Front Cover

Group Title: Florida. Dept. of Agriculture Bulletin new ser.
Title: The "Trace" or "Micro" elements in the service of Florida agriculture
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00002851/00001
 Material Information
Title: The "Trace" or "Micro" elements in the service of Florida agriculture a symposium
Series Title: Florida. Dept. of Agriculture Bulletin new ser.
Physical Description: 67 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Soil Science Society of Florida
Publisher: Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1942
Subject: Soils -- Congresses -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural chemicals -- Congresses -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: "February 1942"
General Note: Reprinted from the second proceedings of the Soil Science Society of Florida, Gainesville, May 1940.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00002851
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA3176
ltuf - AKD9649
oclc - 28737305
alephbibnum - 001962972
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Table of Contents
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        Front page 1
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Full Text

The "Trace" or "Micro" Elements in

the Service of Florida Agriculture


NATHAN MAYO. Con,unisioncr

IO LWpmln d frolm the U evtlU }ProcJadulJ L of I U,.



T I. ALLIs.", Chairia

t l llermel in io ha l ,le of the so called
leents are no knn to pl pant, onimal and
t, : it i i l inled that one of the two symposia of lhe
S elll of tie Soil Science Society of Flolda should be
ubec. The prolam tillis a-lrnoon 0 ill deal with

e of Ihis field of eearch was ,e0ablollaed i the sLate
.. 0 Iie LbeCinning onl a TIe ooer a decade ago when
,,. and nine plo-ed thilemseles tile "three holsemen
Flo.ida inertia

peat tha I o of that great
ih,.t iil manganese was found equalli essential whele the
Ick hlad bel bllnc:l or ol.hel.ise made too allkahne
,, ,il s by marl ill Ihe im e tI hi Zim, as observed-
pioi1t Il ant inu/)llle o plnLt goIsollh under l ri snwala
mi. 0 li n re tlll pl wle it TodTlr d an
eso of o response ) pealuts tfha was not ooly as
I iopr response it elf but illed a caller mlurit
-I o Pomoiiation treatment ] several weeIk.
Ple t}/e 1 t tleaftlmntI wrele made oil
d-11" shztl) before planing.
... ae been extended to include boon unle celn
ol oI ho an mialhosl t endles
o I oarying0 floro lalishes 0
[ 0 ]/1 lso involved an eo
ectiption for whtch I ustly amous. In due
Si0 extended to milal soils on ,a idesplcad Ilis wIhere
1 .t eme-nt, tloual pie-ent hae le been bound up into
Sto an through exc s0es of lime i
"' [,11' -ulni'e or another or bheci open 1sndy acid-plodiucing

S i l h t te action (l) Ii s been reduced to
Sl ie Soo1 Ihs ashed fie of essen-iafl mclo elements
ri 1(1 k(, [ of lOltd" on tlh, C-.al,"l til e
.I C Ih- .


as 'ell Ja-n Lru-lr u oti r ui h ai elcillnn. 1 agnc- i., and p.... .

The scope of th, ork to date i the it insofar as the onr .
froem the Uilivrsiti Flerlida aic concerned, i well liin by a
giaplitd i of reference, numbering in et x-ee of two hll,,!
recently h- I,, p erpared. A limited nuiiblr toi copies f thi I
availlle for thost 1ho ma) be palticalll) itere-ted lo iiee tel 1 t
As a result of this whole prograol, thelr ha dveclopeld
lialacter of shumi -t,. ],,
.;, , nbd .;,, ilr nI ,ug i I'nipinge on fihe reli.
anial and man ahke through the common chance of nurito C ...
qaotleoll ii"li iio ie Iei o "

Parief I I
are rela LII I I I

hod of thie hubjeci matter into tleoe fote all-imporent coerii
soil, plnt, animal andl mat. Nattlralli a careful consideratiotl of t:
sequence it of ; mpuriance in the development of our ietr,
pogiram for the ,
We eill first liten to a discussion of "Precenit Plant Rlcpos
some of ile tilcto Elemeets on Euerglades Peat," by Dr. W. T For-e,.

(Ct Il" 01 -AI C110" EL VII\T t\ i AGICL LTt RI


W T. Fonslu, Jm,
in hghl) ogani oil of thc il oida erAglade mle ltlld
Ipeat a-d uk I n r f aS high as
i ent in the ICostald Apr 0 Okeechlicc mwk to as l o a-
c,,/ t m the "'Saugas" peat. The leatem palt of tile soil in th
S.t i of the sawiaras is name from its native
I i agra would show In appro

;\ O )654 F,' ,, manganese.
,iir escppel. 0.001k/i. These fteuies me only aplnoxinlate and are
o the iulls of man torl n Si o \lSo. the percentages ae total amounts

,,[[. withl such .1 low, nminlcia~l content would nlatuin llly be expected to be

1qx~ teln/t ol rlld elatile to the detect of certain micro elements on
: ti h of agi Cuntu lal pl to the peat so iI; i
tintiea d ito in 1926 All ,on. Br1 an ,di
1 Station BI,,l0, 190 m ide a plinar pot on this ork
b coptei antd I onloaotho ae ope n0 though
;,lt d uapo~lle to 111{ sere a! ent, n imme
1 0 oloo z o l ci o glt stI kiing loeo s uls t ith r tain plants

l I p.rly combined 1I1 ope As a result of theoe Iprcninary
Scoppi alld manganese i tiUtl. soon began to fi td a el
,t t lace i t ilt agrichllme 'nnuol
date o Atli..on. Ndlot, W~'edgwMo th. To tend and
!,iulson and by Taunlsend i F hlor ida Expeilnlent Siation } tllet n
316 -olorn lha been addhd to the ]lt of milno elements found necessalry
Si lant glo th in tl l certain condllio / T ihe im ortance
td hars1 als o l een greatly expanded by ]aler studies.
Slarge pIortion of he mole l lrtl S at the Eeides
t 0llelnt Statio ol plant re0000 t0he nil ro element, has been
lat to I otl u oder tOe Aloe t neOlolll A pl0el0lliliary report of 0ore

irl ill of lhe pnicnlhouse easellnlelt h o1, spaded, wc ll id
Freed fm lloots nd ta-h and placed In I e
Sct or ght of soil and noistre
itie by a eng with di t0ild water Pure
tlL wee lsed l itate d l unlolm app atlon of
o1t 00hemt, EicogLte 0 0pe 0ent Stron, Belle Glade, Flohii


phoshjlolu and potaiiuim as made in addition to the micr o ,
vtiatiolS. Treatmenti t eie t carried out in triplicate nd tihe jar..
aranged i laldor ditibution.

C. Me
C.. Z..
CulnB 9 eIPDfpf

GMoB B m

B Eligli Lef.t Diff fo-
ZnB lulmingm S;inir;.nce
M. ZnB 9 E1M

Tile results of the thst preliminary expelnnent are repre.n.,i
giaphicall) in Figue 1i Tteatlents included applications of eopli.
manganese, zinc and boron and all possible combinations of the ele
m0nts. Thie ba6i teplc ent tile ovendry of corn plants ien oei
foin thie vanous tieatmenls. The itemi striking signlitcance i,
which included
S, Miethod
S. Inon-coppr
treatments are highly significant. (Odds of more 1i 900 to I that tlh
differences are not due to chance) Tie copper response is even more
higllly ignificant when the fact is considered that the soil used for this
expeimelt was i~ell p' eat from a cultivated area of
the Experiment Stac t I tas adjacent to a gcou. oc
fertility plots ad the soil perhaps contained added traces of these iero
elements du- to wiid noiement of soil and flooding.
In order to ehmi ate these sources of copper contamination, the soil
foi sulsequaent epeniinentaI work was obtaied from an a-ea of taw
undceveoped 1 l dtside le dikes which ir-rond tihe cultia ed
area of tDistilled ,atei was used to maintain the
ioper rnoistuie ileel ci the jars. Copper applications were made ic
hire form of copper sulfate.
Itographs (Figs 2-8 illustrate the effect cr ,
tis o, on tihe gloirth of plants in sawgrass i
rder grenihouse conditlolls



A 0,
i t '1

I -. M ~~~ l ~ -A~P~r

l .aa 3 h i Jf.a
Io Ir aa ii rie


l iACJ,' OH M\IICRO]; : ll I 'l) I\ \GM(VI\C [( I L

. V..... .....



Fire 7 -Cario bLegan to rhow difference i h beten

Space ws traen i dayt
afer plnting; lft,-treated alid righl, untreated. The plants -hown
in tie in n o he i ame oder om r d ere at e oved rom I th
roe i ater 82 d-y nd shir le me lng difference in both tp
nand 82t e ded-Ie- opn een

g -th i

he arddidion of the niicro element copper to j eat is tilFs

,lants and in mntI a ses ietelmines be, eeob
nd a complete crop failure. The impotance oi copper
oil amendment on Ederglades peat caInot be over-emphasized and its
economic value to growers iii that area is lnestiable.

-i paralon of

i"TIACF' OR \11( F\t EILiVFN iN AGtRI( I ,[ ie 11i


L. 11. R io.rs n It C. HIto '

A itl dctsn ]ah li- g with Itt.e elettt lilhoud ittl d h at
elements are bhlng included in this cateonr For the proposes of this

Segre t shos a peludlr tale li an indication Iof t the t
0of oui knowledge leidlll i the biologtic e'entiohty o- 1ome of tile

The stud of tilhe elect f the tre emen o pat and anals.
ithe deernonllll of thi o natural otI -III Ic i didlstt ibnion ill SOd.
,plants and animal and- & -ildle on their l-, ill biologl(al poce-ses
iequil, tht large tuiqi.br of -;,lll) e io llfid ft o tie elements.
t is the purpose o f ,i patto dliS- s onl of t ohe poeCdures used ill
pIerforming the-e anal .es
TihnetIm ta(t ol "microI elements lndicateB that on-) I alnte
amount, oi these cletlll, ocul in plant or ano als. IIence oldtnarv
chemical -lehods of ,llhiis i ae lt. ill gctial, applicable because they
r- deSiglle d to a-al-t I.ol ltgel q1lattle. in recent eas a e
tield of chen-Lry tatletd micolo i ttlnt. boeruse it deals tith analysis
-f exceedinly t mtalt l quantitit of elements, has beeo developed to cope
tith ttlee protla n In soe ase this his meleh invohed the use
inn to manipulahlon. butl m util'iig essenhalh thie sale eacton as are
, ed in onrinatn lhenncal anah i- In other cases, new themlcals and
ew techniques have been de-eloped. or well knlown ph-slcal plinclples
are been adapted fol microanalsis.
Since thele are htealhl. do-ens of chffeent ohemlcal and physical
tnithod, of ncr italI, tois Ia er is to be limited to a discustdon of
onl t1o p-ocediure One of the0e it chemical, tile other physical.
These are -not neItlll the most Impoltant pzoe.dure-, they are merely
newer plocedolll iih hiii iii to be mooe familiar The
dlenlcal proccdule which ,e ,ill imohes tile ue of dithizon.
ihile s Ipectinoraph hab heen usl as an example of a physical plo
cedure it shouh] ]) polntel outb that eath plocedure di cls-ed h- le has
it. own partuLu field In ,hiAhi ilt uiled Fitrthermore, in sIme
t-sa ol ln of thce Icedules. o- colilhtlion of each

Bll l In l1 Dr It h-at re pe- -]vy, SoI Dep. tentn,
t '~ida 1" "d.-rIhu Eprn siLltltG m .l


Dithizcoe' i a complex otgmic topo.lnl l huh has the opropelotv 4
being oluble in thldroform and other organic sohelt- but is inolalbh
in water. Its peculiar usefllne lieo in the fact that it formr hithh'
colored compound ,ith various chemical elements, and the ompound L
thus formed are likeince soluble in chlo-oform. but not in oater I
mak possible, therefore, the extracton of a relatlvcl small amount
of tome metal from a large aonlo l of watrr solution into a small amount
I I ,icentlrate the element m question
solution is highly colored. de
hBrilliant telow. red or viole
colored compounds lare formed ith a dozen or aore metals f igure
shows a periodic Iable and indicates the elements that react tith dithi
zone. Of course, since agricultural materials contain many metals
the use of dithlone directly, for example on an extract of a soil, coulh
separate out a mixture of the metal- contained in the extract. Obviously
such a mixture would be of little value. It ih fortunate, however, tha
it is possible to hmit the elements that dithlzone will extract by resorting
to other means. for example adjustment of thle acidity of the atel
The most useful range of dithizone methods is from 1 to 200 micro
grams 2 f metal, and the errors vary from less than 1% to 5%. depending
somewhat on the amounts to be determined
To make an analysis with dithizone, 3 steps are invohled, namely (1)
sample preparation (21 isolation of the element sought and (31 it
final determination A brief disussion of each of these steps follows:
1. Preparation of the sample usually involves the destruction of or
ganie matter in the sample. This is done either bh asinmg in an electric
furnace at red he I ,' r I ng acids. In the former cas
the resulting ash then r'ady for the next step
2. loltllon of thle elenenrt 1 ,
attatmtent of the proper condition
taneously formed and extracted in most cases by shaking water solution
of the metals at the proper acidity with chloroform solutions of dithizone
of tie exce dihize modified the colo e of the extracte
I the production of beautiful mixed colors raning front
I blue, purple and crimson to led TIe various metals of
"tfenot sopiom deTees of aciditc of tha
water solution I, I n I' 1 t 1 1t -f h
are extracted. i , .
but will not be discussed here.
3. The final determination of the metal after it has been extracted
from its aqueous solution and separated from otler metals remains to b
considered Here again, various procedures lave bhen used, but onlr

Tile gc here olo (exct mich deall ) l In ari cer I
tlc1 co. c o I io d Dermnlo n o c of A1-cat I lho, eppercl
in Jhd Ing (Ilre l, .r Ed 11, 66 1939l.
lirogr' m on- mdirlloh of gr.

"ItAl,' 011l ill E I L\ICATS IN AGRlIlC[ [1 L Il 13

,ne mod tlhc ~ttion of l, cooin ici e l, iro'etltre is to be ll, ced. in thiti
procedure knoll l as thle milxed rolor melr'hod) the nmtl[ (lead hals
)Cen delemllillnd ilotCe elenlnlclhd I ad n y illl\ olhe/ llletal ill thlil ]llillilln r)
is extrcted FJt thle aqtous ,oltions at op-inltunl aridity with an ve-s
nf dllii/one n I .hiloroforlm -utIon1. This e-(cs of dllthizlle is not
Inmoaed 1u1 i- allied to Inodlif Ih1, color of the extiadtd dithizonate.
Thu;, in the case of lead. a reries of color froln green to ted may he
-- i ol i allldl te }}llu[. p llrple allld rllnlo ns hILce the e1-1 ,
Ih hue of the ulknown is matched against the hil of
a slanldm ,xprt at dnathing the-c hll-. \%c yapid and accurate ,,slt ) na be
obtailed in detcniining the lead tf ,ad lpnay residues. Several pro.
c tll l,!, odher dran Ihe one hel, desc -f ed have beet -sed for the fill
dlecl linillilllO~ll

Thi. In, def d ri-tHon, of th, d it Ili--e zemn of an.-hsis ildicates
that eyxedie[nt lesultfs ranl be ob)lained withl shirllel aplparatull+ More clth.
orate appltlllis ll.i be used Ilfr \ainphc. 1i photoelectxic coo-iiclllor)
to illlease the' pcd of ianali<. (Clleful t]OLe of tle olldliion- of
extlr action is essenltilal for satifd( 'lacolr i+: t-.
As pointed out aboxe, there a,,' mll.ill}" chrllllieal [
iinirosal)e- ether Ill t"h d dlhizone sw ,
was chosetl blec'aute it is one o1, nhIe il'weir and more senitive techniqull,.
iRIaphi. developenltql are nlow takfing idace in this fheld--nower ailnd halter
i may he expected diue lo the increased interest and im-
, i flvhl. The dithizol st en of analysis is applicable to
alll t'pes of materials--soz. ilanl .anlimnal- andI other agricultulal
Trllng now 1o t di-c-lsion of pUeLtigralphly ald its field of
applic;tio l: A pleclrograph its instruient for breaking light up into
its various comlponellt atsn. jel as lain pmlicles break iu tle sunlight
nllto a railllo I lollsists of a sht trotuglh llich the light passes, wo
lenses for e- : ii '1 -i and a pism whidh dhprss thf 1" 1, i-Lo ,
piectn"m t ,>ectii is then photographed, inllstrtl.
ment ]n i II I E peri lmellt Statlioll is -all,'d
a Littrow spectrogr d3h ,ind i i , in lgu.es 3 ald d.
r )pes of ,llal)si l wihl thi, instrumnll These
are ,, 1 I)roucedll and (21 i pIlecsion qant ilalive
precede. The first i used for lrpid analIis for a large number of
elements nh-re a g nieral idea of llh cmlllpoliioli of a material alld ,
crlde cstliale of tile poportionl pr1,nt is deiralle. This procedure
has ben ,d bs uI f -tr ue ,n!nie of -dli, fertilizers, plant and
anilnal li tlus and tller agricullltil llmteri;lls, no a lor later
-ork and r1 ogh COlmpa~r]sO i. The 1pocedtule used II le a t
from sIome of Ile ilter figures.
The ]letisionl quanin/tative pmeotdurle ltlqull(e lith ulse of" all auxiliary
lr nt know as a 1icropdlomeler zlnd 6o-m i p- igl'e 5. This
)iln trumInlllt is only I1 SIpc.ial nelrl In Je'ti] wl hi(ch give's al elIaged
image od (II pectl urn olnl a -ctccil bhirull wllich ii a phoilo,-l ectle celi


which measures the density of the l ine question. Using this procedure,
a precision of 10% or hetler iay he attr d.
Before disculslng the prol clis em tudled, it seenm pertinent to
point o at certain advantage of analysis b spPctrography. These ale:
1 Speed. Using the rough et mate procedure, an analysis for 30
elements ola be completed in less than to hours. This is an average ol
about 4 man-minutes for each analysis
2. Sensitivity. About 70 of the 92 eloenI mcan be detected wih a
sensitiviy varing fro 1part p er mlilon to 1 part per 100.000 as
sho n in figure 6. (Taken from L ndell and Ionfman.s)
3. Certanty of identification. With an "
person, coincidence of lines is so rare as to
nearly all elements have several sensltiie line
to check himself.
4. Appearance of unusual or unsuspected constituents. Since all tie
atoms present in the source ohich are excited emit their characteistic
wave lengths, these are recorded on the plate, and unsuspected elements
thus manifest themselves.
5. 0" alysis may be made with about
10 mg. I I I certain animal tissues, this lo
particularly advantageous.
6. Peomaent record. The plates may be filed, and if at some future
date some question arises concerning any particular analysis, it may he
checked quickly. Furthermore, several persons may confer regarding
any point.
For the purposes of this paper, the problems being studied may be
discussed I r the materials, namely: (1) soils adr
waters (2. I nent0 materials, spray materials and
mineral supplements foa animals (3) plant tissues and (4) anima,
tissues. Of prime lnteleS here is not analysis of these materials per se-
but rather in their intereelationship the influence and availability of the
trace elements in sols, their assinmilation y plants, and in turn by
animal and man
1 'el , l ang so l 1 -0
to I and I in
these materials for purposes of evaluaring them with regard to the
essential selll as other) taee elements an also to determine possible
toicities. A useful hby-product of such a study is in connection ,ith
of I I resources of the state. In a recently completed
thie of some inaco and micro elements il some
Florida soils, it was found that 0n general the poorly dramed soils of
peninsular Florida contai greater c a 1 t variety of
both macro and trace elements than o I I I Fige 7
shows a r1-- I ulra rio of a Pahkwood soil and a
St Luci in this ti order in whih thee
spectra are taken. This illustrates the ough estimate procedure which

A LO L, G. E. and Ho i. Ot of fethods of C1lelucal
Anal)': John ,ley & Sons, iN, York, N. Y (1938).


ar mntied oletiousi. Thle presence of zliconum, ifckel, titom
1d copper in Ihe ,Palf ood :anlpe aotd the vIrtual abseq-e of all
rlse e 0lemes except tItnltul ill tih t. Tuele soil is lnte0lting (Th-ee
,lement- are not lnei aliki esse-ntil to plant go-th.) Park-ood soils
lre among I ou f te-t soiL ff1 citu St. oiCre sols arie among the

2. In the alna.-i of feltiizeis. olf amendment matcliaal, etc of
,rit i i L ii tepoaih of Oi Cias s tii aliting effects of the
}lace elements, contaiell accidentally, on plants nd amanmals fn a study
conducted several yfars oi fertllifr m 6ateials, it was found that
o tle ifor general t rYe 0 material stifled- (lime, phosphate. potash
al lliliog)il the phofifhatie mnateziu l obtained a greater ,arietv and
lagcr propo0tiions of tile tace elements tha didi te othi cl-asses of
Iaatefals studi i 8 shows a portion of th, ultra-vilet spectrum
of a phosphate and a pota-h fetlhzed which wie analyzed im
his itudy.
3. I" the studv of ;1 tissues, we are ,lnelesied in determinlng the
essential trace elements I normal plant gowuth, the functions of these
drace laments, tol.-ra-cs, effets of c......se, a.d diff..ereces .n quire-
well as by different organs in olly olle pla
solutob n culture ol k
.oiolved, and utihia-
tity of trace element Figure
a sample of Valene
juice Js Note thie presence of the metal stroolltlu, barim,
and chromium.
4 There ,s iasflicfllnt time to discus in any detail thie rohlems
ith animals. There are involved here, as in plant studies, determination
i (1) normal requrne ints. (2) tolerances, and (3) functions of the
trace elements.

Tio methods of analysis of I materials fol trace oI micro
elements rave heen discussed. advantages, disadoantaoes
and precaurions for each procedure have been llotion led, not rwih the
nelition of emphasizing the diiculties. tir to indicate the coioplexty
fat t ohat ae involved. The complexities ae o urountab
oweerand it ii felt tIIt leasonable .
,me of the more pleasing problems

16 I)EP \T1I1E\T Oi .\GliCL TLiRE

ca m u a E. Ang kI b to e es ntI .

b At e eentto is falrA

,enrlose elements frequently detected in blo
logical materials, bult whose essemiallty as )et remains unproved.

Figure 1--The bologpic ly21 eel Welements.
(dtpted 1 prrt AroA SteinbeIr A

s r ( Ah A- aA
Figure 2 Elenents that react tith dilthilzone.
(enclosed by soLid tie)

1're t OpticOpl s)rli o[ iltrA pe -p Aglo-rp

ITIALUl Oil *Ill- R O" i IYN) IN X%(;Pl1(I I. II H 7

't .. i "


~Cs? ,
cxpoure fro th ar t~nh:.rigt 1, wich I1 amp i "buned



inlclnlicr o =pecra[ ]leg oil photogr hic pla.e- by- ay of deter-
S .....

.s .

IEa or n bl oc ln lo e elements for xch to is o l high oonl

tests f Ir the elements.
El~n~fn na miio~d inIlir* uo Mne la m'C ti.i .

-1 R1 ORiAll 10 I E Is IN k ~t 11110 19

C C 'itC
kC, Cd- j



d h Ih-B


a ii i.i~

Fi--ue 8- A




R. V. ALLIIo -n LT. W- G-anu

The rapidly increasing interest in the significant role of certain of
the "trace" or "micro" elements in plant, animal, and human nutrition
around which this symposiual is centered, makes it very desirable for
us to examine the composition of our Florida -olls just as critically ar
possible lith respect to their content of these elements. Indeed it would
seem very much worth while to compare their makeup. from this stand.
point, with that of well-known types from other parts of the couatr.
especially since our more pervious soils down here on the South-rn
Coastal Plains are probably more expo-ed to change by leaching than
n an) other s ----- e are glad to be able to give you
aprlehminary trace element content of.a number of
1 Florida soils to those of eleven important profiles assembled
widely different parts of the United States which, in fact.'do
represent some of or best agrnultural lands.

In vien of the fact that te O te" soils, as ell as most of
the Florida soils used in this comparison, have been described in the
literature in considerable detail, they nill be discussed at this time only
suoffiientl) to rake their principal charactelsties conveniently available
to the reader. To the extent that it may seem desirable, the descriptive
material will be drawn directly from the original texts.
A. Florida Soils
The spectrographic analyses of Florida soils presented below are
taken, for the mo-st part, from Bulletin 3411 of the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station For the purposes of the principal comparison,
however, only the "cultivated" sos are considered. This reduces tile
total number of samples used for this purpose from 77 to 54 for the
topsoil and from 55 to 35 for the subsoil.
The only Florida soils included that a -e not reported on in bulletin No.
341 are the complete profiles of E"
muck collected in the neighboIhor
organic soils are described in brief detail at all the depths sampled.
The distribution of all the sales. by county, is shor n on the outline
S 1 which is adopted, with appropriate modifica-
page 6.
*Head, Soils Department, UniPers- of Florida, Garinerlle.
t, Soi Depaltnrlle Uni .. noiw rirman,
SRocs, L I., O.E G-, L W. GkDU,- and R. tu
c n I ,t; 'knrnrlard'ht t


Fgue 1 -Number and dlisbtnon of Flollda .oil samples used in the
eiN comparison loht ooutofl-ae soils.

In all, then, the follow',ig oil series flor Flourda are repi enta d in
Ilis general compai-on. Norfolk. Orlando, Parkiood, Eustls, Pors-
ioutb, Scrantoni, Bllntao. Laketood, i Peat, and Okeechobce
uck. (Onl the topsoil ain subsoil are lepoited for tile
Florida mineral soils slne ti Iae tile limitation as to depth of sampling
decided pln ;it the tlle this particular study ws nade. Standard
profile samples are no beng collicttd of all important soil types in
the Stlate eand anal}is Il be moe largely upoi tolits bass in the future.
at least from the standpoint of o type characterization in support of
I TI 'ata will also serve as ercelletl background
soil fertiliy tudies. Concerning tihe lorida
o01 reported on, t7he autfl r of Bulletin 311' had the following to
tay on page 7 of that publication:

hhr f egtit o t loitsh lta t uri- Ifae Ilyr 3t to 5


A, oton oi tho rae page of uolletit No- 311 i the refe-eee
Tile olamolll, Rntenmie d Prifoi ono these oil iae poo. ntiloal i
SExpiment Station Bulletin No. 31. "The Soil of Flo ida
by J. R. Hlnders
The protile do esiptio of the oEveglades peat and Okeechobee reA
i' abovt, mine xten elife Pesoils is atuablf i

with volume weights for most of the depths are as follows:
F-vri..1. p~rat. denied fr Proftle taken for S E
Experiment 3, R 37E, T-14 S. (Lab.

m peatl th onai abundance of so
lo.e, relght 20"-24", 9.81 Ibs.) ; (5) 26" 30"
comparitiely dene, pla layer marix malria apparent of redmienta

greatly rsed ont markd d re f fi
plastic n-otrlx nialeii 842 lbs); (7 40'-50".
S ''" of pure,
, egh
o dark ine fibrous o sedimentar
.aatei a 9i (9) 1 478', dark fine-ooad tenria l ifb aa t dmiue o a rld
iber lying dircl aI e ile roctk lid d ni lob mro oi rotan imerone
at tile interlce. Limroek t 78".

Okeeclobee Muck, taken from area west of Sooth Ba), N. W. 1/ Sectiol
14, R36E, T-4 i more than 4 feet helow surface
of soil t ti"e o' 1f6245)

(1) 0" 9", sufae 2hei blak o GIa)h-back d, ganulr muo, -J.
deni, boaekr, engoat, lunlo ,i ,
__t-nd 1o &ch,0 i, fri i e ,h

-hhine tLghb pounds per cubic foo. a., er oren drying, for sued deths a g
w .as fond pr-eu-al 'o take salnple f ins purpose.


lonr levels: (2) 9".13"1 nuck colntaling econ.derable quantity of browr.
rathel platy peat pearls decompo ed, iore olerl es stratified, ,n al mari of
e-21,l de.-e bld c, birostl (dlnlumel pe.a. Ill i and-
ely tLeky ,eihti, 1-""-'n9 5" 1917 Is); {'H 26"33. gradmg
drom bhe mer eas nre la dgelms patr more or sejj
33"'-B8", mnlo plastic in characte ,r"- ha 1 e, onrl$[ing olf al admixtu re of
sed entar? ratll\ rlthl -ome Itlrailols oe blonn, moated el es plenty minr
thlroil! .... Belo i ..... thle daliirk ... .. "' i es e n:irhanmure
ma~tc apnd dt t t
PlopolllfnS a n t e hdl E I (Sozta/ne ,9
E1325 Tl), (6) 58"-72", p nfle at ter cos llted oner 5, of a c hrelr-
drltlg} ithe pero dll e a p2- f-om Sn -is sj, darkn 1alr Ino
:y icle of il Pp n otha r t etions p of the i 1 tae Sellow hclow 72t. (Volum
welghlt, 6 7"-6, 5", 7.34 lh.i; {7) 72"-77", ram of den7e, malted, Jl-o1r)
decomposed d yolce o,, c ey fibroes. (Volance win gat, 7e1"76t.

dark t-Ay 16- l-,, pehnh; (9o}t .
rhee Stypednmes entoly be to matted fie rous h mla leeares.
in u sp c h dlt nf a elrnal w ,

3. O,1o State So s

ELeven out-of-,tae m profles that N lepre l [ tlhe donnnant sails of the
f-rs o ten Eo Eiriment Statlolls e bah shed ly the Department of
yp I dica ing tha period 1928 1933. in widely different parts of
I States, are usd ie oi o hi r oThey are about as
:)pical of sods in eh sctihns o te Uniteld Stltes a an, that could
Ie ,eeted and. of cot-ie, carr) added iigniC-ao, ih a trace element

tudy o ti ltle in vie of tile exteni.e lve stgatlonl and anal)tlca
wor that aheIdy has ieen lone on them.
The distibuliol of these asoils oad the apoimate aeas each
leprsnts ale ,horn on a maop of the United States in Figme 1 ,here

their pe names e to Ie fonld i the legend. While these areas
ehneaitd i such n include other ypea in tIe same
eris n lmitd other ll eries a.s wll, still tle spCfic

tpes ind,,,tedl s domolt I. l nh area rohuhly presentn, in the
aggregate, fo, alleai. ne-, ly one -11ndrd ollllon acres.
and p -incipal claraotelisles of tle out-ofstate soils hIve
oee- lldmallze in three TechInicazl BWlletlnso of the U. S.
Departm-ent .l Agricultule from ;dllch *e qote as fo.1o.s:

iTllese polofie=myles erie made aiallab le ior thls study I .
,mile anH y'1 s
.... erralr "l'he Scnlu uiornA tao 3 eCiilei
rl h e~ o
-a S~~iailiil .... I 'h ', ,r iiilige o
dloie qilol] il1 1933 to 1-d36, . .. o[-t hese mpl e
iie station< weresar t l ied and aie an identical part of thoie
ate. iulillrs, and Bsecr; in ihy-cal and chemical stodes,

l, dilns"l} flrd to GC B"- ph," -d Celo-,

Xnl- --
) Cecil sandy loom.
5 Mushingum sit loam,.
Clinton silt loam.
SShelby silt loam '
Marshall silt [oam.
Colby sit loam.
SVernon line sandy loam.
r- rvin line'sandy loam.
LNacoodoches fine sandy loam,
@ Houston black clay.
@ Palouse silt loam.
figuree 2.-ApppiOxjmale geogrphliical distiutiion of hihe .l-of-.lait osia [i se l a ii s sillily for comiparioii
vith Flurids solls willth re sl)oI ii llUlot el]l illl ont lcjI .


(l) Thle Ce11 sandy loam is ,1 lat.rii- seil dr6,d from grmt-, gneiss
or ch Tile col id i I o lo i I ih ir o xde Ilrdo, and tie ronle i
ed l re It was dIc-rib by Mr r I yl SInder as foall! s:

) c pc \o d ad a tendency to cr
(2 TI b.. .l W. l.. l -i h sl n
lar e pc 1 i eathr- d parent shal e I lie i-
by Al. E B3 Peele r a

Lollt. 20 -o 1
(a) Flom 12 on 20 fce s }
Ti Ia (5 I r ro m 4 tl

to 2 I inch

BoI .1 yo, IiyIyyeloped oy

o Is ,ic at dsre are
l ,, (2 fromi E i, T I 6
nd H Gi k-20 Tr-o 32le
(1) F inches,

sydy ylay splotched oilcy r ydyd yray, sof red sandstone and flnt stone

p refnt. 1.
So de loessial y atriay l is pryesen in Lhe oudin l and calcium calbooate

(3) Irom y 12 to 20 ychhy,, oh by ,
; (5) rom 24 to 48

dfee s, nd ano inal -and pock ; and (6) frm 60 to 8 ice,

i hches dlame e. The n"aterI a eae V cry badiy -e- 3 cme COhere
--ons occur at fhls deph.
(51 Tihe Marshall s, t loam ,[ a P-hlns se, l d-, el-3ed on lo]--il matmtaI
Te-,-ral d1iferences are _ligh wltlm tile profie -fhlch his de-elibed by Ali

the Sods from the f-. son Epe-imlt Stbaons; Tech Bl, 316,

A 1 : G B-,; Th f hyoll Id
,,from the rosion Epei ment S yl~0-- Se cl oy
:, g` ii Il d G Bilts, Trace Elcment 111 Sils Soils

,h ppi,.,nen, dta oil o.10-1 .oil,; Tech,


G If.grae aI. lulo I11 From 0 to 13 nciesi darkbro1 n i lo

a i llen d o is readily tlled, (21 from 13 . ,l
oan,. (3) from 2 of4 r h, micrial s ii g occ ionl lr o sand
d ligh, e'di if'o off d 1it: al ( I fom 7 inches, riher grll)
eIow siJ loam (glacial doft).
(6i Tile Colby cl I o Ie opdf on Io al
I.trl f o d-,e of .,ofle. Calciumf o o
blar o e c p ree oii h rzo ,too n e idncami ed froo l
rpeioment o i tioi a K s, appfro to oe odifid som yhi
presence of aerial deoried from Ihe lfloioor sle oo the r i
hr ion., Thi prile wan dero oh, I ..Uo. as
f-on!.o oiFi, hronl olori o ]a silt oamb
cfao lam fibe mtiellil of this ai the lo rl de o,
-ixed or splotched i-th more ).ll]-lshbrwt mater--l lldcjh has been
borough t up h leooo, probaolt by deo p niliage. If ii of Snegrauhla
structure only a. fe li-me onore-b are in o eidenc, ie soil
,il ffferfoo foree -, h droho.f
fiurv, heo 3 to 6 -inc es of tie ,
Ihas ben lost by eroon se the-
1 o 20 inche lightbrown or y

b- b, ...... L- ,,; ... 11 .

iches ye Tshh Krvin sin y aday loam contining a larg number af hm e
...icr fi...oo. d f o ei..o.,ood hlo00s
,k h-yelo1. or LIS-
colored silt. structure to Ihe
horionl aboe . color I and lrc-
tur as te ab but paris or spo of hi ayer ppr to bo of
fialei terrte. LiinL concretions are less abundant. (6) F-o 1 60 to 72 inches
b oarer ure than- the layer ar ,
b id I ,e sand i fo -fd in maay plc.
at l, Li-e is present htnt b, in abund-nce as it tle abo-e horizn
of i ,fne isnid lo while red in color, ross ,
t odool so-ls. it l o de-lo t y '
So is inherited from t de ih ( I ff mr000"
able e1t, e a-d i, decrbed by Al. S. ( o
0 to 3 inches, darkbro fine sdy oan natinoo o ome f oo a ai-r;

.o lalo ero ,

(If plent in ois l 1o her.,

f63 1 fi1 ,
-dsa of

0 obouT oooo 3 oo o



onle n lo ; (21 from 8 eo ,- la,, (31 1ro, 18 1o 40

ellllhcl, red 023 00 [ to e 14 ol, fro9 r- l o clay with so0e
g ae d (3 from 66 Io 72 -nches red ellow sandy cl a h

as f ollows. (1) 0i-m 0 t o 1 t'1 ll lll pa c -nd
t irkvohln fot b000 el 30be rebdl ek allr
(4 00

decloped on loessa.l materiL.
In th bu h oho o soid abpdo.ma t1e
icle chrcr samp et d, at mesrtbe
hl s oi to 20 ihcnchesl, darebloait ol
u oam x eT matter (2} frmn 20 to 30
oe l ,,oc ,e (3) rom 33 6to n2 inchel,
f ellot ro n o3 b ro lit, tl a ( W f tro 6 2 to 7 5 -ch3 .elo .. .h
,rwnor b s -1 a oa an- 15, from 7T 1 81lnc-1 Icl)o-i,-
bma ro or brt heo I loat or silt, -lmE lea.

hole soil d of the o colodlo l sea ate of ach l at
length especially the sta r ,pint of tbe elation hip of these lue
th tihe tendn of th ils to Im ode undr gin conditions of slope ad
minacge e teseIle. The phicat m aremet nclded, int addition to
mechanical an.lyses, colloid b, atcr ,ap, absorption, ,,oistue
silent, ro e igt, ettlin ole, d a number of others in an
effort to get at Isome physical or hemil cialactehistics of these sils
closelt associted with their n-tal teodenc y to e oode whih could be
meaared in Ihe laboratory in a lol ,yne way
e studyhe a o ahe t face elen ctent of a te samples of thee
pr ofio es by Slate et al rp-eselftl s a 1 are that av s madt e at
tife tima to -Ie hu loadtlctont the Io ethfn the top soil a inthe
flemoving f e torate elements that head accenu ued in it as s part of
tle olatureal process q itilo e solt Toie pjase of the
problem ha, een lot tOe tle bult no geat
amount of ystemfie or has ben done on it This possible tendency
towr ds the areumltion otr elem e Ients the opsoil throuti p a
otioa, .eo. the eval of these oeleoets from the subsoil by the loots.
their cu ato i te foliage of the pl tsor io the hoie plat in
the e~ase of annualsand the n susequn ieturn to tbe soil when the
leaves fall or the ,hole plant dies has been aubequently discussed by
Goldschidts. An eoenion of thit tud, in the interest of a moe0
complete onseol to tle lole qustio n o ouhlo appi to he jua t as il-
p0otnt as tie par t tetace clemt play in tle lhoal nutrition of
plants, nimal, and mn

Lot, ok, J.- Cl S-o 1937o po 6550 A.



was used ecelusi lt in develop-
paper. owever, tile technique,
ill not be discussed in detail in
Si procedure presented by Messrs.
L. H. Rogers and R. C. Hughes in the immediately preceding paper,
"Some Physical and Chemical Methods used i the Trace
Element Content of Soil, Plant, and Animal I I I I b Mles.rs.
R. A. Carrigan and L. H. the paper that follows, 'The Trace
Element Content of Certair I Soils and Related Plant Materials."
It will suffice here to say, and to emphasize, that spectrographic data
of the nature presented are not intended as precision determinations but
only as indicative of the "order of magnitude of the proportions of
the elements present. To avoid misunderstanding as to accuracy, there-
fore, andalso to retain ar I 1 r comparison, the diata
are commonly recorded alues. For instance.
a range of 001-.005 per i as meaning that he
proportion of the element lies somewhere between .001 per cent and .005
per cent. In order to facilitate the tabulation and subsequent comparison
of data of thiI nature, however, whole numbers will be used to represent
these range values This translation of range values to whole numbers is
in accordance with the simple schedule attached to Table VI. The
exploratory character of these values must especially be kept in mind
when tentative averages are calculated to facilitate broad, general com-

ThIe detailed results of the , ,i analyses of the Florida
mineral soils are presented in ii those of the out-of-state
soils in Table VI at tie end of the paper. In view of the fact thai
all these analytical values are based on the ash of the
the results for the analyses of the peat and muck
Everglades are listed separately in Table IV. In the
to compare the trace element content of these soils with that of the mineral
types, the comparatively low ash content of the organic types shall hav
to be taken into account.
Si I I of the data withir
ag i 1 1 I id thickness of the
various horizons where the entire profile has been sampled, no genera
attempt at averaging these results will be undertake, except in the cast
of the five most important of the element s swe recognize and understand
their relationships to plant and animal nutrition at the present time.
In the instance of the Florida soils, the trace element content arn
certain other phases of their mineral composition have been discussed ir
nent Station Bulletin 341 anc
Notable among the finding
reported was a good correlation between a higher trace element conten
and poor dainage; also in the apparently close association of calcium anr
strontium as well as iron and manganese.


TA4111 I o---A oa o r s ZlIc, Boom, on Cos"lr CoS T- o.
T o Zi Tos F-,-, 0--',-, S.-

Soic [ opper nWac ie Zin oton o Cobolo T SSmpole

.A F I.i.ooo 1 [ Co o

0 30 232

10 5

0 1

0 35 1

6 4 0
4 0

5 1 4 0

11 1 1t 4 3 :4 1 1
1, ,'I I 1 6 I 6 3 3 ]
I1, 1 3 6 3
2 i 1i 2 4 4 4 1I
2 4 1 11 3 2 4 4 3 1
3 11 10 6 5 6 0 1
i 1 0 6 0 1 1
Nao7doch 0 7 6 3 3 2 2 1 7
2s 1on. 32 11 1i 1 0 20 1
PN-lou3e0 41 1 I 4 46 21 i 1

k .. ,e0 o 3 1 3 0 1 :0 4 V4 1 2 _l 11
Pr resented as, range numbers in the form reported in Tables V and VI where
olote under
It must he e-mphasized that averaging these range numbers,'
sent the rough-estmate, pecentage range values shon as a fo .
in o s imp-roe tit} and abo,
cusesd undet e0hood df '


Of therc five elements .all but cobalt as necesa y
supplements to be applii d under certain I fertilizer in
proper amounts oi as sprays to the a' of a .wide variety of plants
for normal growth on nooober of I soils. Up to the present
rime. lilte wolk has been done with o olnlt m relation to plant growth
insofar as its essentialit) is concelled. It has been proven of \ely great
important in animal nutlitlon by -orkers in the Animal Industry
)epaotoment of tle Flori,' A I I Expceriment Station, howeve,,
especially under certain and on 0 bis account these
range ar. ea are known as 'Tie general symptonms as


recognizedl by placical catlettmen and experiment station -orkers \li
but slilhl) fom tlhoa-e of 1pical "Salt Sickness." However, the aoniral
will not respond to the usual Iron and copper treatment and usail]v I
die, unle-s it reeiles treatlnelt with cbalit il doe course fronl on
soulrcl hrtieer it be a proper change of range or tie cobalt drenchin
bottle fro the saddle -bag of a passing roohoy.
Tlle comparatihe dributlion of these fie elements in Florida and
"Out-of-Statc" soils is entalliely indicated in Table I I
a erages are presented for the topsoil ad subsoil of ,, I
are available for only six of the Florida oils. The depths of the
"suhboil," for the out-of-state soils are indicated in Table V, the sample
used for this purpose being the second depth tabulated in each instance.
Keeping in mind that the Florida soils involved in this study are from
cultivated areas I every instance, it t that the copper contest
of tie topsoil compares favorably ,y ,' of the out-of-state soils
though it is appreciably lower in the subsoil. In no horizon of arn
of the out-ofltate soils ,as this element found to be entirely
It could nlot be detected, however, in several of the topsoil and
samples in the Florida group. The "average" value for the Florida
topsoils is, of course, greatly strengthened b3 the comparatively high
content of the Parkwood, Scranton, and Portsmouth groups.
In the instance of manganese, the content of the topsoil and subsoil
of the out-of-state soils is much higher than the Florida soils, the high
value for the element in this latter group carrying well down into the
profile in every instance with the greatest teaknos occurring in the
Kirvin Thus in eight of tile eleven out-of-state profiles studied, the
concentration is greater tlan 0.1 per cent n every horizon and Iell up
toward this value in all the others. The distribution of this element
1 1 I, -I soils is quite erratic though
quantities of organic matter

S little difference
as 1 i iII different groups.
It also carries do1n -well in all of the out-of-state profiles, being lowest
in the Houston black clay. The deeper subsoil of Kirvin fine sandy loam
shows unusually Ilugh concentrations. It is rather surprising to note that
this element was detected in every Florida sample tested, the lost value
in the tops' b-:- .0008-.003 per cent and the loest in the subsoil
being less t il per cent.
As in tIhe case of zinc, there is little diterence between the .aera.e
content of boron n the top and subsoil samples of the Flo1da group in
comparison with tie out of-tate gioup In a similar way too, this


element caliels dowin ell into the prolies of the out-of-state sols, no
ample shoeig leas thanI .000B .003 pIr cerl
Cobalt was not detelel'd an, of the florida mieral soils examined.
)iIe the sensitlviyv of the te, h omue uIed for this element is low, still
it was found in ever hoerion of eigh of the eI een out of-state profiles
.a.inied. It was auot detected o an where i the Knllin profile or in the
top two horizons of the Vernon or the two lowest horizons of the
'acogdoies. The implortai small quantities of this
element in animal (and In i makes t extremely im-
partan thli a lghly refined and exeedingly sensitive quantitative
inethod Ie developed for it.

Tltanium and zioconium occui very commonly in all the soils ex-
amined In fict. ery sample In both the Florida and out-of-state
series showed both elements, most of them in quit neentratons.
Insofar as the analysis of tie out ofstate soils I element is
concerned, zirconium showed the greatest variBihty in Houston clay,
c tentratlon of less than .001 per cent in tile loet
The lowest concentration of titanium and zirconium
en anr of the Florida topsoils was.008-.03 per cent m the case of a couple
of the Norfolk samples for the former. and .0008-.003 per cent in the
instance of four of the Norfolk ael one of the Orlando samples for the
laittr element.

All four elements occur ve)y consitently and in quite high eonren-
trations in the out-ofstate profiles The exceptions were, for harium. in
the loinet level of rofie anId, for etel eium, in the
lowest leel of tle ( olel aod in the second, tld,
and fifth r levels o the NaegdochI -le it ,a ot detected at all.
SF lorida soils are quite low and in most cases very
elements hough Pakwood is quite consistent in
aai0ly good concentration of chromium and barium and
of strontium in both the topsoils and subsoils. It is low m
vanadium, however The Orlando samples show the same Ieneral
trend as the Parkwood in their content of these elements
subsoil is much lowei and in no Orlando sample was any
hatsoeer, detected. Eusis and Scranton also show fair onetra-
ttons of these element cept alludiem where, m commorTn with lost
of tile Floria soils ecamledel it is either .ery low or not detected at all

It is ratli nikel iwa found in evere y horizo of all
out-of-state in 1 hutpaisngly cosistent concentrations
whichh ranges high as .008 03 per cent in the topsoil of the Maihall


salt loam and in the third hotizon of the Shlelb silt loam. Silver. on
the other hand, oas detected in only one horizon of each of four pro.
files, three of them heing In conceetIratton lesI than .001 per cent.
The ocourrrcee of nttkel and s\er in the Florida s,ils ie highly
erratic in both instances. Thus of the fift-four topsoils examined, only
ten contained nickel and one contain] silver in detectable quantities;
while of the thlrty-five subsoils examined. three contained detectahle
quanttris of nickel and two contained silver.

Although moltbdenum was found in detectable quantities in eight of
the eleven out-of-state profiles (in twenty-too of the fifty-two soil samples
represented) and lead was found it, quite consistent quantities ill ever
profile and in all but four of the fifty-two soil samples examined, neither
element was detected in any of the Florida mineral soils reported on in
this paper. lolyhdenum was not detected at any point in the Vernon,
Houston, or Palouse profiles. The only out-of-state profile in which lead
i f i 11 C1 -1 -,-TI tl '- where it occurs only

In the comparison that has been made of the trace element content
of Florida soils to that of certain out of-state soils, onli samples from
cultivated areas were used. This wa largely because the out-of-state
soils were taken from tilled areas, most of them having been farmed
for a number of years. In tiew of the ery great importance of the
trace element content of our Florida soils, it would be very much worth
while to inquite into the effect of cultivation and tillage, including
routine treatment with artificial fertilizers, upon their composition from
tins standpoint.
Tlis question has been opened up quite definitely in Bulletin 3419 of
tle i ; i d Experiment Station referred to earlier and from
while s pecOoanalyses will be drawn. In this bulletin
it will be noted that analyses are reported on numerous cultivated top
and subsoil samples from cultivated and uncultivated (virgin) areas falling
in several different types. In thie table below are listed the spec0o-
analyses for the topsoil and subsoil from a virgin and cultivated area
of Orlando fine sand reported in the bulletin and the same for a
Blanton fine sand that is not reported in the bulletin.
While a comparison of rather widely separated virgin and cultivated
soils of two different soil types could hardi: --1 as conclusive
from the standpoint of definitely indicating I :ultivatton and
related practices upon their trace element eontent, till there is indicated
in the table a rather stl0ng trend towards accumulation in both the
oil ad susoil in the instance of several of the elements in which
we are paltirulaly interested. This tendenc is especially marked in the
*L- di,


IIt F S .

(t '()o- I'' 111 11 1
t 2 Il t

0, 1 t, I I I 1 1I II
....lc l I 0 0 0 6 2 0
,,rnat pe c4 n I

.. I a, IT V 1
6, ,a t l

It i ofllt sc ral ille I tor Inote tlat leportd iclTe di from o lnc hetee
lthel for ie cut.ld Oltndotoil and lson soil nd iub-oii alc dcrltn hate

aodtiotfoe rointhrcoci and SbicethtS t tle on lro ne oft dtreti from eeonrlta
Bthalltn 311. Toe ito rate l of thro se ne er ill teat s of thppr tp
mate per,'ntge orange are showrn a a footnote ull,,r TAle \q.

instpale of teppe, tadn. On d ZiCth Inof tile topsoil of bothof tyess
It is of of eclol it to note to ai the cooi little diff ienre betent
the bron cotet of th tlopoi a a subsoil ound hBltoirin ad ulo atioed
ronditio h f ori, clo since his i te zonly one of tile foaum element
that has not come itoa rther comlton is on thoil locations of tIe type
sampPled in th-ce stada-s. On tIle bis of the limited number of testL
made. it is, of co1ae, diffieeh to explain 'i" considerably higher content
I all' in tie virgin suh-ol1 of tihe Banlon ill comparison

Strontium, hI...l, c.. rom... ln.rmhn, zi lianm and t jtlnhnll alm o show
strikingt tcad in a-ids -accuilotation In both the topWiel and subsoil
under cultivation, the principal exception belog for zirconium in the
Orlnlo subsoil, ,here the tlend a revelled; aond n the Blaaton whelP
the concentration i- found to be quite hih and the e sme under both
conditions of culthationl but olelhat lower in the topsoil than ill the
subsoil. Tltaniuon ioaun lly I I II I I I aconcentra-
tion greater than 0l per f ent I I I I I I ubsoil under
virgin as well a cutllvated coondllits
Sione an t malttf of ttien natte is inteolted to show total quantities
of the elements plc-ent, such figures. In any event, should not be inter-
prcted to meall Ihat cn though there i a definite actuluoltaion of
trace elements ill o111 Floid soil ndeil slch conditions, that the) are
necesralily aailable to thle plant This ~hole question is one whichh
an ad .iost carefully, especially in colnnecton
I phosphates to taccutulate in our soils under
ohat are eg.trded at standard conditions of treatment. Under o ch


conditions the aailabilibt of Ith aoculold ted traoc element that axe
knoon to be e.seItial tothe noula groi t of plants should be examined
lith esper al cale.
In order to examine oie ihait foilier thlii tendenco of trace elements
to accumulte in the oil following oultlvatioon the average copper.
mangane- zinc. and born content of the topsoil of eleven vigini and
thirty eulr ateld Norfolk oils ae compared in Table IlI with eleven
uncltivaed or viri areas of tile s.une tipe: likewle four topsoil
samples of vrgin Orlando fine sand are compared it the same nuber
from cultivated d reao; and finally, the content of these elmnt in
four virgin Parki ood soils are compared iith those of ten cultivated
Parkwood sample. While the values tabulated a ar Wasi ed as tentative
averages of the range numbers representing the percentage r.. given
in Bulletin 341, the trend toward accumulation is very I The
only exception is in the instance of the Parkwood values for zinc and
boron and here they are found to be constant in both instance under
the two conditions compared The averages for the total phosphorus
(P2O0) content of these same samples, as reported m Bulletin 341. show
that the cultivated Norfolk contains thee times as much of the element
as the virgin soil, while the cultivated Orlando and Parkood soils
both contain mo-e than otice as much as the eqoivalen samples taken
from uncultivated areas.

TABLE II- FUTen IotoitOc oc I' Te cci o TrC EL -To I F Wi.
E s P lir l 'S To \cc UL TE 1t CU Ti ATL. SO VLiT

Copper e 2 2

LManganese I 4 6 5 8
ZlBa o 1 4 6 a I

Boron 6 45

ni t(O i. 031 .013Oat to .09i 0.1f0 0 8t
IP, CemJ

,eo the nie ntb for
a1 ,rmr dir ectly re Flolld
RaI l II I *laie i aluo of therange
nuotbtlt in ar r at of approxlmate pireniage rages ia shoan as l footnote under

indct e number of inditdual isampl~ averaged for ach sol
and dnao

'Atcragis of ite P.O contend of Ihe same t oil sample
e coen e re d, a calcl u


In l iev of what hfns een aid cle rdilg the possible relation of
,leet elosion 1o the lo"s of particular concetlations of trace elements
hiat hlave eel conentlatcd ino the topoil ]i planotaction and otherwise
in the course of soil development, it is o cnteest to examine the
tace element ntncot of It e out ofotate plofles froll this stanDlpoilt.
This can bet be ac comp,lllsl d by I cudmi the clte conlentrations of
the various eleolnt" hi t .i topoill i contract with tloser at various levels
o the sulsoil. Such an lcoinoallon -ould oell ,e limited to the three
top horwon; in all profiles.
Approacfhig thie qlelion in this cay it i lound In the case of
copper, manganese, -ilc. and lioo- that only in a very few instances is
thlre ", of a significant relationsilp indicated f ro this stand-
point. c, the I- concentration i th t 1 of Cfcil and
Houston appenas i I t than i thne subsoil. The
same is tue of cobalt in f _zlne oi alshall and Colby, and of
boron in Cecl and Palose On lthe hlole, however, these variations
in the direction of lnusall accumllcatlons I the topsoil or immediate
subsol are so slight as to be of rather doubtful sigmficance not only cD
the above elements in which i e have a puticullr interest but also in
most of tie others that were detected in thele soils.

Inasmueh as tile plinclpal compalson of tile trace element contc l of
our Florida soils dith certain out-of-state soils has been on the basis of
mineral types, it is of interest to include thle analysis of a complete
The profile description
iobee muck profile are
c' '' cohen n o' p- r
ufficiently large excavations to get down into then, all the way to the
underlying rogk, ijh the aid of pumps. It was thus possible to examine
the stratification relationship of both plofile c ritcally and sample the
1 The Aesults of spe

The copper, manganese, cobalt, and boron contents of the ash of
these organic soils are quite consistent foi each .i profiles
and without potcular reference to the specific I I ,I mateial
in the various levels sanplrd. n l ncral, the li
lower i o manganese and higIer in copper tI h ,, I mclck.
The cohalt is low in all snplnes hut was detected at each level except one
quite low down in tohe Okeechobe mlck IBoron slhoed the highest
average concentrations throughout oth profiles, having been found at
eery level examined and at no polt inl a lower concentrations than
.03-.0c pct. The o.. .rre.ce f zc. io decidedly erratic with tw-o, ..l
separated samples in the Eergladcs rl I ,
mate concentration of 08 -03 per cent ,a


Everglades Peat (Lab. No. 16243) Okeerhlioiee Muck (Lal. No. 16245)

0- 4- 15- 19- 26- | 30- | 50- 74- | 0- | 9- i 13- 26 33- | 58 1 72- 1 77, 91-
4" 15" 19" | 26" 30" 4" 1 50" i 71" 1 78" | 9" 1 13" I 26" | 33" I 58" I 72" 1 77" 9t" | 104"
Strontium I 10 11 111 1 11 11 11 11 9 1 1 I I 9 11 II 10 1
ar.m 9 10 101 0 9 9 7 5 1 8 8 4
Vaaiiium 0 0 0 I 0 4 2 6 1 2 4 1 1 1 I
Clomiiium-t 3| 2 4 | 4 3 2 2 4 6 7 | 6 7 4 5 5 3 0 3 I
Manganese - 9 3 5 5 5 5 5 6 5 8 | 6 5 9 8 10 6 6
Cobalt 3 1 2 2 i 2 2 2 2 21 1 2 2 2 0 1 0
Zireonium 6 0 0 10 0 9 11 11 10 10 0 0 0 11
Nickel |5 3 5 I I6 5 4 4 4 51 5 5 7 7 4 4 4 4
Silver 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0
Ti3lnum II | 4 11 4 11 6 ]1 11 11 I 1I 11 10 11 11
CoLlpel 7 7 6 8 1 6 9 9 7 4 i5 6 5 5 5
Molydenm 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 2 1 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 1
Led 2 0 1 0 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
. .. 10 9 8 8 9' 10 10 10 10I 1 10 10 10 10 10
Zi0 n Ii II 0 00 U O 0 0 10 0 O0 0
Loss on Ignition .. 14 11 4 11 16 9 9 12 34 49 8 54 8 16 9 9 17 76
(Per C(ent)
''lesetid as range nunbelirs in the form reported in Tables V and VI where ithei relative values, in terms of applroimate percentage
range, are shown as a footnote under Table Vi.


ani other point in this profile. Sinilarly, this element was detected at
o one level in the Okeechbee muck profile \hibee it was
1,i ' 080.3 per cent.
I iu. in part at least, to definite
interference by roi lnce thlie content of this Iattr element is quite higl
in bothi soils.


Titonium, strontium. and barutm, as well as nickel, were fotnd in
every level of both otganic irofiles in quite high concentrations oith a
fer exceptions. Chromium was found at all levels in both profile except
at the 72"-77" depth in the Okeechobee murk. Tie higher concentra.
tions of strontiom anld barium seime to occur at those levels in either
profile that were higher in awgrass components while the higher con
centrtllons of titanium and zirconium seemed to favor the plastic sedi-
mental i i of ml k The orcurience of nickel and clromium was
more I thlolghout both profiles and seemed to be without par-
ticular reference to either t)pe of component.

Vanadium occurred at every depth in the Okecchobee muck but at
onluythreeof I t , i would
tend to indict i I material
occurring m. i denum
and lead were quite well distributed through both the pet and muck
profiles without ant apparent reference to the physical nature of the
materials, though lead occurred in quite low concentrations and was not
detected il three lvels of the peat profile and in one of the Okeechhbee

TThe ,i ses for 27 elements are repellted for 54
cultivate .I I 1-i-:--i-. itie subsoils of mole than half
this number, and for I I floon outside the State which
include a total of 52 used as the basis for a vert
preminarcy colparilo of the trace element content of Florida soils to
those from outside the State that may be regarded by some as more
"normal" in [his respect. ~tiE ''i. analyses are included for
Florida soils a aa basis effect of cultitaion and
related treatments on the tatce element content of virgin soils as COm-
pared oith culrtiated soils.
In a general ay thie composition of the Floida soils compares quite
falrabl, h ith itha of the out-of-state soils in terms of three of the
five trace element; in uhich we are particularly interested at tie piesenl
t: '- i and hloil. anganese was much higher n
S out-of--ate oils examined while cobalt uas not
dletcted rl acy of tfile Forid, nleial soils that were included ill thi


Of the 27 elements for which all of the spectrographic plates were
systematically examined, the ii : iot detected in any of the
out-of tate soils: thallium. I )ttrium, tungsten, lantha-
num. tin cadmium, beryllium, bismuth, antimonv, and ateenic. To thief
list must be added cobalt, nmoildenum, and leadfor the Florida mineral
In comparing cultivated and virgin Florida soils ot the basis of the
same series of types involved in the general study, Norfolk. Parkwood,
Orlando, Srranton, Portsmouth, Eusis. Blanton. and Iakewood, quite
a consistent tendency was indicated for improvement in the content of a
number of trace elements with cultivation, notably copper, manogane.
and tine, as among those now known to be important to the growth of
many plants.
Supplementary data nere drawn from 1 (Fla.
tendency of I crease
acid with cultivation and normal nanaoe-
ment practices. Attention was called to the possible association of this
increase in phosphoric acidurh that of the trace elements. It was also
pointed out and emphasized that the rough estimate values reported for
the trace elements are totals and could in no sense of the tord be
interpreted as available to the plant, in the instance of the useful ele-
ments, until they had been so demonstrated by careful test.

comparison with mineral soils. While the content of the ash of both
sous is comparatively heigh for a number of elements, the ash content
in most sections of these profiles is so low as to reduce these values to
quite a low status if recalculated to the dry soil basis.

'ABLEl*, V. haul Vlivibr (llIN r y i out Cl ati hoI k
Surface Stron- B| arum Vana- I Cluo. lan- Zrco- aSickel Silver [ Tld- ) Copper Bloron l, nc Sui-
SoI Tpe I Sample tium diiumnl um i ganeso nlum | | nnum I I | Surface
Nmer Ts Ss 1 Ts Ss 1 T S I T S Ts T S, T, s Ss T Ts SI Ts Ss Ts Ss I T' Ss I Ts Ssi umber

Norfolk 1,1281 0 0 0 0 ( 0 6 6 7 11 11 G 0 | 1 0 11 I 2 1 B 7 6 6 i 1429
and 1],li2 | 0 2 0 0 2 0 6 6 8 11 0 0 | 0 11 1] 7 7 6 6 1433'
nod | 1170 m 0 I 0 0 0 0 I 'r 7 6 10 0 0 | 10 11 1 I 6 4I 6 1 1471
Sw I 1182 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 1 7 6 11 2 0 0 0 0 11 0 1 | 6 6 2 4 1.83
.nl i472 0 2 2 0 0 0 2 6 F 6 0 0 0 0 10 10 10 1 6 6 1 2 ,13
152 0 01 01 ) 00 0 2 0 0 0 6 6 6 | 1 2 1526
1l27 0 0 0 0 0 '1 8 0 0 0 10100 1 i 6 4 1528
I !, 0 1 0 0 6 6 0 W I P 2
1 t, 0 2 i 0 2 ( ) 10 1 G
1,17 0 2 i 0 0 1 II 1 1 6 6
1419 0 0 0 2 6 2 0 10 | 0 7
1420 0 0 f 6 0 0 2 0 6 6 10 0 i 0 0 1111 2 0 6 7 I I 2 141
1426 | 0 0 2 0 0 I 2 0 6 0 1110O 0 0 0 0 1 6 i 1427
1431 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 10 11 0 0 0 II 1 1 6 2 1 35
S1469 i) 0 0 0 0I 0' 0 5 2 ,6 2 0 0 0 1 0 6 7 2 1457
1742 6 2 6 2 60 0 2 4 11 10 0 0 0 11 11 5 2 6 -, 4 2 1759
I173, 0 0 2 2 0 0 1 0 4 2 11 8 0 0 O 11 11 2 1 6 I 2 2 1758
S1744 6 2 4 2 0 0 0 2 4 4 11 10 0 0 0 0 11 11 4 1 6 6 1 173
1752 1 0 4 0 | 0 0 0 0 0 6 2 8 6 0 0 0 0 10 10 6 1 2 3 2 2 1761
1766 6 6 2 | 0 0 .i 4 6 6 10 11 ) (1 00| 0 0 II 11I 4 1"43
1767 |6 0 6 2 0 0 2 4 3 1111 0 00 0 11, 2 1 5 2 4 1741
11i7 |0 2 0 1 0 2 0 |0 il 6 7
1161 0 2 0 0 0 8 0 0 10 1 6 4
1162 I( 4 0 2 11 4 0 10 2
1166,0 2 0 0 8 0 |0 1 |

1,02 ,0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 6 0 0:0 0 1011 0 1 I4 44 1503
I 2238 10 6 2 2 0 0 2 b 1 1 10 0 0 0 11 i 2 1 1 1 2 1 | 22,39
221'0 0 2 b2 2 4 0 7 II10 1 0 2 0l 0 1 '1 6 6 22'1,

'All plates %eir examined for the following elelelns ibut Lhey were not detected in ally siamiil leponted ill ids table: [thli]un, lillhau.e,
caesium, ttrium, tmugsten, lanthanum, tin, cadmium, beryllium, hlsmutl, antimony. arsenm, cobalt, molylienmuni and lead
'Repolted as range iummbers, for the relative value of which in terms of the apioxnimate pcrcentage ranges, see fooulotc under Table VI

S Surface Siron- Barium Vana- Chro- Man. Zirco- I Nickel Silver I Tia- ; Copper on I. Zinc Sub- I
iSo l Type m I Sra l diun minm I a. um | i nii | .' Surfiac
T Nuiimb rl Ss Ts Ss T S S T S, I T S ITs SI Ts S I Ts S ITs Ss 1 ITs S.I .Nunleri
Orlando i125 6 2 0 7 5 2 0 0 10 I 7 6
Fine 1478 2 0 4 2 0 0 1 1 5 1 2 0 0 0 0 11 11 3 6 5 5 3 1479
Sand 110 00 3 2 0 00 4210 2 0 0 0 10 8 64 6 6 1481
S2262 11 1 7 6 10 64 8 11 10 2 1 0 I 1 1 2 66 6 5 2263
Palik ood [ 1506 11 11 10 10 2 0 7 6 11 9 11 011 0 0 | 0 11 1 | 2 1 5 6 6 5 1506
Fine 12 9 14 4 0 0 2 5 8 7 8 11 0 0 | 0 10 11 2 2 4 6 4 6 1120
Sand | 1298 10 I 2 0 6 8 11 2 1 0 11 1i 3 2
and 1307 10 0 3i 2 6 6 7 7 10 11 0 2 ] 0 0 11 11 0 2 6 6 4 1319
ne 1321 108 8 4 0 2 6 6 7 7 11 1 0 0 0 0 11 67 6 130
Saily 1122 10 1 0 0 4 2 8 7 81 0 0 0 1 11 1 6 6 2 2 131
i 1 11 6 I 6 6 10 0 1 1| 0 ; 5 2'
S15310 10 | 5 0 2 10 11 I 4 0 11 | 10 4 4
11342 1 11 8 i 2 6 6 8 2 |0 '11 46 6

Eusiis | OI 6 4 2 4 7 I 11 2 0 11 1 5

J U6Fine Sand ,152 0 0 40 01020 00 100 0062 00 0 10 2 1 1 4 2 15 17
.1 4 3 0 0 1 0 1 0 I i 6 1 6
L ,Lkj110t a 5 2 2046 110 2 o l I 2 If

FiM Sam; 1 1903 7 7 0 | 0 0 3 4 2 2 0 11 a 0 a 21 7 4 5 5

| Blanton | \ \ I

Fine Sand 4 6i 0 M44 0 0 0 2 0 6 0 10 2 0 0 0 0 10 ( 1 1 3 2 2 1 17.7
|'illr L__ 1. _ ___ __ _ _ ......L - . . _L __ .
*^ ^ ^ '- /' /*"" '*' e i _ ^ _____ __. -- __

l -l II i
Soil Delih STron- Bar. Vana- hro.| Ilan.- Cobal: Zirco- Nickel Silver Tita- Cop- Mlolyb- Lead Boron, '/ ime L.ib. No.
Tnm N dium i rium gane.e' I ninm I num n per dentum

1 Cil 6 9 10 8 11 3 11 0 I i 3 1 2 4 2 2716
Sandy i 6" 32" 2 8 3 8 1 2 11 i 2 3i 717 ''
u I 2"-60" O 9 J8 11' 2 11 1 0 11_ 2 f 3 2718_

2 7" II ii i I 11 i 3 1 1 0 I I 1 2 ( 6 27i l
11diiguitn ;".l," II | 11 10 9 11 i 3 11 I 0 II 4 i 2 i 7 27-
.S t 11 21" 1 I I 11 1 I 0 11 4 2 1 0 | 6 27i6
Lo.n I 25"-46" 11 11 10 9 11 11 3 | I 11 4 2 2 0 6 2757
-1]7" 72" 11 11 10 10 11 4 11 1I 0 11 | 1 4 8 8 27 i 0
\11 |iltti mci rximiincd foi lie folluinlon elements biut alley were not ietlclril. Thallitll, litiihnu, callr'ium, yilinln IIlnng'en. 1-nlllitlau .
IE., cliiim11iit). I r Illtii n, bl inillIt, inllimUlon and( ar- l- ic.
SThe percentLge rings itipic .tled b1 ihe range nui[mbrs used in Tbles, I-\VI i display thie ipprou\inIae colntlit [tle itlious thle i
e'iclement detected in thel soils under examintiontt n it e listed ao follows:
lnunge No, Concentrati on R nge 2
0 Not detected
[ Les than .001
2 .0008- .003
3 001 005
S. .003 -.008
1 . .005 -.0111
6 008 03
7 .01 -03
7 .. .. 01 05 -
S 03 08
9 .05 -.,1
10 .08 -.3
II G.iatcr dltu 0.1



Soil Depth Stron- Bar- aa- Chro I Man- :Coba; Zirco INickeD Silver Tla-. Cop- IMolvb- Lead I Booni 7Zie Lab No,
iu n mm um nium mur Iganesc I nim nium ; per Idenutml I
3 0'- 8" ii II 9 3 11 I o 3 i 1 4 2733
Cln.on 8"-20" 11 1i 9 II 4 II 4 11 4 0 1 7
Sil 2(".32" 11 11 9 8 3 11 4 1 1 2 6I 1 6 273
'ai 2 i1 10 8 8 11 3 11 4 0 1 4 1 4 7 10 736
I 44' 66" 6 6 2 6 11 1 11 0 4 4 0 51 2737 I
1' "- 7" 11 Ii 11 10 11 4 11 1 0 11 2 1 4 I i 3 172
Sleliby i | 1 -12" 11 11 0 0 11 4 11 4 11 2 4 4 2 724 I
Sit 12"-20" II 11 10 11 11 6i I 11 6 2 6 4 2725
I n11r ] 20"-24" 11 11 10 10 11 3 11 5 0 1 i 6 27 2
24"-48" 81 11 11 3 0 2 2 6 6 5 2
6"-8" ,l !l 8 11 31 1114 Ut 1 3 016 6 2 2728

S, 0"-13" 11 11 10 9 11 3 11 0 1 2 4 279
Marshall i 1,"-2"1 11 11 10 9 11 4 11 5 0 11 3 4 2720
Silt 24"-45" 11 11 ii 10 9 11 4 11 4 0 11 2 1 5 2721
Loam "-71" __ 11 9 11 1 2 11 2 0 4 5 72
6 V 0"-10" 1 11 a0 9 01 3 1: 11 4 6 4 ~ 2738i
Colbly 10"-20" i 1 11 10 9 11 2 11 4 0 0 4 '39
Silt 20"-33" 11 11 9 9 11 3 10 1 4 0 6 3 o 0
lay 33"-47" 11 9 9 11 2 3 0 11 2 0 4 3 ? 11
Loam 47-60" 11 1 10 9 11 34 I0 4 5 27.2
I60' 721 ____ 11 0 I 2 274
7 Vernon 0" 3" 6 6 I
7 V 0 3 6 6 5 11 0 11 2 0 11 2 5 759
Fine 3"-10" 6 6 2 G 10 0 4 1 11 3 0 2 G 6 276)
Sandy | 10-27" 11 6 6 8 3 11 i4 0 ? 6 61
Loam | 27"-58" 1 i 11 8 10 3 1t1 0_ 3 50 ]1 6 2762
I lr- J., fof ~ ... .

TAJI1.E VL--TIACl. EI.rui.Nr CoNrlar o SoMI: OUT or SIATL SOILS,- C'o trainil.
I I. F. I a S, v r,
Soui Delth Stron- BaIr- ] Vana- CIro- :Man- Cobull Zireo- Nickeld Silver; Tita- Cop- Molyb-: Lead i Boron Zinc LAI. V\>
iUmm I sum diuim 1 mium ganee, nium nilm per denlinli I -
8' 1" 6 6i 2 (i 8 0 11 2 0 I 3 0 2 16 7 276
Knvi I 12"-21" 1 10 9 10 10 0 1 5 0 11 2 2 6 8I 2761
n 1t I 21" 1" I 8 9 8 0 I1 0 II 1 I 2 6 I 8 2763
A.nl 5)1"6i" 6 9 7 8 6 0 11 2 0 11 2 0) 2 6 11 2761 -
.o 6 6' "-7/" 0 6 2 4 1 0 | 10 1 0 11 1 0 1] 1 1 27 7
"1 0"- | 6 8 10 1 2 11 | 0 1 2 | 7 2711
N .,t l2i I | i"-7!" 0 2 tl 7 ) 2 I | 0 | I 2 I2 0 1 i I :'7| 0
I!" i (o" 1 10 7 6 i I I I I II 2 2 0 7 27)1
im '111"6(" 8 6 10 | 7 10 I I U 1 2 0 2 7 7I 2 73-
I 6nm 66"472" 0 0 9 7 6 0 I 10 '2 I I 0 7 2723

S1". 1 7 7 7 11 2 9 3: 0 11 2 0 2 4 2 2729
illr.mnl 14'1"-20" 11 7 6 7 7 1 2 8 :i 0 1 2 1 1 2730
1H.k 21"-,6" 11 9 6 i8 11 2 6 0 1 1 2 2 2731
(.la i 36",0" I II 2 10 1 0 2 4 1 2732
10 0"-20" | 11 10 10 11 11 t4 0 4i 6 2714 C
Ploe | 20" | I 11 10 9 11 3 11 1 11 4 0 3 4 i 27i i
ill ] 33"-62" 11 i i 10 10 1I 1 11 4 | II 0 2 | 4 2 2716
JLoin i 62"-7:5" i 11 I 10 10 11 4 11 1 | 0 I t n 0 2 1 6 5 2717
| 75"-4" I I 11 11 11 11 11 3 11 11 4 0 1 i1 2 271 8

S"e p. 89 /or joulnltes. L



R. A. Cnorcor to, L. H. Rioces'
The importance of the so-called "trace" or "minor" elements for
Florida agriculture ir nowr widely recognized. Though much valuhle
information relating to tire trace element nutrition of Florida crops ha,
been accumulated in recent )ears, the systematic study of the trace
element composition of tire soils and of the plant and animal crops of
the state, as a means of elucidating tie nutritional relationships involvel.
is still in the exploratory stage. In a program of this kind, includrno
work with various crops, preliminary surveys of the qualitative com-
position of numerous materials must be made, as a basis for planning
more comprehensive quantitative studies. The present paper reports
survey analyses for trace elements in a group of Florida soils used for
citrus production together with the corresponding data for samples of
fruit tissues from orange trees growing on the soils.
Detailed knowledge of the trace element content of various materials
is essential to estabhshing basic facts regarding conditions regulating the
supply of these elements to plants and animals, especially as inter
relationships with the soil are involved. Data of this kind are needed
for evaluating the nutritional quality of all kinds of crops used as food
for animals and man, as well as for determining the normal physiological
requirements for trace elements of both plants and animals. Questions as
to what might constitute normal, sub normal, or excessive concentra-
tions of trace elements in plant or anm-l r- -- r- t
unanswered. In soil areas producing
physilolgrcal symptoms are not recognizable in the crops grown, it i
natural to expect that mineral deficiencies may exist. Correlations be-
tween mineral content of soils andplant and animal tissues need to
be worked out in a number of such cases to serve as a guide to practical
experimental approaches to these problems. These examples of the
possible use of trace element analyses are given merely as illustrations
of the potentialities of this mode of attack. Answers to these and many
related questions will be necessary to the development of the well-lounred

of the problem as a whole; but in Florida
it is undoubtedly of outstanding importance.
In the study of a phenomenon as complex as that of the growth of
living oganisms, tie effects of a nmnber of variables must be investi-
gated. Thee variables need to be considered in regard to the effect
of each by itself on the organism, and also in their interrelations with

tr Arisant Chemist and Associatre Bochmixt, orepectnely, College of Agicul-
rore, r t~


Iaeh other. Thu, ,ills gvren obso eatio, such as an t alsif for a
mileal consirtuenr i of nlot value when accompanied by as man) other
,,lated obsilvations as possible. It is desirable, theirefr, that analies
soils be made in conluntion willthtose of associated plant imaterlal.
of the soil analla c reported here haeP appeared i a bulletin b
Rogers et al f (21. When theae soil sample were taken, samples of
~oranges tere alo obftined frol trees growing at the re pectire sampling
location, in older to be able to secure analyses of elated plant materials
Thie orarges ere Valencras in all cases except those taken on the prat
-,il in Broward Counol. t ilh were of the Loe Gim Goo g o ariety,

r, 'tos wor
Previous wolk oil trace element content of soils neIed not be cited
rte -ively since 1 narizations of the loterattne are ahead
iailable (2, 30, on trace elements in Florida soils have
heen m.lde ib B .ryan and Becker (5), Pech (24,.
Jones. Call, and Bar ette (16) hlae studied I r sulfate
,ith the soil and Peech (22) haf mivestigated he effect of pit on aald-
ability of zinc and cope .
Very few studies of trace element, in oanges hae been reported in
he literature. Most of this work has been onfined to the elements
taron (8. 20, 251, i 11 12, 115, 17, 29), f'
7. 9, 10 11, 12, 14 29), and rine (2. 11,0 .
Ieen determined by sehrtal investigators (3, 9, 10, 11. 28. 31). Roberts
and Gaddum (23) have reported analIse for 19 trate elements i citrus
Samples of the surface soil were taken to a depth of six inches, the
composite sample from each location being made up from ffor horing-.
fhe mixed soil, after drying in an oen at 1100C., was screened through
an aluminum sieve raring iound holes of two millieters diameter.
hfter further mrxing and quartering, portions owel ignited at 450f C
in silic dishes and ground In an automatic agate mortar to effect
1- mixing as well as to pilve"ieI the coalser particles. Further
given in the publhation referred to above (21).
The flit sample from each location included 2 olanges. All fruit
were washed with distilled -iate anrd dIssected wit a stainle-s steel knife
oated with parafin wax to avoid metallic contamination a far as
possible. The fruit tissues analyzed wele the outer peel, inner peel,
pulp and seed. The peels and seeds were dried in an electric oven.
Unfortunately, the ten erature of drlygr could not he controlled since
adequate thermostatic equipment oas not available whrm the work wa,
done. Howeve, uncertainties in dry --- to this
factor are probably not important in in he
pectrographic esptimatorins. iThe pulp i i i eapo
rated and charred in laoge porcelain i i he
at 450'C. Ever, leasonale effort ras made to prevent etallic contami-
nation in sample preparation and storage. During i the samples
0-ere contained irn ilia dishes. The entire quantity i tis-ue from


each sa- ple of 21, oranges'wa carried through to the ash stage. Pri
to the oalntis, ac-h sample of ash wa lied thoroughly by g di
by haml in a gate mortar.

All anats1s were lone spectroraphicall Samples of ppro
tat.ely 10 milltrams of thc washed ooteritls tere oilatilized tm-,ml-,
il an electric ar between gaphite electrodes, eih anl ar
to 10 amperes D.C. The electrodes were of the highest purit
and frequent blanks were run as a che, 8 I ,t e, ;- lt

: 3300 A., a glass prism
i"artz prism was used.
on a small quartz Cornu type spectrograpl
sensitive zine line at 2138 A.
The analyl t i I alitative trade
element comp I t er.
centration of e i
not warrant the employment of actual quantitatve analytical methods.

0 Not Found
1 Less than 0.001
2 0.008 0.003
_3 0o0 0 00O
o_ 0003 -08008
5 0005 -001
| 0008 0.03
8 0 0.03 -0.00 _
9 I 005 1ol
i0 008 .0 _
t GCreater 0han 0

To a.otd possible misinterpretation of the precision, the data are no
reported in. 1 t1
by the use which are defined ir
terms of pe , II Thus, when an eiemeni
is reported to occr in a concentration identified by
it is estimated to be present at a concentration between ,
0.05 per ent by weight, n the washed mat e ial.
Even wi th e use o, ti
concentrations, there is a
attained, owing to the differentiation of the anal tical values into as man)


twelve r les In order fo" 1wo ailes to sroi an unmII akable
itifrence in thie atent of a icen elernltllt h the method of obherlson
iefIaloyed, tihe aoltel conientra tion of the element in the tiewo sall
like a fatiur of hlee Defia niLefi
S i icattl idil,d to a 'ailiaon between a
ptir of samlnhi uaiess the range a -rgaments for the two samples
acre pond a.to nmers rltlrirg br 2. or preferably 3 or iore, il the
Hairg No." (luia aLba. Nevrerthelerr. it ha seeded best to retain
lii, tcalce ranges in order to avoid anbhguity I plei
I ,oul e baldelie ases i a lesser i were
in-el. onalirietecti of an element, indicated in the table b tihe iota-
aan 0. doeiae lloItrarah eaa thiet thI -eIinCI is Complatel abshenr
i)cI the samlic, it olyI thali f t is present it ocelus in a oncenta-
iron below the lower limit of dietetabilly of thie method. The aipp ox
lale valo e of cis lilt is: for silver, cobalt, clromiium, copper and
nakel. 0.0001 per cenr ; fol ballrll, bellium, holon, manganese.
mcolfhbdenumr lead. tin, crcntiumn. titanium. cr ndmuinI. and zinc, 0.001
pre cent; fo zllconium, innllurth. c dlnrlrm, lanthanum, Intilnolly.
thallinm, and yttrilm, 0li01 per cent; foi aireneiccarslum, lithirn, and
tangsteio 01 per cent.
ioug .atinllatiom weil failitatd Ib photographing spectra of
airnplre adjacent to rspeiia of standard material prepared syntheictiallv.
In this way it cas posile to nmake diret visual rcolpailonls of line
intensitie in the ismplep, rith the intensities of Crresponding lines in
rfcrlene mnatnrials of knLlow trace element comioictioa The synthetic
ltandards wele clade to correspond aippoximately to the major eiileenl
conlpositIon of Ihe materials nader lest Since only rough estimations
, nere sougt, possible effects of valiatlons in thIe major element composi-
tion of the sample on pectral hne irte1" llies wele not considered At
lat two expoturcs wele ainde tor each sample.

Aul.rITc-,. uh.SI uTr

The detailed data ae icesented in Table II. Soil 1if i alone are
included sicee these are of lontlcst ill connection wrth tile availability of
certain of the ctace elemehne. Loss on ignition is repotted on the basis of
the oven-dlied soil
The analtical data foI both soil and plant tiiues are reported on
the basis of the alhed material. In tll, ae of the pcrt, trace element
concentrations in the hoic soil uould he. therefore. only about one-
third as great as are repotad on the afh basis in the table.
Data for air not detected ill any of the plant samples nor in tie lna'l soil. It occurred
ill alhl the other sols in c nentrations indicated b nmylbere as
follow inl samples 13:139 (Pahood), ] 131(orflk I (Blanton).
and 1374 (Ilanton' 1 10: in samples 1322 (Paawood).
1731 (Prat). and I I I range nunher i; il sample 1109
(NoIrfolk), range number h
ancadium, cletrt-led ~d in nle of tile plant tissues, was found onl) in
le peat soil mi a oncenlaltioln ectimalltel to fall in range 2.

(St TI'Ale I fio values ised in pleseiutng liace element valuiis.)

SDry Matter in Fruit Ash in Fiult Tissues
Sample I Surface Soil Tissues I
No. Soil T)pe County I per cent of dry per cent Aluminum
Si face I I Los onI l per cent of fresh weight matter of fresh
Soil I Ignition[ p1H mater____ I
e______ Iprient O .P. Il P. SSd SdI P IS 1.l-,l 1i" i 1 S |,
N o lf o l k ] [ --, -
11M FineSand ak 2.2 563 307 34.0 438 41 2.0 3.1 010 10 61 i 0 10 110
I Nofolk I I I
1752 Sand Polk 36 532 225 27.5 503 53 2.9 2.9 0.31 I1 6 4 1 6
I Norfolk | I -
149 I Fine Sand I PinelLns I 1.8 532 28.3 .303 47.2 I .5 23 3.i 053 11 6 (6 [ 6
I Blanton I i I I
1508 Fine Sand Mlanate 9.5 29.7 29.2 419 39 20 ,7 I 0.1 11 a I 1 6
linton i i
1751 Fine Sind | DSolo 30 5.58 353 37.0 47.5 4.f 2.8 34 0.56 11 | 7 i10
Po.rkwood Inian I
1322 iSandy Iai River I 85 i 35.0 379 38.9 2.7 22 41.1 0.5 11 2 I 6 8
I Parkwood | I I
1339 Sandy Loaml St Lcie [ 169 8..0 i 294 29.2 500 5.1 38 3.2 0.42 i11 6 i 2 0

1731 Poeat lhoward I 65.0 314 328 4 1 3.7 32 013 11 2 6 1 )
Shalow II 1i I I i i
.'ean _31.0 330 46.0 4.4 2.7 3.1t 03 II 5*
S"" doiulotesil fice soil. "O.P" denoles oaler Ied. '*I'." denlLes iiier eel "P" Illoliles pulp. "Sd" denates seed.
)inotel a qualified mean oalue obtained after omnittng one or moe e.c1p ionoail values

TABLE II -AN-tLyaCAL DATA.--Conttaeud.
Sample No. I I
Sulface 1 Soil Typi B.rium_ B,, __ Cuomiann Copper
Sod |IS lOP ILP P' Sd | S 1(1'.( i P.| P | Sd Ib OI.L P.[ P Sd S O.P. /i'-.! P Sl
13, | Fl e Sad 0 o 9 To 0 8 0 I I 0 0 1 | 2
1752 Sa d 4 8 22218_9j 88 00000 |
No folk |-- -- 6-
1498 1 FL n Sand |0 9 10 2 3 6 7 9 6 8 0 | 0 1 0 1 2 6 1 7
I Blamon | l I i -
1508 Finc Sand 10 2 1 1 6 0 1 0 4 6
Bla tilon |
17l. | S d 4 8 9 1 6 3 7 9 5 8 2 0 0 1 | I 4 i 5 6
3 kln ao d Ie -
3 Pa2 kwood i I I 5 7 2 6 I I 8 1 i 41 8 ]5 6 --7 8
I322 Saniy Loam 0 ,5 7 2 66 8 4 0 1 0 87 8
1339 Sndy Lo ..In 6 7 6 1 7 5 8i 8 1 6 8 6 2 0 0 0 1 6 7 6 8
SPerre -
1721 Marl 8 1 8 2 1 2 80 1 1 0 1 6 6 7
171 I 10 6 I 7 I 6 6 1 9 7_ 1 71 0 10 1 1 187

Mea8 9 7 j 8 0 I' 5 6 7
See p. f96 or footnotes.

TABLE II. -AvALvTI.AL DArA.-Contlinued.
Si1 \ o i v Lco Mdai!a _)Lnmr Molybdenum I Nikel
Sirfcc l oL Type Lend
Soil S 0.1'. I.P.: P Sd IS OI I.P.' I' Sd S O1.1'. I.P P' Sdl O '. I I' S
1m 3 Fine Sand 0 2 1 6 4 8 0 0 I 0 0 i 0 2 44o
Norfolk ;| 0 0 IO' I.0,- O 0-2
1752 Sand 0 0 0 : 6,6 6 4 8 1 0 0 0 0
"I Norfolk 0 0 0 00I66I 7 41 0101 0 -I 0 0 L00 2
1198 Fine d 0 t 0 7 70 0 1 0I 2
15108 Fine Sand 0 0 0 2 1 7 602
1754 F nd 0 I 2] _j _ 1 8 0 1 0 1 1- 3
17 1 liakLo" d 0 0 I 2 0 8 2 3 6 6 I 0 I 0 I 2 I i 0 0 0 1 I .
I Parkwood I i I .
1122 l ind, dLo-nl 01010 0 2:1) 8 2 3 75 6 000012 10 0i10 000
l'arkuwood i I I ] I I I I I 0 I I
11.,) ,Sand Loan 0 i 0 0 0 I 6 4 3 _'7 0 I I 0 0 I 0 0 o0

1721 i ire I I 1 1 0 11 6 6 6 6 7 0 0 0 1 .1 0 0 0 0
1731 Shalet 0 1 2 2 0 11 8 6 5 8 !--0 0 a , 1) 2 n o a j ,

Aul _______ 77 5 8 0 0 0 0 1 0
Sre p 96 I jor oottolei.


Sei p. 96 Jor Jootnotes.

ale Soil p S Stontium Nitanium Zanc
Surface Soil Type [ Sami ci tZ
Sor I b I P.ILP. P | Sd I S [O1 11IP.1 P 1 S d S .PI P d S OP 1.P., P Sd
Nor o'k | | I I I I I
1i34: Fnme Saind 0 0 0 | 0 010 8 8 8 1 10 0 1 0 2 | 6 6 10
1752 I od I 0 I o "0 o I 1 1 I I I I :

119_ Fi.enSd ul 0 I0 9 8 1 1 10 1 0 I 9 I 2 CI C 6 o 10
I Bla" n' i i i 1 I ' I I
i01i5 Fm e Sld I 0 0 0 11 0 0 1 11 10 6 2 11 0 0 0 0 2 6 6 8
17511 Fine Sanud 0 0 001 6 10 I 0 6 6 | 10| 0 00 2 4 62 4 1 8
PIEaoon 10 1
1322 i S0,n 0 0 0 9 10 1 0 5 I4 7 8
l'arkwood 1 I I i l I | I I i
1339 Sandy Loam 0 0 1 0 j 0 0 11 11 11 i 1 10 I 0 0 0 0 2 1 6 6 6I
Pern I I I I
1721 SPMarlo 0 0I 1 I 0 11 11 11 117 7 0 0 o 1 1 6 1 9 [

M I e I I I I 1 I 6 8
Me7a1 I 0 |o_| 0o4 I 6 l 6 2 I 6 8


in a general the elements found in the plant materials and lose
detected in the tended to be tile same. Ths, aluminum, boron.
copper, and zinc were found in all of the soils and in all of the plant
tissues. The same can be said of manganese, sro- 1 1
the soils from two of the Norfolk locations are
and nickel aie found irregularly in both oils and plants.

and I
other mineral soils from 1 (24) and molybdenum is apparently
of common occurrence in Everglades soils (61. Zirconium was found
exclusively, and titanium almost exclusively m the soils although zIr
conium, as well as titanium, has been detected in citrus juices by Roberts
and Gaddum (23).
Elements sought but detected in neither the plant tissues nor in the
soii- -.. .--- --- - 11 I 1 cadmium, ,-
- Ico , I I ,, yttr'm. i,,I i
tin was not found in this stud), its presence has been reported in certain
citrus juices by Roberts and Gaddum (23). Attention is again called
to the fact that these elements could have been present in concentrations
below the limit of sensiivity of the technique used. For example, it
S- detected in many of the
,' 1 had been extended to
include the more sensitive lithium I A. Moreover, certain
of these elements might possibly have been lost in the ignition procedure,
for example arsenic and antimony.
The brief comments following summarize the data with respect to
the individual elements. While it is recognized that it would be desirable
to base comparisons between tissues on the dry matter, this was not done
since facilities for obtaining true ash content of the dry matter of the
pulp weie not available when the work as done. All such comparisons
are therefore made on the ash basis.
Aluminum occurred in all of the soils and in all of the plant samples.
Its concentration exceeded 0.1 per cent in all hut one of the soils but
was definitely below this level in most of the plant ashes. The erratic
behavior of aluminum under the conditions of the technique used makes
detailed comparisons hazardous; there is, however, ..
data that aluminum, under some conditions, may ten ,
seeds than in the other plant tissues analyzed.
Barian- was detected in all of the samples except two of the Norfolk
soils. The content of barium in both the soils and plant materials was
quite variable. The most noticeable uniformity in the distribution of this
element appears to be In its tendency to be consistently low in the pulp.
Boron occurred in all of the samples and showed a pronounced ten-
dency to be higher In the plant ashes than in the soils.
Chromium was detected i. several of the plant tissues and in all of the
soils except those of the Nofolk series. It occurred in all but three of
tihe pulp samples. two of the exceptions eing associated with soils in


ihich cbolnitm wai not dietetd. E\cept foi thie pulp samples, the only
alant tissue\ shrirngr detectale hromiimn ere td" o of the oiter peels.
Copper. All samples shod detectable colpe. I the case of five of
the -,' Iocatins here the copper content of the sil Vao less
+than .... o t etn the plant ashes showed a copper concentl aton
higher than that in ti, soil
Lead comld not be detected ill an of tie sills although it is possibl
tha t may have bee peset at oneor actions bel tihe lintI of
ensltiiw of the methoti 'ltli tWo exceptions. lead could be detected in
at least on of the fruit tl ti. from each sampling location
Ianganese. I i indicate, thls
element d I I I in all hut "to
qof the No eonsit nt irelationpiip is evident between the content
S plant materials. The pH value of

plants however thn the otal count te upt
the precipitation of mangaese in i
Sironthum. In common with t lritm, its close elatlve, strontium
exhibited considerable vailhty in1 the concetron in hich ii t occurred
in both soils od plants. All soils revealed detectaile strontiumi wth the
exception of two from the Notlolk series. All of the plant tissues con-
tained strontium. The tendency to be de concentrated in the pulp, elarly
exhibited by t -arium occur th le- nit o ity vth sontim
T i i all of the soils contained titaum, most of them
ia I lest 0.1 peI cent only three of the plant tissues
revealed this element in a detectable concentration In tiese cases less
than 0.001 per cent of titanium was present.
Zinc. The occurrence of zinc was noted i all of the materials. A
definiteteedecne for Ihe element to be hilghe In the plant ashes than in
ete soil is legally slhwn The soils tend to contain alout 0.001 per cent
of zinc, as compared with about 0.01 per cent in the peel and pulp. An
een higher conceltlatioe n ias found in most of tle seed samples.
Motlodeun. The distriuton of molyebdennim is Interesting in that
the element was detected eclusively n the reeds, occulring in samples
i ine loctlons. Thie possibility of I
soil, is not contradited b the
nee it could have been present in consent nations beloe
he pectrogapic threshold for this element, in which case concentration
y tile plant mit ltad to its occurrence iii plat tissues in detectable

Nickel. Nickel could ],e identified i only two of te soils. Although
lot fouled in ay of tie ipee sam I i I
and ill fie of the seed sample I i II i
-omewhat, wnh its apparent tendency to be concentrated in th seed
The lak of pH data on all of the soils prevents dawintg a general
onclusion, but it is worth of note that tl" e fruit showing no nickel i
Sih coudl be expe1 cxt to have Ielattvely high
if otle out. l iiuld n.ore eltht the klno"e


chemical behavior of nickel salts in precipitating out in insoluble form at
higher pH levels.
Sdler. Silver could not he detected in any of the soils. It wai
detected in a concenlration of less than 0.001 per cent in the inner and
outer peel and in the pulp from fruit grown on the marl soil. It wa,
also found in the same cocetratioi ae in the pulp associated with
Parkwood soil No. 1322. None of the seeds revealed sister in detectable
Zirconium. Zirconium could not be detected in an- of the plant samples
but was found in all soils except the marl

All of the samples were analyzed by direct spectrographing of the.
washed materials. Thus the analytical data refer to the total content of
each element in the samples analyzed. In particular, the values given
for the soils do not necessarily correspond to the amounts of the elements
S plants. It is now well established
S ,. certain of the trace elements to
plant roots depends as much on physicochemical conditions in the soil,
such as pH, as on the total content of these elements in the soil. This
fact must be considered in interpreting the soil data.
S in commercial --- -lationhips
S ma have been by spray
applications in some cases.
The small number of sampling locations and the limitations of the
method of analysis employed do not necessarily establish accurate and
generally applicable predictions of the quantitative composulton of
Valencia orange tissues grown under Florida conditions The mean
values recorded in the lowest horizontal row of Table II are not given,
therefore, with the inten r .. establish "normal" values,
but only as a partial I data on these particular
samples. lcere no mean value is given the data were so variable that
an0 been meaningless In some cases the mean was
oht one or more execptionl values. Where this
was done the mean value is follotced by an asterisk The syrte, of
reporting 1 retained in the prsentation of the mean
values. I responding to any given mean have no
connection I . mm and maximum values that might be
encounter I I mples, but are intended merely to show
the probable location of the mean value.


die progress of the woartk.


SB I, G. A., and A 1. HLC PI. Fl. inate Io Soc 48, 31 (19351.
2. Bnlrana, G., -,land B 13 ow Buill. Slc Hvg .Alment. 16, 437 (1928).
3 BEOira G, C, and G L.v. BulL. Soc. Chun 49 1417 (1931),
G BF.l ma G, and Ml RosiLrr. Comnpt Rend. 173, 333 (1921D.
5 Bini', 0 C, and R B. B Jc-n. Jour. Amer Soc Agonollly 27, 120 (193s5.
G. C..LDW..L, P. E *lhc-.j- A St :di of Certa- Eegades 5oila
-,Cth Speh Ilee he t, g Ca er Unhi de (1911.

8. DU-s, J T., and H C B-oox-r Analt 51. 28 (1929).
9. FacE, B R. Proc. a. State ort, Soc 51, 34 (1938).
B. Fu0cE. R. R Fla Ag1-c Exp STa Bull. 331 (1939)
1. Fun, B. R., and B. FE-IIFRLIG Cilirs Ind 21, No 9, 6 (1910). Proc
Fi-. State Hol. Sue 53, 38 (1940).
*2. GnicL., M A R. JOnHS1N1 and B. E Eu.ru.L:. Ind. Eng. Ch-em, Anal. Ed. 13,
99 (1941).
!3. GUEIIITI LT r, B. Comli. Rlid 171, 196 (1920) Bull Soc H)g. Ahiment 15,
386 (1927).
S4 H AS, A R. C., and L I Ko.017. Hilgaldia 9, 181 (1935)
15 IHAA, A. IR C, and H, J. QuI e Hlilgardia 9, 143 (1935).

"6 Jo-s. H. W, O. E GAIL and R. M BC\ArinFTT Fla Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull.
293 (1936).
17. LInwO-, C. W., C. A. LFIAJr and W. HI. Pi'LTisoN. Joul. JBol. Chem 82,
465 (1929).
18 LInDOW, C. W., and W H. iPEIFrOs. Jour. Biol. Chem 75, 169 (1927).
19. ~lcHmiiu J. S loui Ag4ic Research 27, 417 (1924).
T0 laORBI A. A Jolr Polnology and Hol. Sci 16 167 (1938).
1 Pst-cli. M. Fla. A-r. -Ep Sia Bull. 310 (1939).
22. PFFCI, Mi Soil Siecnce 51, 473 (1941).
23. RoE nT J A, and L. W GInoDi- Ind Elg Chem. 29, 571 (1937)
24. PRoGs-, iL I., O E. GAu., L. W. GADL-xt and K AT B~RAKTE Fla. Agric
E'p. Sta Bull 341 (1939).
| Sco-rLn, C. S, and L \. WILCOX. Scie'Ice 71, 542 (1930).
S J. S-- J., G. BAii-r and A. JF HoIm s. Proc Fla. State IIort. Soc. 47,
9 (193,).
27. SLATER, C. S. R S. HoLIs and H G Bisa L S-D.A. Tech Bull 552 (1937).
28. I PrTaei, ( GaOSS and A. C Kn-s, Amet. Jour.

29. Wrsrox, W. Jour. Aner. Mld -\soc 95. 83t (1930)
30W L.W iL G ' io the htcrature on mmor clements.
Th-ln Ed B"reau ('9'39
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SYou-c, R S Comrnl Unl,. Agrc E\p iba IMmon 174 (1935)



R. B. Beci,. ) J. I.R HLILtor
Livestock in the HBluerass region of Kentucky. the Shenandoah ialler
of Virginia, and part- of England. are world fam ous for their excellence
from many standpoints. Animals tlrire in those legions because tie
forages grown on these soi are known to contain optimum amount of
the nutrients essential to the welfare of anliml life. In other ]
stock thrive lst to the dereree that tile toil has limited I
some essential element in the forages utilized as feed f(10).
Under lunge conditions in Florda. the amount and kind of available
plant notrients contained in the soil. as ell as soil moisture conditions
S 1 both the quantity and quality, of forage plants growing
n turn. affects the welfare of cattle grazing on then.
Investigations conducted on various ranges over the state have shion a
striking relationship between soil condition, and animal welfare.
In tile spring of --- i i re used general
in Florida, Paul D . I of castle on 110,00l
acres of land, thef i all of the native cattle in one county in
herds of over 50 ,I records wee sooted into four groups in
relation to the types of natie .
pasture types were de ignited
deep sandy 0l blackjack lands, wet dark colored prairie lands, and
hardwood hammock lands. The soib represented in these several types
of pastures were:

By actual counts of cattle at the dip vats, and by interviews ith
individual ounls, Ctamp obtained records concerning the numbers of
1 1 1 dred breeding cows, and the
S records wee analyzed to de
termine the gpos returns pet breeding cow on each class of range as
Jrll Ima Auerae GrossAm n i
1ret",d Italaot n eurn Per
lage (Pr, C-e) 21 YeaOlda Breee ding Cowr
fla dr 34. 3 20 $1033
Blackjao 3 r5.61 846
Prairie 5 1 580 3550 19.10I
lammock 706 71.60 36.50 2613
M-ostly sold as butch-ed bI.-.

Dalr Husbaildmr n llrn:t Hurlandry Department, ar d rssocate Che--at,
Soil, Department, respective r, College of Agriculture, Ga nesvile.


Lnfnomtlion suppced to the sinlo uttlol dcuittg 1929 and 1930
i by cattlemen ocr a wider ara was substan tiated b Camp's observa-
gs The native vegetation growing on certain soils limited the number
avei po ced the n tt sied. t le abilil of thie dams to
oide milk. and Itie oret ing weight and glade of the calves at market
c:. At the same time, daymen located on soe types of land were
,te successful in rammg ealvcs, while on othcd areas, the losses of cahel
e hatso t that o dirlell the had ceased trlcnc to raise their
pn replacements. The fenclng of paslures. and eirtiting tihe soil type
er which cattle graze aggiauated tpe condition.
An icestigation of the cattle on the \alious classes of pasture lands
ld to integration into a number of problems. some occurring separately,
ad others ovellappmg one another.
Se oral of thee causes ar aas follows

1. Inadequate intake ou a
I2, Inadequate intake of phosphorus.
3 Inadequate intake of fron, or of iron and copper
4. Indquate thke of cobalt iron and coppc r or a combination

Inadequate caclcnm intake (1, 4) iiwas s among Jersey copw that
ere fed silage and hay quite acid Blanton fine sand, Norfolk
ine sand and Arredonda I Thle cirection of ihis condition by
ec use of feeding bonemeal, and more recently by a combination of bone
neal and marble dust (calcum carbonate- was accompanied by greater
trength of bones and a mmaked response in milk yields.
Inadequate phosphorus intake (5, 7) was seen among farm cows
i rely on native plants gro ing on Norfolk,
and loam n oe area and on Leon aco L nd
Fracitued bones and depraved appetites
ere encountered amolg coas under such conditions. Cattle receiving
hosphorus supplement in the foinl ofi bonemeal ceased 1i
weather. wood, etc., and tended to iatten undei cond ition
Iad cau ed them to remain spare or tin.
Inadequate uantitcie of iron, cppe cobalt col c mbinations o
these io the ihoage have been observed to restrict growth and welfare of
iestock on several types of soils (3. 6).
Anenic cattle on one a ive teirrce on which the
ominanut soil is Kalmma when supplied only a com-
On other pastures of Leon line
,ne sand, particularly, lesponses
Sdairy heifers, family cows and iange cattle wre delayed until copper
ulfate was added to the ferric ammomlm citrate in a ratio of one part
,f copper to 50 pa'ts of iron.
A spplement called "Ialt sick mineral ias used commercially ocer
he state in two nlnerai mixtures. The second formula, with a reduced
amount of ali. c, lused with cattle close to salt marsh or brackish
rater areas.


o.1 ,'o.2
CoEmon rail 100 50
Conemrl -- tooe 50
Rdr Oxide r Iron 2 2'i
PuleriSed CuS..... 1 1

At the Experiment Station, controlled feeding trials ,ere conducted
using separate pure minerals to supplement Natal grass hay and corn
grown on a light Norfolk fine sand. Jersey calves in these trials ceased
growth when 5 to 8 months old Only one calf thrired with the iron-
coppe -..'-.-.-t until. following clues from Australia (9, 11) and
Neo: I races of a cobalt salt were added to the ration by
Neal (12).
Reports of failures of livestock to respond to the use of "Salt Sick"
Mineral No. 1 I
fine sand in ce
fine sand, and on one area of muck. Addition of an ounce of cobalt
sulfate to the iron-copper supplement used on these areas was accom-
panied by prompt responses by cattle, goats, and swine under observation
in these cooperative field investigation.
Thus it is seen that cattle dependent on the forage grown on any
definite area, are limited in their development and active -
to tire amounts of
standing of the In
in supplying the
t ......t B.. .. r : his stock feed or mineral miture, or to
ay that these minerals may he obtained from

The series of photographs doling with trace element as well as
S 1 I r low, il be found very helpful in
f soil and plant relationships to nimral
I hubandman, wh ether on the range or
under more domesticated conditions in the bran lot or cultivated pasture.

1 ANo.orP. T Dir, and Ri t B. BEcrn. Influencer of reredig dr ltod and
o minel suppeenr on a-taion. Jour Dairy S6. XIX: 257a266 1936.
2. Ber v, R. B, and L. W Gu ord. An efective and an infecrtiae Imonite

3 BrGKER, R I. A l1. N..L and A. L Snee... IL Salt SiCk: It, CaUse and
Prevnn II Minral rppler nts for a ote Fia Ar. Ep Sta, Bul. 231:
4-23 1931.
4. BEcaue, R I, W M. NI. and AL Sk S tr. Etect of I
Iolge O mil prodeion .o.d elare of dairy
Se. T lul. 262. 328. 933.
5. DECK. R. B, B W. M., NE~A, A L. T i -ts oe s eend
(pho phonii deficiency) In catlle. I 3-27 1933
6. Bo-*, O, C.. and il B. 1B3 Ci. Tie a nIoen n ontr t l t.. a" r5latd
uo "Salt Sick* oI cutkl. Jout..\.llr. Ae,. Agron 27, 120YI'2. 1935.


Xnli', C i;til/ XXX Ci~6 II, ,
pC,, II 1

4-,.,,h,52. C; 16 1916

L,,,, P- 8Gbd-o M ,,,J 0 h,,~ P ,,, Id-, -,-, Nl,,,
G ....-1, h-, I
N ir Sl IX lu II ,,-;:~lso i

4 C


JS k
7::2 -'


Figp.- 3Th, ]-Id,d u ji,,t A,.-lr ll,
.... i.. -d -b-end d,,i.. fih
b.- -11 rsl a b-ka i- hs ~io
.-ity -hi eurd lb, ,IpplddEndla
3f I hi5 F l
'h -2

foh. fiie -ad.

Tgg- he H M-b hee le 1-- m
Fug- 4e -ed fie y ,h,. el ee
to~~~~~h d .' CnieIC)o



OnnA Xim Anm' \Ill C1sT-- F Au ..t.h.
DuOln the past t Nlve ear, a istud has heen made of ullln diltar
S, While isolated group
S I have been examine
i oF {lns lnvestigtiionB x'a. to detrclmine the presalence
ri tIonil defilien liea ill l 11 hldren. Special attention has
ieen gie on to utial aemi n ltion to -
the present 10,000 subject lave been examineId
Sthem were rural school children, living n eight counties Four of
Le.e counties efre in the noIth and oentlal paIts of the State. three
Sboldered the Gulf i d one the Atlantic. Wile valiatiols occur in the
inel or propIortion of diffelen soils in the I difeTent conilties nd in
different districts of tie same county. A few of the people of the coastal
o, unties shing and thie production of citius and truck
tops, bu Ias the chief inidutrI on the soils of the
gloup as a whole.
In the first years of the invTotigaTionI pratically all of the children
S I i niled; later, te examination was hmited to
Dietary studies were made of 3,000 of the
The diets as a whilole wele very po. None of the children had food
lhat provided a safety. About 25 pei cent had diets that
wouldd be rated od.ut passable. These were C ove the
dalnge line but possibly were not far elIogh. The remainder of the
oup, about 75 per cent, had diets deficeent in one or more nutrients and
Iwere below the physiological danger I 1 T onservative
tandmlds of nutrition. Anlog tie entue sed in only
28 per cent of the menur butter and eggs vegetables
IC 27 per cent, and fruit in only 20 per cent The cereals were reple
sented almost entirely by goilts corn meal. and white flour The food
items oclerring most often Were rice, glit. corn meal, sirup, white
bacon, and biscuits The ,ea-rounld garden was rarely found and
outside the citrus section, fruit was seale and limited to summer when
cild berries and a few peaches and F were available. The data
collected indicated that these dficient e affecting the heallh of
the people
Carious teeth were found in about 4 per cent of the subjects In
many cases thdie incisors ,ere carious and the 6 year molals 1ere decayed
before the 12-yeatolars elupted. A mole eo less cursory examination
was made of the teeth of mothers and expectant mothers The enire
,bsence of teeth, the absence of froll teeth, tI e alsence of molars, the
presene of many caliots teeth, and nmalocclus
Poir tooth truetrIle, due for the most part to i ,

llIad, Depaltnt fi Hm EollOir, Colege of Aigrcultuie, and practcing
phtsiclan, respc1l0el gameCC ilCa, FlCl rlI .


indequat calcium and phosphorus. It as foind that 33 per cent
of thie thiien using milk iad teeth that iere not defective, whde
little iore than 10 per cent of tose not using mik ha- good teeth.
Any defect that aplalrtl hola e some relation to diet was abnmt al
height-,ae relations. It was found tht the 8-ar-old ill was
inches lsh.otl than e standard ivemn hv Ros and 3 iicLes shorter than
the standard giien b- Iolt; the i5 inches shooter than
the standard of either authority. iere made of tie
boy T 16-yer old boy s 3 inches under heiht by the andaid
of Rose and 4 inches by the standard of Hoht
Of all the defects oud in these u bjects, lnemia w the most p a-
Sfound in thie chil
the same couit.
Smiidered able to
i i i that 53 per cent
were anemic ha is, hemogob vlues were blo 1.3
9gams; 23 per cent had horder-line anemia, hemoglobin beloo 13.6 grams;
approximately 10 per cent had values between 3.0 and 82 grams; and
only 23 per cent had normal alues. There iwas coinsideable variation in
.i -.- of anemia in the children of te different counties
28 per cent anemia; ihil tie other seen contieo had
63, 58, 46, 62. 60, 42, and 42 per cent in comparison In count, 1
thele ,ere four times as many children in tie lowest hemoglobin group
s in the highest; il county 2, five toies as many and in county 3, sif
tie as many. The blood i ii
shoed the chaacteriltic i i
of microeytic hIpoechro-nmco .m; Th. c --throyte count in
the anemic children ... total counts of
2,700;000 f ere seen. i the most severely
affected children exann The color index
was below usually about 0.5-and the volume index varied from 0,5
to 0.7.

TABLE 1.-t ntoiS o 4.335 COIaoiac Accon d e ro H-ocotony Al iS.

County o ,f Ah c eel

01766 22 100 160 230 17 63

S0 S 1 8 20 28
a 530 it 5 8 112 122 92 1 31 mo

0 520 15 110 1- 100 at1 t o 00
t310 ht 4 a i 20 -t42 42

4I,35 1 23 pr cet 23 p,, 53 p,, ,,,t


Te data gl i Table 2 h te peentage of anemicchildlen a
1 incdee of hookwom and i relation to soil deficiency
nucitIl deleneo s o cattle loo rm infection is a
tor tih in the past has been hel to acount for tie i
tanena the Soul Fro the data presented, tls
o account fo tihe observed daoiation. Hooktworm was widepead
tlod should ha cotrihuted mo e or less mfotmly to the occurene of
c ; et i n schools where a lage nu of children we
ted thee wa no more anemia th il school where a l
Sections occ ured. It was fod also that many en
ahtes between 21 -nd 50 pet cent wele negattwe to

It was observed often that the removal of the o tttden did not
ause an imprIvemen I on the other hand il iron we-e
en to hookworm 'le hemoglobin was restoed to
l degree o i ,' i t veF e

eleted itl a odelate ntlbel of paasltes It was found that a well-
ourlshed titid thuh p tgtid had c 'tttlo ot
er, when a poorly norihed one had the same th
eologbil reahe 1 levels. Apparently most of the
tnel-al symptoms of hookworm infection were due
o anemia, for ,hen on given, the pallor, the marked weakness, the
iABLE 2. t--ot ie -t. cIcNce o. .Ta 0 oo IoOO Isem o0
C'toot av DisTs Is R LATION To S o S c Or CAorT ok
u -n r S o1 i n R elasSC
o 0uOt 00 t o t SahSk

1 6 760 4 55 Ot deflent
4567 ma6g0nal

2 4 24 55 960 40 0 deficient
264 o 33to 5t-70 ettooal
p .... 00.. ...

u 00 o0 000 ot1

o 0 27 Ott40 6 deficot to oargt'

I4 to

T t 00 2.27


Tlhe fact that tbe welfare of livet,ltk of any partiular
limited b) tie fertility of pa-ture soils has been recognized
years. At the Florida Experiment Station it has b
II lition of arttlh. kno no locally a- "
oculling wien tile food is rItrc d to natie forage
gowln on ertsin- unfertoltet d ( ands and resihual peats. Inadeoquat
quantities of iron,. copper. cobalt. or combinations of these and perhaps
toher elements wetre found to e tIt nLdrlineg ctlase of tlhe tdlrae.
Supplemental salt mixtmure containln these eleents raised the hemo-
globin antd increased growth and reproduction. There was a possilhlt
tirt people liinrg o ilthee drefiient soils ald producing much of litlr
food telecon -ould ulffer from the ame deficiencies. In former rinte.
tigations it was noted that the incidence of anemia was usually hghe in
tire scools where the predominant soils of the dtrict were classed as
deficient in regard to salt-sick of cattle. The details of all of this lare
been treated quite exhaustivel from the animal standpoint in the imme-
diately - t sympo ium. Tirhe parallels existing between
these i in animals and humans hvir g on ihe0 -
various areas are indeed of very g'eat interest.
The data show (Table 21 that in those districts )here the pre dominant
soils were classed a- deficient in regard to saltsick of cattle from 52 to
96 per cent of die children were anemic, but in the districts here tile
prdominant soils were classed as normal or protective in regard to pre-
ion of salt ick, fronr 0 to 23 per center wee anemic.
It was found that the people of tlese counties could be divided into
rather , i r t o trces and food habits These
groups I I I bihether they live on normal
or on. c I 0 I 1 I their food from the soil; and
families olo live on the lessproductir"-and usually defiieontf oils,
and obtain varying amounts of food therefrom.
On the more productive soils practically all the meat, eggs, milk.
fruit, vegetables, and clcbkens were produced ol the farm or obtained
locally. Only such staples as sugar, coffee. flour. bread, rice, grits. and
condiments were bought regularly.
As the soils became lens producti-e, less food was raised and a
gr," r-ot.... w ht, hl-l In some sections the soils were so un
ns of livelihood had been dlsco tinued
I b the day usually on a Covernmenl
rehef project o was on direct relief I i i farm
usu-o l 1 i -. 1 i -, , I cause
of I I I iI coon
posed largely of the cheap food--rice,. iscuit, sirop, and t hite
bacon. By modern standards, tie diet group was below the
nutritional danger line in several particulars. With these families, as
with those who raised 1 their food, tfoodoods highest
In iron were produced
Thus hae three ne groups: (11 Those families producing 70 per
cent of their food, hieh 1 ,
iron; (2) those producing and


peibrht,- In otie ei~ntala ecellnwtlta lnd ( [) tlose plodLlclin 0oott
inadequate both in quantity and quahty and wlho, because of economi,
and habit were sulsiking on diets below the ltrl
tile ilodl t lealilt o vegetables grown in the h<

ornp dcn- Itri t, r e e selected as an-
Turnip g[tone mtfo id I
the most -onpo-tat sole of ilO... All I
clad bn o irili h oclciai ferlilizer anid were healthy, leaf}
plants t)picaI of the RlleLy Aalyis showed d Itlat th iron in these
gleees vaied flo t 2it58 p I.m, en tphe nol li or p1otect[e
oils to 56 p.p.m when grown on the e ones. It is ealized that
in a diet made up of mnll r 1 I nences in tie
iron doneent of ttanip glcens ut t to rlal
people depending almost entiely) on home-grown vegetable, for ihon and
S' aI in tie ilon in these poee

of the several sub-sations
Sd source were grown at
foul practices of each section
wete used. btot all i 1 cultural pacticcs wee the same. Tthe
reens produced i in ablt. leaf form, succulence.
a od mineral content. The the aboveo-mntoneli d oca-
lionts aricd ifmt 84 p.p.m t
SLkise vaied in iron in the different sections of the
,, i liwhen
S ,d that
re grown was considered defi-
clent, )et there in iron.
A study was then made of the food. actually eaten by the farm fani-
ies. In county 3 the ale240 fa faml ies. It oas considered that food
samples collected fro 80 of thse flies would be repreentative of
the group. These samples consisted of an accurate 1 i -' of all
foods used in six consective meals b a child Iselected of tile
0 families In colle e same the collect tr seed an extra plate
atacl of the six meals with al amount of food equal to that eaten by
ere added foods eaten between meals. Thee
I each family duihng tle spinog, summer, and
a ed into those classed as predominatel
rotemln, cabohbdate, or fat. Each food group was weighed separately.
It was found that in the amounts eaten, the iron content of the food
I i t- l i i

ssed as I or deficien-
0 mgo hihen i
produced on the bette soils and was fairly adequate both as to
quantity and quabt) valued from 8.0 to 12.0 ings.

sli/or, Assistant Chemist, Soils
Gal-I t10 l e.


That tie anemic condition of thre children was due to minoera ldeficenc
wa, demonstrated by treating 400 anemic children with 100 ags. iron a
ferric ammon um citrate Oneer times a dao. Withn 4 to 6 weeks afte
beginning treatment, all the subjects showed improvement and all exce1p
tie ones ih rtei y blow hemoglobin had values within the normal range.
Because of tie improvement in helnoglobic rith the administration of
ron salts. it is iot to be assumed that ibron as ite onlt element involved.
Thile ferric ammonium citrate was in the form of U. S. P --- --o and
had copper, manganese, and cobalt as inpuroiies t
regeneration and restoration of hemoglobin there was a tremendoun im.
provement in color, activity, and appetite.
It should be made clear that deficient soils and mineral deficient
diseases are not loca.ized in mall areas in Florida, neither are t.ie
confined to Fiolda Mlinelal deficiency disease of cattle. as a result of
soil deficiencies, have been identified in Nova Scotia, Massachusetts, North
and South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, New Zealand, and Austraha.
In addition to the mineral deficiencies already noted, areas deficient in
manganese, calcium, phosphorus, copper, and zinc have been identified.
The effects of a lack of these elements on plar --- -
is well recognized, but the effects of a lack of
animal or human nutrition are not understood fuloy; neither is it under-
stood what effect slight deficiencies of these elements will have when
extended over a long period.
From this work it seems evident that while hookworm infection un-
doubtedly affects the degree of anemia, the incidence in lural
children is due primarily to diets low in iron. o locw iron diets are
occasioned not only by ow incoiies, ignorance of food values, habit.
inertia, but also as shown In this study, by variation in home-grocn
foods. It appears then that soil deficiency operating through the plants
grown thereon and ultimately on the health of the people is a factor that
should be considered in any section where nutritional anemia is endemic.
greatest needs illn getting at
Sa better
.n survey. Further than
this, we need careful I d- studies on the effect of a wide variety
of soil treatments on II emical composition of plants growing on
them as a basis for the further studies that ale needed in human as oeln
as animal nutrition. Above all, we should not permit ouselves to believe
that the deficiencies we have noo come to the whole stori
even for the present, let alone the future. ,vonderful day in
which to lire when our research programs can be s 1 s and
slppoited as to anticipate some of these troubles in I their
actual occurence by the sheer r--c a 1 ,1 r the work,
rather than wait as we now so I I upon
largely by their unavoidable awfulness.



:: -"

', B -,, -, y A'
f f.

r ro g2 n ,oe ro of soil v.iro. m

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