Florida honey and its hundred uses

Material Information

Florida honey and its hundred uses
Series Title:
Florida. Dept. of Agriculture. Bulletin <new ser.> ;, no. 66
Added title page title:
Florida honey and beekeeping
Horton, Waldo.
Thursby, Isabelle S.
Wilder, J. J.
State of Florida Dept. of Agriculture,
State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture,
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
109 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Honey -- Florida.
Cooking (Honey)
Bee culture -- Florida.


General Note:
Includes Beekeeping in Florida (formerly Bulletin 5) by J.J. Wilder.
General Note:
"January, 1958".
General Note:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 102).
Bulletin (Florida. Dept. of Agriculture) ;

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
025289848 ( ALEPH )
AAA3689 ( NOTIS )
AKD9468 ( NOTIS )
01724455 ( OCLC )

Full Text
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Bulletin No. 66





Combined With Bulletin 5


Department of Agriculture
NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner


January, 1958




Honey P1iodciiion

Honey Fu;cts.

Minerals in lark Honey

Florida Hlonei

Kinds of Hiine\

-Honey (ookcr\

Honey Rc ipesc

Honey Bees and 1 heir Product.t

The .Mysterl I Sweets

Honey and Nuirilion

Florida Laws Relating to Honey

Tupelo Honey

. -1









Foreword 81

Beekeeping in Florida ...... ... 82

Florida .iaws Relating to Beekeeping ........ 97

Pollination ol Subtropical Fruit Plants ..__ 99

Honeybees in Florida's Pasture Development 1HI

Honey Processing .07

Beekeeping in Florida
One of the first apiaries of any consequence in the State
was established on the Florida East Coast on the west side of
the Halifax River, where the city of Daytona now stands. This
apiary was established in 1872 by a New York company whidi
was in that section producing lemons and oranges. The produc-
tion of lemons, oranges and honey made a very good combine.
tion. The company would come southward during early fall in
Lime to gather their fruit and honey. After spending a few
months in Florida, they would sail back to New York City in
the spring with a cargo of Florida fruit and honey. This practice
excited considerable attention around New York as well as in
certain Florida towns.
Probably the next apiary of any importance was started
near the city of Wewahitchka in Gulf county by Mi. S. S. Aldel-
man, who also grew oranges along with the production of honey.
Just a little later Mr. \V. S. Hart, located at Hawks Park in
Volusia county, began producing honey and fruit in like manner.
This early development of beekeeping in Florida took place
between 1872 and 1888. There was not much to Florida at that
time. The pioneer beekeepers had a hard time of it. They
obtained their bees from the forest, lived in remote sections of
the country which could be reached only by small vessels, and
were seldom visited by those from other parts of the country.
The success of S. S. Alderman and W. S. Hart soon caused
reports to be widely circulated that an average of one barrel, or
four hundred pounds, of honey per colony was being secured
in Florida. This report meant much to Florida in beekeeping
for almost at once people began to establish apiaries all over
the State and to put in modern equipment. Progress has con-
tinued down to the present time.

It is generally known among beekeepers in the southeast
that Florida has a black bee which has thrived in the forests of
the State 'or many years. These bees still exist in the State and
can be found in the large cypress timber of the Everglades, the
Okeefenokee swamp, and the heavy timbered sections in the
western part of the State. Just when or who brought the first

Beekeeping in Florida
(Formerly Bulletin 5)




The ianIy Irequests lor infloimiation received by the State
Department ol Agriculture have shown that a large number of
people are interested in the possibilities of beekeeping in Florida.
Requests have been received not only from people residing in
Florida, but also from people living in uany other states. A num.
ber of the people are interested in beekeeping in Florida merely
as a pastime- an activity at which they can enjoy their spare mo-
ments. Others, however, are interested in beekeeping because
of financial returns, either as a sideline or on a large commercial
It is for surh beginners in beekeeping that this bulletin is
written. The author, Mr. Wilder, has had many years' experience
with bees in practically all sections of Florida, and at the present
Lime lie owns about 10,000 colonies of bees. -e is, therefore,
unusually well qualified to inform the prospective beekeeper in
Florida as to the best procedure in beginning his apiary.
CiCommission'r of Agriculture


According to rank in 1956 (000-Omitted)
Stale 1949 1950 1951 1952 19513 954 .1 1955 1956(
Calilorniii 21.900 22.550 28.246 ,18,974 23.628 33.831 :1(,072 29.04.1
Minncsota 24,708 23,375 23.37. 24.795 21.335 19.440 24,300 19.280
FLORIDA 11,340 16'.224 17.871i 17,025 18.088 17.612 13.0W9 17360
Iowa 17.97-1 17.302 10.890 17.072 14.091 10.3110 18,975 12.400
Idaho 9.018 7,434 9,568 li,764 6.586 9.048 7,080 8,851)
Wisconsin 12,675 12.025 14.550 15.908 15,(00 10.812 18.512 5,036
Michigan 9.699 9.984 10.120 8.575 8.100 6,660 9.250 6.336
Texas 13.373 15.850 9.424 10,944 9,636 7.560 11,782 (i.233
;corgia 4.10-1 4,305 5.160 5.580 ,4598 4,100 2.412 6.211)
Mortall;a 1.596 3.720 500 51 0 ,46 l.030 5.780 (.188 5.931
STATIES 98.591 100.184 123.707 111,848 96.722 91.881 112.125 94.841
'. S. 226.978 233.013 258,116 272.641 224.414 217.084 2.53.78( 214.524


To improve the marketing of the Florida honey crops there
has been organized a cooperative marketing association with
headquarters at Ulmatilla. At Umatilla this organization has a
modern assembling, grading, processing, standardizing and pack-
ing plant. One of the ideas of the organization is to bring to-
gether the various farmer packs of barrel honey where it can be
mingled and blended into a uniform product, and then it can
be marketed more effectively. The plant has been recently ex-
panded and improved; this is a sign of its growth and popularity.
Honey has been packed for a large exporter in New York City.

In reporting on the land of Canaan, the Bible says that when
the children of Israel sent some scouts across the river to see
what kind of place they were to move into, the scouts reported
on their return that it was a land of "milk and honey." In their
estimation no greater praise than that could be given a country.
This land must have been a cattle growing and fruit raising
country, and in recent years Florida has become a cattle and fruit
Florida has a great variety of honey nectar producing plants
and a long growing season. Perhaps no name among the honey
varieties has more appeal than "Orange Blossom Honey."


degree of color was rather definite. There was no general uni.
foriiily of occurrence of sulphur and chlorine through the sam-
ples utilized.
Investigations in beekeeping have largely taken the mystery
out of the beehive. The chemists are at the present time taking
the mystery out of honey and are establishing a very definite
reason why honey is one of the best of foods. The earliest invest-
tigations were relative to the enzymes, invertase, diastase, and
catalase. As later chemical analyses of foods indicated that small
percent of certain elements were necessary for a proper balance
in the floods, the blood chemists have ceased to investigate the
very complex organic chemical compounds and turned their
attention to the inorganic material found in honey. To the
ordinary beekeeper the method of finding out how much sulphur
or iron is contained in honey is a greater mystery than the hidden
activity within the beehive is to the reading public. For the
benefit of the beekeeper whom we know is much interested in
knowing how these discoveries are made, this explanation is given.
The samples of honey are secured. Then the honey is freed
from water and all organic compounds by means of heat. The
remainder called ash is as a rule a white fluffy substance. This
substance which is very small in proportion to the honey used is
weighed on the most delicate of scales and then placed in solution
in various liquids. By the addition of solutions of other chemicals
and watching the changes which take place the chemist is able
to tell to a very accurate degree the exact mineral and the amount
thereof which is found in that portion. Then by combining the
findings of all portions the total mineral content of the honey is
obtained. Beekeepers appreciate the work of the chemists as
they know that work of this kind gives definite information that
can be depended upon in the formulation of sales talks.-H. B.
PARKS, San Antonio, Texas.

*Schuette. H. A., and Triller, Ralph E., 1938. Mineral constituents of honey.
Ill. Sulfur and Chlorine. Food Research 3. 543.


The power of honey to absorb and retain lioisture gives it
imanyj industrial uses, in addition to its value as fodl, studies by
the Bureau of Chemistry and Soils show. This quality of honey,
called "hygroscopicity," will make Ior greater use of the honey
grades not adapted to home use.
Bureau studies included the behavior of honeys of different
flower origin-white (lover, tupelo, buckwheat, tulip poplar, and
mesquite. All these honeys are lound useful in commercial bak-
ing of bread. take and cookies. When these products are made
with part honey in place ot sugar, they lose less moisture after
being stored 7 (lays than bread, cake, and cookies made with
other sweetening agents. Buckwheat honey gives particularly
good results.
Foney is also useful in aind\ making. It is suggested for
curing tobacco, in the same way that sugar and maple sugar are
used. Among other industries that offer outlets for comparatively
large quantities of honey are brewing. wine making, and vinegar


Florida Honey


Nature's Own Sweet-Nature's Oldest Sweet

Chemistry is now corroborating experience and proving
that our honey from sub-tropical and tropical plants contains
more minerals and is more health-giving. We have more variety
than almost any state, to please those who like a change of flaxor.
For those who like it standard and always the same a Florida
blend is recommended.


In infancy milk is a balanced and sufficient food. As we
become more active a higher calorie addition becomes neces-
sary. But foolish and taste-tickled mankind has gone too far
with varieties and mixtures. Sane thinkers are now reverting
to the more simple. In this very generation we are sure to see
increasing thousands going back to the more elemental, natural
foods. The Biblical recommendation of milk and honey, (Num.
13-27; Gcn. 3-l1; s. 19-10; Math. 3-4: Is. 7-15), should again
be taken seriously.
Honey is a monosacdharide sugar, chiefly fruit sugar. This
sugar is the natural end-product of digestion, so that honey is
already digested and easily assimilable. It is sweeter than
cane sugar but also contains more water and the amount varies
in honeys from different flowers.
There are many kinds of honey, almost as many as there
are different flowers, though some flowers do not produce nectar
(honey). Bees gather the nectar, and in the hive process it and
store and condense it in the comb as honey. Extracted honey
is thrown out of the comb by an extracting machine and strained,
and is used on the table and in cookery like syrup.
Honey adulterated with cheap syrup is not so common as
thought, on account of the rigid Pure Food Law, but if there is
real reason to suspect this adulteration, a sample sent to Gaines.
ville or Washington will disclose the truth.



Ilone) absorbs atmospheric moisture. granulttes rapidly
if cold: hence keep it in a warm dry place where you would keep
Keep under tight cover; insects like it, too.
Do not keep in refrigerator! (Perhaps comb honey, a short
(Cranulated honey is not spoiled honey; in fact nature does
that to preserve it. Some people like granulated honey. If you
wish it liquid like new, heat in waterbath at 125: or 1300F. for
all hour.
Comb honey is hard to keep prime here for many weeks
outside of beehive. (65.F. dry storage is needed.)
Remember good honey properly kept does not spoil and is
still delicious when a year or two old. (A few careless drops
ol water or impurity may make it spoil.)
Before serving thick extracted honey, set container in warm
water a few minutes; this makes it pour more easily.
Honey, being imperishable, can be purchased in large quan-
tities and stored.


Saw Palmetto Honey

This is Florida's most universally produced and used honey.
It usually grades amber color, sometimes dark amber and occa-
sionally light amber: all becoming darker with age. Its mild
flavor and odor are characteristic and pleasing. Medium body.
Because its source-plant is used somewhat in medicine, it
is thought by many to be unusually health-giving. It granulates
slowly. Use for both table and cooking. Much Florida honey
found in our stores has at least some of this mixed in by the bees.

hit OiMIe Nefldion, 6ut $hril11hN? Jus rl the hu1 6 f of be611


Cabbage Palm Honey
A thin bodied, light amber honey of very miild flavor and
odor. Excellent lor cooker and sweetening drinks where mild
flavor is desired.
Tupelo Honey
This is produced from the tupelo guni tree (Nyssa) which
grows along the streams of West Florida. It is light amber in
color, of heavy bIod and mlild Havor. It has the most varied
use cl Florida honeys, having been tried scores of ways and
not lound wantling. It does not granulate; hence is Illnth sought
for by packers to blend with other honeys to keep down their
Orange Blossom Honey
Makes us think of weddings and the perfmne-laden air of
springtime. In all the kingdom of heedom what sweeter words
dian Orange Blossonim To stand in an orange grove and watch
these little workers hustle lroni blossom to blossom makes one
realize that they too, regard it the choicest of nature's golden
In cooking and candy-making few honeys carry over so
nuch distinct flavor. At the fountain. in the tea room, as well
as the diet kitchen, its exquisite possibilities have yet been
scarcely thought of.
Because ot its peculiar distinction it is much counterfeited.
As many as twenty) different mixtures, colors, and Ilavors have
been called orange blossom honey. Genuine orange blossom
honey is light amber in color, heavy in body, has the real aroma
of the grove in bloom and does not darken or change flavor
much with age. In aging it granulates readily.

Gallberry Honey
This honey is rodtluced from the gallberry bush (Ilex glabra).
which grows in Ilatwoods sections and blossoms usually in May.
It is almost a water white honey, with a heavy body and very
mild flavor and is considered one of our finest honevs. Due to
the damage done this plant by burning the woods, very little
gallberry honey has been produced in recent years in Florida.
It is almost too fancy a honey to use in baking, but is wonder-
fully adapted for icings, ice cream and for direct sweeting in
other desserts where mild flavor is desired.


Walk near these blooms in July and you may think you have discovered a swarm
of bees. It is only normal industry working the many thousands of tiny blossoms.



Mangrove Honey
Flom the salt nm;ulilchs 1o Soutlh l'miidia (oni, large (Iiquanti-
ties of another of 1im 'ilbet' hlon s. Black nianglove (Avic..
nitida) produces a delicious Ilavored honey almost as light col-
ored as gallherry, light iln body Iult unusually sweet, due to a
large content ol dextrose.
Holds ain enviable place with m;nv devotees and gaining
pop)ula;rii% Iast.

Other Commercial Florida Honeys
These a;e Wild Sunflower from the Everglades region, a
delicious fall hloncy ful amber or light amber color and good
body; Partridge Pea. which is a darker, stronger product, excel-
lent foi cooking and baking; :and Goldcnrod. a popular fall
Besides these nine, Florida prldiuces over a score of others,
but rarely distinct or in pure state enough to be seen commer-
Sub-tropical honeys are rich in minerals and vitamins!
Much Florid:l honey comes fiom the flowers of wild trees,
slhrubs and small plants. Among these are the tupelo tree, two
varieties of palmetto, mangrove, magnolia, ti ti, gallberry, gopher
apple, chinkapin, and a lew less important.
Among the cultivated trees and plants that yield nectar to
the honey bee are: citrus trees. (lovers, pennyroyal, partridge
pea, watermelon. etc.
The ti ti is a shrub or tree of swamps of North Florida with
an exquisite bloom imtich adored by the bees. The honey is
light and mild.


bi tMon Nameo

3, Wlire Tupelo Grnm

6, Willd Sun Flower

", The Skinner Faur NOelI

8. The limiler Hoon q bol

9, Wlunc Tuptlo.num

o1tmicol Na3t1e

&reoll scritlata o iidlxt)

Np-ot aRitilica I,

Ike ilanbra (L) A. Ci0

ktditlistera pinnlala

(IL) Billoll

Nouu bifora wIIhl


Modlbs of Year ill loo1II1 Ioclili wClivr Flouned

Mill onil julle 11adI0oe le

jou1 a4d jtl lioJ teallt's cdgc [into New

kPtll oldt Mqt -flollg tiveg nd ovcrlow ladll
in lItveort Imidl id lIi

pIil anod [tia I lirough1o0 Ilmia ls tecilo

Norvcri e r mid Numlo titlllcii part ol S Fid,
~'lpy atoned Lake Ohec

P~scietl~ra' iu Octl~r OttI liR1tt latlly, well douitid
soil ihrotigtott Cte Stel

Aprl~l hltal jan, and 3uj o I CIRII AhOtith l troIdI APa~
C klink

Mordchnd April AlMong tams in lte te tal
art of lile S311



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Honey is one of die oldest known human foods and was
considered one of the choicest by the ancients. In those days
honey was the nectar of the gods. And even today no food is
more interesting than honey. The very name of honey carries
an appeal possessed by no other food. There are many reasons
why this delicious, natural unrefined, unmanipulated sweet
should be used abundantly in the diet, not only in its natural
state but as an ingredient of cooked food.
Many people think of honey primarily as a delicious spread
for bread-hot biscuits, waffles and griddle cakes. But when
included in cookery processes not only does it supply the sweet
ening, but its distinctive, individual flavor combined with the
other ingredients, produces a delectable blend of flavor that
not only is different but is intriguing as well.
The use of more honey in cookery is to be encouraged be-
cause of its superior flavor, food and health value and availability.
A new set of recipes is not necessary in order to use honey
for one can substitute by following a few basic principles.
First: Remember that one cup of honey contains %A cup of
Second: Deduct A cup liquid from the recipe when using
1 cup honey.
Third: Florida honey is very sweet, so no alteration need
be made in the recipe regarding sweetening power, as one cup
of honey is equal to one cup of sweeping. Liquid or granu-
lated honey is equally satisfactory to use.
Fourth: Honey retains moisture to a greater extent in the
product than does sugar. In making frostings this fact should
be taken into account and the product should be cooked to a
higher density than is done when using sugar.
Fifth: In using honey as the sweetening agent in the place
of granulated sugar, the difference in composition and flavor
must be considered.



Different honeys have definitely characteristic Ilavors and
aromas, hence the flavor of any product made by a given recipe
will vary with the kind of honey used. The milder honeys
should be used for salads, fruit sautes, meringues and beverages,
whereas the stronger honeys are perfect for gingerbread, spice
cake. and for combinations that contain chocolate.


Bread and honey for thousands of years have been recog-
nized as a most acceptable food. Breads, cakes, cookies and
waffles backed with a small amount of honey have a distinctive
flavor that is very pleasing to most palates, and for those cakes
and cookies where moist keeping is desired, honey is desirable.

Honey has long been associated with crisp, tender golden
waffles. Now honev is often baked in them or. better and more
delicious still, honey may be served as a sauce or paste by cream-
ing together one part butter with 2 parts honey-beating smooth.
Appetizing and satisfying are hot honey muffins, crisp and brown,
spread with honey butter or honey in the comb. Ioney pecan
mulfins are delicious for Sunday supper with chicken salad and
honey. Whole wheat or oatmeal muflins are very popular with
children. Cakes and cookies made with honey, baked when
convenient. ready when needed, may be kept on hand constantly
for use on busy days. or for surprise guests.


I egg beatel vr lightly 2 cuii p) 11ilk
I tsp. baking powder cup butler or bhutr mibstittue
2 cups flour luelted
I tsp. salt :1 tbsp. honey

Mix shortening, honey and salt with beaten egg. Sift baking
powder and flour together. Stir in alternately with flour and
milk until full amount has been added. By using this regulation
honey batter and adding nuts, candied or dried fruits, one may
obtain a delicious result. 'ry also a honey pecan or a honey
date waffle.

22 t1)1 PA I MIEN']- 01, AGRICI(l iI. I URE

..' I r
40 4fAA

GALLBERRY (Inkberry) (Ilex galbra)
The berry itself may taste like gall and look like ink, but the bee takes wondrous
Nature while at her best and gathers for her human friends from the chasteness of
the bloom, one of the four nest honeys of Florida.

4 1 1




I cup milkl
t C cups flour
I' cups oatmeal
I egg

3 rbsp. lat
I cup honey
' tsp. salt
3 tsp. baking pwdetl

Mix dry ingredients, add milk. beaten egg, honey and
melted fat. (slightly cooled). Mix but do not heat. Place in
greased mnffin irons. Bake in hot oven (400WF.) 30 minutes.


2 cullp hulCo
I cup flour
1 to '- tsp. soda
' tisp. salt

1 t.up blalu
I tbsp. melted butter
1: cups milk
: cup finely chopped pecans

Sift together the flour, soda and salt, and mix them with
the bran. Add other ingredients, and bake for 25 minutes in a
hot oven in gem tins.


13 cup iat
2 cups flour
% cup milk

'= tsp. salt
4 tsp. baking powder

Sift flour, baking powder and salt, add milk gradually and
combine to a dough consistency. Pat out into a sheet % inch
thick. Cream ni cup butter with '% cup strained honey. Use
part of this mixture for spreading on the dough. Roll up and
cut off like cinnamon rolls. Use the balance of the butter and
honey mixture and spread thickly over bottom of pan. Arrange
rolls, allowing ,- inch space around each. Bake in a hot oven
(375- F.) 12 to 15 minutes. Cinnamon may be added to the
butter and honey mixture and raisins or candied fruit may be
chopped and sprinkled over the biscuit dough before rolling, if
desired, or nut meats may be used in the same way.





2 c olls olled oals cup hIony
2 cups sniielidI milk ur clip 1lukewarmn w'ate
lhoillug waticr 2 thsp. shourteling
I yeast take (optional-1 Cup chopp d
"ii CIi) iUn l pecans or aindlled oii.rn;I
I tap. salt pVel)

Pour scalded liquid over the oats and shortening. Cover
and let stand until lukewarm. Dissolve yeast cake in the warm
water, add honey and stir into the oatmeal. Add I 'l cups
flour, beat well, cover and allow to rise for I houer until light.
Then add the salt, the rest of the flour and the nuts or candied
peel and enough flour to make a dough and knead uIntil smooth.
Place in a greased bowl, cover and let stand again in a warm
place until double in bulk. Shape into small loavrs, put into
well greased pans, filling them a little more than one-half full.
Let rise to top of the pan and bake 50 minutes in a hot oven.


I clp c.(allded milk I vcast cake
I (sp. salt I.. cuIps bread IIloni
,,. cup lukew:aIir water '. cu candied o(ra ge p)el
I. cups grallaloItI luir iI: cup pcrnn 11111 ln c ets
1 tbsp. money

Mix milk, honey and salt. When lukewarm add yeast cake
dissolved in lukewarm water, and flour. Mix and then add
orange peel and nuts, cut in small pieces. When thoroughly
mixed, let rise until double in bulk. Shane into loaves in bread
pan and let rise again until double its bulk. Bake in a 350' to
3800 F. oven from '10 to (iO minutes. This mixture can be baked
in muffin tins and served while hot.


Ni cup honey 3 isp. baking powdtI
1 egg % tsp. salt
I cup milk 1 cup nut lmeals, chopped
3 nips floiir

Mix, put into a greased and floured loaf pan. Let stand
about one hour. Bake in a slow oven for about 410 minutes or
one hour.





I cip cak floiut Vi tsp. salt
S cup sugl l l tsp. vanilla
'5 cup sltainlid thoIney : tsp. cream of lartta
5 egg whiles 2 tbsp. boiling water
5 egg yolks

Sift ald Illeasiure Ilout and sugar. Beat egg yolks until thick
and lenton colored. Add sugar and beat well: add honey and
combinti lightly. Add bIoiling water a tal)espoon at a time.
Beat Ina minute. add flavoring and Hour and lastly fold in the
beaten egg whites. Pour into a tube pan and bake for 50 minutes
in a very moderate oven (3000 F.). When baked, invert on cake
cooler and allow to cool before removing fronm pan.


I egg I cupl sweet inilk
I clip lhonCy 2 tbsp. shorlcnilng
2 tsp. baking powder I tsp. sail

Cream hllney and shortening together, add the egg well
beaten and the other ingredients. Mix well and add flour
enough to roll out and cut easily. Fry in hot fat. The honey
will keep these delicious doughnuts moist much longer than


Scup a; % cup honey
Scup sugar (browll) I egg
Scup sour milk 4 t(sp. soda
tIsp. cillnaiuion /L isp. cloves
I t)p. baking powde i i isp. salt
Sillt dry ingredients. Cream fat and honey, add brown
sugar, egg, sour milk and silted dry ingredients. 'his will be a
thin batter, but do not mind that. Bake in a well-greased pan
lor 25 iliinltLes iln a moderate oven (350V to 375 F.). This is a
delicious gingerbread alld may be kept for several days, re-
heating before servilig. Serve with or without Honey Meringue


HONEY MERINGUE (7 Minute Icing)

I cgg white m cup honey (strained or

Place honey and unbeaten egg white in top of double boiler.
Cook seven minutes, heating with dorel egg beaten while Look-
ing. Remove from double boiler, beat and spread as desired.


I cup honey I Lup luual
3 eggs I tsp. baking powder
I tsp. salt 1 cup dates
I tsp. vanilla I cup nut meats

Beat the eggs well and add the honey, salt and vanilla.
Mix and sift the lour and baking powder, add the dates and
nuts (cut in small pieces), then combine with the egg mixture.
Pour into a greased, shallow pan, spread one-fourth inch thick.
Bake in a moderately hot oven 30 to 40 minutes. Cut in strips
before removing from the pan. Store in a crock or cake box
for several days, as the date bars improve after standing. Roll
in powdered sugar before serving.


1 cup honey 2 lups Ilour
% cup fat % isp. soda
% tsp. salt 2 tsp. baking powder
2 eggs, beaten I tsp. cinnamon
2 cups rolled oats I cup chopped raisins

Cream the fat and honey together, then add the eggs. Mix
and sift the flour, soda, baking powder, cinnamon, and salt, and
add to the wet mixture together with oatmeal. Dust the raisins
with some of the flour and add them to the dough, mixing well.
Drop by teaspoonfuls on a greased pan. Bake in a moderate
oven 10 to 12 minutes.


BLACK MANGROVE (Avicennia Nitida)
Another botanical paradox of Florida is this shrub-like tree which grows with
its feet in salt water (marshes) and produces large quantities of one of our most
delicious sweets.

'P J


1 cup fat '. tsp. salt
4 cup sugar % tsp. vanilla
A cup strained honey 2 drops almond extract
2 cups flour '4 cup nut meats
2 eggs % cup raisins
1 tsp. soda

Cream fat and sugar thoroughly. Add honey, beaten eggs
and flavoring. Sift flour, soda and salt together and add to first
mixture. Combine with lightly floured nuts and raisins. Drop
by dessert spoonfuls on oiled baking sheet. Bake in moderate
oven (3500 to 3751 F.).


i cup butter
2 egg yolks, beaten
Grated rind one lemon
S tbsp. lemon juice
3 .'4 cups pastry flour

2 egg whites whipped
. cup sugar
I tsp. salt
1 cup honey
Shredded coconut if desired

Cream the butter, beat in the sugar and add the egg yolks
and lemon. Then stir in three cups of flour and the salt and
soda sifted together, alternately with the honey. Fold in the
beaten egg whites and stir in the nut meats, floured with the
remaining fourth cup of flour. Drop by teaspoons onto a but-
tered baking pan two inches apart. Bake in a moderate oven
(3500 F.) from 15 to 25 minutes. Sprinkle with shredded coco-
nut before baking, if desired.


%A cup butter
2 ounces chocolate
% cup honey
2 eggs

i cup sugar
% cup four, sifted with 14
tsp. baking powder
I cup chopped nut meats

Butter and chocolate should be melted together, then add
honey, then flour and baking powder, then nuts. Bake 45 min-
utes in a slow oven. For immediate use it is better to use '
sugar and honey. Cut in strips one-half inch wide and 2
inches long. To pack away in a jar, use all honey instead of
part sugar and do not use until after two weeks. Roll strips in
powdered sugar before packing.


r- ~F't1 6
:-,~, c


CORAL VINE (Antigonon)
A distant cousin of northern buckwheat-much liked by tho bees. In larger
plantings would help beautify our roadside fences, and produce another distinct
honey. The same can be said of several other ornamental honey plants: Assonla,
Yucca, Vitex.

;.,. ***<"



, clip Irown sugar
cup shortening
j tsp. salt
I tsp. baking powder
2%' cups flour
'.? cup honey

I egg
Y4 tsp. soda
5 cup pecans
4 to 6 tbsp. cocoa. depending
upon degree of chocolate fla-
sor desired

Cream sugar, honey, shortening and egg. Add dry ingre-
dients, then nuts, shape in a loaf or place in refrigerator cookie
mold. Chill several days to allow sufficient ripening of dough.
Slice off and bake in hot oven (400W F.) for about 12 minutes.
After baking, if allowed to stand for several clays, the cookies
will improve in flavor.


i2 cup cocoa or 2 squares
hitter chocolate
cu cup shortening
13 cup pecans, or black
i tsp. soda
Pinch salt
I tsp baking powder
c: cup honey

% cup brown sugar
I cup chopped dates. or
candied orange peel
I gg
2 cups flour
H cup sour cream, or '4 cup of
evaporated milk to which has
been added M' tsp. vinegar

Melt chocolate over hot water if squares of chocolate are
used. Blend the melted chocolate or cocoa with honey, brown
sugar and shortening. Add I egg, then sour cream. Add
sifted ingredients. Then add the nuts and dates or peel.
Spread batter to about % inch depth in flat pan and bake in
moderate oven about 35 minutes. When cool, cut in squares.


1 cup honey
y cup butter
. cup pecans cut in pieces
Grated rind of I lemon
' Lsp. ground cinnamon

- Isp. ground cloves
: tsp. cardamon seed
2 tsp. baking powder
2% cups flour

Heat the honey and butter together for about 5 minutes;
add all the other ingredients except the baking powder, and
mix thoroughly. When somewhat cooled, sift in the baking
powder and mix again. Let stand overnight. Roll thin and cut


into cakes of desired size and shape. Place on greased baking
sheet or in shallow pan; if desired decorate with bits of citron
and halves of almonds. Bake to an amber color (about 8 to 10
minutes at 350W F.).

: cup bulter Crated rind of I lemon
: cup sugar cups flout
I egg and 4 Isp. baking powder
I egg volk I egg while
'V cup lioney Pecans. chopped
Cream the butter and sugar together and add the egg and
egg yolk beaten together, the honey, lemon rind, and the flour
sifted with the baking powder. More flour may be required.
The dough should be still enough to be easily handled. Take a
small portion of dough at a time, knead slightly, roll into a thin
sheet and rut into cookies of any desired shape. Set the shapes
on a greased pan. Beat the white of the egg (left for the purpose)
a little: use it to brush over the top of the cookies in the pan,
then at once sprinkle on some finely chopped pecans and a
little granulated sugar. Bake in a moderate oven (about 10
minutes at 350': F.).

14 cup butter % cup sugar
I orange juice and rind 2 eggs well eaten
214 cups pasrry flour A tsp. sail
2 tsp. baking powder "i cup broken walnut nmeal<
"ri cup honey

Cream the butter and add the sugar gradually. Beat in
the orange juice and rind and the eggs. Mix together the four,
salt and baking powder. Stir in tle broken walnut meats and
mix well. Add alternately to the cake mixture with the honey
and bake in cup cakes 15 to 25 minutes at 3500 F. If desired,
ice with Honey Meringue icing.

I egg white I cup honey
4I tbsp. water I Isp. cream of tartar
Pinch of salt

Combine all ingredients and cook slowly over low heat or
in a double boiler, beating constantly until mixture stands up in

FLRIODA SUNM POWER i tlanO h Foridis)
Grows in miny prlt of te Stete, but in Everglides Region, tos tBIe lcrtion of nretr seriously ind much fin honey is th result,

Y ,~
1 'L

r i




ejjf V"4


peaks. It may be beaten until creamy when removed from heat.
This is a delicious meringue topping. It does not set on the
outside, but is creamy and fluffy.


3 eggs I cup flour
% cup sugar I tsp. baking powder
/ cup water minus I tbsp, % tsp. salt
I/ tsp. vanilla "Y tsp. cloves
% cup strained honey I tsp. cinnamon
2 thsp. melted butter

Beat yolks, add sugar, honey, water and vanilla. Sift flour,
baking powder, salt. and spices, and add to first mixture. Add
melted butter and fold in egg whites, Bake in shallow pan lined
with well oiled paper in a hot oven (3750 F.) for 20 minutes.
When baked, invert on a cloth dusted with powdered sugar.
Remove paper, trim off edges, spread with spiced roselle or
blackberry jam. Roll cloth around cake and allow to "set" for a
short time.

4!t cups flour 2 eggs
I tsp. salt 1 cup strong coltee
I Isp. soda '4 lb. sliced candied citron
I tsp. cinnamon I lb. sliced candied orange
I tsp. cloves or grapefruit peel
I sp. allspice 1 lb. sliced guava paste
2 tbsp. cocoa '% clp shortening
I cup honey I cip brown sugar
I cups chopped pecans

Sift flour, salt, soda, spices and cocoa together. Mix the
chopped nuts and sliced fruit peel through the flour with the
finger tips. Cream the shortening; stir in the sugar gradually.
Add the beaten eggs and honey. Stir in the fruit and flour mix-
ture alternately with dte coffee. Spread the mixture on well-
oiled baking sheets or shallow pans, making a layer about '
inch thick. If baking sheets are used, leave a space about 1Y
inches wide at the open end to allow for spreading. Bake li a
moderate oven (3500 F.) for 20 to 30 minutes.


The hot cake iiay be spread with thin layer of icing made
by stirring lemon juice into confectioners sugar (3 to 4 tbsp.
lemon juice for 2 cups sugar), Cut in 2-inch .squares when cool,

Store in a tightly covered box for at least one week. Yields
about 120 squares.

'ri clp sldrtlening 3 tsp. baking powder
,-. cup sugar % tsp. salt
4 cup orange honey % cup milk
5 egg yolks I bsp. grated orange rinl
I 1 cups all-purpose flour I tbsp. orange juice

Cream shortening; add sugar gradually and cream well.
Add honey and mix well; add the very well beaten egg yolks.
Sift flour once before measuring. Sift flour, baking powder and
salt together. Add to creamed mixture alternately with the milk.
Add orange rind and juice. Bake in well greased and floured
pan for 40 minutes in moderate oven (350'' F.). Ice with Honey
Coconut Meringue.

i% cup honey 2 egg whites
1/16 (sp. salt cup toasted cocoint

Heat honey to 2400 F., or until it spins an 8-inch thread.
Pour slowly into stiffly beaten egg whites and beat with egg
beater constantly. Add salt and continue beating until mixture
is fluffy and will hold shape.

Spread on warm cake and sprinkle top with the coconut,
lightly toasted. Place pan of cake on board or in another pan
to prevent further browning and return cake to oven to set
meringue. Bake 10 minutes in very slow oven.

To toast coconut: Place 1 package coconut and 2 Isp. butter
in pan and toast very slowly in oven. stirring frequently to pre-
vent burning.


c cup shortening 4'i cup honey mildly
I egg whites flavored)
14 cup water or milk '% cup sugar (white)
1 Lsp. baking powder I cup sliced citron
2%' cups flour (sifted twice I cup chopped pecans
before measuring)

Blend shortening, honey and sugar to a cream; add liquid
and flour in which baking powder and salt have been sifted. Stir
only until mixed and then add nuts and citron, folding in lastly
the stiffly beaten egg whites. Pour into layer cake tins or flat
oblong pan lined with waxed paper. Bake in moderate oven
(350' F.) for 45 minutes to I hour, depending on depth of cake.
Other fruits or nuts may be used such as preserved water-
melon rind or candied orange peel. Ice with Honey Icing.


2 cups powdered sugar
*I tbsp. heavy cream
Enough milk to give good
spreading consistency

%1 cup honey
2 tbsp. melted butter
Citron slices to decorule cake

Blend butter and honey; add heavy cream and salt. Blend
with powdered sugar and add just enough milk to give spreading
consistency. Ice cake and decorate with citron slices. Put iced
cake in cake box for two or three days before using. This cake
may be kept from two to four weeks before using, as the honey
keeps it moist and fresh and improves the flavor,


1 cup shortening
' cup sugar
1i isp. cinnamon
3 cups pastry flour
1 cup sour milk
I isp. vanilla flavoring

% tsp. salt
% cup strained honey
% tsp. cloves
4 tsp. baking powder
% cup nut meats (broken)
'% tsp. soda
2 eggs

Cream shortening and add the sugar. Beat in the honey.
Beat the yolks of eggs and add. Sift dry ingredients. Add %
cup to nuts and add these to the mixture. Add the remaining
dry ingredients alternately with sour milk and vanilla. Fold in
the beaten whites. Bake in a well greased loaf pan in a moderate
oven (350" F.) for 45 minutes.


I cup shlirielling cup colfec
3 eggs I'- cups pecans
,4 cup citron 2 cups lone
'- tltp| candied gingered 3 cups flour
watermelon rindl 4 tsp. each cloves, suit.
L; Ih. figs nutnieg and allspice
14 cup lioteycd range strips : tsp, soda
or honey orange Imarnia- I tsp. cream of larlar
lade '1 isp. cinnanlon
Scuip prllsin- t, cup candied pillripple
: IIb. dales I lb. raisins

Run figs, prunes. dates through food chopper. Add candied
orange peel and raisins. Over this pour the honey and let stand
from four days to ai week.
Shred pineapple and citron. Sift dry ingredients. reserving
% cup flour to mix with nuLs, watermelon rind and pineapple.
After the ifrit and hone) mixture has stood long enough, cream
shortening and add to honey fruit mixture. Add the beaten
eggs, then sifted dry ingredients, coffee and the floured nuts,
pineapple, citron and gingered watennelon rind shreds.
Bake slowly (225 F.) for three hours if in one-pound tins.
If the entire mixture is baked in one cake (five pounds) bake
from four to five hours, depending on the depth of the cake.
Brush top ol cake with warm honey, wrap in heavy waxed paper,
pack away in covered crock for at least a month. Before wrap-
ping in cellophane for gift mailing or before serving, decorate
top with honeyed orange peel, pecans, citron or pineapple.
Yields five pounds fruit cake.


Pies have never lacked in popularity and made the honey
way are of especially fine flavor and are good hot or cold.

2 Ibsp. butter 1' tsp. salt
3 eggs I cup pecans, broken. depend-
I, to I cup honev ing on sweetness alnd rich-
nems d(Isirrd

Beat eggs slightly. Add honey and butter warmed and salt.
Mix well, put in partly baked pie shell and bake in a moderate
oven about 35 minutes.



I': cups steamed andl I cup honey
strained pumpkin I isp. cinnamon
I cup creaml 3 eggs. well beaten
1 cup milk

Mix ingredients in order given and bake in one crust. Top
with honey merinque. Or garnish each piece with a mound of
whipped cream with honey in its center.


Make an apple pie as usual, but do not use any sugar after
the apples-just the butter and cinnamon, and do not use a
top crust. After it is baked, drizzle to 1 cup honey over
the apple filling and sprinkle one-half cup pecan pieces and
let stand until apples become soft and absorb all the honey.
Pears, peaches, loquats are all delicious used in the same way.


c cup honey IA cups milk
4 tbsp; flour 2 egg yolks
% tsp. salt 1% tbsp. buter

Blend flour with a part of the liquid (cold) until it is smooth.
Add salt, honey and remainder of the liquid. Cook in a double
boiler until thick, stirring frequently. Slowly pour a part of
this cooked mixture over the beaten egg yolks, stirring con-
stantly. Return to the double boiler and beat until the egg is
cooked. Lastly add the butter. Pour this filling into a previously
baked pastry shell. Cover with a meringue made from the two
egg whites slightly sweetened with honey. Brown the meringue
in the oven.


% cup honey I cup boiling water
8 tbsp. flour I lemon, juice and grated rind
% cup cold water 2 egg yolks
1 to I tbsp. butter

Blend the flour and cold water until smooth; add the honey
and grated lemon rind; slowly add the boiling water, stirring
constantly. Cook in a double boiler until thick. Stir in the
lemon juice. Slowly add part of this cooked mixture to the
beaten yolks, stirring constantly. Return to the double boiler
and heat until the egg is cooked. Lastly, add the butter.

Pour this filling into a previously baked pie crust and cover
with a meringue made from the two egg whites slightly sweet-
ened with honey and flavored with a drop or two of lemon
extract. Brown merinque in the oven.

The flavor of the honey and lemon blend well in this pie


Its flavor and sweetness are such that honey combines well
with fruits, both raw and cooked, so that it is an excellent addi-
tion to desserts.

A honey of delicate flavor, like orange, gallberry, or man-
grove, should he used. It makes a delectable sweetening for
whipped cream and for desserts. It supplies both sweetening
and flavor for salad dressings when prepared with fruit salads.
If granulated, the honey should be liquefied over hot water
before it is combined with other ingredients.


1 cup honey 2 tbsp. sugar
Pinch salt I cup shredded coconut
'% cup quick cooking tapioca 2 cups tangclu sections
3 cups boiling water Whipped cream
Heat honey and water in double boiler, add pinch of salt,
sugar and tapioca. Cook for 15 minutes, stirring frequently.
Add shredded coconut and cook until it thickens. Cool and
pour over tangelo sections, stirring lightly with a fork to mix
through the tapioca. Put in refrigerator to chill very thoroughly.
Serve with whipped cream or honey meringue. Sliced peaches,
pineapple, mango. banana, guava, tangerine, or Temple orange
sections, or a combination of fruits all provide delicious varia-

NOTE: The tangelo is a citrus fruit resulting from a cross
between the tangerine and grapefruit-a combination of delight-
ful flavor.

I cups scalded milk 8 tdsp. strained honey
5 eggs : tsp. salt
Beat eggs sufficiently to unite whites and yolks but not to
make them foamy. Add other ingredients, mix thoroughly and
pour into individual custard cups. Sprinkle lightly with nutmeg.
Set cups in a pan of warm water, place in oven. Bake in mod-
erate oven until when a knife is inserted into custard it comes
out clean. Remove cups from water immediately. Serve hot or

2 cups milk Salt-few grains
3 egg yolks 2% tbsp. strained honey
A tsp. vanilla
Heat milk and honey in a double boiler. Beat egg yolks,
add to yolks the hot milk mixture and return to boiler to finish
cooking. When the mixture coats a silver spoon, remove from
fire. Chill, add flavoring.


'4 cup powdered sugas ': up) candied orange peel
I' cup shredded piineapplel or kumqual
(drained) I ctup creamn-whipped
2 egg whites 1 tsp. vanilla extract
t, cup honey (warmed) %V cup pecans
Mix pineapple, honey, chopped nuts, peel and flavoring.
Cool. Beat the egg whites until stiff and add powdered sugar.
Beat cream until fairly stiff. Fold all ingredients together and
freeze either in paper mousse cups or in freezing trays of the

2 cups rice or corn flakes I cup honey
I cup luts-chopped 1i marshmallows-cut in
I cup dates-cut in small small pieces
Roll flakes fine and combine carefully with other ingredients
and make into a roll. Then cover with more rolled flakes and
place in refrigerator until thoroughly chilled-8 to 10 hours.
Serve with whipped cream sweetened and flavored with honey.
Easy to make and very delicious.

2 tbsp. gelatine % cup honeCy
'4 cup cold water 3 bananas (mashed through
I f4 cups milk sieve)
I lemon 1 cup whipped cream
Soak gelatine in cold water until soft. Heat milk, remove
from fire and stir in gelatine. Add honey, mashed bananas, and
lemon juice. Set in a cool place and when it begins to thicken
fold in the whipped cream. Chill thoroughly.

One quart thin cream; S cup delicately flavored honey.
Mix and freeze in the usual way.

3 cups milk 2 squares of chocolate
3 eggs Isp. salt
I gt. cream 1 cups mild honey
Make a boiled custard of the milk, melted chocolate, honey,
eggs and a little vanilla. When cool add the cream and freeze.



1 egg yolks 2 cups rich milk
2 cups water Pi'inc of sail
1 cup honey

Beat the egg .olks: add the salt and water. Cook over
boiling water two minutes, stirring constantly. Cool. Add milk
and honey. Freeze with 1-8 salt-iced mixture. Yield, 1% quarts.

2 quarts water 3 cups Ihoney
6i lemons 1 tbsp. gelatin
Cold water -: cup syrup from preserved
cup preserved ginger, ginger
cut fie 2 egg white,

Boil water and sugar together for five minutes. Add lemon
juice. gelatine softened in a little cold water, the syrup and pre-
served ginger. Freeze to a mush, then stir in the beaten egg
whites, and continue freezing.

I pi. boiling water 2 cup's lone
4 cups grapefruit juice Juice I lemon
2 Isp. gelatine Shredded or candied
2 tbsp. cold water orange peel

Soften gelatine in cold water. .dd boiling water and honey.
Stir until dissolved, cool and add fruit juices. Cool and freeze
in three parts of ice to one part of salt. Garnish each serving
with shredded candied cherries or strips of candied orange peel.

I pint strawberries "s cup honey
2 lemons 2 cups water
I egg white

Mlix the strawberries (which have been put through a sieve),
lemon juice, water and honey and let stand several hours to
blend. Put into a freezer and when it begins to freeze add
beaten egg white. Freeze with 8 parts ice to 1 part salt and
pack with 3 parts ice to 1 part salt. Makes 1 quart.



1 cup grated raw carrots
I cup grated raw sweet
V cup chopped dales
% cup candied orange peel.
citron or pineapple
1 cup honey
M4 tsp. salt

2 isp. cinnamon
t' Isp. inutmeg
'4 isp. allspice
'A tsp. cloves
'A Lsp. soda
% cup flour
I cup raisins
% cup suet (chopped or

Combine ingredients in order given. Scir until mixture is

well blended. Pour into well greased Pyrex refrigerator dish (I
qt. size) or Pyrex casserole; put cover on and bake in oven at

250 F. for 24 hours. Remove from oven, cool without removing
cover. Serve with Honey Butter.

The above plum pudding recipe is an easy one to make, is
inexpensive and when served with a small topping of Honey
Butter instead of the proverbial powdered sugar hard sauce, is
everything taste satisfaction requires. Make up a dozen or
more and use the extra ones as Chrismmas remembrances.


%- cup oatlleal measuredd
after cooked)
% cup allbran
I cup seedless raisins
I cup pecans
A cup citron
cup dates
% cup flour

% tsp. soda
2 tsp. cinnamon
I tsp. allspice
I tsp. nutmeg
I cup honey
I egg
'i cup jelly (Honey guava
jelly is recommended)

Combine ingredients in order given. Bake in a covered

greased pudding mold or in a covered Pyrex dish for 2% hours
at about 250V F.


S cup chopped suet 1' cup flour
1 cup finely sliced citron Reserve % cup of this flour
i cup nut meats for dredging
'4 rnp honey 1 cup sweet milk
Jtuice an id rid of lemon tsp. soda dissolved in a little
hot water
': tsp. salt

Steam 2% hours in well greased pudding mold with horn.
Steanl in a deep vessel which has a tight cover and a rack in
order that the water may circulate freely under mold. 11 neces-
sary to add more water during steaming process, he sure water
is boiling.
Remove from mold while still hot and serve with hard sauce or


' cup honey
2 eggs
'1 cup chopped dates
% cup) chopped nut meals

I tsp. baking powder
'i tsp. salt
% cup whole wheat bread
' Clp flour

Dust the dates and nuts with a portion of the flour. Sift
the remaining flour with the salt and baking powder. Add the
beaten eggs to the honey, then the crumbs, the sifted dry ma-
terials, and the dates and nuts. Mix well, pour into a greased
baking dish and bake 20 minutes in a moderately hot oven.
Serve with cream hard sauce or Honey Butter.


2 parts honey

I part butter

Let butter stand in room temperature until it is soft. Add
honey and stir until perfectly blended. Place in glass jar which
can be tightly covered and stand in refrigerator.

Uses for Honey Buttur
Blend with chopped nuts as simple topping for sponge cakes.
As a service for hot biscuits, griddle cakes, waffles, instead of
serving honey and butter separately.
Delicious on nut bread for tea service.



I nip grated carrots
I cup raisins
I cip Ihoine
I Isp. siHla
I egg

I cup grated potatoes
I tbsp. mixed spices
I c:ip Hour
I (sp. salt
I C(up suel

Steam for three hours. Serve wilh Honey Butter or Honey
Kumquat Sauce.


I cup honttv
!, to 'i cup finely chopped
fresh kumlquats. needed

1 cup olrage juice
1 tsp. salt
I tbsp. butler imay he mllitlled'

Combine the ingredients and let stand over hot water, with-
out cooking, for about 30 minutes to blend the flavors. Serve
as a sauce on ice cream.



cup honey meringue
cu cup Honey Salad

2' cups prepared fruit. pinc-
apple. orange hearts and
loquats. or guava, tangl)o
and papaya

Add fruit to the salad dressing and [old in whipped cream.
Turn into freezing tray of automatic refrigerator and freeze.


2 eg yolks
PInch of salt
'A cup cream, sweet or
slightly sour

%' alp honey
Juice of (' lemon
21- tbsp. salad oil
'A tsp. paprika

Beat egg yolks, then pour in the hot honey. Cook for a
moment, beating continually, then fold in the salad oil, lemon
juice, the cream beaten stiff and the seasonings.


I egg fi Isp. lemon juice
Stsp. salt 1 i cupfuls salad oil
2 tbsp. honey Paprika
1 tsp. mustard Few grains cayenne
(i sp. honey illegal

Into a conical shaped bowl break an egg and add the salt,
honey, mustard, dash paprika, the cayenne and 1 tbsp. honey
vinegar. Beat thoroughly with a good egg beater and add the
oil, I tbsp. at a time, beating thoroughly after each addition
until tI cuplul is added and the dressing is thick. Then the oil
can be added in larger quantities at a time. When one cupful
has been added, dilute with the rest of the oil. Use altogether
I ', cupfuls of oil, beat vigorously all the time during the making.
When finished, dressing should be smooth and thick.


Isp. honey I cup whipped cream
I tsp. prepared mustard

Mix the mustard and honey together and stir in cup of
whipped cream. Adds a piquancy to pineapple salad combina-


2 ou. American cheese 3 tbsp. whipped cream
2 Ibsp. honey I cupful honey mayonnaise

Mash cheese, add whipped cream, then honey. Stir in honey
mayonnaise. This dressing is nice for peas, tomatoes, or asparagus


'- cupful honey %. cupful peanut butter

Blend peanut butter and honey. More honey may be added
if a sweeter paste is desired. Excellent on hot buttered toast
or as a dressing for sweet sandwiches.


Spread thin slices of honeN oatmeal or nut bread (at least
three days old) with honey cream cheese paste. Place buttered
slices with cheese spread slices together, cut crosswise and
allow three triangles to each serving.

I cake crealn 3 tbsp. cdopped stlled
3. tbsp. honey peans
NMix into |pa,,i-

Spread 20 thin slices of bread with butter; then on 10 of
them place thin slices of white meat of cooked chicken; on
other 10 spread a mixture of chopped green pepper and honey
salad dressing. Place crisp white lettuce on the latter; press
together with chicken covered slices, cut and serve with chilled
olives and sliced tomato as garnish.

Mix honey with cream cheese and use as filling for sand-
wiches. Chopped nuts, dried or crystallized fruit or peanut
butter may be added to the cheese.


"A land flowing with milk and honey," was the description
of Canaan, hence, honey and milk even in Biblical times were
recognized as valuable foods. I-oney sweetened fruit-ades, iced
tea and coffee arc given an added flavor that is very delicious.
The amount to use depends on personal taste. Honey is con-
venient to use in hot tea, just a teaspoonful or more from the
honey jar as desired, but for cold drinks the honey should be
blended with a little warm water, before adding the iced bev-

Mix one dip of ice cream with V% cup honey. Add I cup
milk and shake well in malted milk mixer.


2 eggs 6 ibsp. honcy
rhin cream Chipped ice
1% cups ice water
Beat eggs well and pour into glass fruit jar or shaker. Add
remaining ingredients and shake. Yields, 3 servings. May tap
each glass with whipped cream.

Mix juice of 6 oranges, 6 tbsp. honey and few grains of salt.
\When ready to serve, shake up with ice cubes and add shreds
of yellow orange rind. Decorate with sprig of mint.

Juice of two oranges, juice of lemon, yolk of 1 egg, warm
honey. Beat the ingredients together and drink every morning.

4 tlsp, cocoa 1 cup cold w;aer
2 2o 4 tbsp. honey 3 cups milk
Dash of salt
Mix cocoa, sugar, salt, and water in upper part of double
boiler and place over direct heat. Stir until smooth; boil 2
minutes. Place over hot water, add milk and heat. Beat well,
using rotary egg bcantr, and serve at once.

Blend 2 tsp. cocoa with 3 tsp. honey. Let I cup milk come to
boiling point. Remove scalded milk from fire, add honey and
cocoa mixture and pinch of salt. Stir well. Pour this mixture
in iced tea glass filled with cracked ice. Top with whipped
cream. For hot chocolate, omit ice and add V% cupful of scalded

Juiir. 1 IP Irnns I pt. tamarind juice
Juice 12 oranges I pt. guava juice
3 quarts water I pt. shredded pineapple
Honey to sweeten
Warm honey and add to water. Blend and add fruit juices
and shredded pineapple and chill. When ready to serve, garnish
with thin slices of lemon and orange and pour over ice.



I cup honey
2 cups pared and seeded
guavas and juice

2 cups water
'A cup lemon juice
W cup orange juice
Mineral or ice water

Simmer the honey and water together until blended, set
aside to cool. Force the guavas through fruit press and com-
bine the pulp with the orange and lemon juice. Add to the
cold syrup and let chill thoroughly. Just before serving, strain
and dilute to taste with mineral or ice water. Peaches, plums,
umangoes, may be used the same way as guavas.


Guava juice
Juice fresh limes, calamon-
dins or langelos

Cracked ice
Honey to taste

Blend well and serve with thin slices of fruit.


Over a serving of ice cream-usually vanilla or chocolate
is preferred-pour a generous stream of gallberry, orange or
mangrove honey.


Carrots, green or wax beans, beets, squash. turnips, sweet
potatoes, and other vegetables-important in the diet-are better
flavored through the addition of a small amount of honey.
Use a teaspoonful of mild honey to each cup of vegetables
when adding other seasonings.


2'; LInp ht'ls,. cooked and 4 tbsp. vinegar or lemon juite
sliced 2 ltsp. butter
cup boiling water 4 tbsp. honey
I tbsp. flour
Blend butter and flour, add hot water and stir until smooth.
Add other ingredients and pour over the beets that have been
placed in a buttered baking dish. Cook 20 minutes in moderate

2 cups cushawp. pared and 3 tbsp. butter
thinly sliced I tsp. salt
1 cup apples pared and u to Ni cup honey, warmed
thinly slicLd
Place a layer of cushaw in buttered baking dish, then a
layer of sliced apples. Add salt, dot with butter, and cover
with honey. Add another layer of cushaw and apples and dress
as before with seasonings.
Top with a layer of cushaw, brush with butter and bake in
a hot oven for .15 minutes, covering the first half of the time.
Sweet potatoes may be baked in the same way as cushaw or
other winter squash.
Delicious to serve with broiled chicken or honeyed ham.

Scrub sweet potatoes as for ordinary baking. Bake until
soft. Then with lshaip knife cut across on top. In this opening
drop first I tsp. honey, then press in half a marshinallow. Return
to oven and heat for just a few seconds. The honey is absorbed
almost immediately by the hot sweet potato and marshmallow
is toasted just enough by the few seconds of reheating. Serve
at once. Especially nice for crown roast of pork, roast chicken,
or turkey.

Boil 10 medium large sweet potatoes with skins on. When
about two-thirds cooked, remove from fire, run cold water over
them. Pare, slice in %-inch slices and put in frying pan well
greased. Fry until browned, then add a mixture of % cup honey
and 1 cup brown sugar. Stir through sweet potatoes, let remain
over low flame for three minutes. Serve at once. (27 servings.)


I cup diced celery I qIt. red beans ictlked or
I cup chopped onions canned)
4 cups ground Ieef I pt. water
I tsp. chili powder I tbsp. salt
1 pt. tomato purce 6 thsp. honey

Fry beef, onions, and celery slowly for about one hour.
Should be thoroughly browned-being careful not to burn onions
or celery. Place one quart of red beans either cooked or canned,
1 pint tomato puree, 1 pint water, and I tbsp. salt in kettle. Let
come to a boil, then add fried meat and vegetables. Simmer
slowly for two hours. Then add chili powder, and just before
serving stir in honey. Serve piping hot.


For a delicious ham which requires a minimum amount of
holiday preparation, the ham should be given its preliminary
cooking the day before. The whole or half ham is brought to a
boil, then simmered, allowing 20 minutes to the pound. Use
from 1 to 2 cups of pineapple juice in the water in which the
ham is boiled.

Remove ham from liquid, skim and pour over the skinned
ham 2 cups of honey (for ham weighing 9 to 10 lbs.). Let stand
over night. In the morning add enough liquid which has been
reserved from the boiling liquor for basting purposes. Rub the
skinned surface with bread crumbs, then baste frequently with
honey liquid to which has been added a cup of raisins or 1 cup
spiced roselle.


Brown a rather thick slice of cured ham in a baking dish,
pour 4 tbsp. honey over ham and stick 3 or 4 cloves in the ham.
Place pineapple rings on ham and bake in moderate oven, cov-
ered for the first 10 minutes. In place of pineapple, apples,
sweet potatoes, or carrots may be used and pork chops may be
substituted for the cured ham.


Bake apples with a bit of water until tender. Butter may be
added if desired. Remove from oven, drizzle honey over hot
apples. The hot apples will readily absorb the honey and by
the time of serving, the honey will have permeated the apple
tissue and blended to form a perfectly delightful dish.

I lean ham weighingg from 2 eggs, beaten
7 to 9 lbs.) I tsp. cinnamon
15 cloves I qt. honey vinegar or pickle
Celery leaves from one juice
bunch of celery Honey raisin sauce
c cup honey Soda
Boiling water

Thoroughly wash the ham, rub soda over the surface; rinse
in cold water. Celery leaves, cloves, cinnamon, honey vinegar
and cup honey should be placed in a kettle full of boiling
water. In this place the ham and simmer until perfectly tender
-about five hours. Remove the skin after taking ham from
kettle, and brush with beaten egg and honey (2 eggs beaten
blended with 'A cup honey). Stick in about 30 cloves at even
intervals and brown in very hot oven.
Serve with Honey Raisin Sauce.

1 cup raisins cup water
I cup honey

Cook very slowly until raisins are soft but not mushy. Add
honey and a teaspoonful of lemon juice and serve over ham


Home made candies are always a special treat, but when
honey is used in their making, they are doubly delicious. ]n
candy making, honey imparts its own individuality to the
product and opens up a wide range of interesting opportunities
in the candy way.


2 cups white sugar i cup honey
I cup milk 2 inch square chocolate
1 tsp. vanilla

Allow to cook to soft ball stage. Cool. Beat 20 minutes
after cool.

2 cups granulated sugar % cup butter
2 cups honey 2 cups rich milk
I tsp. vanilla

Choose a heavy iron, aluminum or copper kettle for cook-
ing. Stirring occasionally, boil sugar, salt and honey to 245 F.
Add butter and milk gradually, so that the mixture does not
stop at any time. Cook rapidly to finn ball stage (256 F.) Stir
constantly because the mixture becomes very thick and sticks
easily at the last. Add vanilla and pour into a buttered pan.
Cool thoroughly before cutting. Cut with a heavy sharp
knife, using a saw-like motion. Yield, 2 lbs. or 45 caramels
Sx 1% inches.

2 cups sugar 1 cup water
1 cup honey tsp. salt
1 tbsp. butter 2 cups roasted peanuts

Put sugar, honey, salt and water in saucepan. Stir until
sugar is dissolved. Cook to 300 F. Remove from fire. Add
butter and peanuts. Stir just enough to mix thoroughly. Pour
out on a well greased marble slab or baking sheet into very thin
sheets. Allow to cool and break into irregular pieces.

2 cups honey I cup butter
2 cups sugar I tbsp. cinnamon

Boil ten minutes or to crack stage, 2900 F., and then pour
into a buttered pan and when cold cut in squares.


2', cups sugar tsp salt
% cup honey I cup water
A tsp. vanilla cup coconut or nut
2 egg whites meats

Put sugar, honey, salt and water into a saucepan and cook,
stirring until the sugar is completely dissolved. Continue cook-
ing, without stirring, until a firni ball is formed in cold water,
or until 268- F. is reached. Wash down any sugar crystals that
may form. Remove from fire and slowly pour the syrup over
the egg whites which have been beaten until stiff during the
latter part of the cooking of the syrup. Beat during this addi-
tion. Continue beating until the candy will hold its shape when
dropped from the spoon. Add vanilla and nuts or coconut; mix
thoroughly. Drop from teaspoon onto waxed paper.
If taken off when temperature of 2620 F. has been reached,
it can be used for the following:
Stuffing dates-Making coconut balls-Shaping in balls and
dipping in chocolate.
This may be varied by the addition of candied fruits or
nuts. These chocolates thus made are delicious.

2 cups orange blossom honey 2 cups sugar
1 cup boiling water I tsp, vanilla

Put honey, sugar and water into sauce pan; stir until sugar
is well dissolved. Place on fire and cook to 270" F. Remove
from fire; add vanilla. Pour out on a well-buttered dish. When
cool enough to handle, pull until creamy and stiff like other

2 cups sugar 4 cup water
'I cup strained honey 1 tsp. vanilla

Put all of the ingredients except the vanilla into a sauce
pan and cook, stirring only until sugar is dissolved. Continue
cooking until a hard ball forms in cold water or the temperature
2630 F. is reached. Remove from fire and pour into buttered
pan. When cool enough to handle, pour vanilla into center of
the mass, gather the corners and remove from the pan and pull.


When candy is white and rather irnm, stretch out into a long
rope and cut into pieces of desired size, using scissors for the
cutting. Nut meats may be added just before the tally is ready
to cut, which must be worked in during the pulling.

Remove the peel from 3 oranges in quarter sections, then
cut into strips with scissors. Cover the rind with salt water in
the proportion ol 1 tbsp. of salt to I quart of water and let
stand over night. Drain and cover with cold water, then bring
to the boiling point; repeat this process three times. lhen it
tender, rinse in cold water, drain, then simmer very slowly in
I cup of honey from -15 to 61) minutes. Remove the rind with a
fork, drain and la) on waxed paper. Allow to dry for a day or
two. The strips may then be coated with chocolate, if desired.
Grapefruit may be prepared in a similar way but gate rind
carefully before cooking tender in an abundance of water.
Drain, then cook the peel in a syrup made with 2 cupLul of
honey, 2 tbsp. lemon juice or grapefruit juice.
Cook the grapefruit strips one hour or more, then allow
them to stand all night in the honey syrup. Remove with a
fork and lay on waxed paper for a day or two. These may be
coated with milk chocolate or bitter chocolate.


Electrical Beater: Use one egg white to one-half cup honey,
placing in bowl or electrical mixer and turning to speed 2,
allowing mixture to whip until it peaks.
Hand Beating: Place one-fourth or one-third cup honey in
bowl with one egg white and beat with double Dover or Ladd
improved (ball bearing type) heater until stiff.
This mixture keeps indefinitely when kept uncovered in
refrigerator. Honey meringue made with granulated honey
keeps just as well and in some cases has been found to whip up
more easily by hand than when strained honey is used.
Honey meringue may be used as a topping just as whipped
cream or marshmallow is used, on top of pie; for toasting as
ordinary meringue; on sweet potatoes; mix with rice crispies
and use as a paste to spread on butter waters for tea; as a


dIre,5sjing oJ ]JolrJ su;ibl; delightful Ior dlite toles. The amount
ol honey used depends entire) upon the individual preference
for the honey flavor.
Add 2 Ibsp. melted butter to 1 cup meringue for ;I good
gingerbread topping.
I'rim slitc s ofl Iread (slices should be abl)uut 3 8-inch Ilhi4k).
l nast prnipeil. thlen butter and biusil with honev. Relclal
enough to have ict ILt absolib hone) ;and seave piping hot.
Spread slices ocl lish toast with butter, brush with honey
(a;loui 1 cbslj)- hlIr lohr each slite). sprinkle with cinnamon ;ind
ovei toast etlugllIh to blend cinnamon and honey.
Place thin slices ol honey nut brown bread on thin pan,
,wenl toast botli sides, spread with butter and honey. Cut in
Iliangles and serve open lace.
These breads mntst be oven d ;and very carefcull)
Un ned over on llat tin with spatula so that the slices will remain
inatt. llot honey nut bread is delicious when spread with
,range marmalade imnuediatelv when removed from oven.
An\I of tlhsce lasts must be served piping hot to be goid.

Hot honei lemonade is particularly valuable in relieving
lie grippe. W'hen suffering trom a cold, take a hot lionev
lenmonade just before retiring.
Four tbsp. lenton juice mixed with I l)sp. hone). Add
I (up boiling water. Drink hot.

Honey nmay Ibe substituted for part, or in many cases where
Imtits are of high lavor, for all of the sugar needed in canning
and making jell,, ju n, preserves, fruit pickles and conserves.
() course, where all honey is used it tends to mask the more
delicate flavor (of the fruits, and color aind texture of the product
too is darkened somewhat. It is necessary, therefore, to use the
mildest flavored honeys in order that the individual, distinctive
r uitv flavors may not be too much overshadowed by that of the


Flavors of honey also vary with age and storage, so it is
always desirable to use a new honey for canning purposes when
available. The honey flavor combines better with some fruits
than with others. A combination of fruits for making conserves
or jams and butters in which spices are used, for instance, is
usually more pleasing than that made with one fruit alone.
In using the honey, two precautions should be observed:
1. Since honey has a tendency to loamn considerably when
heated, there is some danger of the products "cooking over" at
the beginning ol the cooking period, if not watched carefully.
2. Since honey is part water, in order to obtain the desired
consistency, it is necessary to cook the product in which it is
used slightly longer.
Basic recipes for honey syrups call for either an all-honey
syrup, one cup honey and three cups water, or preferably a
honey and sugar syrup, % cup sugar and 3 cups water. This
syrup is recommended for use with mild flavored fruits, like
figs, grapes, loquats, mangoes, peaches, pears, pineapple, culti-
vated plums.
For fruits with more tartness, like the sour guavas and
many of the wild plums, a heavier syrup may be desirable. The
amount of dilution required for the syrup will vary with the
quality of the honey and the degree of sweetness preferred.
Use less rather than more sweeping. When all honey is used
sometimes lemon juice is added to die all-honey syrups to
counteract sweetness and to give an interesting blend of flavors.
To prepare an all-honey syrup, bring water to boil, add
honey, let boil again, skim and strain and it is ready for use,
For the honey and sugar syrup, bring water and sugar to boil-
ing point, add honey, let boil again, strain and use. Prepare
fruit or berries, pack into hot containers, add hot syrup in the
same way as a sugar syrup; seal and process product accord-
ing to the standard time table for canned fruits. Berry juice,
grapejuice or other fruit juice may be used to advantage in
place of water for these canning syrups.

Jelly of one's favorite honey is easily made when the re-
quired pectin, liquid fruit pectin, or a powdered citrus pectin,
is provided. Honey jelly takes very little time and makes a

6i1 I.)lPAR FMI.EN 01: AG(,RI .'L URF

clear. amber product of tLhe pronounced liavoi of the honey
used. In making jelly without using ait added pet til, strong
Ilavorec juices. high in both lpectin atid acid, are essential or
a ijll. of a gtlunlnly texture will result. Crab-apple, ianahaw.
wild plI nn, sour l guava juices that give ; high pectin test. are
good jelly juices to usLe with honey, particularly when the
honey is replaced with sugar lor the fruit juice combination.

2 tip. titnley '4 cup licnijl pcwtin or
ap 4 a111V %il I Itei;sjiiin powldeted
I(l.ronll pCCll*
(Combine wati with honey ain hie;ti erl genlly to avoid
-'I.Ihlimng and thille dteveloipmeni t of oll Ilavor. Stir colnstantly
until boiling, then add !i cup liquid fruit pectin, bring just to
boiling and inlnltdiately remove from heat. Pour into hot.
sterili/td glasses. The yield will be about -1 small glasses.

'. p lenii ii illii'e "2' itj IS lilti flat tu rd
'i Li.p liquid liui pectini ill ev
(Comlline leilion juice and honey. Bring carefully to a full
rolling boil. Add liquid pectin, stir constantly and bring just to
a boil. Pour into small glasses and seal.

i2 IIps fruit iiit. a rip houll
Illlespoolis ]illloii juice al nlp solar
Mix juices artd boil 5 minutes. Adtd sugar and bring to
,oiling point. Add honey and cook to jelly test (220 F.) or
unlil ihe jelly .tage is reached. as indicated by the flaking or
sheering froir inside of spoon. Make pectin test before starting
jelly making preparations to he sure a good textured jelly can
be nma:te front the truit juice on hand. Guava juite, niayhaw
or other juice high in pectin may ble used the same way as crah.
apple juice.

When powdered leniimU pectin is used, heat the honey gently to Ulioutt 15.Y F'.
in uinutlilr 1pn or ketlh hunt the wall.:r lto about simmering. Remove a small part
of the warmed honey into a cup and stir the dry pectin Into It, making a smooth
paste. Wheii the peciln and honey nre well mixed pour into the hot water. Rinse
the cup with the pctlin soJutlion until all the mixture hu Ilcern transferred to the water
sionulirn. Stir and lentt until the pectin is completely dissolved. Re sure there are
no luilieI reenainini. Alidd Ihe pectin sullliion at once Itn the honer, which should be
bout il.I FI IlrinuF a tenmperallure f h aout 170' F. or slightly higher. Pour
into 'namll containers and stal at once. The high tenel.ratllre required in the usual
jelly nIakiti proceduris should be avoided in making honey jelly, particularly when
luowidred it-ilon pectin i:. used. as toughness a darker color and a rather strong flavor
would r-suilt after a few weeks of storage.
t3l1nufaeturere ,,f citrus fruit pectin in California and of apple pectin in New
York. lliis.luri. and elsewhere. furnish lull and detailed directions for the use of their
rmsL-etivp ct. if i.<-tin toomnercially speaking) is used, in connection with the
fruit juice. it must lie rlcerlal on the label.


The fruit of the native sour orange. so generally used for
root stock over many portions of' the citrus area, is used for
making delightful preserves that are always popular.
For best flavor use the fruit when well matured and highly
colored. Grate off all oil cells leaving the rich yellow colored
skin exposed. Cut into quarters and remove from pulp. Soak
the peel in small water (I cup salt to 1 gallon water) overnight.
Squeeze juice from pulp and save to add to preserves during
tie last cook. Drain peel from salt water. Cover well with
clear water and boil for 10 minutes. Drain and cover with
fresh water and cook until peel is tender. If no bitter flavor
is desired, it may be necessary in change the water several
times. However, if the fruit used is fully ripe the slightly bitter
flavor is agreeable to most palates.
Drain peel and drop into a hot syrup made of three cups
honey and two cuIps water for each 2 pounds of peel. Cook
until peel is clear and syrup somewhat thickened. Remove
from heat and let stand overnight. The next day, take from
syrup, add % cupi honey and % cup sour orange juice and bring
to boil. After boiling 10 minutes or until thickened, replace
fruit. Boil another 10 minutes or until syrup is thick. Pack
into hot jars immediately and process pints for 10 minutes at
boiling. Grapefruit. tangelo and shaddock peel may be pre-
served in the same manner as the sour orange.

Clean kumquats and puncture carefully. Drop into slightly
salted water and soak overnight; next day pour off salted water,
cover well with fresh and bring to a boil. Drain and cover again
with fresh water and cook until tender. Drain.
To one pint of fruit add % pint of sugar, 4 pint orange
honey and one pint of water or orange juice. Drop fruit in the
boiling syrup and simmer until clear and syrup is slightly
thickened. Plump overnight in the same vessel, covering tightly
while still boiling and removing from fire. The second or third
day place back on the fire and cook until syrup is heavy. Pack in
jars as any preserve, or if candied kumquats are desired for
immediate consumption, drain, put on wire rack to dry and,
while still sticky, roll in granulated sugar.


(Peach, Pear, Pineapple)
2 cups mild flavored honey e lemon sliced, or 3 cala-
I cup cider vinegar mondins or kumquats, cut
I cup water in thick slices and seeded
'4 piece ginger root 3 inches stick cinnamon
Fruit 12 whole cloves

Combine honey, vinegar, and citrus fruit and spices. Heat
to boiling and boil gently about 5 minutes. Have ready 4 to 6
cups of the quartered pears, peach halves or pineapple chunks.
Add to spiced solution. Cook until just tender. Pack fruit in
hot jars, cover with the boiling syrup and seal at once.


% lb. green ginger scraped
and chopped
( Ibs. honey
8 Ibs. pears weighed after
paring and coring

I pitl water
4 oranges
3 lemons, juice and thinly
shredded peel
2 cups pecans or blnck
walnut meats

Cook the ginger, orange and lemon peel with a pint of
water until tender, then add honey, orange and lemon juice;
cook, put in the pears chopped coarsely and cook until pears
are tender. Add nut meats. Cook five minutes longer. Pour
in small hot jars and seal, boiling hot.

*Ginger Zinzihar. offeinttle, often confused with the common ornamental ginger
lily, grows well in Florida and produces choice roots it given rich soil, aufficieit mois-
ture and semi-shade. It is an erect herb. 12 to 24 inches high. canna like in appearance
and grows from thickened rhizones which branch fingerlike and send up new shoots
from the tips near the surface of the soil. If desired for preserving and candying, the
roots should he dura while tender and succulent, rather than when old, tough and
fibrous. Ginger is one of the world's most popular spices. It is an indispensable part
of chutneys, giving them much of their spiciness and pungent flavor.


Honey Bees and Their Products
(Late Assistant Conmmissioner of Agriculture)
It would seem that as old a subject as Honey Bees and
their products would have long since been exhausted and noth-
ing new could he said on the irlleme. Bil it seems that no subject
is really ever "worn out" as we never know all about anything.
The bee industry has been revolutionized during the last fifty
Honey is the oldest of all the sweets used by man. There
seems to be no country that can claim to be original home of
the honey bee. Different species were found in practically all
the inhabitable parts of the world. The aborigines of Pet u sacri-
ficed honey to the sun. Stingless honey bees of Brazil produced
every variety of honey from good edible kind to black and sour.
No one knows who hlrsi tasted honey and pronounced it good.
Samson, the strong man, made a riddle on honey he found in
the skull of a lion which he had slain. That. riddle got him in
trouble. John the Baptist's food, we are told. was locusts and
wild honey.
The honey bee is quite a useful animal. He does no damage
to the plant from which he gets his product-he is beneficial in
his visits to flowers by carrying pollen and aiding in fertilization
of the seed germs-and he brings a valuable product to the
service of man. He is one creature that seems to be miserable
unless he is at work. His industry is his life.
The U. S. Department of Agriculture reports that the average
analysis of honey shows the following percentages of elements:
Water .... .. 17.7
Laevulose 40.5
Dextrose ... .. .. 34.02
Sucrose .. ....... 1.9
Dextrin and gums 1.51
Ash -...... .15

This leaves 4.22 percent unaccounted tor. These percent-
ages differ largely in different specimens analyzed. Extraneous


matter gets into some honeys, such as pollen or peculiar sub-
stances that may be in the nectar as extracted from the flower.

All edible honeys are thought to contain vitamins A, B and
C-neither of which can be found in cane or beet sugars, accord-
ing to authorities on the subject. The proportions of laevulose
and dextrose vary greatly in different flowers from which honey
is obtained. A high percentage of laevulose prevents cr'stalliz-
tion. The tupelo of the southeastern states and the s; ges of
California produce this kind of honey. The high percentage df
dextrose causes honey to crystallize quickly and is therefore less
desiralle for keeping indefinitely and for shipping long distances.

It remains for the physicians and dietitions of this generation
to discriminate between the different sweets used for food and
classify them according to their food values and dietetic qualities.
Even honeys are not all alike in content, flavor or appearance.
The world today is so completely commercialized that one may
look for a flare-up if he says that one kind of sweet is better for
the human anatomy than another.

The general keeping of bees is a good thing economically,
in spreading pollen and in furnishing honey for the household.
But the fact remains that the production of a certain variety
and quality in large amounts is the only way to open up a sure
inai:ket at a gond price. Buyers of large quantities of anything
want to know if they can depend on the source of 'uppli to be
ready when they want it and in the quantities they want. This
is the only way they can build up a trade that continues from year
to year. The human taste is subject to cultivation and when
customers of dealers in honey ask for a certain honey or syrup
they have cultivated their taste to that particular kind and
do not want to be put off with "something just as good." If the or-
ange honey pliod uCels were to advertise their honey through some
denial office it would vastly increase the market. The same
is true of the tupelo honey or any other good variety. Melilotus
honey is of a kind and appearance that lpp)eals to hundreds of
thousands but it takes advertising to create and hold buyers.

The State Department of Agriculture has nothing to do
with the supervising or inspection of bees or honey. That comes


under die jurisdiction of the State Plant Board. As the extermi-
nation of plant pests is a Plant Board function it has been
construed that bee pests should conic under the same head.
1 have no comparative figures of the value of honey and
molasses but the time was at the turn of the century when
honey exceeded in value the molasses in the United States.
Modern methods of refining and advertising artificial sweets
have placed them far in the lead as food products.
Many physicians and dieitiions are recommending honey
for arthritis and neuritis. It has proven to be efficacious in many
cases where all other remedies had failed.
There should be established a clinic in some institution
equipped for scientific experimentation as to the value of differ-
ent kinds of honey both as a food and as a remedial agent for
human ills.
It would be a signal service to humanity if some medical
school or hospital would establish with certainty the facts con-
nected with this subject.
Florida is a honey-producing state, largely because we
have an abundance of different nectar-producing flowers and
also because of the long season during which honey can be gath-
ered. I am of the opinion that the greatest thing the honey-
producers could do for their marketing advantage would be to
organize and place a fund for the judicious advertising of the
distinct types, giving emphasis to the distinguishing qualities
of each.


The word sweet has a multiplicity of meanings.
There are sixty English words that begin with "sweet," and
as many that begin with honey.
It applies to taste, smell, looks, acts, characteristics-if pleas-
ant. Sucrose, Dextrose, Lactose, Maltose, sacharose, levulose,
glucose, are sweets. The last named is often given directly into
the bloodstream.
The antonyms are sour, bitter, offensive, ugly, contemptible.
There is a universal demand for sweets. Those of taste
call for sugar, honey, syrup of varying kinds and flavor. The
oldest sweet known is honey. Man cannot manufacture it.


Nature has provided a little worker in the form of a honey-
producing insect which gathers nectar from flowers that furnish
this particular form of sweet.
An important thing to be remembered is that no other
sweet has the food value that honey has. Why do you men
who are in the honey-producing business not emphasize this
and advertise it to the public. Are you afraid that you will
make a claim that you cannot substantiate? Well I know of
no more dependable authority on scientific questions than the
Encyclopedia Britannica. Listen to what it says:
"In most countries at present, the amount of cane and
beet sugar exceeds the honey used by filty times, whereas in
ancient times honey was the most important source of sweetness.
There is, of course, much evidence that the present excessive
use of artificially manufactured sugars and syrups is DETRI-
MENTAL. All such sugars and syrups are wholly DEFICIENT
in vitamins and have had EXTRACTED from them MANY
OTHER FOOD CONSTITUENTS in the manufacturing proc-
esses; just as occurs in the highly developed manufacture if
other modern food-stuffs. The recent protest against artificially
manufactured foods is resulting in an increase in the advice
that honey be used as a natural food product, in place of such
large quantities of iuanufacturcd sweets. Various new and
important uses are now being found for honey, in which other
syrups cannot be employed satisfactorily."
The Encyclopedia Americana has this to say:
"Honey is highly nutritive, especially as a fuel for energizing
the body, as tour-lilths of its components are carbohydrates. It
has well recognized medicinal properties."
It is a subject of common discussion that white bleached,
starchy lour makes non-nutritious bread. It is also well estab-
lished that white, refined sugar is not the food that unbleached
sugar is. Another thing known is that all syrups partake of the
soils from which they grow and if the soil is deficient in the
minerals that food should have the syrup is idso deficient. What
other foods than honey have a "hundred uses?"
This is true of all crops. So much so it is with honey that
the same flower will produce honey in some states and will not
in others. Take alfalfa; it will make good honey in the irrigated
West and will not in the section east of the Missouri River.
Buckwheat will produce honey in some states and not in others.


Pity that all blood products could not be labeled with the
statement giving the mineral content of the soils from which
it grew. Big canning concerns that have their fruits and vege-
tables grown under contract could begin the practice and make
the custom almost universal. Then the buying public would
know whether they were getting a balanced food or not.
If honey is a more wholesome and nutritious food than any
other sweet food thlt public is due to know it. As yet, so far
as I know, the honey producers have never had a nation-wide
advertising campaign. Why not quote the thing I have just
quoted from the Encyclopedia and paste a label on each con-
tainer giving the buyer the advantage ol the information? That
would he just common business practice and Ib perfectly honor-
All honeys ar;e tnot alike. There are black honeys in South
America that are poisonous. There are honeys that are mixed
with bitter elements. There are honeys from noxious weeds,
from grass, from trees. from shrubs and even froln leaves where
certain creatures have left a deposit. Most honey will finally
turn to sugar. That which comes from the Tupelo tree blossoms
will not Iecause it is low in dextrose and has plenty of levulose.
Glucose can be introduced directly into the blood stream.
It is one of the sweets. When eaten the sugars ;ire quickest to
furnish nourishment of all foods. The mineral contents of honey
depend on the Ilower from which it came and the contents of the
flower are determined by the soil from which it grew. Of
course one flower will obtain its nectar from the soil and another
Lower will get a different assortment from the same soil.
You have a honey in this palt of the coulitty that has levuluse
but little dextrose. For that reason it never crystallizes. Doctors
prescribe it in some places for diabetes, arthritis, neuritis, etc.
If the people generally were convinced that honey was the
healthiest sweet possible there would be no surplus on the mark-
et. You should advertise as others do. Why not cultivate a
honey appetite?
The honey bee is a remarkably useful animal. He not only
collects a splendid article of diet but he also benefits the crops
from which he secures his honey. The pollen that sticks to him
as he crawls in and out of each bloom helps to fertilize the
flower that it may bear fruit. It is necessary that there be a
mixing of the male and female parts of different flowers for


there to be a full trop of fruit. The bee also builds a sanitary
container of wax for his honey from the materials that result
from his work in gathering his sweets. Citrus fruit is very de-
pendent on this pollenization process. Other crops are largely
dependent on insect pollenization.
In years past, Florida was a "happy hunting ground" for
beekeepers from other states. There was no prejudice against
them until they began to abuse tie privilege and brought foul
brood into the state. It is hard enough to keep this bee pest
down when the best precautions are used, but when no regard
for die welfare of our honey producers is manifest it naturally
brings resntmement. The legislature of 1917 passed amendments
to our law on apiaries prohibiting the importation of hives into
the state and offered the only safeguard for our home beekeepers.
There are more than ten thousand beekeepers in Florida and
they have some 238,000 colonies.

Honey and Nutrition

Every person is provided with ai canal, the inside of which
is provided with absorbent dues called villi, that extract the
nutritive elements from the food and pour them into the blood-
stream. The blood carries these elements to the millions of
cells in the body. )ilferent parts of the body demand different
elements which can be had only if the bloodstream has them:
The bones need different minerals fro7mi fats, the nerves different
from the glands, the all different from the brain, etc.
Now if the minerals needed are not to be had at any one
point, what happens? It is "passed up" and the bloodstream
flows on. What becomes of a cell if it is continually passed up?
It starves! Suppose it happens that the deficient element applies
to the cells of the brain! Well, why are there so many in
hospitals with mental disorders? III health can cause worries,
troubles, anxieties, despondency, forebodings and ailments ga-
lore. When we get old and begin to "slip" it might be lack of
brain cell nourishment. Heart trouble Yet, we speak of a person
having a "Heart Attack" ehl A heart does not attack. It suc-
cutubs to overwork because it is weak and cannot stand the
strain that it could if properly nourished. Food that produces
muscle is needed. The heart is a faithful muscle. It works
whether we are awake or asleep. If it stops to rest-goodbye.


People may eat plenty of good food, well cooked and still
starve-literally starve, and never know it. So much greater
variety of food elements arc needed than is obtainable by regular
channels. The fifth biggest business in the United States is
canning foods. Most of the materials canned are contracted
for by the canners before they are planted. Some day a far-
seeing canner will see his opportunity and have it in his contracts
that the grower must mineralize his soils as per directions and
require at least a dozen minerals in certain proportions for each
crop-according to the soil's original content.

When these crops are canned a label will be placed on each
container with the guarantee that "THE CONTENTS OF T-IS
FOLLOWS"-followed by a list of the minerals.

Believe it or not the housewife and the restaurant man will
tall for this and try it at anm reasonable cost. Other canners
will be forced to do likewise. The result will be better health
for the country and longer life.

There is more interest being taken inl these problems than
ever before. 1 find the greatest demand for bulletins on these
subjects comes from educators, dietitians, physicians and experi-
ment station operators and journalists. Honce should feature
largely in all these discussions.


Florida Statutes Chapter 586
586.01 Short title.-
This chapter shall be known as the Florida honey certification
586.02 Definitions.-
As used in this chapter:
(1) The term "department" shall mean the department of
agriculture of the State of Florida.
(2) The term "commissioner" shall mean the commissioner
of agriculture of the State of Florida.
(3) The tern "certified honey" shall include honey which
is principally of one type or variety, such as tupelo, orange blos-
som, saw palmetto, gallberry or mango as shall have been in-
spected during its period of production, extraction and prepara-
tion for market by the department or its authorized agents and
found to be reasonably free from a mixture of other types or
varieties of honey, and meet other requirements as specified in
the rules and regulations issued by the commissioner under the
provisions of this chapter.
586.03 Inspection and certification of honey.-
(1) Any producer of honey located in Florida may make ap-
plication to the commissioner for inspection and certification
of his honey crop under such rules and regulations as the com-
missioner may issue.
(2) The commissioner. or his authorized agents, shall issue
such certificates of inspection and designate or provide such
official tags or labels for marking containers of "certified tupelo
honey," "certified orange blossom honey" or certified honey of
other identifiable types or varieties, and establish such standards
of grade and quality, as ate necessary to safeguard the privileges
and service provided for in this chapter.
586.04 Fees for certification.-
The commissioner may fix, assess and collect, or cause to be
collected, fees for the certification inspection service, the same
to be paid in such manner as he may direct. Such fees shall be
large enough to meet the reasonable expenses incurred by the
commissioner or his agents in making such inspection as may be
necessary for certification.


586.05 Unlawful to use words "certified," "registered," or
It is unlawful to use the telrlls "certified," "registered" or
"inspected," o1 any form or modification of such terms which
tends to convey to the purchaser of such honey that the same
has been certified. on tags, labels or containers, either orally or
in writing, or in advertising material intended to promote the
sale of hone%. except when such honey shall have been inspected
and certified to under the provisions of this chapter by the
commissioner of agriculture or by his authorized agents.
586.06 Rules and regulations.-
The commissioner may make all necessary rules and regula-
tions to carry out the provisions of this chapter.
586.07 Employees.-
The comllllissiolllc inma)C eCmplo utnli assistants, inspectors,
specialists and others as may be necessary to carry out the pro-
visions of this chapter to fix their salaries and to pay same from
such funds as may be available for the purpose.
586.08 Penalty.-
Any person, copartnership. association or corporation, and
any officer, agent, servant or employee, thereof, violating any of
the provisions of this act shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor,
and on conviction, shall be punished by fine not exceeding one
hundred dollars for each separate offense. Each lifty-five gallon
druml of honey, or its equivalent in smaller containers, falsely
tagged, labeled or otherwise falsely designated in contravention
of this act shall constitute a separate offense.
586.09 Enforcement of chapter.-
The commissioner is vested with power and authority to
enforce the provisions of this act and the rules and regulations
made pursuant thereto by writ of injunction in tile proper court
as well as by criminal proceedings. It shall be the duty of the
attorney general, the state attorneys, prosecuting attorneys, county
solicitors, and all public prosecutors in each county to represent
the commissioner when called upon to do so. The commissioner
in the discharge of his duties and in the enforcement of the powers
herein delegated may send for books and papers, administer
oaths and hear witnesses, and to that end it is made the duty of
the various sheriffs throughout the state to serve all summons
and other papers upon request of said commissioner.


It is not dilicult to speak of Nature to a friendly) and under-
standing audience. Both you and 1 turn to her in her primitive
glory, when we seek rest, inspiration and strength to carry on.
Perhaps we have been cruisig on the Gulf and suddenly be-
came filled with the urge [or "fresh woods and pastures new."
If we set our course up die historic Apalachicola River to the
Chipola and the famous Dead Lakes and feasted our eyes on
the inspiring verdure of virgin forest; if, in desire to prolong
the vision, we had shut off the motor and held momentarily to
some overhanging bough, our ears would have joined our eyes
in estatic appreciation. The busy hum of myriad bees would
reach us, sooth us and comfort us. An upward glance would
disclose above and all around us thousands of fuzzy blooms,
giving of their sweetness to the greatest workers in the world.
You would have chanced upon industry in its pristine glory,-
TUPELO HONEY TIME-latter part of April.
Most of this beekeeping country is as wild as in the clays
of the Conquistadores. If we pursue our investigation further,
we find that the only evidences of man or civilization are the
apiaries, elevated upon high platforms up and down the banks
of the river. These are from five to twenty.five feet in height,
from fifteen to twenty-five feet wide and from three to five hun-
dred feet long. The hives are placed upon either side of the
platform with the bee entrances pointing outward, leaving a
walkway of between six and eight feet between the hives.
Aside from its mild and delicious flavor, this Tupelo Honey
has distinct and peculiar characteristics that make it a preeminent
product in certain fields. By analysis, it contains about twice as
much levulose as dextrose, or a proportion of 23% dextrose, 46%
levulose with the usual four or five percent of sucrose. The
average American honey contains about 39% of levulose and
34% of dextrose. The higher percentage of levulose in Tupelo
Honey makes it a product that DOES NOT GRANULATE.
Samples have been kept for twenty-five years without granulation.
A number of physicians have discovered that levulose
is more readily tolerated by diabetics than any other sugar and



Tupelo has been recommended to many thus affected with
wonderful results. It should not be used, however, without the
attending physician's investigation and approval.
Another problem of the Tupelo Honey producer is one of
early pollen. Many of the keepers find it profitable to move
their hives to points in South Georgia, where plenty of natural
pollen is available. In [act for months the bees are subjected to
an unconscious process of preparation fot the brief period of
tupelo Hlow, which in normal seasons is at its height from the
middle of April to the middle of May. The flow lasts between
three and four weeks according to climatic conditions and the
hives are robbed two or three times, practically all of the honey
being removed die last time.
Usually duinig the first patl of January, the bees are brought
back from their winter quarters in Georgia and they begin to
feed almost at once on titi, maple, ironwood and a variety of
other early blooming plants. Having been practically dormant
for the past three months they are in their weakest condition at
this time. During the remainder of January and all of February
they are carefully built up and nurtured in preparation lor the
real work of the spring. In unusually cold seasons it is necessary
to feed the bees, but normally they find sufficient sustenance
among native growths.
In March the black tupelo gum, oak and other trees begin
to bloom and the bees, which are now in good condition, begin
to work in earnest. The colonies are encouraged to continue
building up and the foundation is placed for the top boxes. At
the end of the black tupelo now and just before the white tupelo
blooms, the hives are completely cleaned out, so that the white
and dark tupelo may not be mixed. Black tupelo is known to
the trade as amber and is sold to manufacturers of candy and
About middle April, the white tupelo flow is at its height
and the bees have reached their best condition of the year and
they need all their strength, for within three or four weeks many
hundred thousand pounds of honey are gathered. The bees
work so frantically that the average life during this flow is
twenty-one days. They wear out their wings in that time and


At the conclusion of the white tupelo flow, some of the pro-
ducers leave their hives to be filled during June and July
with honey and pollen from the wild grape vine and snow vines
for the winter months, as all of this is dark honey and not
profitable commercially. The most profitably operated apiaries
follow a different plan. They screen over and close their hives
and transport them into the farming sections of extreme North
Florida and South Georgia where they are allowed to pass the
rest of the summer in gathering honey and pollen for the winter
months. With the arrival of cold weather they become dormant
and as stated, in January are brought back to the home apiary
to begin the operation all over again.
From the foregoing it is readily ;Zieii;Tiniable that ile
plod uction of tupelo honey does not follow the same smooth
roads as that of other varieties. The problems of transportation
north and return, the location of the apiaries with reference to
owners' homes, as well as the ordinary expenses and replacements
incidental thereto, all these make nctCie.isa a price slightly higher
than for other grades. When one considers the merit of the
product, the difference is entirely negligible. The beekeepers
who produce Tupelo Honey, during the quarter of a century
of its existence, have never striven for riches, but have been, and
still are, perfectly ,Latished with a fair return for their labor.
Their excess profits are in the associations incidental to their
work, the beauty and soul's satisfaction of the woods and waters.
It will be remembered that Tupelo Honey is never sold ii
the comb, but always in liquid form. This gives an essentially
purer product as every drop is strained. The honey men have
always been proud of their product and taken keen interest in
preserving its :eputation. To this end a little over a year ago,.
a Cooperative Association was formed among the most progres-
sive of the beekeepers to perpetuate the progress and purity of
Tupelo Honey, as well as to take chdage of the marketing Of
the product.
A GRAY, April morning-cold and dreary even on a palatihi
extra fare train pushing across the continent. Tia\el-wearv
passengers drift into the dining car, scowl at the menu and stare
gloomily at the cloud veiled landscape. The waiter defeientiallv
suggests to one. "And will you have honey with your waffle, sir?
It is the very finest honey made-pure white tupelo. Yes sirl
I'm sure you will like it."


The breakfast is served, and in due time a small, squat jar
of crystal clear, pale yellow fluid appears before the weary
guest. Its contents are revealed as a delicately flavored, in-
linitely smooth, slow-pouring liquid, which becomes subtlety
itself on the palate, perfect in flavor and consistency. The guest,
suddenly hungry, consumes the last drop with satisfaction.
Two thousand miles from the chance diner and his pleas-
antly. though expensively gratified appetite, there lies a heavily
timbered, sparsely settled region of which he never heard, and
through it runs a canl, purposeful river with a long Indian name
that would be only a jumble of the alphabet to him. It is a
friendly river, but it is businesslike and as it rounds a deep
curve in the shoreline it neither repulses nor urges one to follow.
Yet if one descends the gentle slope of the shore to a boat waiting
among graceful gray tree trunks that stand in the shallow back-
waters, there would be no delay in paddling out into the bayou,
cear of the tldtering trees, Jpst the steamboat landing and out
into the current. For those who listen to rivers know that this
one has something to say.
Rapidly, happily the miles Ilow past. Evenly. unhurriedly
the river swings on between banks massed with the glorious
green of a virgin forest, rich in realization of a southern April.
Cypress, cottonwood, water elm, sycamore, laurel oak, cedar,
hickory, live oak, chinquapin, water ash, sweet bay, box elder-
all these and more crowd its banks and form a background [or
thickets ol willow, button bush. black haw, titi and hackberry.
Darkly massed behind them loom giant magnolias dotted with
early bloom that trails its exquisite Iragrance on the morning
air. Wild Wisteria scrambling adventurously over shrubs and
trees, swings its first purple tassels in the river breeze, and
leather- cottonwood and llfll willow blooms drift lightly down
through the soft air.
Far more Itumerous than any of these, however, are thickly
lIranrhedt trees with sturdy gray brown trunks and dark, glossy
leaves. They seem to be everywhere-tender slips at the water's
edge, thick bushy yotungling, mingled with the forest growth on
the low shore. mature trees standing in the still backwaters and
lagoons. This is the tupelo gumm tree of the southern lowlands.
From its branches at this season depend thousands upon thou-
sands of small fuzzy bolls or blooms, on long stems and in thick
clusters. And upon those has been founded, casually and gradu-


ally, an industry that offers to discriminating world markets a
valuable commodity in the form of a choice type of the most
wholesome sweet known.
For miles down the river there is no sign of human habita-
tion, but hidden in the edge of the leafy screen along the banks
one unwittingly passes many well tenanted homes of tireless,
eager workers. Though the air be heavy with the scent of spring
blossoms, these busy swarms of Italian bees pay no attention to
any but the white tupelo blooms, and the riverfront and swamp
in all directions are astir with them through the daylight hours.
The "flow" is on: It is tupelo time.
For those who think of Florida only as a tropical winter
playground where a fortunate few may loll in summer attire on
white sand beaches, there is a revelation in a trip to the little
known northwest section of the state. Here four counties dip
down to form the last descending point of land before the Gulf
Stream sweeps up to hollow out the great curve of the peninsula's
western shore. Here is a land underdeveloped drowsing happily
among its riches, covetous of no one, desirous of nothing, un-
selfish to a fault. Endless acres of cutover pine land, worked
out years ago by the great lumber companies, are abandoned
to pasturage and casual turpentining of the younger growth
timber. Deep swamps, thickly crowded with hardwood trees as
yet spared the timlbernan's axe and saw, shelter birds and game
in great numbers.
Centrally located in this undeveloped region and fronting
on the Gulf of Mexico is Gulf County, created from the southern
part of Calhoun County in 1925. It is sparsely settled, there
being perhaps no more than 5,000 people in the entire county.
Wewahitchka, a small village located in the north central section,
is the county seat and is the nucleus of the tupelo honey industry
of northwest Florida, with an annual production of 535,000
pounds of fancy white tupelo honey, which brings the producers
about $60,000.
Fancy white tupelo honey is considered the choicest kind
and grade offered to the trade, as it is delicately flavored, crystal
clear, light in color, smooth in consistency, high in density and
is not variable in any way. In addition to these advantages the
pure white tupelo honey has the remarkable qualities of never
granulating and never becoming rancid. One producer at We-
wahitchka has a sample of honey which he has kept for nineteen


years. It is kept in an ordinary glass jar with a cork, and retains
the same flavor, color and consistency which it had in the begin-
ning. Despite these exceptional qualities, white tupelo honey
rarely reaches the consumer in an unadulterated state, because
the producers for the most part sell direct to canners and com-
mission men who have utilized it to build up and improve
blended honey from other sections. The advantage to the
concern which bottles honey is obvious; the addition of a small
quantity of white tupelo honey to that of other flavors and
grades improves the taste and lengthens the time during which
it will keep without granulation or deterioration. The disadvan-
tage to the producer who has so carefully handled his apiaries
throughout the year in order to guarantee the purity of his
tupelo honey is also obvious, since few consumers ever obtain
his produce in an unadulterated state or know its source. The
remedy, apparently, lies in a movement now on foot to revolu-
tionize the prevailing system of marketing.
The tupelo gum tree, both white and black, is native to
the swamps and river bottoms of northwest Florida and grows
profusely in them. It also grows in Louisiana. Mississippi and
other southern states, but Gulf County apiarists state that the
production of pure white tupelo honey has not been reduced
to an exact science except in their locality. The black tupelo
makes a darker and less desirable honey than the white, and
mixing of the two is carefully avoided in the Wewahitchka sec-
Lion where beekeepers have learned to manage their hives in
such a way as to accomplish this.
The Chattahoochee River, rising in central Georgia, flows
south to the Gulf of Mexico, and is joined near the Florida line
by the Flint River from Alabama. From this point the stream
is called the Apalachicola until it reaches the Gulf at the town
and bay of the same name. For about sixty miles of its lower
course tde banks and backwaters of the stream are heavily
wooded with the tupelo gum, and the river swamps in which this
tree thrives vary from one to twenty miles in width. Learning
early of the superior quality of honey produced by the tupelo
gum and the preference of the bees for it, local apiaries placed
their colonies of bees on the river bank or deep in the swamps,
often locating ten, twenty or more miles Irom any human
habitation. There are few roads in this section and many apiaries
are inaccessible except by boat. Most of the tupelo acreage


is leased from its owners b) apiarists, though some own the
land on which they operate. There are twenty-eight of the larger
apiary sites averaging twenty-five acres to the site. and covering
more than twenty) thousand acres in all. Scientists have stated
that bees will fly three miles for honey, but practical apiarists
in the Wewahitchka section believe that two miles is an average
distance of flight, and the\ locate their colonies with this in view.
The Italian bee predominates in this district, though some of
the wild black bees which abound in Florida forests have mingled
with hives in a few apiaries. The wild bees are difficult to handle
and are not desirable tor commercial use.
HIoney producers were alarmed and distressed several \eairs
ago because of the entrance of cigar box manufacturers into the
white tupelo section and the purchase of tupelo gum timber b,
hemn. It was found, much to the relief of the apiarists, that the
wood of the tupelo gum is too light and brittle for use in box-
making and other hardwoods were substituted.
The tupelo gum or cotton gum tree, is usually ift\ to
sevent\-five feet in height and two or three feet in diameter, and
it frequents swamps and inundated areas. The base is often
enlarged, and the tree has a fairly straight trunk covered with
thin, gray-brown bark, deeply furrowed. The branches are
smooth and light brown, and tle slender, pointed leaves are
thick, their upper surface being dark green and lustrous and the
lower pale and downy. The blossoms are usually borne on
separate trees, the nmale in dense round clusters and the female
alone on long slender stems. The bloom appears before the
leaves on the black tupelo gnn, but the opposite is true of the
white tupelo. The male tupelo bloom resembles a black clove
and is said to contain more honey than the female bloom, which
is a small fitt/v ball. Each of them secretes nectar constantly
and profusely from twenty% to twenty-five days, and bees return
again and again to the same blossoms for honey, which often
gathers so thickly that it could be scraped off with a knite. It
is believed that twelve days elapse from the bud to the full
bloom of the tupelo, and after the period of secretion the pod
turns brown and drops off.
The present State apiary inspection for that district has
resided near Wewahitchka since 1885. and he has records of
carefully conducted tests in which single colonies of bees have
been known to gather twenty pounds of honey in one day. In


a favorable season one apiary containing ninety colonies pro-
duced thirty-eight barrels of honey in three weeks, each barrel
containing thirty gallons. The average production ol one hun-
dred colonies during the brief period in which they gather white
tupelo honey is twenty, thirty gallon barrels, but records of
twenty-five and even twenty-seven barrels are common. The
confinement of the bees' activities to the short space of three or
four weeks makes possible the production of unadulterated white
tupelo honey, and the insects "on vacation" during the remainder
of the year.
The largest individual producer in this section has an
apiary thirteen miles from Wewahitchka where 326 colonies
of bees average 40.000 pounds of pure white tupelo honey each
season. The presence of high water in the tupelo swamps during
several months of each year renders it necessary to build many
of the apiaries on platforms fourteen to sixteen feet in height
and three hundred to seven hundred feet long. The honey house
containing two stories, is built immediately behind the platform
at its center and an inclined runway leads from each story to a
small wharf or steamboat landing.
The hives are placed in double rows along the platform.
with a passageway between, and the entire work of harvesting
the honey and packing it for shipment is handled in the honey
house at each apiary. All white tupelo honey is sold in the ex-
tracted form. When the hives are robbed the combs are brought
into the upper story of the honey house and placed in a large
vat, where a slicer removes the caps. It is then placed in frames
in a revolving drum and the honey is extracted by centrifugal
force, after which it runs through a pipe into a large tank of
very tight construction on the lower floor of the honey house.
Here the small amount of sediment and foreign matter contained
in tde honey settles and the finished product is drawn off into
barrels constructed for this particular purpose. Because of its
weight, honey is particularly subject to leakage, and it is difficult
to handle in bulk. The barrels used are specially coopered of
choice cypress, carefully washed, dried and pariffined inside.
They are used only once, each season's shipments going out in
new barrels. River steamboats run twice a week and the bar-
reled honey is delivered to them direct from the dock at the
front of each apiary. or from regular landings.


Prices received by the producers are very low in comparison
with the high price finally paid by the few consumers who obtain
this choice product in its unadulterated form.
For many years the honey was bid in by representatives of
large commission houses who coie to Wewahitchka for that
purpose at the close of the honey harvesting season each spring.
Eventually the monopoly which a few of these held forced the
price so low that local producers refused to sell and formed a
cooperative association which has successfully handled the crop
in recent seasons.
The advantages and possibilities of the industry are obvious.
The apiaries require comparatively little attention, though prac-
tical operators are constantly studying the needs of the industry.
The net returns on each producer's investment are good, even
at present low market prices. It is, however, a seasonal business,
involving very heavy work during the harvesting season and
slack periods of employment at other times. Because of the
isolated location of the apiaries, losses from forest fires and
similar sources are considerable. Ill-timed rains sometimes
prove very costly to honey producers, and a single hard shower
in the height of the white tupelo flow is estimated to cost the
producers $25,000 or more. Apiaries have been carefully spaced
with regard to the probable number of bees operating on each
tract, and as yet the white tupelo is plentiful and there has been
no shortage of honey material.
The industry was established in this section more than fifty
years ago, apparently in an accidental manner, and it has grown
to proportions which are admittedly beyond the capacity of local
producers to handle satisfactorily. It remains only for business
to recognize the possibilities of the industry and exploit them
through practical channels, in order that the public at large may
come to know by name a: delicious American product now en-
joyed by only a few-fancy white tupelo honey.

I 4

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Showing Prt of i lrg Apiiq In Phlillo, Nou limpi, fIonir


does mean that there is no large area in the State but what at
some time during the year will furnish bee pasture. One must
be careful, though, to see that the hives are placed in some
thinly shaded place where they can be properly watched and
taken care of. Should one be going into beekeeping on a com-
tercial scale, it is necessary, of course, to consider transportation,
the kind of honey plants that are available, etc.

The right start in beekeeping means much toward success.
At the very beginning the apiary site should he selected, and this
done with great care and consideration.
Bees should never be kept near stock where there would
be danger of horses, cattle, hogs, etc. being stung by them. As a
rule, all animals understand to stay away from bees, and they
will usually do this if they have their freedom. The apiary
should be far enough away so that there will be no danger of
either man or animals being stung, yet it should be near enough
to the house so that it can be closely watched. It is advisable
for someone to visit the bees rather often, for bees will soon
become familiar with people who pass by. After the bees
become familiar with people, there is little danger of a volunteer
attack of the bees or any stings from just passing among the
The location should be thinly shaded, but never should
there be a dense shade overhead. A dense shade will cause the
hives to be more or less damp, especially during rainy weather,
and this is detrimental to the bees. The dampness also causes
the hives to decay more rapidly. No shade at all would be pref-
erable to a dense one.
The first colony of bees should be placed in the site selected.
As fast as an increase in made. the hives should be lined up
about four feet apart so as to give sufficient room to work around
each. The rows of hives should be at least ten feet apart so
that if necessary a truck may pass between the rows. It is best
to let the hives face southward, although southwest or southeast
will do. It is necessary to place the hives on stands some twelve
or eighteen inches high so that the ground about them can be
kept free of litter and vegetation.
As soon as there are a few hives in the apiary, a suitable,



p r j

Showing Prt) of a ge Aplr in Ormnge Grov


I,, -
1 "


neat, small honey house or room should be erected close by the
side of the apiary. It is preferable to locate the honey house
on the side ol ihe apiarn nearest the residence so thai it may be
visited without passing among hde bees. The honey house may
serve as a workshop as well as a packing and extracting room
when the honey crop is ready. Honey is to be kept in this room
and only enough carried to the residence for a meal or so at a
time. 4Honey tends to toll ill bees and other insects and often
makes a ratheti messy job to keep clean. The honey house is
the place lor it .nd it (an be readily removed when needed for
the market or table. Anl extractor, uncapping tank, storing tank,
and a large work table on which to pack the honey are needed
in the honey house.

There are bees in even nook and corner of Florida, and one
should have no trouble in obtaining a start almost ait his very
door. It is not necessary to send north or west lor bees. as they
can be obtained in Florida. Bees in Florida are inspected as to
disease by authorized State inspectors, and they will see to it
that the bees are Iree from disease. When bees are secured froni
outside the State, it is impossible to know just what one is ob.
dining, and it niua later be discovered that the bees are diseased.
As already stated, it is advisable to obtain pure Italian or
Caucasian stock, and possibly better than either is the Caucasian-
Italian stock crossed. The bees purchased should be in either
eight- or ten-framle modern standard size hives. II one expects
to produce extracted honey, tile tenI-rame hives and pure Italian
bees are recolnenlded. II one expects to produce chunk honey
or comb honey in one-pound sections. becs in eight-frame hives
should be secLured. II is preferable to get either Caucasian-
Italian or Caucasion stock for producing chunk or comb honey.
as these two varieties are about the best comb builders and they
cap their honey beautifully white.
For each hive, three regular shallow extracting supers should
be purchased if one is going to produce either extracted or
chunk honey. If comb honey in sections is to be produced,
then two supers are all that one needs. The best equipment
obtainable with full sheets of foundation in all frames and sec-
tions should be used by all means. One must see that all hives


and hive parts are properly set up according to instructions given
in the bee supply catalog. If this is not done. it will be found
out later, much to one's sorrow.

The yield of honey per colony will vary for different sections
of the State. The variations will depend almost entirely upon the
supply of honey plants in each section. The State as a whole
will probably average 50 to 70 pounds of extracted honey,
although there are a number of loralities that will average up
to 100 pounds of extracted honey per colony. A few exceptional
areas may be found where the average is as high as 200 pounds
of extracted honey per colony.
To express it in another way, it may be said that in the
Tupelo Gum region of West Florida, the average per colony is
about 100 pounds of extracted honey; in the partridge pea region,
about 60 pounds per colony; and in the saw palmetto region,
about 50 pounds per colony. The sunflower region as a rule
gives the best yields, sometimes averaging as much as 200 pounds
of extracted honey per colony. Then in the Black Mangrove
region the average is often around 150 pounds per colony, while
in the gallberry region the average may be as low as 40 pounds of
extracted honey per colony.

Whether an apiary has one colony or fifty colonies, the bee-
keeper should know how to properly grade and pack honey even
for his own table, and especially all he expects to put on the
market. The surplus honey should never be put up in just any
kind of container, but it must be correctly put up in good honey
Honey produced in Florida, as a rule, has a good flavor and
good color. Sometimes, however, it is a little thin in body even
after it has been left in the care of the bees until it is well
capped over. The bees cap the honey when it is finished, but
as a rule they do not do this until they have given it the body
they intend it to have. One should remember that honey, when
first gathered, is nothing but sweet sap of the honey plants, thin,
devoid of flavor, and quick to ferment until well evaporated.
At the present time the demand is greatest for honey put
up in retail containers. The one-pound square jars have been


found most suitable for the best grades of both chunk and ex-
tracted honey. The two and one-half-pound cans are best for
grades just a little off in color. The next size is the regular five-
pound honey pail. Syrup pails will not do as they are too thin
and frail, and the friction top does not drive in sufficiently tight
to remain and not leak. The off-grade extracted or comb honey
can be put up in regular honey pails or in two and one-half-
pound glass jars.
Extracted honey should be well strained before it goes into
the storage tank. It should be allowed to remain there for
several days so that gravitation will dear all matter from the
honey, then it can he drawn off into the containers and sealed
up at once. All packages can be nearly labeled under your own
signature, together with the guarantee and net weight.
It is generally advisable to put up some of the honey with
comb and some without comb. One can often sell ten times as
much packed comb and extracted honey together as straight
extracted honey alone. Many people want comb in their honey
in spite of whatever they may think best. In packing comb
from the regular shallow frames along with extracted honey,
one must be careful to put in as large pieces as possible and
never chip up or put up little trimmings. It is desirable to let
the honey appear in as large pieces as possible. The pieces
should be suspended so that they will stand tp; they should not
be put in flat, for honey naturally looks better from an end view
than from a side view. One must remember to cut out only
tender young white comb and to place the fancy crop in glass

It is a well known fact that practically all the extracted
honey on the market is blended (not compounded) from several
sources. Blending is done for several reasons. First it makes
a better table article because the flavor of blended honey is a
combination of the flavors of several different kinds of honey.
As most people are aware, the flavor of honey is governed by
the plant from which it is made, so that blended honey com-
bines the different flavors. All real honey lovers will agree on
this point. The honey may be blended just as it comes from
the extractor, or on the table when cutting the comb.


Blending honey has reference only to the very best honey
and not to any of inferior quality. A poor grade should never
be in a blend, or it will ruin all. It is better to put the cheap
honey up separately and sell as such. This applies to both the
color and flavor of honey. Some poor honev has a fine color,
and some very fine honey has poor color. It is seldom if ever
advisable to blend dark honey with light, or honey of poor flavor
with that of good flavor, but a blend should always be with
honey of similar color and quality of flavor.
The blending of honey is particularly important in Florida
because there are a great many kinds of honey coming along
during the season. Often one honey flow comes in very close
behind another flow, and this happens so frequently that there
is very little honey produced in Florida which is pure as to
source. It is all blended more or less by the bees themselves,
for sometimes a single comb will contain three or four different
kinds of honey.
Blending honey not only makes it a better table article, but
the greatest advantage is that it stays granulation. Much of the
Florida honey, especially that produced in the southern part of
the State, will granulate. The honey in the western part of the
State, particularly in the great White Tupelo Gumi region, does
not granulate easily. If a large percent of non-granulating
honey is blended with the honey that granulates, then granu-
lation is stayed, often indefinitely even on the northern markets.
There is enough non-granulating honey produced in Florida, if
properly blended with the granulating honey, to keep all in a
liquid condition.
Florida therefore has the opportunity to put up honey in
its natural state that will keep without granulating, which
eliminates the necessity of heating the honey to make it keep.
Honey that is sold with the guarantee that it will not granulate
is more in demand, for no honey buyer outside of a bottler wants
table honey to turn to sugar or candy.

-o those less informed the winter care of bees in an ahnost
tropical country like Florida seems of little importance, and per-
haps is far less important than in other parts of the country.
Some special care, however, is needed by the bees during the
winter months even in Florida.




During the first part ol tie winter, the bees should be
looked over carefully and even the queens and their work of
egg-laying noted. Some hunev is generally coming in at this
time. as the weather is usually still warn enough to allow the
bees to work. The first part of December is the most opportune
time to make the examination because old and failing queens
may be easily detected at such time by the strength of the
colonies and size of the brood nest. A good queen at the be-
ginning ol the winter season should be laying well with plenty
of young bees in the colony; il this is not the case, then the
bees should be re-queened.
While the cover is off and the queen's progress being
noted, it is advisable to see about the stores in ihe super just
above the brood nest. This super should be full or nearly so
of sealed stores. The bees Ima not draw \ery heavily) on the
honey the first part of the winter, but the latter part they will
because they are rearing so many young. The cover to the hive
should be a good one that does not leak, and the bottom board
must be sound. It is also important to see that the hive is on
a good foundation.
The colony with a good queen and plenty of stores is ready
lor the winter and will need no further care or attention until
spring. Plenty of stores above a good queen is highly impor-
tant; otherwise, losses front starvation are almost certain, or
the colony will be too weakened from lack of honey to keep
up the raising of young bees. One must not forget that bees
will perish during cold weather even in Florida where winters
are short and generally mild, unless they are given sufficient


The question is often asked. "Can I keep bees in Florida
and have a honev flow the veal around?" The idea is to have
a honey flow twelve months in the year, taking honey off, pack-
ing. raising bees and queens, etc., the year round. As a general
rule, however, nowhere in Florida can one depend upon such
a condition yeal after year. All ot Florida is subject to cold
snaps, light Irost. and once in a while freezes, which to a large
extent play havoc with vegetation. This would mean disap-
pdintnient to the beekeeper who is expecting to run his honey


extractor or pack honey every month in the year. Some years
this can be done, but years when light frost and freezes come
around this cannot be done.
From coast to coast across the peninsula for about one
hundred miles, taking in the section where Lake Okeechobee
lies, there are large areas of pennyroyal, a winter-blooming
nectar plant that gives a good and reliable flow of nectar from
the thne the goldenrod ceases to bloom on through the winter
months until citrus begins to bloom. This is ideal for honey
production, bee and queen raising, but even here this is inter-
fered with by sharp cold snaps.
Through the section just mentioned, the average per colony
is far greater than elsewhere in the State. This is simply be-
cause there are more honey plants and a nearer perpetual
honey flow with only a few days intermission from one to an-
other. This section embraces, of course, a large area in the
extreme southern part of the State. Honey extractors can be
seen running in various places through this section during
November, December, January and February. Often the numn
ber of bees will increase during these months, and queen bees
reared and mated.
This is perhaps the most favored area in Florida for bee-
keeping in all its branches. Pennyroyal is the greatest yielder
during these months, yet there are other honey plants that come
along and bloom during the same period which add greatly to
the flow of honey and abundance of pollen.

The surplus honey of any colony can be removed at any
time, but beyond this no honey should be taken. Because one
sees blooming flowers almost twelve months in die year around
over Florida is no reason why they are real honey plants and
the bees can gather honey from them. Therefore, sufficient
honey should always be left for the bees to live on.
It is important to keep a close watch on the bees so that
they will not have any more storing room than needed- The
bee moth will actually eat up the comb in a normal colony of
bees if there is so much storing room that the bees cannot
properly care for the hive by crawling over it and removing
the eggs or tiny larva of the miller that lays the eggs. It is a
common sight, and not a good one, to see a hive of bees with


the combs all destroyed in the top by die moth. Bees should
have only the proper amount of room at all times, but most
particularly at times when there is no honey Ilow and breeding
may be at a low ebb. A dose watch must be kept on the bee
moth or it is apt to cause great loss of comb.
When a honey flow starts, it is necessary to look out for
super room and keep just enough storing room ahead of the
bees so that they can Fill up all supers by the end of the honey
flow. Too much would be dentimental and not enough would
be a loss. To this end every colony should be closely watched
and visited every week to see that all are kept supplied with
storing room. When the honey How goes off, then all the
surplus honey can be removed, packed, and placed on the
market. One super, however, must be left full or nearly full of
stores for the use of the bees.


All modern hives have loose hanging frames in which the
bees build die comb, live and rear their young. Every colony
should be examined carefully each week, or at least every few
weeks. Each comb in tie bottom story of a hive should be
examined to see whether there are enough brood eggs of die
queen and a sufficient amount of honey.
If there is no houey in the super, it is necessary to supply
a frame of honey from some heavy hive. If there are not as
many bees in some colonies as in others, one may take a frame
of capped brood from one of the strongest and best colonies and
place it in the weaker colony. In this way the weaker colonies
can be built up. If no brood is seen or the colony is growing
very weak, the hive may have a poor queen or none at all. Such
colonies should occasionally be given a frame of brood in all
stages of development, which will enable them to grow stronger
and raise a queen from dithe brood given them. Or, in the mean-
time, one may order a queen and introduce her into the colony,
which mlay often save a colony from a downward drift or per-
haps a total loss.
Frame manipulation is of the greatest importance in bee-
keeping, for right here the wheel of fortune in beekeeping may
turn. This is particularly outstanding in changing combs as
just mentioned above.




A Ondly Bblmll



It is not customary even among beginners ;nd small bee-
keepers to allow the bees to swarm naturally, as much better
results are obtained when the swarming is controlled by the
beekeeper. The operations of increasing colonies and con-
trolling swarming are both done with one stroke. When a very
strong, heavily populated colony of bees is properly swarmed
once ealc season. that colony and the one made from it are
both cured of the swearing fever for the year.
The strongest colonies should be divided up into equal
parts, in the early part of the year, some three or four weeks
before natural swarlling time. This means taking from the
old hive one-hall the bees, one-half the brood, one-half the
comb, and one-hall the honey. As the hive is being divided,
one should look lor the queen. The frame of comb on which
the queen is found should be put with the half that is to make
a new hive. The bees in the old hive can raise themselves a
new queen, although it is often preferable to buy a queen for
the queenless half.
The operation is not a success unless the queen is put with
the new stand. because if the bees that are carried away to a
new stand find themselves queenless, they will boil out of the
hive, pry about looking for the queen, and invariably go back
to the old stand in an effort to find their mother. This depopu-
lates the newly made hive, but if the queen is there the bees
will not leave her. The old half ol the hive will have no idea
where their mother has departed to and will at once set out to
raise another. or will readily accept a new queen if one is
This is simple and easy when everything is in readiness,
and it can best be done late in the afternoon by those inex-
perienced in the operation. The bees will thus be given over
night to satisfy and content themselves, while if done in early
morning there will be turmoil all day among the two divisions,
the bees on the old stand looking for their modier and the bees
on the new stand making their new home. Before this is done
a new emptN hive lor each colony must be properly prepared.
and the frames should contain full sheets of foundation or ready
built comb.


When the division is made, there should be four or five frames
in calh hive of ready built comb containing brood and honey.
This is supplied when the division is made, but a space should
be left without any comb on one side of each of the hives. The
frames containing full sheets of foundation Iomn the newly pre-
pared hive should be inserted in these spaces. One frame con-
taining foundation can le placed right in the middle of the
ready built combs in each oi the divisions. This will give the
bees some comb to build and they will start at once to draw
out the foundation. As last as they draw it out, the queen will fill
it with brood and one will soon have solid slabs of brood.
On every visit, a frame of foundation should be inserted in
like manner until a full set of combs are drawn out, then all one
has to do is to keep the bees properly supered and two hives
rather than one will be making the honey.
Increases during any time of the year can be made in like
manner, but only with strong, heavy colonies. The weak colo-
nies and those of medium strength naturally have a struggle to
exist and to divide them would mean disaster and great loss.
To become successful in beekeeping, one must study the
nature and habits of the honey bee in order to learn the best
methods of bee culture. An effort should be made to learn
about the plants upon which the bees feed. A number of good
books are available on bee culture, which can be obtained at a
reasonable price. There are also a few monthly publications on
bees that contain valuable information. Whenever possible,
the prospective beekeeper shnold visit one or more progressive
beekeepers in the locality in which he intends locating arid
watch the methods of handling bees. The more information
one can secure, and the better it is applied, the greater will be
the chances for success.


Florida Statutes Chapter 584

584.01 Powers of state plant board over honey bees.-
The state plant board of Florida may deal with American and
European foul brood, Isle of Wight disease and all other con-
tagious or infectious diseases of honey bees which, in its opinion,
may be prevented, controlled or cr:adiciated; and may make. pro-
mulgate and enforce such rules, ordinances and regulations and
do aldt perform such acts, through its agents or otherwise, as in
its judgment may be necessary to control, eradicate or prevent
the introduction, spread or dissemination of any and all con-
tagious diseases ol honey bees. as Iair as may be possible, and all
such rules, ordinances and regulations of said plant board shall
have die force and elect of law.
584.02 Certificate of inspection to accompany shipments.-
All honeybees (except bees in coinbless packages) and used
beekeeping equipment shipped or moved into the State of
Florida, or shipped or moved within the State ,o Florida, shall
ble accompanied by a permit issued Iby the plant commission
ol the state plant board of Florida. Before any bees (except bees
in combless packages) or used beekeeping equipment is shipped
or moved from any other state into tile State of Florida. the owner
thereof shall make application on forms provided by the plant
commissioner of the state plant Iboard of Florida for a permit.
T'Ihe application shall be accompanied by a certificate of inspec-
tion signed by the state entomologist, state apiary inspector, or
corresponding official of the state from which such bees or equip-
ment are shipped or moved. Such certificate shall certify that
all of the colonies, apiaries, and beeyards owned or operated by
the applicant, his agents or representatives. have been inspected
annually at a time when the bees are actively rearing brood, in-
cluding one inspection within tlle period ol thirty days inncedi-
ately I,'cediiiKn the date of shipmel nt or movement into Florida,
and that no American foulbrood or other contagious or infec-
tious diseases have been found in any colony, apiary, beeyard
or other places where bees or equipment have been held by the
applicant, within the period ol two years immediately preceding
the date of shipment or movement into Florida; provided that
when honeybees are to be shipped into this state Irom other


states or countries wherein no official apiary inspector or state
entomologist is available, the state plant board of Florida may
issue permit for such shipment upon presentation of suitable
evidence showing such bees to be free from disease.
584.03 Authority of plant board to enter depots, etc., to make
The state plant board, its agents and employees. may enter
any depot, express office, store-room, warehouse or premises for
the purpose of inspecting any honey bees or beekeeping fixtures
or appliances therein or thought to be therein, for the purpose
of ascertaining whether said bees or fixtures are infected with
any contagious or infectious disease, or which they may have
reason to believe have been, or are being transported in violation
of any of the provisions of this chapter.
584.04 Plant board may require removal, destruction, etc.,
of exposed or infected bees.-
The plant board, through its agents or employees, may require
the removal from this state of any honey bees or beekeeping
fixtures which have been brought into the state in violation
of the provisions of this chapter, or if finding any honey bees
or fixtures infected with any contagious or infectious disease, or
if finding that such bees or fixtures have been exposed to danger
of infection by such a disease, may require the destruction, treat-
ment or disinfection of such infected or exposed bees, hives,
fixtures or appliances.
584.06 Penalty for violation.-
Whoever violates any of the provisions of Chapter 584, Flor-
ida Statutes, or whoever violates any of the rules and regulations
promulgated by the state plant board in accordance with the
provisions of said chapter, shall, for the first offense be deemed
guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction thereof be pun.
ished by a fine of not less than one hundred dollars nor more
than five hundred dollars or by imprisonment for not more
than six months in the county jail, and upon a second convic-
tion thereof shall be deemed guilty of a felony and shall be
punished by imprisonment in the state prison for a term not to
exceed three years. It shall be the duty of the sheriffs and the
Florida highway patrol officers to enforce the provisions of this
chapter relating to the movement of bees and used bee equipment
into the state as well as movement thereof within the state.



University of Florida Subtropical Experiment Station, Homestead

Cross pollination is a requisite for some of the subtropical
fruits while in others it is of no consequence. Insects are neces-
sary for pollen transfer in some cases, while wind is the agent
of pollen transfer for other fruits, or complements insect pollina-
tion in other plants. Other factors sometimes adversely affect
the set of Iruit. These factors include the following: diseases,
insect pests, high humidity and rainfall during the Ilowering
period, low temperatures, and inadequate nutrition. Much re
mains, however, to be learned about pollination of many eco-
nomic and potentially economic subtropical fruits.
A very brief summary is given to cover the pieaseut knowl-
edge of pollination of our leading subtropical plants with notes
on the places where honeybees may occupy useful places in
pollen dispersion. In doing this the writings of botanists and
horticulturists reporting on different plants have been used
freely. The lack of knowledge pertaining to pollination of many
plants is great: hence, the need for and justification of the
recently initiated research by the Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Stations.

Annonaceous Fruits
These fruits now occupy a very minor position in Florida
horticulture, and are almost restricted to the sugar apple, sour-
sop and the atemoya. The blossoms were regarded as having
primitive structures by Eastwood (1943), with lack of attractive
color which excluded pollination by honeybees. Moths and
flies were considered to do most of the pollinating.

Although the avocado has perfect flowers, each capable of
producing pollen and of developing into a fruit die pollen-
shedding and pollen-reception of each blossom occurs at different
periods of time. The avocado exhibits this phenomenon to a
greater degree than any other fruit plant known. It is briefly


summarized by the statement that the lIower is receptive to
pollen during its first opening, and that it sheds pollen during
the second opening. A period of 12 to 3f hours separates the
pollen reception front the pollen shedding.
Insect pollination is considered helpful in avocado produc-
tion. Honeybees, various Ilies and wasps have been observed
working avocado blooms. Evaluation of the different insects
as pollinating agents remains, however, to be determined. It
is considered probable that colonies of honeybees in an avocado
grove would assist in increasing a set of fruit.
The effects of distance from reciprocating avocado varieties
on fruit production have been determined, whatever the effects
of winds, honeybees or other factors may have Ieen. This was
done by Wolle, et al, (19,9'). by counting the fruit produced per
tree at different distances from trees of a different pollen source.
Curves were drawn from data given, and are shown, Figure 1,
lor the Taylor and Wagner varieties. The average set of fruit
decreased as the distance increased from the pollen source.
There is a principle involved in the above paragraph with
reference to the distance factor which is considered important.
This principle visualizes a simple measurement of the incidence
and distance of pollination under field conditions. This principle
was involved in the work reported to this Association by Parris
and Haynie (1l.50) relative to watermelon production. More
widespread application of this principle is recommended.
Barbados or West Indian Cherry
The present production of this fruit is confined to scattered
specimens or occasionally small groups of specimens located
in grove, estate, or back-yard plantings. Honeybees forage ex-
tensively on the Barbados cherry and are the principle agents
of dispersion ol pollen of this fruit according to Cobin (19418).
Guava plants are very prevalent throughout southern Flor-
ida. Rather extensive plantings have been made and the plant
grows wild. The development of improved varieties is likely
to result in additional plantings. The flowers of this shrubby
tree, and many of its family relatives, attract many different
insects, among which is the honeybee. Cross-pollination is
considered the rule for the guava by Hayes (19,15). Several
colonies of bees were once located near the center of a 40-acre


grove. This was a commercial venture which h;ad for its objec-
tive an increased set ol fruit. II was I;planned to determine the
fruil set IL dlillcerelt 11ro111 these colonies in ;a iilanner
similar to tliha reported above for avocados. The grove was
abandoned, and the bees were removed so the plan was aban-
doned. No study is known to have been made on thie effective-
ness of the honeybee for guava pollination.
Limes. a species of Citrus. according to Frost (19-13), are
consideredd as oranges anid grapelrnit in living no need lor pol-
lination in ordCi to increase the set of Ir-it. Where they are
abundant, however, honeybees iiay obtain nectar froim limes. as
from orange and gralpelrnui bloom.
The litchi plant produces sina:ll iniconsllictuous Ilowers, with-
out petals, which ;ae staiinate, pistillate. or hernlaplhroditic.
Fruit set is believed to result Irom pollinition, although almost
nothing is known in regard to this factor. "Insects are probably
responsible for pollination.' according to Haves (19-15). Since
the acreages planted have been increasing in Florida and since
there are now several large scale plantings extensive observations
on pollination of the litchi may soon be possible.
Macadamia Nut
The present plantings ol the macadamia nut are limited to
specimens on estates or il back yards. The future potential of
this nut tree is unknown. The macadam ia nut is reported by
Hartung (19-10) to be cross-pollinated, ". .. by insects, princi-
pally bees, which visit the flowers at the time when nectar is
produced in large quantities." He also believed that pollinators
affect the amount of fruit set.
The mango is considered entomophilous, i.e.. pollinated by
insects, according to Popenoc (1927) although some writers have
reported that the mango is wind-pollinated. Trees which were
caged to exclude pollinating insects remained fruitless. Al-
though many Ilies( blue-bottle and related species, are observed
on mango blossoms no recent organized study is known to have
been made on insects working on mango blossoms. Honeybees
have been observed in small numbers on mango blossoms. When


some other plants are near and blossom concurrently with mango
trees, honeybees have been observed to seek the pollen of the
other plants and to ignore the mango blossoms. This phenome-
non has been observed in Dade County in mixed plantings of
avocados and mangos. The discovery of some practical means for
increasing the amount and regularity of mango fruiting is greatly
needed. The problem of fruitfulness of the mango, however, is
far more complex than simply a matter of adequate insect pol-
The papaya plant is normally either staminate, pistillate or
hermaphroditic, or it may be of bisexual type, or it may be one
of various intergrading forms. Pollination is accomplished by
insects and wind which disperse the pollen to the pistillate flowers
according to Storey (1941). The writers have not observed visi-
tations of papaya blooms by honeybees.

Pineapple planting stock comes from vegetative sources such
as slips, suckers, ratoons or divisions of the plant. Short inflores-
cence stalks grow from these and produce a head of small flowers.
Flies are occasionally seen on the flowers. Nothing is recognized
of the value of any insect, rain wind or other agent dispersing
pollen on pineapple fruiting. Seed development in pineapples
is rare.
Literalure Cited
Cobin. Milton. 1948. The Barbados or West Indian Cherry in Florida.
U. of Fla. Sub-Tropical Experiment Station. Mimeo. Report 14: 1-3.
Eastwood, H. W. 1943. T'he Custard Apple. Div. of Hon. Dept. Agric.
New So. Wales. Unnumbered leaflet: 1.7.
Frost, Howard Brett. 1943. Seed reproduction. Development of games
and embryos. Ch. 8 pp. 767-815. In The Citrus Industry. Vol. 1.
Edited by Herbert John Weber and Leon Dexter Batchelor. Univ.
Calif. Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles.
Hartung. Margaret E. 1941. Macedonia. Pollination. Rept. Hawaii
Agric. Expt. Sta. for 1940: 51-52.
Hayes, W. B. 1945. The litchi. In Fruit Growing in India. Chap.
XVIII: 180-186. Allahabad Law Journal Press, Allahabad. India.
Paris, G. K. and John D. Haynie. 1950. The effect of honey bees in
watermelon lields on set of melons: A preliminary report. The Honey
Bees Service to Agriculture. State of Fla. Dept. Agric. BuL No. 135:
45-49. illus.
Popenoe. Wilson. 1927. In Manual of tropical and subtropical fruits.
p. 119. The MacMillan Company. New York.
Storey. W. B. 1941. Papaya production in the Hawaiian Islands. Ha-
waii Agric. Expt. Sta. Bul. 87 (pt. 1): 5-22, illus.
Wolfe, H. S. L. Toy, A. L. Stahl. 1949. Avocado production in Florida.
Fla. Agr. Ext. Bul. 141: 1-124, illus. Revised G. D. Ruchle.



Agronomist, Agricultural Experiment Stations
Apiculturist, Agricultural Extension Service, Univ. of Florida

Red clover, White Dutch, Ladino, Crimson, Sweet clover
and others depend almost wholly on insects for pollination and
seed set.
The flower structure of clovers and other legumes makes
wind pollination of minor importance.
The pollination job for an acre of legume blooms is too large
for most people to realize. An acre of Red clover contains over
400,000,000 blooms; an acre of White Dutch clover will contain
about 800,000,000. Crimson clover will contain about three-
fourths as many blooms per acre as Red clover.
The honeybee is the most efficient and best adapted insect
for the pollination of crops under Man's control. The uncon-
trolled natural insects which play a meager role in legume pol-
ination are wasps, bumblebees, flies, butterflies, and moths.
Findings in a three-year study by the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture in Henry County, Ohio, show Red clover as
pollinated 83 percent by honeybees, 15 percent by bumblebees,
and 3 percent by all other insects. The general impression has
been that Red clover could not be pollinated by honeybees. Data
on Red clover pollination in Ohio and Florida disprove this
In Ohio, the average seed yield of Red clover is about one
bushel per acre. With the maximum number of honeybees and
other pollinating insects, this yield can be raised to 12 bushels
per acre. Ohio Experiment Station shows that seed yields are
directly correlated with the number of honeybees.
In Florida, farmers are interested in increasing legume seed
production and reseeding of legumes in pastures. The number
of honeybees and its constancy over a period of years should be
of much concern to farmers. For each dollar that the beekeeper
receives, $15 to $25 worth of pollination services are returned
to agriculture. As long as honey production is profitable to the

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