|Table of Contents|
Table of Contents
Experimental pastures, 1924
Another experiment, 1933
Value of permanent pastures
Cost of planting pastures
Selection of land
Preparation of the soil
When and how to plant
Selection of grasses for planting
Description of permanent pasture grasses
Some new grasses
Temporary and supplemental pastures
Clover for Florida pastures
Discription of clovers
Reports on clover plantings
Planting pastures through AAA assistance
Maintenance of pastures
Burning of pastures
Food constituents of pasture plants
Hay from Florida grasses and legumes
Grasses and forage crops for silage
Statistics of pastures planted under AAA program
Comments of livestock men and others on improved pastures
E DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
sTE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE^
TALLAHASSE E SEPTEMBER, 1941
Bulletin No. 108 New Series September 1941
STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Nathan Mayo, Commissioner TALLAHASSEE
Compiled l>y Workers of the Writer's Program of the
Work Projects Administration in tlie State of Florida
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA State-wide Sponsor of the Florida Writers' Project
FF.DFRAL WORKS AGENCY
John M. Cahmodt, Administrator
WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION Howard O. HUNTER, Commissioner FLORENCE KERR, Assistant Commissioner Wii.mij E. Harkness, State Administrator
This timely bulletin graphically portrays how the development of improved grazing land in Florida, through the planting of foreign grasses and clovers, has brought immense benefit to cattlemen and dairymen of the State. Native grasses that have been depended upon for more than two centuries provided seasonal grazing only, while introduced grasses afford exceptionally good pastures for as long as eight or nine months of the year. Since 1926 the more than 200,000 acres of land that have been turned into improved fenced pastures are supporting several times as many cattle as the same amount of native range. This improvement has been due largely to the work of the College of Agriculture of the University of Florida through its Experiment Station and Extension Division; the splendid co-operation of local cattlemen; and the financial assistance given by the Agricultural Adjustment Administration of the United States Department of Agriculture. Reflecting these efforts, the 1940 Federal census shows that Florida, with approximately 2,000,000 beef cattle, now stands third among the States comprising the South Atlantic Group, representing a 48 per cent increase since 1930.
(Signed) BERT LIVINGSTON, Associate Editor, Florida Grower Magazine, Tampa, Florida.
(Signed) W. F. WARD,
Animal Husbandman in Charge, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Industry, Brooksville, Florida.
The Florida Writers' Project is indebted to W. F. Ward, of the United States Department of Agriculture Experiment Station, Chinsegut Hill Sanctuary. Brooksville: Bert Livingston, Associate Editor of the Florida Grower; Thomas M. Lykes. cattleman; Dr. Frederick Boyd, Assistant Agronomist of the Florida Experiment Station, and many others, for their criticisms and suggestions in the compilation of this work. Particular credit is due Lindsay M. Bryan and Edmund M. Sharrock of the Florida Writers' staff who prepared the manuscript.
Photograph for cover furnished by the Florida Agricultural Extension Service. Cover design by the Florida Art Project.
Rolla A. Sonthworth Carita D. Corse
State Director State Supervisor
Community Service Programs Florida Writers' Project
Work Projects Administration
Experimental Pastures, 1924 16
Another Experiment, 1933 17 Definitions .20
Value of Permanent Pastures 22
Cost of Planting 24
Selection of Land 2">
Preparation of the Soil 27
When and How to Plant 28
Selection of Grasses......... 30
Description of Grasses 32
New Grasses 36
Temporary and Supplemental Pastures 38
Clover for Florida Pastures 42
Description of Clovers 49
Reports on Clover Plantings 52
Planting Pastures Through AAA Assistance ... 54
Maintenance of Pastures......... 58
Burning of Pastures.......... 61
Food Constituents of Pasture Plants 65
Hay From Florida Grasses and Legumes .... 67
Grasses and Forage Plants for Silage..... 71
Statistics of Pastures Planted Under AAA Program 74
Comments of Livestockmen and Others on Improved
If it was punishment for Biblical King Nebuchadnezzar to eat grass with the cattle, the form rather than the quality of the food was to blame, for present-day scientists insist that grass contains more health-giving vitamins than any other plant, and have devised ways to mix it in powder form with other foods. However, until humans acquire the digestive equipment of cows they are likely to prefer their grass in the more palatable form of beef and dairy products. So in a pioneer cattle country such as Florida, a greater part of which still remains open range, grass production acquires mounting economic importance.
Florida was in reality America's first cattle country. Spanish immigrants brought small herds to the peninsula in the 16th and 17th centuries, and the English in the late 1700's, and here were established ranches 250 years before the "Wild West" became a beef domain. Thus Florida was the birthplace of the cattle industry in the United States.
The first cattle to get a taste of native Florida grasses arrived more than 400 years ago, when Ponce de Leon landed a few Spanish beeves on the Gulf shore in 1521 to furnish fresh meat for his projected colony, and apparently started the original Florida herd.
Some of those animals evidently outran the butcher and escaped into the woods, for later settlers found Indian tribes in possession of half-wild cattle, descendants of which have been kept on the run ever since, frequently consuming more miles than sustenance in a search for forage. In fact until improved pastures were recently developed, it is said that Florida range cows had to keep on the move all day to fill their five maws and that any fat accumulated in the summer was run off in the fall.
The greatest strides toward developing Florida into a scientific cow country have taken place over a five-year period beginning in 1936. In that time more than 200,000
acres of land have been turned into improved, fenced pastures, with from three to four sleek-flanked beef cattle fattening where only one lanky rrnge "critter" survived before.
Nevertheless when all Florida was open range, pioneer stockmen made comfortable fortunes without scientific pampering. By 1850, and even earlier, native grasses converted into beef on the hoof, were helping "cow men" who shipped their stock to Cuba to pile up Spanish doubloons, big gold pieces of buccaneer days, worth about $15.75 each. Banks were scarce then, and this heavy gold became so burdensome that drovers would leave it lying around on kitchen shelves. Handfuls of the glittering coins were even tossed to children to play with. In those days Tampa and Punta Rassa were the big shipping points for cattle produced in central and south Florida.
Commercial stock raising in the State received further impetus in the 1860's when native cattlemen supplied the Confederacy with vast numbers of beef animals to feed its army. It was through the period 1850-'70 that such noted range kings as Jake Summerlin, H. T. Lykes, and Ziha King popped their 18-foot whips over big herds that waxed temporarily fat during the spring and early summer. Range cattle then received no feed except that which could be foraged, and so in late fall and winter became woefully thin and a bovine prototype of the scrawny razorback hog. As recalled by an old "cowhand" who whooped the Lykes' herds through the woods as late as 1920, "you could hang your hat on the hip of any cow in the winter." Thus, unable to wait for favorable markets, cattlemen often lost the big end of their profits.
Wild Florida pastures still consist chiefly of wire, broom-sedge, Bermuda and carpet grasses; the latter two introduced so long ago that they are now regarded as natives along with the others. Ten acres or more of wire grass, or like unimproved pasture, have been required to graze one cow, and that provided good grazing for only about two
and a half to three months after which this vegetation becomes tough, unpalatable and lacking in nutrition.
Consequently Florida livestock owners have been constantly harried by the grazing bogy, in spite of a mild climate that might be expected to produce good all-year pasturage, at least in some areas in the State. A pasture on which cattle could put on weight every month in the year would he a stockman's dream not likely to be realized, yet in some sections through imported grasses such an ideal has been approached. In the Everglades region Para grass has not only put weight on beef cattle during the winter but given them the appearance of stall-fed animals in the -spring. This desirable condition, however, applies only to a portion of the lush prairie lands of the Okeechobee basin. Elsewhere, winter pasturage still remains a void even though introduced grasses have extended grazing seasons. Clover has come closest to bridging the dormant winter gap. Though the State is in the temperate zone it is influenced by subtropical waters which reverse its growing seasons so that northern summer crops mature in winter in Florida. Thus, clover thrives in winter in Florida, and mixed with tropical grasses helps to fill in the off-season grazing blank.
In response to the clamor for more grass, better grass, and a longer grazing season which stockmen started about 1920. the Agricultural College of the University of Florida through its Experiment Station and Extension Division in co-operation with State and Federal Departments of Agriculture, have successfully introduced grasses valuable in food quality and adaptable to Florida soils and climate. Prolonged growing tests of mixtures of these grasses along with clovers have shown notable progress toward all-year permanent pastures in Florida.
These experiments have continued for many years, but actual large-scale plantings by cattlemen did not begin until 1936 when the Agricultural Adjustment Administration of the U. S. Department of Agriculture came to their financial aid. Through this help thousands of acres of suit-
able pasture lands have been improved, and. of equal importance, fenced.
To receive Federal aid pasture land must be enclosed. K. K. Garrison writing in the Tampa Morning Tribune of July 20, 1940, remarked that along with its more than 200,000 acres of improved pasturage the Florida range supports at least 2,000,000 beef cattle, a number greater than the combined total of Idaho, Nevada, and Utah. About 85 per cent of this number were under fence in 1940 compared with less than 10 per cent in 1930. Thousands of acres, however, already had been fenced before the AAA program came along. Introduction of purebred stock was to an extent responsible for this: cattlemen did not want these expensive animals to be killed on highways, and at the same time considered them worthy of private pastures. So improvement of Florida cattle strains has had more to do with fence building than political arguments. Only ranchers with one cow and nine voters insist upon using the highways for grazing purposes.
The views of a practical stockman have been voiced by former Governor Doyle K. Carlton, cattle raiser in southwest Florida, who states that improved pasturage has increased his beef production threefold since 1934.
George H. Dacey, Florida authority on cattle and pasture, has pointed out that while native range provides satisfactory seasonal grazing only, improved grasses afford exceptionally good pasturage for eight or nine months during the year, and that therefore Florida cattle can be maintained more economically and profitably on only one-fifth or one-sixth as much improved pasture as they now range and rustle over.
As for the livestock itself, experiments reveal that the cattle not only like the taste of the introduced grasses better than the native, but that they eat more of the palatable varieties and so spend less time roaming around. In this way. beef cattle fatten quicker and cows give more milk than open range animals.
To Florida landowners generally, (he development of grazing land has been something of a revelation fraught with dramatic interest. They have hopefully watched the importation and experimental planting of foreign grasses by agronomists; they have subsequently seen vast areas of formerly unproductive land converted into green pas-lures, and they are aware that efforts to bring about still further improvements are constantly under way.
This progress, however, does not threaten the supply of potential cattle range, nor the over production of cattle. The State, in all. has about 35,111,000 acres of land, of which an estimated 25,000.000 acres can be turned into productive grazing land with introduced grasses. "Idle land is a liability." agricultural authoratives have declared, "and the darker and heavier type of land in Florida should be improved for cattle. . Florida is producing less than 10 per cent of its present beef consumption. With improved pasture conditions the State can produce three times as many pounds of beef as are being produced at present."
Stockmen have finally heeded this admonition with apparent enthusiasm, and thousands of otherwise useless acres once covered by palmetto and other undesirable growth are being cleared and broken by heavy tractor-drawn machines that tear out palmettos and bushes by the roots. Much land considered unsuitable for general cultivation has been made profitable for grazing, for planted pasture costs less than most farming crops, and once planted usually becomes permanent. Besides, less acreage of improved grass is required to feed a given herd, thus reducing investment in land and cutting the costs of fencing and herdsmen.
EXPERIMENTAL PASTURES, 1924
As early as 1924 a series of experiments were made with plantings of introduced grasses, then comparatively unknown in this State, but which have since become commonplace among the accepted species. These experiments were made co-operatively by the Agricultural Extension Division of the University of Florida, the Seaboard Airline Railway Company and the Florida East Coast Railway Company.
More than a dozen demonstration pastures of mixed grasses were established over the State on the types of soil common in Florida. These included cut-over pine land in Bay County, a typical clay hill in Leon County, sandy loam with clay subsoil in Suwannee County, cut-over pine land in Duval County similar to thousands of acres in north Florida, and drained land in St. Lucie County.
The same mixture of seed, approximately 15 pounds to the acre, was used regardless of section or soil type. This mixture consisted of six pounds of carpet grass, four pounds of Dallis, two pounds of Bahia, and three pounds of lespedeza, (sometimes called Japanese clover).
Accurate grazing records were not kept in all cases, but estimated results in carrying capacity ranged from approximately one to two cows per acre, as follows: Bay County, 7/10 cow per acre; Leon County', tw7o cows per acre for eight months; Suwannee, one cow for eight months; Duval, two cows for eight months, and St. Lucie, two cows for eight months.
ANOTHER EXPERIMENT, 1933
Another experiment, concluded in 1933, demonstrated the weight-gain of steers on fertilized experimental pastures planted five years before to a mixture of Bahia, Dallis, carpet, and Bermuda grass. This experiment was conducted at Gainesville by the Division of Forage Crops and Diseases, Bureau of Plant Industry of the United States Department of Agriculture, and Department of Agronomy of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. On this mixed pasture, planted on cleared sandy hammock land, native steers, from March 21 to December 1, 1933, gained an average of 167.92 pounds each.
The ground, 17'> acres in all, prepared in the spring, was broken by a turning plow, disked, later cross-broken, redisked, and then harrowed with a spike-toothed harrow. It was afterwards divided into five fenced pastures of 3' > acres each for separate plantings. A flowing stream crossed all plots, assuring a constant supply of fresh water.
The seed mixture from this pasture consisted of, Bahia 1.43 pounds, Bermuda 2.14, carpet 2.43, and Dallis 3.43. or a total of 9.43 pounds per acre. This was broadcast in June just before the rainy season. Instead of covering the seed in the usual way cattle were turned in at once, and their trampling, together with washing in by rain, covered it so well that the grasses came up within a month and developed a good stand. This method of covering seed, however, is advised only where the soil has been well prepared and the seeding done shortly before or during a rainy season.
Twenty months after planting, fertilizer was applied as a top dressing as follows: Nitrate of soda 25 pounds, cottonseed meal 67. superphosphate 100, and muriate of potash 25 pounds, or an aggregate of 217 pounds per acre. After grazing had begun two applications of 100 pounds per acre of nitrate of soda each were made, one in May and the other in June. To keep down weeds and promote estab-
lishment of a good Eod the pasture was mowed at intervals and kept well grazed.
Each year for several years the pasture was further treated by two annual top-dressings of 50 pounds per acre of sodium nitrate or complete fertilizer, the first application in February or March, the second in May or July.
In the mixed-grass pasture a thick and even sod was produced by the spring of 1929 and was maintained in good condition except during extremely dry periods. In such times the Bahia grass maintained a better growth than the others. Carpet and Bermuda were held back by dry weather but thickened up with the coming of rains. The sod finally produced was dense enough to exclude weeds and intruding grasses.
Resides the mixed pasture other experimental plots were planted to individual varieties of grasses, including Bermuda, Bahia, and centipede. Little difference in the pounds of beef produced per acre on these individual grasses was recorded.
Records showed that steers grazed on all these pastures gained in weight continually from March 20 to October 2 during the five-year grazing tests, but began to lose weight after the end of October. However, the average gain of steers on the mixed pasture was better than on either carpet or Bermuda alone, but less than on the straight centipede or straight Bahia grass; probably because of the greater adaptability of the two latter to the dry, sandy soil of this area.
Comparative results in average yearly weight-gain of steers on five pastures for the five-year period of the experi-
ment were as follows:
Gain Per Steer
Carpet grass, pounds gained 114.58
Bermuda grass, pounds gained 149.76
Mixed grass, pounds gained 155.80
Bahia grass, pounds gained 160.78
Centipede grass, pounds gained 193.26
Results, however, varied in other parts of the State, according to soil and climatic conditions. For instance, at Gainesville, centipede grass showed the highest weight gain, but elsewhere cat Lie made r.o gain at all on centipede, and in some cases lost weight, as a result of which centipede grass has been practically eliminated in some sections.
Another series of tests made at Gainesville from 1929 to 1933, determined the number of pounds of crude protein per acre yielded by the different grasses during this five-year period. Following is a summary of the results:
Since these experiments, agricultural agencies have continued and expanded their efforts and a number of additional grasses have been successfully tried, as well as varieties of clover, a wider variety of soil types has been planted and improved methods of preparing and treating the soil developed to maintain productivity of pastures.
Pounds Crude Protein Per Acre
Centipede grass Carpet grass Bermuda grass
138.7 180.2 217.3 218.5 233.9
Mixture grass Bahia grass
Stockmen have become familiar with the names of the new grasses and the terminology of agricultural specialists, but a few definitions may be helpful.
A permanent pasture is one located upon land not to be used for other crops, and is usually planted to grasses, or a mixture of grasses and legumes which live indefinitely or reseed themselves from year to year, thereby requiring but one (the original) planting.
Improved pasture is another term for a planted permanent pasture. It also applies to a natural pasture developed by mowing or maintenance treatment.
A temporary or supplemental pasture is one located on cultivated land and planted to quick-growing forage crops.
Legumes include all varieties of clover, lespedeza, and all plants of the bean and pea family.
Introduced grasses are those not native to Florida, but which have been brought in from foreign countries or other States and planted here.
Sodding is a general term for planting pastures by means other than sowing seed.
Sods or sod pieces are rooted clumps of grass pulled or dug up for planting purposes.
Stolons are surface runners of grass, used for planting.
"I nit", as applied to AAA financing of pasture planting, indicates the scale of assistance, and represents a credit of $1.50 with a limitation of two units to the acre for planting grass. The number of units allowed for any year is fixed at one-fourth the number of acres inspected and passed upon as suitable for development. If an owner submitted a tract of 10,000 acres, properly fenced as required, and all of it was found suitable, he would receive a credit of 2,500 units or $3,750. If it cost two units or $3 per acre
to establish a certain type of grass, he could plant 1,275 acres the first year, the same amount the second, and so on until the entire tract had been improved. However, maintenance of previous plantings is a factor in securing further aid. Under certain limitations subsequent units can be applied to fertilizer instead of planting.
VALUE OF PERMANENT PASTURES
The new grasses, and mixtures of grasses with clover and lespedeza, not only provide grazing earlier in the spring and further into the winter, but conserve the soil and its moisture content. By forming a dense sod, the decaying roots of the improved pastures add humus to the soil and create favorable conditions for absorbing and retaining moisture. Grass takes less fertility from the soil than cultivated crops, and a large part of that which is taken is returned directly to the land by the grazing animals.
Some contend that if land is good enough to plant for pasture, why not plant it in more profitable crops? There are several answers to this. One is that thousands of acres of flatwoods and prairie are not suitable for cultivation but can be turned into good grazing areas when planted to better grasses. Another is that it costs less to plant pasture than most commercial crops, and that the latter ordinarily have to be planted annually, while a pasture, once planted, usually becomes permanent.
Highlands County livestock growers were among the first to buy land for pasture instead of depending on "open range" or leased lands. Since 1934 they have purchased more than 300,000 acres for grazing purposes.
Each year since the AAA plan of assistance went into effect has brought a big increase in pasture development, as shown in statistics given on a subsequent page. Unusual expansion was under way in 1940 as shown by scattered reports received for that year, although complete statistics for 1940 were not available at the time this was written.
One ranchman in 1940 bought and fenced 38.000 acres in Hendry and Collier Counties on which to pasture his herds. Stockmen in St. Lucie County have acquired ownership of 80 per cent of that county's available acreage for cattle grazing, and much of it is being fenced.
DeSoto County cattlemen in 1940 imported 42,000 pounds of carpet grass seed for planting pastures.
Pasco County was reported by the Miami It,-raid in March 1940, to have 61,000 acres of permanent pasture grasses, including carpet, Bahia, and Para varieties.
In Highlands County 47,911 acres of improved grazing lands had been planted by January 1, 1941. In 1934 the iotal was 240 acres.
Charlotte County cattlemen had established 12,000 acres of improved pastures up to 1940 and were expected to plant 10,000 acres additional within a y< ar.
A cattle concern in the Everglades section wrote in 1940 that they were improving from 2,000 to 3,000 acres of pasture land each year.
No definite statistics are available as to total amount of land that has been purchased or fenced for pastures in the State, but official figures on plantings from 1936 to 1939, inclusive, plus estimates of plantings for 1940, place the total of improved pastures up to January 1, 1941, at approximately 300,000 acres.
Perhaps one reason for the continued development of pastures may be found in the statement of Thomas M. Lykes, of Lykes Brothers, that the better grasses improve the quality of meat, enabling them to get one to two cents a pound more for their animals, besides the increase in weight.
Improvement of pastures has naturally been greatest in Florida's principal beef cattle section, which is in the southern part of the State from around Kissimmee southward into the areas south and west of Lake Okeechobee. There has also been extensive planting of pastures in the chief dairying counties. These, in the order of their pasture acreages, are the following counties: Duval, Dade, Orange, Hillsborough, Pinellas, Escambia, and Alachua.
COST OF PLANTING PASTURES
The cost of establishing an improved or permanent pasture depends upon the condition of the land to be prepared, the fertilizing or other soil treatment necessary, and the kind of grass or plant mixture used.
If the area to be planted is overgrown with scrub palmetto or other heavy brush, the expense of clearing would be considerably greater than if the acreage were prairie or other land that could be prepared by ordinary disking or plowing.
If the soil requires lime, phosphate, potash, nitrate, oxide of iron, copper sulphate, or other treatment, these fertilizers will contribute materially to the cost.
In some cases planters get along without fertilizer, with satisfactory results, provided the land is fertile and moist, but even in such cases some specialists assert that it would pay to use fertilizer.
Since it has been noted that cattle graze more greedily on fertilized areas due to the better taste, greater tenderness and succulence of the grass and to the presence of healthful minerals which the animals need and crave, adequate fertilizing is necessary to secure AAA assistance.
One authority says that on certain areas, such as cut-over uplands with light sandy soil, it is doubtful if the increased yield of grass would justify the cost of fertilizing.
Because of the widely varying requirements of different lands as to clearing and soil treatment, no general statement can be given as to the cost of planting pastures. Under AAA procedure, however, the cost "under most conditions," has been stated as from $4 to $6 an acre.
A cattle company that established several thousand acres of unfertilized Para, carpet, and Bermuda pastures in Glades County without AAA assistance, states that the cost for seed and labor came to about $5 an acre.
SELECTION OF LAND
Moist, fertile soil is the best for planting any kind of pasture but such lands are not available to all. Therefore, those who have no land of this kind should choose the best tract available from what they have, if at all suitable. However, as a general thing, such poor areas as blackjack oak ridges, sand soaks, and badly washed-out hillsides are hardly worth planting.
Like any succulent plants, the grasses and legumes used for improved pastures require good soil and ample moisture for satisfactory production, and the better the soil the more profitable and longer the grazing season will be. The types of land most common to Florida which are ordinarily adapted for pasture planting, are the grassy and palmetto fiatwoods, prairies, sandy loams, clay soils, cut-over pine lands, and hammocks. In the Everglades sections much of the soil is sawgrass peat and custard apple muck, nearly all of which are suitable for some varieties of pasture grasses.
All the above adaptable soils, if well drained and of reasonable fertility, will grow one or more of the pasture plants or mixtures recommended for permanent grazing.
All pasture should be fenced, for several reasons. Fencing facilitates all details of herd management and rotation of grazing. It will keep your cattle in and other people's out; prevents up-bred animals from mixing with outside scrubs, and requires less time and less help for round-up operations. Also, fencing is desirable if you wish to take advantage of AAA assistance in financing pasture improvement.
Another factor in choosing land for planting pasture is to make sure there is a convenient and abundant supply of good, fresh water and plenty of shade. When cattle have to go a long distance for water and shade they walk off considerable weight and lose time that ought to be spent in grazing or resting.
Speaking generally, it is well to ask the advice of your county agent as to the part of your land to select for establishing a permanent pasture, as he has probably made a study of the soil types in the county and knows those best suited for the purpose in each locality.
PREPARATION OF THE SOIL
Some grasses are planted by sowing the seed and others by planting cuttings of vegetative parts of the grass, such as runners, stems, canes, rooted clumps or sod pieces. For either method the ground is prepared in practically the same manner.
Proper preparation of the land is of prime importance. First, the acreage to be planted should be well cleared by removing or destroying the natural vegetation, including native grass, weeds, palmettos, and other growth. Land overgrown with palmettoes or shrubbery may be grubbed or cleared by heavy machines now used for this purpose. Some of these tractor-drawn machines tear out such growth by the roots. Others, like the heavier disks, kill the roots and branches by cutting them up.
Where the only vegetation is grass and weeds, it can usually be destroyed by disking and cross-disking. If the soil is not well bi-oken by the clearing processes, it should be plowed or disked. Generally after the trad is cleared and broken it should be gone over with a spike-toothed harrow. The surface soil should afterwards be made firm, either by allowing it to be packed by rain or b.v rolling after planting. The seed bed should be shallow and firm, rather than deep and soft.
If the soil is lacking in fertilitj or the minerals necessary to healthy grazing, it should be treated, either before or after planting, with the proper fertilizer or minerals. As an instance of the value of soil treatment, a demonstration pasture of Bermuda grass near Brighton was treated with 1,000 pounds of dolomitic limestone and 30 pounds of bluestone (copper sulphate) per acre. A 200 per cent increase in grass production resulted.
WHEN AND HOW TO PLANT
Whether you plant seed or vegetative parts of the grass, planting should be done when the soil is moist clear to the surface, and is apt to stay so for several weeks. If possible, planting should be done during a rainy season. However, on some lowdands where the soil is constantly moist planting may be done at any time. Grass seed will not germinate nor cuttings take root in dry ground.
If fertilizer is to be used it can be applied either before or after planting. Your county agent can tell you how and where to obtain seed and cuttings, and if fertilizer is needed he will advise you as to the kind and amount necessary for your pasture.
Sowing Seed: After the ground has been prepared, the seed may be broadcast by a man on horseback or afoot, or drilled in rows by a seeding machine. If the tract to be planted is very large it may be more economical to broadcast the seed from an airplane, as has been done on some of the larger plantings.
After sowing, the seed should be lightly covered. This may be done either by shallow harrowing, by a brush drag, or by allowing the rain to wash the seed into the ground. Another method, preferably used on fields of temporary forage crops, where a considerable herd of livestock is available, is to turn the stock into the field after sowing the seed and allow them to trample it into the ground while grazing the existing forage. Whatever the method, planting should be followed by intervals of rain for several weeks, unless the ground is naturally moist.
Planting by Cuttings. For some grasses no seed is available, and planting is done by means of cuttings or sod pieces of vegetative parts. The ground should be prepared by clearing and breaking, followed by harrowing.
Sod pieces should have a diameter of 3 to 5 inches, and
should bo planted at an average spacing of not more than 2'o feet between them each way. They may be dropped and lightly covered in furrows or scattered over the surface and then rolled or disked in.
Cuttings of stems or surface runners are usually planted by one or the other of the following methods:
Pieces from 4 to 6 inches in length are set in rows about 2'-_> ftet apart, the pieces averaging about the same distance apart, the cuttings being set into the ground with 1 or 2 inches of their length remaining above the surface. Or. pieces may be cut to an inch or two in length and scattered broadcast over the ground, after which they are covered by shallow disking and then rolled to make the surface firm. Incidentally, a machine has been constructed that both cuts and scatters runners of grass at the same time.
Deviations from the foregoing methods may be advisable to conform with certain types of land or other local or sectional conditions. Therefore, those contemplating pasture improvements should consult with persons who have already planted pastures in the locality or with the county agent, as to the best procedure to follow.
SELECTION OF GRASSES FOR PLANTING
Some prefer to plant one kind of grass alone, while others favor a mixture of two or mere species, or a mixture of certain grasses with legumes such as lespedeza or clover. Several reasons are advanced in favor of the mixtures.
(1) That certain grasses will produce an earlier growth in the spring, while others thrive better through the summer and still others withstand the cold later in fall and winter, and that they should be mixed to furnish uniform grazing for as long a period as possible.
(2) Many tracts of land in Florida are "spotted," with a number of different kinds of soil in the same field, and by planting a mixture, one or more of the grasses will grow on patches of soil not adapted to the others. Hence, it is asserted that a thicker and more uniform stand will develop.
(3) It is contended by the advocates of mixture that this method will produce a thicker sod and thus maintain moisture better.
(4) Clover or lespedeza mixed with grass, where adapted, adds to the nutritive value of the pasture and supplies available nitrogen which fertilizes the grass, and the legumes also provide forage earlier and later than grass alone.
On the other hand, some successful growers of improved pasture say they prefer only one kind of grassthe kind that is most nutritious and best adapted to their land because some grasses in a mixture might not grow well on their soil, or might grow so strongly as to retard or crowd out the preferred grass.
Whether a prospective planter should put in a single species or a mixture, and what kind of grass or mixture, will depend to a great extent on the nature of his land and the climatic conditions of his section. If there are already successful plantings of pasture in your locality it may be
well to follow the established practice there. If not, the following description of grasses generally used in Florida, and their soil preference, may enable you to choose the kind best suited to your particular needs. Advice of your county agent will also be helpful.
While there are 16 or more introduced or imported grasses that can be used for permanent pasture in this State, up to the present time only about half that number have proved to be of sufficient value to come into general use. Those that have given the best results on most of the land types in Florida are: carpet. Bahia. Dallis. Ilermuda, Carib, Para, centipede and Napier. Guinea and Vasey grass also have shown promise in some sections. Several species of lesser known worth are being grown and observed on experimental plots, and some of them may prove to be of great value.
DESCRIPTION OF PERMANENT PASTURE GRASSES
(With soil adaptability, amount of seed per acre required, etc.)
Cai'pet Grass (Axoiiopus compresms): A perennial that spreads by seeds and surface runners (stolons). A native of the West Indies, where it was first reported from Jamaica in 1696. First tried in the United States at New Orleans in 1832. Pale green in color with creeping stems that root at every joint. Is persistent and aggressive and often appears spontaneously on cleared, grazed lands. Will grow almost anywhere in Florida, but prefers moist, sandy soils or sandy loams. Makes a very tight, close sod. Of medium palatability. Will germinate in two to three weeks but requires from six months to two years to establish a good sod. Reseeds itself and seed can be saved by mowing when seed heads are mature and before seeds fall. These mowings scattered on well-preparea, moist soil and rolled in will give a good stand if soil continues moist for several weeks. Often planted in mixture with lespedeza or clover for greater nourishment and quicker pasture. May also be sown on fields of oats, rye or other temporary forage crops while cattle are grazing these fields. Trampling of cattle will cover seed sufficiently for a good stand. Seed 10 to 20 pounds to the acre. Grazing from spring to fall, or in some southern sections throughout the year.
Bahia Grass (Pas pal inn notatum): A perennial pasture grass native of South America, introduced into Florida about 1915. Highly palatable. Propagated by seeds, surface runners, or sod pieces. One planting lasts indefinitely. Seeds should be broadcast about 15 to 25 pounds to the acre and covered lightly. The plant sinks its roots 5 to 8 feet deep in search of water, which partly explains why the grass will grow on high, dry lands. It also is adapted to sandy loams and sands, and provides grazing from early spring to late fall.
Dallis Grass (Paspalum dilatatum): A large, bunchy long-
lived perennial grass native to South America. First reported in the United States in Arkansas in 1879. Highly palatable and nutritious. Will stand close grazing and is particularly good for winter pasture as it is more cold resistant than other grasses. Seed should be broadcast 10 to 20 pounds to the acre, and care should be taken that seed is not infected with ergot-like fungus (C.Icivicels paspali) which sometimes appears on the seed heads of the grass, and when eaten in quantity by cattle will cause a nervous disease. Fungus can be controlled by preventing the production of seed heads through heavy grazing or mowing. Grazing from early spring to well into the winter.
Bermuda Grass (Cynodon dactylon, or C.apriola dactylon): A perennial grass, native of India or the Mediterranean region. Has been well established in the South since 1807. Has underground runners or root stems as large as goose quills, also surface stems or stolons. Has a tendency to spread to cultivated fields, where it is hard to eradicate. Propagated by seed, runners, stems or sod pieces. Palata-bility is medium. Grows well on loams, clays, silts or fine sandy loams. Grazing from spring to early fall in northern part of State and from spring to early or late winter in southern parts.
St. Lucie grass is a strain of Bermuda that grows from surface runners but does not have the long underground stems. No seed available. Planted by rooted runners.
Giant Bermuda is an extra large strain of Bermuda grass found along the east coast of Florida. No seed available. Planted by underground stems or surface runners.
Para Grass (Panicum purpurascens or Panicum barbinode): A strong growing leafy perennial introduced from South America many years ago. Has long creeping stems sometimes 30 feet long and as large as a lead pencil. Is distinguished by a covering of short hairs, longer and more bristly at the nodes. Takes root at the joints and makes upright growth of 3 to 5 feet. No seed available. Propagation by rooted pieces or partly matured ?tems or canes. These
parts may be disked in. Planting material is abundant through south Florida along the spoil banks of drainage canals in vacant lots and fields. No seed is available but spreads easily from vegetative parts. Grazing extends to fall and winter, sometimes throughout the year. Does particularly well in southern part ot Florida, on moist soil including muck and overflow lands. Is rather sensitive to cold.
Carib Grass (Eriochloa subglabra): Similar in appearance and growth to Para grass, but finer stemmed and more leafy, and is propagated in the same manner from vegetative cuttings. Does not stand cold weather. At the Florida Experiment Station, Carib has shown frost injury at 34 degrees F., is killed to the ground at 29 degrees F., and at a temperature of 18 degrees F. the roots are materially injured: while Para grass in an adjoining plot was not so severely injured. Introduced from Brazil by the U. S. Department of Agriculture and tested in Florida at the Experiment Station since 1914. Grazing from early spring to fall or winter. Recommended for southern Florida only. Has shown up exceptionally well under pasturing at the Everglades Experiment Station at Belle Glade.
Centipede Grass (Eremochloa ophinroides): A perennial pasture grass of medium palalability. Native to China and under observation at the Florida Experimental Station for about 20 years. No seed available. Plant by rooted runners, stolons, or sod pieces. Makes a close turf and is very aggressive when once established, crowding out weeds, legumes and other grasses. Some authorities say the nutritive value of centipede grass is questionable. Adapted to almost any type of soil except sand lands of poor fertility, but does best on moist fertile lands. Grazing from spring to fall.
Napier Grass (Pennlu-tum purpureum): A perennial, native of tropical Africa, where it is known as Elephant grass. A rank grower resembling sugar cane. It is palatable and nutritious. Will not stand close grazing but is useful for intermittent grazing, for supplemental pasturage and
for silage and soil building. Plant by seed, divided root clumps, or by seed canes 3 feet long set 3 to 4 feet apart in row 6 to 8 feet apart. Provides grazing from early spring to fall. Old or overgrazed stands will be benefitted by disking in the winter when the growth is dormant. Grows on almost any type of land of fair fertility, but does best on moist, fertile soil.
Guinea Grass (Panicum maximum): A long-lived perennial of African nativity, introduced into the West Indies as early as 1756 and from there to the United States. Has not been extensively planted in Florida, but thrives in some sections on heavy, ideh soil. Does not grow well on sand. Propagated from underground branches. Makes large, coarse bunch growth, and resists drought well.
Vasey Grass (Paspalum urvillei): An erect-growing bunch perennial, native of South America and closely related to Dallis grass, but not equal to Dallis for pasture. Has fewer basal leaves than Dallis. Is very seldom attacked by the ergot or fungus that attacks Dallis grass. Not yet planted extensively in Florida, but a U. S. Department of Agriculture bulletin says it has promise because it is adapted to the soils and climate of this State. Stands cold and drought well. Is killed by too close grazing. Makes palatable hay. Thrives best on heavy soil or moist sandy lands. Seed 10 to 20 pounds to the acre.
SOME NEW GRASSES
Several newly introduced pasture grasses have been planted experimentally in Florida and results are being watched with interest by agronomists and by stockmen. Little has been published about them as yet. Under development at the West Central Florida Experiment Station at Chinsegut Hill sanctuary are the following species which appear to be of potential value:
Cogon Grass (Imperata cxiuidrica): A perennial, native of the Phillipine Islands. Fairly palatable and nutritious. Fairly well adapted to light, poor, sandy soils. A rapid grower with deep, heavy roots. Unusually productive in herbage but apt to become tough unless mowed or heavily grazed. Its chief fault appears to be the threat to become a pest to cultivated fields because of its aggressive, persistent spreading. For that reason its release to the public has been held up by its co-operating developers, the U. S. Department of Agriculture and specialists of the University of Florida, until means for its control are found. No seed available. Propagates from vegetative parts. Grazing from early spring to late fall.
"Torpedo Grass" (Panicum re pens): Considered a native of Florida as specimens are found growing wild along the Kissimmee River and in many places throughout the State. It has been tentatively given the common name of Torpedo grass because it spreads rapidly in a straight-way course, and its underground stems have a hard, torpedo-shaped point the size of a goosequill. The pointed roots will pierce or go round almost any obstruction, and have been known to make their way under a hard paved road and spread on the other side. Similar to Cogon grass in growth, character, propagation, and persistent spreading ability. Cattle eat it with relish and thrive on it. Differs from Cogon in that it does not grow as well on sand hills as on moist soils.
W'ooly-Finger Grass (Digkaria marginata): Some strains of this South African grass, particularly the one designated.
are being tested with encouraging results at the Experiment Stations at Gainesville and Chinsegut Hill. It seems to be relished by cattle and is very nutritive. Prefers fertile soil. More information will be available after further experiments have determined the qualities of this grass and its adaptability to Florida conditions.
In addition to the new pasture plants noted, agronomists of the Florida Experiment Stations are experimenting with other varieties. One of them is a new Rahia grass, native to Paraguay, that stands cold better and seeds more prolific-ally than common Bahia. Another is a perennial peanut imported from Brazil that promises to grow well in mixture with grasses, stand regular grazing, and establish itself permanently by renewing growth from its underground lunners. Also under investigation by the experimentalists are some water-pasture plants that may provide forage in overflowed areas, such as marshes, ponds and lakes.
11K i \ i: I M est ok A(,i;l
Besides the perennial plants described for permanent pastures, a number of other plants, including grasses and legumes, are adapted to Florida conditons and are planted chiefly for supplemental grazing or for hay and silage. Several of them are grown extensively in the State, while others have not achieved wide popularity.
Planting of temporary forage crops to supplement permanent pastures is recommended for several reasons. First, because permanent pastures do not always remain tender and abundant throughout a long grazing season, and auxiliary grazing facilities may be necessary. Succulent annuals planted for temporary pasture will provide nutritious forage during periods when productivity of the established pastures may be low because of cold weather, drought, or the tendency of perennial plants to slow up after putting out seed.
In Florida most of the permanent grasses are late starting in the spring and make their greatest growth during summer. Therefore, added pastures of nutritious plants that will produce good grazing in early spring and late fall will furnish a valuable addition to the permanent pastures. Also, dairy production and the fattening of beef cattle for market will be greatly aided by the supplemental pastures and the hay and silage they produce.
While it is true that the planting of annual forage crops for auxiliary grazing adds considerably to pasturing costs, the increased yield in beef or milk production will in many cases offset the increased cost.
The following are among the most important grasses and legumes planted for temporary or supplemental pastures in Florida:
Sudan Grass (Sorghum vulgare, var. sudanense): An annual imported from Khartum, Sudan, in 1909. Highly palatable and very productive. Plant seed in early spring
and at intervals throughout the summer to make successive crops. Use about 10 pounds of seed per acre drilled in three-foot rows, or 20 to 30 pounds per acre broadcast. Grazing can begin when grass reaches a height of 10 to 20 inches. There is some danger of prussic acid, poisonous to cattle grazing in fields of young second growth where growth has been stunted by drought. Grazing from early summer to fall or through to frost. Will grow on practically any well-drained soil but does best on fairly rich clay loam.
Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multifiorum): A tender shortlived annual, very palatable and nutritious. Seed sown in late summer makes quick growth for winter pastures. Should be seeded heavily to keep succulent and use all the forage from its rather short period of growth. Seed 20 to 25 pounds to the acre. Does best on sandy loams to clay of fair to good fertility. For winter and early spring grazing.
Oats: Grown in some parts of Florida for supplemental grazing and for hay rather than a grain crop. Highly palatable. Seed in fall, 2 to 3 bushels per acre. Adapted to moist, well-drained soil of moderate fertility. Use seed of a locally successful variety.
Rhodes Grass (Chloris gayana): A perennial of medium palatability, native to South Africa, where it was cultivated by Cecil Rhodes about 1895. Fine stemmed, very leafy, grows about three feet high. Seed 10 to 15 pounds to the acre. Prefers clay and loams and is very drought resistant. Grazing from spring to fall.
Rape (Brassica napus): Closely related to kale and of very high palatability. Seed in eariy fall 3 pounds to the acre in rows or 8 pounds per acre broadcast. Good for cattle, sheep and hogs, but some danger of bloating in sheep. Prefers rich, moist, loamy soil and will not produce well on poor land.
Soybeans (Soja max): An annual legume. High palatability of leaves, vines and seeds. Grazing from midsummer to fall. Plant in sprmg' or early summer, broadcast
or plant in rows 30 to 40 inches apart; 30 to 45 pounds seed per acre. Will grow in practically any moist well-drained soil. Provides excellent grazing, either alone or in combination with Sudan grass. Grazing season can be extended by successive seedings at monthly intervals from March 15 to June 15. Should be grazed in rotation, not too heavily. Grazing may start when plants are 12 to 18 inches high, which should be in about 60 days after seeding. Will stand light frost without serious injury.
Cowpeas (Vigna sinensis): An annual of great palatability, for late summer and fall grazing. Usually planted with corn, same as velvet beans. Preferred by some to velvet beans because the vines are lighter and do not interfere so much with harvesting the corn. Seed in early spring or summer, 30 pounds to the acre when seeded alone, 15 pounds per acre when seeded in alternate rows with corn.
Velvet Beans: A vining plant almost always planted with corn in order to derive support from the corn and thus keep the vines off the ground. Palatability is high. The beans and pods furnish the chief grazing, being eaten by the cattle or hogs. Both the corn and the beans may be "hogged off," to save the labor of gathering the corn. Grows on almost any well-drained soil, but is sensitive to frost until matured. Is high in nutritive value.
Kudzu (Pueraria thunbergiani): A perennial leguminous vine, native to Japan. Very palatable but will not stand too close or constant grazing. Difficult to establish from seed Is propagated usually by setting well-rooted dormant plants during the winter season. Space about 4 feet apart each way. Very fast strong grower but should not be grazed or cut during first two years if a good stand is desired. Is particularly adapted to the soil of northern and northwestern Florida, including red clay and sandy loam. Requiring about three years to make a good stand, its slow development is a deterrent to many, but when once established it is useful for grazing from spring to fall and as a hay crop.
Peanuts: This plant is grown mostly Cor value of the root kernels as a feed for hogs, but the foliage furnishes grazing for other livestock and the dried vines make excellent hay. Will do well on almost any soil in Florida that is not low or wet. Planted generally in June in northern Florida and in May in the southern part of the State. Seed 20 bushels shelled peanuts to the acre. Plant in rows up to 2>._, feet apart, dropping seed (two at a time) 8 inches apart and cover lightly.
Natal grass (Tricliolaena rosea): A perennial native to South Africa. First cultivated in the United States as an ornamental grass because of its attractive rosy panicles that now lend beauty to miles of roadside fields in Florida. Accidentally introduced at Reddick, Florida, about 1875, it has spread voluntarily to thousands of acres of citrus groves and uncultivated lands, particularly in the southern half of the State. The United States Department of Agriculture, miscellaneous publication No. 194. A Pasture Handbook, states on page 13: "It appears well adapted to the climate and sandy soil of this part (southern) of Florida, but is not relished by livestock and contributes little to the pasturage resources of the United States." In the U. S. D. A. Farmers' Bulletin No. 1433, Cultivated Grasses of Secondary Importance, appears on page 33: "Besides its use as a hay crop Natal grass furnishes good pasturage, and cattle eat it readily, especially if kept closely grazed." This grass is seldom planted, but in its wild state is grazed and sometimes cut for hay. The hay is said to be of poor palatability and low in nutrition.
CLOVER FOR FLORIDA PASTURES
Experiments in the planting of clovers for pastures in Florida are of somewhat recent beginning, having been started by farmers in 1936 and by the Florida Experiment Station in 1937. But where planted on suitable soil and properly inoculated and fertilized, results have shown great promise for the future.
Particular attention to the introduction of clovers in this State has been given by R. E. Blaser, assistant agronomist of the University of Florida's Agricultural Experiment Station at Gainesville, who has written most of the available information on the subject. Besides a preliminary bulletin published on clover in 1938 he collaborated in 1940 with F. T. Boyd on a new bulletin which was published in 1940. The following excerpts based on Mr. Blaser's writings and other sources summarize the clover situation in Florida thus far:
Experiments by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station and co-operative experiments b\r Florida livestock growers during 1938 and 1939, show the value of clover as winter pasturage for dairy, beef and breeding cattle.
By providing nutritious and highly palatable forage during the winter and early spring when grass pastures are at their lowest production, clovers may solve a grazing problem that has long vexed the stockmen of Florida.
Florida soils are deficient in nitrogen, one of the most necessary constituents of pasture growth. Clovers generate their own available nitrogen, thus enriching the soil. Planted alone, they are far richer in food elements than most grasses. Planted in mixture with grasses, clovers not only supply the necessary nitrogen for their own growth but to the grasses as well, thus enriching the entire pasture and giving the cattle a better balanced ration. The results are increased production of beef and milk, and added health to the breeding functions of the animals.
It must be borne in mind, however, that there are several absolutely essential requirements for the successful growing of clover. First, the soil must be continually moist, particularly through the winter, fall and early spring, when clovers make their best growth. Second, care must be taken in the preparation of the soil and in planting the seed. Third, the seed must be thoroughly treated with bacterial inoculation. Fourth, certain fertilization is necessary. These several procedures will be given in more detail further along in this writing.
Recognition of the importance cf fertilizing for clovers is indicated by the report that co-operating livestock men in Duval County during September 1940, ordered 540 tons of lime and 298 tons of 0-16-10 fertilizer for planting clover. It was estimated that with fall plantings in 1940 Duval would have a total of 2,500 acres of clover pastures.
With proper preparation, planting and fertilization, clover will grow and produce well on Florida soils that have sufficient moisture, particularly near the surface. Experiments on dry soils have not been successful, but clovers have done well on properly fertilized cut-over pine lands, datwoods, improved grass sods (when closely grazed), and moist or wet soils that have been cultivated.
Preparation of the soil: For planting clover on unoccupied land, follow the same procedure as described for grasses. Where it is desired to add clover as" a mixture; with the grass on an established grass pasture, the pasture must first be closely grazed so that the clover seed will fall through the grass and come into immediate contact with the moist soil. In all cases the soil's surface should be firm, not loose. If not already firm, it should be rolled with a heavy roller.
Inoculation of seed: Speaking generally, clover will not grow successfully unless the seed or soil is thoroughly inoculated with bacteria, microscopic organisms that convert inert matter in the soil into available plant food. Inocula-
tion causes numerous wart-like nodules or lumps to form on the roots of the clover seedlings, and these nodules convert elemental atmospheric nitrogen into available nitrogen compounds for plant food.
Three methods of inoculation have been used in experiments. One method is to inoculate with commercial soil cultures which can be purchased from seed houses. Another is to mix the seed with soil that has grown the clover and which is thoroughly impregnated with the proper bacteria. A third method is to inoculate with a combined mixture of commercial cultures and impregnated soil. As recent experiments with commercial cultures alone have produced good results and this is the most convenient process, the technique for this method alone will be described here: The clovers requiring "A" and "B" bacteria cultures were inoculated separately. After placing the clover seeds in a tub, syrup was added while the mass was stirred until each seed was thinly coated with syrup. Then the proper commercial bacteria culture was added and the whole again stirred until all were thoroughly mixed. The bacteria was used at ten times the rate recommended by the manufacturer's directions. Cotton seed meal or other drying agents were then added and stirred in until the seed separated and became dry enough to sow. After the "A" and "B" groups of clover seed were separately inoculated and dried, they were well mixed together and planted at once.
The clovers requiring inoculation with bacteria culture "A" are California bur, Black medic and Sweet clover, those requiring culture "B" are White Dutch, Persian, Alsike and Hop.
After inoculation the seed should be well protected from the sun, as an hour of sunshine will kill the inoculating bacteria.
Fertilizing: The kind and quality of fertilizer required for clover depends upon the type of soil. The usual practice has been to apply the fertilizing material before seeding. Materials may be broadcast over the surface by hand or
applied by mechanical spreaders. Applications of fertilizer sbould be disked into the soil by a shallow disking.
The following fertilizing practices are recommended for various soil types:
(1) For sandy soils, flatwoods and acid mucks not
previously fertilized, make initial application at the following rates per acre:
2,000 pounds "high-calcium" Limestone or 2,000 pounds dolomite.
600 pounds 16-20'* superphosphate and
.100 pounds 50'.'< muriate of potash. 75 to 100 pounds nitrate of soda or its equivalent may be added to early growth. (High calcium limestone should be used for California bur, Sweet, or Black Medic clover.)
(600 pounds per acre of a 0-16-8 or 3-16-8 fertilizer and 1 ton limestone may be used instead of the fertilizers given above.)
(2) To maintain clover pastures, one-fourth to one-half of the above rates should be applied every year or two.
(3) For soils of a definitely known calcareous nature or with a calcareous substrata, such as lower East Coast soils, apply fertilizers at the following rates per acre:
For muck soils
240 pounds 50'< muriate of potash, and 70 pounds 44', triple superphosphate.
100 pounds 20'i ammonium sulphate or other nitrogen equivalent may be added to expedite growth.
(In place of the above 500 pounds of a 4-6-24 fertilizer mixture may be used.)
(Depending on previous soil treatment, it may be necessary to add to the above a mixture of 50 pounds copper sulphate, 50 pounds manganese sulphate, and 10 pounds zinc sulphate, per acre.)
For sandy soils
240 pounds 50' '< muriate of potash and 160 pounds 44'r triple superphosphate. 200 pounds 20' i ammonium sulphate, or its equivalent,
appears necessary for initial treatment on most
sandy soils in the lower East Coast region. (As an equivalent to the above, 1,000 pounds per acre
of a 4-6-12 mixture may be used.) (In addition to the above a mineral mixture of sulphates
of copper, manganese and zinc in small quantities
may be necessary.)
For low marl hammock soils
600 pounds superphosphate and
100 to 150 pounds 50' < muriate of potash.
(75 pounds nitrate of soda or its equivalent may be added to encourage early growth.)
(Instead of the above, 600 pounds of a fertilizer of the 0-16-8 or 3-16-8 formula may be used as an equivalent.)
Planting clover seed : Recommended varieties, with seed
mixture and quantity of seed per acre for various types of soil are as follows:
For low, wet sandy soils
Louisiana White Dutch, 3 to 5 pounds, or
White Dutch 2 to 3 pounds and Persian 1 to 3 pounds.
Red Top (Agrostis alba) 3 to 6 pounds or 5 pounds rye grass may be added to eithet of the above.
For moist to wet sandy soils
Louisiana White Dutch 2 to 4 pounds and California bur 5 to 8 pounds.
For moist drained sandy soils
Louisiana White Dutch 1 to 2 pounds, California bur 8 pounds and
Black Medic 3 pounds.
California bur 8 pounds and Black Medic 4 pounds.
For muck soils when slightly acid or alkaline, or sandy muck
Louisiana White Dutch 2 to 4 pounds, California bur 5 to 8 pounds, and Italian rye grass 5 to 7 pounds.
For acid muck soils
Louisiana White Dutch 3 to 5 pounds or
Louisiana White Dutch 2 to 3 Founds, Persian 1 to 2 pounds and Alsike 1 to 2 pounds.
The best time to plant clover seed in Florida is October or early November, when soil is moist. It is well to divide plantings in several separate plots so as to afford rotational grazing. If possible clover should be planted just prior to or during a rain.
As already stated, the seedbed must be firm. After being inoculated and dried so that the seed will scatter properly it can be broadcast by hand or by a mechanical spreader. The seed must be lightly covered. If planted on bare ground it can be covered by running a brush drag over the land, by shallow harrowing with a spike tooth harrow, or rolled into the ground by a heavy roller. If dragged or harrowed in it should be rolled afterwards to press the seed firmly into the surface. The tiny rootlets will not take hold in loose soil. Care should be taken that the seed is not covered too deeply. One-quarter inch to an inch is deep enough.
If sowed on a pasture already established the seed will not penetrate through the grass or find contact with the soil unless the pasture has been very closely grazed. In anj* case when sowed on existing pasture it will be well
to disk the seed into the ground. Whether disked in or not, the pasture should afterwards be rolled with a heavy-roller to embed the clover seed firmly into the ground.
Grazing of clover: New plantings of clover should not be grazed until the plants are 3 to 5 inches in height, or until the root systems have been well established. Planting the clover pastures in several fields and practicing a rotational system of grazing will provide more uniform pasturage and a better distribution of animal droppings to fertilize the growth.
DESCRIPTION OF CLOVERS
Of the various kinds of clovers grown in the United States, only a few have thus far been found to be adapted io the climatic and soil conditions prevailing in Florida. Therefore, only those varieties which have been tried and have shown promise for growth in the State will be described here:
Louisiana White Dutch clover (Trifolium repens) makes its best growth from late winter through early spring, when grass pastures will seldom furnish sufficient grazing. Its palatability and nutrition are high. Seeds and reseeds well. Adapted to almost any moist soil. This variety has been more extensively and successfully used in Florida than any other. Grazing in winter and early spring.
Alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum): A winter annual, nutritious and palatable, that will grow on almost any moist or wet soil except very sandy land. Especially suited for wet lands. Is very responsive to phosphatic fertilizers and will stand some slight acidity. Initial crops are not very prolific, so it may have to be seeded annually until well established.
California bur clover (Medicago hispida): An annual of high palatability, adapted to moist, well-drained soils. Furnishes grazing from fall to spring. Reseeds if not too heavily grazed in the spring.
Little Hop or Least Hop clover (Trifolium dubium): A very palatable annual, requiring good moist soil. Provides grazing winter and spring.
Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum): A winter annual that thrives best in moist fertile soil. Makes its greatest growth in May. May die out after it matures seed. Its value is still in doubt, according to page 16 of the USDA Pasture Handbook (Miscellaneous pnblication No. 194, revised May 1940.)
Black Medic clover (Medicago lupulina): A very palatable annual requiring moist nonacid soil that has adequate drainage. Grazing from spring to fall. Not yet extensively tried in Florida.
Alyce clover has been planted experimentally in some parts of peninsular Florida. It has particular adaptability to moist lands which are underlaid with limestone and phosphate rock. It is very leafy and palatable, and makes its best growth in summer. Reports received in 1940 as to its growth, characteristics and value are not definite.
It is reported by the Florida Experiment Station as showing promise as a mixture with carpet, Bermuda and other grasses, but in some cases may require fertilization with phosphate, potash or lime. It reseeds itself fairly well, but on some soils may require annual replanting.
Lespedeza, not a clover but commonly called Japanese clover, was grown in Georgia as early as 1846, and rapidly spread to other Southern States. Agricultural literature of the South in the 1860's extolled its merits as "the new clover," and as the common variety originated in the Orient this probably accounts for the early name of Japanese clover.
Common or Japan Lespedeza (Lespedeza striata) is the variety most generally grown in Florida. It is an annual legume which reseeds from year to year. Because of its abundant, palatable herbage, it makes excellent pasturage either in pure stand or mixed with grasses in permanent pastures. Seeded in early spring, 20 to 25 pounds seed to the acre. Grazing from early summer to fall. Best adapted to clay soils or sandy lands underlaid with a clay or sandy clay subsoil fairly close to the surface. Does not do well in the southern part of Florida, nor on high, dry, deep sands. If planted with grass the seed for both can be mixed and broadcast together. Use 10 pounds grass seed and 10 pounds lespedeza seed per acre. Lespedeza can be planted from February to June if there is sufficient moisture. The soil should be prepared and the seed covered as described
for clover and grass seed. Lespedeza is recommended for planting with carpet or other grass seed because it conserves the soil and moisture, adds to the food value of the pasture and provides more uniform grazing.
REPORTS ON CLOVER PLANTINGS
Most of the clover pastures in Florida have been planted by dairymen and general farmers, but it is reported that clover is attracting the interest of beef cattlemen as well because of the longer grazing season and the higher quantity and quality of feed produced.
No definite figures are available at this time as to the total acreage of clover planted in the State, but the principal plantings have been made in Duval, St. Johns, Pinellas, Alachua, Volusia and some other counties in the upper half of the peninsula. Most of them have been planted since 1937.
Duval County appears to be in the lead, with 2.500 acres planted up to September 1940. A majority of those who have planted clover have indicated satisfaction with results and intention to increase their acreage. Most of the trial plantings have been small, running usually from one to ten acres.
Inquiries sent out in 1940 to county agents, dairymen and others throughout the State as to clover plantings in their localities have brought reports as follows:
From V. C. Johnson, Duval County dairyman with pastures on flatwoods land with fair drainage: "We have had good success with white clover, and in our mixture we have noted good results with Persian, Southern bur and California bur clovers. . The grazing season has been lengthened to a very marked extent by the use of clover, affording grazing at least a month or six weeks before the grass started."
From J. H. Logan, county agent Pinellas County: "Our growers have been very successful in combining winter clovers, lespedeza and permanent pasture grasses. In some cases they have increased the grazing capacity more than five times."
From A. S. Lawton, county agent Duval County: "We have been very successful in this particular section in establishing clover on something like 100 or more of the farms. . We have instances where as many as seven cows per acre have grazed during the months of January and February. This, however, is not normal, and should not be taken as an average."
From A. S. Laird, county agent Gilchrist County: "About 40 acres of Alyce clover were planted in Gilchrist County in .1940. So far the growth has been very poor and it does not look promising for this county. However, it is too early to make any definite predictions regarding the crop."
From P. R. McMullen, county agent Jefferson County: "White Dutch and other clovers are being tried out, but up to the present time have not proven entirely satisfactory. Some stockmen have been getting fair growths, but their plantings have been in small plots, and it is still to be determined what its value will be in a county where extensive grazing is the practice."
From C. P. Heuck, county agent Lee County: "Clover development just getting under way, and there will be eight or nine plantings this year."
PLANTING PASTURES THROUGH AAA ASSISTANCE
Beginning in 1936 and continuing through 1940, the United States Department of Agriculture, as a part of its agricultural conservation program, has been granting financial aid to Florida livestock owners in establishing perma-ment pastures as a means for conservation of the soil. Operating through the Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) the Federal Government makes grants-in-aid of money and materials to farmers and other owners of livestock who will follow the rules and practices laid down by the AAA for establishing pastures as outlined in a pamphlet issued by the Agricultural Department entitled Florida Handbook, 1940 Agricultural Conservation Program. Program Effective from January 1, 1940, to December 31, 1940. These rules and practices apply to preparing the land, fertilizing, planting and other phases of procedure.
II. G. Clayton, Florida administrative officer of the AAA, in an article in the Florida Cattleman for July 1940, wrote that establishment of practically all of the 200,000 acres of permanent pastures in Florida since the program began in 1936 was due to co-operation of cattlemen, county agents and others with the financial assistance program of the AAA. Mr. Clayton emphasized the importance of proper preparation of the land, the value of the program in soil-building, and advised planters of large acreages to establish their pastures in separate blocks rather than attempting to plan the entire acreage in one operation, so as to be able to take advantage of favorable weather conditions and thus secure good stands.
Following is a digest of the AAA. pasture planting practices, rates of government payment, etc., as taken from the 1940 Florida Handbook previously referred to:
Soil-Building Goals, Payments and Practices
Fenced Non-Crop Open Pasture: 25 cents per acre of fenced, noncrop open pasture land in excess of one-half
of the number of acres of crop land which is capable of maintaining during the normal grazing season at least one animal unit for each live acres of such pasture land. . .
(One animal unit means one cow, one horse, five sheep, five goats, two calves, two colts, or the equivalent thereof. Cropland means farmland which in 1 939 was tilled or was in regular rotation. Noncrop open pasture land means pasture landother than rotation pasture landon which the predominant growth is forage suitable for grazing and on which the number or grouping of any trees or shrubs is such that the land could not fairly be considered as woodland.)
Soil Huilding Practices: The soil building practices listed following, if included in the county soil building goal and if not disapproved by the county committee for the particular farm, shall count toward reaching the soilbuild-ing goal, to the extent indicated, when they are carried out during the period from January 1, 1940, to December 31, 1940, inclusive, in accordance with specifications following each practice. . .
Application of Materials
1. Application of the following materials to, or in connection with the seeding of, perennial or biennial legumes, perennial grasses, winter legumes, lespedeza, crotalaria, Natal grasses, annual rye grass, or permanent pasture, which are rot seeded or grown with a soil-depleting cropone unit ($1.50): Specifications: (a) 300 pounds of 16 per cent superphosphate or its equivalent.
(b) 500 pounds of basic slag.
(c) 600 pounds of raw rock or collodial phosphate containing not less than 28 per cent of total phosphorus pen-toxide and ground fine enough for 85 per cent to pass through a 200-mesh sieve.
(e) These materials must be applied at or prior to the time of seeding, except in the case of crotalaria or Natal giass in orchards and perennials, and must be distributed evenly over I he an a to which t hey are applied.
(f) Practice 1 is not to be used on pastures oftener than once every third year. The maximum rate of application shall not exceed 3 units per acre.
2. Application of 1,000 pounds of limestone or its equivalentone unit ($1.50).
Specifications: The limestone must be 90 per cent or more calcium or magnesium carbonate equivalent: if limestone of lower grade than this is used, it must be applied in amounts sufficient to supply calcium or magnesium carbonate equivalent to the above. The materials listed following are equivalent to one ton of ground limestone: 199767 degree40-2.
1,000 pounds of burned limestone
1,400 pounds of hydrated lime
2,000 pounds of oyster or coquina shells
2,750 pounds of limestone screenings
3,000 pounds of limestone from Braded quarries
The above material must be of sufficient fineness so that 100 per cent will pass through a 10-mesh sieve and 50 per cent through a 100-mesh sieve.
(d) 750 pounds of raw rock or colloidal phosphate containing not less than 18 per cent of total phosphate pentox-ide and ground fine enough for 80 per cent, of the raw rock phosphate to pass through a 100-mesh sieve, and for the colloidal phosphate to shake through a 6-mesh sieve and 85 per cent, of it to wash through a 325-mesh sieve.
1. Establishing a permanent vegetative cover by planting sod pieces of perennial grasses Three unit ($4.50) an acre.
Specifications: Plantings of Para, Carib, centipede, Bermuda, carpet, and Bahia grass will qualify. A good seedbed must be prepared. Sod pieces of canes or rooted runners at an average spacing of not more than 2V-> feet. Where adapted, 5 pounds of lespedeza seed shall be sown in addition to sodding.
2. Seeding permanent pasture mixture containing a
full seeding of Dallis, Bermuda, carpet, and Bahia grass Two units ($3) an acre.
Specifications: (a) Preparation of non-cropland to be seeded to permanent pasture. The acreage which is to be established in pasture by the use of grass seed shall have the native wire grass, palmetto, or other vegetation removed or destroyed and all the top soil stirred by double harrowing or its equivalent to prepare a seedbed. The seedbed for grass seed shall be firm and shallow, rather than deep and soft.
(b) Rate of seeding per acre:
(1) Grasses seeded alone: At least 7 pounds of seed per acre of Bermuda or Bahia grass and 10 pounds of carpet or Dallis.
(2) Seeding of mixtures: (a) At least 5 pounds per acre of carpet grass seed plus at least 5 pounds per acre of either Dallis or Bahia or a mixture of Dallis and Bahia. (b) At least 7 pounds of carpet grass seed plus at least 5 pounds of lespedeza. (c) Any other mixture of the above at equivalent rates of seeding per acre.
All preparations and seeding to be done in a workmanlike manner and in accordance with good farming practice. Producers must supply sales receipts for Ihe quantity and kind of grass seed purchased.
Reseeding Depleted Pastures
Reseeding depleted pastures with good seed of adapted pasture grasses or legumes10 pounds of seed, one unit ($1.50).
Specifications: The following grasses seeded alone or in mixtures shall be used: Carpet grass, Dallis grass. Bahia grass, and White Dutch clover. For mixtures of certain of the above grasses or legumes, those approved under practice for permanent pasture shall be used for the particular soil type. Land to be reseeded shall have a properly prepared seedbed.
Producers shall supply sales receipts for the kind and quantity of grass and legume seeds used, and such receipts shall be required to support the performance records.
MAINTENANCE OF PASTURES
Proper management of a pasture is highly important to the maintenance of its productivity. Mowing to keep down weeds and other undesirable growth, care in grazing, and applications of fertilizer when needed are the chief considerations in keeping a pasture in good condition.
Usually the first trouble to develop after establishing a pasture is the appearance of too many weeds and shrubs that may/ retard the growth of the desirable forage plants. Besides this menace, pastures may deteriorate through other causes, such as poor original seeding, depleted fertility of the soil, freezing, drought, improper grazing, or a combination of several of these causes.
Where weeds or other intruding growth threaten to become abundant the pasture should be mowed at least once a year before the seeds of these intruders mature. If this is done for the first two or three years such growth will usually disappear. In addition to mowing, care in grazing is essential. Undergrazing as well as over-grazing must be avoided. A new pasture should be grazed very lightly, if at all, the first year. The young plants must have time to develop a good root system and a thick turf before grazing, after which they should be kept grazed down so that there will be a continual supply of young tender forage. Under-grazing retards the development of a good sod and permits the pasture plants to grow too high, thereby becoming tough and fibrous.
The pasture should be observed frequently to see if it is being too lightly or too heavily cropped by the animals. Most of the permanent pasture grasses and legumes should be kept grazed to a height of between two and four inches, at which stage they are most tender and nutritious.
In some cases, where a pasture has been established on fertilized soil and is properly grazed, additional fertilizing may not be required for a long time. But wherever the
growth becomes unsatisfactory, applications of fertilizer every two or three years will usually be very helpful. Most Florida soils are deficient in lime, phosphorus, potash and nitrogen, all of which are essential to good pasture growth. Barnyard manure is very beneficial for pastures, and where available in sufficient quantity may take the place of nitrogenous commercial fertilizer as a source of nitrogen. Manure maintains nitrogen in the soil for several years, while commercial nitrogen is soon exhausted.
The following fertilizer treatment, per acre, is advisable for most Florida soils, and will aid greatly in the revival of depleted pastures:
Ground limestone 1 ton
Superphosphate 300 to 500 pounds
Muriate or sulphate of potash 100 pounds Nitrogen:
The above applications may be spread upon the surface of the land, but it is better to disk them in so as to mix the fertilizer with the soil.
Cultivation to improve backward or worn-out pasture is of little or no value unless acconrpanied by reseeding or the application of fertilizer, or both. Lack of growth due to poor land or overgrazing cannot be overcome by cultivation alone, but in connection with reseeding or fertilizing, working the soil will help to improve a poor pasture.
Reseeding of an old pasture may be desirable if the soil is fairly fertile. In reseeding, for best results follow the same procedure in preparation of soil and planting as recommended for an original planting. If clover or lespedeza seed is mixed with the grass seed in replanting, these legumes will help to supply nitrogen to the soil, and less nitrogen fertilizer will be required.
Nitrate of soda
Hi-Sulphate of ammonia
100 to 200 pounds
75 to 150 pounds
5 to 10 tons
If a pasture on good soil has been killed down or damaged by drought or a freeze, it will be well to allow sufficient time to see if the growth will revive, before applying restorative measures, unless the roots have been killed.
It appears possible in some sections of Florida, when there is a good natural stand of carpet grass, to improve such areas at very little cost by simply mowing whenever the grass or weeds grow too high for good grazing.
An instance of this is offered by L. K. Edwards, Marion County cattleman, who has approximately 2,000 acres of natural growth carpet grass that shows increased production by mowing once a year in addition to continual grazing. Carrying capacity of this natural pasture is twice the number of cattle as that of unimproved range land. Improvement of this tract, which happens to be a good type of land with clay subsoil, was begun in 1913, and no fertilizer or soil treatment has been applied at any time. Its improvement is apparently due to annual mowing and continued grazing.
Another example of what mowing will do has been demonstrated on a 100-acre plot of carpet grass established in 1924 in Alachua County by Oscar Thomas of Gainesville. In this case the grass was planted and is said to have been the first seeded pasture in that area. Formerly the land had been a commercial vegetable farm, but no fertilizer was applied prior to seeding or since. This pasture carries one cow to an acre and a half, while native range in that area requires 8 to 12 acres per cow. It is maintained entirely by grazing and by mowing.
BURNING OF PASTURES
For many years the question as to the advisability of the Florida custom of annually burning off the dry growth in pastures has been a controversial one in the State. Two schools of opinion have advanced their arguments for or against what has been called "the burning question." On the side against the practice are orange grove owners, vegetable growers, numerous newspapers, and a few agricultural specialists. They claim that more harm than good is done to the pasture by burning, besides being destructive to fences, crops, citrus trees, and forests that may be in the path of the fire.
Strongest among the pro-burning elements are the range cattlemen, whose years of experience and custom have convinced them that the controlled burning is a definite benefit to native pastures by destroying dead growth, stimulating the pasture plants, and making the new growth easily accessible to cattle. These advocates of burning are abetted by some agricultural authorities, and by most family-cow owners who find free grazing for their animals on the roadsides and vacant fields.
Some of the conflicting views and arguments on the question of "to burn or not to burn" are expressed in the following excerpts from various sources:
Florida State Department of Agriculture Bulletin 27, Permanent Pasture Crosses tor Florida. 1931, page 33: "The annual burning of pastures in Florida does a great deal more harm than good. It not only burns up the grass and weeds not grazed by cattle the previous year, but it destroys the nutritious pasture grasses and kills the young pine trees that are being established. The ordinary wire grass is all that is left after a pasture has been burned, thus reducing the grazing value of the land very considerably. If one hopes to maintain a first-class permanent pasture it is absolutely necessary that fire be kept out. When a pasture has been grazed fairly close, there will be no surplus of dead
grass and weeds on the land. But. on the other hand, the old grass and weeds do the land more good when left on the pasture than hy being burned. First, the grass and weeds left on the land increase the humus and nitrogen content of the soil through the decomposition of the vegetable material such as leaves, stems and dead roots. Second, the humus added to the soil increases the water-holding capacity so that there is more soil moisture available for the new crop of grass each year. Then, all old grass and weeds remaining on the pasture act as a mulch in decreasing evaporation, which also means more soil moisture available for the new crop of grass each succeeding year."
From an article by W. F. Ward, animal husbandman in charge, USDA Experiment Station, Chinsegut Hill Sanctuary, in Florida Grower, Tampa, January 1940: "The results so far indicate that on the native grass pastures where controlled burning is practiced annually, the steers make about 33 per cent greater gains than steers grazing land that has not been burned over for several years."
From University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 248, A "study of Ran^c Cattle in Alachua County, Florida. 1932, pp. 14-26: "Some stockmen believe that the flatwoods ranges should be burned over under controlled conditions, so as to give cattle access to the short early wire grass. Although the ranges have been burned at almost any season of the year, these stockmen prefer to burn during the dormant (winter) season at a time when the soil is damp. Several make a practice of burning every three years, rotating the areas burned. By this practice they planned to leave the broad-bladed grasses and other plants for grazing in the roughs and on the unburned lands. In case of late burning, wire grass and the sedges upon the burned areas are palatable for about 90 days. Then the cattle leave the burned areas and go to the roughs to look for better grasses. Many of the broad-bladed grasses are killed by indiscriminate burning.
'"Burning was practiced with the inception of the tur-
pentine industry to protect the trees from accidental outbreaks of fire. The leaf litter was collected and burned under control. Many ranges have been burned over regularly since that time. . The reasons advanced by cattlemen for burning the range are (a) to stimulate early growth of grass, (b) to remove dead grass, and (c) to control the growth of brush and weeds. . The cattlemen believe that burning of prairie, hardwood hammock and blackjack ranges is seldom good practice. Controlled rotation burning (once in three years) sometimes appeared advisable on flatwoods ranges to keep the undergrowth and brush from crowding out desirable grasses. Burning is detrimental to shallow-rooted improved grasses, and to forests. . ."
Dr. W. A. Leukel, agronomist at the University of Florida's Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville, has been quoted as writing that he recommends burning fields of wire grass just before the rainy season, say at the end of April, that this will hold back the growth of wire grass for a year and if carpet grass is sown on the field early in the rainy season it will get so good a start that the wire grass cannot crowd it out.
From USDA Miscellaneous Publications No. 104, A Pasture Handbook. Revised 1940, pp. 29-30: "No general statement can be made regarding the advisability of burning over pastures or ranges, except that indiscriminate, uncontrolled burning is usually harmful. . Experimental evidence indicates that good tame pastures of introduced grasses are injured by burning at any time. . That the grazing value of cut-over range lands in the Gulf Coast region, especially longleaf pine lands, is increased by burning at the proper time of the year has been demonstrated in both Florida and Mississippi. At McNeill, Mississippi, the average seasonal gains for an all-year period of cattle grazing about eight months of the year were 46 per cent larger on burned than unburned pastures."
From a mimeographed circular of the University of Florida's Agricultural Experiment Station, WES-300. 1938: "The question of burned vs. unburned native pasturage vs.
improved pasturage is now under study by the Florida Experiment Station's Agronomy and Animal Husbandry Departments, and anyone interested should visit our experimental pastures involving 770 acres on the Penney tract in Clay County where we have cattle grazing both burned and unburned pastures and partially improved pastures. In the case of the native grass pastures we have duplicate sets of such pastures both burned and unburned. One set is grazed from spring until fall only, while the other set, burned and unburned, is grazed the year around. Careful records kept on steers on the burned and unburned native pastures since 1930 show that each year the burned-over pastures have given much greater beef production than the unburned native pastures."
FOOD CONSTITUENTS OF PASTURE PLANTS
The most important food elements of grasses and legumes used for pasturage are protein, nitrogen free extract, ether extracts and certain minerals and vitamins.
Young and tender plants have a much higher nutritive content, especially in minerals, than mature herbage that is tough and fibrous. When grown on properly fertilized soil, the succulent plants will usually produce an adequate supply of the above nutrients, but if the pasture land is lacking in any of the necessary chemical ingredients, the herbage will be correspondingly deficient in food value.
Protein builds muscle and tissue; ether extract promotes the production of fat; nitrogen free extract provides the sugar and starches needed in fattening the animal body, Crude fiber, which constitutes a large proportion of mature grasses, is indigestible and lacking in nutrition.
Certain minerals which should be drawn by grasses from the soil are very essential to the growth and health of livestock. It has been found that some Florida soils are deficient in iron and copper and that cattle grazing on such lands may become affected by "salt sick," a nutritional anemia. Cattle thus affected have been found to recover after grazing on pastures sufficiently supplied with these minerals, or having access to a mineral box containing the following "salt sick lick" mixture: 100 pounds of common salt, 25 pounds of red oxide of iron, 1 pound of finely ground copper sulphate, and 1 ounce of cobalt chloride. The ingredients should be thoroughly mixed.
Lime and phosphorus, also necessary to the healthy growth of animals, are likewise deficient in many Florida soils and consequently lacking in the pasture plants grown on them. These constituents are needful in the development and maintenance of bone structure, teeth, blood, and tissues. Lack of lime and phosphorus in the animals' diet results in malnutrition and stunted growth. Both constit-
uents can be supplied in grazing by applying on the pasture land a fertilizer containing lime and phosphate in some of their forms. They can be made accessible to the animals direct in a mineral-box mixture composed of 1 part each, by weight, of bonemeal, finely ground limestone and salt.
Vitamins also figure importantly in the diet of livestock. Young well-nourished grasses contain more of the essential vitamins than any other feed. Such pasturage is particularly rich in carotene, the source of Vitamin A in the animal body. Nutritious pastures are also rich in Vitamins B, E, and G. These vitamins are said to have a highly beneficial effect on the animals' glandular system and other vital functions.
No complete figures are available showing the comparative food value of the different pasture grasses and legumes. However, even if such a tabulation were compiled its results could hardly be conclusive, as the nutritive content of plants depends upon the soil in which they are grown, and the same plants produced on different types would vary greatly in the quantity of their food constituents. In general, it may be said that the richer the soil in essential mineral and other sources of nutrition, the higher will be the value of the plants as animal feed.
HAY FROM FLORIDA GRASSES AND LEGUMES
As hay is a by-product of pasture and other forage plants, in Florida, a chapter on this ultimate use of such plants seems appropriate in a study of the State's pastures; particularly since pasture clippings make fairly good hay.
Despite the extensive growth of grasses and legumes in Florida that are suitable for hay, and the State's high ranking as a cattle state, it is the lowest in the nation for hay production. Crops and Markets, a monthly publication of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, in its issue of December 1939, lists this State as producing only 52,000 Ions of hay in 1939 as compared to the U. S. average production of 84,526 tons per state in the same year.
Among the reasons given in agricultural publications for the small hay output of Florida, the principal one is that most of this State's forage plants useful for such roughage must be harvested during the rainy season when the humidity is usually too great to permit proper drying. Another reason given is that alfalfa, timothy, and other forage plants that produce immense hay crops in other States do not grow well in Florida.
In this State the producer must literally "make hay while the sun shines", as it takes several hours of hot sunshine to cure the plants after cutting, which must be followed by weather dry enough to prevent the stacked hay from molding: and this kind of weather does not often occur during the rainy season when the plants are at their best stage of growth to make palatable and nutritious hay.
These conditions may explain, in part, why Florida livestock producers, dairymen and farmers spend more than $3,000,000 a year for out-of-state hay. It is estimated that more than 400,000 tons of hay are used in Florida each year, and only a small part of it is produced within the State. Even the amount used is not all that Florida livestock needs. Something like 600,000 tons of hay can be profitably used annually at this time, and if this can be produced Avithin
the State it will result in a huge saving to livestock owners and may mean better prices for beef cattle when they go to market. Although Florida pastures may supply good green feed during most of the year, hay will provide valuable supplemental diet in periods of sparse grazing.
A number of permanent and temporary pasture plants grown in Florida have been found to produce hay in profitable amounts when properly cured. Even in the Kverglades section, the Everglades Experiment Station of the University of Florida has made six cuttings of Para grass from April to November that yielded at the rate of ten tons of dry grass per acre.
Experiments have been made with methods of artificially curing grass, but it appears at this time that the large equipment required for doing this on a commercial scale would be entirely too expensive for ordinary use. In the meantime, by taking advantage of such favorable weather conditions as may occur, many livestock growers and farmers are producing enough hay for at least a part of their needs.
In Hillsborough County, hay is made mostly from Natal grass, beggarweed, cowpeas and crab grass, and because these plants are ready for harvesting during the summer rainy season farmers are obliged to trust to luck for sufficient sunshine to allow them to mow and cure their hay. The usual method in this county is to leave the mown crop to cure in the swath where it falls, until it is hauled or stacked, but it is sometimes raked into windrows to dry. then hauled to the barn or stacked in the field. As plenty of ventilation is necessary in the stack to prevent heating and molding, crosspieces are nailed to tall upright poles and the hay is stacked in tall slim stacks around the poles. To protect the hay from heavy rain, the tops of the stacks are covered with tar paper or canvas.
All the pasture grasses and legumes grown in Florida may be used for hay. including those grown in mixed pas-
IlKTTKl: I'ASTl'liKS I'Oli FLORIDA
tines, if they can be properly cured and stored to prevent molding. Those most commonly made into hay are the following:
Peanut vines, a legume grown in most sections of the State, make a roughage that has proved to be particularly valuable as a supplementary feed for cattle. Peanut vines, either with or without the "nuts" left on, are high in protein and calcium content. At the Florida Experiment Station at Gainesville experiments have shown that cows can be wintered on peanut hay alone, although it is advisable to add a few pounds of cottonseed meal and shelled corn or snap corn to the ration. To make peanut hay the plants should be dug in the early fall and arranged in small stacks on crosspieces which are nailed to upright poles. The cross-pieces are placed about one foot from the ground. This allows free circulation of air and tends to prevent molding. After remaining in stacks for six weeks the peanuts are sometimes picked from the vines and sold, but if left on they provide a relished and highly nutritious food for livestock.
Cowpea hay, sometimes called peavine ha\', is another valuable leguminous roughage for cattle. Its protein content is much higher than that of native grass hay, and cowpea vines are said to be equal to alfalfa hay in feeding value and exceptionally good feed for wintering cattle. Very little concentrate is necessary to supplement cowpea hay. To make good hay of this plant the vines should be cut before they begin to shed their leaves, then left as they lie until the upper leaves wilt but do not become dry or brittle. They are then raked into windrows where they remain for a day or two of additional curing, before being placed in small stacks in the field, like peanut hay. where they will have free circulation of air for the final curing. The hay can be left in the stacks or taken to the barn. It is sometimes baled for convenience in handling.
Beggarweed, which grows in many sections of Florida, is often used as a hay crop for winter feeding of cattle. To prevent the hay from being coarse and woody, beggarweed
should be cut before the lower leaves have dropped off. The plant is cured in the same way as described for other leguminous plants, and makes a hay that is palatable and nutritious.
Kudzu, a leguminous vining plant, is used for hay as well as forage. Crows on almost any soil and requires little or no fertilizer. The vines grow to great length and are easy to cure in suitable weather. On poor soil kudzu has produced six tons of hay per acre and on good soil as high as ten tons. Cured as described for other vining plants, kudzu hay is eaten with relish by livestock and is rich in protein and carbohydrates.
Lespedeza, as well as the several varieties of clover that are now being grown in parts of Florida, will produce hay that is highly palatable and nutritious. The method of curing these legumes for hay in Florida is much the same as that outlined previously for other legumes and grasses.
Sudan grass, an annual closely related to the cultivated sorghums, produces a heavy yield of hay of good quality. It often grows to a height of six to nine feet. The leaves, stems and seeds are eaten by animals in the green and mature state ami as roughage in hay. In favorable seasons as many as four cuttings can be made in a year.
Carpet grass, mixed grasses and legumes, Japanese cane, soy beans and velvet beans have also proved useful as hay crops in Florida.
GRASSES AND FORAGE CROPS FOR SILAGE
Silage, a by-product of Florida pastures and forage crops, is rapidly coming into general use in the State and has fully demonstrated its value as a supplemental feed for livestock.
Although the origin of the silo is a matter of ancient history, it is only in the past forty years that they have begun to dot the countryside in agricultural districts of Florida.
Silage is green or immature forage that is chopped up and packed in a moist condition in trench, tank, pit, or upright silos, where it is preserved by undergoing a process of acid fermentation that causes it to retain most of the palatability and nutrition of green feed. Its preservation is comparable to the canning of fresh vegetables or fruits for human consumption.
Vegetable matter properly stored in silos does not rot or dry out as it would quickly do in the open air. By generating its own preservative chemistr.v it is kept from spoiling and aided in retaining its natural juices and food value indefinitely.
The production of silage may not seem to be necessary in the limited areas of Florida where there is ordinarily an ample supply of green pasturage throughout the year. But even in these areas it will provide a convenient method of storing food for such emergencies as the possible depletion of pastures by drouth or frost.
The expensive tank and tower silos are rapidly being superseded in Florida by the trench silo, which any farmer can dig and which answers the purpose very well.
As silage the entire plant is used as feed and is much relished by animals, whereas in dry feeding they may refuse a considerable portion of the plant because it is tasteless and tough. In some varieties of dried soybean vines for example, cattle will refuse the coarse stems that make up
fully 25 per cent of the vine. In feeding corn fodder as much as 50 per cent is often refused in the dry state. When cut while they still retain their natural succulence and made into good silage these and other forage crops are all eaten and the entire plants have good food value.
All crops to be used for silage should be harvested before they become fully matured, and should be cut up and put into the silo while freshly cut, so as to retain some of their natural moisture. Water also must be added in the silo to make and keep the plants thoroughly damp. Practically all grasses, clovers, ami other legumes grown in Florida tot pasturage, hay or forage make good silage, and can be used for this purpose even in the rainy season when conditions will not allow haymaking. This is an important item in Florida, where most of such plants reach the harvesting stage during rainy weather. Silage is more nearly like green forage than other roughages. Its moisture and pala-tability will tempt the cattle to eat their fill of this nutritious ration, which means a big saving of more expensive feeds.
It is good business economy for the Florida dairyman or cattleman to construct at least a trench silo if he is feeding fifteen or more cattle.
The trench silo can be dug with shovels, or with a plow and a slip scraper. It can be made any size desired to take care of the number of cattle to be fed, length of the feeding season and the quantity of crops available for silage. The sides of the trench should be sloping, with the top two or three feet wider than the bottom, and the sides well smoothed. On clayey soils, where the sides will not cave, the labor cost is the only cost. In sandy ground it may be necessary to line the sides and bottom with boards or concrete. The latter will be more economical in the end, because boards may decay and have to be replaced each season. If concrete is used it should be fairly well reinforced or the walls well braced when silo is empty during the rainy season, otherwise the walls may cave in due to excess of water in the soil behind them.
Corn is particularly good for silage, and the entire plant, including ear and husk, becomes nutritious feed. Corn for silage, should be harvested about ten days earlier than for shocking, or at the immature stage when most of the kernels have become dented and hard enough so that no milk-can be squeezed from the grains.
Sorghum, with its heavy yield, is a close second to corn. Japanese cane is not equal in food value to either corn or sorghum, but its abundant yield makes it a desirable silage crop. Sugarcane also is useful for silage, either the entire plant or just the tops. Care should be taken, however, not to use varieties of sugarcane that are subject to nematode (root knot) or mosaic disease. Cay ana 10 is a variety which has proved resistant to this infection and makes a good silage feed.
Cowpea and other vines of the pea family make silage of high feeding value, but some of them are slightly laxative, and should not be put into the silo until cool weather. Other legumes, such as the vetches, clovers, soybeans, velvet beans and kudzu are all useful for silage, but as all legumes have a low sugar content it is better to mix them in silage with sorghum, corn or sugarcane.
Any of the Florida pasture grasses and mixtures of grasses and legumes that grow high enough to mow, as well as the heavy forage grasses, are adapted for silage if cut before they mature. Sudan grass and Napier grass, on account of their heavy yield, are particularly good. All grasses should be chopped fine before being ensiled, and the moisture content should be from 50 to 70 per cent. Feeding experiments with silage of immature grasses indicate that cattle will eat them as readily as growing grasses, and that the butler from cows fed on grass liage will have as much color as the butter from pastured cows.
STATISTICS OF PASTURES PLANTED UNDER AAA PROGRAM
Of the 200,000 acres or more of improved pastures established in Florida, officials of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration say that practically all of it has been planted under the AAA conservation program. They supplied figures for the following summary of AAA plantings in the State for the four years from 1936 to 1939 inclusive, which shows a remarkable increase from year to year:
1936 acres planted................ 1,653
1937 acres planted ..... 30.990
1938 acres planted .............. 62.189
1939 acres planted . 96.470
Total ........................ 191,302
Of this total 172,830 acres were established by seeding, and 18,472 acres by sodding. Figures had not yet been compiled for 1940, but it has been estimated that plantings this year would raise the State's total of improved pastures to approximately 250,000 acres.
No AAA statistics were available showing the acreages planted by counties or of the different grasses or clovers, but in order to obtain this information the compilers of this bulletin addressed inquiries to the county agricultural agents of 58 Florida counties, asking approximate figures on the acreages of various grasses and clovers planted in their counties under AAA practices, beginning with 1936 when the AAA program was started in this State.
The requested information was received from 29 of the counties, and the following tabulations cover only the acreages in those counties. Acreage for 1940 was necessarily estimated, as statistics had not been completed at the time of the survey. Small experimental plots and fractional parts of acres are not taken into account in these tables:
Mil Poll I'litmi Si. Jcte
A Met .........
Acres Acres Acres Para Carib Centipede
it ii 11 ii
I..... II ......
I I I I 11 11 I I 11 11 II M..II
' I I 1
Bermuda Carpet M
,11 n 11 1I* Mini It 11 1111 ii
II 11 111 M
I 1111 t t
22,714 39 1,143
Acres Acres White Dutch PtfdU
Leon Levy Liberty
I I I I I I
D Nassau h
j Palm Beach
0 ^ Putnam
J St, Johns
y Santa Rosa
iiiiii 111 i
*......I (K(ll 1(11(1
I ( | ( ( ( ( I ( ( 1 I 1 I
...... ...... ......
I ( |..... (((' 1 1 1 1
Total............... P II
* Mixed clovers, principally White Itutrh.
1,218 1 MM
COMMENTS OF LIVESTOCK MEN AND OTHERS ON IMPROVED PASTURES
Interviews and inquiries by mail have elicited a number of interesting and enlightening expressions on the subject of pasture planting from beef cattlemen, dairymen, and agricultural authorities in Florida. As these comments present the views and experiences of practical men who speak from first-hand knowledge, they should be helpful to others who contemplate establishing improved pastures.
Lykes Bros. Plant Big Acreage
In an interview with Thomas M. Lykes, of the famed Lykes Bros., sons of Dr. H. T. Lykes, pioneer cattleman, who still graze large herds in Glades and other counties of the Everglades section, Mr. Lykes stated that his company is improving from 2,000 to 3,000 acres of pasture land each year, and this year (1941) would plant 1,000 acres each of Para, Bermuda and carpet grasses. These three are the only grasses they are now growing and they find Para gives the best results, particularly on wet soils. It makes a much quicker pasture and cattle fatten on it much better than on other grasses, according to the cattleman. He said that many animals come out in the spring looking like stall-fed cattle, "and that means one to two cents a pound more for the beef besides a considerable increase in weight."
Other pasture plants, including lespedezas, have been tried but have not been found suitable for the moist soils of the southern counties. The company has not thus far cut nor grown any grasses or legumes for hay, but are considering such a step for the near future, and will probably try cowpeas and peanuts for this purpose. Mr. Lykes said.
Cost of seed and labor for planting their pastures was given as approximately $5 an acre. They do not use fertilizers. All of the Lykes cattle are finished in Florida and
on grass feed alone. They receive no grain or other supplemental feed. His company has its own abattoirs and packing houses, and besides raising their own herds they buy cattle from all parts of the State to slaughter at their packing plaid. Mr. Lykes said that very few Florida cattle are sent outside the State for finishing, and that the increase in number of Florida cattle is steadily growing year after year. "The quality of Florida beef is also being steadily improved through tick eradication, better breeding and improved pastures," he added.
"We run one cow to two or three acres on Para grass during the winter. Besides our plantings, we have improved some grazing lands by cutting weeds, especially on low marsh lands where the fennels and other weeds grow very thick during the summer months," Mr. Lykes said.
Agronomist Rates Grasses
A letter received from Dr. Frederick Boyd, assistant agronomist of the Everglades Experiment Station, evaluated some grasses and their adaptability to muck soils. It will be noted from the following excerpts from his letter that Dr. Boyd was then (September 1940) preparing a new bulletin on grasses. When published the bulletin will doubtless be of great interest to owners of Everglades lands:
"In reply to your request for information about grasses adapted for muck soils, I have to admit that I have nothing but an original copy of the grass bulletin I am in the process of writing. ... In the present bulletin the following rating to the value of permanent pasture grasses for Everglades muck soils:
"(1) Para: (2) Vasey; (3) St. Augustine; (4) Napier; (5) Carib; (6) Dallis; (7) Guinea; (8) Bermuda; (9) Bahia; (10) Carpet; (11) Centipede.
"This does not mean that they now rank in importance in that order, but just in value and adaptation for pasture grasses.
"Para is the predominant grass in this region, followed by Napier and Bermuda in that order...."
PRESIDENT OF DAIRYMEN'S ASSOCIATION PRAISES IMPROVED PASTURES
V. T. Oxer, president of the Florida State Dairymen's Association, looks upon pasture improvements in the State as a movement of great value to dairymen, as seen by the following excerpts from a letter received from him in 1940:
"In my opinion, tame grasses have reduced feeding costs of dairy cattle in Florida, where the improved kinds and varieties are in abundance, from 50 9^ to 75'. .
"As proof of this, I will cite you to the fact that 15 years ago milk was selling at 30 cents per quart and is today retailing around 16 cents per quart; and today's quality of milk, both in food value (i.e., butterfat), and healthfulness from the standpoint of disease-free cattle ... is far greater than it was 15 years ago. And in this period, costs other than feeding, have advanced rather than decreased. . .
"Florida dairymen still do, and unless unforeseen developments take place, always will import into the State large quantities of dairy feed in the way of grain, because soil and climatic conditions of the State are not favorable to grain production, and grain is necessary to high production. However, this grain consumption has been cut down, as I have stated, by improved pastures and forage crops. Also north Florida is adaptable to the growing of some corn and hay, and this is being developed. And the development of citrus pulp to take the place of beetpulp that has been coming from the North and West or imported from abroad, has added a big revenue to the State. . .
"Last year Florida produced something over $15,000,000 worth of dairy products and imported practically a like amount, yet there are thousands of acres of land suitable to dairy use lying idle and thousands of men and boys on relief who could be producing this important portion if they had the technical training in feed and milk production and animal husbandry."
Highlands County Outstanding For Grass Plantings
Louis H. Alsmyer, county agricultural agent of Highlands County, reported large acreage planted in improved pastures in his county in recent years and increased planting in prospect for 1941. Mr. Alsmyer is credited by various sources with being exceptionally well informed and energetic in the development of pasturage. Outlining a long-range program for his county, he wrote:
"There are approximately 631,000 acres of land in Highlands County. Of this acreage we have about 18,000 acres that we will need for development into truck and other types of farming; about 1,000 acres will cover our needs for future expanse in citrus and a similar amount for tropical fruits; about 5,000 acres will be devoted to parks and city property.
"This leaves us approximately 590,000 acres for which we must find some utilization either as timber or pasture land. Timber makes a very slow growth in this part of Florida, consequently its yield over a period of years does not compare with the income received from land devoted to timber in north Florida or Georgia. Then, too, much of our land is palmetto prairie land which has never produced timber, and good forestry folks have told me that land which naturally never grew pine would best not be planted to pine trees.
"This makes us realize that at least 90 or 95 per cent of the 590,000 acres is best adapted to pasture and cattle raising, and is the reason we have concentrated on improving range conditions in Highlands County.
"With 31,000 acres of improved pastures under this office on May 1, 1940, would say that since that time contracts and plans have been made so that by January 1 we expect to have 51,000 acres of improved pastures. ... At this time we have five tractors running day and night preparing land, and three tractors mowing or chopping competing weeds and other vegetation.
"These figures become more impressive when one real-
izes that without AAA they would never have been possible. . Ninety per cent of cattlemen formerly believed that when we destroyed native vegetation we would never have as good pastures again.
"You will note by the enclosed figures that our cattlemen control over 506,000 acres, and that each year there is a larger acreage being controlled by them. One factor in the land purchased by cattlemen has been the action of the Board of County Commissioners in cooperation with the County Tax Assessor in setting the tax on pasture lands at less than 5 cents per acre for all purposes except drainage taxes."
Cattleman Plants More Than 8,000 Acres
Carey Carlton, rated as oi.....f the largest cattle operators in Florida, with herds grazing over DeSoto, Hendry, Glades, and Highlands Counties, writes of his pasture plantings:
"I planted some 1,300 acres of carpet grass in December 1937. On 800 acres 1 got a fairly good stand. This 800 acres is about all covered with carpet grass, and I think from the cattle that graze on it each day that 3 acres of carpet grass will take care of a cow in better shape than 15 acres would before I planted the carpet grass. Cattle are certainly doing fine on it.
"When I started in 1937 we did not know how to get the land in shape to plant the grass but at last we have found out what to use. We are using an Athens disk, manufactured in Athens, Tennessee, with a Crawler tractor. This is a double disk eight feet wide, and you can cut land both ways with this disk and it will take any kind of palmettoes and make 80 per cent kill, and will kill the wire grass.
"I put in 3,000 acres last year and have four tractors going now and I expect to put in 4,000 acres this year (1940).
"The grass planted in 1937 certainly looks good now.
and that planted last year is furnishing a great deal of feed now.
"The main thing is to get your land in good shape before you plant your seed. The government should be more strict in the inspection. Come over and I will be glad to show you my ranch and grass."
Dairyman Says Improved Pastures Produce More Milk,
Cut Feed Costs
A letter from J. W. Beville, president of the Buckeye Dairy Company, Daytona Beach, expresses his high approval of improved pastures as follows:
"We have learned during our experience in the 30 years we have been in the dairy business here that improved pas-tmage does increase the production of milk as well as reduces the feed cost.
"When seasons are favorable the improved acreage for pasture will lengthen the grazing season by affording earlier pasture in the spring.
"On the average, profitable year-around milk production could not be maintained on improved pasture alone. It is necessary to use supplementary feed in addition. . .*'
Will Plant 90 Tons of Grass Seed
It was announced in December 1940, that cattlemen in one county were buying 90 tons180,000 poundsof carpet grass seed, enough to plant 18,000 acres.
Pasture Owners Harvest Own Seed
In some sections of the State pasture owners are harvesting their own grass seed from their improved pastures. One cattleman is reported to have harvested 12,000 pounds of carpet grass seed from 100 acres of pasture, and that he .-old the seed at 13 cents a pound. This gave him a cash crop besides the grazing profit from his pasture land.
Bulletins of the Florida State Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee:
Forage and Pasture Crops in Florida, No. 68. 1939. Silos, No. 71, 1934. Beef Cattle in Florida, No. 28, 1938. Permanent Pasture Grasses for Florida, No. 27, 1931. Bulletins of the Agricultural Experiment Station. Gainesville: Winter Clover Pastures lor Peninsula Florida, Xo. 29. Feeding for Milk Production, No. 82. Yield and Composition of Everglades Grass Crops in
Relation to Fertilizer Treatment, No. 338. Pasture Value of Different Grasses Alone and in Mixture,
Beef Production in Florida. No. 260.
Permanent and Temporary Pasture Crops for Florida, No. WES-300.
Bulletins of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, D. C:
Florida Handbook, 1940 Agricultural Conservation Program
The Annual I.espedezas as Forage and Soil-Conservation
Crops, No. 536. Cultivated Grasses of Secondary Importance, No. 1433. Important Cultivated Grasses, No. 1254. A Pasture Handbook-. No. 194. The Making and Feeding of Silage, No. 578. Beale, Clyde. "Florida Cattle Industry Going Places"; Florida Grower, Tampa. Vol. 48. No. 1.
McQueen. X. H. ''Cattle Industry Booms"; Florida Grower, Tampa. Vol. 48, No. 1.
Stokes. W. E. '"Pasture Development Progress"; Florida Grower,
Tampa. Vol. 48, No. 12. Varn. Myron M. "St. Lucie County Farming Shows Great
Variety"; Florida Grower, Tampa. Vol. 48, No. 5. Ward, W. F. "Grasses for Better Pastures"; Florida Grower.
Tampa. Vol. 48. No. 1. Clayton. H. G. "AAA Program for Pasture in 1940"; Florida
Cattleman. Kissimmee. Vol. 4. No. 1.
Dacey. George H. "Good Grass Alone Isn't Enough"; Florida Cattleman. Kissimmee. Vol. 4. No. 1.