Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 History and scope
 Citrus canning
 Preserves, jellies, jams and...
 Vegetable canning
 Canned rattlesnake
 Extent of fruit and vegetable canning...
 Cooperative extension work in agriculture...
 The canning procedure
 Invert sugar syrup recipe helps...
 The searchlight's canning quiz

Group Title: New Series Bulletin - State of Florida, Department of Agriculture ; no. 117
Title: Canning in Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00002621/00001
 Material Information
Title: Canning in Florida
Series Title: New series
Physical Description: 107 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: State of Florida Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1942
Subject: Canning and preserving -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical (p. 101-103) and index.
General Note: Acknowledgments to WPA Writers' Project.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00002621
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001962977
oclc - 29734388
notis - AKD9654
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    History and scope
        Page 10
        Pages 11-12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Citrus canning
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Preserves, jellies, jams and marmalades
        Page 58
        Pages 59-60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Vegetable canning
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Canned rattlesnake
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Extent of fruit and vegetable canning industry and distribution & relative importance of cooperative canneries
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Pages 77-78
        Page 79
    Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    The canning procedure
        Page 91
    Invert sugar syrup recipe helps solve ration problem
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
    The searchlight's canning quiz
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 100a
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
Full Text



fp m o.,0,oCfTWsorni R *R H EE


I- "
qW "

La-c P~







ft-% a- .o





NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner

NO. 117

6 3c.

We are indebted to the many individuals,
commissions, and bureaus listed under
"References" for valuable data, and to the
WPA Writers' Project for editorial assist-
ance, in the preparation of this bulletin.
State Department of Agriculture



National and Florida Production
Increased Consumption
Early History and Present Magnitude
Seafood First Commercially Canned
Millions in Value Added by Canning

Florida Competition
Values and Costs
Sources of Fruit for Canneries
Florida Exports
National Advertising of Canned Citrus
Florida Canners Association
Modern Methods
Florida Legislation on Citrus Canning
Continuous Inspection Service
List of Florida Citrus Canners

Florida Production 1939
Wide Variety of Tropical Fruits

Other Vegetables

Florida Seafood Canning




Making and Using Sauerkraut
Stringless Beans
Meats and Meat Products
Clams and Oysters






The Story of Keeping Food Indefinitely
Assistant Coimotssioner of Agriculture

Nature's food bounties are not prepared by her for indefi-
nite keeping. Man's early efforts to cope with this difficulty
were by drying, smoking, and salting surpluses for fu-
ture use.
An arid climate is conducive to drying foods. A humid
climate renders drying difficult. A desert climate has the
additional advantage of having no decay-producing organ-
isms to contact either vegetables, fruits or meats. Exceed-
ingly cold climates also have this advantage.
Dehydration is artificial drying and preserves by the
extraction of the water from the substance without ruptur-
ing the cell walls. This process leaves the volatiles, the fla-
voring essences, the coloring and the nutritive properties in
the dried product. When the dehumidified product is soaked
in water the cells reabsorb moisture and become fresh food
material which may be cooked and served as when cooked
without dehydration.
When dehydrated foods are put up for keeping they must
be sealed airtight in order to keep moisture from entering
before needed and to prevent contamination with bacteria
which are always accessible when foods are left open to the
There is a difference in the effect of ordinary drying and
dehydration A dried apple is just a dried apple but a dehy-
drated apple is capable of being restored to its natural pala-
tability. Almost any food is capable of being dehydrated-
vegetables, meats, fish, fruits, berries, etc..-but the popu-
larity of dehydrated foods has trailed far behind the popu-
larity of canned goods. The reason for this is largely because


of the readiness with which opened packages of dehydrated
foods deteriorate before being used. This means small pack-
ages only are desirable for home use. The cost of dehydration
and careful packaging also add to the price.

It was not till 1795 that Napoleon Bonaparte offered a
prize of 12,000 francs to anyone who would invent or dis-
cover a process of preserving foods. From time immemorial
armies had suffered from lack of food because no means
had been provided for the preservation of food more than
a few days at a time. It was not till 1809 that Nicolas
Appert won the prize that Napoleon had offered. He steri-
lized foods and sealed them hermetically in glass jars.
Commercial canners still follow this method but tin cans are
used now more than glass containers. It was in 1810 that
Peter Durand of England obtained a patent for preserving
foods in tin cans.

While preserving methods originated in France and the
canning method originated in England the large scale de-
velopment of the canning industry has reached its perfection
in the United States during the last 50 years. It is now the
fifth largest food industry in this country. Approximately
11 billion cans of foodstuffs are used annually in the United
States. The canning of vegetables leads in volume, then fol-
low fruits, milk, fish and miscellaneous articles.

The U. S. Department of Agriculture states that this
country furnishes the markets of the world with 64 per cent
of canned food products.

Solving the problem of preserving the quality, flavor, and
nutritional value of foods has been the object and the task
of the canning industry. To the extent that this has been
accomplished in each individual case has the business of can-
ning that particular food been a success. The canning of
food and the invention of the process of making ice have
together revolutioned the food supply industry throughout
the world. Modern schools of domestic science teach the
effect of heat on foods.


The science of the chemical changes involved in cooking
reveals many facts of vital importance to all in every walk
of life. A better understanding of the needs of the human
body and the contents of various foods is calculated to add
considerably to the average length of life of the millions.
Dietitians versed on food chemistry and in the processes of
digestion and assimilation are impressing us with the im-
portance of balanced meals.


Commercial Canning

The canning industry, with its immense annual pack and
large payrolls, contributes importantly to the national econ-
omy, aids in a wide distribution of low cost, wholesome
foods, and eliminates much waste resulting from so-called
surplus production. Primarily the canner provides a source
of quick money for the growers, particularly in times of
glutted markets, but equally, if not more important, the
surpluses thus preserved by the canner reach remote con-
sumers who otherwise might be deprived of many palatable
and healthful foods. So the canner's ultimate mission is to
supply the people with proper nourishment regardless of
season and distance.
Currently, through canning processes, vast quantities of
vitamin-rich foods have gone from Florida and other parts
of the Nation to military forces on foreign soils, as well as
to the store shelves for moderately priced civilian consump-
tion. Moreover, since citrus juices, among others, have been
recognized by dietetic science as an agreeable "tonic,"
Florida, with a pack of 474,153,576 cans of citrus products in
the 1940-41 season had a substantial hand in spreading bet-
ter health to a war-mobilized Nation.
The need for this service was emphasized in a U. S. De-
partment of Agriculture bulletin, Eating the Surplus, issued
in 1940. This document estimated that two-thirds of Amer-
ican families cannot buy enough of the vitamin-rich foods
they need, such as fruits, vegetables, and dairy products,
and that "45 millions of our people are living below the food
diet danger line, many of these children who won't grow up
to be healthy citizens . This situation is bad for the
farmer because he cannot sell his full production at a profit.
It is even worse for the consumer, who suffers physically
from a lack of body-building foods. The health defenses of
the Nation, as well as its economic defenses, are weakened


(See Plate on Page 121
NOTE-To identify Illustrations by list given below begin with No. 1 at left end
of top shelf and read to right, then left end of second shelf from top, etc

I. Papaya Nectc
2. Grapefruit Ju
3. Concentrated
4. Crobment
5. Shrimp
6. Coqunma Brot
7. Fresh Fish
8. Soft Shell Cra
9. Herring Roe
10 Smoked Oyste
It. Lobster & Shr
12. Cuban Rock
13. Herring
14 Pate of Shrin
15. Large Shrimp
16. Oysterburger
17 Frog Legs
18 Turtle Soup
19 Florida Shad
20. Concentrated
21 Orange Juice
22 Popoya Nect'
23 Fresh Crobme
24. Orange Juice
25. Orange Juice
26 Grapefruit
27. Grapefruit Ju
28. Orange Juice
29. Grapefruit Ju
30. Fried Milk Fe
31. Unsweetened
32, Diamond Back
33 Grapefruit Ju
34. Okra Gumbo
35. Orange Secti
36 Orange Juice

Lime Juice





Orange Juice



d Chicken
Orange Juice
SRattle Snake Meat


Orange & Grapefruit
Orange Juice
Grapefruit Juice
Orange Juice
Orange Juice
Orange Juice
Orange & Grapefruit Juice
Grapefruit Juice
String Beans
Cultivated Blueberries
Guava Jelly
Wild Blackberries
Orange Sections
Cut Green Beans
Grapefruit Juice
Grapefruit Juice
Orange Juice
Orange Marmalade
Orange and Grapefruit Sections
Orange and Grapefruit Juice
Orange & Gropefruit Juice
Orange & Grapefruit Juice
Orange Sections
Grapefruit Juice
Orange & Grapefruit Juice
Guava Jelly
Orange & Grapefruit Juce
Orange Juice


S. The term surpluses as applied to foods, is actually a
smug, polite name for a shocking amount of underconsump-
tion. A civilization that is commodity-rich but consumption-
poor cannot survive. On the other hand, a civilization that
has adequate producing capacity and the genius to use it will
be impregnable."

The Honorable Claude R. Wickard, Secretary of Agricul-
ture, early in 1941 called on America's farmers to begin pro-
ducing vast stocks of foods so that both fresh and canned
supplies would be available to meet unprecedented demands
at home and abroad.

"Food will win the war and write the peace," he declared,
and then pointed out that in a war-devastated world after
peace has been won, no amount of canned food reserves
would be too large.

Florida already is well prepared to take part in a national
scheme of food preservation in the matter of citrus fruit,
and if need be, could readily include truck crops as the State
ships thousands of carloads of fresh vegetables annually. In
the matter of fruit it has 20,500,000 bearing citrus trees,
covering approximately 315,000 acres, which produce around
56,000,000 boxes of fruit annually, or more than enough to
tax the capacity of the 50 canning plants devoted exclusively
to processing a portion of this crop.

The extent of the canning industry in Florida is presented
herewith in considerable detail, as to separate packs and the
industry as a whole, with facts and figures from many
sources, including Federal Government and State Bureau
publications, market reports, trade associations, chambers
of commerce, universities, county agents, canners, and grow-
ers. Statistics, however, do not include individual cannery
figures. For the present purpose the term canning applies
to all types of preserved foods, except dried and frozen, re-
gardless of the type of container.




The United States, with its vast food resources, leads the
world in canning. The pack of all foods reported by the
National Canners Association for 1940 aggregated 375,802,-
000 cases, which included vegetables, soups, fruits, fruit
juices, fish, milk, and meat. Canned vegetables and soups
led with more than 200 million cases. Fruit and fruit juices
came next with approximately 82,000,000 cases. In this
second category Florida participated to the extent of 20
million cases of which more than 16,000,000 were citrus
juices alone, thus placing Florida in first rank among the
states as a producer of canned fruit juices.
The National Canners Association listed the total United
States 1940 pack as follows:

Vegetables ......... ...
Soups ...................

Fruits ........
Fruit Juices ...
Fish ..........
M ilk ..........
M eat .........

Total .........
Dog Foods ....

Total .........

Florida's part in this

Grapefruit ....
Oranges ......
Citrus salad ..
Blended citrus j
Vegetables ....
Seafoods ......


........... 57,330,000
..... ..... 24,499,000
.......... 18,580,000
........... 57,000,000
........... 14,000,000

........... 375,802,000
........... 22,712,000

........... 398,514,000

amounted to 20,275,261 cases as

. ........ 13,786,816
........... 3,101,956
. ........ 330,180
uice ..... 2,537,437
. ........ 456,897
........... 61,975

Total ....................



The season of 1941-42 added two new forms of Florida
citrus preserves to its pack on a large scale with the produc-
tion of 56,000,000 pounds of marmalade base for export to
England in barrels, 600,000 gallons of orange juice concen-
trate for similar purposes.
On a lesser scale Florida canned products include such
vegetables as tomatoes, beans, collards, corn, peas, beets,
and potatoes; seafoods such as shrimp, oysters, crabmeat,
and clam broth; nut butters and nut meats; and a score of
tropical preserves, jams and jellies, utilizing guavas, mangos,
kumquats, papayas and other rare exotic fruits. Even the
Florida rattlesnake has a market as a food, after being
skinned, dressed, cooked, and canned. These various items,
however, are incidental to the main business of citrus can-
ning. Citrus fruits now occupy the position once held by
seafoods, which by 1942 had dropped from first to fourth
place. Next to citrus come jams, preserves and jellies, and
in third place, vegetables.


Steady increases in the consumption of canned food
have been recorded from the time the process of canning
was invented, but half of the recent increase can be traced
to two products, one vegetable, the other fruit, with Florida
citrus fruit leading the field. In the decade, 1928-1938, the
per capital consumption of canned fruits and canned vegeta-
bles increased about 4 pounds each. Florida grapefruit ac-
counted for approximately 2-2/3 pounds of the fruit increase
and tomato juice for 2 pounds of the canned vegetables, both
products rich in vitamins.
Indications are that the next decade will record further
increases but thereafter canned goods must compete with
larger production in dried fruit, dehydrated vegetables, and
the newest threat, frozen vegetables, which pyramided in
volume two and one-half times in a three-year period, 1937-
39, to 76,042,000 pounds.


There remains, however, a wide disparity between fresh
and preserved food consumption. According to the U. S.
Department of Agriculture, the national per capital consump-
ticn of fruits and vegetables in 1938 was: fresh vegetables,
2861/ pounds; canned vegetables, 22 pounds; fresh fruits,
1581/' pounds;and canned fruits, 161/, pounds.
Tomatoes held third place in the average individual con-
sumption of fresh vegetables, but various tomato products
led in the per capital consumption of canned vegetables.
Among fresh fruits, citrus, consumed at the rate of 60
pounds per person, occupied first place while grapefruit
a!one in the citrus group, came third in the list of canned
fruits, exceeded only by pineapples and peaches.


War needs during the Napoleonic era produced the culi-
nary art of canning. The French Government found that its
soldiers did not thrive on a monotonous diet of salt meat,
hardtack, and smoked fish, and sought some method of pre-
serving fruit and vegetables to add to the dry army rations.
In 1795 a prize of 12,000 francs (about 85,000) was offered
by the government to anyone who discovered or invented a
successful method of food preservation.
Nicolas Appert, a Paris confectioner, at once started
experimenting, but it was 14 years later, in 1809, before he
found a process which won him the prize money, and the
popular title, "Father of Canning." By trial and error, he
had discovered a simple method similar to home canning
today-placing raw or cooked food in glass jars with enough
water to cover the contents, placing the jars in warm water
and gradually raising the temperature to about 200 F., then
cooking and cooling them slowly in water. Appert's process
was an important beginning but it was not a complete suc-
cess, as his products often lost color in light, and there was
spoilage and breakage before they reached the scattered



The House of Appert, founded by the Father of Canning,
was still producing fine canned foods in Paris at the time
of the German occupation. However, Appert's The Book of
All Households, or the Art of Preserving Animal and Vege-
table Foods, published in France in 1810 can now be regarded
only as a curiosity, since the processes described are sur-
passed in practice by the individual home canner.

Ten years after the Appert discovery, Ezra Daggett and
Thomas Kensett, of New York City, in 1819, became the
holders of the first United States canning patent, and began
processing seafoods and vegetables in glass. In 1820 Wil-
liam Underwood, of Boston, started canning fruits, condi-
ments, and pickles, using crude tin cans which had been
patented in England in 1810, and which had to be cut by
hand with scissors. Commercial canning in tin accordingly
made little progress until 1875, when the first patent on a
canning machine was issued. This was the beginning of the
industry's permanent growth, but it was not until 1900 that
real strides were made in methods and in the development of
containers and machinery. As scientific accuracy replaced
guesswork, spoilage was reduced, and this created confidence
among consumers and profits for canners. Continued me-
chanical improvements and diligent research have by degrees
built the industry into a billion dollar business.
In 1939 national value of canned foods fell short of the
billion mark with only $812,403,515, but this did not include
meat and milk which had been regrouped after the 1937
figures were issued. In 1937 the national total reached
$1,027,456,828, of which Florida's share was $16,734,833.
In 1939 Florida showed only a slight decrease with a total of


Although Denys Rolle, the English founder of Rollestown
on the St. Johns River, claimed in a suit to recover damages
after the British abandoned Florida in 1783, that "in good


years he produced a thousand gallons of orange juice for
export," Florida's earliest attempts at commercially preserv-
ing foodstuffs for out-of-state markets actually began with
the canning of seafoods nearly a century later. First ex-
periments along this line were conducted at Fernandina in
1856 with oysters, but the Florida variety refused to retain
its gastronomic virtues in tin, even though Thomas H. Ken-
sett, joint holder of that first canmaking patent, had demon-
strated to the contrary fifteen years before for the Pitts-
burgh market.

Other efforts followed the Fernandina failure, but a suc-
cessful attempt was not achieved until 1888 (some authori-
ties say 1884), when Ruge Brothers opened an oyster can-
nery in Apalachicola. This plant had the stimulating effect
of launching others westward along the Gulf Coast and
oyster canning so prospered for a time in that territory that
Biloxi, Mississippi, took the lead away from Baltimore, and
Mississippi canned more oysters than all the rest of the
states put together.

The first shrimp cannery was also established in Apala-
chicola in 1912; shortly afterwards a clam plant began opera-
tions at Marco, now Collier City; a turtle cannery at Key
West and still more recently, a coquina cannery at Fort
Vegetable canning began on a modest scale between the
establishment of the seafood industry and the introduction
of citrus canning. Florida, however, as a source of enormous
quantities of fresh winter vegetables, has had little interest
in entering the canned vegetable field. In 1916 Charles E.
Langley exhibited samples of canned tomatoes and other
vegetables at the Florida State Fair in Tampa but these
represented only by-products along the way in Langley's
search for methods of successfully preserving citrus fruits.
Not, in fact, until after World War I was an effort made to
can vegetables even on an insignificant scale, and this has
been overshadowed completely by the citrus canning in-


Raw materials represent the largest single item of cost in
the Florida pack. Next come wage earners, then the mis-
cellaneous packing materials, fuels and other items. The
U. S. Bureau of the Census reports that in 1939 raw material
and labor combined to add $5,920,729 to the value of Florida's
crops through preserving, and that nearly 5,000 workers
earned more than $2,500,000, as shown in the following

Avg. No. Total of Cost Material Value of Value Added
Workers Wages Fuel, Etc. Products byManufact'r
4,994 i $ 2,501,020 $10,792,630 $16,713,359 $ 5,920,729

The foregoing figures do not include plants with annual
output of less than $5,000, of which there are hundreds in
the State. The total of $16,713,359 represents the net selling
price at the plants, not the retail gross of the products. Ad-
ditional figures for 1939, as supplied by the Florida Indus-
trial Commission, showed a monthly average of 4,079 em-
ployees in the food canning industry in the State, with a
total payroll of $2,489,055.22-a decline in two years of 583
employees, but an increase of over a quarter of a million
dollars in wages. These figures excluded plants employing
less than 8 workers for 20 calendar weeks. The Commis-
sion's figures for 1940 show a monthly average of 4,085 em-
ployees and a total payroll of $2,736,864.15-an increase of
only six workers, but a $247,808.93 wage increase.



The commercial canning of citrus fruits in Florida did
not succeed until 1920, when the first successful output was
marketed, after a series of failures dating back to 1914.
Success was achieved simultaneously by men working inde-
pendently in different sections of the citrus belt both in
Florida and Puerto Rico. Through early hardships, losses
and difficulties, by the trial and error method, each evolved
a canned product that retained characteristics of the fresh
fruit and would not spoil. Techniques were thereafter grad-
ually improved, and similar efforts made by others, but
skeptics still asserted that commercial preserving of citrus
was impossible because of the citric acid, except perhaps in
bottles, which was too expensive. One of the pioneers was,
in fact, refused a carload of cans by a manufacturer on the
ground that they would surely be eaten up by citric acid.

First attempts to can Florida citrus fruits commercially
were made by Northern business men who had settled in
Polk County where apparent waste greeted them on every
hand. The sight of wind-fallen but perfectly sound fruit
turning the ground yellow in the groves, and more golden
mounds of it discarded at the packing houses because it
failed to meet certain standards shocked them into demand-
ing, "Why don't you can it?" The answer was always the
same, "Citric acid would eat up the tin and glass is too expen-

One of these men, Charles E. Langley, a successful artist
and designer of stained glass windows, not satisfied with
this universal answer, set to work experimenting, with the
help of his wife, at home. As a result of their kitchen tests,
Langley was convinced that grapefruit could be successfully
canned as a commercial undertaking and in 1914 organized
the Dixie Canning and Preserving Company, capitalized at
$50,000. He built a small plant at Auburndale and eventually
shipped a carload of canned grapefruit to Chicago. He had
removed only the outside rind and then cut the fruit into
cubes instead of separating the segments, thus impairing


its natural pleasant taste with the bitter flavor of the rind.
This product met with instant disfavor and Langley, already
discouraged over legal difficulties concerning his plant,
finally retired from the canning business with a loss of
$30,000, and went back to his art.

A contemporary of Langley was Howard L. Collins, one
of the first pioneers to receive returns from his experiment.
Collins had retired as head of a printing company in St. Paul
which printed about a million dollars worth of highly colored
and alluring labels annually for canners. Collins, perhaps
a convert of his own printing artistry, headed a small com-
pany at Lakeland that bottled carbonated grapefruit juice
for local consumption, and later for Northern markets.
Meanwhile he devoted his profits to canning experiments,
convinced that therein lay a profitable outlet for excess
citrus fruit production. For several years his experimental
losses were considerable, but finally he hit on a vacuum
process for preserving grapefruit in tin. It was Collins who
had been turned down by the manufacturers when he ordered
a carload of cans for this purpose. Even they shared the
belief that citric acid would corrode the metal containers,
but Collins finally persuaded them to make delivery, and so
the first natural-tasting citrus product-grapefruit seg-
ments-ever to be successfully preserved in tin came into
being. Collins installed machinery to process 500 boxes of
fruit daily, and by 1924 was shipping carloads of canned
grapefruit of such dependable quality that Hill Brothers in
New York accepted it for marketing under their established
"Dromedary" brand. Then at the height of his success Col-
lins listened to a promoter and became a casualty of expan-
sion and a collapsed grapefruit market. In addition to being
persuaded to finance a new 8200,000 plant his firm had con-
tracts for grapefruit seconds at from 30 to 50 cents a box
and was swamped with deliveries at these prices on a 15-
cent market. The result was receivership and financial ruin,
and Collins, after ten years of strenuous pioneering efforts,
salvaged a little money from the sale of his home and re-
entered the printing business.


A more successful operator was Ralph Polk, Sr., son of a
pioneer Indiana canner, who began bottling grapefruit juice
in Miami in 1920. His product, however, had a tendency to
turn amber colored and precipitate solids, and he, too, turned
to experiments in tin. As a result, Polk, in December 1921,
shipped the first carload of acceptable grapefruit segments
ever to come out of Florida. Two years later he was ship-
ping 100,000 cases from plants in Miami, Vero Beach, and
Haines City, but he had evidently crowded the market, for
the next season he was sacrificing a $90,000 stock for
$12,000. Nevertheless, Polk weathered all of the initial pit-
falls and the excitement that made citrus canning the prey of
opportunists and professional promoters in those early days.

Pioneer among the pioneers, however, was Claude E.
Street, of Colorado, who first conceived the idea of bottling
grapefruit juice as far back as 1910. Street used 5-gallon
demijohns. Later he tackled the job commercially at Avon
Park in 1914; the following year at Haines City in bottles;
and finally in 1921 at Bradenton where he abandoned glass
and produced the first known commercial pack of grapefruit
juice in tin. He too had trouble with the juice deteriorating
but he kept on trying, and Street, along with Polk, repre-
sented the only survivors of the original group who were
still connected with the industry in 1942.

Paradoxically it was finally discovered that tin offered a
better material for citrus fruit containers than glass, and
that the long sought secret of retaining the natural taste
indefinitely, without spoilage, was sterilization and vacuum

By 1924 proven techniques, efficient means of pasteuri-
zation and vacuum-type machinery, had pretty well stand-
ardized quality, and as methods continued to improve and
the product became more palatable, others entered the busi-
ness, and the demand for canned grapefruit soon became
firmly established. Glass jars, bottles, and other types of
containers quickly disappeared in favor of tin.


The actual commercial debut of canned Florida citrus
fruit took place in the season of 1920-21, with an initial pro-
duction of 10,000 cases of grapefruit segments. Seven years
later the canners were using 1 million boxes of grapefruit
and by 1928-29, when oranges were added, 1%/, million boxes.
The first commercial orange pack used 40,000 boxes, which
increased to 1,000,000 boxes by 1936-37, and to 4,000,000 by
1940-41. Still the orange pack used only about a third as
much fruit as the grapefruit pack which accounted for
13,888,368 boxes. Thus in a space of twenty years, citrus
fruit canning had become a large industry, utilizing 171/
million boxes of all kinds of citrus fruit annually.
To handle this enormous quantity of fruit called for organ-
ization, regulations and extensive equipment, and by 1942
the industry was operating under special legislation requir-
ing standards of quality and inspection to assure compliance,
laws to provide revenue for advertising and a State canners
association to co-ordinate the business. Polk County in 1942
had 17 citrus canning plants, Hillsborough County, 7; Orange
and Lake, 3 each, and scattered through 10 other counties
of the citrus fruit belt, 20 plants.


Competition followed close on the heels of the establish-
ment of the citrus canning industry in Florida. Puerto Rico,
in fact, nearly beat Florida to the national markets, and the
California-Arizona area and Texas were not far behind.
Puerto Rico, from where some authorities claim Florida
imported its first grapefruit trees, was already a grapefruit
producing territory, and the other domestic areas have
extensive plantings. However, within the United States,
Florida in 1942 still retained a wide lead in the number of
fully matured grapefruit trees 16 or more years of age but
Texas had practically as many coming along.
Bearing grapefruit trees more than 5 years old, as esti-
mated by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, July 1, 1938,
were distributed as follows: Florida, 5,485,000; Texas,


5,048,000; California and Arizona, 2,589,000; total for United
States, 13,122,000. Bearing orange trees, 5 years and older:
California, 20,748,000; Florida, 13,622,000; Texas, 1,552,000;
Arizona, 616,000; Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, 1,079,000
(mostly Satsumas); total United States, 37,617,000. Grand
total of bearing citrus trees in the United States, including
tangerines and lemons, 57,471,000.
A shortage of ships in which to export its fresh citrus
fruit during the first World War practically forced Puerto
Rico into the canning business. Credit for bridging that
emergency belongs to two executives of the Spanish-Amer-
ican Fruit Company, A. W. Houck and Edward Rushmore,
who launched a series of experiments which finally produced
a marketable canned product. After more than two hundred
processing of grapefruit, Rushmore took samples to New
York in 1919 which were well received. On the strength of
this, machinery and equipment were shipped to the Island to
enlarge the experimental factory which at that time engaged
six girls, and so in 1920 grapefruit "hearts" were born.
Rushmore had beat Polk of Florida by one year, which the
Florida Canners Association later on readily acknowledged,
and in turn Rushmore graciously permitted the trade to use
the term "hearts" which he had first substituted for
The Island industry nearly paralleled the Florida successes
in the 1920's, except in volume, but in 1923 and 1924 Puerto
Rico's segment pack, its principal output for seven years,
almost approached that of Florida. Canned grapefruit juice
was added much later. Government reports first show the
presence of Puerto Rican grapefruit juice on domestic mar-
kets in 1930, two years after Florida added juice to its
segment pack.
Segments imported from Puerto Rico in 1923, the first
year for which figures are available, amounted to 128,718
cases. This total increased to 413,842 cases in 1929, but by
1938 had dropped back to 108,359. Meanwhile canned
grapefruit juice imports mounted from 4,615 in 1930 to
40,442 in 1938. (See Table No. 1).




United States Receipts of Canned Grapefruit
from Puerto Rico

Cases of 24 No. 2 Cans

Year Segments Juice Year Segments Juice
1923 128,718 1931 149,450 1,170
1924 128,027 1932 42,986 2,724
1925 211,601 1933 147,031 4,461
1926 308,746 1934 260,840 12,413
1927 357,790 1935 273,759 47,479
1928 94,410 1936 342,724 206,772
1929 413,842 I 1937 191,802 97,670
1930 197,719 4,615 1938 108,359 40,442
Total segments, 3,357,813 cases; total juice, 417,746; grand total,
3,755,559 cases. Annual average receipts of segments for 16-year
period, 209,750 cases; juice average for 9 years, 46,416 cases; annual
average for both products for 9 years, 236,936 cases.

Though not formidable Puerto Rico has continued to be
Florida's principal canned grapefruit segment competitor,
but the California-Arizona citrus area long ago forged
ahead of Puerto Rico in the production of canned grapefruit
juice. One season, in 1934, the California-Arizona area also
marketed 4,000 cases of grapefruit segments but then ap-
parently decided to drop from this field. Its first commer-
cial grapefruit juice pack of 10,000 cases, which immediately
exceeded Puerto Rico's output, appeared in 1932. This
climbed to 459,000 cases in 1937 but a year later had dropped
to 180,000, leaving the California-Arizona area a minor com-
petitor in the grapefruit juice field. (See Tabe 2).


California-Arizona Pack of Grapefruit Juice-1932-1938

Year Cases
1932 10,000
1933 25,000
1934 70,000
1935 120,000
1936 266,000
1937 459,000
1938 180,000

California by itself, however, is Florida's most serious
canned orange juice competitor; its 1937 pack of 1,058,725
cases, being nearly double Florida's pack of 587,334 cases.
Meanwhile the young and expanding grapefruit canning in-
dustry in Texas, devoted mostly to juice, ran a million and
a half cases ahead of Florida in 1937. (See Table No. 3).
The following year Florida regained the lead over Texas
on grapefruit juice and over California on orange juice and
has since retained that lead. California's production of
canned grapefruit segments and juice were negligible in
1941 as was Texas' production of orange juice, but Califor-
nia had one clear monopoly with a lemon juice pack of 352,-
422 cases, while Florida maintained a near monopoly on
canned grapefruit segments with 3,149,843 cases.

Texas Citrus Pack-1929-1938
Figures in Cases

Year Grapefruit Grapefruit Y Grapefrint Grapefruit
Juice Segments e Juice Segments
1929 18,000 1934 361,000 7,000
1930 50,000 1935 544,000 23,000
1931 93,000 1936 2,247,000 131,000
1932 41,000 i 1937 5,002,000 104,000
1933 73,000 7,000 1938 5,255,000 106,000


The Florida industry has steadily overtaken the heavy
increases in fruit production. The 1939-40 Florida citrus
crop, though cut 19 per cent by freezes, reached nearly 43
million boxes of total harvest, and citrus canning broke all
records in boxes, cases, and percentage of crops canned; the
upsurge amounting to more than 300 million cans. Canned
grapefruit segments, whole and broken, totaled 4,133,786
cases; grapefruit juice, sweetened and unsweetened, 4,682,-
067; orange segments, 1,998; orange juice, 2,851,373; blended
juices, 1,402,662, and citrus salads 84,693, making an aggre-
gate of 13,156,569 cases of citrus products.

The U. S. Department of Agriculture reported the total
United States citrus harvest for 1940-41 as the highest on
record-125,168,000-about 3 million boxes above the pre-
vious high of 1938-39. Oranges and tangerines totaled 81,-
505,000 boxes; grapefruit, 43,663,000 boxes.

Again the total United States canned citrus production
broke all records by using 21,411,000 of grapefruit and
7,825,000 boxes of oranges. Texas canned 6,844,000 boxes
of grapefruit and 50,000 boxes of oranges, a total pack of
6,894,000 boxes. The California-Arizona area packed 3,-
825,000 boxes of oranges, and 700,000 boxes of grapefruit
(including 100,000 boxes of relief canning), making a total
of 4,525,000 boxes.

The packs of all other states were dwarfed, however, by
the more than 17 million boxes canned in Florida. (For
case totals see Table No. 4.) Florida canned 73,000 more
boxes of oranges than all the other states combined and
6,331,584 more boxes of grapefruit than the total for all the
other states, or nearly 61/2 million more boxes of all kinds of
citrus products than all the rest of the citrus processed in
the United States combined. In 1940-41, 56 per cent of the
grapefruit, and 1312 per cent of the orange crop was canned
in Florida, while the national average for all citrus fruits
was 17 per cent. Florida growers received approximately
81j million dollars from canneries.


The 20-year pack of citrus fruits, from 1921 to 1941 inclu-
sive, embraced 102,652,078 cases of grapefruit: 37,728,183
segments, and 64,923,895 juice; 31,231,967 cases of oranges:
31,159,000 juice, 72,967 segments, and an aggregate of
6,325,938 cases of blended juices and citrus salads. Of this
total national pack of 140,209,983 cases Florida produced
87,643,713, enough to gird the earth six times with a gleam-
ing necklace of canned Florida fruits. (Grapefruit figures
covering Florida, Texas and the Cahfornia-Arizona area
from 1921 through 1938 appear in Table No. 5; the Florida
citrus pack complete from 1931-32 to 1940-41, in Table
No. 6.)


Cases of 24 No, 2 Cans

(Courtesy of Florida Canners Association)

Broken Sweetened
Segments Grapefruit

275,723 2,563,898

Total Grapefruit Products
13,786,826 cases

Division of Pack
Unsweetened Orange Orange Blended Citrus
Grapefruit Juice Segments Juice Salads
7,468,894 3,078,043 23,913 2,537,437 330,180
Total Orange Products Total Combination Products
S 3,101,956 2,867,617

Grand total season pack-19,756,399 cases-474,153,576 cans (No. 2 equiv.)
Division of Fruit in Varied Packs-in boxes
In Segments and Salad Straight Juice and Blended Straight Juice. Blended and Salad

2,321,564 10,964,914 (Comm.) i 3,848,538 (Comm.)
-601,890 (Gov't) -112,008 (Gov't)

Total Grapefruit Processed I Total Oranges Processed
13,888,368 boxes: seeded-11,334,298; seedless-2,554,070 3,960,546 boxes

The 1940-41 pack exceeded that of the previous season by 6%' million cases or by 160,000,000 cans. Juices alone
accounted for 80 per cent of the commercial pack, or 15,647,772 cases.



in 3 1tt




k -* .,

% _4


U. S. Pack of Canned Grapefruit

By Cases of 24 No. 2 Cans

From Beginnng of the Industry



1921 10,000
1922 150,000
1923 200,000
1924 350,000
1925 400,000
1926 700,000
1927 600,000
1928 957,000
1929 1,316,738
1930 2,712,489
1931 907,323
1932 2,161,975
1933 I 2,184,577
1934 3,588,042
1935 2,251,775
1936 4,057,672
1937 3,419,226
1938 4,105,775
1 30,072.562





U. S. Crop
Fresh Grape-






S 18,000
I 73,000
I ,255,000

Calif. and Packs
10,000 2,938,942
25,000 2,899,692
70,000 6,266,768
120,000 4,697,272
266,000 10,620,276
459,000 12,354,228
180,000 15,837.065
1.130.000 1 65,117,443

Figures by Cases of 24 No 2 Cans.



Boxes Used



938-39 9,656,059 4,105,775
939-40 12,708,978 4,133,780
940-41 I 17848,914 3,139,841

Grapefruit Orange Orange Blended Citrus Total
Juice Juice Segments Juice Salad "iruPalk

247,652 36,362 I 1,195,989
725,967 64,319 | 22,952261
610,115 57,678 | 2,852,370
2,236,726 240,967 1I 6,065,735
1,758,497 | 162,452 |84,958 65,194 4,322,876
3,918,604 498,206 271,599 87,758 8,833,839
3,370,002 806,183 33,430 547,329 84,271 8,260,441
5,502,102 926,278 13,626 699,295 130,562 11,377,638
4,682,057 2,851,373 1,998 1,402,662 84,693 13,156,569
10,646,985 3,078,043 23,913 2,587,437 330,180 19,756,399
8,721,861 I 72,967 I 5,543,280 782,658 _





The wholesale value of the citrus pack of the Nation from
1921 through 1941 approximated a quarter of a billion dol-
lars, two-thirds of which went to Florida canners.

Intangible values added by the canners, such as wider
markets and more stabilized prices of fresh fruit during the
harvesting season, cannot be computed but have been recog-
nized as important. As an illustration, Florida canners in
1938 packed during the production season 2,385,827 cases of
grapefruit, or about 15 per cent of the crop, which was mar-
keted during the last six months of that year, or the off
season, thus eliminating a possible glut of fresh fruit and
providing a 12-month distribution. So while the grower
receives less from the canner, this outlet helps strengthen
the fresh fruit market, and this helps to offset the lower
prices paid by the canners. Since 1931-32 prices paid for
grapefruit by the canners at the cannery door ranged from
a low of 28 cents a box in 1938-39 to a high of 73 cents in
1935-36, with an average for a 10-year period of 44 cents.
Oranges ranged from an unusual low of 19 cents because of
a glut in 1939-40 to $1.25 in 1936-37, with a 10-year average
of 80 cents. Grove owners, however, do not always receive
these prices. In some cases fruit dealers purchase fruit on
the trees at a much smaller rate, pay for the picking and
deliver and collect at the canneries.

When the canned products finally reach the retail market
the consumer pays slightly more for canned citrus fruit seg-
ments than for the juice, on account of added labor costs,
although the cost of raw fruit for juice may run higher be-
cause solids must be discarded. Canning costs are only one-
fourth that of processing the segments. The National Can-
ners Association in 1938 found that of the total money spent
by Florida canners of grapefruit segments, 25.1 per cent
was for raw fruit; 29.7 per cent for cans, labels, and cases;
19.7 per cent for labor; 14.5 per cent for other expenses; and
11 per cent for other supplies. Of the expense involved in
canning grapefruit juice, 37.5 per cent was for raw fruit;


35.5 per cent for cans, labels and cases; 4.8 per cent for
labor; 16 per cent for other expenses; and 6.4 per cent for
other supplies. A box of grapefruit produces about 25 cans
of juice but up to 34 cans of segments, while a box of oranges
provides 25 to 27 cans of juice. In other words, 1,000 boxes
of citrus fruit on an average yields more than 1,000 cases of
canned goods.


Eighteen counties have supplied practically all the grapefruit
used by canneries and 16 counties all the oranges.


Production of Grapefruit By Counties
For Canning

County 1936-37 1937-38 1938-39 1939-40 1940-41
Brevard 4,941 11,672
Dade 9,209 1 19,193 605 3,632 431
DeSoto I 24,282 25,500 16,926 36.930
Duval 1,610 1
Hardee 10,032 I 39,417 I I 31,490
Hernando 30,816 1 18,893 5,096 71,640 43,789
Highlands 77,543 1 77,828 [ 144,716 105,964 92,782
Hillsborough I 1,045,731 ] 1,026,644 1,243,198 1,810,226 1,848,733
Lake 120,422 106,960 121,767 111,199 387,809
Lee 61,576 17,335 87,925 150,274
Manatee I 351,879 444,291 523,356 251,591 372,095
Orange 274,355 340,766 697,480 617,750 717,749
Pasco 3,255 141,136 396,957 1,083,822
Pinellas 1 329,690 162,946 66,612 58,768 1 30,238
Polk I4,062.098 3,460,614 5,372,830 I 5,268,214 1 8,407,207
Seminole I 258,791 214219 116,441 I
St. Lucie I 57,412 [ 58,311 I 14,786 I 1 55,688
Volusia | | 2,424 | 2,436 1 2,893 1 14,556
TOTAL | 6,657,201 6,050,619 1 8,493,244 1 8,803,685 I 13,273,593
These figures include fruit packed by canners for government orders
(FSCC) but not fruit purchased by the Surplus Marketing Adminis-
tration for canning. The latter item in 1940-41 amounted to 601,991
boxes, bringing up the year's total to 13,875,584 boxes of grapefruit


Among the grapefruit producers, Polk County has led
from the time the industry was established, with Hills-
borough second. Pasco County, which supplied no fruit in
1936-37 occupied third place in 1940-41. Figures for the
three leaders for the latter season were: Polk, 8,407,207
boxes, Hillsborough, 1,840,733, and Pasco, 1,083,822.


Production of Oranges By Counties
For Canning


St Lucie

1936-37 1937-38

2,280 I 5,534
1,834 I 7,042
1 2
10,247 I 33,675
194,416 476,418
5,614 | 31,586
I I 655
40,551 | 44,763
I 101,081 I 189,601
S 36,033 1 133,711
I 9,346
215,530 1 301,937
I 3,419 1 15,101
S 1,857
611,014 1,253,386


2,674 I
11 I
1,327,339 I
67,720 i
1,872 I
531,772 i
1,686,963 I

2,719 I
4,200,358 I

These figures include fruit packed by canners for government orders
(FSCC) but not fruit purchased by the Surplus Marketing Adminis-
tration for canning. Included for 1940-41 vere 112,008 boxes used m
manufacturing orange concentrate for England.

Sixteen counties supply the canners with oranges and the
same counties led with oranges as follows: Polk, 1,914,826;
Hillsborough, 728,373: and Pasco, 662,532. For figures by
counties for both grapefruit and oranges see Tables Nos. 7
and 8.


Beginning with an initial export of 237,000 cases of grape-
fruit products in 1932, foreign business had climbed to
1,199,000 cases by 1938, the bulk of it from Florida, before
the European war first sharply curtailed, and then for a time
eliminated, exports of both fresh and canned American
fruits. (See Table No. 9.) From April 30, 1940 to March,
1941, inclusive, exports as reported through the Florida

United States Canned Grapefruit Exports
By 1,000 cases

Destination 1931A32 1932-33 1933-34 1934-35 1935-36 1936-37 193738
United I I I
Kingdom 226.1 676.5 828.1 1,134 2 823.1 1,097.0 1,167.6
France .2 .61 -0 .01 .2 1. .3
Netherlands .2 1.2 I 1.7 .8 2.2 1.7 2.7
Belgium 1.1 [ .0 .3 .1 .5 .3 .2
O their II I I I
European 1
Countries[ .9 2.8 2.7 I 3.7 2.7 4.5 I 5.7
Canada 5.9- 7.1 6.1 1 10.2 I 7.9 11.8 I 9.4
British India! 1.2 I 2.1 I 3.21 4.81 3.6 5.7 3.5
All Other [ i [
Countries 1.7 1 2.6 I 3.6 5.5 6.0 7.8 9.6
Tot.foryearl 237.3 692.9 1 845.7 1,159.3 1 846.2 1,130.0 11,199.0
Courtesy of National Canners Association
(converted from pounds to eases of 30 Ibs. net fruit)

Customs were: canned grapefruit, 4,484,325 pounds; canned
grapefruit juice, 5,726 gallons; and canned orange juice,
125 gallons. England took all but a small amount of these
products. The Union of South Africa received 11,700 pounds
of grapefruit; Ireland, 5,850; and the British West Indies,
4,990 of the grapefruit juice; 1,775 gallons went to Cuba;
3,850 to England; and 93 to the British West Indies.
England was America's biggest consumer in a European
market dominated by Palestine, Spain, and South Africa,
and Canada second. Canada went into first place after a


scarcity of ships interfered with shipments to England,
and in 1940-41 took 31/ million boxes of American citrus
fruit in addition to large quantities of canned citrus products.
This same scarcity of cargo space, however, resulted in
stimulating a demand and subsequent contracts for concen-
trates and marmalade base. Orders under Lend-Lease fi-
nancing were placed for 1 million gallons of orange juice con-
centrate alone for 1942 delivery. Two-thirds of this order
was awarded to Florida canners. In addition, orders from
the same source were placed for 56 million pounds of mar-
malade base. The latter consisted of 60 per cent grapefruit,
40 per cent oranges, all Florida fruit, and 82 per cent pro-
cessed in Florida. The concentrate order amounted to ap-
proximately $4,000,000, the marmalade base to $2,800,000.

Preliminary to placing these orders, government ques-
tionnaires were sent to Florida citrus canners in the fall of
1941, requesting information as to facilities and capacities
for processing citrus pulp for marmalade substitute in bar-
rels for English consumption, and initial orders were placed
in December 1941. Already the Surplus Marketing Associa-
tion had purchased 218,400 pounds of orange marmalade
pulp in the summer. Florida canners, however, were not
equipped to handle the concentrate orders, and through gov-
ernment financing two special plants were built, one at
Dunedin, the other at Lake Wales. The Farm Credit Ad-
ministration provided funds to the extent of $1,500,000 for
the Dunedin plant and construction work started in Decem-
ber 1941, and to the amount of $500,000 for the Lake Wales
plant and construction began in February 1942. Initial
demands on each plant was for 300,000 gallons of orange
juice concentrate. From the beginning of this program the
Federal Government gave active aid to the canners in adapt-
ing themselves to a war economy. The U. S. Department of
Commerce sent a special representative, F. H. Rawls, to
Jacksonville, October 2-3, 1941, to address Florida canning
interests and explain the Department's new industrial re-
porting program prepared for the canners, as had been done
for other industries. Since the national food program called


for increased production of canned foods, the Government
offered canners information on all problems, current and
prospective, such as priorities, taxation, interstate ship-
ments, price control, and exports; as well as on trends in
production, sales, delivery, consumption of products, storage,
labor, new processes, market conditions, carryovers, effected
or planned expansions, shifts from civilian to defense pro-
duction, and other current data. This practical program of
help to the Florida canners has been handled through the
Jacksonville office of the Department of Commerce.
More substantial aid was forthcoming when in December
1941, the Federal Surplus Commodities Corporation began to
pay Florida growers $24 a ton for oranges, $20 a ton for
grapefruit for segment canning and $18 a ton for grapefruit
for pulp processing, all prices at cannery door, which were
the equivalent of $1.08 per box for oranges, 761/2 and 85
cents per box for the two classes of grapefruit. This gov-
ernmental buying has been a continuing program.


National distribution of canned citrus has been stimulated
by widespread advertising. The Florida Citrus Commission,
an official organization created by the State Legislature in
1935, expended $5,000,000 in the first five years of its exist-
ence advertising both fresh and canned citrus. Three hun-
dred thousand dollars of this was spent in England. The
program has included, particularly during the off season,
liberal appropriations to feature canned citrus juices, seg-
ments and salad, in leading national and trade magazines,
and for broad radio coverage, mainly concentrated east of
the Mississippi River.
The 1941 campaign used nine leading magazines, such as
the Saturday Evening Post, Collier, Life, Look, and Liberty,
with a combined reader circulation of 29,567,869, or an esti-
mated barage of 292 million separate advertising impres-
sions. In Canada, two magazines, representing a total cir-


culation of over half a million, were used. Domestic trade
publications included 17 retail grocery, 5 wholesale grocery,
and 4 soda fountain magazines. Magazine advertisements
ranged up to full page 4-color features, in addition to
which 5-color display cards with a shelf for a can were in-
stalled in stores and soda fountains nationally.

Forty-one radio stations scattered among the four na-
tional chains were employed with an estimated audience of
28 million families. Of the 41 outlets, 18 were powerful
50,000 watt stations, and 21 of 5,000 watts. Programs con-
sisted of participation, spot, chainbreak and transcription.
Even three stations on the Pacific Coast regularly told of
the virtues of Florida canned citrus, and the products re-
ceived a popular reception in California where fresh Florida
fruit is barred.
In addition to these mediums, the commission engaged a
sales force of 13 men, operating from coast to coast, to pro-
mote the use of canned citrus in the summer and fall. These
efforts consisted of local publicity campaigns, stunts, store
promotions, and spot news. The commission maintained one
man for this purpose in Canada.

This field organization reported that in the summer of
1941 the demand for canned citrus fruit was so strong that
wholesalers and brokers had no need for warehouse space:
retailers took up shipments as rapidly as received. In all,
the field men secured the co-operation of 9,565 stores in all
parts of the country for a special canned citrus drive in Sep-
tember 1941.
Florida citrus advertising is financed by special legislation
through a per box assessment on all fruit shipped from the
State, except that purchased for government relief or charity
purposes. The rates per standard pack boxes are: oranges,
1 cent; grapefruit, 3 cents; tangerines, 4 cents; limes,
4 cents.
A lesser known but important function of the Florida Cit-
rus Commission has been its laboratory research work,


which constantly seeks new and valuable uses for Florida
citrus. For this purpose the commission also makes grants
to outstanding national scientific bodies for additional
studies, to supplement its own findings. Thus it has the
counsel of an advisory board of internationally-recognized
authorities in medical and dental research, nutrition, and
biochemistry and can authoritatively announce: "Canned
citrus products, as compared with the fresh fruits, are
equally wholesome and delicious; modern canning methods
preserve their natural qualities to a remarkable degree. The
vitamin content of canned citrus products is nearly, if not
quite, equal to that of the corresponding fresh fruit, as has
been shown by a number of studies including those of the
American Medical Association's Council on Foods." Five
per cent of the total advertising tax funds can be legally ap-
portioned for laboratory research and as much as $25,000
has been so expended in a single season.

The commission has widely publicized the fact that
Florida canned orange juice supplies a maximum of 100
milligrams of vitamin C for 4.1 cents, and canned (unsweet-
ened) grapefruit juice for as little as 3.2 cents. This is only
half the cost of a synthetic tablet of similar strength and
less than half the cost of the same maximum in ten or more
popular noncitrus fruit and vegetable juices. In addition
the purchaser of canned citrus receives vitamins A and Bi;
the vital minerals, calcium and phosphorus; and fruit sugars
and citric acid for energy.

The therapy of Florida citrus fruits has also been widely
disseminated among members of the medical profession,
calling especial attention to their nutritive values, namely,
that orange juice has 75 per cent the food value of milk and
two and a quarter times that of tomato juice; that a normal
orange contains a large percentage of carbohydrates in the
form of invert sugar, similar in composition to honey and
so ready for immediate absorption, and that the fuel value
of a pound of orange is equal to 233 calories, and grapefruit
to about two-thirds that amount.




Of the 50 Florida citrus canners operating in 1940-41, 30
were confined to canning activities while the rest combined
canning with fresh fruit packing and among these were co-
operatives, growers, grower-shippers, and distributors. The
co-operatives canned 2,822,269 boxes of grapefruit and 934,-
290 boxes of oranges during the season which totaled nearly
1/5 of the State pack; the grower-shippers canned 1,864,000
boxes of grapefruit and 482,218 of oranges, a total exceed-
ing 1/7 of the State pack. These two groups canned mostly
their own fruit as a means of profitable marketing as well
as method of surplus control.
The largest citrus pack reported for 1940-41, by a pioneer
company (2 plants), aggregated 2,080,000 cases. Among
co-operatives the largest single plant pack was 1,913,472
cases. Another co-operative, consisting of 12 grower organi-
zations representing more than 2,000 growers, has canned
more than 1 million cases annually for several seasons, with
the aggregate reaching 11/2 million in 1940-41.


The Florida Canners Association, originally called the
Florida Grapefruit Canners Association, was formed in
December 1931, with 10 members. It has, from its incep-
tion, maintained headquarters and a staff in Tampa, and
ten years after its organization was still under the direction
of its pioneer executive secretary, C. C. Rathbun, Tampa.
Original officers, besides Rathbun, were: C. E. Street, presi-
dent, Ralph Polk, Jr., vice president, H. W. Nelson, treasurer.
By 1941 the association had expanded to 32 full members,
and 32 associate members. Officers then were: Lee A.
Wheeler, president, Lake Wales; H. W. Nelson, first vice
president, Tampa; W. W. Giddings, second vice president,
Winter Haven; Ralph Polk, Jr., treasurer, Tampa; and C. C.
Rathbun, executive secretary, Tampa. A former president,


Carroll Lindsay, of Highlands City, was elected in 1942 as
president of the National Canners Association with head-
quarters in Washington, D. C., succeeding Robert Paulus,
of Oregon.

The 1941 annual meeting was participated in by state and
national notables in the industry as well as by important
publh officials who collaborated in evolving ways to readjust
the industry to meet existing war conditions. Among these
were: Governor Spessard L. Holland of Florida; Robert
Paulus, president of the National Association; Nathan
Mayo, Florida Commissioner of Agriculture; Mayor R. E. L.
Chancey, of Tampa; George I. Fullerton, president of Florida
Citrus Growers, Inc.; Thomas B. Swann, chairman of the
Florida Citrus Commission; Dr. A. F. Camp, horticulturist
of Winter Haven; and John L. Peters, marketing specialist,
Surplus Marketing Administration.

New methods and improved machinery have been intro-
duced since Florida entered the canning field, and processes,
some of them trade secrets, have been developed. These
have helped decrease losses and eliminate health hazards
with special emphasis on the proper handling of fruit, clean-
liness of employees and plant sanitation.

In canning segments, the fruit is lifted by conveyors and
deposited on a culling belt. Here it is sorted by hand, culls
and spoiled fruit being discarded, after which it moves on
to the sizers for automatic sorting and depositing in separate
bins. The sized fruit passes through a tank of hot water to
soften the peel so as to facilitate its removal by hand, after
which it is run through an alkaline spray to eliminate any
adhering white tissue. It is then repeatedly washed in fresh
water and conveyed to workers known as sectionizers, who
break the fruit into sections and remove the thin skin cover-
ing the sections with a sharp knife. When sweetened fruit
is to be canned, automatic cookers prepare a syrup, which



is conveyed by pipes to "syruping" machines, which deposit
a small quantity of syrup in the open cans as they pass be-
neath on their way to the sectionizers who pack them with
whole segments of fruit.
The filled cans move on to the cooking tank on another
belt to be cooked for 25 or 30 minutes at 180' F., to 186" F.,
after which a closing machine presses down the fruit, places
a lid on the can, and seals it airtight. An automatic tabu-
lator registers the number of cans sealed.
To thoroughly mix the syrup with the fruit, guiding wires
flip the cans upside down as they travel along a belt of re-
volving rollers enroute to a cold spray. After cooking, the
cans go to the labeling department, where, rolling down a
runway, they contact a small rubber revolving belt and re-
ceive a light coat of glue. Then they pass over a stack of
labels, the top one of which adheres to and is firmly rolled
around each can, after which they are packed in cartons
bearing the company's name and brand. The glued edges of
the carton lids are closed and pressed together by machines
and the product is ready for shipping.
Before canning citrus juice the fruit is washed in vats
equipped with automatic churners and brushes. Conveyors
carry the clean fruit past rotating disc cutters, where it is
halved; and thence to the reaming section where the juice
is removed by hand. The employee grasps two halves of
fruit, one in each hand, and presses them against the re-
volving reamer and the juice flows through a trough and is
collected in a large vat. From the collecting vat it runs to
the cooking vat to be sweetened, if a sweetened product is
desired, thence to the filling machine, beneath which a belt
carries empty cans. The filled cans pass on to the closing
machines and eventually to properly sealed and labeled
Automatic reamers have been devised for use in juice can-
ning and these have been found faster than handwork, but
less efficient, because of the variations in maturity of the
fruit and the thickness of peel. In some cases the reamers


fail to completely remove the fruit flesh, and in others they
remove part of the bitter rind which affects the flavor of
the juice.

The Legislature of Florida has enacted several laws gov-
erning the production of citrus fruit, and State supervision
extends from grove to final shipment. These laws cover
such items as arsenic spraying, coloring, maturity of fruit,
processing, packing and marketing, charges and commis-
sions, standard boxes, registration of brands, transporta-
tion, grower-cost guarantee, grading, freeze-damage, re-
search, imports, advertising, tests, and inspections. The
Florida Citrus Commission, with the aid of the Citrus In-
spection Bureau, is charged with enforcement of these
statutes, three of which were enacted in 1939, and one in
"Because canned citrus fruit and canned citrus juice pro-
duced and canned in the State of Florida is of better grade
and quality than that grown and produced in any other state
and country," one of these acts recites, "it is wise, necessary
and expedient to protect and enhance the quality and repu-
tation of all Florida canned citrus fruit in domestic and
foreign markets."
A law effective June 1939, prohibits the canning of any
unwholesome citrus fruit, and inspectors are authorized to
destroy all such fruit found at a cannery either as fresh
fruit, juices in process, or already canned. Canneries must
make weekly reports to the Florida Citrus Commission as to
the quantity of all fruit canned and pay a fee of 1/10 of a
cent per field box of such fruit to finance inspections. This
fee yielded a fund of $20,974.56 during the year ending June
30, 1941, but was insufficient to fully cover inspection costs
by the Citrus Inspection Bureau. A total of 13,600 boxes of
fruit were destroyed under this Act from September 1, 1940
to June 30, 1941, as follows: grapefruit, 7,763 boxes; or-
anges, 5,837; tangerines, none.


Another law effective in June 1939, regulates standards
of quality of pack as to wholesomeness, maturity, prepara-
tion, uniformity and color of segments, syrup, net weight
and capacity, fiber and flavor. Products thus "packed to
standard" and passed by inspection may be stamped by all
canners Fioridabest as one word, on cans and cases.

The law further prescribes that containers (tin or glass)
be sound, clean, and free from rust or dents, and that these
be packed in clean, neat, unbroken packages, with labels
neatly and securely fixed.
To prevent Florida labels being used on citrus products
from other states, a law prohibiting the importation of fruit
for such purposes became effective in June 1939. This law
specifically guards Florida's citrus growers against any in-
jury that might result from canning imported fruit.

An Act that became effective August 1, 1941, which pro-
hibits the canning of immature fruit, declares that "the can-
ning of any immature citrus fruit injures the reputation of
all Florida canned citrus fruit and tends to destroy the in-
dustry of this State." The requirement of maturity inspec-
tion certificates under this law removed the temptation to
rush immature fruit to market and cannery. From Septem-
ber 1, 1940 through June 30, 1941, 42,489 boxes of immature
citrus fruit were destroyed: 27,186 boxes of grapefruit,
13,767 of oranges, 1,536 of tangerines.
In addition to inspection fees, the State requires bonds
from citrus canners on application for a license, at the rate
of $10 for each 1,000 boxes of fruit to be handled; no bond
to be for less than $1,000 or more than $10,000. This require-
ment acts as a cushion against complaints and damage suits,
as any license may be revoked by the commission for flagrant
or continued violations of any of the citrus laws.
These acts, briefly described, have the intent of safeguard-
ing the canning industry, the public, and the reputation of
Florida and were framed in collaboration with various citrus
interests and the Advisory Committee of the Grapefruit


Canners created under Chapter 17780, Laws of Florida, Acts
of 1937.

Besides protective state laws, the Agricultural Marketing
Service (AMS) of the U. S. Department of Agriculture main-
tains a service designed to benefit both the canner and the
consumer. This provides for continuous inspection by a
government inspector at canneries during every day of
operation to make sure the rigid specifications of this service
are met. Six Florida canneries were availing themselves of
this inspection by the end of 1941.

There are four grades, A. B. C., and Below Grade C or D,
as established by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, with
fruit all graded under them recognized as nutritious and
acceptable for human consumption. These grades are sy-
nonymous with the more descriptive terms, Fancy, Extra
Standard, Standard, and Substandard, and all cans are re-
quired to be so identified, either by these names or letters.
As applied to fruit these grades differ as follows:
Grade A is a product of fine quality, carefully selected for
size, color, degree of maturity and freedom from blemishes;
meaty, highly colored and ripe.
Grade B is a product of excellent quality, but not quite so
carefully selected for color, size, maturity, etc., but well-
developed and well-colored.
Grade C is a product of good quality but less uniform in
color, size, and maturity.
Below Grade C or D is a product that fails to meet the
requirements of the other grades but is wholesome, nutri-
tious and acceptable in flavor and otherwise meets Federal
U. S. Broken is a grade provided especially for grapefruit
segments below 60 per cent whole; and Below U. S. Stand-
ard-Slack Fill for a grade with excess liquid.


Canners complying with these specifications are privileged
to include a shield on their labels bearing the legend, Packed
Under the Continuous Inspection of the Agricultural Mar-
keting Service of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. These
provisions have encouraged confidence among consumers,
regardless of the multiplicity of brands, and have benefited
the canning industry through standardization of quality.
The Department stresses the fact that all specified grades
can be accepted as wholesome, nutritious foods, the variation
being largely visual and denoting the degree of palatability.
Continuous inspection service began in the United States
with one plant in 1939. Five more qualified in 1940 and by
the last of 1941 the number had risen to 24 canneries of
fruits and vegetables in more than a dozen states, represent-
ing 33 of the 40 products for which these grades have been
established. More plants applying were temporarily denied
owing to the need of department inspectors in war work.
Cost of the service is borne by fees paid by the canners, and
said to be only from 4- to 10-1/1000 of a cent per can. In-
spectors on duty every day of operation concern themselves
not only with the quality of the product, but with the sani-
tation of the plant, provisions for personal cleanliness of
employees, and even their home standards. In addition to
the six canneries in Florida using the Agricultural Market-
ing Service labels in 1941, others signified an intention to
avail themselves of the service when conditions made it

Because of the canning industry and its constructive
ramifications, as summed up in the February 1942 issue of
the Florida Grower, "almost overnight citrus fruits have
changed from Florida's number one economic problem to one
of America's greatest assets."


(Code Numbers Indicate Products Canned)

DeSoto Canning Co.
(2) (3) (4) (5)
Adams Packing Company
McDonald Corporation
Apte Brothers
(1) (3) (4)
Hills Brothers Co.
(2) (3) (4) (5)
Domino Canning Association
(2) (3) (5)
Florida Grapefruit Canning
(2) (3) (4) (5)
F & M Packing Co.
West Coast Fruit Co.
(2) (3) (4) (5)
Dade City:
Pasco Packing Association
(2) (3) (4) (5)
Holly Hill Fiuit Products,
(2) (3) (4) (5)
DeLand Canning Co.
(1) (3)
Norris & Alexander, Inc.
(1) (3) (4)
Floridagold Citius
(2) (5)
(Office Lake Alfred)

Citrus Concentrates, Inc.
(1) (3)

Eagle Lake:
Floridagold Citrus
(2) (5)
(Office-Lake Alfred)

Wegner Canning Corporation
(1) (3) (4)

Fort Meade:
Mitchell Canneries, Inc.

Fort Myers:
Lee County Packing Co.
(1) (3) (4)
Marianna Grove Packers
(1) (3) (4)

Fort Pierce:
J. W. Holloway, Jr.
(1) (3) (4)

Florida Fruit Canners, Inc.
(2) (3) (4) (5)
Ridge Growers Cooperative
(2) (3) (4) (5)

Haines City:
The Polk Company

Highland City:
Lakeland Highlands Canning
(2) (3) (4) (5)

Lake Alfred:
Floridagold Citrus
(2) (3) (4) (5)
The Sun-Dine Co.
(1) (3)


(Code Numbers Indicate Products Canned)

E. E Edenfield Co
Peoples Packing Co.
H. A. Shaver, Inc.
(2) (3) (4) (5)

Lake Wales:
Florida Citrus Canners Coop.
(2) (3) (4) (5)

L. E. Hollowav & Co.
(1) (3) (4)

Apte Brothers (Office)
Miami Fruit Industries, Inc.
(1) (3)

Mt. Dora:
Floriorange Canneries, Inc.
(1) (3) (4)

Heart of Florida, Inc.
(2) (3) (4) (5)
Dr P. Phillips Canning Co
(2) (3) (4) (5)
Southern Fruit Dist., Inc.
(2) (3) (4)

Gregg Maxey, Inc.
(1) (3) (4)

Apte Brothers
(2) (3) (4) (5)
Bruce's Juices, Inc.
(1) (3) (4)
Florida Division, California
Packing Corporation
The Polk Company
(1) (3) (4)
Stokely Brothers & Co., Inc.
(2) (3) (4)

Peace River Canning Co.
(1) (3) (4)

Winter Haven:
Bordo Products Co
(2) (3) (4) (5)
International Fruit Corp.
Polk Packing Association
(1) (3) (4)
Roberts Brothers, Inc.
(2) (3) (4) (5)
Sunshine Foods, Inc.

(1) Grapefruit Juice
(2) Grapefruit Juice and
(3) Orange Juice
(4) Blended Juice
(5) Citrus Salad

Official list and code by Florida Citrus Commission.
This official list of canneries does not include many preserving
plants which can some citrus fruit and juices m connection with their
main line of manufacture of citrus jellies, marmalades, and preserves.



The following directions for canning were furnished by
the American Can Company:
Florida orchards have for years supplied canners with a
variety of delectable sweets, which have been preserved
largely in homes or small plants operated by individuals or
families and sold to the tourist trade often as an enticing
addition to a gift box of fruit to be shipped from the State.
This branch of the industry, however, no longer depends on
this limited outlet. Some gift shops now operate canning
units of their own, a number of established canners have
added jellies, jams and marmalades to their pack, and several
pioneer home plants have grown into sizeable factories with
substantial payrolls. Altogether 20 to 30 varieties of sweets
from these various sources are now obtainable on the retail
shelves of the Nation.
Such fruits as guavas, mangos, plums and kumquats are
preserved whole or in sections, with lemons and limes fre-
quently added to vary or improve the flavor of spreads, but-
ter, syrups, conserves, and relishes. Novelties include
catsups made from guavas, grapes, and youngberries, mango
chutneys, and fancy spiced and pickled fruits.
Of 35 Florida fruits canned and marketed over the Nation,
16 belong to the citrus family as follows: orange, grapefruit,
pomelo, shaddock, lime, kumquat, orangequat, limequat, tan-
gerine, lemon, tangelo, Satsuma, Temple, calamondin, cit-
range and citrangedin.
Other fruits include: guavas, Surinam cherries, papayas,
figs, peaches, plums, pineapples, pears, loquats, mangos,
grapes, pomegranates, bananas, roselles, sapodillas, young-
berries, blackberries, blueberries, and persimmons.
The 16 citrus fruits lead the pack, with guavas second.
Banana, pineapple and papaya nectars have increased in
popularity. Seven other products of the papaya are canned,


(See Plate on Page 60)
NOT-To identify illustrations by list given below begin with No 1 at left end
of top shelf and read to right, then left end of second shelf from top, atc

Orange Marmalade

Orange Mormalade

Guava Jelly

Guava Jelly

Calomondin Lade

Kumquat Preserves

Persian Lime Marmalade

Cherry-Orange Pineapple

Cocktail Sauce

Kumquat Preserves

Gropefruit Preserves

Pineapple-Cherry Preserves

Papaya Jelly

Grapefruit Marmalade

Guava Jelly

Guava Jelly

Orange Mormalade

Roselle Jelly

Grapefruit Marmalade

Health Dressing

Datil Peppers

Scuppernong Grape Jelly

Pineapple Marmalade

Grapefruit Marmalade

Guova Jelly

Spiced Watermelon Rind

Guava Jelly

Guova Jelly

Grapefruit Marmalade

Mint Jelly

Kumquat Preserves

Guova Jelly

Orange Marmalade

Guava Jelly

Concentrated Orange Juice

Blackberry Preserves

Horse Radish

Peanut Butter

Guava Jelly


Guava Jelly

Preserved Guavas

Sour Orange Preserves

Kumquats Spiced

Preserved Tangerines

Orange Morralade

Cane Syrup

Sweet Pickled Grapefruit Peel

Guava Jelly

Health Dressing

Hot Pepper Sauce

p iToo



principally juice, pulp, and syrup, a meat tenderizer and even
several cosmetic items.
Production of plants with less than 85,000 annual output
have been excluded from United State census reports which
in turn eliminates the multitude of small but regular can-
ners in this field. Nevertheless these products in 1939
exceeded a million dollars in value as herewith shown:


Preserves, Jellies, etc.; Salad Dressings, Pickles, Sauces, etc.

I CSalariest of Value
Per Material, Fuel Value of Added
sonnel and Wages Et,. Products Manufacre
256 $199,212 $817,226 S1,261,339 i 8444,113

Pickles, sauces, and similar products accounted for the
largest item in the foregoing figures with S806,161. Next
were jams, jellies, fruit butters, and similar preserves with
The industry receives additional income from byproducts
and sidelines such as fruit candies, crystalized peel of several
kinds, citrus wines, and vinegars. Honey preserved in glass
and tin, not enumerated with other products, totaled 1,717,-
406 pounds in 1939, and contributed an added value of
Orange honey and palm honey are produced in large vol-
ume in Florida and the "flow" of tupelo honey in north
Florida is awaited annually by many out-of-state bee men,
who bring their colonies to the tupelo territory to gather
this wild delicacy. The tupelo variety is especially valued
for medicinal purposes, because it is the only honey that
does not granulate with age. Three northwestern counties,
Frankhn, Calhoun and Gulf, led in honey production in 1939,
with Polk in fourth place in the State, but a leader in orange
honey production.

L --



- -!



This specialized field of canning has ample room for
expansion, both as to markets and materials. Of 600 edible
fruits found in the tropics and subtropics, less than 50 are
in general cultivation in the southernmost areas of the
United States, with only 20 being sold commercially and
even fewer known nationally. The Florida Department of
Agriculture, accordingly has encouraged growers to produce
and popularize more tropical fruits that can be grown and
converted into canned delicacies in the State.
Not many of the limited number of tropical fruits intro-
duced in recent years in near tropical southern Florida have
as yet been produced commercially, but several have shown
good possibilities. Among these strange sounding exotic
fruits, already introduced or in prospect are: antidesna,
carambola, ceriman, governor's plum, mamme apple, pitaya,
rose apple, soursop, sugar apple, tamarind, white sapote,
litchi, eugenia, cherimoya, Java plum, feijo, jujube, Barba-
dos gooseberry, Natal plum, imbe mangosteenn) mayhaw,
ti-es and monstera deliciosa.
Without competition in continental America, and having
novelty appeal, canners hope to turn some of these fruits
into staples the same as has been done with pineapples and
bananas. Imported fruits already approaching this status
include mango, guava, and papaya, the latter two being
canned in large volume, while Florida manufacturers already
use some of the more obscure tropical novelties to blend
with more common fruits.


Florida's farms and fields contribute hundreds of train
loads of vegetables annually to the winter market basket of
the Nation and also an ample supply for commercial can-
ning. Tomatoes and beans are the leaders, but Florida also
cans okra, cucumbers, greens, cowpeas, sugar corn, English
peas, potatoes, beets, and succotash, with catsup and vege-
table sauces a regular though limited part of the annual
pack. Firm prices of fresh winter vegetables, however, have
to an extent curtailed vegetable canning in Florida, but in
recent years the volume has moderately increased. For the
1940-41 season, Florida's total vegetable crop was estimated
at 58,650 carloads and valued at $43,077,816. Of this 1,200
carloads were canned.
The yield from an estimated 1/4 of all vegetable growing
acreages in the country is said to go to the canners, but only
one productive acre out of 500, or a total of 2,320 acres of
the 1,109,910 national total has been thus utilized in Florida.
Military demands, increased consumer spending, and Lend-
Lease exports, however, have tended to stimulate more vege-
table canning within the State. One army contract awarded
to an Okeechobee canner in September 1941 amounted to
At the same time construction of a $100,000 vegetable
canning plant at Belle Glade by the Thomas Roberts Com-
pany, of Philadelphia, was announced to preserve surpluses
of tomatoes and beans, and to can new plantings of spinach,
beets, and carrots.
The payroll of Florida vegetable canning plants, as sup-
plied by the Florida Industrial Commission, which covers
only plants employing eight or more workers in 20 calendar
weeks during the year, amounted to $33,643.62 in 1939, and
$48,296.15 in 1940.
The number of workers showed a monthly average of 85
in 1939, and 148 in 1940, employed as follows:


[1 Ta


Number of Number of
Workers Workers
1939 1940

January .... ........ 63 ........ 68
February .......... 67 ........ 31
M arch .............. 71 ........ 52
April ................. 58 ........ 373
M ay .................. 69 ........ 456
June ........... ..... 77 ........ 366
July .................. 54 ........ 101
August ................ 25 ........ 51
September ............ 24 ........ 32
October ............... 92 ........ 108
November ............ 106 ........ 97
December ............. 92 ........ 41

Tomatoes, tomato juice, and tomato pulp combined, fur-
nish the largest vegetable pack in the State. This native
American favorite is a leader, because of its flavor, and
vitamin value, and its consumption has steadily increased
throughout the country. The national pack of tomato prod-
ucts for 1939 reached the amazing figure of 35,460,905 cases,
valued at $52,063,107. The modest Florida pack for 1940-41
used 675 carloads of the fresh vegetable.
Tomatoes have been grown profitably for canning in
Florida, because labor costs and extra attention have been
somewhat offset by a greater yield and repeat crops per
season. Gross income per acre has in fact averaged more
for tomatoes than the average income from all other truck
crops. The symbol of agricultural prosperity, "parity price
100," was passed by tomato producers in 1924, and has since
been maintained, while other farm products have remained
below parity since 1920. Still better profits were assured
when military needs caused an uptrend in prices before the
United States entered the war, with an advance of 171/ cents
a case on No. 2 cans, between September 1940 and September


1941. National purchases by the Surplus Marketing Ad-
ministration between March 15 and August 30, 1940, in-
cluded tomatoes, spots, 1,552,661 cases; future, 2,679,040
cases; tomato paste, 69,600 cases; and tomato puree, 43,000
The National Canners Association has figured the divi-
sion of the tomato canner's dollar, as of the base year 1926
as follows: raw tomatoes 27.3 per cent; labor 13.4 per cent;
manufacturing cost 14.4 per cent; cans, cases, and labels
37.6 per cent; leaving 7.3 per cent for selling expense and
profit. Some of the larger canners grow their own tomatoes
and thus reduce the cost of the raw product
The U S. Census of Manufactures for 1939 gave the fol-
lowing figures on Florida's tomato products: tomatoes
438,905 cases; tomato juice, 6,227 cases; combined value
$526,535 Production of pulp and catsup was not reported
separately. While Florida pack as compared to that of
Maryland, with over 6 million cases for the same year, may
appear insignificant, Florida grew and shipped approxi-
mately 10,000 carloads of fresh tomatoes.

String beans (green-pod) are second in the State's vege-
table canning pack. This pack has reached as much as
70,023 cases with a total value of $97,995. Some lima beans
are canned also, but not enough to merit inclusion in Gov-
ernment reports. Most of the bean crops in the State have
been too much in demand in fresh vegetable markets to fur-
nish material for canning, or to even constitute a problem
to be solved by the canners.
An estimate by the Florida State Marketing Bureau
placed the 1940-41 amount of green beans (some limas)
used in canning at 325 carloads out of a total fresh bean
crop of 9,809 carloads, value $8,439,115. Land used for
bean growing production totaled 63,500 acres, an increase
of 3,560 acres over the previous 5-year average. The aver-
age yield per acre was 91 bushels.


Aside from the two leaders, tomatoes and beans, totals
have been so small on other vegetables that statistical fig-
ures on the volume of the State pack are not available. Okra,
turnip greens, and beets are canned in fair quantities and
small amounts of peas, potatoes, and cowpeas. Cucumbers
go into several kinds of pickles and relishes. Most of these
scattered items are canned commercially only in connection
with other canning operations to use up local surplus or
meet a definite demand. The Florida State Marketing Bu-
reau estimates that 200 carloads of miscellaneous vegetables
were canned in the State in the 1940-41 season.
Although not a canning operation, it is of interest to note
that a 3-million-dollar factory was financed in 1941 to make
starch from sweet potatoes at Clewiston. This product is to
supplement tapioca starch, needed for glue and mucilage
and used in huge amounts by the Government. Ten thous-
and acres and 1,200 workers would be required for the
plant's estimated annual output of 40 million pounds of
starch. A nonedible sweet potato weighing 12 to 15 pounds
that thrives in the rich Everglades soil was found to be the
best for this purpose. The importance of the product in
war and industrial needs was shown by the ready grant of
priority certificates for equipment, while the choice of Flor-
ida as a location illustrated the diversified resources of the
State available in times of national emergency.


Florida has the longest coast line of any state in the
Union, and with adjacent water teeming with sea life has
developed a big fishing industry and national markets for
fresh, dried, smoked, and canned seafoods. In 1939 the
fresh catch reached 181,875,000 pounds of fish valued at
S3,372,447, and 15,901,100 pounds of shellfish valued at
$564,795, with 6,672 boats, and 9,349 fishermen engaged in
the business.
After an initial, unsuccessful experiment at canning
oysters in 1856 at Fernandina, followed by a second and
successful one in 1888 at Apalachicola, growth of seafood
canning spread to shrimp, clams, and other marine edibles.
The industry has been limited, however, and in 1940-41 only
nine licensed canners of seafoods operated in the State.
These packed oysters, shrimp, clams, turtle soup, crabmeat,
and coquina broth Shrimp led and oysters followed with
Government statistics available on only these two leaders.
Reflecting the scope as well as the recent down trend of the
industry, the U. S. Bureau of the Census has furnished the
following figures:

1929, 1937 and 1939

1929 1 7 $188 1 $79,760 $305,102 J 546,975 $227,632
3, 8 20 I |
1937 8 290 94,810 274,494 514,275 239,781
1939 4 162 54,642 141,599 264,270 122,671

Figures on seafood canning for 1939, issued by the Florida
Industrial Commission, show an average of 195 employees
and a payroll of $52,514.29; and for 1940 an average of 172


employees and a payroll of $43,386.48. Government reports
as in other branches of canning excluded plants producing
less than $5,000 annual value of output while State figures
exclude plants employing less than eight workers on an
average of 20 weeks of the year, thus accounting for differ-
ences in the two sets of figures for 1939.
The U. S. Census of Manufactures, 1937, (latest available)
gave the following Florida pack of shrimp and oysters as:
Shrimp, 47,439 cases (48-5-oz. cans), value 8302,784.
Oysters, 14,536 cases (48-5-oz. cans), value S60,890. With
a combined value of $363,674 these two accounted for a
large portion of the 8514,275 total of the 1937 pack.
One of the greatest handicaps to Florida seafood can-
ning has been cheap imports from Japan. America import-
ed 83,269,000 worth of canned crabmeat alone from Japan
in 1940 while exports of all kinds of seafoods to all coun-
tries for the year ending June 30, 1941, amounted to only
2,411,000 cases. To correct this, a prohibitive import duty
was placed on this item in August 1941 before the war im-
posed a complete embargo. The domestic shrimp pack be-
tween July 31 and August 30, 1941, was 106,000 cases-16
per cent less than the previous period. (Cases of
48-5%/-oz. cans wet pack). Surplus Marketing Adminis-
tration purchases of canned fish from March 15 to August
30, 1941, were reported as 1,413,514 cases of spots, and
1,687,700 of futures.


A novelty for many years in the State's canning industry
is a plant at Rattlesnake, Florida, where rattlesnake meat
is canned. From a small experiment in 1930 with an in-
vestment of S130, this business has grown into a substan-
tial and profitable one with 1940 sales reaching 15,000 small
cans, retailing at S1.25 per can. To this income was added
that from profitable byproducts: venom for medical labora-
tories, and skins for use in making such articles as shoes,
belts, caps, purses, and jackets. About 2,500 rattlers were
used in the 1940 pack. Another source of income comes
from thousands of tourists annually, who pay admission to
the plant to inspect the novel operation, and from the sale
of souvenirs such as the vertebrae and rattles.
The canned meat is white and tender and is said to taste
something like chicken-breast or quail. It brings fancy
prices as a special dish in a number of hotels in America.
The plant also produces "Snake Snacks," smoked bits for
hors d'oeuvers. Many gourmets prize this meat in both
The process of canning rattlesnake meat is simple. The
reptile is milked of its venom, then decapitated and the body
hung up for 24 hours. It is then skinned and dressed and
partially cooked, cut into small slices and a special sauce
added, packed into cans, sealed and cooked again. It is
marketed as "Genuine Diamond Rattlesnake Meat with
Supreme Sauce." A second cannery operates at Ocala.

.'. .. .. .. r -

MY- 7--- 7Q', QT*k



Since the turn of the present century, the production of
canned fruits and vegetables in the United States has in-
creased more than sevenfold. In 1904, 34,348,120 cases of
canned fruits and vegetables having a value of $57,622,110
were produced. In 1939, the production of canned fruits and
vegetables had increased to 249,190,253 cases, having a
value of $477,654,423. The peak for the period was appar-
ently reached in 1937 when the 254,004,319 cases produced
had a value of $539,953,400.
For every case of canned fruit produced, approximately
three cases of canned vegetables are produced on the average.
The production of canned vegetables in the United States
increased from 29,719,879 cases in 1904 to 182,757,979 cases
in 1939. The values of these vegetables were $45,899,131
and $332,265,754 respectively. During this same period the
production of canned fruit increased from 4,628,241 cases in
1904 to 66,432,274 cases in 1939.

The 91 existing cooperative fruit and vegetable canneries,
although scattered over the United States, are concentrated
in a number of areas. The Pacific Coast States are the
principal section for the cooperative canning of fruit.
Twenty-one cooperative canneries are located in this area.
The principal commodities handled by these associations in-
clude apples, apricots, cherries, pears, prunes, various kinds
of berries, citrus fruit, olives, figs, and such vegetables as
asparagus, beans, beets, carrots, corn, tomatoes, and spinach.
In the Ozark region of Arkansas and Missouri there are
nine cooperative tomato canneries. Tomatoes are also canned
cooperatively by four associations in southern Indiana and
six associations in southwestern Virginia.


The area around Lake Michigan is an important area for
the cooperative canning of cherries. In western New
York several cooperatives can apples, cherries, grape juice,
beans, and tomatoes. In Maine, blueberries, corn, and beans
are canned cooperatively. Florida and the Rio Grande Valley
of Texas supply most of the canned citrus fruit.
From available information, it is impossible to determine
accurately the relative importance of cooperative canning in
the United States. There is sufficient information, however.
to arrive at approximations. On this basis, cooperatively
canned fruits and vegetables equal approximately 5 percent
of the total value of canned fruits and vegetables, excluding
soups, in the United States.
The relative importance of cooperative fruit and vegetable
canning varies with the product canned. For instance, ap-
proximately 30 percent of the total United States pack of
ripe olives is canned by cooperatives, more than 50 percent
of the canned cranberries, and about 17 percent of all canned
citrus fruit products.
As in the case of the industry as a whole, there is consid-
erable concentration in the cooperative canning of fruits and


(See Plate on Page 781
NOTE-To identify illustrations by list given below begin with No 1 at left end
of top shelf and read to right, then left end of second shelf from top, etc.

Pear Mince Meat
Orange Marmalade
Grapefruit Preserves
Lemon Marmalade
Sweet Cucumber
Cabbage Pickle
Peach Butter
8 and B. Pickles
Mixed Pickles
Plum Jam
Lemon & Orange Marmalade
Grapefruit Jelly
Orange Jelly
Grapefruit Marmalade
Peach Jom
Pickled Peaches
Sour Cucumber Pickles
Pear Butter
Citron Preserves
Dill Pickles
Apple Butter
Pickled Pears
Egg Plant

Pepper Relish
Kumquat Preserves
Chili Relish
Snap Beans
English Peas
Turnip Roots
Pear Conserve
Field Peas
Turnip Greens
Mixed Pickles
Pork Roast
Beef Steak
Tomato Soup
Sweet Potato
Baked Beans
Irish Potato
Butter Beans
Beef Steak
Pickled Pigs Feet
Beef Heart
Beef Roost
Spore Ribs


(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)

Extension Economist in Food Conservation

Florida farm and urban housewives alike, who are mind-
ful to make their daily meals more varied, more healthful,
more appetizing and to have their canning activities con-
tribute further to the economy of the home, particularly
as a patriotic health measure, will do well to cultivate the
acquaintance of sauerkraut and sauerruben and serve these
foods more frequently. Cabbage and turnips are perhaps
two of our most commonly grown vegetables, both in the
home garden and in the trucking field. With thoughtful
attention these vegetables may be changed into a valuable,
economical, easily prepared and easily stored food.

Sauerkraut is shredded cabbage which has undergone a
lactic fermentation in the brine made from its own juice by
the addition of salt. It is healthful, appetizing and easily
digested. Its mild acid is recognized and recommended by
the medical profession generally as a very desirable intes-
tinal antiseptic. Sauerkraut is a fair source of vitamins A,
B and C and the lactic acid tends to prevent their destruc-
tion in cooking. Because of the chemical changes which take
place in the process of fermentation the flavor is decidedly
different from the raw cabbage from which it is made. In
fact, many people find sauerkraut the more palatable of the
two, for this reason. Sauerkraut is always appetizing, with
good mineral values and many possibilities for the table.


If properly handled, fermented, and then stored in air-
tight containers, sauerkraut of excellent quality can be
produced at home. The essential points are the use of fresh,
sound, mature cabbage, scrupulous cleanliness throughout
the process, and prompt and proper care of the product
after the fermentation is complete. Fairly rapid fermenta-
tion and promptness in canning after fermentation are most
important. Canning is simple and insures a good supply of
kraut throughout the year.

Cutting Appliances.-Food choppers, hand slicing ma-
chines, kraut cutters and knives may be used for cutting or
shredding the cabbage. Regular kraut cutters that shave
the cabbage thinly and rapidly are to be preferred. They
may be purchased with sliding box and cover and with 3 or
4 blades for as little as $2.25. Excellent slaw cutters are
often available for 50 cents.
Containers.-Stoneware open jars or crocks, malted milk
and other large containers are suitable for kraut making.
The one gallon and three gallon sizes are best for home use.
A circular piece of wood should be cut for each jar to act
as a float on which a weight is placed to keep the product
submerged. A plate can be used in place of this wooden disc.
Water-tight kegs or barrels are best for making large
quantities. They may be had in all sizes from 5 to 100 gal-
lons. New hardwood barrels or new paraffin lined spruce
barrels are recommended.
If second-hand barrels are used they must be treated
to remove all undesirable odors and flavors. This may be
done by treating them with a solution of 1 ounce of sal-soda
or 2 ounce of lye per gallon of water. The barrel should be
filled and the solution allowed to remain in the barrel for
several days until it smells "sweet". The barrel should then
be thoroughly "soaked out" with hot or cold water. If spruce
or pine barrels are used they must be coated with paraffin to


prevent the kraut from acquiring an undesirable taste. The
paraffin may be melted and put on with a brush.
Glass top fruit jars are often used for making kraut. These
are packed lightly, yet firmly to within 1 or 1 inch of the
flow. However, the bales are often rusted and it is recom-
mended that other type jars be used for this reason. Mason
type jars and various modifications-jars with zinc screw
caps and porcelain linings-are not desirable because the
zinc or other metallic cap is corroded by the acids in the
If a zinc cap is used it must be heavily lacquered.
Note.-Do not stand glass jars m the sun, as the light may kill the
lactic bacteria.
A pair of kitchen scales and a quart or gallon liquid meas-
ure complete the necessary equipment.

1 pound of salt with 40 pounds of cabbage
2 ounces (3% tablespoons) with 5 pounds cabbage
2 level teaspoons with 1 pound cabbage
1 pound fills 1 pmt glass jar
12-quart crock holds 10 pounds or more

Remove outside green, dirty or bruised leaves. Quarter
the head and slice off the core. Shred the cabbage finely
and put 5 pounds of cabbage and 2 ounces of salt in a large
pan and mix until the juices flow freely. Pack gently in
the crock with a potato masher. Repeat until crock is nearly
full. The shredded cabbage should be exposed to the air
as little as possible, for exposing it at any time reduces the
amount of vitamin C in the fermented product and causes
loss of color, texture and flavor. Cover with a clean cloth,
plate and weight. Fermentation starts usually within a
day after packing, as is evidenced by the formation of gas
bubbles on the surface. Although fermentation is more
rapid at higher temperatures, more spoilage is likely to
occur. The best quality kraut is produced at 70' or lower.
It requires a month usually for the kraut to cure properly


at this temperature. In warm weather, of course, it cures
very quickly. Never add water to cabbage when making
REMOVE the SCUM as it forms and WASH and SCALD
the CLOTH as often as necessary to remove the mold and
scum. The scum may develop very rapidly during warm
weather unless removed daily and would destroy the acidity
and break down the vegetable beneath. When bubbling
stops, fermentation is complete. A good way to determine
this is to tap the receptacle gently. If no bubbles arise,
fermentation is finished.
Packing is often the cause of much unnecessary bruising
and tearing of shreds and results in softening of the kraut.
A wooden tamper is good to use and with it the kraut should
be firmly pressed or pushed down to force out the air but
not pounded until juice is produced. Ordinarily, pounding is
not necessary to draw out the juice for if the salt is added
as directed it will draw out more than enough juice to cover
the cabbage by the time the container is filled. When the
container is filled the juice should come to the surface.
Quick Method for Small Amounts.-Mix 1 pound at a time
(1 pound cabbage with 2 level teaspoons salt) and pack in
pint glass jar. Partially seal. Set in a granite pan as some
of the brine may overflow. When fermentation ceases (6 to
8 days), add enough brine, if the jars are not full, to com-
pletely fill them. Seal and process 15 minutes below boiling
(180' F.). Seal. When the jar is opened reheat the kraut
and it will be ready to serve.
Note.-If a cool, dark and well ventilated storage space is avail-
able and the kraut is only held through the season, processing is not
imperative. The jars of kraut must be filled to overflowing with ad-
ditional brine to exclude air and be kept full


Canning offers the best means of preserving sauerkraut.
The kraut may be packed in sterilized glass jars. Enough
of the kraut juice, or a weak brine made by adding an ounce
(2 tablespoons) salt to a quart of water, should be heated
to simmering in a covered kettle, packed hot, sealed im-
mediately and processed 10 minutes at simmering. Cool as
rapidly as possible.

It is essential that the oxygen (air) which affects the
color and condition of the canned product and acts on the
metal of the can, be driven off as completely as possible be-
fore the can is sealed. This is secured in the exhaust. The
better the exhaust the greater will be the vacuum and the
smaller the quantity of oxygen. Additional heating after
sealing should not be carried to the point of darkening the
product and destroying its crispness. Brining of cabbage
(and turnips) is marked by increased crispness, a greater
degree of translucency and a characteristic acid flavor. It
should be firm in texture but not tough, and never mushy.

Process No. 1.-Use the Purple Top turnips and Shogoin
preferably. Select those in perfect condition, young, tender,
sweet and juicy, and use as soon after being pulled as pos-
sible. Wash well and remove all green part from top. Do
not peel them. Shred finely as for cabbage sauerkraut, or
grind the turnips. Weigh and allow 1/4 pound of salt for 10
pounds turnips, or use 3 scant tablespoons or 22A ounces of
salt to 5 pounds of turnips and mix thoroughly. Pack firm-
ly in a stone jar, wooden, or other container. Fit a wooden
cover or plate inside the container and place a weight on
that. Leave covered at room temperature until fermenta-
tion is over. Follow the same recommendations for canning
turnip sauerkraut as for cabbage sauerkraut.


Process No. 2.-The shredded turnips mixed thoroughly
with the salt may be packed firmly into glass jars, leaving
about an inch of head space in the top. Place covers on top
but leave the bale unfastened in order to allow the gas which
forms during fermentation to escape Jars should be set in a
flat pan to catch the juice which may be forced out. As soon
as fermentation is over, can as directed in quick method.

Salt Content.-The addition of salt to cabbage is essential
to the production of sauerkraut. Salt is necessary to cause
the withdrawal of the juice and to give the proper flavor,
and should be free from contaminating salts and lime which
have a tendency to neutralize the acid formed. There are
any number of grades of purity in salt, from the chemically
pure salt to the cheapest of cattle salts.
So-called dairy salt is most satisfactory for kraut making.
Table salt is too expensive and is undesirable because it has
had something added to prevent caking. Caked or lumpy
salt should not be used for sauerkraut as it cannot be equally
distributed. It is most essential that both the salt and the
cabbage be accurately weighed and then combined in the
proportions recommended.

Acidity.-The most important factor in the quality of
sauerkraut is the acid it contains. Sauerkraut should be
sour with a pleasant, typical aroma when fully cured. Acid
is formed primarily from the sugar, contained in the cab-
bage. Salt, when added to shredded cabbage, through os-
motic action withdraws the juices of the vegetable, including
the sugars held in solution. The lactic bacteria attack this
sugar and form lactic acid. A proper degree of acidity in
sauerkraut is absolutely essential to its flavor; without this
it becomes flat and insipid.

The Cut of Kraut.-While the acidity and salt content are
controlling factors in the flavor of sauerkraut, the cut also


is important. Thinness in cut is a desirable feature unless
carried to an extreme which would make the product soft
and mushy. A cut about the thickness of a dime has come
to be a standard fixed by a number of manufacturers of
kraut. This cut is approximately 1/32 of an inch.
Storage of Kraut.-If the original fine quality of kraut is
to be retained the product must be stored in a place that is
not only cool and well ventilated but is clean, dark and dry.

Sauerkraut suggests pigs' knuckle, spareribs and frank-
furters, but there are many other uses for this appetizing,
economical food. It may serve as the base for a one-dish
meal as is given in several recipes following. Combined
with cheese and left-over mashed potatoes it makes a satis-
fying and low-cost dish that is easily and quickly prepared.
Savory sauerkraut is made by heating a quarter of a cupful
of fat in a skillet and then adding a quart of sauerkraut and
y teaspoon of celery or caraway seed. This is well mixed
and covered while being cooked for 5 minutes.
Sauerkraut can be cooked in a casserole with alternate
layers of noodles and a top layer of ground pork sausage.
It may also be fried or combined with bacon, ham or cured
meat. In some sections of the South, and in Pennsylvania
also, sauerkraut is always served with the Christmas turkey,
while in Europe it steps out of the modest role so often as-
sociated with it here to serve as the accompaniment of the
patrician pheasant, partridges, goose liver patties, liver
dumplings, fried liver, and baked fish. Sauerkraut is an
ancient and highly honored food that has been popular for
ages. It is not only a poor man's dish but is a medicinal
agent for the pampered stomachs of the rich. Sauerkraut
juice ranks high as a pre-breakfast tonic in leading eating



Sauerkraut With Spareribs
Brown the pieces of spareribs, fresh or canned, on each
side in a frying pan with pork fat. Season the meat with a
little salt, pepper and poultry seasonings; place half of the
kraut in a casserole, add the meat, then the balance of the
kraut and boiling water to cover. Bake in a slow oven about
two hours, closely covered, and serve with mashed potatoes.
Frankfurters may be used instead of spareribs, if desired.

Sauerkraut Meat Pie
1 quart sauerkraut 12 small pork sausages
Place Y can of kraut in bottom of baking dish, sprinkle
with tablespoon flour. Add remainder of kraut dusted with
one tablespoon flour; on this place 12 small sausages nicely
browned. Add one cup hot water. Cover all with crust
made of your favorite baking powder biscuit dough. Bake
Y2 hour. Serve with brown gravy made with sausage
Savory Sauerkraut
1 quart sauerkraut % cup butter
% teaspoon celery or caraway seed
Heat the butter in a skillet until golden brown and add
the kraut and the seasoning. Mix well, using a fork to sep-
arate the kraut. Cover and cook 5 minutes. Serve hot.

Sauerkraut and Carrot Salad
2 cups sauerkraut 8 medium carrots
cup unbroken pecan 1 cup cream dressing
halves Lettuce
After washing and scraping carrots, run them through
the coarse knife of a food chopper. Combine with sauer-
kraut. Add cream dressing. Decorate with pecan halves.

Sauerkraut and Fish Salad
1 cup flaked fish 1 cup sauerkraut
(mullet, mackerel, flounder) % cup diced celery
1 tablespoon chopped pickle 2 tablespoons onion juice
or a few stuffed olives


Combine ingredients and serve with cooked dressing on
lettuce leaves. Red snapper or any cold, cooked fish may
be used.
Sauerkraut and Beet Salad
3A cups sauerkraut Lettuce
1 cups diced cooked beets Mayonnaise
Y cup minced onion
Mix sauerkraut with beets and onion; allow to stand for a
half hour. Serve on lettuce with mayonnaise. Six to
eight servings.
The preceding recipes are used by permission from a bulletin
issued by the American Can Company of New York.
Preparation and Canning.-Tomatoes grown for canning
are the result of many years' work by seedsmen. The re-
sult has been greatly improved strains of tomatoes, bred
solely for canners' use. These special tomatoes are plucked
red-ripe and taken immediately to the cannery. There they
are washed thoroughly, scalded for peeling, then peeled
and trimmed by hand. Fancy grades are filled into cans by
hand-thers by semi-automatic machines. No water is
added, the juice being that from the tomatoes in the can.
A little salt is added, and the sealed cans are heat-processed.
Tomatoes are canned in three grades-Fancy, Extra Stand-
ard, and Standard, the chief difference between them being
the depth and uniformity of color, the solidity and whole-
ness of the tomatoes, and the freedom from small pieces of
skin and core. Standard grades may be packed with a puree
of tomato pulp, which is stated on the label.
Dietetic Value.-Canned tomatoes are rich in vegetable
acids and contribute significant amounts of desirable min-
eral elements. They combine the properties of fruits and
green vegetables. They are one of the very best sources
of vitamin C, and a good source of provitamin A, vitamin B1,
and related B factors.
Uses.-There are many delicious ways for serving canned
tomatoes, other than as an extra vegetable dish. They are
excellent in an omelet, au gratin, in soups, or with spaghetti.


Preparation and Canning.-Canned stringless beans may
be had as green beans or as wax beans. Both types have
been especially developed for canning purposes to be with-
out strings, and both are canned by the same procedure. The
beans are rushed to the cannery immediately after picking.
After careful sorting, the ends are snipped off by machine,
the beans vigorously sprayed with water, and then blanched:
treated for a few minutes with boiling water. They are
filled into the cans with a weak salt brine, then seal-cooked in
the cans. Canned stringless beans are graded according to
size-the smaller the size, the higher the grade (because
nature produces fewer of them). The largest beans are
usually cut into short lengths before canning and labelled
cut beans. Some packers put the long, slender, green beans
vertically in a can (after cutting to the proper length) ; this
type of pack is growing in popularity.

Dietetic Value.-Canned stringless beans contribute only
small amounts of protein and fat to the diet. Therefore,
since the carbohydrate content is not high, the food is a
valuable supplement to diets in which a low caloric intake is
desired. Canned stringless beans are also an important
source of fiber.

Uses.-Canned stringless beans are served principally as
a supplementary vegetable; however, they are a delightful
addition to vegetable salads or soups.


Preparation and Canning.-Canned meats come in great
variety, including corned beef, corned beef hash, potted
meats, deviled meats, sausages, stews, tongue, roast beef,
chicken, and many others. Methods of preparation and
canning vary with the different meats In general, however,
the meat is trimmed to eliminate all bone, gristle, and in-
edible fat or skin. Meats are usually pre-cooked so that the


shrinkage all meats undergo during cooking does not occur
in the sealed can. After sealing, the cans are cooked in
steam pressure-cookers; this preserves flavor and quality
indefinitely. Embossed in the metal of the can, the letters
ESTAB (followed by a number) indicate that the product
has been packed under the rigid laws and inspection of the
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal

Dietetic Value.-Meats serve principally as sources of de-
sirable protein and minerals such as phosphorus and iron.
They also supply valuable amounts of the vitamin B complex.

Uses.-Every ounce in a can of meat is edible, making
these products very economical. The variety of uses for
canned meats is almost as wide as the variety of meats
packed. Served hot, they are one of the simplest, easiest-
to-serve entrees available to the housewife. Canned meats
are excellent for sandwiches (many are packed in handy
loaf sizes) on picnics and camping trips. When served cold,
canned meats should be chilled in the can before opening
and slicing.


Preparation and Canning.-Clams and oysters are taken
from large beds and delivered to packing plants along the
coast. There they are washed, and then heated for about
twenty minutes, usually in a steam box. When heated, the
shells open, permitting easy removal of the meats, which are
trimmed and washed. The rich juice which drains during the
heating is called nectar, and is usually collected. The meats
are packed in cans and filled with the hot nectar (either as
drained during the steaming process, or diluted with water
and salt). If minced clams are to be packed, the meats are
simply ground before they are filled into cans. The cans are
then sealed and heat-processed. Clams are packed whole or
minced, and also as chowder, cocktail, and broth. Oysters
are usually packed whole.


Dietetic Value.-Clams and oysters are one of the very
richest sources of natural food iodine. In addition, these
shellfish foods supply good quantities of calcium, iron, and
phosphorus; oysters also contain fair amounts of vitamin
BI, and demonstrate amounts of vitamin A. These shellfish
are, therefore, among our best protective foods.
Uses.-Whole canned clams and oysters are excellent fried,
in stews or soups, and in cocktails. Minced clams add a pleas-
ing flavor to a variety of soups and cooked dishes.


Some misunderstandings exist as to the mechanics of the
commercial canning procedures Although some such infor-
mation is available (1, 2, 3), it is not surprising that the
facts are not more generally known. The art of canning has
been largely developed by, and retained within, the industry.
Of necessity, canning procedures vary with the product
packed. However, it is possible to indicate in broad detail the
treatment to which foods may be subjected during canning.
Cleansing Operations.-Raw materials are given a thor-
ough water cleansing, usually by washing under high pres-
sure sprays.
Preparatory Operations.-Following washing, undesirable
stock is removed by sorting, trimming, peeling and coring
operations, as occasion may demand. With some products
these operations are performed mechanically.
Blanching.-Certain products are "blanched" or scalded
by immersion in hot water. This process serves not only to
clean the product further, but also to soften the tissues and
expel air therefrom.

(1) 1924, Commercial Fruit and Vegetable Products, W. C. Cruess,
McGraw-Hill, New York.
(2) 1924 A Complete Course in Canning, The Canning Trade,
(3) 1937, Appetizing or The Art of Canning, A. W. Bitting, The Trade
Pressroom, San Francisco.


Preheating and Filling Operations.-Here practice varies
with the product. Sometimes the food is precooked and
filled into cans; again, it may be filled into cans and hot
water or hot salt and/or sugar solutions added; still again,
the filled cans are "exhausted" in a steam or hot water box.
All these operations, the majority of which are mechanically
performed, serve to pre-heat the product and exclude air
from the cans.

Sealing, Processing, and Cooling Operations.-The filled
cans are hermetically sealed on an automatic "closing"
machine while the contents are still hot; the sealed cans are
then heat processed to destroy spoilage micro-organisms;
finally, the cans are cooled in water or air. Cooling contracts
the contents and produces a vacuum within the can.
Such are the broad details of the canning procedure. We
trust this brief word picture will bring better understanding
of the treatments to which canned foods are subjected.


GAINESVILLE, May 7-42.-(AP)-Would you like to
make that rationed sugar go further?

Well, here's how, and the information comes from Florida
agricultural experiment station scientists:

Mix one pound of sugar and seven ounces of water. Add
one-quarter teaspoon of tartaric acid (which you can get at
any drug store). Cover this sugar, water and tartaric acid
mixture and boil gently for 30 minutes. Then allow to cool.
And you have invert sugar syrup, each cup of which is equal
in sweetening to a cup of sugar.

This syrup is tops for sweetening fruits and cereals, on
waffles and hot cakes, m baking, and in making ice cream,
experiment station officials said. For use in baking and ice
cream, however, it must be taken into consideration that the


syrup is about one-third water and allowances must be made
for this in adding other liquid ingredients.
The sugar inversion process, which results in a product 30
per cent sweeter than ordinary sugar, is not a new one, but a
way in which the syrup could be used in ice cream satisfac-
torily had not been revealed to manufacturers when the ex-
periment station dairy technologists began working on the
problem several months ago. Their research has resulted in
a method by which it can be used in ice cream and has thus
made it unnecessary for them to reduce their output 20 per
cent or lower the quality of their product. Under the gov-
ernment's rationing program they are now receiving only 70
per cent of the sugar they obtained in 1941.
After months of research and testing, the experiment sta-
tion workers found that 50 per cent of the required amount
of sugar in ice cream could be replaced by invert sugar syrup
if one pound of milk solids was added for each pound of
sugar replaced by the syrup. And the ice cream would be of
just as high quality and just as sweet as that made alto-
gether with sugar.
The method is proving a boon to the ice cream industry
and many plants are already using it.


United State Pack of Camnle FRUITS. BERRIES, and Canne and Bttled
FRUIT JUICES. Biennitllay 1$1


Apples -... ..--.--
Applesauce ..
Apricots ........
lackberries .
Blueberries ... .
Cranberries and sauce -
Loanberries .
Raspberrie, black .
Raspberries red ..
Strawberres ....
Other berries .
Cherries. R. S. P
Cherry. weet ........
Fis ..
Fruit salad and cocktail
Grapefruit sections .
Olive. .pe .
Peaches .
Pears .... . ..
lums ..
Frust pur. for infant .
Other canned fruits .
Apple Jue ....
Cranberry juice ....
Grape juice
Grapefruit juicee
Lemon juice -
Orange uice .
Prune juice
Other fruit juices a ..
Total ... ....

810.441 1,708,751
(4) 182,288
s 3.199,110 (4)
. . :: :'

(4) 1.21.,810
(4) 2.513,420
(a) 59.618
110,597 99,286
(4) B2872
() 60,327
. 63,441,996 43,591.667

1 Data for establishments with products under $5.000 in value not included.
SNot reported separately--inluded wth "other canned fruits
a includes other inices.
4 No data.
Does not include pineapple National Canner Assn.. Washminton. D. C., in
"Canned Food Pack Statistics." 1989, reports canned pineapple production for Hawaii
as 10,521,047 cases in 1938-39.
aIn addition 'fruit juces in bulk" are reported separately. In 19S9 4.48,970
gallona were reortred This is mainly grape and orange juce.
SOURCE: Censu of Manufactuers, U. S. Department of Commerce.



United Stats Pack of Canned VEGETABLES, Biennially 1 1-391

Vegetable 1931

Aspargus 1.878006 ,0631 2.928.799 2.7 22,790,922
Beans, with pork or sauce
including baked 11,730701 16.460.08 17,887.117 18,352,047 19,471,641
Beans. green od 4.624.495 5.678,374 8,380.366 7.032,470
Beans, was pod 1,216.099 1,200,455 1,411.368 1.341,273
Beans, lima 1.74.784 6,9,666 2,248,407 ,664.265
Beans, kidney 2,448,44 2,554,156 3.348,267
Beans, other 4,837,33 9,116,889 1.808.137 1,721.904 3,023,189
Beet....... ... 146,91 1,233932 2.435.350 3,386.362 2,619,130
Carrots. . ..... 2390 554,042 851,894 1.505,273 1.833,136
Corn .. 19,37,512 10,206.76 22.052.874 26,052,462 16,845.247
Corn on cob .. .. .... 381,64
Greens other than spinach 76.871 100,814 175.943 388,418 467.388
Hominy ...... 1,075.231 1,170,22 1.247,944 1.64.852 1,911,811
Kraut .. ....... 645,26 3,344624 4,40491 4.2.99 4863,744
Kraut juice ,. 68,786 () 119,681 233.610 134,599
eas ..... 13,253,040 13.291,521 25.148.711 24.412.850 17,787.322
Pimentos .. ... 274 499 269,649 712.70 626,205 980,68l
Pumpkin and squash 1.007,603 1.758,046 1,018,971 1.726,62 2,373,935
Rhubarb . .976 2,140 7,378 55,180 19.249
Spaghetti 2,79,835 .167.722 3.414603 65453.692 5.173.311
Spinach . .... 1.773,966 2,545,982 3,577,490 6.438.876 4160,034
Succotash 269.431 87,215 252,064 359.342 28.5184
Sweet potatoes. .. .. 296,586 159,021 369,948 692 256 264.112
Tomatoes 13,893.696 16.900.214 26,179.774 23,513,949 23,386.146
Tomato juice and cocktail 4.583,636 4,170.794 11,664,6 13.809.311 13.753.844
Tomato paste 198.521 ) 920,75 2.380892 2,277.317
Tomato pulp and puree 1.1.235 (4) 2.59.471 8,914.832 3,611.681
Tomato -sae 4615.610 1,866.928 1.609,391 1,605.792 2,100.773
Muahrooms .. ... .... .. (s) 1.176,007
Vegetable puree (or
infants) .... 1180.519 ...... 864,173 4,660.889 3,866.008
Vegetables mixed 463.529 586.623 1,409.677 2.492,188 1,931,880
Other canned vegetables 1.951,902 41.80.108 3,117,922 3,266.811 2887 6S1
Canned soups ..... (4) 1068652 17.289,074 20698.668 27.995.220
Total .... .. 104,911,330 ,137,518 ,390,71 190.79 4 182,767,979

DPata for etablihhments with products under $5,000 in value not included.
SAll bean other than "baked."
SIncluded with "corn" for years previous to 1939
SNot reported separately. Included with "other canned eetables
SNo data
SOURCE: Census of Manufacturers U. S. Department of Commerce



June, 1942
This year-spring, summer, and fall-housewives need to
be more meticulous with their canning methods than at any
previous time. None of us can afford to lose the precious
food that we grow or buy to can for winter consumption, just
because we do not understand the need for thoroughness and
the reasons for failures.
For weeks, The Searchlight mail has been teeming with
inquiries which have told us of difficulties homemakers have
experienced. We have developed the factors that have spelled
failure to earnest home canners, into a series of helpful

What foods may be safely processed in a water bath or
steam cooker?
Only acid foods, including tomatoes, fruits, and pickled
beets, may be processed at the temperature of boiling water
in a water bath or steam cooker. Non-acid foods, including
corn, peas, beans, squash, meats, poultry, and fish, require a
temperature of 240" F. to 250" F. for complete sterilization.
This means that all non-acid foods must be processed in a
pressure cooker.

Why must vegetables be canned as soon as they are

The bacteria which cause spoilage develop rapidly after
the vegetables are picked; there's a rapid loss of flavor, too,
particularly in peas, corn, and asparagus. The solution is to
pop them into the canning routine in the shortest possible

When are vegetables ready to can?

Vegetables just right for the table are best for canning.
At that time, their flavor and food value are the highest,


there's less chance of spoilage, and they are easier to handle
than if allowed to ripen further.

How can I keep strawberries from floating?

Strawberries, when canned in a thin or medium syrup,
profit by a three-minute preliminary cooking, because when
they are saturated with syrup they do not float.

Is it possible to substitute honey or corn syrup for sugar
in canning fruit?

Canned fruits have a more natural flavor if they are sweet-
ened, but this year we will get along nicely, thank you, by
substituting corn syrup or honey for the sugar. We can use
either honey or syrup entirely or we may combine either of
them with sugar. To substitute honey or corn syrup for
sugar, decrease the amount of water or fruit juice required
by the recipe by one-fifth. Then add the same measure of
honey or syrup as the recipe gave for granulated sugar.
When only part of the sugar is replaced, make the addition
of the syrup or honey equal the amount of sugar taken out.

What is the proper way to can asparagus, peas, and corn?
Prepare the asparagus for canning by washing thoroughly.
Discard all tough portions of the stalks. Cut stalks in lengths
that will stand upright in the jars. Tie in bunches of 20 to
25 and stand with the tips up in a pan of boiling salted water,
using 1 tablespoon of salt to each quart of water. (The water
should not cover the tips.) Boil uncovered 3 minutes, drain,
and pack quickly in hot sterilized jars keeping the tips up.
Fill to within Y inch of the top with the water in which the
asparagus was cooked. Seal jars according to manufactur-
er's directions for the type of cap or lid being used; process
40 minutes at 10 pounds pressure.

Only young, tender peas should be canned. Cover them
with cold water, heat quickly to boiling, and boil uncovered 3
minutes. Pack at once into hot sterilized jars. Fill to within



/ inch of the top with the water in which they were cooked.
Add 1 teaspoon salt to each quart. Seal, and process 40 min-
utes at 10 pounds pressure.

Corn should be cooked on the cob 5 minutes in boiling
water. Cut from cob. Pack quickly in hot sterilized contain-
ers. Add 1 teaspoon salt and 2 teaspoons sugar or 2 tea-
spoons corn syrup to each quart. Fill with boiling water.
Since corn has a tendency to swell, making even heating dif-
ficult, do not pack tightly. Seal, and process 80 minutes at
10 pounds pressure.

Will whole tomatoes hold their shape?
Peeled whole tomatoes packed in widemouthed jars and
covered with strained tomato juice, retain their shape and
natural flavor splendidly. Process in the water bath for 35
minutes, or for 10 minutes in the pressure cooker at 5 pounds

Sometimes the liquid in my vegetable jars becomes cloudy,
other jars have a sediment in them. What is wrong?
When cloudiness or white sediment appears in the liquid
or on the bottom of the jar, it indicates that the vegetables
were too ripe, that they were overprocessed, that there was
a starch filler in the salt used, that hard water had set up
unfavorable action, or that flat sour had developed. The only
way to avoid these calamities is to follow every step in proper
procedure carefully.

What is meant by the term flat sour?
Flat sour is a descriptive term applied to food in which
bacterial action has developed. This may occur between the
time the food was gathered and the time it is served. A
sloppy appearance, a cloudy liquid surrounding the food, a
sour taste, and often an unpleasant odor, are indications of it.
Spoilage by flat sour can be practically eliminated by packing
the food into the hot sterilized jars as soon as gathered,
processing the jars at once, cooling immediately and thor-


oughly after they have been processed, and storing in a cool

What do you do with the jars when the processing period
is finished?
Do not treat the jars or cans of food casually after the pro-
cessing has been completed. Place them on a table, prefer-
ably on a rack, where the air can circulate around, over, and
beneath them. Allow them to cool as quickly as possible, but
avoid drafts. Drafts may cause the jars to break-delayed
cooling may result in flat sour and spoilage. When the jars
are cool, label and store.



93!8 of Farm Families Will Put Up 184 Jars; City
Families Will Can 41 Jars Peo Family

American homemakers-21 million strong-are rallying
to create an extra stockpile of home-canned food in 1942,
said Claude R. Wickard, Secretary of Agriculture. He based
his statement on answers given to a canning questionnaire
sent out recently to representative families the country over
by Dr. Louise Stanley, chief of the Bureau of Home Eco-
"Judging from the results of the questionnaire, pantry
shelves this year will be half again as full of home-canned
fruit, vegetables, and meat as they were in the peace-time
years of 1935 and 1936," the Secretary said. "This extra
food will allow more of the commercially canned products
to go to the men at the front and to our allies-will help 'win
the war and write the peace' with food."
If home canners carry through their plans they will put
up in 1942 a grand total of 3,887,000,000 jars of food at
home. Ninety-eight percent of all farm families will can
enough to average 243 jars per family
Ninety-three percent of the rural families not farming
will put up enough to average 184 Jars per family. And city
families will can enough to average 41 jars per family.
"It is to be expected," points out Dr. Stanley, "that farm
families will do more of the canning. They are nearer the
source of supply for most foods and they are able to can
fruits and vegetables at their prime-when flavor is best
and food value is at its peak."

(Reprinted from Mid South Cotton News)



Citrus Concentrates, Incorporated, Dunedin, Florida.
Citrus Inspection Bureau, Winter Haven, Florida.
Dunlap, W. A., United States Department of Commerce,
Jacksonville, Florida.
End, George Kenneth, Rattlesnake, Florida.
Esper Products, Incorporated, Kissimmee, Florida.
Florida Canners Association, Tampa, Florida:
Report Sheets 1940 and 1941.
Florida Citrus Canners Cooperative, Lake Wales, Florida.
Florida Citrus Commission, Lakeland, Florida.
Floridagold Citrus Corporation, Lake Alfred, Florida.
Florida Grapefruit Canning Co. (Bradenton);
Canned Grapefruit.
Florida Grower Magazine, Tampa, Florida.
Florida Historical Society. Loyalists in East Florida, Vol. 2.

Florida Industrial Commission, Tallahassee, Florida.

Florida State Board of Conservation, Tallahassee, Florida.

Florida State Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee,
Agricultural Statistical Report for 1936-37.
Citrus Fruits and Health. 1941.
Citrus Growing in Florida. 1939.
Citrus Inspection Bureau Annual Report. 1940-41.
Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits. 1938.
Florida Vegetables. 1940.
Growing and Preparing Guavas. 1940.
Know Florida. 1941.
Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits. 1938.
State of Florida Citrus Fruit Laws. 1941.
Tropical Fruits in Florida. 1941.

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs