Mangos in Florida,

Material Information

Mangos in Florida,
Series Title:
Mangos in Florida,
Lynch, S. John
Place of Publication:
Issued by Dept. of Agriculture in cooperation with University of Miami, Coral Gables, Fla.
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
83 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Mango ( lcsh )
Cooking (Mangos) ( lcsh )
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (p. 81-83).
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"A revised bulletin".
General Note:
"March 1955".
Statement of Responsibility:
by S. John Lynch and Margaret J. Mustard.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
AAA3382 ( LTQF )
AHW7165 ( LTUF )
643991451 ( OCLC )
025476353 ( ALEPHBIBNUM )
51062963 ( LCCN )

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Full Text




Issnld h.v
Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee, Florida
N.\AT A.\N 1I.\Y A r
n ivsit of Miami, Coral G 1111 Flo
University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida

Bulletin No. 20



Researvici Prrc ssor oIiv Appli ed 'rtro i jaitiotali

Unve-st o' lim



I'iijv ersIt y ol 1'.1i \ I ati

March 1955


''1 'liTllv Florida Nlanpo P'o illn inects annull vl? ill dillerentll

OI v. l-i f-iirit i ite l a ln iselltiirialtt itltrliillatjoli ptttiai "ino to tile

ctillivatioll and utilizaton .t, 111f. rilit. Those perso'lls wh
ha~ve. what they blievjev to he netw. worthwhile varieties which
t hey w~ish to exhibit or those)~ interestedI ill becomitlll, 1I11111)Qri.
(it this ol-paliatiZlO! ShIouIld address, t heir ilitfliries lto

1102 N. Kittitie kve.

I 1I Illestcad. Frilorida



introduction 5

Slistolry and distributionn 5

Ilotaiy li

Pollination 9

NursIery Propagat ion 12

Topworking 20

('iltural Relliiremnents
Climate 21
l.. 21
Soils 21
Planting 22
Fertilizing 23
Pruniing 2. 6
Cover Crops 26
Irrigation 2(i

Diseases and Insects 21;

Tie (Crop
arvesting .... 34
Packing 3
Marketing and Storage 37

Utilization 38

Composition 47

Va rieties 54

Literature Cited 81


Mtangosa 7I orida

The selection ndl propagation of the better varieties of
Inallgos ill southern Florida has resulted in a rapid growtli of
this industry. The excellent flavor, attractive appearance,
nutritive value alldl shipping quality of the better varieties of
mangos compare favorable with that of some of tile more
popular Temperate Zone fruits. This fruit has great potential
possibilities anl therefore every effort should be made to
improve the quality of IFloridla mangos through varietal selee-
tion alnd improvement in tile means of cultivation. The present
publication consists largely of a compilation ol the scattered
information which has been previously published by other
workers and by the writers themselves. It is hoped that this
publication will be of value to those interested in the produe-
tion and utilization of imngoiis both on a commercial and non-
(omm1ercial basis.

The manlgo is believed to have originated in eastern India,
Burima, or tlie Malayan region where it has been eulivated
for approximately 4.000 years. Freulent mention has been
made in tlie early literature perltainling, to the position of high
esteem which this fruit has held in its native home.
The slow dissemination of mangos throughout the tropical
and subtropical areas of the world may be attributed to the
early difficulty encountered ill lie successful transportation
of the seed. Mangos were first introduced into Brazil byv the
Portuguese about 1700. Since that time. this fruit has been
introduced into the West Indies, AMexico. Central America.
(alifornia, and Florida.
Mlangos cultivated in Florida are usually classified as
Indian, Saigon, or Philippine. Most of the Indian varieties
produce monIoembryonic seeds as a result of sexual rep'rodue-
tion. On the other hand, most of the Saigon and Philippine
seedling races are polyembryonic. The sexually produced
seedlings are subject to all the variations associated with tilis
type of replroduction: ipolyembryoni( seedlings have essential-
ly the same characteristics as the parent tree. The large nun-
ber of varieties found iln Floida at the present time can he
largely attributed to the fact that the Indian mangos do not
come true to seed and therefore every seedling tree which is
not later grafted produces a different type of fruit.
It is believed that the earliest introduction of the mango
into Florida was made iln 183: by Henry Perrine. Un fortunate-
Iy these trees died from nIeglect following Perrine's death.


hi 18il1 or 1862 a second and successful attempt was Ilade to
introduce the mango into Florida. At tlat time I)Dr. Fletcher
planted some mango seeds on the south side of the Miami
River. One of these trees is believed to be the parent of
the so called "No. 11 mango" of southeast Florida and is the
first mango tree to have borne fruit in this state (40). About
1(i68 another successful planting of seed was made by Barnes
and 'Faulkner in a hammock south of Coconut Grove. These
trees were of the turpentine type and were probably the
parents of some of our turpentine mangos now so commonly
grown on the lower east coast. During the following years,
numerous other trees were grown successfully from seeds
introduced into Florida.
The first successful introduction of grafted Indian vari-
eties was made in 1889 by the United States Department of
Agriculture (40). Among these grafted trees was the lMul-
goba which was planted in Lake Worth by Professor Gale.
Captain Haden obtained seeds from this original Mulgoba
which lie planted in Coconut Grove. One of these seedling
trees which produced fruit of outstanding quality was named
the IIaden.
The subsequent history pertaining to the derivation of
tle numerous commercial varieties grown in Florida is dis-
cussed in the varietal section.

The mango belongs to the family Anaeardiaceae to which
also belong a great number of plants growing in the tropics.
Among tle more commonly known relatives are the cashew
(Anacardium occidental, Linn.); the pistachio nut (Pistacia
vera, Linn.); poison ivy (Rhus toxicodendron, Linn.); Poison-
wood (Mctopium toxifcrumi (L.) Krug & Urban.).
Cultivated mangos are considered as belonging to a single
species, Magnifera indica, Linn. Popenoe (24) states that
certain botanists point out that other species may have en-
tered into the composition of culivated forms. This species
has been in cultivation since such remote times that its exact
origin is lost in antiquity. It has been considered by the best
authorities to be indigenous to the Himalayan foothills of
eastern India, extending possibly through Burma, into the
Malayan region.
The tree is evergreen and on rich deep soils attains a tre-
mendous size. Grafted Haden trees planted 45 feet apart have
been seen to meet at the center of the row after 20 years. One
large Mulgoba, near Estero, Florida, about 30 years old, was
easily 60 feet tall and two-thirds of that in circumference.


Trees believed to be more than a hundred years old are com-
mon in Ilie Orient. In Florida few real old trees are seen, due
to their relatively recent introduction.
The tree shape is varied (Fig. 1) (Fig. 2) from low
round-headed types, such as the turpentine, lo tall more or
less slender types, such as No. 11. Among the grafted varieties
some such as the Brooks do not, make the vigorous tree growth
found in the IIaden and 1Mulgoba. The leaves are oblong,


Fig. 1-Saigon type in fruit-showing low round head with large leaves.

laneolate to elliptic in shape, (-16 inches long, variable in
breadth, deep green with a leathery texture; the margins are
sometimes undulate with the apex commonly acute; petiole is
1 to 4 inches long, swollen at the base. When the leaves are
crushed they emit an ordor of turl)entine, more pronounced in
some varieties than in others.
Growth is not continuous but is in periodic flushes, from
a few inches to a foot long. from the terminal buds of the
young branches. These flushes are at first a purplish-red
gradually fading to green, as the leaves mature.
The flowers are born in large panicles at or toward the
ends of the branchlets (Fig. 3). They are small, pinkish
white and each panicle holds 1500 or more flowers. These are
not all capable of setting fruit, as the mango produces two
kinds of flowers; perl'eet, with both stamens and pistils, and


he 'l' perfect fl owercs nhe easily distin.gulished by the small
pvell wish ',reein ove ary on the central lisk. In Florida. bhlooiis
Ill .y ; 'ii ipl r f'r iif l II i- h ii Ir to .\lA ril. i O lft' if i' a il earli
bloom liot's inol selt a good cro) a second oir evena third blootlt
Ilim y iiappeari l .at',i. 1This is ll tl' ol'ten o r lled y thl weaths r. i...
v'irm teim perat1lre alnd soilli raiin will o'ftI lli lhrw o(ut all otliher
'lHush ofi' bloon. U'sn. lly tlh- best set ol' fruit o, n tilh- ~ 'raftl l
va ri.tits in Flhrida is on tshi e -airlier l ,IIIm.
The fruit varies iln .-izt- fromn larg- plumnis to :: or 4 pounds:
in shape from the flat tomato of Ilaiinari;a to thol long slihdr
(' Color is variable with lle varily--hlowever the Saigon
|ype)s are m'ior, yellowish' gree. n ill color. as a whole. than lthel
brihlt r1.-dii-lhirked Indian types \with their brilliaint yellow
hu.kgrouinds., lruit, in tho o]p)en sinlihlit usually is
111ort l brilliant in color tlian o lth-rs on tlle inside of the s1114
trrc. The alrlomn of' the I'ruit is ol'ften spicy and alluring. The
flesh is yellow -to deep oran,,e. juir'.Y, with s cllius, oftl'l Iw'inir
very fibrou s and the bh-st varietiesis ling almost fil)rehles and
i'ltini_, in tixt-ure. The flavor is rilh. luscious and semi-spicy

Fig. 2.-Young tree of Haden variety in fruit (six years old). Note
spreading broad shapo.


in the best varieties. A few varieties are tart, and some
rather tasteless. The better types are considered as compara-
ble to the best quality peaches. In seedlings there is often an
objectionable turpentine flavor which combined with the fibre
often present makes these "turpentine seedlings" not popular.
These objectionable features are absent in the best varieties.
'The seed is relatively large and flattened. The tough woody
outer coat contains a large kernel.


Fig. 3-Mango bloom panicles with flowers opening.

The unfruitfulness of the Haden variety of mango has
been the subject for much study and discussion through the
years since it was first propagated. Its erratic bearing habits
have done much to impede thile large scale commercial plant-
ings of minangos. And, yet, if it were not for the beautiful
delicious Haden it is doubtful if mangos in the American mar-
ket would have the demand and sale as they have at the pres-
ent time. Some writers (23) attribute shy bearing among
mangos to nutritional conditions especially as influenced by
changes in soil moisture and food supply. Also a dry season
during the blooming period is essential. However, it was felt
that loss of crop through inadequate pollination was relatively
~ b-Nt,.

-" tz-J *S'

r~3 !4g40kV'
~ W 4

that, loss of crop di roughl inaclemluat e pollination u-as relativel?'


unimportant from a practical standpoint. Ruehle and Lynch
(27) in 1939 evaluated past literature with the then current
observations on plantings in Florida felt that there was some
influence of pollen on fruitfulness. Also that "seedlings of
the 'turpentine' and 'apple' groups, and seedlings or budded
varieties of the Saigon race are apparently more effective
than grafted varieties of the Sandersha or Mulgoba groups".
in effecting pollination on the Haden.
After making some twelve (14) thousand hand pollina-
tions on the IIaden. Young (43) could find no significant dif-
ference between the set from cross pollination and self polli-
nation. Germination studies showed that Haden pollen was

Fig. 4-Haden mango tree in full bloom.

as vigorous and viable as any of the several others tested
(Fig. 4). By observing the set of fruit on natural pollinated
panicles it is indicated that pollen transfer is very light under
natural conditions. Observations under normal grove condi-
tions indicate that natural pollination does not occur on over
10-12% of the perfect flowers. There is a need for more effi-
cient pollen transfer. Bees, some flies and thrips are appar-
ently effective in self pollination.
Also from this study there was no evidence that internal
nutritional factors and moisture were a primary cause of lack
of fruitfulness in Haden. l)egeneration in the egg apparatus
was found to be wide-spread in Haden as well as in heavy


fruiting Saigon types and "turpentine" seedlings. However,
as Haden is Imonoembryonie it is absolutely necessary for the
sexual embryo to develop to produce fruit-except for the
occasional, poor quality seedless "nubbin". The Saigons and
'turpentine" seedlings produced polycmbryonic seeds. Per-
haps these do not depend on pollination for seed formation.
('handler (4) adds a further thought about the strong ten-
deney for the panicle stem to be partially abscised at its base
unless several fruit are attached to it. possibly supplying sub-
stances that tend to oppose abscission.
In Florida. the IIaden variety will develop a good crop of
normal fruit if seed is forming normally when the fruits

Fig. 5-Small Haden mango fruits set with normal developing seeds.
are V2 to 34 inch in diameter (Fig. 5). This can be determined
by cutting open the fruit with a pen knife. If the forming seed
fills the cavity it is developing normally. Most of the newer
Florida produced varieties normally set fair to good crops
each year and although they are mostly monoembryonic form
seed regular. There is reason to believe that they exhibit
less embryo abortion than erratic bearers such as HaIden.
Brooks sets a prodigious crop one year and none or practically
none the next. The light crop cannot be traced to lack of polli-
nation but seems to be due to lack of bloom itself.



Reproduction of mango trees in Florida has followed a
varied cycle in the half century it has been practiced asexu-
ally (by vegetative means such as budding, cutting, etc.). The
earliest method used was inarching which had been used
since ancient times in India. However, this is slow, limited
in volume and by the use of a framework and the amount of
extra work involved makes the tree produced fairly costly.
Shield budding has been used to a degree but as a result of
the low percentage of takes it became rather unpopular. The
side-veneer graft was employed in Florida using the vigorous
plump terminal bud as a cion. This has become quite the
easiest and surest of nursery reproduction and is most widely
used. Chip budding or sonic variation thereof is a method now
being employed in the larger nurseries in the state. This
method produces salable trees within one year from seed
planting, which saves from one to two years time over general
nursery methods.
Rootstocks for mangos have usually been from tlhe most
available seed. Most nurserymen use turpentine seedlings or
apple seedlings. Some of the Indian types such as Haden.
Amini or Paheri are also used. especially on the west coast of
the state. Many people like the monoembryonic type as they
consider the sprout more vigorous when young. No. 11 is fall-
ing into disfavor somewhat as the bark of even young seed-
lings tends to be rough and uneven. Practically no organized
research has as yet been completed on rootstocks for mangos
so the stock used is usually that seed which gives a good
husky sprout and which is reasonable in cost. There has been
some thought and evidence that the Saigon seedlings have a
dwarfing effect if used as stocks but this had not been definite-
ly established.
The preparation of mango seeds for stock plants is impor-
tant. The husk is removed by cutting along one suture, be-
ing careful not to injure the seed. The hulled seed is placed
in a sprouting media such as peat. sawdust or other friable
material, with the convex edge upward and about one-half
inch below the surface. The seeds should be replanted in
pots, tubs or in the nursey row, as soon as they show viability
by putting out a short (one inch or less) root or plumule

lBudwood must be either prepared or by chance a few
sticks may be found with swelling buds. The budwood is
prepared by choosing terminals that have hardened or are in
the last stages of pink stem. from y4 to /8 inch in diameter
(larger wood gives too large a shield). Cut off the leaf peti-


oles to about /a ineh, leaving 2 or 3 leaves at tilt teriniudal. It'
the tree is in good growing condition. thie hlul eyes will be
swelled. ready for use in 2 to :1 weeks. If the buds are to be
used oni stocJks older than : weeks. I lte bud st iks should he
ringed through the bark by removal Iof a ring of bark below
the budwood area about 10 days befl'ore cuttingg off the peti-
oles. If the trees are hard, iani applieatioli of a high init ro-gen
fertilizer is advisable. Eacilh bud stick will give 5 to S liids
and a; tip whiiheli eaii be sidleglrafted.
Thie ae otf the stock is very ilmportaiit on two cl ouints
l'Fi. 6). First, if it is used in tlle SlIuclclent red st;ae. whiCel
is 2 or '3 weeks old the Iud mioriality rate is very low. Second,
within 4 to 6 weeks from buidilin th lit eyes w\ ill spring.
The high ei'rcentiut'e of union is no doubt die 'to t lie
stock tissue being partially uniidiffereiiliiated and there is a

Fig. 6-Mango rootstock-2 wooks old on right, 5 wooks old on left.


brliode;lr rlillnilil or growing iarea. Thle sp)ringiing lof tile eyes
ia111 l*i' (liue in ll)art to tlie lieavy anl(I steady supply of( IoodI
f'roi(l the votyledons. The tIypie of uiid used oni this aiie stock
i, a hiip bud with Iloni_ l' i to 2", shiild Fi'. 7 Thl
front of tihe shield below thei eve is util off throuii'lih tlih bark.
leaviiin exposed thie eaiilillil area. The v'ion is ii.serted like a
side grait'l into a deep sllantin i ciil iito tle stock exteililing
ioriz niitallv. alho niit one-thiird tlroui tI, stiin and about 2


Fig. 7-Modified chip bud roady for insertion into prepared 2 weeks
old stock.

inches deep. A strip of vinyl film (.003i): inichies thick and
about !/2 inch wide is overwrapped in a shingle-like iilnnuner
(l'ig. 8.) to completely cover tl( blud whelii eyeibuddiiig iiue-
thliods ai' used. (20) To 'inishli thelie wIrappinig procedilre tlhe
nid of tlie strip is under-looped and pulled tightly to hold
tlihe bud or graftt in place. The film allows the carbon dioxide
to diffuse out but retains tile moisture next the bud thus
facilitating union of thle tissues. Regular watering and an ap-
plicatlioli o( starter solution or ill applictiiioni of a mild forti-


lizer to the plant at this time is a good practice. In two weeks
the vinyl film may be removed and it can be determined if a
union has been made After another week the stock can be
cut back to 2 or 3 leaves and a final pruning-back of the stock

iHKJ i

Fig. 8-Overwrapping mango grafts with 0.0035 inch vinyl film strips.
LEFT, side-veneer graft in nursery tree (also used with eyebud-
ing, except bud eye is completely covered.) RIGHT, topworking
4 inch stump.
to the upper edge of the bud may be made when the bud sprout
is 3 to 4 inches long. It may be added, that the cion tips
from each bud stick mentioned above can be sidegrafted
into these succulent stocks with the same success as the bud
eyes. In most cases these tips will spring forth with more
vigor than the bud eyes.
Mango stocks over 4 weeks old have stems on which the
bark is green with a well-defined cambium and a cortical re-
gion showing signs of woodiness. The first flush of leaves
have lost their reddish color and are maturing. At this stage,
a slightly different type of bud is used from the foregoing
and the stock preparation does not have as deep an incision
(Fig. 10). Also, the chip of the bark and wood is removed
from the stock by a downward 45 cut at the joint which will
be the bottom of the exposed cambial area. A typical chip bud
is cut of a size and shape to fit the prepared stocks. The bot-
tom edge of the shield is cut at a 45 slant to match that on
the stock. The bud is placed in position, and wrapped with
vinyl film.


Fig. 9-Topworking mango trees by use of terminal graftwood
and side-veneer graft.

Unwrapping procedure is the same as for the modified chip
bud described above except that the top of the stock is often
cut back gradually over a period until springing of the buds

The season for budding is directly correlated with the
availability of seed. If the crop is early, budding may be
started correspondingly early and continue thru the summer
as long as the seeds are available. This means an average
season of about three months for propagation by the above
discussed methods.

Veneer-grafting (Fig. S & 11) can be used on stocks from
2 to 22 inches in diameter (1 year or older) and for top-
working (21). The work may be done at any time from April
to September, but the best results are obtained during May,
June and July. The stock should be just breaking into a new
flush of growth at the time of grafting. To induce a
flush of growth, should the weather be adverse for tree growth
at the season one wishes to graft, give each plant one pint of a
solution containing one ounce of nitrate of soda or sulfate of
lliinonia iln a gallon of water, about tell days before grafting.





v I' i

Fig. 10-Chip bud, bud-stick and 5 week old stock of mango ready for
bud insertion.

The condition of the cion is very important. Thi' eiolls should
he terminaiil. three to fo1'ur inches loon. :3's to '/2 inIIh in
diameter. from well mat uired growth on which the buds ;re
starting to swell preparatory to a flush otf growth. The buds
should le swollen but not. sprung. A large temiinal bud on
the (ioll is prel'eIr'd. The leaves are ent oil' the cion wood
leaving very short petioles 1/S to 1/4 inch in length. A slanting
cut about two inclies long is inade in tile side of tile stock so
lhat at lthe bottomii the 'llt i Ili to, 1 inch ini depth. An
oblique ioll at the base of tlhe large Vill allows the piece of hark
and wood to bh rem-oved. The base of' thfle vion is illi off




:~r ~i3

oblliquely. Indl a piece t'of llrk andI woo' d on tile longest side is
remo'loved( to 'correspolnd with the I'ut in tlhe sl ok. The little
tongulle onl the base of thlevio fis into te ob' nlique slot ;it tilhe
l eInr d It ofi th- -lit (ll til- stock. Thusl. t Ie. lon ,e t surfan es
-If both tihe.- t tlk and vion are placed fael-. ) fatte with the
injilir edt.ges iof a blark matching. Th'lie graft is wraipeId s'nuIgly
will a strip) of 0.0()(35 inch villn l filim in i shingleg-likle Iimailiier
Sl'ie-. leaving the terminalilll blld exposed. W heln tl li gr l'l ihas
llak ln. ;is IllIay v ), Sel'l ill th!'irr ,r fo, ir w reks. ,uit l -Ia -k Ill,
T,]q third of thit s.tock. Twi we ks latter. <-lt ioff ;anii the. r third
,f tihe stick ulld after tIwo, mlor weeks- rt'liliove tll rllemainder
,if tIll stork bI)y ;I sillil ly ti lli t riosr to tile sp)rIu so thatll lth,
i illus formed al tle tihlionl will eover hlli cut surfl'i e.


Shield building (Fig. 121 liis been used for \'veas in coim-
imer'.ial iimani nuriiiiseries and for lopiworkingl laIIILr trei's whici'h
have.' l.ell hueal',el ;l-k ;anid allwed til dileelop new sprl.:ut-.

The following _i methld of shield budding differs very little
trmin standard shield )uihlintg 'l'The stock should be from 1./
l to inlch in diaiiieler with the iiairk 'green ill color. Shiield
iiulding. s s liliit slu(eossl'ul (on I yevar-old stocks wNhiuih have
.lliff*.red noi s.tiaeks in irowttl. A.t thle timlli of huldiii.', the
'to,'k plaint shoilhl lhe at Ith very Iit inning, i of a tishi oft
"row'll. wilih normally o..curs ill Ma*yv o Junile. lids should
, ( t 1 '1 '1I (,l'ldor llt woo(d of sillirll' size/ ill (n ()lor to tIlial
ol' tIhe stock inll which the buds are to) be inserted. This type.
of wood is f'oiid inll tile next to last flushnl of Lrow'th.
The leaves slhoullId be removed from tlle selected cions while
they are still on the plnrl't-lt tree about two weeks before the
budding operaltiol. This allows lhe leaf scars to heal before
li hIbldwood is used.

The bud should lhl e (eilt with a shield 1%/ to 2 inelies lonul
and 'are should bte taken that a plump "'eye" is chosen. Insert
lhe bud well iup into the vertical .ult of the inverted T so that
it is held tilitly to lhe \wood of Ihe stock. Trim olff the lower
raised corners of the bark of the stock so thai the lower end
of tlihe shield is setting in an inverted V opening. Wrap as tlihe
chip hud. Wh(en ls le 1ud has taken. as ma"y be seen in three
ior fI',or weeks. ('lit back the stock as described under veneer-
'ra ft ing.


Inarching i 'ii..-. 13) is tilhe simplest and easiest method of
propagating mtingos front tlhe standpoint ofl the grafting oper-




'ig. 11-Veneer-grafting. A, cion; B, stock
rith chip removed; C, cion in place on

'ig. 12-Shield budding. A, bud; B, stock
vith inverted T cut through bark; C, bud
inserted under bark of stock.

Fig. 13-Inarching. A and B, cion and
stock with bark and wood chips of iden-
tical size removed from each; C, cion and
stock with cut surfaces together.

Fig. 14-Cleft-grafting. A, cion; B, cions
inserted in clefted stock.

wv 1i


nation itself. It consists of bringing together the stock and
cion while both are growing on their own roots. This method
is being superseded by veneer-grafting and budding in nur-
sery propagation due to tile extra work and expense.

Inarching is done on pot-grown seedling stocks of any
size. but usually of a diameter of Y to V2 inch. A scaffolding
must be constructed around the cion tree to support the stock
plants. The selected cion should be of the same diameter as
the stock. A slice, two to three inches long and deep enough
to expose the cambium (the thin layer of cells between the
bark and the wood), is cut from the side of the chosen cion.
A slice of similar size is cut from the stem of the young seed-
ling. The two cut surfaces are bound together with soft
twine or budding cloth. In six to eight weeks a union should
be formed. The cion is then severed from the parent tree just
below the union and the stock is cut off just above it. leaving
the small branch growing on the stock. The potted stock must
be regularly watered while the union is taking place.


Topworking of large mango trees to a more desirable
variety has not reached the general practice which prevails
wilh avocados. There are several general methods which can he
employed. The most conservative method. but the one which re-
quires longer to change over tlie top to another variety, is to
prune back the branches of the tree to within a foot or so of
the Imainl trunk. This is done( in ihe late fall or winter. If bright
sun prevails, a coat of whitewash over the trunk will prevent
sunscald. The strongest shoots that issue from the cut-back
branches are shield budded or veneer-grafted in May, June or
July, and treated as described under nursery propagation. A
few of the weaker branches are sometimes left at the time of
dehorning to provide a shade until the new top is established.

Another method, recently described (21). employs the use
of the side-veneer-graft onto stumps up to 3 to 4 inicles in
diamiler (Fig. 9) or a bar'k-graft on larger stumps (Fig. 8)
using terminal cions. They are wrapped with strips of 0.0035
inch vinyl film which is left in place for 6 to 8 weeks. When
the shoot. which makes very rapid growth. reaches 8 to 10
inches the terminal bud should be pinched out to force branch-
ing. A variation of side-veneer grafting in topworking can be
employed on small stocks by not cutting off the stock limbs
until tlie graft has sprung. This last method is usually used
on limbs 2 inches in diameter or less.
Occasionally mangos caln e topworked by the use of the
eleft-graft (Fig. 14). This is not a method for the beginner


and should be attempted only by one well versed in mango
grafting. (left-grafts airc worked into either the main trunk
or, if a spreading tree. into the larger branches. The le lt is
sawed with a handsaw and the inside edges of the left trim-
med smooth with a knife. A hardwood wedge is used to force
the clelf for the insertion of the terminal cion.
The stock tree shliold be ready to start growth. The cions 6
to 8 inches long and about .V2 inch in diameter, should he from
the next to last growth and possess if possible a good ring of
swollen buds. Allow only a light pressure to hold the (ionis in
place. Cover all cut surfaces and fill the cleft cut with melted


The mango is limited to the more tropical portion of
Florida by its tenderness to cold. Young trees up to four
years of age may he killed at temperatures of 29W to 30" F.
olderr trees will withstand a few degrees colder but only if
they are dormant and 1hen considerable leaf and limh dam-
age may result. The east coast of Florida, from Stuart south,
and the west coast. froti the Pinellas peninsula south, are the
most suitable areas. However, tlie southern portions of these
areas are lle best 1(t consider from the coimml('reial viewpoint.
Some sheltered or projected areas, especially on lake shores,
ofler possible mango sites in the South Central Florida ridge
section. However, these are limited. Artificial heat can be
used to protect the foliage or bloom on young trees but it
freiqentlvy fails to pIrevent injury. Rueile (:30) states that
added protection to this area may be provided by lying
bundles of dried grass or straw around the trunks, fro tlihe
ground line to the main framework branches. The wrapping
material should be 2 to 3 inches thick and bound tightly to
the trunk. Trees should he wrapped before frost danger
threatens and the wrappings removed as soon as the frost
danger period has passed in the spring.

The consensus of opinion of most mango growers and stu-
dents of mango fruit setting is tiat it is best to have a dry
period of low humidity y at thle time of bloom. As we clmnnot
at present control these conditions, the problem is of only aca-
demic iilmportance.


The mango is not exacting in its soil requirements and
ill Florida appears to thrive on a wide variety of soils. On tilhe


lower west coast, where the soils are a deep sandy loam, the
trees become huge. This holds true in tile central ridge sec-
tion of the state. However, the trees flourish on light sandy
soils of the lower east coast as well as the Rockdale series
oolitic limestone soils of Dade County if properly fertilized.
In general, commercial culture of mangos is successful from
about Palm Beach on the east coast, and Bradenton on the
west coast down to the tip of the state. Even though it has
this wide tolerance as to soil types it requires adequate drain-
age. It will grow but not Ie prolific if the drainage is poor.


Mango trees should be allowed about 1000 square feet per
tree. This brings the planting distance from 30 to 35 feet
apart. Some of the less vigorous growers such as Brooks,
Cecil or Zill will not fill this area within .eight or ten years.
It is desirable to allow for some space between the trees for
spraying, picking and general cultivation practices. Some few
groves are set on 45 to 50 ft. centers, resulting in a waste of
space, especially in the first ten to fifteen years of their life,
that could well be producing extra fruit per acre by closer
planting. The occasional hurricanes which are suffered in the
southern part of the state help keep the trees pruned back
so as not to exceed greatly the 1000 square foot area.
Trees are planted from the nursery at two general sizes
in commercial practice. One year old grafts are planted from
cans or tar paper pots and two year old tops from five gallon
cans or from nursery row growing. The latter should be con-
ditioned by root pruning about ten days or two weeks before
planting with some cutting back of small limbs. They should
then be lifted with a hall of earth around the roots held in
place with burlap. Trees planted from containers should have
the container removed without disturbing the root system
and need not be leaf pruned. However, they should be hard-
cued by exposure to full sunlight at least two weeks before
planting if they have been shade or semi-shade grown.
The land to be planted should be cleared at least a few
weeks before planting. Sandy loam or deep soils should be
plowed and disked. Rockdale series limestone soils should be
scarified and grooved or ditched down the tree rows to afford
a depth of broken material in which to plant and to allow
the tree to set some anchor roots.
After the land is staked and ready for planting, a planting
hole is prepared large enough to easily accommodate the root
system of the tree being planted., Before setting the tree,
some organic manure can be worked into the soil around the


inside of the hole. This can be either well rotted barn yard
manure or compost of some of the bagged materials such as
dried sleep manure. As a caution, do not use large amounts
of compost. peat. muck or manure in the tree hole for as this
decomposes it leaves air pockets which can he very harmful to
the roots in future years. Use a planting level so that the tree
will be set in the hole at the same level or even an inch higher
than its level in the nursery row or container. Use the crown
(the juncture of trunk and soil level) of the plant as a guide.
A ten foot 1 x 4 witi 12 inch legs on each end and a 10 or 11
inch leg in the middle makes a fine planting level. Pack the
soil firmly around the root system using generous amounts of
water (5 to 15 gallons per tree) so that no air pockets remain.
When the hole is completely filled, a basin is made about the
tree for water. Two or three handfuls of activated sewage
sludge scattered over the basin area starts a rapidly available
nitrogen supply. Following this a heavy mulch of straw,
grass, weeds or wood shavings should be applied over the new
root area. This will cut down the amount of watering neces-
sary and keep the heating sun from scalding the roots. The
mulch should be removed at times of frost as it keeps radiant
heat from holding up tihe ground temperature and allows for
easier frost injury tihrn on bare soil.
Mango trees can actually he transplanted at any time of
the year in Florida. The most desirable time from the view-
point of economy of watering and ease of establishing the new
trees is in the spring (March to June) which usually just
precedes the rainy season.

Fertilizing nursery trees is done with tihe object of forcing
a continuous vegetative growth. The plants are either in
small containers wilhi a limited root system or in nursery
rows in which the root system is also somewhat limited due
to the closeness of the trees. IFertilizer should be applied
every three or four weeks and the tree watered frequently. A
grower type mixture of a 4-9-3 formula witli about 25 to 30%/
of the nitrogen from organic sources is satisfactory. If the
soil in which the trees are growing is heavy or if it contains
ample quantities of peat or muck. some of tlie popular clhemi-
cal mixes which analyze about 5-5-5 may he used. For trees
growing in gallon containers or their equivalent about one
quarter ounce per application is sufficient. Trees in larger
containers and those in the nursery row can utilize somewhat
larger amounts scattered over the root area. It is advisable
to have one to two units of water soluble magnesium in the
mixtures as this element is often deficient in the soil (31).
Zinc and Ima liganese are also llsuallyl defiieint in the nulrsery
trees so tlie copper fullngicidal sprays which are applied several


times during tile year should be fortified with about 2 Ibs.
zinc sulfate. 2 Ibs. manganese sulfate and 2 lbs. hydrated lime
per 100 IgLallons of water. For the regular application of fun-
gicide for fungus control. 2 lbs. of tri-lbasic copper sulfate (or
the equivalent in some other form of basic copper) to 100
gallons of water is adequate (31).
The first two to three years after the planting of the trees
are critical inl tie producing of a successful grove. If the
grove is on freshly searified limestone soil. it should receive
fromi 5)0) to I(00 pounds per acre of superphosphate. If the
soil is sandy and a strongly acid reaction, it is desirable to
make a broadcast application of dolomite at 1000 to.2000
pounds per acre and worked in at time of planting.
The mixture for use on the trees these first few years
should be about 4'; nitrogen, 7 to 9'r phosphoric acid. 3 to
5r' potash and 2%r magnesium with the nitrogen about
30r;. derived from natural organic. On alkaline marl soils one
1to two per cent manganese should be used. On tlhe heaviest
Iluck soils, the nitrogen can be cut to half or less. Within
three to four weeks after planting tle trees should be given
an application of about Y2 lb. of fertilizer distributed evenly
over tihe root area. It should be applied every month thereafter
during the first year except during thlie winter months when
once. every two m1ontlhs is adequate. The amount of fertilizer
per appllieation should be increased gradually to about one
pound by tile end of the first year.
During thle second and third years, th(e time of applica-
tion may be increased to 2 monhli intervals and tle amount
increased to 3 I s. at tlie end of tlie second year and to 4 to 5
Ibs. at lhe end off the third year.
The remainder of the minor elements can be applied in 2 or
: spray applications during each year. As copper sprays are
usually a applied this often for fungus control. lie addition of'
2 lhs. zinc sult'ate. 2 lbs. manganese sulfate ;and 2 lbs. hydrat-
edl lime to tie 11)0 gallons of spray is sufficient. If only one
cI 'lper spray is applied the zinc. manganese and linli added
shIotl be double the amount given above.
The young mango trees are usually allowed to bear the
fourth year. Previous to this. the young fruits which set are
vpilI'ld off except for an o-casional one 1for homeit use. Very
little is known about fertilizing, bearing mango trees for fruit
production that can be backed up by experimental results.
hlany of' tlie recomiineidalions are based on general practice
or on conjecture based on flower bud differentiation. Ruehle
8:1l at the 1949 'Mango Forum offtertd recomme:laltions for
in Ii,,s .rowing on Rockdale series limestone soils and east
anil west coast sandy soils. IlBrought f11) to date they are
roughly as follows:


Pre-bloomil applichlion-Tinled wlhem lith bloom p';ihls
l)i-iin to eloilngate iidl a bloom is assiiued. Apply lUiiicklyl
available it or nitror oI t i igell aid p)ot:isli he:nriiil iIt;!-
tcrlials sI'1 1 i ..- lt'f t of alll o i;a .2(il l.'5-0-1l i'r lIIIIll
*42-)0-0I. nitlralitv t suioa-Ipota~h 15-'1-14, or ai mixed lt;Ip-
dresser (10-0-10 or a similar a;nIlysis) iln alloiiulls sufliiiient
to supply to oahell' tree about 1/10 lI). orf nitrogen for neh yil 'r
ot age of' Ill treeo. ''Tis should be tfoll()owd liy a light irrig.atiol
to make it available to the tree.
Spring application -Tinted three to four weeks afl'ter ili
l)re-blooii application. Apply a coim'pl'et mixt ii'e analyzing
5 o"r li nitro'Cen. 4 to (i; phoslphoric a id. i 1to /; p itlish,
and :3; inagm llesiumi. with 25 to :30)' of the nitrogen derived
from natural or'iaili sollurces,. it ilt, rilll t ; ilomllt I ]1. per
Ilre1- l for ea;il' year of ;age of ithe Ire,. T'Ilo f(,oiiula should i)
,niditoied to fit llhe needs of individual soils. Unless rains oe-
ciur iUimmi diately lftler tlie (dist ribuit ioi ol, the te'ltilizer, irrig;i-
tion sliouild 1I)( prlit ice(d to mIake t le fertilizer av\';ilable to the
t ree.
Suiiilllr ;pl;lplienllll-Timd at tl[he. bei'.ilnin o ll. f the rainyl
s.-;soni or fromin t11 l;atler p;iar itof May to .Jlini 15. Apply a
ilixliire sim ilar to tlhel ol e ppl'id in thi spring alpplic liol.
btil with 40 to 50 '. ot tihe nitroein derived froi'm tll natural
-or,.liale sNiireos. If little, Iew slioot givowtli followed the spring
appli.eatiion of fertilizer. thel su1lline'r ;ipplieatioun slhouhtl be
;i lI ;ivyv in ve'0ll ;s m Ilill i., 5. to1 .5i rI' Imilore.
Whtei tl li trees nature ;i goold rop) of fruiil ;nl andSl pecilly
if' tiiere has hi'en a wet\ sillinller ;and fll to lielw l iaeli out the
imaIjor lilaint foods.m it isK i, irable to apply ia fall ( Slleplinlier
or- OItolilr a.pplieitiol ,>f fertilizer. 'l'lhi i mixture should
.lll;ain lbollt 'il : i i llil .' l i to '' phospho avric aiid. iG to '8%)
llpotishli ;iil ', lUiig wimhesi um i to 25"; 1 of the nitrogen
being deriv 'd I'loii litilliial orgllilic sl'ources. Thlis sho bild hIe
applied at ill Snlit, s ;lle nt as thel sprini~r a;ppli;t ionu.
The .opper. zinu illil ll;ll!';llnlu '1 re'llirll. llls a;ll bIe
r'ealily *'upplieil iln thile i ''-lilir .l';ii'a proi iiiii fl or tlihe u ntri l
Iof disi:isi's which will lie iii r, wil\v;l ;il a lietlioinm s. Zillo ;lunl
i ui;i nlg ius spr;iys in tlhe saiiie lmr portions mittuinlie o l :iliaove.
I'llre IiillTlll o hia. llt ;ih)ilit\v t i, iov .Ir ;il ilvy Ilr il a
loi,1 I-ridit oI nii i nniirihini ii 1\i pinr-op r frliliz,.r .ippli-;i-
lilis is vril)i ;lloi've. All liundirilnlu rishni Ii l'rli. will iwc;li-
siuihlliv silt aind iiilluir'e ;I 'Idu l ic ii j t oi I'iuitl, bllo t f t i ls i l-
Iirr lly li d l, l tha 4 o mlll I' lii ii I lll s i lecess wilt li this lie'- i pr>)
ithl it I 'r'iiltir. w il norirulluil l 'zre ilriz/ r fleuiit;iil is es-.illltia].
l'F furlith 'r Al l ils portm lbiiin ii tIli illir. ':;I rI" ,i'il, : is
of tli I Iiilm n i. tie reil 1er4 1 i i efrreid to the ipublili.; ions ofI ,
Iynch ( 1I) indl Smiilh i id SIuilh r (I:1i).


The mango, like many other tropical fruit trees, requires
little pruning. While the tree is young it is helpful to cut
off the limbs starting about 3 feet from the ground, in order
to form a well shaped crown. Dead wood should be cut out
as well as weakened branches, especially when they are being
shaded-out. With some varieties that form a dense head such
as IIaden. it is often helpful to prune out some of the branches
in the interior to admit light and air. This allows for better
color formation in the fruit as well as making it easier to
cover the fruit in anthracnose control spraying.

There is no experimental evidence to show the value or
lack of value of cover crops for mango trees in Florida. How-
ever, it is reasonable to assume that they would have the same
value with mangos as with citrus. They are of special value
during the first ten years of a tree's life when so inuch of the
ground is unshaded. Organic matter is needed in all of the
soils planted to mangos in the state, as well as a covering
blanket to protect the soil from the heat of the spring and
summer sun. A good stand of native weeds and grass or a
leguminous crop such as crotalaria. or white sweet clover is
of value. It is wise to consult your County Agricultural Agent
for the particular cover crop to select for your particular
type of soil. Also. inquiry should be made as to the need for
inoculants and fertilizers to be used with the cover crop for
best results. A good cover crop provides for ample material
to mulch around the trees.

'I'le mango grove can be greatly benefited by irrigation
especially if dry weather comes at a time when fruit has set.
At this time the water will help hold the fruit as well as carry
nutrients to the tree to develop and mature the crop. Irriga-
tion is also important at the time of pre-bloom fertilizing to
help force out a vigorous bloom. In Florida the months from
January to May are the most critical with respect to lack of
rain. If the bloom is early (December to January) and it ap-
pears that a good crop will set. there is no questioning the
value of irrigation should rain fail to fall. However with a
late bloom and prospects of a light crop, it is often uneco-
nomical to apply much water.

'The most comprehensive publication on this phase of mango
production is Mimeographed Report No. 13. Revised 1949, from


the Sub-Tropical Experiment Station, "l)iseases and Pests
of the Mango in Florida", by Ruehle and Wolfenbarger. Their
recommendations are largely reproduced here. with minor
revisions prepared by F. Gray B1utcher, Research Entomologist
at the University of Miami.

Dr. Ruehle says that the commonest and most widespread
fungus disease of the mango is anthracnose. It is caused by
the widely distributed fungus. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
The various manifestations of the disease include blossom
blight, leaf spot, fruit russetting or staining, and fruit rot.
Inflections on the bloom and setting fruits are often severe
and constitute an important phase of the disease. Injury from
the disease is closely dependent upon humidity, the prevalence
of rains or heavy dews during the critical period for infection
greatly increasing its incidence.
Infections on the flower panicle appear at first as minute
black spots which gradually enlarge and often coalesce to
cause the death of flowers either directly or indirectly by
invasion of the flower stalks. Blossom blight may vary in
severity from slight to complete involvement of the panicle
according to prevailing weather conditions.
Very young fruits also are affected frequently and seedless
fruits are extremely susceptible to early infection. Spots on
leaves are small, dark, circular or somewhat angular, and often
fall away giving the mature leaves a ragged appearance.
On nearly mature fruits, black spots of varied form, which
may be slightly sunken and show surface cracks, appear and
mav coalesce to cover large areas. These infections usually
penetrate deeply and either cause rotting of the fruit on the
tree or after it is harvested. Surface staining or russetting
may result from spores being washed down upon the fruit
from an infected twig or flower stalk.
The casual organism is one of the most widely distributed
fungi in Florida. It causes the well-known wither-tip of citrus
and a ripe rot of avocado, papaya, and other subtropical fruits.
It grows saprophytically and sporulates abundantly during
wet weather on dead twigs and leaves of many plants, includ-
ing the mango, avocado. and citrus species. The possibilities
for infection are great at all times. and all that is needed to
produce the disease in abundance is the presence of susceptible
tissue and a favorable period of moisture.
The widespread occurrence of the fungus on living as well
as on dead mango tissues and on other plants as well make it
impractical in commercial groves to attempt control of the
disease by pruning. Most of the infection takes place from
thl? beginning of the blossoming period until the fruits are


more than half grown. Reduction of anthracnose can be
brought about by maintaining a protective coating of fungi-
cide on susceptible parts during this critical period. Much
of the decay which develops on mature fruits has its inception
as latent infections occurring when the fruits are quite small.
These latent infections become active and serve as centers of
decay when the fruit approaches maturity. Even in rela-
tively dry seasons considerable latent infection may occur.
and spraying at intervals until the mangos are half grown will
increase the percentage of first grade fruit and prevent con-
siderable loss from decay in transit or storage.

Control of Anthracnose

Results of spraying experiments to date show that
blossom blight and anthracnose of the fruit can be controlled
effectively in most seasons by 5 or 6 applications of a copper
fungicide in groves where spraying is practiced annually.
They indicate furthermore that it is unnecessary to apply a
dormant spray in commercial groves that are sprayed annu-
ally. It is more practical to delay the first spraying until the
flower clusters have opened but before individual flowers have
The number ol bloom applications necessary for good con-
trol depends upon prevailing weather conditions and the uni-
formity with which the flower clusters open. They do not
all open simultaneously in the main bloom and in some seasons
lack of uniformity is more evident than in others. In some
seasons apparently independent of the variety, blossom pani-
cles open first on tlhe south side of the trees and may set con-
siderable fruit there before the panicles open on tile north
side. Usually bloom is produced but once during the year,
but sometimes two blooming periods occur, or occasionally
blooming may occur intermittently from late December until
April. It may be necessary in some seasons to apply only 2
bloom sprays, while in others 4 or more may be desirable or
spot spraying of irregular blooming trees must be resorted
to if all the blooms are to be protected.
Bordeaux mixture is the most reliable fungicide thus far
lTested for control of anthracnose. The (-6-100 formula (6
Ibs. bluestone, 6 lbs. hydrated lime, 100 gallons of water) is
recommended. Wettable Cuprocide at 1.5 lbs. to 100 gallons,
tri-basic copper sulfate (containing 53% metallic copper) at
3 lbs. to 100 gallons, Copper A compound at 4 lbs. to 100 gal-
lons, and other fixed copper fungicides will give nearly equal
control when substituted for Bordeaux mixture.
Rueble (32) recently compared the effectiveness of Man-
zate, Captan, and Bordeaux mixture for the control of anthrac-
nose on young IHale mango trees. He found that Captan at
3 lbs. per 100 gallons, and Zineb or Manzate at 1/2 lbs. per


100 gallons of water gave effective control for the in-the-bloom
applications. These compounds are unstable and break down
after 6 to 8 days on the plant, so should be used only for bloom
sprays. The use of these compounds promotes less scale in-
crease and causes less injury to open blossoms than does the
use of Bordeaux.
Whatever the fungicide selected, a wetting agent or
spreader-adhesive added to the spray aids in obtaining good
coverage of the susceptible tissues. Caution must be observed
in the use of liquid spreaders. Captan is not comparable with
some spreaders, and too much added in the spray increases
run-off of the fungicide. Usually the use of half the quantity
recommended by the manufacturer is sufficient for good re-
The following spray schedule is recommended for the
present until information can be secured from further experi-
1-First bloom spray to be applied when the first bloom
clusters have appeared but before individual flowers
have opened
2-Second bloom spray applied 7 days after No..1. Addi-
tional bloom sprays to be applied (if blossoming period
is extended) at 7-day intervals if necessary
3-Applied about 4 weeks after No. 1, if additional bloom
sprays are not made after No. 2
4--Three to 4 weeks after No. 3
5-One month after No. 4
This schedule applies to the first bloom which normally
is the main bloom and generally produces the more desirable
fruit. Changes in time of making applications may be ne-
cessitated by variations in seasonal conditions. Occasionally
the first bloom to appear is slight and sets little or no fruit.
in which case a second bloom may be heavy and produce the
main crop. When this occurs the spray schedule should be
shifted to apply to the later bloom. The first application in
the schedule should be applied thoroughly to all parts of the
tree top. Attention need be directed to covering only the
bloom panicles and fruits in later applications.

Discussing this disease, Dr. Ruehle states that mango seal
is caused by the fungus il.sinoe mangifcrae, was discovered
in Florida several years ago, and at approximately the same
time was reported from Brazil, Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the
Canal Zone. It is probable that this disease has been present
in Florida for a number of years prior to its discovery and


that some of its manifestations have been confused with
lint hracn ose.
The' fungus attacks young expanding tissues causing in-
fections on leaves, blossom panicles. twigs and fruits. Scab
symlptomis on some of tihe susceptible parts may be readily
confused with iithraellose. (On leaves the spots are smaller
tllia aint i raciose infections. The surface of tie le lsions on
young leaf tissue is olive drab to brown and covered will a
delicate velvety down. Severe attacks cause crinkling and
distortion of tle leaf. followed by premature shedding. On
older leaves tlie somewhat larger spots are grayish, surround-
ed by narrow dark borders and trequiently the centers wither
away leaving irregular shot holes. (trayisi, irregular blotches
are formed on the bark of stems. On I"young fruits the infee-
tions are grayish to ,grayish-brown with dark irregular mar-
gins. As thlie fruit enlarges tie spots enlarge also and tlie
centers may become covered with cracked and fi.ssured corkv
tissue. Spores of tlie fungus are produced on tlie fruit until
it reaches mnaturily. duringg moist periods tlie surface of
fruit scabs are covered witl a velvety. urayish brown cover-
ing of spores in contrast to lte pinkish spore-imasses exhibited
by antliraniiose under similar conditions.
Thus far in Florida. mango scab has beetin of Ilinor im-
Iortan ce in commercial groves, but is a serious disease in
mango nurseries. The spray schedule with copper fungicides
recommended for control of anthracnose will also control seal)
in bearing groves. .More freluelint spraying is necessary in
nIiurseries to obtain control.
The following pathogenic diseases. )Dr. Ruelile considers
111111 :

Powdery mildew caused by the fungus Oidium is recorded
as a serious disease in sollme countries but is a very minor
trouble in Florida. On leaves and fruits it. produces more or
less superficial scattered irregular blotches varying from i '
to 1 inch or more ill extent. The infected tissue has a pur-
plish cast and in early stages is generally sprinkled with a
white powdery fungus growth. It is more troublesome in
damp shady locations. Powdery mildew has never become
serious under grove conditions but. should it become so. it
should be readily controlled by weak copper fungicides or by
sulfur sprays or dusts.

Red rust caused by tile alga Ccphaleuros virescens is a
minor disease of the mango. The alga lives on the leaves as
an epiphyte where its presence causes little or no damage.
It may, however, attack the branches, causing bark lesions


one inch or more in diameter, where it becomes partially
parasitic. Its presence is readily recognized by the presence
of the rusty-red fruitifications of the alga on the surface of
the infected areas. Usually one copper spray applied during
the dry spring months will control the trouble.

A stem end rot of mature mango fruits often causes spoil-
age during transit and storage. The fruits become thoroughly
invaded and soured and the skin turns light brown to almost
black. The fungus most commonly associated with this type
of decay in Florida appears to be Diplodia natalensis, but Dia-
porlhe citri has also been isolated from fruits showing stem
end rot. Both fungi cause stem end rot of citrus fruits.
Contributing factors to the development of stem end rot
of mangos include storage in poorly ventilated and warm
rooms or cars, wrapping the fruit tightly in rubber plastic
wrappers and failure to adopt an adequate spraying program
for control of anthracnose. Direct methods of control of the
rot have not been developed and the problem requires investi-
gation. Some shippers report that washing the fruit in a
copper fungicidal suspension in water prior to wrapping and
packing the fruit for shipment apparently prevented develop-
ment of the decay in transit. Providing adequate ventilation
in cool storage rooms or in transit should prove beneficial.
There are several types of injury happening to mango trees
which are considered physiological in nature. Dr. Ruehle lists
them as follows with suggestions for their correction:

Tipburn is the term given to the dying back of the leaf tip
and adjacent edges toward the center, forming an irregular
area of dead, brown, dry tissue which may sometimes involve
as much as one-half the leaf area.
Salt spray and salt in the water used for overhead irriga-
tion causes one form of tipburn. The cause of tipburn has
not been definitely established in some cases observed, but is
thought to be induced by moisture deficiency, which may re-
sult from severe drouth, high salt concentration of soil, drying
winds or damage to the root system.

Mango trees suffering from zinc deficiency produce small.
recurved, thickened and stiff leaves which may or may not ex-
hibit more or less pronounced chlorosis. When long-standing
and severe, dying back of the ltwigs may occur and abnormal-
ities of the bloom panicle may be evident. Such trees rema-in
unthrifty and unproductive until the condition is corrected.


This is accomplished by applying zinc sulfate to the foliage as
a spray with suflicientl lime added for neutralization. The for-
inula recommended is 5 lbs. of zinc sulfate, 2.5 lbs. of hydrated
limie and 100 gallons of water. The zinc salt may be added
to bordeaux mixture without the addition of extra lime in one
of the anthricnose sprays. If the zinc salt is added to one
of the fixed coppers, it is advisable to add the lime to prevent
zinc burn. Correction of zinc deficiency is generally mani-
fested in the flush of growth following the application of a
single zinc spray. If the correction is not complete, a second
spraying with zinc may be necessary.
Copper deficiency symptoms frequently develop in young
trees forced into growth by heavy nitrogenous fertilization
and may accompany zinc deficiency symptoms. The appear-
ance of weak terminal shoots followed by defoliation and die-
back, on the ends of long drooping or S-shaped branches of
the preceding cycle of growth is usually evidence that copper
is needed. The remedy is to spray the foliage with a copper
fungicide. Prevention by periodic applications of nutritional
sprays containing copper and zinc is easier than correction.
Copper deficiency symptoms have not been observed on bear-
ing trees receiving copper sprays for control of anthracnose.


Various scale insects, a red spider mite, and the red-banded
thrips are the most common injurious insects attacking mango.
Among the scale insects, three armored scales and three soft
scales are commonly encoiunered. They are the Florida red
scale, lessor snow scale, the mango scale, the mango shield
scale. the tessalated scale and the Florida wax scale. All of
these scale insects feed by sucking sap from the plant, and
they generally tend to increase in abundance following the
use ol copper sprays. Some species, especially the mango shield
scale, produce an abundance of honeydew which serves as a
medium for growth of sooty mold fungi. Frequently, trees
become blackened as a result of the accumulation of sooty
mold. and its presence is a sure sign that scale insects are pre-
sent, and causing damage.
Oil emulsion is effective in the control of scale insects.
used at from 14 to 1-1 !:'I dilution. However. since oil is
frequently injurious to new plant growth, especially during
extreme high or low temperatures, many grove operators
use parathion for scale control. This is used at the rate of
I lb. of 15(' wetlable powder to 100 gallons of water. Caution
in the use of this highly poisonous material is essential.
Malathion. used at 4 lbs. of 25' wettable powder to 100 gal-
lons water. is also effective. especially against soft scales.
and is much safer to handle than parathion. With either


material, thorough coverage is essential, and repeated applica-
tions at about 60 day intervals may be necessary to clean up
severe infestations.

The red-banded thrips, Selenothrips rubrocinctus (Giard.).
frequently becomes a troublesome pest in mango nurseries and
groves, causing severe defoliation when infestations are heavy.
In feeding, this insect excretes over the surface of infested
leaves or fruits small spots of a reddish fluid, which harden
and turn rusty brown to black. The leaf or fruit surfaces at-
tacked also become darkly stained or russetted as a result of
thrips feeding.

Thrips are tiny elongated insects, but are readily visible
to the unaided eye. The adults are black in color, with in-
conspicuous reddish band across the center of the body and
the last abdominal segment. The wingless larvae are yellowish
with a more conspicuous red baud across the first three ab-
dominal segments. Materials used for scale control are ef-
fective against thrips. Benzene hexachloride, lindane or DDT
are also effective materials, using 1 to 2 lbs. of the commercial
wettable powders to 100 gallons of water, as per manufacturers
recommendations. DDT is objectionable because scale insects
will become more abundant following its use. If desired,
these materials may be added to nutritional or fungicidal
sprays that may be needed.

The avocado red spider mite, Paratetranychus yothersi (McG.)
and a related form, P. coiti McG., frequently attack mango
leaves during dry seasons, causing serious foliage injury.
These tiny spider-like forms feed on the upper leaf surfaces,
and the first indication of their presence is the development
of a dull pale green to reddish color, with a powdery appear-
ance on the leaves. They are readily controlled with ordinar-y
dusting sulfur, or with wettable sulfur spray, using 8 lbs. per
100 gallons of water, which may be combined with nutritional
or fungicidal sprays if necessary. Applications should be made
as soon as evidence of injury is observed.

Other insects attacking mango include the blossom anomala,
Anomala undulata Mels., a small dark colored beetle which


feeds on mango blossoms only at night. The blossoms are also
injured by tlhe larger, broad black colored flower beetle,
Euphoria sepulchralis Fab.. and by small caterpillars of various
moths. If these forms require control measures. benzene hexa-
chloride or linldaie are effective insecticides.
Thel broad mite. Hemitarsonemus latus (Banks), may develop
serious infestations in shady damp situations favorable to it.
These mites are nearly colorless, very short and broad of
form. but are so small as to be nearly invisible without a
hand lens or microscope. Syimpltoms of infestation include
crinkling or puckering of the terminal leaves, rolling of
thlie leaf margins, glazing of tlie leaf surfaces, and finally
defoliation as mite populations become heavier. Dusling
sulfur or wettable sulfur sprays provide effective control.
built very thorough coverage of lower leaf surfaces and re-
peated applications are necessary to control severe infestations.
A small brownish colored ambrosia beetle, Hypocryphalus
maniferac (Stebbing). has been found attacking mango trees
in different localities. This insect, about 1,'16 inch in length.
makes burrows or galleries in the tree trunks and branches.
It carries fungi into the galleries which spreads through-out
tlie tissue, causing wood stains, decay, and death of infested
branches. Such infested branches should le removed and
burned. and other nearby Iplanltingils sprayed with benzene


The time of maturity for llmangos in Florida extends from
thie middle of May to October. Some years. especially if an
early bloom has set, the first part of rMay fitds Ilie early
varieties such as Cecil or Cambodiana ready to harvest. But
this time of ripening is not consistent, and( results in tlie main
crop. comllosed mostly of IHadens. being picked before tlhy
are mature. lhese green fruit find their way to the markets
and spoil the sale of subsequent shipments of top quality fruit.
11 also causes a ldrop in price which often penalizes lthe more
et hical shipper.
The first fruits of the crop should not be picked until after
a color break is apparent. On the IIaden. this shows as a
yellow spot usually toward the blossom end. The harvesting
should be done every other day for the first two weeks of the
season. picking only fruit showing a light color break. After
lhis tim e the fruit -can be picked at will, as all the other fruits
i)o tile tree will mature with satisfactory quality. It is a
general practice to pick the larger fruits first, at these times,


with the supposition that the smaller fruits will increase
somewhat in size if left a few weeks longer. Silence the har-
vesting of the crop from a moderately loaded tree usually
takes from three to five weeks and sometimes can be extended
longer. This requires from five to ten pickings and thus in-
creases the cost of harvesting. Some of the newer seedlings
have a shorter maturity period and it is possible that more
accurate dates of maturity can be established for them. Some,
like Zill, can be picked at what appears a green stage and
still ripen without wrinkling of the skin and with good quality.
Some varieties, such as Springfels, requires ripening on the
tree to give full dessert quality. Also some of the late ma-
turing varieties, such as Smith and Brooks, are often picked
too soon and thus develop a bad name on the markets for poor
quality. If they were picked at full maturity, the quality
would be much better.

There are no laws of maturity for the mango and they
are badly needed. However, there must first be a method or
methods developed to determine maturity. IIarkness (7) and
Cobin (5) offer some possibilities along this line but most of
the work lies ahead. Sugar content, acid content, color tests.
specific gravity of the fruits and time of blooming all offer
potential means of establishing maturity either singly or in

Methods of picking arc generally the same throughout the
state. Long handled picking poles, with a canvas bag holding
a cutting knife at one end are standard equipment. When the
bag, which holds two to four fruit, is filled the pole must be
lowered to empty the fruit into a bucket or field crate. The
regular bushel size tomato field crate is used. There is much
improvement needed in the field of harvesting. Many fruits
are dropped and the bruises do not show until the fruits reach
the northern markets. Bruising also results from rough han-
dling, pouring from buckets into crates, throwing, poor field
crate construction with no padding, and a general all around
disregard for fruit quality in the average picking operation.
Some grove owners strive mightily to uphold picking practices
but these growers are yet in the minority.

Several encouraging improvements in harvesting methods
are evident. A picking platform attached to the front of a
grove tractor and raised and lowered by a hydraulic lift is
being used; lighter loading of field boxes; handling of fruit by
hand in the transferring rather than dumping; and more
careful supervision of the picking operation.

The harvest crop of mangos in Florida probably ap-
proaches 20,000 bushels on an "in" year when the crop is good


liith on tihe east cmiast and west coast. This rough estilmiate
l)rOl)~aly. drops to about 2.())( bushels when the crop is
light, or less if it is a failure. Mluch of the production is from
ldoorl'ard or small plantings. A survey of the manlgo trees in
Floriil, bi l)Dr. li. Iruri', Lediin as reportedly to the 1954 Mango
I'Forum ilnliatedl about 2.0()(l alre' of hearing and 2.110(1) a;res
Iof Ililll-l arinl'ilr (oilltercia~ l i t);lllillgs aldi albollt l .10)() arre,.
iullivalelnt of trees as d(oorvardl 'lThe slatl total at
the uend of 1954 would hbe between, 7.00() and S.000 .re.s of
m1an gos. A survey of thi' princilial jiniurseriTies grow\\in i man o
trees inldi.ates that tile tre>-s will lie shld at the rate of about
450 n. rirs iluivale.t in 1955.


Florida mangos are packed for shipment in lug boxes simi-
lar to those used for avocado. Both ventilated wooden and
ardloimard lugs are' used for lie- shipment of mangos. Figs.
15 & 11 The inside dimensions of the lug' loxes are as fol-
lo,-ws: wo\ den. len.'rtlh 1414 inii liis. with 11'/ inches. depth
approximately 3, inches: e'arlboard. length 15 imwhes, width
1:3 inches. depth apIproximatelly :'34 inIhles.

Fig. 15-Mangos packed in wooden lug.




Some packing houses blrush-polish the mangos before pack-
ing them ill the lug boxes. Excelsior is used to line tlie boxes
and as "(ushioning" between the individual fruit. The nn11-
ber of fruit per lui varies with the size of the I'r'tit.
Some investigations are under way at the present time to
determine the allpplicability of various plastic materials as
wrappers for this fruit. It is hoped that a material may be
found which will retard the rate of moisture loss and ripening
of tlie fruit in transit.

Fig. 16-Mangos packed in cardboard lug.


The iicrelase(d production of mallingos iln Florida has aIcc1en-
ituted tlie need for additional inifloritmation pertaining to the
marketing and storage ofl this fruit. The mango( crop is mar-
keted either directly by lihe individual grower or through
packing houses. Thlie majority. of 1he fruit is shipped to the
northern iimarkets byv rain or motor truck.
Wardlaw i) hlas m;ide al extensive ilivesti.ration deal-
ing will th(e 1 prper slor1age.( temperature for a I1numbIer of
mango varieties igrowni inl Trinlidlad. lie found that the manlgo
is subject to chilling injury if th e Iruit is stored at tempera-
tures below 48 51t F. Wardlaw stated that Hlie skin-bleim-


ishes. whiihli may be associated with chilling, first appear as
minutely brown, cirlcular areas which eventually coalesce re-
sulting inl the cliaracteristie brown mottling of the skin. He
attributes this condition to "the necrosis. partial Ilnero'sis or
devitaliziiig of superficial tissues. with subsequent loss of
Inoistlure-conitent to adjacent cells or to tlil air."
Wardilaw notedl Ithat ill tihe absence of characteristic skin
blemishes chilling injury may be recognized alter removal of
the fruit fromnl storage by the failure of fruit to ripen the
failure of the skill n t develop its characteristic color at matur-
ity: the development of adiiorinal ripening colors; andi the
early appearance of anthraciiose spots. Although 4S V'. bor-
dters on lhe critical chilling temperature, it was suggested by
\Vardl;iw in preference to higher temperatures so as to de-
crease thle rate of ripening. decrease tlie activity of storage
patllho,.ei. and Io coiiipellsae for the slow initial rate of
cooliiig and "sel-heating" of blk shipments of manligos. IIe
recommendllils a lower storage temperature of 45- F. only for
fruits harvested at Itie point of softeniing.


Tli' place of higli esteemli \\hiich thle lmailngo lias held for
centuries is well exellplified in the following Persian verse
written by Amir Khimsrau during the fourteenth century:
The mango is the pride of the Gariden
The clioisest fruit of Hindustan
Other fruits we are content to eat llwhen ripe,
uilt tlie mningo is good in all stages of growth (24)
Duriilng tile iiintervening six centuries. needless to say, con-
siderablle progress has been madi e both in horticulture and in
culinary arts, yet today the mango still ranks amilong the
favorite fruits of thie tropical and sub-tropical countries.
One of the most recent advances in food preservation is
that of freezing. It is now generally known that frozen fruits
retain a greater percentage otf their original nutritive content
and fresh fruit flavor than do those preserved by other means.
A number of delicious frozen wango products can be made
throughout tlie mango season beginning with the green
"drops" and extending throughout the balance of the season.
The following collection of recipes describe but a few of
the numerous ways in which the mango can be utilized.

Sliced Mangos
One of the most popular mango desserts is the freshly
sliced fruit served either plain or with a few drops of Persian
lime juice squeezed over the cut fruit.


Mango Sundae (35)

Have the I'frit well icen. ('nt il halves and remove the
seed. Fill tlie cavity with ice erealm (plain vanilla is best).
a;ill serve at once.

Mango Ice Cream (35)
Ise plain ice crealil cuistiard. Iilmade by any favorite recipe,
as a basis. 'I each TlUa't. add one pint of ripe mango pulp
;111and frleeze.

Mango Ice Cream au Rhum (25)
I'eel ;a d slice in t (hree-ightlhs-i.n h thick slices, fresh ripe
mangos. ()ne mangro will make the side dressing for four
servings. Plaee in a shallow dish such as a soup plate andl
sprinkle with onle-quiarlter cup powdered sugar to every mango
and one-hird cuip runi. Let stand in ice box one hour. Serve
ie' creallu ill glasses and111 a1rrai'ne maniiio slices around eaehi
serving. pouring on a little of the liquid. This is the last
word ill desserts.

Mangoade (15)
Sserving gs
1'. cups rip. rmin'igo ,11l|, '1; tip lm on jiuicr
press l through si<"v I :1 : cup sugar
I vul' or:lnlg. .juice Ir'.: .ll[s water
grailrd id I i ., or;: 1g(
(Coblline sugliar, water. and orange rind anrd ring to boil-
ing point. 'Cool. add to maniao pulp and fruit juice. ('bill and
pour over crackedd iee before serving.

Mango Pie (15)
-I 4; servings
31' Z cups ld hallf ripe iwoiglo '4 tl:a'spoonl ground nutmeg
slicst. 1 i tablspoon h-l 1n' juier
1 cup slig:r 2 t llh-sp)oouns water
t:tstpoonl ground ('iIniintIlouii 2 t1o :1 tablespoons Ilour
Parboil 1inago slices ini water for 5 minutes. Line a pie
pan with pastry. put in a layer of mango slices. sprinkle with
sugar. flour and spices. and cover with another layer of niiin-
gos. sugar, tflom and spices. 'over with pastry and bake in
hot oven 4425 F.) for It) minutes. tlien hake from 30 to -40
minui11tes in imodllerate ovenl (.i501 F.) until mango slices are
)iOne cup ripe papaya slices may be substituted for I cup
of the nilangos if desired. The quantity of lemon juice should
ie doubled it' papaya is uscld.


Deep-Dish Mango Pie (1)
3 to 4 lirge manigos. .just 2 cups sugar
under ripl ('innauon if desired
2 to 4 tabl.spoions lime juirv
Peel the fruit and cut in slices. Mix with sugar. lime .juice
and sprinkling of cilnnaion it desired. Place fruit in deep.
buttered baking dish. cover witli a rich biscuit dough and
h:ike in moderate. a350 oven for about 40 minutes or until
crust is browned and fruit tender.

Green Mango Pie (26)
3 or 4 large green mangos 4 tablespoons iuttr,
2 cups sugar 1 recipe pastry
I teiaspoun nutmn l'
Line a pie plate wit I pastry. Peel and slice thin enough
green Iman gos to fill the plate. 3Mix the sugar and nutmeg
and spread over the Imanlgo slices. 1)ot witli butter. Top tlhe
mango slices witli a solid or latlice type pastry. Hake for 15
minutes at 435 degrees F. Reduce temperature to 350 degrees
and bake for 45 minutes longer.
NOTE: This makes a very tart pie. lFor a less tart, pie
use partially ripe mangos. Half and half apple and green
mangos make an interesting flavor coiiilination.
TIhe green iImangos can be steamed tender. brown sugar
and cinnamon added. place in pie shell. dot with butter and
ba ke.

Mango Tarts (1)
4 mii;ugu1os 1 teaispooin ornl st':rhI i
I cup sugar 2 ieateni egg yolks
/, cup water 1 tei:lspoonl (ciiillaillon
2 tihlespoon.s butter
Peel and slice tlin tlie mangos. Heat fruit in saucepan
with sugar and water. When sauce has cooked for 15 minutes.
add corn starch that has been mixed with a little water and
mi xed with the 2 beaten egg yolks. Allow this to cook for
several minutes, stirring constantly until thick and smootli.
Stir in the teaspoon ciunam on and 2 tablespoons butter. Fill
already baked patty shells or pastry tart shells with this

Mango Shortcake (1)
Using a rich biscuit dough. a shortcake may be made using
sliced. lsugared Iliallgos just as peaches and strawberries are
used. A bit of lime juice heightens the flavor and cake may
he topped witli whipped cream or served witli plain cream.


Mango Brown Betty (15)
0i servings
2 cups half-ripe miango slices. 2/3 ciup rl ad crumiii
firmly pacIke1 iin cup teaspoon rlintlniiuon
3/4 cUp lir\PIi sugr1 1 3 tlablespoonils water
: t:leillspoolls I'ltter linI 1\llt fa, aiddl bread cirunbs. 'lia'e a I;ver of the buttered
brad cruiitls in aln oiled baking dish. Add a layer of iman-
go-. sprinkle with sugar iand eilminoon. add another layer of
flcrumbs, then inaingos, then c'lllmbiils on top. Bake in iiodlelrate
oven (350( F.1' until maniigos are soft, about 1 hour.

Mango Sauce (15)

Yield 1 qua11rt
I I. (ups to 2 eups sugar
PV.. cups water

Cook lmanglios in \water until hey are soft. Add sugar and
e ook 5 mnili nuts longer. Serve \ ithl meat or as i dessert. This
may be nsed for a shiort.ake filling or in shirbets. ice ereails,
r1' IIIOlNs( ,s.

Mango Chutney (35)

]I. peeled Inallgns, clt ini
S allll pieces
pt. vinegar or It pt. grape-
fruit juice and 1./ pt.
I currants
Il. raisins or 1 l1. raisins (if'
curralns are omitted)
lb. blanichd al:ionds

- oz. green ginger sliced (niay
substitute root ginger b'rokeni
iand put inl slice bag)
3.4 lb. brown sugar
1 tablespoon salt
'. tablespoon white mustard seed
!' cup chopped onions
I, cup chopped sweet peppers
1 oz. chillies or hot pelppers

To the vinegar add sugar and bring to a boil. Add the
spices, chopped vegetables, manlgos. nuts.1 raisins, and salt.
bring to a boil and boil for 30 minutes. Pack while at boiling
point in sterilized jars and seal.
lMalgos just beg innillg to color are best selected.

Mango Chutney (15)
Yield 6 quarts

2 large onions, chopped fine.
2 Ipounds seeldless raisins
1 pound finely sliced itron
2/3 )up green ginger root,
cooked and chopped fine
1 cup finely chopped preserved
2 cloves (of garlic.. chopped t'ine
8 small red peppers with seeds
removed, chopped fine

11l pounds peeled sliced nangos
.1 pounds sugar
ii orl 7, cups vinegar (depending
on a'idity of miangoils i
3/4 c'up salt
I'. l pounds :lilonds, Ilaliillied
and cut ill tlhin strips
I pound finely sliced candied
orange peel
I pound finely sliced candied,
lemon ipeel

cm. gm" ''" or Ialf-ril.,c


Cut mangos, sprinkle with salt and allow to stand over-
night. Boil the sugar and vinegar 5 minutes. Add to the
drained mango pulp, cook until tender; then add the other
ingredients and cook slowly for V2 to 1 hour or until the
desired consistency is obtained. Pour into hot sterile jars
and seal immediately. Serve with meat or curried dishes.

Canned Mangos-Open Kettle Method (15)

Yield 2 quarts
S cups peeled firm. ripe 4 cups water
mango slices V4 cup lemon juice
6 cups sugar
Combine sugar and water and heat to boiling point. Add
mango slices; cook 10 minutes or until clear, add lemon juice.
and pour into hot sterile jars, fill with syrup, and seal. Label
and store in cool place. This syrup seemed very sweet at the
time of canning, but on standing several weeks, the product
was found to be more satisfactory than if a thinner syrup
was used.

Canned Mangos-Cold Pack Method (15)

Yield 2 quarts
S cups peeled, firm ripe mango 4 cups sugar
slices 4 cups water
Make a syrup of sugar and water by heating to boiling
point. Add mango slices and cook 10 minutes, removing scum
from the top. Allow fruit to stand until it looks clear, then
reheat to boiling, pack in hot sterile jars, seal, and process in
water bath 15 minutes. If pressure cooker is to be used, pre-
cooking is not necessary. Pack uncooked mango slices in hot
sterile jars and pour the boiling syrup over them. Partially
seal and process in pressure cooker 15 minutes at 5 pounds
pressure. Remove, seal and invert to cool. Label and store
in cool place.

Mango Jam (15)

Yield 1 quart
12 cups half-ripe or ripe 6 cups sugar
mango slices 4 cups water
Cook mango slices with water about 15 minutes or until
tender. Press through a sieve, add sugar, and boil until thick
and of proper consistency for a jam. Pour into hot sterile
jars and seal with paraffin.


Spiced Mangos (1)

Use small green mangos. Peel, leaving whole with seed.
Make a syrup, using 1 cup sugar to 1 cup water. When syrup
reaches the boiling stage, add /2 cup lime juice or more if de-
sired. Add whole spices to taste-allspice, cinnamon, cloves
are good choice. Drop in whole fruit and simmer until fruit is
almost clear. Remove from fire, cool and let stand overnight.
Reheat again in morning and pack in sterilized jars. Process
for 15 minutes at boiling.

Mango Butter (15)

Yields 2 quarts
12 cups peeled halt'ripe mango '/ teaspoon ground cloves
slices '/ teaspoon ground allspice
6 cups sugar 1 teaspoon cinnamon
4 cups water i teaspoon ground nutmeg
Add water to mangos and cook until soft enough to mash.
Press through a sieve if mangos are stringy. Add sugar and
spices, and cook slowly for 45 minutes, or until thick. Stir
frequently to prevent burning. Pour into hot sterile glasses
and seal with paraffin.

Canned Mango Sauce (15)

Sweetened or unsweetened sauce made from the green or
half ripe mangos may he canned for future use as a sauce or
for sherbet, shortcake, or mousse. Pack hot sterile jars with
the boiling hot sauce, seal, and process in hot water bath for
30 minutes or in pressure cooker for 10 minutes at 5 pounds

Mango Pickle (15)

Yield 1V. quarts
9 ulps green mango slices 4/. cups vinegar
6 cups salt water (1 table- /_, tablespoon whole cloves
spoon salt to 1 cup water) V2 tablespoon whole pepper-
9 cups sugar corns
4 bay leaves 4V/ cups water

Soak mangos over-night in sufficient salt water to cover.
Drain, add the fresh water and cook until partially tender.
about 30 minutes; add spices and vinegar, cook about 15 min-
utes longer, or until mango slices are tender. Drain mango
and cook syrup until it is slightly thick. Add mangos, heat
to boiling point, and pack in hot sterile jars. Seal immedi-
ately. label and store in cool place.


Sliced and Diced Mangos

Firm ripe fruit should be used in the preparation of frozen
sliced and diced mangos as overripe fruit tend to break down
upon thawing and the use of green fruit results in a poorly
flavored product. The ripe fruit is peeled and sliced or diced
in tle same manner as when utilized as a fresh fruit. Three
types of packs can he made; namely the syrup pack in which
a light sugar syrup of from 15 to 30 percent is poured over
lhe fruit; the limeade pack in which a limeade is substituted
for the sugar syrup: and the plain or dry pack in which no
solution is used. The limeade pack is believed by many to
be the superior of the three. The limeade is prepared in the
.sanim manner as for a beverage, the sweetness being adjusted
so as to enhance the flavor of the mango itself. Thus when
the fruit itself is very sweet a somewhat tarter limeade is
used than when the fruit is more acid. Sufficient limeade is
poured over the fruit in its container to cover the product, the
container is then closed and the product frozen.

Fig. 17-Frozen Sliced Mangos.

.\ANGOS) TN_ 1.F1)RTIi.\

Frozenl sliced all(n dicedl 111mango s c'an be uise(d .s ;1 dessert
fruit either alone or in the preparation of sundaes and simiilar

Ripe Mango Puree
Manrguos which are too ripe or tibrous for preparation as a
sliced or diced proIdulI can be made into purees. The fruit is
peeled, the flesh removed fro(m the seed, and griiond to a
s,111oo0lh con(sisftene'l ill a food bleIder. After removal fromll
tlhe blender. thle piree shliuld be passed through a couple of
plies of cheelsecloth to remove any fibers which may be pres-
ent. The puree tlieu can be. packaged in any type of frozen
food colitainler. Mfl'ango plure has numerous uses allionig which
is tle preparation of a fruit punch. The punch is prepared by
adding a pint or pint and one-half of frozen puree to approxi-
nmately a gallon ol' limeade. Either fresh ltme juice or frozen
single strength juice can be used in the preparation of the
limeaide. The bricks of frozen mn]io should h adhled to the
limneade a few minutes before serving.

Fig. 18-Mango Punch Prepared from Frozen Mango Puree and Limeade.
Green Mango Puree
A number of tropical fruit journals mention the use of
green manglll os ill the preparation of a green mango sauce.
Experiments have proved that this product freezes well. The
immniature manigos are cooked in boiling water until soft or
until the skins split open. The fruits are peeled while still
hol. the cooked pulp is thien scrapped from the seed and ap-
proximately Iln e(jual volume of sugar is blended into the


Pureed flesh in a food blender. Due apparently to the high
pectin content of the green fruit. this puree frequently forms
a smooth gel and it is therefore advisable to package the prod-
uct as soon as it is removed from the blender. The product
can be served in the same manner as apple sauce or used as a
filling for tarts or pies.

Fig. 19-Tarts Filled with Green Mango Puree.

Spiced Mango Compote

liimature mangos can also be used in the preparation of
a frozen spiced compote. The fruits are peeled. the flesh cut
into small cubes, and cooked in boiling water until tender.
The cooked fruit is then transferred to a spiced syrup pre-
pared according to the formula appearing in "-Commercial
Fruit and Vegetable Products" by C'ruess. This syrup con-
tains the following ingredients:

Vinegar (cider vinegar of
4 percent acetic acid
W after -_... .....- ...
Ginger root, broken
Whole cloves
Stick ciinnamion

14.0 1b.

3.0 pt.
7.0 pt.
/2 OZ.
2 oz.
1R ox.

The mixture is heated to boiling, cooled and allowed to
stand in the refrigerator overnight. The following day it is


packagel Itogether w~ii it siiffiviviii SrI to cove. thle fruIit anld
r'lozell. (,'I'(vI) lnaligo comptei~t seivid either- ]ot oi, cold1 makes
aI dleliciousIn eat (11' poiil~ti' veol a 1(Oini~ilelkit. Tile spies ulsed
ill tile prepa ratloll of tile sxrl-Ilp" shol b00(e hplade( ill a small
ceheeseeIo t I I iia to t';]vI It;atIe I theI -ir enuovaI ji-ioi- to packagI ing.

Fig. 20-Spiced, green Mango Compote

Thle chemical composition of 1he mango has been found to
omulaire favorably with that of ihe Tempeiate Zoone fruits. A
omlparisiol of the data in Table 1. taken froni the figures ot
hiatfielhl anid il iaughlin i'Si. with that appearing in the
suebsqIlent tables oin thle composition of tile Imanligo will sub-
stantiate 1 his f'act.
Table 1. Average Percentage Composition of the Edible
Portions of Several Popular Fruits. (34)
A search thlroughl the available literature i has lnade possi-
ble the colmpilation of tlie following tables on tlhe composition
of Florida-grown milangos as well as those produced in other
L-ountries. It should be kept in mind, while interpreting the
results appearing in lihese tables, that slight differences in
composition may be due in part to the different techlniiiles
employed by tlhe various workers in making their deterniina-
I ions.


Table 2. Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Flor-
ida Varieties and Mature Mangos (34)
Table 3. Physical and Chemical Characteristics of For-
eign Grown Mangos
Table 4. Ascorbic Acid Content of Some Florida-Grown
Mangos (19)
Table 5. Vitamin Content of Some Foreign Grown
Tilhe above data i lsow tlhati tihel iillin lias ai relaitive'ly high
iin tritive cilflit. lParticuilar itttcntioilln should be ('ilh, to
111h' liiL'i It i r anllti ;i rlli< aild or vit tiilli (C telitelntl lhi
ltrlit. Th'l. N'lar* pre', ilt ,.hi-tflv iIIn hyidrollyzabil foriil. is
Slirv\ < fl t lo ,e su.r pt- ;:4 ThI r-.lativt .ly hiihi a; -,rbi,i
iiidl CotIite t ,fI the lin Ill is particularly Ilot\'woritlly Ias this
frilit illatirilrs at a tille o i thi v ir iwhen solni ot' tIh'e other
t'r its. IIll'e ( .)liiimlloilly ai |ieptei l ais ai soi Trc of this vitaiilii ,
are I iilt realdil i\ availaille.

TABLE .-AeraRge Perceotge Composition of tho Edibe Portloos of Severll Popiior Fruiti

(lrom U. S, D. A, Circahr No, 50),

IJ Irlls'J 6mviv Svml SJII 1,1111 h n, ilml Oi od r IlI idiv;i f


:1:,11 iI 7 ': )

?Jil 7, II ,(

1,11 3 ,01

1,7(11 1 5

.. 11,1

* .. 011

C llill l ( ; lt

II 90. .... ...

U111 1

* * 1 i * n


TABLE 2-Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Florida Varities of M Mangos ,,lgnmr/ inii ' (34)

I'rlaniAt HUi(ll

S urer TiihtI S 'nti i ', Elili l l 'i h' i '
g' (T. (lra llt ,il ,kin l uIp mr Iirir t'il l' l lr liuot Il'lhzlbubIl T,,al hh

PIll l ll h
Op enl,

Ilnnel' Alphoniv Onem
Amini llIk 'lia
I'la iri liklia
Ililpur)y Ilnrt'
lllnntt tI, yM r

,,nllh hl lllm i,,bt
Brai rha Illmtacld
hliTri lai lInmitr
itaingiLn( I'rlna Ia

('imhlalimni l n'k,,ln
(iramliaii, llkeia
COmbINna Opel)

('Cil O(lsi'
Numirll OIpnI

(mte 1:129
I mll :17,9
Ill.en i 27.5
One)ll I l :Il;,i

S1,1 11; i

1 .011 1 P.

1 1 1113
1, 1:1: 11

1.1118 1
I.; 76l

I ,' Ill,
1,11:1 I 1,
l,012 112,!

16; llI
I.0.I1 l6,
IllI I,; \

ll ,I

q' ~ 2. 0 1',o
'111 12 >'. .II 1 1 '
<|,! \ii |I l iil:l I 1 1

li l ,1,1 1 I7 il|,l 1 1. l,:I
I 1, H ll 1.;

1 .:1 7

: it II

ill li

'2 l, 11i1lll

11,1 i ;l,: 11,,11

'j,1 1 : 1 ii,;
7 1 lll II.C0
21, l 11711
11 tl I51

'lnlyitr h uuA 19:11 Ihrag'el 1111; hnii l l 'l l'r l ii .
"|I l2S.; grl I lIuntl'I l'lrl

ll,1, : II I[>
: I,: 11 1 Q
,i 11,1 10 .1
hi ll;" Ill;

1111 1311
11,1 1i,;
li. 1 ( II

ll 11, 2 l,1
II I ,I3
lI, 1,4

11 1 11,11
Nlin (li0.

12' I 'il
I,:2 1 ,6:

TABLE 3,-Physical and Chemical Characteristics of ForeignGrowi Mangos

'VA. I TY .. ii i : 'l,
Wkigllt liible Misturr
gmsi 'uilp

NIIl givn n L I sl I lls
Noit tilwn Wlst lnili(is
':. tI'l ,n ,, Philippincs
XN giv, i l i awaii
N\ ot ivli.. '!:Ni:;! InI
Cariabi, ripe .',il;, .
('airal gr n isli 'I!
Pil . .. I'1,iil .

('a allr i .r.. .. I"'ili;!,h ,
C 'arabho, grmen l' h,,,,r,
(C rahian, ripe '!iiI;i| ini
Pic' ripe. i" 1: ,iiii
Pahutan, tip 'i
common n mango. Cub)a
Pair ..... ..... llaw ii
Aliphlias .Hawaii
Touapari Hawaii..

hlioril iFat
('Orkii Far

Pirenrt Sugar

llilurini Hlyrdiolyzl, Toal
ISai'r l i

.:t9 | 0.43
.7 I .761
sr2 1, ;! 0,71

&i40 (,T
n,30 mi
7 1 10 l 0, 7 ( ,

0.1 ll !.22
0,60 0.75
Ml 32 1.1,2
l illl I,li
0l, 1 3 (1,40
ll 1(; 2 .15

((.(lli ll,,;;'

F! I frn





4 (21
3 (211
7 i (i4



11,8 4

1 0.25

Ili 9 0:
11.41 3.27


TABLE 4.-Ascorbic Acid Content of Some Florida-Grown Mangos (19)
Ascorhic Acid Content
NVa. (iof (mg./100 gmi.)
\anriety Source Analyses
Average Range

Samini West Palm Beach 5 25.6 23.1- 26.5
Edward West Palm Beach 5 57.4 50.9- 61.9
Amini H.. homestead 5 24.2 22.5- 24.7
Itamalraca homestead 5 64.9 54.5- 76.0
Julie... ..... Coconut Grove 5 52.0 48.0- 58.2
Simnimonds -...... West Palm Beach: 5 2S.5 25.0- 31.0
Faseell ......... Homestead 5 36.4 31.0- 41.5
Zil .......... .. elr Beach 5 14.8 12.3- 16.4
Cecil.................. Homestead 5 44.3 39.4- 48.4
Sumatra ..............Homestead .... 5 25.4 20.0- 31.1
Mulgoba ........... Homestead ....... 5 27.9 24.6- 31.8
No. 11 Homestead......... 5 107.4 102.5-114.2
No. 11 B.radenton 5 87.1 68.0- 99.5
Red Cecil .. Homestead. 5 20.5 18.0- 21.9
Apple Homestead 8.8 6.5- 11.4
Apple . Pine Island 5 9.0 7.6- 10.5
Buena Vista Homestead 5 29.0 25.5- 33.5
Fragrance .. Naples.... 3 9.0 5.4- 11.0
Adams No. 1 ....... Pine Island ....... 5 12.7 10.6- 14.9
Harris -..-...... .-..C.. (Coconut Grove .. 5 38.2 31.9- 43.8
Springfels .......... West Paln Beach 5 22.7 14.0- 35.1
Lambha Bhadra.... Coconut Grove 5 16.9 14.5- 19.0
Langra Benarse ... Homestead 5 14.3 13.6- 16.0
Bennett ......... Homestead. 5 50.9 46.5- 61.0
Ameeri Homestead 5 36.5 32.0- 39.5
Gibbons Homestead 5 72.2 63.5- 79.8
White Langra . Homestead 5 103.8 81.7-119.7
Borsha ......... .. Homestead ..... 5 21.6 17.5- 28.5
Seedling 4-1 (Sub-
Trop. Exp. Sta.)..Homestead ....... 5 22.3 20.4- 27.0
Sandersha -..............- Homestead ... 5 13.4 11.8- 15.1
Lathrop... .......- Homestead 5 30.6 27.0- 33.4
Kent .. Coconut Grove 5 21.0 15.0- 23.0

Aillio3 No. 2911J
Klloaldlissll No, 1,035

'Ii; ..1 N111 o, 3 .11H

Foajri 1o,01 No, No'1
i i i i 'N o 1'., 9 H
it' 111111 1, NO0 ],-Il!)
PIiori No, 3161N
olkl' .\oali3 No,.:13)W
Smils hn 1'i, N. J11
SImol' No. :2)lll1
No. 1215,)
S,,t':uid i No. 2:12:1
Tluboiri No,'51

Coloiollo 16111u, v

Ii i I;ooos11 Soudoig 1""
(iuvoo'erl's, iIlling No. 2

id I 1 '111. 11.11

Not 1ki

il'o il l 1

Not G5ivenn
Not Givioi

\I~tlilganit, Pourto 1R61

91:0Igloo~a, 10111o 113'

' .1 i, ilortto HR6
%\I v:igovy" 'i'rlo RICO
hyagllvz' Illorto Imiuo

%l vI':Igul'O, PNorto Rico
I '. i e'i r Poi rto 1 imo

'.1 1 il lrs, .Plonto Rim11
'halz Poieu'to Rim
l 1 1 11 P ulod:x o inti l'o

li'vq'iclna, 1,111,00 Rivo

Illo lidrox, Pl o
'Ib Ioras P111110 6h'oo

1131 hl hwr l INio

11111, II r 'll m 1
1:i (rl Rii
16 IWrl s'hi- RC

1o od.Is Illilo 16 1



A1 (\3laoiuiii B,) Ai

I 5.I)4 ;Oil

15I _ 1 311:1)

19"'1 "1,5S

.11.6 "IH1






Is :1


..I"" '.'~~"""~' ""'I" ~""' """I*'


Mango growing in Florida has had a moderately long
history. It could be considered starting with the first introduc-
tions of Dr. Henry Perrine in 1833 which failed to survive or
with a second and more successful introduction in the early
1860's by a Dr. Fletcher in the area of the Miami River. These
last seed grew bearing trees and could be the forerunners of
the No. 11 variety so plentifully grown in South Florida. It
could well be identical with No. 11 sold by the Reasoners
of Maanatee county, a separate introduction from Jamaica.
This mango had some red color in its cheek and was popular
along the West Coast. Also during the 1860's another intro-
duction of seed into the Snapper Creek hammock, near Coco-
nut Grove, established the turpentine, or peach type and
probably in a few years it was followed by seeds of the apple
or bombay type.
Within the scope of this bulletin mangos will be classified
under two general groups-seedling races and horticultural
varieties which are propagated by budding or grafting. All
the races and varieties of the world will not be considered but
only those which are well established in the state or which
show promise of becoming important.
A seedling mango race is invariably polyembryonic. The
general characteristics of the race are reproduced rather ac-
curately. They cannot be said to come true to seed but for
practical purposes of marketing and identification the varia-
tions usually are not a controlling factor. Occasionally an
individual of a seedling race is propagated by budding or
grafting in which case it becomes a horticultural variety. This
is well illustrated by the ('ambodiana being a horticultural
variety of the Saigon race.
Indian Mangos
The horticultural varieties which are becoming prominent
in the growing mango industry in Florida are mostly seed-
lings of Indian varieties. There is a suspicion of some cross-
pollination with the Saigon race in some varieties. Some are
second generation seedlings whose origin is somewhat shroud-
ed in ignorance. It is felt by most of the workers in the field
of advancing mango production that the best promise for the
future of this industry lies in Florida originating varieties.
The hundreds of varieties introduced as trees or graftwood
from India and Indo-China have laid the groundwork or an-
cestry for our variety hunt. This was first shown by the bril-
liant handsome and tasty Haden as a seedling of the first
group of M[ulgoba trees introduced as air layers from India.
There are several hundred promising new varieties now under
observation and some have been field-tested to a degree. These
will be considered here. The older introduced varieties if


they do not hold distinct promise as a yard tree or a conm-
mercial grove prospect will not be discussed.
West Indian Race
Popenoc (24) considers the seedling races of Cuba and
Florida as practically the same. In Cuba the mango is the
same as that called No. 11 iin Florida. The tree is erect. 60
to 70 feet high. with an umbrel spread like an elm. The fruit
is flattened with curved and beaked apex. The general fruit
color is yellowish-green with a crimson blush and usually


Fig. 21-No. 11 Mango fruit-face and edge view-yellowish-green with
crimson blush and usually covered with anthracnose scars.
badly spotted with anthracnose (Fig. 21). The flesh is orange
yellow, with coarse fibres, of poor quality although the flavor
is sweet. The seedlings are often used as rootstocks.
The turpentine type and the apple type form one race
which in Cuba is called manga. The turpentine (Fig. 22) or
peach is called manga amarilla. The tree is spreading with a
rounded crown, 35 to 40 feet high. The fruit is rounded ob-
long, deep orange in color and sometimes with a hint of pink
on the cheek. The flesh is bright orange containing many fine
long fibres, the flavor is strongly resinous, but much liked by
children who bite or cut off the stylar end and suck out the
highly flavored sweet pulp. Seedlings of this fruit are used
extensively as rootstocks. The seed as that of all these seed-
ling races is polyembryonic. The trees of these seedling race
are grown from seed.

Fig. 22-Turpentine mango fruit-face and edge view-orange color
with a pink cheek.

Fig. 23-Apple mango fruit-face and edge view-yellowish-green

DEPAirrMENT OF AGRict"uruia.


The apple (Fig. 23) or bambay mango is called manga
blanca in Cuba. The tree is very similar in growth habit to
the turpentine although it may be more spreading with a
flattened top. The fruit is roundish, almost apple shaped,
bright yellow in color with a very pale yellow flesh containing
fine fibres which are not as tough as those in the turpentine.
The flavor is mild and sweet. Considerable quantities of this
type are sold along the West Coast.
Filipino Race
A third seedling race quite common in Florida is one called
Filipino. It answers Pope's (22) description of the Manila.
It also fits the description of Popenoe (24) for what he calls
the Filipino race. From what the author has seen of the
Carabao and Pico. fruits from introduced graftwood, the
Filipino can be a seedling variation of them. This Filipino race
has an erect tree, 30 to 35 feet tall, with a dense rounded
crown. The fruit is elongated, sharply pointed, lemon yellow
in color with a yellow flesh relatively free of fibre. The flavor
is mild, sweet and quite desirable. An occasional selected
seedling of this race is propagated sexually and named for
some individual. Some seedlings have been observed with a
pink cheek indicating possibilities of Indian cross-pollination.
Cecil (Fig. 24) is a horticultural variety of this race. It is
very typical of the race as a whole and in Dade County the
Filipino is often called Cecil.

Fig. 24-Cecil mango fruit-face and edge view. Typical of
Filipino race.


Saigon Race

A fourth seedling race which came from Indo-China com-
monly called the Saigon race may have been the parent race
from which the Filipino developed. However, that is relatively
unimportant today as they are fairly distinct and considered
such by most authors. Dr. David Fairchild, the grand old
man of mango introduction, studied this race in its native land
and introduced it into Florida. One of the plants grown from
these original seeds has given rise to the horticultural variety
Cambodiana now so widely planted as a yard tree. Thlie Saigon
tree is of medium size, round headed with usually large light
green leaves. The fruit (Fig. 25) is medium size, yellowish
green to yellow with a hint of orange when ripe, has a short
beak and a slight nak. The fruits generally have a faint
agreeable odor distinct to this race. The skin is thin making
them poor shippers as a rule. The flesh varies from yellow
to orange in color with a smooth texture and no fibres. The
flavor is mild and delicious.
The horticultural varieties are many and with many ori-
gins-the principal ones being considered as worthy of plant-
ing at the present time are listed alphabetically without any
attempt to divide them into groups by origin. Some need much
more field testing which is being carried out at the present
time. There is some variation in season of maturity. Some of
the earliest such as Cambodiana or ('ecil start maturing in

Fig. 25-Saigon seedling of typical shape and size. Face and edge view.


May and the latest season 1ruit such as Brooks or Kent
mature ill September and October.

Varieties originating in Florida and being planted in com-
mercial proportions:


2_ /-

1 ~------6



/0 ----------
Fig. 26-1. Depression around stem; 2. Thickness; 3. Dorsal shoulder;
4. Ventral shoulders; 5. Breadth; 6. Dorsal side; 7. Length; 8. Nak, or
stigmal point; 9. Nak on well formed beak: 10. Apex.


Fig. 27-Brooks mango-face and edge view. Light pink cheek with
greenish-yellow to cream background.


History-A seedling of Sandersha, planted on property
of colored man named Brooks at Miami about 1910. Fruited
first about 1916 and propagated commercially since 1924
(Fig. 27).
Description-Form oblong, plump size large, weight 1 to
2 lbs., length 4/2 to 6( inch.. width 3 to 4 in., thickness 3 to 3V2
in.; base rounded, the rather slender stem inserted slightly
obliquely without a depression; apex broadly rounded, beak
none (Fig. 26). the nak inconspicuous, about 1 in. above the
apex; surface smooth, light yellowish-green in color, sometimes
blushed scarlet on the exposed shoulder or cheek; the dots
medium large and whitish: skin tough, thick; flesh bright
yellow in color, meaty, moderately aromatic; dessert quality
fair to good. culinary quality good; stone oblong, thick. with
abundant fine fibre on the ventral edge. Season in Florida. Au-
gust to October, chiefly in September. The tree bears very
heavily as a rule, and the very late season has somewhat com-
pensated for the deficiencies of quality and color. It often
makes weak growth becam:;e of heavy bearing.

Ilistory-Originated at Miami. Florida, from a seed intro-
duced in 1902 from Saigon, Cochin China by the U.S.D.A.
(Fig. 28).

Fig. 28-Cambodiana mango fruit-face and edge view-greenish-
yellow color.

M.\N(;Os- IN PL.(Rhl)A

Description-Formn oblong to oblolng-ovate. compressed
laterally: size medium, weight 8 to 10 oz., length 3Y2 to 4r2
in., width 2/2 to 2Y4 in.. thickness 2 to 2y2 in.: base rounded.
the stem inserted squarely or slightly to one side without de-
pression: alpex pointed. nak siill about y2. in. above apex;
surface smooth. yellow-green to deep yellow in color. dots
almost. wanting; skin thin and tender; flesh deep yellow in
color, very juicy, free Iroml fibre, and of mild subacid, aroma-
tic flavor: quality good: seed elliptic-oblong, thick. witli short
fibres on ventral edge. Season in Florida June and July.

History-Ed. P. I)avis, nurseryman, at 3660 S. W. 17th
St.. Miami. bought from the ('oral Reef Nuirseries Co.. Rock-
dale, in the fall of 1926. two small IIaden mango trees. He used
the grafting material from them to propagate trees for his
brother, B. Frank )Davis, which trees are planted at 3435 S.W.
1st Ave., Miami. In 1942 the tree now called Davis-allden
produced a crop-ils first-different from thle typical IIladen
in appearance. size and maturity late. The color is a deeper
red. the usual size a Ifourth larger than an average Haden and
the season a month later. The fruit of trees budlded from this
mutation show consistently 1 he darker color, larger size and
later maturity (Fig. 29).

Fig. 29-Davis-Haden mango fruit-face and edge view. Purplish red
check with yellow background.


Description-Form long ovate, plump; side large, weight
IV2 to 2 lbs., length 5 to 6 in., width 4 to 4/2 in., thickness
3/2 to 4 in.; base rounded, the sturdy stem set obliquely in
slight basal cavity; ventral shoulder very full rising slightly
from the base, dorsal shoulder falling steeply; apex pointed,
beak none, nak slightly conspicuous about 1/2 inches from
apex; surface smooth orange-yellow with purplish-red over-
blush over entire fruit except for slight area near apex; heavy
bloom and large white dots; skin like Haden; flavor rich and
aromatic; quality fair to good; flesh orange-yellow, firm with
few fine fibres; seed medium size, thin with fine fibre along
ventral suture. Season in Florida late July and August.
History-Presumably one of the series of crosses made be-
tween Haden and Carabao by the late Edward Simmonds
about 1928. It has been grown in the Palm Beach area to a
limited extent under the name "Simmonds X", but this name
is liable to confusion with the variety Simmonds.
Description-Form oblong fairly plump; size medium to
large, weight 3/ to 1 lb., length 4 to 5 in., width 3 to 4 in.,
thickness 2 to 3 in.; base rounded, the rather slender stem in-
serted obliquely in a basal depression with radiating grooves;
ventral shoulder higher and fuller than dorsal; apex rounded,
without beak, the nak small but prominent about 1 in. above
the apex; surface smooth, orange-yellow with a light pink

Fig. 30-Fascell mango fruit-face and edge view. Red cheek with
yellow background.


blush in the sun, and with numerous greenish-brown dots;
flesh golden yellow, firm and meaty, moderately juicy, fibre-
less except next the seed, of mild, pleasing flavor: quality very
good; seed filling only upper third of the stone, monoembry-
odic. Midseason.


History-Seedling of Brooks, from seed planted in 1929
by Michael Fascell, Miami, Florida. Fruited in 1936 and
offered as nursery stock in 1942. Plant patent No. 451 in
1941 (Fig. 30).
Description--Form ovate, compressed laterally; size me-
dium, weight Y2 to 1 lb., length 4 to 4/Y in., width 3 to 4 in.,
thickness 2/2 to 3 in.; base rounded, the slender stem inserted
a little obliquely in a slight, grooved depression ventral shoul-
der very full, rising only slightly from the base, dorsal shoul-
der falling steeply; apex broadly pointed or rounded, beak
none, the nak inconspicuous in a slight depression about /2 in.
above the apex; surface smooth, pale yellow, blushed dark
carmine on the exposed side, with scanty bloom and large
whitish yellow dots; skin fibreless; flavor rich and aromatic;
quality good. Season June 15 to August 15, mostly in early
July, in Florida. The variety has been exceptionally prolific
and regular in bearing and the fruit ships very well.

Fig. 31-Haden mango fruit-face and edge view. Deep yellow with
crimson cheek.


History-Originated at Coconut Grove, Florida, from a
seed of Mulgoba planted by Captain Haden which he obtained
from Dr. Gale near Lake Worth from one of the original NMul-
goba. introductions. First propagated in 1910 and gave mango
growing in Florida its greatest impetus (Fig. 31).
Description-Form oval to heart-shaped and plump, base
rounded with the ventral shoulder larger and slightly higher
than dorsal, apex broadly rounded, no beak, nak small and
rounded about 1 in. above apex; weight ~4 to 1/2 lbs., size
large, length 4 to 5/2 in., width 3/2 to 4/2 in., thickness
3/2 to 4/2 in.; surface smooth, butter yellow with crimson
blush overspreading most of the surface, numerous cream to
white dots and heavy bloom; flesh yellowish-orange in color,
firm. fibrous only close to seed and of sweet, rich, moderately
piquant flavor; quality good; seed oblong, plump, with con-
siderable fibre along the ventral edge. Tree a vigorous grower.
Season in Florida June to August.

I~ i

Fig. 32-Irwin mango fruit-face and edge view. Yellow with crimson

IRWIN (10)
History-Irwin comes from a Lippens seed which was
planted by F. D. Irwin at 315 N. W. 53rd Street, Miami, in
1939. It fruited first in 1945 and has borne crops each year
since (Fig. 32).


I)eseriiption- --[ori long. ovate. narrow: size medium.
wei'ghit / to I lb., length 4 to 5 in.. width 3 to 3V,, in., thick-
ness 2V2 to :3 iln.: base round. Medium size stem set obliiiuely
in slight basal e;ivity: dorsal shoulder 'falling moderately. ven-
tral shoulder full and well rounded : apex pointed. b)eak none.
nak slightly conspicuous ialout il.\ il. from ;apex: surf;et'
smiootli oriailge yellow with erinlisoni blush over hill' the fruit:
moderate bloom a;ind simll s w\hilte lots: skin meilium tihiek.
peels lhack from flesh. flavor rih and .l ;'onlatie: ,l1uality good:
flesh oraiig,-yvllow. tfirm with ftw line files: seed llediuiii
small. thin wi 'it fine fibres a;loiig ventillal suliture. Sfi soii inl
Florida Jiune aind July.

KEITT (29)
History-A seedling of 31uilglob growing ol1 t l.e property
of Mrs. J. N. Keitt. 115 S.W. 2d Sr. 2od Ste. loeste;td. Florid!.
The seed was planted ill 1939 ilnd. probably )lbee'nuse tile tree
has received little efrlilizer. is inediuni in vigor ail of rallher
sparse. uplrighlit .,rowth ( I'ig. ::).

Fig. 33-Keitt mango fruit-face and edge vicw-yellow with red

Deseription--Ilorm oval: size miedilumi to large: weight I
to I hbs.. length 4. to 434 in.. width :'WV to 4 in.. thIllk-
inss : !/ to 8! in.: base rounded. tilhe stout stem inserted
slirghtlly ol)liluely either level or on a very slightly raised
button ; ventlril shoulder full and rounded, lihe dorsal shoulder


falling steeply; apex rounded to bluntly pointed, beak none,
the nak inconspicuous about 1 4 in. from the apex on the ven-
tral side; surface smooth; ground color bright yellow, blushed
light pink on the exposed side with numerous small, pale yel-
low to russetted dots and rather heavy lavender bloom; skin
thick, fairly tough, not separating easily from the flesh; flesh
deep yellow, fairly firm but tender, melting and juicy with
considerable fibres of medium length near the base of the seed
but fine and not objectionable; quality good to very good;
stone making up 7 to 8.5 per cent of the total weight of the
fruit; seed (of the specimens examined) monoembryonic, fill-
ing about half of the husk. Season September.
KENT (28)
History-A seedling of Brooks, planted on the property of
Leith D. Kent at 3860 Poinciana Avenue, Coconut Grove,
Miami, Florida. The seed was planted in 1932 and the seedling
tree was moved to its present location in 1933. It fruited first
in 1938, bore its first heavy crop in 1940 and has been propa-
gated commercially since 1944 (Fig. 34).


Fig. 34-Kent mango fruit on tree-Yellow background with red cheek.
Description-Form ovate, plump; size large, weight 14
to 1/4 lbs., length 4V4 to 54 in., width 34 to 4 1/5 in., thick-
ness 3/2 to 3~4 in.; base rounded, the fairly stout stem in-
serted a little obliquely either level or in a very slight depres-
sion; ventral shoulder full, rising very slightly above the base,


dorsal shoulder rounded, sloping gradually; apex rounded,
beak none, the nak inconspicuous, level or in a very slight de-
pression. from 5/8 to 3/ in. above the apex; surface smooth,
ground color greenish yellow, blushed dark crimson in full
exposure to the sun. shading to light crimson under reduced
exposure, with a slight grayish bloom and numerous small
yellow dots: skin thick, tough, separating fairly readily from
the flesh; flesh deep yellow to orange yellow, medium firm,
melting, juicy, with no fiber; flavor rich, sweet, moderately
aromatic, satisfying, quality excellent; stone making up ap-
proximately 9 percent of the total weight of the fruit, with
a fringe of short fine fibres along its ventral edge; seed i:ono-
embrynonic, filling about / of the husk. Season July to Sep-
tember. mostly July 15 to August 15.
History- A seedling of Brooks, plainied on the property of
Peter Lippens at 135 N. W. 26th Street, Miami. Florida. The
seed was planted in 1931 and the seedling first bore a crop in
1938. Tt has been propagated commercially since 1945.
Ieseription-Form ovate oblong, and rather plump: size
medium, -4 to 1 lb., length 3/2 to 4/4 in.. thickness 3 to
3/4 in.: base rounded to slightly flattened. the fairly stout
stem inserted a little obliquely in a slight depression: ventral
shoulder full, rising very slightly above the base, dorsal shoul-
der sloping away gradually; apex rounded, beak none, the nak
inconspicuous, level, 2 to 3/4 in. from the apex: surface
smooth, ground color deep yellow, blushed light crimson up to
more than half the surface with a slight lavender bloom and
numerous small yellow dots: skin rather thick and tough, not
separating readily from the flesh; flesh deep yellow, medium
firm. melting. juicy. with practically no fibre: flavor rich,
sweet, moderately aromatic, quality very good to excellent:
stone thin. oblong, making up to 8 to 9 percent of the total
weight of the fruit, with considerable short. very fine fibre
which is not objectionable; seed monoembryonie, nearly com-
pletely filling the husk. Season June and July.
Ilisloryv-Palmer originated in the C. T. Brooks back yard
at 2272 S. W. 11th Terrace, Miami, and is one of a cluster of
mangos springing from a handful of seeds dropped there
about 1925. There are still four other trees in the group, all
bearing occasional fruits. A survey showed these trees to be
in the rard of Mrs. Victor M ell. 2273 S. W. 12th Street. Mrs.
M1ell has cooperated with the Brooks family in their rights to
the tree and the Brooks-Tower Nursey company y has propa-
gated Palmer I'or commercial planting since 1945 (Fig. 35).
Description-Form long-oblong, well rounded; size me-
dium 1 to 1%2 lbs., length 5-6 in.. width 3/2 to 4 in., thickness
2/2 to 3 in.; base tapering to sturdy stem inserted obliquely


on base; ventral shoulder falls away to a well rounded side,
dorsal shoulder falls almost vertically to rounded apex; very
slight beak. and a slight nak about /2 in. from beak; skin
smooth, orange yellow blushed pink to crimson on shoulders
toward stem; skin is thick and tough; flesh yellow to orange
yellow, firm and smooth of texture, a small amount of fibre:
flavor sweet when fully ripe; quality fair to good; seed long,
medium size with fine fibre on ventral suture. Season in Flor-
ida August and September.

Fig. 35-Palmer mango fruit-face and edge view-orange-yellow with
crimson cheek.

History-Originated as a seedling of unknown origin in
northwest section of Miami about 1937. Fruited first in 1940.
The original tree was purchased by Carmichael's Nursery, near
Perrine, Florida in 1951 and the variety was named then and
has since been propagated commercially. (Fig. 36)
Description-Form oval, moderately plump; size medium,
weight /4 to 1/i lbs., length 3/2 to 4/2 inches, width 3 to
3/2 inches, thickness 2/9 to 3 inches; base gradually tapering
with the ventral shoulder more full and rounded and the
sturdy stem setting squarely but toward dorsal side without
a depression; apex is rounded, beak none, nak slightly con-


spicuous about 34 inch from apex; skin surface smooth, ground
color deep orange with deep crimson blush over two thirds
of fruit, heavy bloom especially before color break making
the immature fruits appear pIlrp)le, large yellow dots: skin
thick; slight aroma: flesh orange-yellow. Firm with very few
fibres; quality fair to good; seed medium size, plump, with
thin fibres along ventral sulire. Tlhe tree is strong growing,
round top, precocious and heavy bearer. Season in South
Florida July. and August.

Fig. 36-Sensation mango fruit-face and edge view--deep
orange with deep crimson blush.

History-A seedling of Haden originated by C. W. Smith
at Perrine. Mr. Smith's account of the origin is as follows:
He planted a Saigon seed and when it was large enough to
work, he put buds of IIaden and Brooks in the stock cutting
back the Saigon top at the appropriate time. When the THaden
and Brooks branches bore fruit, Mr. Smith planted 27 seeds
and when the resulting trees bore in 1938, he selected for
propagation the mango now called "Smith". Mr. Smith is most
emphatic in his statement that this mango must be left on
the tree to maturity if it is to develop its full color and flavor
(Fig. 37).
Description-Forim long-oblong. plump : size large, weight
1 V2 to 2 lbs., length 5 to (G in., width 3 to 3V2 in., thickness


2/ to 3 in.; base tapering to obliquely set prominent button
on dorsal side to which is attached a heavy stem; ventral
shoulder rounded, dorsal falling away almost vertically; apex
broadly rounded, no beak and nak either none or very incon-
spicuous: surface smooth. orange yellow background, blushed
deep maroon to scarlet over cheek and base; with large white
dots: skin thick, tough, flesh orange yellow in color, firm,
practically free from fibre; flavor sweet with good quality if
fully mature; seed small, flat with some fibres along ventral
suture. Season in Florida August and September.

Fig. 37-Smith mango fruit-face and edge view-yellowish-orange
with purplish red cheek.

ZILL (28)
History-A seedling, stated to be from a Haden seed
planted by Carl King in 1922 at 412 N. 5th Ave., Lake Worth,
Florida. The original tree is the property of Lawrence Zill of
Delray Beach. Florida. It fruited first in 1930 and has been
propagated commercially since about 1940 (Fig. 38).
Description-Form ovate, sometimes slightly compressed
laterally; size small to medium, weight /2 to 3 lb., length
334 to 4 in., width 3,4 to 33 in., thickness 2/2 to 3 in.; base
slightly flattened, the fairly stout stem inserted slightly
obliquely in a narrow shallow cavity usually marked with
very shallow grooved depressions; ventral shoulder full and


rising slightly higher than the base, dorsal shoulder sloping
gradually; apex rounded to very bluntly pointed, b).ak sinall
tll distinct, obtuse. located ventrally, nak illconspicuouis at
thel tip of the beak about /_, in. above he apex ; surface sinooth
or very slightly rugose at the basal half, ground color green-
ish 2.ellow to deep yellow. blushed froni lig.hlt to dark crimson
usually over half 10o more than :. oit the surface, with a
moderately heavy lavender bloom and numerous small yellow
dots: skin lhick ;md rather toiug'l. nol separating readily from
lle flesh: flesh orange yellow. Imediuim fliri. melt ing, juicy.

Fig. 38-Zill mango fruit-face and edge view-yellow with red cheek.

with no fibre: flavor rich, sweet. mildly aromatic. qualitY very
,'ood : stone makinii. up approximately S percent of the total
weihiillt of lhe fruit, with a fringe of short fine to medium
fibres along tlhe ventral edge; seed muonoembryonie nearly
compflletely filling the husk. Season May 15 to July 10. most-
ly June 1 to 15.
Varieties grown on a limited scale or as yard trees. All
originated in Florida:
A second generation Saigon seedlinil originating on thr
Irove of Mr. Fred Ilerian, South Miami. from seed planted
in 1935. First fruited in 1940 ( Fig. 39). A medium size frin.
oblong in shape. highly colored with large crimson cheek.
practically no fibre and of good eating quality. Alice is yet to
be field proven on a commercial scale but a few trees bear fair
crops. Matures shortly after Haden.





Fig. 39-Alice mango fruit-face and edge view-yellow with
crimson cheek.
History-the original tree is owned by Mrs. L. L. Ander-
son, 3521 S. W. 4th Street, Miami. In 1926, W. S. Parker,
father of Mrs. Anderson, brought her the seed from Jamaica.
The tree fruited when 5 years old. As this mango is apparent-
ly a seedling of Sandersha, it is of interest to know that Dr.
David Fairchild sent Sandersha plants to Jamaica about 8
years before this seed came back from there. (Fig. 40).
Description-Form long-obovate, well rounded; size large,
weight 2/2 to 3 Ilbs., length 9 to 10 in., width 3/2 to 4 in.,
thickness 32 to 4 in.; base tapering to a raised button offset
toward ventral face, stem stout, inserted squarely on the
button; ventral shoulder falls away to well rounded side, dor-
sal shoulder falls straight vertically to rounded apex; apex
narrowly rounded with usually a slight beak, a pro-
nounced nak on the ventral side about 1 in. above apex; skin
smooth, yellowish green to orange-yellow, blushed pink to
light crimson on shoulders toward steam end, the skin is
thick and tough; flesh light to orange yellow in color, firm and
smooth of texture, a small amount of fine fibre; flavor sweet
when fully ripe; quality good; seed long, slender and thin
with fine fibre. Season in Florida July and early August. Tree
grows vigorous, moderate but regular bearer.



.. .. ..... - .

Fig. 40-Anderson mango-face and edge view. Pink to red cheek with
yellow background.

A seedling of Sofia Fry, which in turn is a seedling of
Julie, originated at the Zill Iomestead, Dclray Beach. It
first fruited about 1940. The fruit is long oblong, well rounded,
orange-yellow in color, medium sized, very free of fibre and
of highest eating quality. Due to its lack of color it may never
become a commercial variety hut its high quality and fairly
regular bearing make it desirable as a yard tree. Matures
about the same as HIaden.

One of the Filipino group selected by Mr. Ilickson of
Miami and named for his son (Fig. 24). The fruit is oblong
with a beak at apex, small to medium size, smooth skin, eightt
yellow to apricot in color. Flesh is light yellow, fibreless and
of mild flavor. The trees bear prolific crops tending to be
in clusters.
DIXON (12)
History-l)ixon is a seedling ol unknown origin from a
tree some 18 to 20 years old growing in the yard or Mr. A. B.
Dixon, 3060 Shipping Avenue, C'oconut Grove. It was first
noticed by nurserymen in 1948 and was first propagated coin-
mercially in 1949 by Mr. J. B. Carmichael, of Perrine, Florida.
(Fig. 41)

Fig. 41-Dixon mango fruit-face and edge view-orange-yellow
with crimson cheek extending to stem.

Description -Forim loIn.-obloin,_. well rounded: size medium.
% to 1 lb.. length 4V. to 5 inches. width 22 to :1 inches, thick-
Inss 2/, to 3 inches: Iise, slightly taperiniig lut shoulders
1r- ll'1 ilI ;1 l soill ,Iv still ins'ert'it siluallire in slillt depress' siion.
Ihirsal shoulder ftills ;I\\w to well rollinded ;ilex.
s1,ll1hler is w\ell rounddi: Vel'y slight lIailk a1nd iilonspicilou,>
n;ik abohmut 7/i inch fromn lbeik: skin smlooth. orialge-yellow.
llsliAid 1() ('illSO1 0II (' l eX])se side anill owardi s1lei : skill is
I lick ;indt tough: 'lesh or0llge-yllvelow, firiil an1( siootih. iullite
juicy. small almioulil of fibre: flavor sweet. spicy: quality fair
,to good : very plea;ist ironica to fruit : seed long. iledium size.
short fine fibres oni ventral suture. Season in Florida .June
and July.

A seedlii.g on the property of Jolhn ('. Kaiser, 802 N.E.
2nd Street. Fort Liauderdal e. Florida. The seed was planted
in 1932 and Iie tree bore I'rulit first in 1938, according to the
owner. It lias inot been )propagated commercially.
I)escription-Form ovate. plump: size small to mnediumn.
weight / t b.. lenh to / lb. le h to 5 in.. width :3 to .3% in..
lthickness 2Y3 to 3 inches: base slightly flattened, the slender
stein inserted squarely in a narrow shallow cavity; ventral

D E PA RT.N I E NT OF A( ',R I( 'I' I A* L' R E


shoulder full and rising slightly higher than the base, dorsal
shoulder sloping gradually; apex rounded to very bluntly
pointed, beak lacking or very small and indistinct, nak incon-
spicuous, level about 3/a in. from the apex; surface smooth,
ground color greenish-yellow to deep yellow, sometimes very
faintly blushed on exposed side, with slight grayish bloom
and numerous small yellow dots; skin medium thick and
rather tough, not separating readily from the flesh; flesh deep
yellow, medium firm, melting, juicy with no fibre; flavor rich,
sweet slightly aromatic, quality very good to excellent; stone
making up 10 to 12 percent of the total weight of the fruit,
with a fringe of short to medium fibre along the ventral edge;
seeds mostly polyembryonic, filling the husk. Season May 15
to July 30.
The seed, planted in 1936, which produced the original
tree of this variety came from a Brooks fruit grown on a tree
with H-aden topworked oil the same stump in the old Herman
grove in South Miami. The tree on the grove of Mr. Fred
Herman, School House Road and Davis Drive, South Miami,
first fruited in 1942. It has borne good crops in alternate
years. MIr. Herman states that the tree seems to stand more
cold than most mangos. It was not hurt in the 1942 cold snap.
Description-From oblong, plump; size large, weight 1 to
1V2 lbs., length 5 to 6 in., width 3%, to 4 in., thickness 3 to
3/2 in.; base rounded, slender stem set slightly oblique in
slight basal cavity; apex rounded with beak an(d nak incon-
spicuous; slight broad depression about 1 inch above apex;
surface smooth, light greenish-yellow with light scarlet blush
on exposed shoulder or cheek; dots medium large and white;
skin thick, tough, fibrous, adhering to flesh; flesh orange-
yellow in color, firm, with some fibres, sweet; quality fair,
seed long oblong, large and moderately plump; with some
coarse fibres along ventral suture. Season in Florida late July
and August. Tree is vigorous grower.

The original tree now on the Hervey Allen Estate came
from a seed from a late Saigon type planted in the nursery on
the old Herman grove in 1934. -Mr. Fred Herman, School
House Road and Davis Drive, South Miami, first propagated
this variety. The tree first fruited in 1940 and has produced
consistent crops since. Several topworked trees with 1 and 2
year tops liad good crops this season.
Description-Form ovate, broad at blossom end almost
to squareness, slightly compressed laterally; size large, weight
1/2 to 2 lbs., length 5 to 6 in., width 4 to 5 in., thickness 3/2
to 4 in.; base rounded, the slender stem sitting in decided
grooved basal cavity; ventral shoulder very full, dorsal shoul-


der full; apex rounded, broad from ventral to dorsal sides
giving square appearance: nak and beak fused into decided
nak; very slightly depression 1 to 1/2 in., above nak; skin
surface smooth, yellow blushed with dark carmine on shoulder
reaching almost to apex when exposed to sun: skin thick,
adhering to flesh; t'lesh firm, orange yellow, with some fine
fibres which are not objectionable; flavor sweet: quality fair
to good: seed oblong, plump with few fine fibres. Season in
Florida late July and August. Topworked trees are vigorous
in growth, of deep-green large-leafed foliage.

This is another of Mr. Simmonds' crosses from hand polli-
nation, this time of a Saigon seedling with Amini. Hitherto
it has been known as "Saigon x Amini." and this cumbersome
name is here reduced to "Samini". It has been propagated
somewhat in the Palm Beach area.
Description-Form oval to reniformn with marked lateral
compression: size small to medium, weight /V to ,4 lb., length
3 to 4 in., width 3 to 3V in., thickness 22 to 3 in.: base flat-
tened; shoulder about equally developed; apex broadly round-
ed. the curve ending in a pointed beak which is hardly above
the apex level; nak inconspicuous on tip of beak; surface
smooth, orange-yellow without blush, with many small white
dots; flesh firm, golden yellow: mild and sweet in flavor; fibre-
less; quality very good: stone slightly beaked; seed filling
stone, polyembryonic. Midseason. The variety looks like a
large Amini, and has the pronounced aroma of that parent.

One of a series of crosses between H-aden and Carabao
(Seedling) made by the late Edward Simmonds about 1928.
This was IIaden x Carabao No. 1 and is by far the best of
the three seedlings resulting from these crosses. Fruited 1934.
Description-Form ovate or oblong ovate, only slightly
compressed laterally; size medium to large, weight 3Y to 13'
lbs., length 4 to 4/2 in., width 3 to 4 in., thickness 3 to 3/V in.;
base obliquely flattened, the stem slender, inserted obliquely
in a very slight depression; ventral shoulder rising, dorsal
shoulder falling; apex broadly pointed, the nak evident about
1 in. above 1he apex, slightly depressed; surface smooth
greenish-yellow to light yellow in color, suffused with crimson
blush on the exposed side and covered by a pale lavender
bloom, dots small and yellow; skin thin, not very tough, sep-
arating fairly readily from the flesh; flesh orange-yellow in
color, medium firm, juicy, fibrous only next the seed, and of
piquant spicy flavor; quality very good; seed with short fibre
on the ventral edge chiefly, polvembryonic. Season in Florida
July or August, slightly later than Haden.



Seedling of IInden, probably pollinated by Sandersha from
seed planted in 1919 by Charles Springfels, West Palm l each.
Fruited first in 1925 and propagated commercially on small
scale since 1930 (Fig. 42).
Description-Form oblong, chunky; size large. weight 1/2
to 3 lbs., length 6 to 9 in., width 3/V to 4/2 in., thickness 3 to
4 in. base rounded or obtusely tapering, the stein stout, in-
serted almost squarely on a slightly raised button: ventral
shoulder slightly larger than the dorsal, but both usually
falling from the stem; apex broadly rounded, beak none. nak
inconspicuous oin lie flattened dorsal side about 1 inch above

Fig. 42-Springfels mango fruit on tree-yellow with red cheek.

the apex; surface smooth, light to orange-yellow, blushed
deep maroon on the exposed side, shading to light crimson on
the shoulders, with numerous, large white dots; skin thick,
tough, adhering to outer layer of fleshl; flesh light to orange-
yellow in color, firm. juicy, with a small amount of fine fibre
which is not objectionable; flavor sweet. rich; quality fair to
good; seed long, slender, slightly curved, with long, fine fibre.
Season in Florida late July and early August.


A seedling of unknown parentage growing on the property
of C. H. Strothman, 519 S. W. 11th Ave.. Miami, Florida.
The tree is large and spreading with rather dense foliage and
is about 29 years of age. It has not been propagated com-
Description-Form oblong to oblong-ovate, plump; size
medium to large, weight 1 to 15 lbs.. length 4V to 5 in..
width :3V to 33/ in.. thickness 3 to 3V4 in.; base rounded to
obtusely tapering, stout stem inserted a little obliquely either
level or on a slightly raised button; ventral shoulder rising
and full, dorsal shoulder falling steeply; apex broadly rounded,
beak none or small, nak inconspicuous, from /2 to 3/ inch
from the apex on the ventral side: surface smooth, ground
color greenish-yellow, blushed light crimson on the exposed
side. with numerous small yellow dots; skin thick, tough,
separating fairly readily from the flesh; flesh deep yellow,
medium firm. melting, juicy, with considerable fine, soft.
short fibre close to stone; flavor mild, sweet, slightly aromatic.
quality fair to good; stone making up 8 to 9 percent of the
total weight of the fruit, with considerable short, fine fibre on
both sides; seed monoembryonic, filling about 3/ of the husk.
Season June and July.
A number (of other Florida seedlings that are under ob-
servation are Adams, Bennettson. Burguner. Collins, Davis.
Dixon, Eldoni. llissar. Hodges. Kampong. Kennan. Pettigrew.
Thora. Whitney. and Wilson Saigon.
Introduced varieties of mangos grown on a limited scale,
mostly as yard trees:
T'lhis variet-y was introduced from Bombay, India, by the
U.S.I).A. (S.P.I. No. 8731) about 1902. The spicy, rich fla-
vored fruit has not proven too popular in Florida. The fruits
are large, oblong-oval, compressed about the base with round-
ed apex, 4~2 to 6 inches long. The skin surface is slightly
undulate, greenish-yellow with a light red cheek and very
prominent white dots. The flesh is pale yellow, tender, with
relatively few short fibres and comparatively small seed. Sea-
son in Florida July and August.

introduced from Bangalore, India, by the U.S.D.A. (S.P.I.
No. 7.104) in 1901. It has proven to be one of the most satis-
factory of the introductions in Florida and is grown somewhat
as a yard tree. The Amini is fairly reliable in bearing and
the aroma and flavor of the fruit are excellent. However. the
seed is large. The fruit is oval, laterally compressed, small.
2/2 x 3 inches, apex rounded and nak is conspicuous. Skin
surface is deep yellow with scarlet around the base. Flesh is


bright orange-yellow. free from fibre. unusually spicy and
aromatic. Season June and July.
Introduced in 1902 by U.S.I).A. (S. P. I. Nos. 8419 and
8727) from (Goregon. near omnbay, India. (It is also called
Bennett's Alphonse.) This variety has not proven popular
in Florida due to its shy bearing and the occasional hard sour
lumps produced in tile flesh. The fruit is ovate-oblique, very
plump, medium size : by 3 inches, apex broadly pointed, nak
absent or slightly depressed; surface is smooth. yellow-green
to yellow-orange. dots are few: skin is tough; flesh deep or-
ange free of fibre, firm, pleasantly sweet and rich in flavor.
Season in Florida July and August.
liomlay or Yellow Bomlbay was introduced by the U.S.D.A.
(S.P.. No. 13348) from lonmbay, India. The tree grows vig-
orously producing regular crops of canary yellow fruit shaped
like the apple mango. The flavor is mild and it may be due
to its close resemblance to the apple mango that this variety
has been planted so sparingly. The shape of the tree is tall
like No. 11 rather than round headed as the apple.
Introduced from Poona, India. by the U.S.D.A. (S.P.I. No.
8442) in 1902. The fruit is ovate, compact, of medium size,
3 by 4 inches, base broad, flattened; apex broadly rounded,
the curve ending ventrally in a distinct but very obtuse beak
and an inconspicuous nak, surface is smooth, green to yellow-
ish-green, blushed dark crimson on the exposed side in the
sun, with a slight lavender bloom and large yellow dots, flesh
is orange color, juicy and fiberless with a sweet, rich, spicy
flavor of good quality. Season is July and August. This variety
is one showing promise as to quality of fruit and as to in-
creased bearing ability after the trees attain ten to twelve
years of age.
Introduced from Trinidad by the U.S.D.A. (S.P.I. No.
21515) about 1907. Although it is very popular through the
West Indies it has been only moderately popular in Florida.
The fruit is small to medium in size, 3 by 3 inches, distinctly
compressed on sides to almost wedge-shaped at the somewhat
square apex. The skin is dark orange with a slight pink blush
on sun exposed side. Flesh is orange, fibreless, very rich,
spicy and sweet in flavor and good quality. The slow growing
trees are quite prolific. Season is June and July.
Introduced in 1889 from Poona, India, by the U.S.D.A.
This is the first grafted variety to fruit in the United States,
bearing its first crop near Lake Worth in 1902. The Mulgoba


is perhaps best known as the seed parent of the Haden. The
fruit is oblong-ovate to ovate, laterally compressed; size me-
dium 3 by 4 inches; base flattened, apex rounded to broadly
pointed with a small nak; surface is slightly undulate, deep
yellow sometimes with scarlet check with few dots; flesh is
bright orange-yellow. smooth and fine in texture, free of fibre,
with an agreeable aroma and a rich piquant flavor. The sea-
son is July to September. The fruit tends to bruise easily and
also tends to ripen first from next the seed making it unde-
sirable as a market fruit. Also the tree is a shy bearer.

Introduced from Bombay, India, by the U.S.D.A. (S.P.I.
No. 8730) in 1902. The relative lack of color in the fruit has
not made it a favorite in the markets but its extremely high
quality has made it popular among mango fanciers.
'The fruit is ovate reniform to ovate-oblique with a promi-
nent beak: size is small to medium 3 by 3/ inches with the
base obliquely flattened; the apex is broadly pointed with a
conspicuous beak; the surface is smooth, yellow-green in
color with an occasional slight cheek of scarlet; the flesh is
yellow-orange, firm. fine texture. free of fibre, of pleasant
aroma and sweet rich spicy flavor; quality is excellent. Sea-
son July and August. The Paheri is grown mostly as a yard
Introduced in 1901 from Bangalore, India, by the U.S.D.A.
(S.P.J. No. 7108). Also called Soondershaw, Sandershaw and
Sundershaw. The tree bears well and regularly and the fruit
is a favorite for cooking, especially pie-making. The fruit is
oblong, tapering toward stem and prominently beaked at the
apex; size is large weighing up to 3 lbs., 6 to 8 inches by 3 to
4 inches; apex is broadly pointed, with the nak prominent;
the surface is smooth, golden-yellow, sometimes blushed scar-
let on exposed side; flesh is orange-yellow, meaty, free from
fibre and of a subacid flavor conducive to culinary uses; des-
sert quality is only fair to poor. Season August and September.
Although these introduced varieties are grown on only a
very limited scale and then usually as yard trees, we cannot
overlook their immense value to the state as the seed parents
of so many of our commercial varieties. The bright and bril-
liant colors so desirable in a marketable fruit is brought into
the Florida seedling through its Indian heritage. Also the
high quality of such fruit as Paheri and Mulgoba is evident
in the newer varieties. Some of our most prolific new seedlings
trace their parentage to the poor quality but heavy fruiting
Sandersha. The intermingling of the several mango races
here is Florida bodes well to give us better varieties as new
seedlings are fruited, observed, tested and propagated.


1. Anonymous. Florida mango recipes. Leaflet published by
tlie Woman's Department of the Miami Herald.
2. Asenjo, ('anado F. and others. Thiamiin contellt of tropi-
cal foods. lFood Rsearchl 13:2. 1948.
3. Booher. lola E. and others. A compilation of tle vitamin
values of foods in relation to processing and other vari-
ants. U.S.1).A. Cir. No. (38. 19-12.
4. (Chandler. \V.W Evergreen orchards. Lea and Febiger.
Philadelphia. 1950.
5. (Cohin, Milton. A practical approach to prevent the 1mar-
keting ol inimmature mangos. Proc. Fla. Stale Hort. Soe.
6. Geiger. Wi. A. The mango-a mimeographed report.
May 1, 1939.
7. IIarkness. Ioy W. Laboratory tests of mango maturity.
Proc. of i'la. ,laniio Flor'um 1949.
8. Lynch. S. J. Nursery propagation and topworking of man-
gos. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Press Bull. 560. May 1941.
9. ____ and Mrs. Williaml J. Kroime. Mango varie-
ties originating in Florida. Proe. of Fla. Alango Forum.
10. and .Mrs. William J. Krome. Mango varie-
ties originating in Florida. Proe. of Fla. Manlgo Forum.
11. .land Noy Nel.on. Mango budling. Proe.
Fla. Hort. Soc. 19-19.
12. _mld Mrs. William J. Krome. Mango varie-
ties originating in lFlorida. Proe. of Fla. Mango Forum.
13. Avocado and mango. Fruit Nutrition, 79-
120, Somerset Press. 1954.
14. Miller. Carey I). and others. Vitamin values of Ilawaiian-
grown fruits and vegetables. Hawaii Agr. Expt. Sta. Pro-
gress Notes 3(6. Revised 1944.
15. 1_ and others. Some fruits of Hawaii, their
composition. nutritive value, and use. Hawaii Agr. Expt.
Sta. Bull. 77. 193i.
Il. Miusell. Ilazel E. Ascorbie acid content of the mlango in
relation to variety. Food Research 11:2. 194(i.
17. ('oonole ido vitaiinel o de los aliiilentos usii-
dos en Puerto Rico. Mimeographed Report. Eseuela ide
Medicine Tropical. Sain .Jmn Puerto Rico. 1944.
18. Mustard, Margaret J. Preservation of 1man1gos by freez-
ing. Pro. of Fla. Mango Forum. 1948.


19. anld S. J.. I yncl. lEfect of viirious factors
ulpoln the ascorbic Iclid content of some Fllorida-grown
mangos. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 406. 1945
20. NIlsin. Roy. The use of plastic film in the graftage of
tropical and subtropical plants. F"la. Sub-Trop. Gard. 2::3.
21. S eymouirl (iolldweber' id F'ed .. Fuchs.
Sr. Topworking procedures for niinigos. Proc. of Fla.
Mango Foiruii. 1954.
22. P'ope. W. T. Mango culture in Hlawaii. Hlawaii Agr. Expt.
Sta. Bull. 5S. 1929.
2:3. Popenioe. W ilson. 'l'l )) pollination of tlihe iiian '.S.I).A.
Hull. 342. 1917.
24. Miianual of tropical and sub-tropi Thel Ma.inillan Co. 1920.
25. Itiawlings, Mrlijorie Kiliimi. Cross creek cookery. Charles
Seribner's Soios. 1942.
264. Hicliardson. Mabel. M3-M-It's man.,o time il Miami. Mi-
amni Daily News. -June 1, 1949.
27. lIHehlilc. ('(orge 1). and n .1. iymch. Mango yiclds in-
'reased by cross pollinaliaton. Fla. (Irower 57:7. .July 1939.
2s. The Kent and Zill inian.os. Fla. Agr.
Expt. Sta. Press Iull. 1il. 1945.
29. Report of sub-tropical fruit commiinittee
I'roc. Fla. State Iorlt. Soc. 1947.
30. culturall directions for growing mangos
in Florida. I. of Fla. Mimeographed Report 10. Sub-
Tropical Expt. Sta. 1949.
:1. Fertilizer practices for tlie mango. Proe.
of' Flu. ~lmngo Forum. 1949.
3:2. Rtuelile. George 1). Organic fungicides for control of antih-
ralenose of mango. Proe. of Fla. Mango Forum. 1953.
33:. Smith. Paul F. and G. Kenneth Scudder. Jr. Some studies
of mineral deficiency symptoms in mango. ProC. Fla. State
IIort. Soc. 1951.
34. Stlhl. A. l. compositionn of miscellaneous tropical and
sub-tropical Florida fruits. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 281.
35. Stennis, Mary A. Florida fruits and vegetables in the
family imenu. Fin. State Dept. of Agr. lull. 46. 1947.
:36. Sturrock. Iavid. Tropical fruits for southern Florida and
Cuba and their uses. The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard
University. 1940.

Iin. 1944.

Notes on ithe linnlgo. Stuart Daily News,


38. Str'ro.k. T. T. A key to Florida mango varieties. Plroe.
Fla. State IIort. Soc. 1944.
39. Wardllaw ('. W. an E. R. Leiiard. The storage of \est
Indian miangos. IlwV Temlperatire Research Sta. Memoir
No. 3. nIlmperial College of Tropiical Agriculture. 1936.
4(1. Wester. I*. J. A (oniitributiohl to the history of the mal on
in Florida. PrIo. of Fla.. Alano )rim. 1947.
41. Wintol. Andrew IL. andl Kate I;arber Winton. The strue-
tnre ailnd c(inposition of foods. Vol. II. .John Wiley and
Sons, Inc. 193;5.
42. Wolfe. II. S. and S. J. Lynchi. New varieties of mangos
for Florida. Proe. Fla. State Hiort. Soe. 1942.
4:. Young. T. Investigations of the unfrulit fulness of tihe
IIaden imnango in Florida. Proc. Fla. State Ifort. Soc.

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