke gives a
very curious account of a Goat, which was trained
to exhibit various amusing feats of dexterity.

«« We met,’ says he, ‘an Arab with a Goat
which he led about the country to exhibit in
order to gain a livelihood for itself and its owner.
He had taught this animal, while he accompanied
its movements with a song, to mount upon little
cylindrical blocks of wood, placed successively
‘one above another, and in shape resembling the
dice-box belonging to a backgammon table.
In this manner the Goat stood, first on the top
of one cylinder, then on the top of two;
afterwards, of three, four, five, and six, until
it remained balanced upon the summit of them
all, elevated several feet above the ground, and
with its four feet collected upon a single point,
without throwing down the disjointed fabric
on which it stood. The diameter of the upper
COURAGE OF THE GOAT. 717

cylinder, on which its four feet alternately
remained until the Arab had ended his ditty,
was only two inches,,and the length of each six
inches. The most curious part of the per-
formance occurred afterwards; for the Arab,
to convince us of the animal’s attention to the
turn of the air, occasionally interrupted it; and
as often as he did this, the goat tottered,
appeared uneasy, and upon his becoming sud-
denly silent, in the middle of his song, it fell to
the ground.’ ”

“ Like the Sheep, the Goat possesses great
natural affection for its young. In its de-
fence it boldly repels the attacks of the most
formidable opponents. I remember a little
story which finely illustrates this instinctive
courage :—

“A gentleman having missed one of his Goats
when his flock was taken home at night, being
afraid the wanderer would get among and de-
stroy the young trees in the nursery, two boys,
wrapped in their plaids, were appointed to keep
78 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

watch all night. When the morning dawned,
they set out in search of her. They at length
discovered her on a pointed rock at a consider-
able distance, and hastening to the spot, per-
ceived her standing over her kid with the
greatest anxiety, defending it from a fox. Rey-
nard turned round and round to lay hold of his
prey, but the Goat presented her horns in every
direction. The youngest boy was despatched for
assistance to attack the fox, and the eldest, by
hallooing and throwing stones, sought to inti-
midate it as he advanced to the rescue. The
fox seemed well aware that the child could
not. execute his threats; he looked at him one
instant, and then renewed the assault, till, quite
impatient, he made a sudden spring at the kid.
The whole three animals then suddenly dis-
appeared, and were found at the bottom of
the precipice. The Goat’s horns were darted
into the back of the fox, and the kid lay
stretched beside them. It is supposed that
the fox had fixed his teeth in the kid, for its
AFFECTION OF THE GOAT. 79

neck was lacerated ; but the blow by which the
faithful mother had inflicted the death wound
upon her mortal enemy had been struck with so
much determination, that she had lost her balance,
and the whole three were thus precipitated over
the rock.

‘“‘ There is another story of the Goat, which
places its gratitude and affection in such an inte-
resting light, that I am sure it will delight you :—

“ After the final suppression of the Scottish
rebellion of 1715 by the decisive battle of
Preston, a gentleman who had taken a very
active share in it escaped to the West High-
lands, to the residence of a female relative, who
afforded him an asylum. As, in consequence
of the strict search which was made after the
ringleaders, it was soon judged unsafe for him
to remain in the house of his friend, he was
conducted to a cavern ina sequestered situation,
and furnished with a supply of food. The ap-
proach to this lonely abode consisted of a small
aperture, through which he. crept, dragging his
80 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

provisions along with him. A little way from
the mouth of the cave the roof became elevated,
but, on advancing, an obstacle obstructed his
progress. He soon perceived that, whatever it
might be, the object was a living one, but,
suspicious of danger though he was, he felt
unwilling to strike at a venture with his dirk,
but stooped down, and discovered a Goat and
her kid lying on the ground. The animal was
evidently in great pain, and on passing his
hand over her body, he discovered that one of
her legs was fractured. He accordingly bound
it up with his garter, and offered her some of
his bread ; but she refused to eat, and stretched
out her tongue, as if intimating that her mouth
was parched with thirst. He gave her water,
which she drank greedily, and then she ate °
the bread. At midnight he ventured from the
cave, pulled a quantity of grass and the tender
branches of trees, and carried them to the
poor sufferer, who received them with demon-
strations of gratitude.
GRATITUDE OF THE GOAT. 8]

“The only thing which the fugitive had to
occupy his attention in his dreary abode was
administering comfort to the Goat ; and secluded
and solitary as he was he was thankful to
have any living creature beside-him. Under
his care the animal quickly recovered, and be-
came tenderly attached to him. It happened
that the servant who was intrusted with the
secret of his retreat fell sick, when it became
necessary to send another with the daily pro-
vision. ‘The Goat, on this occasion happening
to be lying near the mouth of the cavern,
violently opposed the entrance of the stranger,
butting him furiously with her head. ‘The
fugitive, hearing the noise, advanced, and re-
ceiving the watchword from his new attendant,
interposed, and the faithful Goat permitted him
to pass. So resolute was the animal on this
occasion, that the gentleman was convinced she
would have died in his defence.” —

“ That was noble, Uncle Thomas.”’

G
82

CHAPTER V.

UNCLE THOMAS RELATES SOME VERY REMARKABLE STORIES ABOUT THE
CAT; POINTS OUT TO THE BOYS THE CONNECTION SUBSISTING BETWEEN
THE DOMESTIC CAT AND THE LION AND TIGER, AND TELLS THEM SOME
STORIES ABOUT THE GENTLENESS AS WELL AS THE FEROCITY OF THOSE
ANIMALS.

“ TaoucH far from being so general a favourite
as the dog, the domestic Cat has many qualities
to recommend it to our regard, and some of the.
stories which I am going to tell you exhibit
instances of gentleness and affection mace
cannot be surpassed. :

“JT dare say, Frank, you recollect the cir-
cumstance of the Duke of Norfolk’s Cat-
seeking to share his imprisonment by getting
down the chimney of his room when he was
confined in the Tower, during the reign of
Queen Elizabeth. Here, however, is an in-
®

FELINE AFFECTION. 83

stance of still stronger attachment to its master,
which will match indeed with the best of those
of the dog :—

“A Cat which had been brought up in a
family became extremely attached to the eldest
child, a little’ boy, who was very fond of play-
ing with her. She bore with the most exem-
plary patience any little maltreatment which -
she received from him—which even good-
natured children seldom fail, occasionally, to
give to animals in their sports with them—
without ever making any attempt at resistance.
Whenever she caught a mouse, she brought
it alive to her friend; if he showed any de-
sire to take her prey from her, she would suffer
it to escape, and waited to see whether he was
able to catch it. If he did not, the Cat darted
at, seized it, and laid it again before him;
and in this manner the sport continued as long
as the child showed any inclination for the
amusement.

“It happened that the boy was attacked by
54 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

small-pox, and during the early stages of the
disease the Cat never quitted his bedside ; but,
as the danger increased, it was found necessary
to remove the Cat and lock her up. At length
the child died. On the following day the Cat
having escaped from her confinement, imme-
diately ran to the apartment where she hoped
to find her playmate. Disappointed in_ her
expectation, she sought for him with symptoms
of great uneasiness and loud lamentations, all
over the house, till she came to the door of the
room in which the corpse lay. Here she lay
down in silent melancholy, till she was again.
locked up. As soon as the child was interred, »
the Cat was set at liberty; she soon disappeared,
and it was not till nearly a fortnight had
elapsed that she returned to the well-known
apartment, quite emaciated. She refused, how-
ever, to take any food, and soon again escaped,
with dismal cries. At length, compelled by
hunger, she made her appearance daily at
dinner-time, but always left the house as soon
PELINE AFFECTION. 85

as she had eaten the portion of food assigned to
her. No one knew where she spent the rest of
the time, till she was one day discovered under
the wall of the burying-ground, close to the
grave of her favourite; and so indelible was
her attachment to her deceased friend, that till
his parents removed to another place, five years
afterwards, she never, except in the greatest
severity of winter, passed the night anywhere
else than close to the grave. It was somewhat
curious, that although she suffered herself to
be played with by the other children, she never
exhibited a particular partiality for any of
them.”

“Poor Puss! It certainly was a most affec-
tionate creature, Uncle Thomas.”

‘There is another story of the Cat’s attach-
ment, boys, which I lately saw recorded in a
provincial newspaper. It serves to illustrate
the unexplained—I had almost said unexplain-
able—instinct which carries animals from one
place to another, although they may never
86 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

have been that way before. A short time ago,
a family removed from the metropolis of Scot-
land to another town, at the distance of up-
wards of thirty miles, to reach which it is
necessary to cross an arm of the sea, several
miles in breadth, or to make a circuit of about
twenty miles. They had a favourite Cat, which,
previous to their removal, alarmed perhaps by
the unwonted bustle, hid itself, and no stra-
tagem could induce it to leave its place of con-
cealment. They of course gave her up for lost.
It happened, however, that one morning, after
they had been settled for several weeks in
their new abode, their attention was attracted by
a violent scratching at the docr; on opening it,
greatly to their astonishment, in walked their
favourite Cat, of which, from the time of their
removal, they had heard nothing. How she had
found out the way, whether she had crossed
the sea or avoided it by making the long circuit -
of which I told you, it was of course im-
possible to tell, but it certainly is one of
FELINE AFFECTION. 87

the most remarkable instances of the kind on
record.”

“Tt is a most mysterious affair, Uncle
Thomas.”

“It is so, Harry, but the instance is not a
solitary one. The same thing happened with
the favourite Cat of a nobleman, which on being
removed to his country seat, more than a hun-
dred miles from London, found her way back
to his house in town.”

“T recollect, boys, how highly pleased you
were with the story which I told you about
the dog discovering the murderers of his
master. There is one of a very similar de-
scription of a French Cat, which I am sure
will also interest you :-—

“In the beginning of the present century a
woman was murdered in Paris. The magis-
trate who went to investigate the affair was
accompanied by a physician; they found the
body lying upon the floor. Upon a chest in
a corner of the room sat a Cat, motionless, with
8& STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

its eyes stedfastly fixed upon the body of its
murdered mistress. Many persons, drawn by
curiosity, now entered the apartment, but
neither the appearance of such a crowd of
strangers, nor the confusion that prevailed in
the place, could make the Cat change her
position. In the meantime, several persons
were apprehended on suspicion of being con-
cerned in the murder, and it was resolved to
lead them into the apartment. Before the Cat
saw them, when she only heard their footsteps
approaching, her eyes flashed with increased
fury, her hair stood erect, and as soon as
they entered the apartment, she sprang towards
them with expressions of the most violent rage
but did not venture to attack them, being
probably alarmed by the crowd that followed.
After turning several times towards them with
a peculiar ferocity of aspect, she crept into a
corner,. with an air indicative of the deepest
melancholy. This extraordinary behaviour of
the Cat astonished every one present, nor was
cr)
=

FIDELITY OF THE CAT. 89

this feeling confined to the spectators alone.
The effect which it produced upon the murderers
was such as almost to amount to an acknow-
ledgment of their guilt. Nor did the matter
remain long doubtful, for a train of accessory
circumstances was soon discovered, which proved
it to complete conviction.

“This, however, is not the only instance of
fidelity in a Cat. A man who was sentenced
to transportation for housebreaking confessed,
after his conviction, that he committed the
robbery along with two companions, and that
while they were in the act of plundering the
house, a large black Cat flew at one of them, and
fixed her claws on each side of his face, to his
no small astonishment and dismay.

“I have often, boys, warned you against
stories of ghosts and hobgoblins, and shown
you on how frail a foundation they generally
rest. Here is a story in which a Cat was
one of the principal actors, which. contains the
elements of as marvellous a tale of this de-
90 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

scription as could be desired. It happened in
the west of Scotland :—

** Some years ago, a poor man, whose habits
of life had always been of the most retired
description, giving way to the natural despon-
dency of his disposition, put an end to his
existence. The only other inmate of his cot-
tage was a favourite Cat. When the deed was
discovered, the Cat was found assiduously
watching over her master’s body, and it was
with some difficulty she could be driven
away.

“ The appalling deed naturally excited a
great deal of attention in. the surrounding
neighbourhood, and on the day after the body
was deposited in the grave, which was made
at the outside of the churchyard, a number
of schoolboys ventured thither, to view the
resting-place of one who had at all times been
the subject of village wonder, and whose recent
act of self-destruction had invested with addi-
tional interest. At first no one was brave
®
=

FIDELITY OF THE CAT. 91

enough to venture near; until the appearance
of a hole in the side of the grave irresistibly
~ attracted their attention. It was at length
determined that it must have been the work
of some body-snatcher, and the story having
spread, the grave was minutely examined, but
the coffin was found undisturbed; the turf
was replaced, and the grave again carefully
covered up.

“On the following morning it was disco-
vered that the turf was again removed, and a
hole deeper than before yawned in the side of
the sad receptacle. ‘The villagers crowded to
the spot, speculation was soon busy at work,
and all sorts of explanations were suggested.
In the midst of their contentions, alarmed per-
haps by the noise of the disputants, Puss darted
from the hole, much to the confusion of some
of the most noisy and dogmatic expounders
of the mystery. Again the turf was replaced,
and again and again was it removed by the
unceasing efforts of the faithful Cat to share the
92 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

resting-place of her deceased master. It was at
last found necessary to shoot her, it being found
impossible to prevent her returning to the spot
and disturbing the grave.”

“Poor Puss! I wonder no one tried to gain
its affections, and thus charm it from its dreary
abode, Uncle Thomas. Did you ever hear Dr.
Good’s account of a very extraordinary instance
of sagacity in his Cat? I was very much struck
with it when I saw it a day or two ago in his
‘ Book of Nature.’ If you please I will read it
to you.”

“ Very well, Harry, I shall be glad to hear
it; I dare say it isan old acquaintance of mine,
however; I have been such a diligent searcher
after stories of this description, that I think very
few have escaped me.”

* Here it is, Uncle Thomas :—‘ A favourite
Cat, that was accustomed from day to day to
take her station quietly at my elbow, on the
writing-table, sometimes for hour after hour,
whilst 1 was engaged in study, became at length
o
=

FIDELITY OF THE CAT. 93

less constant in her attendance, as she had a
kitten to take care of. One morning she placed
herself in the same spot, but seemed unquiet,
and instead of seating herself as usual, con-
tinued to rub her furry sides against my hand
and pen, as though resolved to draw my atten-
tion, and make me leave off. As soon as she
had accomplished this point, she leaped down
on the carpet, and made towards the door,
with a look of great uneasiness. I opened the
door for her, as she seemed to desire, but, in-
stead of going forward, she turned round, and
looked earnestly at me, as though she wished
me to follow her, or had something to commu-
nicate. I did not fully understand her meaning,
and, being much engaged at the time, shut the
door upon her, that she might go where she
liked. '

«¢ Tn Jess than an hour afterwards, however,
she had again found an entrance into the room,
and drawn close to me, but, instead of mount-
ing the table, and rubbing herself against my
94, STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

hand, as before, she was now under the table,
and continued to rub herself against my feet,
on moving which I struck them against some-
thing, and on looking down, beheld with equal
grief and astonishment, covered over with
cinder dust, the dead body of her little kitten,
which I supposed had been alive and in good
health. I now entered into the entire train of
this afflicted Cat’s feelings. She had suddenly
lost the nursling she doated on, and was re-
solved to make me acquainted with it,—assur-
edly that I might know her grief, and pro-
bably also that I might inquire into the cause,
and, finding me too dull to understand her
expressive motioning that I would follow her
to the cinder-heap on which the dead kitten
had been thrown, she took the great labour of
bringing it to me herself, from the area on the
basement floor, and up a whole flight of stairs,
and laid it at my feet. I took up the kitten in
my hand, the Cat still following me, made
inquiry into the cause of its death, which I
e

=

MATERNAL AFFECTION. 95

found, upon summoning the servants, to have
been an accident, in which no one was much
to blame; and the yearning mother having thus
obtained her object, and got her master to enter
into her cause, and divide her sorrows with her,
gradually took comfort, and resumed her former
station by my side.’ ”’

“Thank you, Harry, I do not think I ever
heard that story before. Here is one that will
match it, however, displaying considerable in-
genuity im a Cat in the protection of her
young.

‘“¢ A Cat belonging to an innkeeper in Corn-
wall, having been removed to a barn at some
distance from home, soon afterwards produced
four kittens. Not wishing the stock increased,
the innkeeper desired three of them to be
drowned, next morning, before opening their
eyes on the world. Puss was deeply affected
by this bereavement, and resolved on removing
her remaining offspring to a place of security.
When the person appointed to feed Grimalkin
se GEORGE CRUIKSHANK.

of Humour,” drew forth a favourable notice in the
pages of ‘ Blackwood’s Magazine.” This at once
gave him the highest position as a comic illustrator ;
so that no work, having any pretensions to humour,
was deemed complete without the aid of his pencil.
The books that were indebted to him at this period for
their illustrations were Grimm’s “ German Popular
Stories,” “ Mornings at Bow Street,” “ Peter Schle-
mihl,” “ Italian Tales,” “ Hans of Iceland,” “ Tales
of Irish Life,” “ Punch and Judy,” “Tom Thumb,”
“John Gilpin,” “The Epping Hunt.” At a later
period he produced the plates for the “ Illustrations
of Phrenology,” “Illustrations of Time,” “Scraps
and Sketches,” ‘ My Sketch-Book,” “Sketches by |
Boz,” “ Oliver Twist,” “ The Tower of London,” and
the “Comic Almanack.” The latter serial was an
ever-delightful mine of pleasure during the festive
season at which it was published. the lamented death of Laman Blanchard, Cruikshank
published, in connection with him, a periodical called
“The Omnibus,” in which some of his best and ne
piest sketches appeared.

While he was thus amusing the age he did not
forget to “ point a moral” as well as “adorn a
tale.’ His “ Sunday in London,” “ The Gin Shop,”?
“The Gin Juggernaut,” “ The Upas Tree,” ‘The
Pillars of a Gin Shop,” are all sermons in pictures.
“The Bottle,” a more recent production, has attained
immense celebrity. The tale of a drunkard’s life is

+
THE DRUNKARD’S CHILDREN. 97

faithfully told in these eight plates. They met with
extraordinary success, and were dramatised in most
of the theatres in the kingdom. A series of plates
— ‘The Drunkard’s Children,” followed “The
Bottle,” but were less successful. During the progress
of the sale of these prints, George appeared on the
platform as the advocate of Teetotalism—a principle
_ which he had adopted, and which he has not failed
to recommend whenever the opportunity has been
presented. His Temperance addresses are full of
humour and point. His action on the plat-
form bears some affinity to his autograph—in.
and out, and on no recognised principle or rule.

His jokes come ringing from him with all the
heartiness of a youth yet in his teens—his warnings
and bitter denunciation of wrong as the wise speaking
of the sybil. He has proved, in his own experience,
when over sixty, that alcoholic drinks were not neces-
sary for the development of his genius. He has
shown, at a period when it is generally supposed the
mental powers fail, and “ the fine gold becomes dim,”
that, by the aid of temperance, his powers unclouded
are preserved to the last. Recently he has produced
in, to him, a new line of art, several oil paintings
which have been exhibited in the British Institution
and Royal Academy. The most noticeable is ‘“ Dis-
turbing a Congregation,” “A New Situation,” and
_© Dressing for the Day,” with some others equally
full of humour.

H
98 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

ship to the proof, I one day took the Cat
by herself into my room, while I had the Dog
guarded in another apartment. I entertained
the Cat in a most sumptuous manner, being
desirous to see what sort of a meal she would
make without her friend, who had hitherto
been her constant table companion. The Cat
enjoyed the treat with great glee, and seemed
to have entirely forgotten the Dog. I had had
a partridge for dinner, half of which I intended
to keep for supper. My wife covered it with a
plate, and put it into a cupboard, the door of
which she did not lock. The Cat left the
room, and I walked out upon business. My
wife, meanwhile, sat at work in an adjoining
apartment. When I returned home, she related
to me the following circumstances :—The Cat,
having hastily left the dining-room, went to
the Dog, and mewed uncommonly loud, and
in different tones of voice; which the Dog,
from time to time, answered with a short bark.
They then went both to the door of the room
FRIENDSHIP OF ANIMALS. 99

where the Cat had dined, and waited till it
was opened. One of my children opened the
door, and immediately the two friends entered
the apartment. The mewing of the Cat excited
my wife’s attention. She rose from her seat
and stepped softly up to the door, which stood
ajar, to observe what was going on. The Cat
led the Dog to the cupboard which contained
the partridge, pushed off the plate which
covered it, and taking out my intended supper,
laid it before her canine friend, who devoured
it greedily. Probably the Cat by her mewing,
had given the Dog to understand what an excel-
lent meal she had made, and how sorry she
was that he had not participated in it; but, at
the same time, had explained to him that
something was left for him in the cupboard, and
persuaded him to follow her thither. Since
that time I have paid particular attention to
these animals, and am convinced that they
communicate to each other whatever seems in-
teresting.’ ”
100 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

“Oh! indeed, Uncle Thomas, do you think
that animals talk to each other ?”

“ T have no doubt that to some extent they
have the power of communicating their ideas to
each other, Harry, but I cannot go the whole
length of Monsieur Wenzel, who records the
story which I have just told you.

“« T will now, boys, tell you some stories about
the other animals of the Cat kind, such as the
lion, tiger, etc. Though these animals differ so
much from the domestic Cat, they all belong to
the same family ; the huge lion, which carries off
with ease a buffalo from the herd, or makes the
forest tremble with his hoarse roar, is only an
enormous Cat.

‘* [ dare say you have all heard the story of
‘ Androcles and the Lion,’ which is recorded in
that most delightful book, ‘ Sandford and
Merton.’ It is so captivating a tale, that I
must relate it to you, as much for my own
gratification as for yours. I will just observe,
however, that it is a fiction, and not a real
GRATITUDE OF THE LION. 101

narrative, though I can tell you one or two
very similar ones, which occurred in real life.
Here it is; John, have the kindness to read it
to us.”

“ With great pleasure, Uncle Thomas :—
There was a certain slave, named Androcles,
who was so ill-treated by his master, that his
life became insupportable. Finding no remedy
from what he suffered, he at length said to
himself, ‘It is better to die than to continue
to live in such hardships and misery as I
am obliged to suffer. I am determined there-
fore to run away from my master; if I am
taken again, I know that I shall be punished
with a cruel death, but it is better to die at
once than to live in misery. If I escape, I
must betake myself to deserts and woods, in-
habited only by wild beasts, but they cannot
use me more cruelly than I have been by my
fellow-creatures, therefore, I will rather trust
myself to them than continue to be a miserable
slave.’
102 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

‘* Having formed this resolution, he took an
opportunity of leaving his master’s house, and
hid himself in a thick forest, which was some
miles distant from the city. But here the
unhappy man found that he had only escaped
from one kind of misery to experience another.
He wandered about all day through a vast and
trackless wood, where his flesh was continually
torn by thorns and brambles. He grew hungry,
but he could find no food in this dreary solitude.
At length he was ready to die with fatigue, and

lay down in despair in a large cavern.
. “The unfortunate man had not been long
quiet in the cavern before he heard a dreadful
noise, which seemed to be the roar of some wild
beast, and terrified him very much. He started
up with a design to escape, and had already
reached the mouth of the cave, when he saw
coming. towards him a Lion of prodigious size,
which prevented any possibility of retreat. He
now believed his destruction to be inevitable ;
but to his great astonishment the beast advanced


Page 103.
GRATITUDE OF THE LION, 103

towards him with a gentle pace, without any mark
of enmity or rage, and uttered a kind of mourn-
ful noise, as if he demanded the assistance of
the man.

“ Androcles, who was naturally of a resolute
disposition, acquired courage from this circum-
stance to examine his monstrous guest, who
gave him sufficient leisure for this purpose.
He saw, as the Lion approached him, that he
seemed to limp upon one of his legs, and that
the foot was extremely swelled, as if it had
been wounded. Acquiring still more fortitude
from the gentle demeanour of the beast, he
advanced towards him, and took hold of the
wounded part as a surgeon would examine
his patient. He then perceived that a thorn
of uncommon size had penetrated the. ball of
the foot, and was the occasion of the swelling
and the lameness which he had _ observed.
Androcles found that the beast, far from resent-
ing his familiarity, received it with the greatest
gentleness, and seemed to invite him by his
104 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

blandishments to proceed. He therefore ex-
tracted the thorn, and, pressing the swelling,
discharged a considerable quantity of matter,
which had been the cause of so much pain. As
soon as the beast felt himself thus relieved, he
began to testify his joy and gratitude by every
expression in his power. He jumped about
like a wanton spaniel, wagged his enormous tail,
and licked the feet and hands of his physician.
Nor'was he contented with these demonstrations
of kindness. From this moment Androcles
became his guest; nor did the Lion ever sally
forth in quest of his prey, without bringing
home the produce of his chase, and sharing it
with his friend.

“Tn this savage state of hospitality did the
man continue to live during several months.
At length, wandering unguardedly through the
woods, he met with a company of soldiers sent
out to apprehend him, and was by them taken
prisoner, and conducted back to his master.
‘The laws of that country being very severe
GRATITUDE OF THE LION. 105

against slaves, he was tried and found guilty of
having fled from his master, and, as a punish-
ment for his pretended crime, he was sentenced
to be torn in pieces by a furious Lion, kept
many days without food, to inspire him with
additional rage.

“When the destined moment arrived, the
unhappy man was exposed, unarmed, in the
middle of a spacious arena, enclosed on every
side, round which many thousand people were
assembled to view the mournful spectacle. Pre-
sently a dreadful yell was heard, which struck
the spectators with horror, and a monstrous Lion
rushed out of a den, which was purposely set
open, with erected mane and flaming eyes, and
jaws that gaped like an open sepulchre. A
mournful silence instantly prevailed. All eyes
were turned upon the destined victim, whose
destruction seemed inevitable. But the pity of
the multitude was soon converted into astonish-
ment when they beheld the Lion, instead of de-
stroying its defenceless enemy, crouch submis-
106 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

sively at his feet, fawn upon him as a faithful
dog would do upon his master, and rejoice
over him as a mother that unexpectedly re-
covers her offspring. The governor of the
town, who was present, then called out with
a loud voice, and ordered Androcles to ex-
plain to them this unintelligible mystery, and
how a savage of the fiercest and most un-
pityig nature should thus in a moment have
forgotten his innate disposition, and be con-
verted into a harmless and inoffensive ani-
mal. Androcles then related to the assembly
every circumstance of his adventures, and con-
cluded by saying that the very Lion which now
stood before them had been his friend and
entertainer in the woods. All present were
astonished and delighted with the story, to find
that even the fiercest beasts are capable of
being softened by gratitude; and, being moved
by humanity, they unanimously joined to en-
treat for the pardon of the unhappy man,
from the governor of the place. This was
AFFECTION OF THE ION. 107

immediately granted to him, and he was also
presented with the Lion which had twice saved
the life of Androcles.”

“ That is a delightful story, Uncle Thomas !
What a pity it is that it is not true.”

“JT can tell you one which is true, John,
which is hardly, if at all, inferior in interest :—

“ Sir George Davis, who was English consul
at Naples about the middle of the seventeenth
century, happening on one occasion to be in
Florence, visited the menagerie of the Grand
Duke. At the further end of one of the dens
he saw a Lion, which lay in sullen majesty, and
which the keepers informed him they had been
unable to tame, although every effort had been
used for upwards of three years. Sir George
had no sooner reached the gate of the den, than
the Lion ran to it, and evinced every demonstra-
tion of joy and transport. ‘The animal reared
himself up, purred like a cat when pleased, and
licked the hand of Sir George, which he had put
through the bars. ‘The keeper was astonished,
108 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

and, alarmed for the safety of his visitor, en-
treated him not to trust an apparent fit of frenzy,
with which the animal seemed to be seized ; for
it was, without exception, the most fierce and
sullen of his tribe which he had ever seen.
Undismayed, however, Sir George, notwithstand-
ing every entreaty on the part of the keeper,
insisted on entering the Lion’s den. The moment
he got in, the delighted Lion threw its paws
upon his shoulders, licked his face, and ran
about him, rubbing its head on Sir George,
purring and fawning like a cat when expressing
its affection for its master. Such a singular
occurrence soon became the town talk of Flo-
rence, and reached the ears of the Grand Duke,
who sent for Sir George, and requested an inter-
view at the menagerie, that he might witness so
extraordinary a circumstance. After having
satisfied the curiosity of the Grand Duke, Sir
George gave the following explanation :—‘ A
captain of a ship from Barbary gave me this
Lion, when quite a whelp. I brought him up
GRATITUDE OF THE LION. 109.

tame; but when I thought him too large to be
suffered to run about the house, I built a -den
for him in my court-yard. From that time he
was never permitted to be loose except when
brought to the house to be exhibited to my
friends. When he was about five years old, he
committed some mischief when pawing and play-
ing with people in his frolicsome moods. Having
griped a man one day a little too hard, I ordered
him to be shot, for fear of myself incurring the
guilt of what might happen. A friend, who
happened to be at dinner with me when the
order was given, begged him as a present. . How
he eame here J know not.’ On hearing Sir
George’s explanation, the Grand Duke told him
that he also had received the Lion as a present
from the person to whom he had given it.”

‘** T should have been terribly afraid to have
ventured into the Lion’s den, Uncle Thomas.”

“‘ T dare say you would, John, and so should
I. But some stories are recorded of the gentle-
ness of the Lion, as well almost to justify such
110 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

acts of what would otherwise appear foolhardi-
ness. Here is one :—

“ Part of a ship’s crew being sent ashore on
the coast of India for the purpose of cutting
wood, the curiosity of one of the men having
led him to stray to a considerable distance from
his companions, he was much alarmed by the
appearance of a huge Lioness, who made to-
wards him; but, on her coming up, his fear was
allayed by her crouching at his feet, and look-
ing very earnestly, first in his face and then at
a tree some little distance off. After repeating
this several times she rose, and proceeded
towards the tree, looking back, as if asking
the sailor to follow. At length he ventured to
advance, and coming to the tree, perceived
perched among its highest branches a huge
baboon, with two young cubs in its arms, which
he immediately concluded were those of the
Lioness, as she crouched down like a cat, and
seemed to eye them very wistfully. The man
being afraid to ascend the tree, decided on
od
aa

GRATITUDE OF THE LION. ele

cutting it down, and, having his axe with him
he set actively to work, the Lioness all the while
watching his operations with the greatest anxiety.
When the tree fell she pounced upon the
baboon, and, after tearmg it in pieces, turned
round and caressed her cubs for some time.
She then returned to the sailor, and tried to
express her gratitude by fawning on him,
rubbing her head fondly against him; then
taking up her cubs in her mouth, she carried
them away one by one, and the sailor rejoined
his companions, much pleased with the ad-
venture.

“ Another author tells such a graphic story
of a Lion entertaining a hunter, that I must let
you hear it also, boys, though I must say that
T think he has rather overstrained it :—

“A hunter on one occasion having gone in
search of the Lion, and having penetrated a
considerable distance into a forest, discovered
in their place of concealment two young Lion-
whelps. He stopped for some time amusing
RE STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

himself with the little animals, and, waiting for
the coming of the sire or the dam, took out his
breakfast, and gave them a part. It happened
that the Lioness arrived, unperceived by the
sportsman, so that he had not time, or perhaps
wanted the courage, to take his gun. She .
waited for some time looking at the man who
was thus feasting her young, and then retreated
into the forest, but soon returned, bearing with
her a sheep, which she came and laid at his
feet. The hunter, thus made as it were one of
the family, took occasion to make a good
meal,—skinned the sheep, lighted a fire, and
roasted a part, giving the entrails to the young,
The Lion, in his turn came also; and, as if
respecting the rights of hospitality, showed no
tokens whatever of ferocity. On the following
day the hunter took his leave and returned home,
after having come to a resolution never more to
kill any of these animals, whose noble generosity
he had so fully experienced. He stroked and
caressed the whelps at taking leave of them,
a
FEROCITY OF THE LION. 113.

and both the dam and sire accompanied him till
he was safely out of the forest !’

“* Well, Uncle Thomas, I cannot believe that
story. I think the man would have been too
glad to escape to have meyed so long with such
unsafe companions.’

“You are quite right, Harry. I cannot
expect that you should give credit to a story
which I myself disbelieve. Here is one about
the ferocity of the Lion which is, however, be-
yond all doubt :-—

“In the year 1816 the horses which were
dragg ing the Exeter mail-coach were attacked
in the most furious manner by a Lioness, which
had escaped from a travelling menagerie.

“ At the moment when the coachman pulled
up, to deliver his bags at one of the stages a
few miles from the town of Salisbury, one of
the leading horses was suddenly seized by a
ferocious animal. This of course produced great
confusion and alarm. ‘Two passengers, who were
inside the coach, got out and ran into the house.

I
114 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

‘The horse kicked and plunged violently; and it
was with difficulty the driver could prevent the
vehicle from being overturned. ‘The light of
the lamps soon enabled the guard to discover
that the animal which had seized the horse was
a huge Lioness. A large mastiff came up and
attacked her fiercely, on which she’ quitted the
horse and turned upon him. The dog fled, but
was pursued and killed by the Lioness before it
had run forty yards from the place. It appeared
that the ferocious animal had escaped from a
menagerie, on its way to Salisbury fair. The
alarm being given the keepers pursued and
hunted the Lioness, carrying the dog in her
teeth, into a hovel under a granary, which served
for keeping agricultural implements. They soon
secured her effectually by barricading the place,
so as to prevent her escape. The horse, when
first attacked, fought with great spirit; and, if
he had been at liberty, would probably have
beaten down his antagonist with his fore feet;
but in plunging he entangled himself in the
FEROCITY OF THE LION. 115

harness. ‘The Lioness, it appears, attacked him
in front, and, springing at his throat, had fastened
the talons of her fore fect on each’ side of his
gullet, close to the head, while those of her hind
feet were forced into his chest. In this situa-
tion she hung, while the blood streamed from
the wounds as if a vein had been opened by a:
lancet. The horse was so dreadfully torn, that
he was not at first expected to survive. The
expressions of agony in his tears and moans
were most piteous and affecting. For a con-
siderable time after the Lioness had entered the
hovel, she continued roaring in a dreadful man-
ner, so loud, indeed, that she was distinctly
heard at the distance of half a mile. She was
eventually secured and led back in triumph to
her cell.”

“‘ It was very fortunate that it did not attack
the passengers, Uncle Thomas.”

“Very much so, indeed, Frank; it might
have turned out a very serious affair.”
116

CHAPTER VI.

UNCLE THOMAS TELLS ABOUT THE TIGER, AND OF THE CURIOUS MODES
WHICH ARE ADOPTED FOR ITS CAPTURE AND DESTRUCTION; ALSO
APOUT THE PUMA, OR AMERICAN LION; AND INTRODUCES SOME
HUNTING SCENES IN NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA, WITH OTHER
INTERESTING AND ENTERTAINING ADVENTURES.

‘“‘ Lone as the stories were, boys, which I told
you last night about the Lion, I have not yet
quite done with the animals of the Cat kind;
there are still one or two stories about the Tiger
and the Puma, or American Lion, which I wish
to tell you of, if you do not think we have
already had enough of them.”

“ Oh no, Uncle Thomas ;_pray do go on.”

“ Very well, I will first tell you about the
Tiger.

“The Tiger which inhabits the rich jungles
of India nearly equals the Lion in strength, and
perhaps excels him in fierceness and activity.
FEROCITY OF THE TIGER. VV]

A very affecting instance of his ferocity, by
which a fine young man, the only son of Sir
Hector Munro, lost his life, is thus related by one
of the party :—

“Yesterday morning, Captain George Dow-
ney, Lieutenant Pyefinch, poor Mr. Munro (of the
Honourable East India Company’s Service), and
myself (Captain Consar), went on shore, on
Saugur Island, to shoot deer. We saw innu-
merable tracks of tigers and deer; but still we
were induced to pursue our sport, and did so
the whole day. About half-past three we sat
down on the edge of the jungle, to eat some
cold meat sent to us from the ship, and had
just commenced our meal, when Mr. Pyefinch
and a black servant told us there was a fine
deer within six yards of us. Captain Downey
and I immediately jumped up, to take our guns ;
mine was nearest, and I had but just laid hold
of it, when I heard a roar like thunder, and saw
an immense royal Tiger spring on the unfor-
tunate Munro, who was sitting down; in a
118 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

moment his head was in the beast’s mouth, and
he rushed into the jungle with him, with as
much ease as I could lift a kitten, tearmg him
through the thickest bushes and trees, every-
thing yielding to his monstrous strength. The
agonies of horror, regret, and, I must say, fear
(for there were two Tigers), rushed on me at
once ; the only effort I could make was to fire at
him, though the poor youth was still in his
mouth. I relied partly on Providence, partly
on my own aim, and fired a musket. The Tiger
staggered, and seemed agitated, which I took
notice of to my companions. Captain Downey
then fired two shots, and I one more. We
retired from the jungle, and, a few minutes
after, Mr. Munro came up to us all over blood,
and fell. We took him on our backs to the
boat, and got every medical assistance for him
from the Valentine Indiaman, which lay at
anchor near the island, but in vain. He lived
twenty-four hours in the utmost torture; his
head and skull were all torn and broken to
FEROCITY OF THE TIGER. 119

pieces, and he was also wounded by the animal’s
claws, all over his neck and shoulders; but it
was better to take him away, though irrecover-
able, than leave him to be mangled and devoured.
We have just read the tuneral service over his
body, and committed it tothe deep. Mr. Munro
was an amiable and promising youth. I must
observe, there was a large fire blazing close to
us, composed of ten or a dozen whole trees. I
made it myself on purpose to keep the Tigers
off, as I had always heard it would. There
were eight or ten of the natives about us; many
shots had been fired at the place; there was
much noise and laughing at the time; but this
ferocious animal disregarded all. The human
mind cannot form an idea of the scene ; it turned
my very soul within me. The beast was about
four feet and a half high, and nine long. His
head appeared as large as that of an ox; his
eyes darting fire, and his roar, when he first
seized his prey, will never be out of my recol-
lection. We had scarcely pushed our boat from
120 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

that accursed shore, when the ‘Tigress made her
appearance, raging, almost mad, and remained
on the sand as long as the distance would allow
me to see her.”

‘¢Oh, dreadful, Uncle Thomas !”

“Tt is a fearful tale, John, and shows you
what a scourge such an animal must be to the
inhabitants of the country in which it is found.
It generally frequents the desert and uninhabited
country; but im some places where civilization
has commenced, it prowls about the villages
and commits great havoc among the herds of
the inhabitants, who therefore find it necessary
to adopt various schemes for its destruction :
some of these devices are very curious. Here
is one :—

“A large cage of strong bamboos is con-
structed, and fastened firmly to the ground, in
a place which the Tigers frequent. In this a
man takes up his station for the night. He is
generally accompanied by a dog or a goat,
which, by its extreme agitation, is sure to give
TIGER-HUNTING. 12]

notice of the Tiger’s approach. His weapons
consist of two or three strong spears, and thus
provided he wraps himself in his quilt, and very
composedly goes to sleep, in the full confidence
of safety. By and bye the Tiger makes his
appearance, and after duly examining the cage
all round, begins to rear against it, seeking for
some means of entering. ‘The hunter, who
watches this opportunity, suddenly darts one of
his spears into the animal’s body, and seldom
fails to destroy it.”

“ That is a very good plan, Uncle Thomas.
It does not seem to be attended with much
danger, if the cage be strong enough.”

“No, boys, it is not very dangerous, but I
don’t think any one of you would like to trust
yourselves so exposed. Here, however, is an-
other mode of destroying the ‘Tiger, which is
practised in some parts of India :—

“ Having ascertained the track by which the
Tiger returns to his lair, the peasants collect a
quantity of the leaves of a shrub called the
122 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

prous, which bear a strong resemblance to those
of the sycamore, and are common in most of
the jungles of India. These leaves are smeared
with a species of birdlime, made by bruising
the berries of a tree which is found plentifully
in these regions. They are then strewed on the
ground, near the spot to which it is understood
the Tiger usually retires during noontide heat.
If the animal happens to tread on one of these
leaves, his fate is certain. He first shakes his
paw, with a view to remove the adhesive incum-
brance, but finding that it is not to be got rid
of so easily, he rubs it against the side of his
head, by which means his eyes, ears, etc., be-
come covered with the adhesive substance. This
_ occasions such discomfort, that it causes him to
roll himself over and over perhaps among many
more smeared leaves, till at length he becomes
completely covered, and is deprived of sight. He
soon gives vent to his feelings of anxiety pro-
duced by this strange and novel predicament,
by dreadful howlings, which serve to give notice
LION-HUNTING. 12s

to the watchful peasants that their enemy is in
their power, when they assemble and destroy
the object of their detestation.”

“ That is better still, Uncle Thomas! I think
it is the most ingenious way of catching such an
animal that I ever heard of.”

“TI must now, boys, tell you something about
the Puma, or American Lion, which is also taken
im a very curious manner by the natives of
South America. It is generally hunted by means
of dogs. When they unkennel a Lion or a
Tiger, they pursue him till he stops to defend
himself. The hunter, who is mounted on a
good steed, follows close behind, and if the
dogs seize upon the animal, the hunter jumps
off his horse, and knocks it on the head, while
it is engaged contending with the dogs. If,
however, the dogs are afraid to attack it, the
hunter uses his lasso, dexterously fixes it round
some part of the animal, and gallops away,
dragging it after him. The dogs now rush upon
it, when it is soon despatched.
124 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

“ When wounded the Puma grows furious,
and his attack is then almost irresistible. Here
is a story which shows the extreme fierceness of
the animal :—Two hunters having gone in quest
of game to the Katskill mountains, in the State
of New York, each armed with a gun, and accom-
panied by a dog, they agreed to proceed in con-
trary directions round the base of a hill, and
that if either discharged his piece, the other
should hasten to the spot whence the report
proceeded as speedily as possible, to join in the
pursuit of whatever game might fall to their lot.
They had not long separated, when the one
heard the other fire, and, according to promise,
hastened to join his companion. For some
time he looked for him in every direction, but
in vain. At length he discovered the dog of his
friend, dead, and dreadfully lacerated. Con-
vinced from this that the animal which his
comrade had fired at was ferocious and formi-
dable, he felt increased alarm for his fate, and
sought after him with the greatest anxiety. He
PUMA-HUNTING. 125

had not proceeded many yards from the spot
where the dog lay, when his attention was
arrested by the ferocious growl of some wild
animal. On raising his eyes to the spot whence
the sound proceeded, he discovered a large
Puma on the branch of a tree, sitting upon the
body of his friend. ‘The animal’s eyes glared
at him, and it appeared to be hesitating whether
it should descend, and make an attack on the
survivor also, or relinquish his prey and decamp.
The hunter, aware of the celerity of the Puma’s
movements, knew that there was no time for
reflection, levelled his piece, and mortally
wounded the animal, when it and the body of
the unfortunate hunter fell together from the
tree. His dog then attacked the wounded Puma,
but a single blow from its paw laid its assailant
prostrate. In this state of things, finding that
his comrade was dead, and knowing how ex-
tremely dangerous it was to approach the
wounded animal, he went in search of assist-
ance, and on returning to the spot he found
126 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

his companion, the Puma, and the two dogs all
lying dead. _

«The celebrated naturalist Audubon gives
an interesting account of a Puma hunt in which
he was engaged, in one of the back settlements
of North America. In the course of his rambles,
investigating the natural history of the birds of
America, he arrived at the cabin of a settler on
the banks of Cold-Water River, and after a
hospitable reception, and an evening spent in
relating their adventures in the chase, it was
agreed in the morning to hunt the Puma, which
had of late been making sad ravages among the
farmer’s pigs.

« their appearance just as the sun was emerging
from the horizon. ‘They were five in number,
and fully equipped for the chase, being mounted
on horses which in some parts of Europe might
appear sorry nags, but which in strength, speed,
and bottom are better fitted for pursuing a Puma
or a bear through the woods and morasses than
PUMA-HUNTING. 127

any in that country. He and myself mounted
his two best horses, whilst his sons rode others
of inferior quality.

«‘ « Few words were uttered by the party until
we had reached the edge of the swamp where it
was agreed that all should disperse and seek
for the fresh track of the Puma, it being pre-
viously settled that the discoverer should blow
his horn, and remain on the spot until the rest
should join him. In less than an hour the
sound of the horn was clearly heard, and stick-
ing close to the squatter, off we went through
the thick woods, guided only by the moon and
the repeated call of the distant huntsman. We
soon reached the spot, and in a short time the
rest of the party came up. The best dog was
sent forward to attack the animal, and in a
few minutes the whole pack were observed dili-
gently tracking and bearing in their course for
the interior of the swamp. ‘The rifles were
immediately put in trim, and the party followed
the dogs at separate distances, within sight of
128 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

each other, determined to shoot at no other game
than the Puma.

«««'The dogs soon began to mouth, and sud-
denly quickened their pace. My companions
concluded that the beast was on the ground, and
putting our horses to a gentle gallop, we followed
the curs, guided by their voices. The noise of
the dogs increased, when all of a sudden their
mode, of barking became altered, and the
squatter urging me to push on, told me the
beast was ¢reed, by which he meant that it had
got upon some low branch of a large tree, to
rest for a few moments, and that should we not
succeed in shooting him while thus situated
we might expect a long chase for it. As we
approached the spot we all, by degrees, united,
into a body, but, on seeing the dogs at the foot
of a large tree, separated again, and galloped off
to surround it.

‘**« Hach hunter now moved with caution,
holding bis gun ready, and allowing the bridle
to dangle on the neck of his horse, as it advanced
PUMA-HUNTING. 129

slowly towards the dogs. A shot from one of
the party was heard, on which the Puma was
seen to leap to the ground and bound off with
such velocity as to show that he was very un-
willing to stand our fire longer. ‘The dogs set
off in pursuit with the utmost eagerness and a
deafening cry; the hunter who had fired came
up, and said that his ball had hit the monster,
and had probably broken one of his fore legs
near the shoulder, the only place at which he
could aim: a slight trail of blood was discovered
on the ground, but the curs proceeded at sucha
rate, that we merely noticed this and put spurs
to our horses, which galloped on towards the
centre of the swamp. One bayou (a part of
the swamp in which the water accumulates)
was crossed, then another still larger and more
muddy, but the dogs were brushing forward,
and as the horses began to pant at a furious
rate, we judged it expedient to leave them and
advance on foot. ‘I'hese determined hunters
knew that the animal being wounded, would
K
180 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

shortly ascend another tree, where in all proba-
bility he would remain for a considerable time,
and that it was easy to follow the track of the
dogs. We dismounted, took off the saddles and
bridles, set the bells attached to the horses’
necks at liberty to jingle, hoppled the animals
(fastened the bridle to one of their legs so that
they could not stray far), and left them to shift
for themselves.

“ * After marching for a couple of hours, we
again heard the dogs. ach of us pressed
forward elated at the thought of terminating
the career of the Puma; some of the dogs were
heard whining, although the greater part barked
vehemently. We felt assured that the animal
was treed, and that he would rest for some time
to recover from his fatigue. As we came up to
the dogs we discovered the furious animal lying
across a large branch close to the trunk of a
cotton-wood tree. His broad breast lay towards
us, his eyes were at one time bent on us, and
again on the dogs, beneath and around him;
PUMA-HUNTING. 131

one of his fore legs hung down loosely by his
side, and he lay crouched, with his ears lowered
close to his head, as if he thought he might
remain undiscovered. ‘Three balls were fired at
him at a given signal, on which he sprung a
few feet from the branch, and tumbled headlong
to the ground. Attacked on all sides by the
enraged curs, the infuriated animal fought with
desperate valour; but the squatter advancing
in front of the party, and almost in the midst
of the dogs, shot him immediately behind and
beneath the left shoulder. He writhed for a
moment in agony, and in another lay dead.’ ”’

“Tt must be very exciting employment, hunt-
ing the Puma, Uncle Thomas.”

“ And not a little dangerous too, boys, for you
hear how fiercely he maintains his ground.
With all their fierceness, however, the fear of
man is over even this relentless race of animals.
Captain Head, who has written an amusing book
called ‘ Rough Notes of Rapid Journeys across the
Pampas (or plains), thus speaks on this subject: —~
V32 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

“ have of man is very singularly exhibited in the
Pampas. I often rode towards the Ostriches
and Zamas, crouching under the opposite side of
my horse’s neck; but I always found that
although they would allow my loose horse to
approach them, they, even when young, ran
from me, though little of my figure was visible ;
and when I saw them all enjoying themselves
in such full liberty, it was at first not pleasing
to observe that one’s appearance was everywhere
asignal to them that they should fly from their
enemy. Yet it is by this fear “ that man hath
dominion over the beasts of the field,’’ and there
is no animal in South America that does not
acknowledge this instinctive feeling. As a
singular proof of the above, and of the differ-
ence between the wild beasts of America and of
the old world, I will venture to relate a circum-
stance which a man sincerely assured me had
happened to him in South America.

‘« * He was trying to shoot some wild ducks,
THE PUMA. ao

and, in order to approach them unperceived,
he put the corner of his poncho (which is a
sort of long narrow: blanket) over his head,
and crawling along the ground upon his hands
and knees, the poncho not only covered his
body, but trailed along the ground after him.
As he was thus creeping by a large bush of
reeds, he heard a loud sudden noise, between
a bark and a roar; he felt something heavy
strike his feet, and instantly jumping up, he
saw, to his astonishment, a large Puma actually
standing on his poncho; and perhaps the
animal was equally astonished to find himself
in the immediate presence of so athletic a man.
The man told me he was unwilling to fire, as
his gun was loaded with very small shot; and
he therefore remained motionless, the Puma
standing on his poncho for many seconds; at
last the creature turned his head, and walking
very slowly away about ten yards, stopped,
and turned again, the man still maintained
his ground; upon which the Puma tacitly
134, STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

acknowledged his supremacy and walked
off

‘J dare say the man was very glad to be
so easily quit of such a formidable visitor,
Uncle Thomas.” ;

“No doubt of it, Frank. I have one other
story to tell you about the Puma, which fortu-
nately exhibits it in a more favourable light
than some of those which I have told you :—

“ During the government of Don Diego
de Mendoza, in Paraguay, a dreadful famine
raged at Buenos Ayres; yet Diego, afraid to
give the Indians a habit of spilling Spanish
blood, forbade the inhabitants, on pain of death,
to go into the fields in search of relief, placing
soldiers at all the outlets to the country, with
orders to fire upon those who should attempt to
transgress his orders. A woman, however,
called Maldonata, was artful enough to elude
the vigilance of the guards, and to effect her
escape. After wandering about the country for
a long time, she sought shelter in a cavern;
THE PUMA’S GRATITUDE. 135

but she had scarcely entered it when she be-
came dreadfully alarmed, on observing a Puma
occupying the same den. She was, however,
soon quieted by the animal approaching and
caressing her. The poor brute was very ill,
and scarcely able to crawl towards her. Mal-
donata soon discovered what was the cause of
the animal’s illness, and kindly ministered to it.
It soon recovered, and was all gratitude and
attention to its kind benefactress, never re-
turning from searching after its daily subsistence
without laying a portion of it at the feet of
Maldonata.

“Some time after, Maldonata fell into the
hands of the Spaniards; and, being brought
back to Buenos Ayres, was conducted before
Don Francis Ruez de Galen, who then com-
manded there. She was charged with having
left the city, contrary to orders. Galen was a
man of cruel and tyrannical disposition, and
condemned the unfortunate woman toa death
which none but the most cruel tyrant could
136 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

have devised. He ordered some soldiers to
take her into the country, and leave her tied to
a tree, either to perish with hunger, or to be
torn to pieces by wild beasts. Two days after,
he sent the same soldiers to see what had been
her fate, when to their great surprise they
found her alive and unhurt, though surrounded
by Pumas and Jaguars, while a female Puma,
at her feet, kept them at bay. As soon as the
Puma saw the soldiers, she retired to some
distance; and they unbound Maldonata, who
related to them the history of this Puma, which
she knew to be the same she had formerly
relieved in the cavern. On the soldiers taking
Maldonata away, the animal approached, and
fawned upon her, as if unwilling to part. The
soldiers reported what they had seen to their com-
mander, who could not but pardon a woman who’
had been so singularly protected, without the
danger of appearing more inhuman than Pumas
themselves.

“T must now bid you good night, boys ;
THE PUMA’S GRATITUDE. ei

to-morrow evening I will tell you some stories
illustrating the migrating instinct of animals—
one of the most curious in the whole range of
natural history.”

“ Good night, Uncle Thomas.”
138

CHAPTER VII.

UNCLE THOMAS TELLS ABOUT THE MIGRATING INSTINCT OF ANIMALS :—
OF THE HOUSE SWALLOW OF ENGLAND ; AND THE ESCULENT SWALLOW,
WHOSE NEST IS EATEN BY THE CHINESE ; ALSO ABOUT THE PASSENGER
PIGEON OF AMERICA; OF THE LAND-CRAB AND ITS MIGRATIONS; AND
OF THOSE OF THE SALMON AND THE HERRING.

““Goop evening, Uncle Thomas. I heard to-
day of a Swallow which for many years re-
‘turned to the same window, and built its
nest in the same corner. Now, as I believe
Swallows are birds of passage, and leave this
country to spend the winter in warmer climates,
I wish you to explain to me how it is that
they can return from such distances to the same
spot.”

“« That is a question, Frank, which I cannot
very well answer, but so many instances of
the kind have been observed as to leave no
MIGRATION OF THE SWALLOW. 139

doubt on the subject. Dr. Jenner, the cele-
brated naturalist, ascertained the fact by expe-
riment. He marked a certain number of birds,
by cutting off two claws. Several of them re-
turned the following year, and one was even
found so marked seven years afterwards. The
Swallow has sometimes been known even to pene-
trate into the house, and for years to attach its
nest to the same articles of furniture.

“At Camerton Hall, near Bath, a pair of
Swallows built their nest for three successive
years on the upper part of the frame of an old
picture over the chimney. ‘They found their
way into the room through a broken pane in
one of the windows, and would probably have
continued to build in the same place, but the room
having been put into repair, they could no longer
obtain access to it.”

“Ts it want of food which causes birds to
migrate, Uncle Thomas ?”

«The cause of the migration of birds, Frank,
is involved in mystery: by some naturalists it
140 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

is assigned to the variations of the seasons,
or to the plentifulness’ or scarcity of food.
Dr. Jenner, who paid much attention to the
subject, came to the conclusion, that it arises
from feelings connected with rearing their young.
‘to whatever cause it is assigned, it must be
admitted that it is the operation of an instinct,
impressed on them by the Creator, and cannot
be the result of mere experience. ‘hus, for
instance, an old Swallow might know that
when its food fails here, it becomes plentiful
elsewhere, or that when the weather becomes
cold and boisterous in this country, beyond the
sea there are more genial climates; but the
young bird which had never been more than a
few miles from the place where it was hatched
can have no such experimental knowledge; yet,
when the season arrives, we find them all
ready to start. I dare say you have seen
them, boys, gathering in flocks and _ resting
on the house-tops, as if taking breath before
setting out on their long journey.”
MIGRATION OF THE SWALLOW. 141

“Oh, yes, Uncle Thomas; but I have heard
that they dive to the bottom of lakes and ponds,
and remain there till winter is over.”

“* Many foolish stories are told of live Swal-
lows having been found in such situations,
Harry, but they are now well known to be
fables. The House Swallow, which remains
with us till October, spends the rest of the
year in Africa. Last autumn I watched with
great pleasure the movements of a flock, which
were evidently preparing for their arduous flight.

“ For several evenings they assembled in
large numbers on a tree at a short distance
from my house, and, after sitting for some
time, one of them, who appeared to be com-
mander-in-chief, kept flying about in all direc-
tions, and at length, with a sharp and loudly
repeated call, darted up into the air. In an
instant the whole congregation were on the
wing, following their leader in a sort of spiral
track. In a little time they had risen so high,
that I lost sight of them, but after a short
142 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

absence they again returned and took up their
position on the tree which they had just left.

“This exercise they continued for some
time, till one day they set off in reality, and I
saw no more of them for the season.”

*‘T have read somewhere, Uncle Thomas,
that the Chinese eat Swallows’ nests. Surely
these cannot be the same sort of nests as our
Swallows build >”

“No, Frank, they.are not. Various opinions
are entertained as to the substance of which the
nest of the esculent Swallow is made. Sir
George Staunton, who accompanied Lord Ma-
cartney in his embassy to China, gives a very
interesting account both of the Swallow and of
its nest :—

«In the Cass,’ says Sir George, ‘a small
island near Sumatra, we found two caverns
running horizontally into the side of the rock,
and in these were a number of those birds’
nests so much prized by the Chinese epicures.
They seemed to be composed of fine filaments,
THE ESCULENT SWALLOW. 143

~ cemented together by a transparent viscous
matter, not unlike what is left by the foam
of the sea upon stones alternately covered by
the tide, or those gelatinous animal substances
found floating on every coast. The nests ad-
here to each other and to the sides of the
cavern, mostly in horizontal rows, without any
break or interruption, and at different depths,
from fifty to five hundred feet. The birds that
build these nests are small grey Swallows, with
bellies of a dirty white. They were flying
about in considerable numbers, but were so
small, and their flight was so quick, that they
escaped the shot fired at them. The same sort
of nests are said to be also found in deep
caverns at the foot of the highest mountains
in the middle of Java, at a distance from the
sea, from which source it is thought that the
birds derive no materials, either for their food,
or the construction of their nests, as it does
not appear probable they should fly in search of
either over the intermediate mountains, which
144. STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

are very high, or against the boisterous winds
prevailing thereabouts. They feed on insects
which they find hovering over stagnated pools
between the mountains, and for the catching
of which their wide opening beaks are particu-
larly adapted. ‘They prepare their nests from
the best remnants of their food. ‘Their greatest
enemy is the kite, who often intercepts them
in their passage to and from the caverns, which
are generally surrounded with rocks of grey
limestone or white marble. ‘he colour and
value of the nest depend on the quantity and
quality of the insects caught, and perhaps also
on the situation where they are built. Their
value is chiefly ascertained by the uniform fine-
ness and delicacy of their texture, those that
are white and transparent being most esteemed,
and fetching often in China their weight in
silver.

««« These nests are a considerable object of
traffic among the Javanese, many of whom are
employed in it from their infancy. The birds,
THE ESCULENT SWALLOW. 145

after having spent nearly two months in pre-
paring their nests, lay each two eggs, which are
hatched in about fifteen days. When the young
birds become fledged, it is thought the proper
time to seize upon their nests, which is done
regularly three times a year, and is effected by
means of ladders of bamboo and reeds, by which
the people descend into the caverns; but when
these are very deep, rope-ladders are preferred.
This operation is attended with much danger,
“and several perish in the attempt. The in-
habitants of the mountains generally employed
in this business begin always by sacrificing a
buffalo, which custom is observed by the
Javanese on the eve of every extraordinary
enterprise. They also pronounce some prayers,
anoint themselves with sweet-scented oil, and
smoke the entrance of the cavern with gum-
benjamin. Near some of the caverns a tutelar
goddess is worshipped, whose priest burns in-
cense, and lays his projecting hands on every
person preparing to descend.
*L
. —— ee

146 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

carefully prepared at the same time, with a gum
which exudes from a tree. growing in the
vicinity, and which is not easily extinguished by
fixed air or subterraneous vapours.’ ”

« But how are the nests used, Uncle Thomas ?
Are they prepared in any way, or are they fit
for the table as they are taken down ?”

‘* They are always prepared before they are
eaten. The finest sort, which are of a clear
colour, and not unlike isinglass, are dissolved
in soup, to which they are said to give an exqui-
site flavour. After being well soaked and cleaned,
they are put into an earthen pot with a fowl
or duck, and allowed to simmer over a slow
fire for twenty-four hours. They are, however,
chiefly used as articles of luxury or ornament
for the tables of the rich Chinese, to whom
they are sold at very high prices, the finest
sort sometimes selling so high as two guineas a
pound.”

“ Thank you, Uncle Thomas.”

“ T have only one more story to tell you about
AFFECTION OF THE SWALLOW. 147

the Swallow, boys, and then I must turn to two
or three other animals, whose migrations are no
- less remarkable.

« A Swallow’s nest, built in the west corner
of a window facing the north, was so much
softened by the long-continued beating of the
rain against it, that it became too weak to
support the weight of the young brood, con-
sisting of five pretty full-grown Swallows. At
length the nest fell into the lower corner of the
window, leaving the young Swallows exposed
to all the fury.of the blast. To save the little
creatures from an untimely death, the owner of
the house benevolently caused a covering to be
thrown over them, till the severity of the storm
was past. When it had subsided, the sages of
the little colony assembled, fluttermg round
the window, and hovering over the ‘temporary
covering of the fallen nest. As soon as this
was observed, the covering was removed, and
the utmost joy evinced by the group, on finding
the young ones alive and unhurt. After feeding
148 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

them, and fluttering about for a short time, the
Swallows arranged themselves into working
order. Each division, taking its appropriate
station, commenced instantly to work, and be-
fore nightfall they had by their exertions com-
pleted an arched canopy over the young brood
in the corner where they lay, and thus securely
covered them from the severity of the weather.
From the time which it took them to perform
this piece of architecture, it appeared evident
that the young must have perished from cold
and hunger, before any single pair could have
executed half the job.”

“ How very kind, Uncle Thomas! Had
they been reasoning creatures, they could not
have behaved more properly.”

“I dare say not, Frank. | Such traits over-
step the limits of zzstinct, and almost trespass
on those of reason.”

“ You asked, Frank, if it is want of food
which prompts the migration of animals from
one place to another. In some cases it is so,
THE PASSENGER PIGEON. 149

undoubtedly ; as, for instance, in that of the
American Passenger Pigeon. ‘The account which
Iam going to read to you is from the work of
the great naturalist, Wilson :—

«The migrations of these Pigeons appear to
_be undertaken rather in quest of food than
merely to avoid the cold of the climate; since
we find them lingering in the northern regions
around Hudson’s Bay so late as December, and
since their appearance is so casual and irregular,
sometimes not visiting certain districts for several
years im any considerable numbers, while at
other times they are innumerable. TI have often
witnessed these migrations in the Gennesee
country, often in Pennsylvania, and also in
various parts of Virginia, with amazement; but
all that I have seen of them are mere straggling
parties, when compared with the congregated
millions which I have since beheld in the
western forests in the states of Ohio, Kentucky,
and the Indiana territory. These fertile and
extensive regions abound with the nutritious
150 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

beech nut, which constitutes the chief food of
the wild Pigeon. In seasons when these
nuts are abundant, corresponding multitudes of
Pigeons may be confidently expected. It some-
times happens that, having consumed the whole
produce of the beech trees in an extensive dis-
trict, they discover another at the distance of
perhaps sixty or eighty miles, to which they
regularly repair every morning, and return as
regularly in the course of the day, or in the
evening, to their place of general rendezvous,
or, as it is generally called, the roosting-place.
These roosting-places are always in the woods,
and sometimes occupy a large extent of forest.
When they have frequented one of these places
for some time, the appearance it exhibits is
surprismg. ‘The ground is covered to the depth
of several inches with their dung ; all the tender
grass and underwood destroyed; the surface
strewed with large limbs of trees, broken down
_ by the weight of the birds clustering one above
another, and the trees themselves, for thousands


THE PASSENGER PIGEON. 151

of acres, killed as completely as if girdled with
an axe. The marks of this desolation remain
for many years on the spot, and numerous
places could be pointed out, where for several
years after scarcely a single vegetable made its
appearance.

«¢ « When these roosts are first discovered, the
inhabitants from considerable distances visit
them in the night, with guns, clubs, long poles,
pots of sulphur, and various other engines of
destruction. In a few hours they fill many
sacks and load their. horses with them. By the
Indians, a Pigeon roost or breeding-place is
considered an important source of national profit
and dependence for the season, and all their
active ingenuity is exercised on the occasion.
The breeding-place differs from the former in its
ereater extent. In the western countries before
mentioned, these are generally in beech woods,
and often extend in nearly a straight line across
the country for a great way. Not far from
Shelbyville, in the State of Kentucky, about
152 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

five years ago, there was one of these breed-
ing-places, stretching through the woods in
nearly a north and south direction, which was
several miles in breadth, and was said to be
upwards of forty miles in extent. In this tract
almost every tree was furnished with nests,
wherever the branchés could accommodate
them.

“«* As soon as the young were fully grown,
and before they left their nests, numerous parties
of the inhabitants, from all parts of the adjacent
country, came with waggons, axes, beds, cooking
utensils, many of them accompanied by the
greater part of their families, and encamped for
several days in this immense nursery. Several
of them informed me that the noise in the woods
was so great as to terrify their horses, and that
it was difficult for one person to hear another
speak without bawling in his ear. The ground
was strewed with broken limbs of trees, eggs,
and young squab Pigeons, which had been pre-
cipitated from above, and on which herds of
THE PASSENGER PIGEON. 153

hogs were fattening; hawks, buzzards, and
eagles were sailing about in great numbers, and
seizing the squabs from their nests at pleasure ;
while, from twenty feet upwards to the tops of
the trees, the view through the woods presented
a perpetual tumult of crowding and fluttering
multitudes of Pigeons, their wings roaring like
thunder, mingled with the frequent crash of
falling timber; for now the axemen were at
work, cutting down those trees which seemed
to be most crowded with nests, and contrived
to fell them in such a manner, that in their
descent they might bring down several others,
by which means the falling of one large tree
sometimes produced two hundred squabs, little
inferior in size to the old Pigeons, and almost
one mass of fat. On some single trees upwards
of one hundred nests were found, each containing
one young only, a circumstance in the history
of this bird not generally known to naturalists.
It was dangerous to walk under these fluttering
and flying millions, from the frequent fall of
154 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

large branches, broken down by the weight
of the multitudes above, and which in their
descent often destroyed numbers of the birds
themselves.

“«¢T had left the public road to visit the re-
mains of the breeding-place near Shelbyville,
and was traversing the woods with my gun, on
my way to Frankfort, when about one o'clock,
the Pigeons, which I had observed flying the
greater part of the morning northerly, began to
return in such immense numbers as I never
before had witnessed; coming to an opening by
the side of a creek called the Benson, where
I had a more uninterrupted view, I was asto-
nished at their appearance. They were flying
with great steadiness and rapidity, at a height
beyond gunshot, and several strata deep, and
so close together, that could shot have reached
them, one discharge could not have failed in
bringing down several individuals. From right
to left, as far as the eye could reach, the breadth
of this vast procession extended, seeming every-
THE PASSENGER PIGEON. 155

where equally crowded. Curious to determine
how long this appearance would continue, I
took out my watch to note the time, and sat
down to observe them. It was then half-past
one; I sat for more than an hour, but instead
of a diminution of this prodigious procession, it
seemed rather to increase both in numbers and
rapidity, and anxious to reach Frankfort before
night, I arose and went on. About four o’clock
in the afternoon I crossed the Kentucky River,
at the town of Frankfort, at which time the
living torrent above my head seemed as numerous
and as extensive as ever; and long after this,
I observed them in large bodies, that continued
to pass for six or eight minutes, and these again
were followed by other detached hodies, all
moving in the same south-east direction, till
after six in the evening. ‘The great breadth of
front which this mighty multitude preserved
would seem to intimate a corresponding breadth
of their breeding-place, which, by several gentle-
men who had lately passed through a part of it,
156 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

was stated to me at several miles. It was said
to be in Green County, and that the young
began to fly about the middle of March. On
the 17th of April, forty-nine miles beyond Dan-
ville, and not far from Green River, I crossed
this same breeding-place, where the nests for
more than three mites spotted every tree; the
leaves not being yet out, I had a fair prospect
of them, and was really astonished at their
numbers. A few bodies of Pigeons lingered
yet in different parts of the woods, the roaring
of whose wings was heard in various quarters
around me.

“«The vast quantity of food which these
multitudes consume is a serious loss to the other
animals, such as bears, pigs, squirrels, which
are dependent on the fruits of the forest. I
have taken from the crop of a single wild
Pigeon a good handful of the kernels of beech
nuts intermixed with acorns and chestnuts. To
form a rough estimate of the daily consumption
of one of these immense flocks, let us first
THE PASSENGER PIGEON. 157

attempt to calcuiate the numbers above men-
tioned, as seen in passing between Frankfort
and the Indiana territory. If we suppose this
column to have been one mile in breadth (and
T believe it to have been much more), and that
it moved at the rate of one mile in a minute,
four hours, the time it continued passing, would
make its whole length two hundred and forty
miles. Again, supposing that each square yard
of this moving body comprehended three Pigeons,
the square yards in the whole space multiplied
by three would give two thousand two hundred
and thirty millions two hundred and seveuty-
two thousand Pigeons!—an almost incredible
multitude, and yet far below the actual amount.
Computing each of these to consume half a pint
of mast (nuts, and other seeds of trees) daily,
the whole quantity, at this rate, would equal
seventeen millions four hundred and twenty-
four thousand bushels per day! Heaven has
wisely and graciously given to these birds ra-
pidity of flight, and a disposition to range over
158 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

vast uncultivated tracts of the earth, otherwise
they must have perished in the districts where
they resided, or devoured the whole productions
of agriculture, as well as those of the forests.

««¢ The appearance of large detached flocks of
these birds in the air, and the various evolutions
they display, are strikingly picturesque and in-
teresting. In descending the Ohio by myself,
I often rested on my oars to contemplate their
aerial manceuvres. A column of eight or ten
miles in length would appear from Kentucky
high in air, steering across to Indiana. The
leaders of this great body would sometimes
gradually vary their course, till it formed a large
bend of more than a mile in diameter, those
behind tracing the exact route of their prede-
cessors. This would continue sometimes long
after both extremities were beyond the reach of
sight; so that the whole with its glittering
undulations marked a space on the face of the
heavens resembling the windings of a vast
majestic river. When this bend became very
THE PASSENGER PIGEON. 159

great, the birds, as if sensible of the unneces-
sarily circuitous route they were taking, sud-
denly changed their direction, so that what was
in column before became an immense front,
straightening all its indentures until it swept
the heavens in one vast and infinitely extended
line. Other lesser bodies also united with each
other as they happened to approach, and with
such ease and elegance of evolution, forming
new figures, and varying these as they united or
separated, that I was never tired of contem-
plating them. Sometimes a hawk would sweep
on a particular part of the column from a great
height, when almost as quick as lightning that
part shot downwards out of the common track,
but soon rising again, continued advancing at
the same height as before. This inflection was
continued by those behind, who, on arriving at
this point, dived down almost perpendicularly to
a great depth, and rising, followed the exact
path of those that went before.

*««Ffappening to go ashore one charming after-
160 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

noon to purchase some milk at a house that
stood near the river, and while talking with the
people within doors, I was suddenly struck with
astonishment. at a loud rushing roar, succeeded ~
by instant darkness, which for the first moment
I took for a tornado about.to overwhelm the
house and everything around in destruction.
The people, observing my surprise, coolly said,
“Tt is only the Pigeons,” and on running out, I
beheld a flock thirty or forty yards in width,
sweeping along very low, between the house and
the mountain or height that formed the second
bank of the river. ‘These continued crossing for
more than a quarter of an hour, and at length
varied their bearing, so as to pass over the
mountain, behind which they disappeared be-
fore the rear came up.’”

“That is amazing, Uncle Thomas! Two -
thousand millions of live birds! I can scarcely
form an idea of such a mass of living creatures.”’

“There is something almost overwhelming
in the thought, Frank; and yet in some parts of
MIGRATIONS OF THE LAND-CRAB. 161

the world are to be found flocks of animals
perhaps even more astonishing, when we con-
sider how much less they are fitted for moving
about, travelling at stated intervals from the
mountains to the sea-coast, and returning again
to their old habitations, after having: fulfilled the
purposes for which this instinctive feeling was
implanted in them.”

“Which animals do you mean, Uncle
Thomas ?”

* T allude to the Land-Crab, which is a native
of the Bahamas, and also of most of the other
islands between the tropics. They live in clefts
of the rocks, or holes which they dig for them-
selves among the mountains, and feed on vege-
tables. About the month of April or May,
they descend to the sea-coast in a body of
millions at a time, for the purpose of depositing
their spawn. They march in a direct line
towards their destination, and seldom turn out
of their way, even should they encounter a
wall ora house, but boldly attempt to scale it.

M
162 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

If, however, they arrive at a river, they wind
along the course of the stream, and thus reach
the sea. .

‘‘ In their procession they are as regular as
an army under the command of an experienced
general, and are usually divided into three
battalions. The first body consists of the
strongest males, which march forward to clear
the route and face the greatest dangers, The
main body is composed of females, and is
formed into columns, sometimes extending fifty
or sixty yards in breadth, and three miles in
depth. At a considerable distance follows the
third division or rear guard, a straggling un-
disciplined mass, consisting of both males and
females, but neither so robust nor so vigorous as
the former.

« Though they are easily drowned, a certain
portion of moisture seems necessary to the

existence of these animals, and the advanced
guard is often obliged to halt from the want of

rain. The females, indeed, never leave the
MIGRATIONS OF THE LAND-CRAB. 163

mountains till the rainy season has fairly set in.
They march chiefly during the night, but if it
happens to rain during the day, they always
take advantage of the circumstance to move
forward. When the sun is hot they halt till
evening. They travel very slowly, and are
sometimes three months in gaining the shore.
When alarmed they run in a confused and
disorderly manner, holding up and clattering
their nippers in a threatening attitude, and bite
severely. Ifin their journey any of them should
be so maimed as to be unable to proceed, the
others fall upon it and devour it.

« Arrived on: the coast, they prepare to de-
posit their spawn. They go to the edge of the
water, and allow the waves to wash twice or
thrice over their bodies, and then withdraw to
seek a lodging upon the land. After a short
time they again seek the sea-side, and leave the
spawn, which strongly resembles the roe of the
Herring, to be brought to maturity by the heat
of the sun. Much of it is devoured by the
164 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

fishes, which watch their annual arrival; that
_ which escapes soon arrives at maturity, and
millions of little Crabs are then to be seen slowly
travelling towards the mountains.

“The old ones in the meantime seek to
return to their old haunts, but so feeble are
they that they seem scarcely able to crawl along.
Some of them, indeed, are obliged to remain in
the level parts of the country till they recover,
making holes in the earth, which they block up
with fallen leaves and other substances. In
these they cast their old shells, after which they
soon recover, and become very fat.

“ At the season of their descent from the
mountains, the natives of the islands which
they inhabit, to whom they afford a delicious
food, eagerly wait for them and take them in
thousands. In their descent they are caught
for the roe or spawn only, the flesh being
then poor and lean; but on their return from
the sea-side they are in great repute, being then
fat and high flavoured.
AFFECTION IN FISHES. 165

** The Crab-catchers adopt various modes of
securing them; but they are obliged to be very
cautious, for when the animals perceive them-
selves attacked, they throw themselves on their
backs and snap their claws about, pinching
whatever they lay hold of very severely.
The Crab-catchers, however, manage to seize
them by the legs in such a manner, as that the
nippers cannot reach them.”

* You said, Uncle Thomas, that the fishes
watch the descent of the Crabs, that they
might feed on the spawn. Do you think that
fishes are as intelligent as the higher classes of
animals, Uncle Thomas ?”’

*“ No doubt of it, Frank. Many curious
stories of the intelligence of fishes are on
record. Of their affection we have also many
proofs. A person who kept two small fishes in
a glass separated them, when the one which
was left refused to eat, and showed evident
symptoms of unhappiness till his companion
was restored to him.
166 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

‘* Many fishes migrate from place to place,
in the same way as the animals of which I have
just told you. The Salmon leaves the sea,
and seeks its way up the rivers, stemming their
most rapid currents, and scaling their highest
waterfalls with a determination which can only
be the result of an instinct implanted by their
Creator.”

“And the Herring, Uncle Thomas ; does not
it come every year from the Polar seas to spawn
on our shores? I read a very interesting ac-
count of their progress southwards somewhere
lately.”’

“T can tell you where, Frank; I will show
it you, and when you have read it aloud, I will
point out one or two mistakes, which it is as
well to clear your mind of. It is in old Pen-
nant’s work. Here it is; will you read it to us,
John P”

“« With pleasure, Uncle Thomas :—

“ «This mighty army begins to put itself in
motion in the spring. ‘They begin to appear off
~

MIGRATIONS OF THE HERRING. 167

the Shetland Islands in April and May. This
is the first check this army meets in its march
southward. ‘There it is divided into two parts:
one wing of those destined to visit the Scottish
coast takes to the east, the other to the western
shores of Great Britain, and fill every bay and
creek with their numbers; others proceed to-
wards Yarmouth, the great and ancient mart of
Herrings ; they then pass through the British
Channel, and after that in a manner disappear.
Those which take to the west, after offering
themselves to the Hebrides, where the great
stationary fishery is, proceed towards the north
of Ireland, where they meet with a second in-
terruption, and are obliged to make a second
division ; the one takes to the western side and
is scarcely perceived, being soon lost in the
immensity of the Atlantic, but the other, which
passes into the Irish Sea, rejoins, and feeds the
inhabitants of most of the coasts that border on
it. The brigades, as we call them, which are
separated from the greater columns, are often
168 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

capricious in their motions, and do not show
an invariable attachment to their haunts.’ ”

“ Thank you, John. Now all this sounds
very fine, and seems systematic enough. It
has but one objection—it is ‘quite untrue. It
is more than doubtful if the Herring frequents
the Polar seas at all; the most distinguished
naturalists are of opinion that it never leaves the
neighbourhood of our own coasts, but merely
retires to the deep water after it has spawned,
and there remains till the return of another
season causes it again to revisit the shores for
a similar purpose. So you see, Frank, it does
not follow that an interesting account of an
animal’s habits is necessarily a true one.”

“Ohno, Uncle Thomas! I never imagined
that.”

“Very well, boys. Good night.”


169

CHAPTER VIII.

UNCLE THOMAS TELLS ABOUT THE BABOONS, AND THEIR “PLUNDERING
EXCURSIONS TO THE GARDENS AT THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE; ALSO
ABOUT LE VAILLANT’S BABOON eS AND HIS PECULIARITIES; AND
RELATES AN AMUSING STORY ABOUT A YOUNG MONKEY, DEPRIVED OF
ITS MOTHER, PUTTING ITSELF UNDER THE FOSTERING CARE OF A
WIG-BLOCK.

‘“‘Ou, Uncle Thomas, we saw such a strange-
looking creature to-day! It seemed to be a
very large Monkey; it was as big as a boy.”

“T heard of it, boys, though I did not see
it. It was a Baboon, and one of the largest
of the species. It was what is called the Dog-
faced Baboon.”

“Where do such animals come from, Uncle
Thomas ?”’ ;

“From Africa, John, and I believe they are
not to be found elsewhere. They are very
fierce and mischievous creatures, and are said
170 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

sometimes even to attack man, but this I
believe to be an exaggeration. Immense troops
of them inhabit the mountains in the neigh- |
bourhood of the Cape of Good Hope, whence
they descend in bands to plunder the gardens
and orehards. In these excursions they move
on a concerted plan, placing sentinels on com-
manding spots to give notice of the approach
of an enemy. “ On the appearance of danger,
the sentinel utters a loud yell, upon which the
whole troop retreats with the utmost precipi-
tation.”

“Do they carry their spoil with them when
they are thus scared, Uncle Thomas ?”

“When disturbed, John, they are said to
break in pieces’ the fruit which they have. ga-
thered, and cram it into their cheek pouches—
receptacles with which nature has furnished
them for keeping articles of food till they are
wanted.

“A celebrated traveller in Africa, named
Le Vaillant, had a Dog-faced Baboon which
HABITS OF THE BABOON, A

accompanied him on his journey, and he found
its instincts of great service to him in various
ways. Asa sentinel he was better than any of
the dogs. So quick was his sense of danger,
that he often gave notice of the approach of
beasts of prey, when everything else seemed
sunk in security. He was also very useful in
guarding the people of the expedition from
danger, from using unwholesome or poisonous
fruits. The animal’s name was Kees. Here is
the very interesting account which his master
gives of him, which I will read to you :—

‘“¢* Whenever we found fruits or roots with
which my Hottentots were unacquainted, we
did not touch them till Kees had tasted them.
If he threw them away, we concluded that
they were either of a disagreeable flavour or
of a pernicious quality, and left them untasted.
The Ape possesses a peculiar property, wherein
he differs greatly from other animals, and re-
sembles man,—namely, that he is by nature
equally gluttonous and inquisitive. Without
172 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

necessity, and without appetite, he tastes every-
thing that falls in his way, or that is given to
him. But Kees had a still more valuable
quality,—he was an excellent sentinel; for
whether by day or night, he immediately sprang

up on the slightest appearance of danger. By |
his cry, and the symptoms of fear which he.

exhibited, we were always apprized of the ap-
proach of an enemy, even though the dogs
perceived nothing of it. The latter at length
learned to rely upon him with such confidence,
that they slept on in perfect tranquillity. I
often took Kees with me when I went a hunting ;
and when he saw me preparing for sport, he
exhibited the most lively demonstrations of
joy. On the way he would climb into the

trees to look for gum, of which he was very _

fond. Sometimes he discoyered to me honey,
deposited in the clefts of rocks or hollow trees.
‘But if he happened to have met with neither
honey nor gum, and his“appetite had become
sharp by his running about, I always witnessed
HABITS OF THE BABOON. 173

a very ludicrous scene. In those cases he
looked for roots, which he ate with great
greediness, especially a particular kind, which,
to his cost, I also found to ‘be very well-
tasted and refreshing, and therefore insisted
upon sharing with him. But Kees was no
fool. As soon as he found such a root, and
T was not near enough to seize upon my share
of it, he devoured it in the greatest haste,
keeping his eyes all the while riveted on me.
He accurately measured the distance I had to
pass before I could get to him; and I was sure
of coming too late. Sometimes, however, when
he had made a mistake in his calculation, and
I came upon him sooner than he expected, he
endeavoured to hide the root, in which case
I compelled him, by a box on the ear, to give
me up my share. But this treatment caused
no malice between us; we remained as good
friends as ever. In order to draw these roots
out of the ground, he employed a very inge-
nious method, which afforded me much amuse-
174 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

ment. He laid hold of the herbage with his
teeth, stemmed his fore feet against the ground,
and drew back his head, which gradually pulled
out the root. But if this expedient, for which
he employed his whole strength, did not suc-
ceed, he laid hold of the leaves as. before, as
close to the ground as possible, and then threw
himself heels over head, which gave such a
concussion to the root, that it never failed to
come out.

“«¢ When Kees happened to tire on the road,
he mounted upon the back of one of my dogs,
who was so obliging as to carry him whole
hours. One of them, however, which was
larger and stronger than the rest hit upon a
very ingenious artifice to avoid being pressed
into this piece of service. As soon as Kees
leaped upon his back he stood still, and let the
train pass without moving from the spot. Kees
still persisted in his intention, till we were
almost out of his sight, when he found himself
at length compelled to dismount, upon which
~

HABITS OF THE BABOON. E75

both the Baboon and dog exerted all their speed .
to.overtake us. The latter, however, gave him
the start, and kept a good look-out after him,
that he might not serve him in the same manner
again. In fact, Kees enjoyed a certain autho-
rity with all my dogs, for which he perhaps was
indebted to the superiority of his instinct. He
could not endure a competitor; if any of the
dogs came too near him when he was eating,
he gave them a box on the ear, which com-
pelled them immediately to retire to a respectful
distance.

“«« Serpents excepted, there were no animals
of whom Kees stood in such great dread as
of his own species,—perhaps owing to a con-
sciousness that he had lost a portion of his
natural capacities. Sometimes he heard the
cry of the other Apes among the mountains,
and, terrified as he was, he yet answered them.
But if they approached nearer, and he saw any
of them, he fled with a hideous cry, crept
between our legs, and trembled all over. It
176 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

was very difficult to compose him, and it
was some time before he recovered from his
fright.
«“¢ Tike other domestic animals, Kees was ~
addicted to stealing. He understood admirably
well how to loose the strings of a basket, in
order to take victuals out of it, especially milk,
of which he was very fond. My people
chastised him for these thefts; but that did not
make him amend his conduct. I myself some-
times whipped him; but then he ran away,
and did not return again to the tent, until it
grew dark. Once as I was about to dine, and
had put the beans which I had boiled for
myself upon a plate, I heard the voice of a
bird, with which I was not acquainted. I left
my dinner standing, seized my gun, and ran
out of my tent. In about a quarter of an hour
I returned, with the bird in my hand; but, to
my astonishment, found not a single bean upon
the plate. Kees had stolen them all, and taken
himself out of the way. When he had com-
HABITS OF THE BABOON. 177

mitted any trespass of this kind, he used always
about the time when I drank tea to return
quietly, and seat himself in his usual place,
with every appearance of innocence, as if no-
thing had happened; but this evening he
did not show himself; and on the following
day, also, he was not seen by any of us; and,
in consequence, I began to grow seriously un-
easy about him, and apprehensive that he
might be lost for ever; but on the third day,
one of my people, who had been to fetch water,
informed me that he had seen Kees in the neigh-
bourhood, but that as soon as the animal espied
him, he had concealed himself again. I im-
mediately went out and beat the whole neigh-
bourhood with my dogs: All at once I heard a
ery like that which Kees used to make when I
returned from shooting, and had not taken
him with me. I looked about and at length
espied him, endeavouring to hide himself be-
hind the large branches of a tree. I now
called to him in a friendly tone of voice, and
N
17S STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

made motions to him to come down to me;
but he could not trust me, and I was obliged to
climb up the tree to fetch him. He did not
attempt to escape, and we returned together to
my quarters, here he expected to receive his
punishment; but I did nothing, as it would have
been of no use.

«© ¢ When, exhausted with the heat of the
sun and the fatigues of the day, with my throat
and mouth covered with dust and perspiration, I
was ready to sink gasping to the ground, in tracts
destitute of shade, and longed even for the
dirtiest ditch-water, but after seeking long in
vain, lost all hope of finding any in the parched
soil, in such distressing moments my faithful
Kees never moved from my side. We sometimes
got out of our carriage, and then his sure instinct
led him toa plant. Frequently the stalk was
fallen off, and then all his endeavours to pull it
out were in vain. In such cases, he began to
scratch in the earth with his paws; but as that
would also have proved ineffectual, I came to
HABITS OF THE BABOON. 179

his assistance with my dagger or my knife, and
we honestly divided the refreshing root with each
other.

««« An officer, wishing one day to put the
fidelity of my Baboon Kees to the test, pre-
tended to strike me. At this Kees flew in a
violent rage, and from that time he could never
endure the sight of the officer. If he only saw
him at a distance, he began to cry and make all
kinds of grimaces, which evidently showed that
he wished to revenge the insult that had been
done to me; he ground his teeth, and en-
deavoured, with all his might, to fly at his
face, but that was out of his power, as he
was chained down. ‘The offender several
times endeavoured, in vain, to conciliate him, by
offering him dainties, but he remained long
implacable.

«©* When any eatables had been pilfered at
my quarters, the fault was always laid first upon
Kees, and rarely was the accusation unfounded.
For a time the eggs which a hen laid me were
180 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

constantly stolen, and J wished to ascertain
whether I had to attribute this loss also to him.
For this purpose, I went one morning to watch
him, and waited till the hen announced by her
cackling that she had laid an egg. Kees was
sitting upon my carriage; but the moment he
heard the hen’s voice he leapt down, and was
running to fetch the egg. When he saw me he
suddenly stopped, and affected a careless posture,
swaying himself backwards upon his hind legs,
and assuming a very innocent look; in short, he
employed all his art to deceive me with respect
to his design. His hypocritical manceuvres only
confirmed my suspicions, and, in order in my
turn to deceive him, J pretended not to attend
to him, and turned my back to the bush where
the hen was cackling, upon which he imme-
diately sprang to the place. TI ran after him,
and came up to him at the moment when he
had broken the egg, and was swallowing it.
Having caught the thief in the fact, J gave him
a good beating upon the spot; but this severe
SS

WY

1)
Hh



—_

Page 181.
HABITS OF THE BABOON. 181

chastisement did not prevent his soon stealing
fresh-laid eggs again. As I was convinced that
I should never be able to break Kees of his
natural vices, and that, unless I chained him up
every morning, [ should never get an egg, I en-
deavoured to accomplish my purpose in another
manner. I trained one of my dogs, as soon as
the hen cackled, to run to the nest, and bring
me the egg without breaking it. In a few days
the dog had learned his lesson; but Kees, as
soon as he heard the hen cackle, ran with him
to the nest. A contest now took place between
them who should ‘have the egg; often the dog
was foiled, although he was the stronger of the
two. If he gained the victory, he ran joyfully
to me with the egg, and put it into my hand.
Kees, nevertheless, followed him, and did not
cease to grumble and make threatening grimaces
at him till he saw me take the egg,—as if
he was comforted for the loss of his booty by
his adversary’s not retaining it for himself. If
Kees had got hold of the egg, he endeavoured
182 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

to run with it to a tree, where, having devoured *
it, he threw down the shells upon his adversary,
as if tomake game of him. In that case, the
dog returned, looking ashamed, from which I
could conjecture the unlucky adventure he had
met with.

“* Kees was always the first awake in the
morning, and when it was the proper time
he awoke the dogs, who were accustomed to his
voice, and in general obeyed without hesitation
the slightest motions by which he communicated
his orders to them, immediately taking their
posts about the tent and carriage, as he directed
them.’ ”

“What a delightful companion Kees must
have been, Uncle Thomas |”’

“‘ He must at least have been an amusing as
well as a useful one, Frank. ‘There are, how-
ever, great variations in this respect among the
Monkeys; some of them are most lively crea-
tures, seldom sitting still for a couple of minutes,
while others are retired and gloomy in their
HABITS OF THE MONKEY. 183

dispositions, and some are most fickle and un-
certain. The Fair Monkey, though one of the
most beautiful of the.tribe, is of the latter de-
scription, as the following story will testify :—
“An animal of this class, which from its
extreme beauty and gentleness was allowed to
ramble at liberty about a ship, soon became a
great favourite among the crew, and in order to
make him perfectly happy, as they imagined,
they procured him a wife. For some weeks he
was a. devoted husband, and showed his wife
every attention and respect. By-and-bye, how-
ever, he grew cool, and became jealous of any
kind of civility shown her by the master of the
vessel, and began to use her with much cruelty.
His treatment made her wretched and dull; and
she bore the spleen of her husband with that
fortitude which is characteristic of the female
sex of the human species. And Pug, like the
lords of the creation, was up to deceit, and prac-
tised pretended kindness to his spouse, to effect
a diabolical scheme, which he seemed to preme-
184 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

ditate. One morning, when the sea ran very
high, he seduced her aloft, and drew her atten-
tion to an object at some distance from the yard-
arm ;* her attention being fixed, he all of a
sudden applied his paw to her rear, and tumbled
her mto the sea, where she fell a victim to his
cruelty. This feat seemed to afford him high
gratification, for he descended in great spirits.”

“Oh, what a wretched creature, Uncle
Thomas! I wonder the sailors did not throw
him into the sea also !”

“Stay, Frank, you are somewhat too hasty.
He deserved certainly to be punished; but I
doubt whether it would have been proper to have
dealt so summarily with him for his misdeed.
All Monkeys are not, however, equally cruel ;
some of them, indeed, are remarkable for the
instinctive kindness which they evince towards
their young. When threatened by danger, they
mount them on their back, or clasp them firmly
to their breast, to which the young creatures
secure themselves by means of their long and
HABITS OF THE MONKEY. 185

powerful arms, so as to allow of their parent
moving about, and springing from branch to
branch, with nearly as much facility as if she
were perfectly free from encumbrance.”

‘Oh, I can readily believe that, Uncle Thomas.
One day lately, at the Zoological Gardens, I
saw two Monkeys clasping a young one between
them, to keep it warm. They seemed so fond
of it 1”?

“Yes, Frank, I have also seen them occupied
in the same way. I was quite delighted at such
an unexpected exhibition of tenderness.”

«Some of the Monkeys which are natives of
the American continent have the singular cha-
racteristic of prehensile tails; that is, of laying
hold of branches of trees with their tails, with
nearly as much ease and security as they can
with their hands. ‘The facilities which this
affords them for moving about with celerity
among the branches is astonishing. If it makes
a single coil round a branch, it is quite sufficient
not only to support the weight of the animal,
186 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

but to enable it to swing in such a manner as to
gain a fresh hold with its feet.”

** That is very curious, Uncle Thomas. Is
there any other animal which has this singular
power ?”

“Oh, yes, Frank, several of the Lizards have
the power, as well as some other animals,—the
little Harvest Mouse, for instance; but none of
them are possessed of it in so high a degree as
the American Monkeys.

“T have now, boys, pretty well exhausted my
stories about the Monkey tribe. I recollect only
one more at present, and it occurred to the same
traveller to whom Kees belonged.

“In one of his excursions he happened to
kill a female Monkey, which carried a young
one on her back. ‘The little creature, as if in-
sensible of its mother’s death, continued to cling
to the dead body till the party reached their
evening. quarters; and even then it required
considerable force to disengage it. No sooner,
however, did it feel itself alone, than it darted
HABITS OF THE MONKEY. 187

towards a wooden block, on which was placed
the wig of Le Vaillant’s father, mistaking it for
its dead mother. ‘To this it clung most perti-
naciously by its fore paws; and such was the
force of this deceptive feeling, that it remained
in the same position for about three weeks, all
this time evidently mistaking the wig for its
mother! It was fed from time to time with
goat’s milk, and at length emancipated itself
voluntarily, by quitting the fostering care of the
peruke. The confidence which it ere long
assumed, and the amusing familiarity of its
manners, soon rendered it a favourite. The
unsuspecting naturalist, however, soon found
that he introduced a wolf in sheep’s clothing
into his dwelling ; for one morning, on entering
his chamber, the door of which had beem im-
prudently left open, he beheld his young fa-
vourite making a hearty breakfast on a very
noble collection of insects. In the first trans-
ports of his anger he resolved to strangle the
Monkey in his arms; but his rage immediately
188 STORIES ABOUT INSTINOT.

gave way to pity, when he perceived that the
crime of its voracity had carried the punishment
along with it. In eating the beetles, it had
swallowed several of the pins on which they
were transfixed. Its agony, consequently, be-
came great; and all his efforts were unable to
preserve its life.”

“ Poor creature! How unfortunate, Uncle
Thomas. It must, however, have been a very
stupid animal to mistake a wig for its mother.” °

“Very much so indeed, boys !—It is now,
however, our hour for parting.”

“Good night, Uncle Thomas.”
189

CHAPTER IX.

UNCLE THOMAS CONCLUDES STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT, WITH SEVERAL
INTERESTING ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE AFFECTIONS OF ANIMALS,
PARTICULARLY OF .THE INSTINCT OF MATERNAL AFFECTION; AND
POINTS OUT THE BENEFICENT CARE OF PROVIDENCE IN IMPLANTING
IN THE BREASTS OF EACH OF HIS CREATURES THE INSTINCTS WHICH
ARE NECESSARY FOR ITS PROTECTION AND PRESERVATION.

“ Goop evening, Uncle Thomas. We were so
delighted with the adventures of Kees, the mon-
key, that we wish to know if you have any
more such amusing stories to tell us.”

“« Oh, yes, boys, plenty; but it is now time
to bring these Srortzs azour Instincr to a
close. I am therefore going to conclude by
narrating one or two stories about the affections
of animals. I wish to impress your minds with
feelings of kindness towards them, and I think
that the best way to do so is to exhibit them to
you in their gentleness and love; to show you
190 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

that they do partake of the kindlier emotions
by which the heart of man is moved, and that
the feelings of maternal affection, and of friend-
ship, and of fidelity, are as much the preroga-'
tives of the lower animals as they are of man
himself. Perhaps one of the most amiable
lights in which the affections of animals are ex-
hibited to us is their love and attachment to
their offspring. You have all seen how regard-
less of danger a domestic hen, one of the most
timid and defenceless of animals, becomes when
she has charge of a brood of chickens. At
other times she is alarmed by the slightest
noise—the sudden rustle of a leaf makes her
shrink with fear and apprehension; yet no
sooner do her little helpless offspring escape
from the shell, than she becomes armed with a
determination of which even birds of prey stand
in awe.”

“ Oh, yes, Uncle Thomas, I have often seen
a hen attack a large dog and drive it away from
her chickens.”
MATERNAL AFFECTION. 191

“ Jt marks the wisdom of the omnipotent and
all-wise Creator, boys, that He has implanted in
the hearts of each of His creatures the particular
instincts which were necessary for their safety
and protection. Thus, in the case I have just
spoken of, the instinctive courage with which
the mother is endowed you will find to be the
best security which could have been devised for
this purpose. In some other birds this instinct
exhibits itself in a different way. If you happen
to approach the nest of the lapwing, for instance,
the old birds try every means to attract your
attention, and to lure you away from the sacred
spot. They will fly close by you and in an irre-
gular manner, as if wounded; but no sooner
do they find that their stratagem has been suc-
cessful, and that they have passed the nest un-
observed, than'they at once take a longer flight,
and soon leave you behind.”

“ How very singular, Uncle Thomas! Does
the lapwing defend its young with as much
courage as the hen ?”
192 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

‘“* Tam not aware that it does, Frank, though
I think it is not very likely. As its instinct
teaches it to finesse in the way which I have
told you, I should not expect to find that it does
so with equal spirit. Even the pigeon, the very
emblem of gentleness and love, boldly pecks at
the rude hand which is extended towards its
young, during the earlier stages of their exist-
ence. If you come by chance on the brood of
a partridge, the mother flutters along, as if she
was so much wounded that it was impossible to
escape, and the young ones squat themselves
close by the earth. When by her cunning
wiles she has led you to a little distance, and
you discover that her illness was feigned, you
return to the spot to seek for the young, and you
find that they too are gone: no sooner is your
back turned than they run and hide themselves
in some more secret place, where they remain
till the well-known call of the mother again
collects them under her wing.

“| lately heard a most interesting story of
MATERNAL AFFECTION. 193

the boldness of a pair of Blackbirds in defence
of their young. A Cat was one day observed
mounted on the top of a railing, endeavouring
to get at a nest which was near it, containing a
brood of young birds. On the Cat’s approach
the mother left the nest, and flew to meet itina
state of great alarm, placing herself almost
within its reach, and uttering the most piteous
screams of wildness and despair. Alarmed by
his partner’s cries, the male bird soon discovered
the cause of her distress, and in a state of equal
trepidation flew to the place, uttering loud and
piercing screams, sometimes settling on the
fence just before the Cat, which was unable to
make a spring in consequence of the narrowness
of its footing. After a little time, seeing that
their distress made no impression on their as-
sailant, the male bird flew at the Cat, settled on
its back, and pecked at its head with so much
violence that it fell to the ground, followed by
the Blackbird, which at length succeeded in
driving it away. Foiled in this attempt, the
0
194 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

Cat, a short time after, again returned to the
charge, and was a second time vanquished, which
so intimidated her, that she relinquished all
attempts to get at the young birds. For several
days, whenever she made her appearance in the
garden, she was set upon by the Blackbirds, and
at length became so much afraid of them, that
she scampered to a place of security whenever
she saw them approach.”

“ That was very bold indeed, Uncle Thomas.
Birds seem to be all very much attached to their
young.”

“ Very much so, Harry; but perhaps not
more so than many quadrupeds. Here is a story
of the Squirrel’s affection, which, though it
does not exhibit an instance of active defence
against its enemies, affords one of endurance
equally admirable.

“In cutting down some trees on the estate
at Petersham recently purchased by the Crown,
for the purpose of being annexed to Richmond
Park, the axe was applied to the root of a tall
MATERNAL AFFECTION. 195

tree, on the top of which was a Squirrel’s nest.
A rope was fastened to the tree for the purpose
of pulling it down more expeditiously; the
workmen cut at the roots; the rope was pulled ;
the tree swayed backwards and forwards, and at
length fell. During all these operations a female
Squirrel never attempted to desert her new-born
young, but remained with them in the nest.
When the tree fell down, she was thrown out
and secured unhurt, and was put into a cage
with her young ones. She suckled them for a
short time, but refused to eat. Her maternal
affection, however, remained till the last moment
of her life, and she died in the act of affording all
the nourishment in her power to her offspring.
“We are too apt, boys, to overlook. the
admirable lessons which such stories as_ these
inculcate. ‘They should teach us kindness to
each other—kindness not only to those of our
own species, but kindness to all creatures. If
the lower animals love each other so warmly and
affectionately, how much more ought man, to
196 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

whom the Creator has been so beneficent, to
love his fellow-creatures. But though the affec-
tion of animals to their offspring is an admirable
mode of its development, it is far from being the
only one. Here is an instance of attachment
in horses which was so strong as to terminate
fatally :—

“During the Peninsular War two Horses,
which had long been associated together, as-
sisting to drag the same piece of artillery, and
standing together the shock of many battles,
became so much attached to each other as to be
inseparable companions. At length one of them
was killed. After the battle in which this took
place, the other was picqueted as usual, and his
food brought to him. He refused, however, to
eat, and kept constantly turning round his head
to look for his companion, sometimes neighing,
as if to call her. All the attention which was
bestowed upon him was of no avail; though
surrounded by other horses he took no notice of
them, but incessantly bewailed his absent friend.
CONCLUSION. 197

He died shortly after, having refused to taste
food from the time his former companion was
killed !

“Such is but one solitary instance. But
there are many such scattered up and down in
the ample records of nature, bearing silent but
emphatic testimony to the kindness and bene-
ficence of the Creator.

“*Not a tree,
A plant, a leaf, a blossom, but contains
A folio volume : we may read, and read,
And read again, but still find something new—
Something to please, and something to instruct
H’en in the noisome weed.’

“Yes, boys; the great volume of nature
needs but to be read aright to show forth the
wonderful works of God, and to convince every
one that “ in goodness He hath made them all.”’
Not a rock in the desert, not a pebble by the
brook-side, not even a grain of sand by the sea-
shore, but is fraught with lessons of wisdom to
him whose heart is fitted to receive and com-
prehend their sublime import.
198 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.

* But I must not conclude these Stories,
boys, without seeking to. impress upon your minds
that amusing as I trust they have been, they will
have lost half their value unless they teach you
to find in thestudy of the instincts and habits
of animals something more than mere amuse-
ment. They show the impress of their Divine
Author on every created thing, and such
lessons will, I hope, help to incite in you
the love of nature, and so teach you ‘ to look
through nature up to nature’s God.’ An
author, who has written a most interesting little
book on a pebble picked up in the bed of a
torrent, speaking of the pleasures and the ele-
vating influences of such investigations, says,
‘In circumstances where the uninstructed and
uninquiring eye can perceive neither novelty nor
beauty, the mind imbued with a taste for natural
science finds an inexhaustible source of pleasure
and instruction, and new and stupendous proofs
of the power and goodness of the Eternal!’ And
he continues, ‘amidst the turmoil of the world,
CONCLUSION. 199

and the dreary intercourse of common life, we
possess in such pursuits a never-failing source
of delight, of which nothing can deprive us—
an oasis in the desert to which we can escape,
and find a home wherever the intellect can
pierce and the spirit can breathe the air. For
like the plant which the Prophet threw into the
waters of Marah (Exod. xv. 25), that changed
the bitterness of the wave into sweetness, a
branch of the tree of knowledge thrown into
the turbid stream of life purifies its waters and
imparts to them a healing virtue, which sheds
its hallowing and refreshing influence over the
soul!’ ””

THE END.



Thomas Harrild, Printer, 11, Salisbury Square, Fleet Street, London.










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12/15/2014 12:40:21 PM 00080.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:21 PM 00080.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:21 PM 00081.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:21 PM 00081.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:21 PM 00082.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:21 PM 00082.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:21 PM 00083.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:21 PM 00083.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:21 PM 00084.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:21 PM 00084.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:21 PM 00084b.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:21 PM 00084b.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:21 PM 00085.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:21 PM 00085.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:21 PM 00086.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:21 PM 00086.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:21 PM 00087.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:21 PM 00087.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:21 PM 00088.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:21 PM 00088.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:21 PM 00089.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:21 PM 00089.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:21 PM 00090.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:21 PM 00090.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:21 PM 00091.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:21 PM 00091.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:21 PM 00092.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:21 PM 00092.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:21 PM 00093.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00093.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00094.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00094.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00095.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00095.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00096.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00096.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00097.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00097.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00098.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00098.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00099.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00099.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00100.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00100.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00101.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00101.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00102.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00102.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00102b.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00102b.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00103.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00103.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00104.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00104.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00105.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00105.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00106.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00106.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00107.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00107.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00108.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00108.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00109.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00109.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00110.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00110.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00110a.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00110a.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00111.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00111.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00112.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00112.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00113.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00113.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00114.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00114.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00115.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00115.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00116.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00116.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00117.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00117.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00118.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00118.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00119.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00119.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00120.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00120.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00121.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00121.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00122.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00122.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00123.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00123.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00124.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00124.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00125.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00125.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00126.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00126.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00127.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00127.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00128.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00128.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00129.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00129.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00130.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00130.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00131.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00131.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00132.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00132.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00132b.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00132b.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00133.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:22 PM 00133.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00134.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00134.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00135.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00135.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00136.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00136.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00137.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00137.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00138.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00138.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00139.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00139.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00140.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00140.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00141.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00141.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00142.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00142.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00143.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00143.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00144.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00144.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00145.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00145.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00146.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00146.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00147.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00147.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00148.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00148.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00149.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00149.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00150.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00150.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00151.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00151.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00152.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00152.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00153.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00153.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00154.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00154.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00155.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00155.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00156.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00156.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00157.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00157.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00158.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00158.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00159.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00159.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00160.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00160.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00161.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:23 PM 00161.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00162.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00162.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00163.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00163.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00164.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00164.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00165.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00165.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00166.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00166.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00167.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00167.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00168.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00168.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00169.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00169.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00170.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00170.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00171.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00171.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00172.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00172.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00173.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00173.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00174.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00174.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00175.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00175.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00176.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00176.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00177.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00177.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00178.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00178.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00179.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00179.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00180.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00180.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00180b.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00180b.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:24 PM 00181.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00181.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00182.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00182.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00183.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00183.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00184.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00184.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00185.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00185.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00186.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00186.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00187.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00187.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00188.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00188.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00189.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00189.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00190.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00190.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00191.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00191.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00192.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00192.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00193.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00193.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00194.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00194.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00195.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00195.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00196.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00196.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00197.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00197.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00198.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00198.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00199.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00199.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00200.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00200.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00201.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00201.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00202.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM 00202.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:40:25 PM