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Group Title: New Series Bulletin - State of Florida, Department of Agriculture ; no. 104
Title: Possibilities for cassava growing in Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00002885/00001
 Material Information
Title: Possibilities for cassava growing in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin. New Series
Physical Description: 23 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Moscrip, John
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee <Fla.>
Publication Date: <1940>
Subject: Cassava -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by John Moscrip.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "August 1940."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00002885
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001962965
oclc - 28595080
notis - AKD9642
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    Back Cover
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Full Text

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New Series

Augusti t 19)0







State of Florida
Department of Agriculture
NATHAN MAYO. Comiininssioner
T hll inissee

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Illllhtill Xo. 10 1

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Int oduction ...................................................................................... 3

Signifiance for Florida .................................................................... 3
Cou.timption of Tapioca Starch
in the U united Staite ................................................................... 4

Tnpi ` i l and Tapioca Flour.................................................................
(;G riding and Packin g. .... ..................................................... 5
V ai rieties of the Plant ........................................... ....................... .

I 'o ves. Flower' s m d oot ............................................................... 7
C(hem ic:al A naly.sis ............................................................................ 7
Conm position of Ca.savn Root...................................................... S
('om pc: sition of ('C ssvil Flou r.......................................................... 8
Culture ............................................................................................... 9

Planting .............................................................................................10

cutting g used s eed s .................................................................. 11
(ultivatio ........................................... ....................................12
]Iarve1 sting ........................ ................ ...... .....14
Products and Uses .................... ............................. .................... 1
Cassavn as a Sti ek Feed ......................... .............. .......................17

Cattle Feedi ....................................................................................18
Feeding to h1ogs ................................................................ .... ..22

Feeding to Poultr ...........................................................................23

Possibilities For


In Florida


The cassava is one of the most extensively grown and widely
used economic plants known to mankind with the exception of corn
heans and potatoes. It is of all the indigenous plants of the Ameri-
cas. one whose culture is most widespread throughout the world.
A native of Brazil, it grows well in every tropical country within
H1e limits of 30( degrees north andl south of thie equitor where grow-
ing conditions are at all favorable. Ideal temperatures for growth
are reported to range between 78 and 85 degrees F., although no
conclusive experiments in this connection have been conducted.
The plant is susceptible to frost and cool weather retards its growth.
While cassava has been grown in Florida and a few cther south-
ern states. at least since the time of the Civil War. its growth was
not stimulated or its importance as a commercial crop realized
until about 1.89!1:. Tlhe freezes of that; winter destroyed a la'I'ge
part of lhe orange groves in the Slato at that time and: caused ihe
grower to tuin to livestock as a means of livelihood. Since Florida
was not a grain growing state there was a need for a cheap and pro-
lific foodstuff. Cassava filled this purpose satisfactorily and soon
fields of 5 to 10 acres became common in many parts of the State.
By 1903-04 fields of from 50 to 100 acres each were to he found
in the vicinity of cassava starch factories. The first of these in
the United States. if not in the world, was that at )Deland built
in 1898. Another was found at. Lake Mary in 1899. The cassava
starch industry in the United States, however, never flourished
and finally died anout.ten years later. It is proIballe that these
new and small factories found competition with the larger alnd
more firmly established starch industry too keen.
Since that time the only use to which Florida grown cassava
has been ]put is that of feed for livestock. T'hec rebirth 1and reallocn-
tion of citrus groves into the more protected regions of the Stale
and the development of adequate transportation facilities for both
fruit and produce encouraged these industries above all other agri-
cultural activities in Florida. Only in recent years, caused by sur-


feited markets which have reduced the attractiveness of other than
large scale operations in these industries, has attention again bwen
drawn to the cattle industry in Florida. This in turn renews in-
terest in domestic production of cassava.
There are other factors which should be considered in connection
with Florida production of cassava. While it is not grown to any
considerable extent in the United States, this country is the world's
largest consumer of cassava products.
Statistics compiled by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com-
merce of the United States Department of Commerce include all
imports of tapicca products in a single item, "Tapioca, crude
cassava. flour and prepared." Information concerning the amount
of edible tapioca as distinguished from the inedible product enter-
ing this country is not available. Imports of tapioca products
during the past six years have heen as follows:
Year Pounds Value
1934 176.102.385 $3.033.534
1935 202.112.319 4.168.882
1936 269.503.709 5.428.471
1937 1 432,857,738 8.104.321
1938 230.879.183 3.880.055
1939 382.802.971 5.520.593
The United States Tariff Commission has made a study of the
distribution of various starches used in the United States and has
issued a report entitled "Starches and Dextrines." From this re-
Iprt the following consumption figures 'lorl t< years through 1938
indicate the use of cassava products fr arrious industries in the
United States.
(In thousands of pounds)
1933 1935 1936 1937 1938
Food 25.702 26.801 33.285 41.457
Textiles 28,51. 18,9(,4 31,654 46,254
Dextrines and
adhesives 56.032 61.111 81.512 92.698
Laundry 313 395 348 1.303
Papermiaking ;9,457 35,246 59,375 102.568
Wood mantu-
factures 36.211 39.439 41.1.23 51.712
Miscellaneous 14.171 20.156 22.207 46.866
Total 190.402 202.112 269,504 382.858 280.879*
*Consumption by separate industries not available for 1938.


Imports of tapioca and tapioca flour inlo Ihe n'Iied Stales are
principally from the Netherlands Indies which furnished approxi-
mately 92.6 per cent of. the total during 1939. The distribution of
these imports as divided among foreign source is illustrated in
the following table:

Country of Origin

Domiinican Republic
United Kingdom
British West Indies
British Malaya
Netherlands Indies
ITong Kong
*I np) 1an
Portuguese Africa
Other Countries

1938 1939
Pounds Pounds
3.779.732: 25,.059.587
1.2719 3,522
1.18.915 143,933
189.096 1.500
3.588 4.372
299,752 45,6839
:348.121 352,167
839.425 872.646
224.148.846 354.541.991
764.6i9 820.379
3325. 14' 4175,029
241.440 11,825

Total 230,879,183 382,802,971
Totl-l value $3.880,055 $5,520,593
*Iteference. Bulletin. "Grain and Related Products. Foreign
Trade of the United States in 1939." Dated May. 1940. Prepared
by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce.
There are no established grades of tapioca flour on the domestic
market. In reply to a Department of Commerce inquiry on this
subject the following information was furnished by a large firm
importing farinaccous substances:
"IT; would lie difficult to determine a HstsLindlard which
would he acceptable generally, to all importers. However,
it can le said that tapioca flour should be white; it should
he clean: it should have as high a viscosity as it is possible
to get (this can be determined by the Engler method);
it should haveo 1 moisHi;l'u (!1colt(eln: l110; in, uO'ess of 13 por
cent and a pli of 4 to 5. One of the rough way.~ of test-
ing good flour is by its crunch. When pressed down be-
tween two pieces of paper it should give the audible effect
of snow on a cold day."


Tapioca is packed for shipment in heavy burlap bags of from
200 to 220 pounds. Some factories pack 200. others 210, still
others 220. It is understood, however, that the most bags used
are those of 200 pounds.
Int addition to the taniioca entering the United States. some
imports of gaplek (dried cassava roots) and tapioca waste are
made. These products are used largely as ingredients in the manu-
facture of prepared cattle feeds.
Prices of tapioca flour are quoted regularly in the weekly "Oil,
Paint and Drug Reporter" published at 12 Gold Street, New York
City. Inquiry as to current market valuation of Florida produced
cassava and cassava products may be judged by reference to this
The importance of these data on imports, consumption and
markets is more significant in view of the difficulties of transporta-
tion caused by war-time destruction and interruption of world
shipping facilities. Coupled with the grow-ing importance of the
Florida livestock industry, these conditions make cassava culture
in Florida a deserving study for the farmer and processor.
Flour from whatever source is listed in our tariff schedule as
duty free. Duty is levied on starches. Cassava flour should be
listed as a starch but is not. The future of cassava products from
the Netherlands East Indies is uncertain. We need mills to manu-
facture various products from cassava in Florida.
Although two principal forms of the plant are named the
"hitter" (Manihot utilissima Pohl.) and the "sweet" (Manihot
aipi Plon.), the specific, difference between the two are slight and
inconstant. It is more than probable that the many forms which
now exist have been developed by centuries of cultivation under
widely different conditions and that all of the present cultivated
varieties originally belonged to a single species.
The plant grows as a bushy shrub from 4 to 10 feet in height.
The branches fork repeatedly, those from which the leaves have
fallen becoming quite rough with transverse wrinkles above and
below the bud. The leaves are long, slender peticles from 4; to 12"
in length (See Figure 1.). The blade is deeply palmated. divided
into from 3 to 11 divisions. These are oblanceolate form from
:/~" to 11/2" in width by 5" to 10" in length, light green in color
and very smooth, although the divisions vary greatly in size. number
and shape. Leaves having from 3 to 11 divisions are sometimes
found on a single plant- but 5 to 7 are the numbers most com-
monly seen.


Til leaf illustrated in Figure 1 represents the form of cassava
most crannonl in this country. It is that known as the variety Aipi.
The flowers are in loose, spreadlinig clusters' nonr ihe ends of the
1ran chl. 'ThIy i r'e alhout 3/8" in dinamceter when open and vary from
greenish purple to light greenish yellow in color. The seeds are
nearly as large as those of the c.stor I)ea and are borne, in globu-
lar pods ranging from 3/" io 1" in diameter. They are more or
less completely encircled with wings or ridges. Each pod contains
3 soods which aret usually moitlhed with a, light andi d0ark cgray
The roots are the only valuable portions of the plati. They grow
in clusters from one end of the seed canes planted. Single roots
varyll iln si .rolin 1/~'" to 21l/" ill diameter and from 11/ to ': or

The compound lellnf o C uMNNIV ln poulnllr wit l
I')orllt grower In eolllpoied oIf Neven Nmc .lllleni

more feet in length. They are usually red or brown in color al-
though sometimes appear nearly white. Clusters of roots weigh
normally from 5 to 10 pounds although they often reach from 20
to 30 pounds elnclh,
In view of the heavy and increasing consumption of eassava
flour for industrial uses in the United States. its composition is
worthy of study. The Bureau of Chemistry of the Unitold States
Department of Agriculture found that; cassava flour could not be
substituted in full for wheat flour in making bread. largely be-
cause of its excessive carbohydrate content asd lack of nitrogenous
bodies. For example, ordinary wheat flour contains nitrogen com-


pounds varying from 8 to 14 per cent while in cassava flour they
rarely are as much as 2 per cent. For this reason the role of cassava
floui in bread making must be confined to that of a partial sub-
stitute to bo used with wheat flour, at least if present baking me-
thods continue.
The chemical composition of cassava roots and flour as de-
termined in the Bureau laboratory is shown in the following tables:
Per Cent
Ash 1.94
Petroleum ether extract (fat) 1.27
Ether extract (resins. organic acids, etc.) .74


Alcohol extract aidese, sugars,
glucosides, etc.)
Crude fiber
Starch *
Protein (nitrogen XG.25




Per Cent Per Cent
Moisture 10.56 11.86
Ash 1.86 1.13
Petroleum ether extract (fat) 1.50 .86
Ether extract (resins and organic acids) .64 .43
Alcohol extract (amides, sugars
glucosides) 13.69 4.50
Dextrin, gum, etc., by difference 2.85 5.63
Crude fiber 2.96 4.15
Protein (nitrogen X6.25) 1.31 1.31
Starch 64.63 70.13


100.00 100.00

A word should he said about the poisonous acid found in cassava
roots. It is hydrocyanic prussicc) acid which is present in all of
the "bitter" varieties and at a certain time of growth in "sweet"'
varieties. Fortunately. however, this poison is very volatile and
is entirely dissipated by moderate heating or by exposure for a few
hours to the direct rays of the sun so that when the roots have been
cooked they may be eaten with perfect safety.
There has never been recorded in the United States any case
of poisoning from cassava. A possible explanation advanced for this
fact is that the shorter growing season and different climatic con-


editions in this country result in producing a plant with a smaller
hydrocyanic content. So far as is known only the sweet varieties
are grown in the United States. Furthermore, it is a well-known
fact that. many plants which in their natural condition develop,
certain qualities to a marked extent fail to show those qualities
wheno grown under different conditions. For example, instances
of fatal poisoning from eating the roots of the wild parsnip are
often reported. Removal of this plant, however, from uncultivated
fields to rich mnd highly cultivated gardens renders it a harmileess
and nutritious food plant.
Simnlarly. the transfer of the poisonous eassuva. from its tropic-
al home to the very different climate of the United States. plus tlhe
selection of varieties which mature their growth in a much shorter
time. seems to have effected a like change and so to have developed
1he noln-poisonous sweet; variety.

As has been mentioned, the cassava thrives best in a trnoical
$imate-one which is free front frost at least eleven months of tie
air, although eight months of freedom will suffice. 'Thiis is eces-
sary to permit maturity of the roots, the season for which may he
anywhere from between seven and nine months for the most com-
men varieties to as long as two years for others.- However, the
sweet varieties seem to mature more rapidly tan tile hitter and
have given satisfactory results in Florida. Some writers consider
the cassava as an annual plant in Florida climate and perennial
in the tropics.
The best soil in which to grow cassava is a light, rich. sandy
loam. Some growers insist that such soil should he underlaid with
a hardpan in order to prevent; too great a. penetration of the roots
and permit their easy harvest. Cassava will grow in wet, heavy
or clay soils. Disadvantages will appear from suchl planting. how-
ever, either in harvesting, appearance of the roots or excessive and
worthless water content. In fine, it may be said that. cassava has
practically the same soil requirements as the sweet potato.
Good preparatory crops for cassava are velvet beans or cowpeas.
These. when turned under. will furnish the needed hydrogen and
will lighten tlh soil. This leaves only potash and phosphoric acid
to be supplied in the form of fertilizer. A common mixture for fer-
tilizers employed in cassava culture is 200 pounds of kainite (or
50 pounds of potash) and 300 pounds of ncid phosphate. Less
phosphate in this mixture will be used on limestone lands and more
on light sandy soils. Ground hone may be substituted for acid
phosphate. From 200 to 400 pounds of this mixture should be ap-


plied to the acre. If velvet. beais or cowpe.ns do not precede the
planting of cassava, nitrogen may be included in the fertilizer in
the form of cottonseed meal at the rate of-200 to 400 pounds per
acre. The ground should not be fertilized too heavily.
Cassava. is a very exhaustive plant. It will thrive readily es-
pecially on virgin soil. Continued planting on the same land,
however, without fertilization or rotation of the crop with pea-
nuts. beans. cowpeas or other leguminous plants soon impoverishes
the soil.
As in the matter of climate, so in rainfall cassava grows under
widely divergent conditions. Some varieties make a vigorous
growth where the annual rainfall does not exceed 20 inches.
Others endure as much as 200 inches without injury. The chief
asset of the cassava in connection with rainfall, however, is its
ability to subsist over periods of drought.
Some authorities emphasize the necessity during the preliminary
growing period for a high degree of humidity and e warm em-
perature. This would indicate that tinder Florida conditions plant-
ings may be made during the latter part of the spring, with the
harvest during the following winter. From severe to eight im-ths
in Florida are required to mature the sweet varieties commonly
propagated in the State.
Planting is done as early in the spring as is safe. usually in
February in middle and smith Florida. Some growers prefer plant-
ing in December or January and that practice is frequently suc-
cessful. It should never be followed, however, where the soil is
liable to remain water-soaked for any length of time during the
winter. On well drained, light, sandy soils this very early plant-
ing is often the better method as it enables the seed canes to take
every advantage of eacl warm day to form roots and so be ready
for active growth a little earlier in the spring.
Tlhe ground should be prepared by plowing and harrowing it
thoroughly only a short time before planting. .ThI marking in one
direction may be done with an ordinary cvern marker, marking
three of four rows at once. or by using a. small plow. The cross
marking. however. should be done with a plow and the rows opened
so deep that the seed canes can be covered easily. This cross plow-
ing for the marking should he handled so that when plowed at
right angles hills are made about four feet apart. This method of
demarcation should produce 2.722 hills to the acre. Some au-
thorities advocate dropping the cuttings carelessly and covering
them entirely with earth alout 4" deep. Others say that the cut-


tings should be set right side up in either a shlmting or vertical
position and covered until only the tip is exposed. Individual pref-
erence and experience wculd aiP)waJr to be the best guide in this
1f fertilizer ik uspd it should he applied whe ii the field is plowed.
Tho work nmay he dore 1y rnllllinig the ordinary fertilizer distrib-
utor along thrl icw s. or seatt*ring on the furrows or hills hr lihd.
lIlowini will a bull-t.ngued plu.w to mix it with the soil. When
well rotted stable manure cr cottonseed meal is used. it ma Ihe

Growth of ten nmnnthm front plnntin= of Ithe nne
hllaow ndlecitnle inld profilnalel root lelveloiinelle
dropped( in the intersection o.l the rows where tlhe planting is to
he ldone. WVhen stronir coniinerci!l fertilizers are used. they must
be well mixed witth te soil as they are almost sure to hurn and in-
jure tile seed canes with which tihe may come in contact.

'Thl cassava is propa.gated connercially by cuttings and not
from seed. 'lihee canes or stalks are grown the previous season
a-nd kept through the wintearImuch as sugar canel is preserved for
planting. When the field is ready for planting. the seed cane is
utl: in pieces 1'rom 4" 'to 6" in length. Some painters profor 7" or
8". elaiming that such large joints produce a quicker end growth
and more vigorous plants than can be secured from smaller pieces.
They also claim fliat there is less danger of their drying out if a
severe drought occurs immediately after planting.
'The mnjijority. however. use pieces from 3" to 4" in length, claim-
inl that such a size is ample and that a better stand can be secured
by planting two 3:" pieces than one 6" piece in a hill.
Care should be taken to see that the seed canes are alive and in


good condition when planted. The general appearance of the
cane will mark their condition: dead canes usually are shrunken.
bleached or darkened in color, with pith discolored or dry, and
have shrunken, eyes. In nearly all. cases if the skin near an eye on
a live cane is cut with the thumb nail, fresh and slightly milky
juice will be seen in the wound. A similar puncture in ai dead
cane will remain dry or show only watery or discolored juice.
It is worse than useless to plant doubtful seed canes as it wastes
labor, soil and fertilizer. It is not uncommon to see fields with not
more than two-thirds or three-fourths of a full stand. Such failures
almost invariably are caused by the use of poor canes.
One piece of sound cane is all that. should be "planted in a hill.
The seed canes are usually kept through the winter in whatever
lengths they happen to come from the field. They are not cut into
smaller pieces until they are wanted for planting. Great care
should be exercised to cut them cleanly so as to avoid wounding
the eyes or leaving ragged, crushed or splintered edges which invite
decay. A machete or heavy cane knife will do very good work al-
though the most convenient and common implement used is an
ordinary carpenter's saw with, coarse teeth set a little wider apart
ihan usual. The saw is fastened on its back to a heavy block or
bench with the handle away from the workman. In using it, the
can is grasped with both hands and a single push along the saw
edge is sufficient'to cut all except a few of the larger or heavier
canes which imay need a second stroke.
Some growers believe that it is better to sprout seed canes be-
fore planting by cutting them into pieces of the proper length and
budding them like sweet. potatoes. Handled in this manner the
camns will sprout in a few days and caun le planted with a certainty
of obtaining a full stand.

C assava grows rapidly and needs cultivation only in its early
months and then merely to keep down weeds. A shallow cultivator
which will not injure the roots of the plants is advisable. All later
cultivation for whatever purpose mnst be made as shallow as pos-
sible for the cassava roots lie very near the surface of the ground.
If the foliage becomes dense enough to shade the entire surface of
the ground, weeds will not grow to a size harmful to. the plants
and cultivation may be dispensed with.
Diseases. Only two diseases of any consequence are known to
attack the cassava. Both are caused by1 parasitic fungi. They are
the "spot" disease caused by cercospora henningsii Allesclii. Ap-

1%1.1, 3r u qjr grflv.' b W. WidniorsLMi Vnlrico, Fotli tke IsA ,111
(~ hQll (Ir. rte rr 3m 0~Ng .4m1 ~wt li lirO~pl n r Wi'~ I ~ 'YIi!d I~um r, ( i V. 2rlrico.t JIjlcrI.Ig. Phb qigram 'Ia turkeu n A, mag~luat,. III


hearing late in the season when the leaves are almost mature. it
does tittle harn.
The second is wrenchingg" or "little plants." Caused by tile
(-cIr..sp[-riu:n manihat Earle, this fungus attacks and kills the
growing irnuclhes near the enl and then works downward. TI sonic
cases it proves to be a: serious condition and is combated by plant-
ii g selected cuttings known to be free from this fungus.
0. W. Barrett says that a bud maggot lonchoea chalybea is one
of thl: few pests which attack cassava. It is common but nor very
dangerous in tropical America and can be controlled by hand-
pi!:;ng tile tender tips of the branches. He also mentions a sphingid
caterpillar as sometimes being troublesome. Handpicking awzrin
is recommended. Root rots are rare and leaf blight very iunconmnon.
Florida culture is reported to be relatively free even from these,
few diseases and pests which are more common to the tropics.
Tile origini1 section of seed cane which was planted does not
decay when growth begins. It continues to grow through the entire
:enason, the new stalk usually growing from one end and the cluster
of roots from the other. This seed cane then becomes what is called
the "union" between the stalk and roots of the new plant. In har-
vesting. the stalks aie cut either for seed canes or to clear the land
for digging. leaving a stub of ." or 6" high to show the position
:f the root and to J'murnish n hold for pulling thlem from the ground.
Digging usually Ibegi!:s about the first of -ovember and con-
tinuei until about the first of February when the roots are grown
for the manufacture of stacli. A portion of the starch is trams-
formed into glucose at tie beginning of the spring growth. The
roots become less valuable for this purpose with tile approach ol'
warm weather although quite as much for feeding purposes.
Digging may begin earlier or continue through the entire year
when used for feeding stock. although in Florida the rootb are
usually not used for this purpose between May and October.
If the entire crop is not wanted for use during the winter follow-
ing its growth. a part or all of it may be left in the ground for an-
other season. The best storage for roots is in the ground where they
have grown. They will continue to grow for several years if not
Roots which have grown two or more seasons often reach an
enormous size. sometimes as much as eight feet in length, forming
clusters weighing more than 100 pounds. They become mere hard
and woody, however, the older they grow and are not as useful for


A srcundl field of nbolu five ncere. nlio grown by Mr. Wlndhorse. ;hoown
rexclitional drnsity of growth. Thle view. taken aIcross the rows, lshonw
IllllolN totili 1111H nce4! f **P ikllN."9

feeding purposes or stiarll manufacture ias those which have grown
during one season.
If i part of the crop is to be kept for continual feeding purposes.
allterniiite hills or rows should be dug so nis to allow aidLtqluiite ioom
for thl remaining plants.
If the ground in which the crop is grown is light and sand,.
the roots may he pulled hy liand after all but a foot of the stem
hins been cut off. However, a sharlp-pointed inlstrumenit (in t1he
tropics a bamboo rod is used) which may he inserted under the
root cluster and used as a lever insures a more complete harvest
and frequently prevents bn:iking the roots.
Where the ground is heavy or danmp. it. becomes necessary to
employ i1 spade or siilair instrument. Under such Circuimsl.tnanes,
digging becolnes the most expensive phase of' cnaslava culture and
experiments are reported under way to find an implement for
plowing out the roots without injuring them too greatly. The
lops of ihe plant have no commercial value. They are usually left
1upon the ground as hunmus for future phl)tintgs.. After harvesting
it is advisable to use the roots ininmlceiately or at the latest within
24 hours for at the end of that time they i egin to deteriorate
rapidly. Unwashed rc ts keep longer tlan waslied roots.
Very often from onel-fcuiirth to one-third of the hills are miss-

r .i
*i-~r c


ing at harvest time. This loss is due to careless cultivation, or im-
proper selection of cuttings keeps down the hill. Crops may run
anywhere from 2 to 25 tons of roots per acre. Five or six tons is
considered an average yield.
To thl millions of people in tropical countries the cassava root
is as coninon in their diet as are potatoes to people of the United
States and European countries. If eaten whole, fresh roots are
used. peeled i(and ustistilly cooked or hakcd.
Another and perhaps more widely followed practice is to Ipe(P
the roots. then grate them into meal and cook by steaming. Care
is taken in cooking to allow the steam to escape as with it any
poisonous gas which may be in the roots will also pass. Various
dishes ar pre spared by natives of the different tropical countries.
Sflach. By far the most important product made from cassava
is starch. The general procedure of its commercial manufacture
is as follows: "The tubers are first thoroughly washed in a tank
or tub of suitable capacity, then removed, cut into pieces about
the size of potatoes, and fed into a starc-exitracting machine, which
at full capacity should take care of about C00 pounds per hour.
The machine automatically separates the starch from the pulp. the
latter being discharged in front of the machine and the starch
coeveyed to settling tanks. For a machine of the capacity de-
scribed above, three 1.600-gallon settling tanks would be required,'
there being approximately 100 gallons of starch-containing Iluid
to 100 pounds cf rcots. It requires from 4 to 6 hours for the starch
to settle and separate from the water and from the pulp and peels.
which rise to the top. The starcl is next dried, in the sun if the
quantity is not too great, or by means of mechanical drying equip-
meunt in cases of large-scale production.
"The starch made from cassava constitutes a large part. of that
employed in laundries. For this purpose it is considered superior
to starch made of potatoes or corn.
"A former important uset orf cassava, starch was in sizing cotton
in textile mills. It. is seldom used for this purpose in the United
States at tile present time because it commands a better price
"From cassava starch are made many glues and pastes. About
30 per cent; ol the tapioca imported into the United States is now
made into wood glue which is required by furniture manufacturers
for veneering purposes. Cassava starch also figures in the manu-
facture of explosives, adhesive for stamps and envelopes, and sizing
for paper.


"In addition to the whole root. cassava meal and starch, the
following products may be listed:
"Tapioca flour is the product resulting from the heating of
moist; cassava starch or flour on iron plates, whereby the. grainules
are ruptured and. when cooled formed into hard and tran sl ucent
pellets. If. rather large and flat they are called 'flakes.' and if
molded into small pellets they are known as 'pearl tapica.'
"Gaplek. a. Malay word, is used to designate the peeled, sliced
and dried roots of cassava.
"Gaplek meal is ground gaplek reduced to the consistency of
fine corn meal.
"Ca.sereep is the liquid squeezed out of cassnva meal when heated.
and reduced to the consistency of syrup. It is said to he very
powerful antiseptic and is used to keep all kinds of meat fresh
for considerable periods. It is also the basis of many well-known
sauces and figures prominently in the West Indian dish called
'pepper pot.'
"Piwarri is an intoxicating drink said by Nichols to be made
from the cassava root by natives of Guiana.
"Suman is the name given to cookies made by the Filipinos from
fresh cassava meal.
"Bagrsse is the fibrous waste left after most of the starch has
been extracted from the roots. Its food value for livestock is
rather low. though it may be mixed with other feeds to advantage.
The finer waste is called 'ampas,' and corresponds to bran in tle -
manufacture of wheat flour."*
*Bulletin of the Pan American Union, September, 1.932.

Important as industrial uses for cassava products are. most of
the. domestic grown cassava. is fed to livestock. It is included in the
diet; of horses, mules, milch cows, hogs, poultry and fattening
cattle. All kinds of stock eat it with relish and thrive upon it
much better than when confined to any dry feed.
The high percentage of starch in cassava roots has been dis-
cussed. Since it is so highly carbonaceous in its composition. it is
commonly fed in combination with bran, shorts, cottonseed meal
or other nitrogenous grain' feeds and when judiciously used it be-
comes one of their most inexpensive feeds which can he grown.
It. is less watery than either sweet or Irish potatoes or turnips


but its yield is fully twice:as much. One hundred bushels of sw.cil;
poitaices per acre is a fair crop but: it weighs c.nly three tons. On:
tlih other hand. from five to six ions of cassava could bh gr i wn on
the same ground with less expense. As the r t:: always. a:e fied
in a fresh condition, ihey furnish an excellent substituted for ,winter
pasture and s do do much to keep animals in i good e.miiititio through:
the season of dry feed.
.In nearly all cases the roots are fed as fast as they are dug as
they never fail to keep in good condition as long as they are left
unilist u1hled in Ihe ground where they grew. The roots iIre so
smooth that if they are dug when the soil if dry they need no
washing or cleaning before being fed. '\o special preparation be-
yond cutting them into small pieces is required before feeding
them to cattle.
.eeding Value. The proportion of wi:ler in the I'resh eassnva:
rocts is somewhat larger earlier in the season than in the winter
iut averages about. (i6 per cent. With that allcunlt of water. the
analysis of fresh roots. based upon the analysis of dry reots de-
tailed on a preceding page in this bulletin, would he approximately
as follows:
:'er Cent
M moisture ........................................ ............ .. ;.00
Ash ................................................................ .71
Protein .................................................. 1.07
Crude Filbe ......................................... ....... 1..83
Nitrogen- free exitret ................................ .... 30.2-1
Ether extraC t .................................... .......... .

To a ..........................................................1 0.00
'I'lhis makes a feed in which the carbohydrates are largely in
excess and which lhas a nutritive value of 1:28.. instead of 1:7
which is about the proportion preferred' by most successful feeders.
Fortunately. however, velvet beIans or cowpeas are the cheapest hay
feeds which can be grown in American cassarva growing regions.
Cotionseed nmea is the. cheapest grain feed which can be pur-
chased. All of these feeds are unusually rich in protein and de-
ficient in carbohydrates. A combination of cassava with any of
tlise makes a perfectly balanced ration which is easily varied io
mcer tile needs of growing aiinials, nilch cows or stock being

The united States Department of Agrieulture in its Farmers'
Bulletin No. 367 by S. M-. Tracey reports a series of experiments


:made on the use of cassava ill cattle feeding. 'Th', facts collected
from this work are iln part as follows:
Effect on Mill. Cassava is fed to cattle more than to any other
"kind of livestock and is valued especially for muilh cows anlnd for
flittunitig proposes. It; is fully equilI to silnge in stiimuinting ai
flow of milk to which iti gives a rich color hut not distinct flavor
such as cones from giving silage. turnip and soeni other feeds when
used too freely. A few feeders have stated that when fed "too
heavily it gave ihe milk a slight reddish tinge. although those dairy-
men who have used it: most: liirg'ely sti:a thntl tihey' lihve ne'Ver sePen
anyuch discoloration of the milk. Apparently its only coloring .
effect is to give the milk a richer and att;.ltive cr:lor which is nr-
tainied in the butter even when made late in the winter. No report
-was received indicating that the flavor of flth milk or butter fiom
cassava fed cows is effeccted in the slightest degree.
Bller Increa.se. While it is n ct prirclblte that tIhe feevdilln of
thiern dairymen agree that a gallon of milk from a cassava fed cow
will make more butter than an equal amount of milk framt th-
ame cow wlhei on otilier feed.

'C' ~
r ,Q.

The mingle' pirnt frcquently rezuhex, n hcighta of from five to mix feet In
Morirdi byp Aireglopit. ltsii teI uIIefl I U I. thIIs pwreod Im still n1140!oiijtIeI e.


No accurate tests have been made to determine what influence
the feeding of cassava has on the creaming of milk. The experience
4`f a large number cf dairymen, however, agrees so closely as to
make it more thla probable that cassava does not modify the milk
in such a way as to cause a more nearly complete sepa-ration of the
cream and perhaps a more complete separation of butter in churn-
ing so that there is less loss of fat into the skim milk and the
Firm Butter. When milk is to be used for making butter it is
a common practice to add a. little cottonseed meal to the ration both
Sfor tho large proportion of protein which it furnishes and also to
make the butter hard. Some feeders add wheat bran or shorts as
well. but cottonseed meal is the better article as so much less is
required to balance the carbonaceous cassava that it is less expensive.
:It is a well-established fact. that when cows have cottonseed meal
for a part of their ration the melting point of the butter made
from their milk is several degrees higher than in butter made from
a ration of wheat bran, shorts or other ordinary grain feeds.
The region where cassaval can be grown is the region with long
summers and without the cold springs of the northern dairy re-
gions. Here it is good practice to use such feeds as will keep the
butter firm under ordinary conditions. Cottonseed meal is such a
feed and its solidifying effect on the butter makes it the best grain
feed for the southern butter maker. Its highly nitrogenous char-
acter makes it especially useful for feeding with cassava.
M[ethlods of Peeding. Cassava can be fed very heavily without
endangering the health of the animals. Some feeders use as much
as a 10-quart bucketful twice daily. In feeding to cows or beef
animals the roots should be cut or broken into small pieces to pre-
vent any danger of choking. lThis is not necessary when feeding to
horses and logs. Some crush the roots by laying them on a block
and pounding them with a mallet and, if the fresh roots are very
brittle. the work can be done very quickly. Others put the roots
in a box and chop them with a spade. A root cutter such as is used
in slicing, turnips and sugar beets is still better.
Value in. Fallening Cattle. The very large portion of starch
which cassava contains makes it especially valuable in fattening
cattle. It not only furnishes the elements necessary for the pro-
(luction of fait but; it also furnishes the fresh and succulent feed
needed to keep the animals in their best and most thrifty condition.
When velvet. bean or peavine hay can be used for roughage no
grain need be used, but with othei hays aud when the animals de-
pend on grazing for roughage it is better to. add a small amount, of


clOttlon(.scd mifln to the eCls sn\an to provide the required amount of.

Dr. Stockbridge reports in a bulletin of the Florida Experi-
ment Station that in a test made at that; s.tition an an imal made a
heavy gain when the ration was made to include 'IS pounds of
cassava aind *2 pouInds of cottonseed meal. "'Fo meet Florida con-
ditions. haimmeek pasture. supplemented with an occasional feed-
ing of peavine. velvet bean or emrh grass hay. furnished tie. coarse
fodder. No shelter was supplied or needed during ilhe feeding
period which included 75' days ending FolrMnry .19." Du ring the
75 diys ofrl the test the aiinial consumed 1;5() |pounds of cottonseed
meal and 1.125 pounds of c.ssiaval. The1 cost i:f these two feeds was
$.Gc. 'The lianimal made ia gain of 2;'i poundsi which ill current
iveige beef prices. airitrrarily stated at (. give i toiial increased
value of $1(.i50. or a net profit of $1,3.9-1. if the viue ofI the mn-
inur is regaldeid iis 1ill off''set to the Vl nie (;f the roughllane coll sinelm d
aniid the liihor inv,.lved in the c;:re and feeding. This makes the
net cost. of the increase in weight a trifle less than Ic pcer lpounll.
which is regarded a( s a remarkable performnllie.

During the enrly part of the ceniiitury. a Ifiriii operating lt Ml'us-
cogee. Alnliama. fattenld 20(i head of catilc. using Ceassava iln phaee
of giLrin. Nearly all of the animinlls were fattened and marketed
with no grainl whatever. although a few which for soie(' reai'on
were ( itol; dliing well roeeive\d 1 3/8 poullls of cot11onleeLd lnclnll per
day in ildditioni to the C.'ssaivi. In this cuse 1.(ii) pounds of eissava
were fed daily. tlhe re:ots having been sliced in a root cutter.

The. ccst of t1ll work. including tlhe digging ol' the roots, haul-
ing thein onle anid aI hill miles, cutting them tfor feeding. storing
the seed ceeis for planting the following year. was $3.o0 per day.
cr $-1.50 per tein for the roots used. The digging alone cost about
$1.00 per ton. or the labor of :lie man for one dny. In addition
to the beef alimails. 1m) hogs weri kept in the same feed los and
beealnme al1Cmost tco fiat for the ies.t quality of pork although they
received no1 feed whatever except what they picked up about the
feeding trougihs and in fallowing the steers. These hogs would
leave coin uneaten at any time when they could get c;ssavai in its
plcce. Others who have used eassava for feeding small herds; or
perhaps one or two nimnis make clequally favorablee reports of its
good qualities. All of those who make ainy compariisons of costs
regard it as heing less expensive than corn or any other grain feed.
although many recommend the addition of one to two pounds of
crttonseed meal to the daily ration.


Farmers' Bulletin No. 167 issued by the U.S.D.A. also reports
extensively on the use of cassava in feeding hogs. It says in part
that nearly everyone who grows cassava uses it to a greater or less
extent for feeding hogs.
Thli bulletin continues. "In some cases the hogs are turned into
the field and allowed to gather the whole crop for themselves and,
while this method is very satisfactory so far as the fattening of the
hogs is concerned, it is not the most economical of feed as many,
roots are pulled out of the ground. and left by the animals where
they soon decay. Where the supply of roots is not considerably
greater than can be used to advantage. it is much the letter plan to
dig them and feed only as fast as they are eaten. In every field
where cassava has been grown there are always many broken roots
left in the ground l water the crop lhs been gathered. These are soon
found by hogs when they are turned in the field. Except in such
cases, it is seldom good practice to allow the hogs to do the har-
There is less wnste when the roots arc sliced or chopped before
feeding. HIogs do not become choked, however, when fed on the
whole roots so cutting is not essential to safety.
Cassava is too carbonaceous to be the best feed for growing pigs.
When, fed to such animals it should be mixed with shorts, bran,
pelns or some (:lhelr nitrogenous food which will fuirnish material
for bone and muscle. When fed on an exclusive diet of cassava.
hogs fatten very rapidly and soon become too fat to make tilh best
quality of pork. while their growth is slow and unsatisfactory. When
thle hogs have the run of a field of cowpeans velvet beans, or peaiuts.
they will secure so much nitrogeaoons food thlnt they salfely may be
given all of the cassava that they will eat. Hogs eat it greedily
and prefer it to corn when both are placed before them.
Many feeders use cassava exclusively during the fattening period
after the animals have reached sufficient size and find it very
satisfactory. Thle pork is very white il color, of fine flavor and.
although perhaps not quite so firm as that from cornfed hogs, is
much more firm and shrinks less in cooking than that from animals
fattened on cowpeas or peanuts. When kept for a considerable time
on cassava feed alone, it is better, to make half tihe feed of corn or
rice bran net less than two or three weeks before butchering al-
though this is hardly necessary whear they have the run of a good


'ed(eders who have made somewhat careful tests regard a pound
of fresh cassava roots as bein'.z worth from one-half to two-thirds
as much as an equal weight of cern in making perk. They are quite
generally agreed that during the growing period a small amount
of shorts or bran should hie ddeld to the ration wilh l;ho alimrnntiivo
that, pigs should have a good pasture. hDuring the lust few weeks
of fattening a small proposition of corn will produce a firmer meat
than when cassava is the only feed.
Dr. Stockhridge states in a Florida Experiment. Slt ion bulletin
Iliht. when five lots of pigs were f'd duiiring a, period of' 75 days.
ea IsaSvIL gave n. greater nit profit anld gre',ter percentage of gainl
than corn. chufas or peanuts ald a greater net gain in weight than
did any except coni. According to his report. llhe cest of the in-
creased weight of the cassava fed pigs was only 1.0-lc per pound,
while 1 hei inlerans of thle coi01l'd pig eos o:; 3.0(io per pound,
'I'l thoes tests the cassava was charged to the pigs at the rate of
$6i.00 per ton and the corn at lice per bushel. these prices heing
sFtcmewhat more than tihe actual cost of growing ctassava and less
than the usual market price of ce'rn in Florida.
Cassava makes an excellent substitute for eorn in feeding poultry.
It needs no preparation Wefore feeding a1 the roots arc so tender
that they can be eaten readily and poultry eat. them as greedily as
do other kinds of stock. fWhen fed ailon. cfa.sslv, makes hlens so
:l'nt ithat Ihly do not lay well, a. is lthe (iise whelii t(lhy aire given nil
exclusive corn diet. .lust as is the case with cattle or hog feeding,.
it becomes necessary to mix cassava with wheat, oats or some similar
nitrogenous feed. Cassava is unsurpassed. however. when fowls are
to he fastened for market as it makes a rapid increase in weight
wilh a very smnal exponse s.
One poultry raiser near Orlando. Florida. who keeps from 500
to '00 fowls, states that lie fed cassava to his poultry nearly 20
years. lie regarded it as the mo;-t inexpensive, as well as the most
satisfactory feed he could find for use in place of coiirn. Tie slates
hiti; it is not: so coiwmplet a liood as. is ieeIded by growing chickens
and lying hens. Others who have used cassava for feeding poultry
make similar statements. It is the general experience that when it
is used as the principal food for poultry. frm one-third to one-half
a feeding of wheat. or oats should h1e Iidthd to the ralion anld thit;
llie .fedi'oing ol' assava sitaves fully onie linll. 1i the usial cosl ol' corn.



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